Science.gov

Sample records for aid benefit aphab

  1. Relationship between Acceptable Noise Level and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freyaldenhoven, Melinda C.; Nabelek, Anna K.; Tampas, Joanna W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between acceptable noise levels (ANLs) and the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB; R. M. Cox & G. C. Alexander, 1995). This study further examined the APHAB's ability to predict hearing aid use. Method: ANL and APHAB data were collected for 191 listeners with impaired hearing,…

  2. Student Aid: Who Benefits Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jacqueline E.

    1996-01-01

    The annual survey by the College Board of student financial aid traces development of a system that has grown dramatically, is now dominated by federal student loan programs, and has undergone a long-term shift in purpose from creating access for the disadvantaged to broadening choice and convenience for the middle class. These developments have…

  3. Relationship between acceptance of background noise and hearing aid use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, Anna K.; Burchfield, Samuel B.; Webster, Joanna D.

    2003-04-01

    Background noise produces complaints among hearing-aid users, however speech-perception-in-noise does not predict hearing-aid use. It is possible that hearing-aid users are complaining about the presence of background noise and not about speech perception. To test this possibility, acceptance of background noise is being investigated as a predictor of hearing-aid use. Acceptance of background noise is determined by having subjects select their most comfortable listening level (MCL) for a story. Next, speech-babble is added and the subjects select the maximum background noise level (BNL) which is acceptable while listening to and following the story. The difference between the MCL and the BNL is the acceptable noise level (ANL), all in dB. ANLs are being compared with hearing-aid use, subjective impressions of benefit (APHAB), speech perception in background noise (SPIN) scores, and audiometric data. Individuals who accept higher levels of background noise are more successful users than individuals who accept less background noise. Mean ANLs are 7.3 dB for full-time users (N=21), 12.6 dB for part-time users (N=44), and 13.8 dB for rejecters (N=17). ANLs are not related to APHAB, SPIN, or audiometric data. Results for about 120 subjects will be reported. [Work supported by NIDCD (NIH) RO1 DC 05018.

  4. Who Benefits from Student Aid? The Economic Incidence of Tax-Based Federal Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Federal benefit programs, including federal student aid, are designed to aid targeted populations. Behavioral responses to these programs may alter the incidence of their benefits, a possibility that receives less attention in the literature compared to tax incidence. I demonstrate the importance of benefit incidence analysis by showing that the…

  5. Parental and Child Perception of Hearing Aid Benefit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, Jennifer Ann; Bamford, John

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates whether children give different questionnaire-assessed hearing aid benefit scores than their parents. Sixteen children (age seven to 11 years) who wear hearing aids completed the child version of the Listening Situations Questionnaire while their parents completed the parent version. The mean difference between parent and…

  6. Benefit From Directional Microphone Hearing Aids: Objective and Subjective Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee-Sung; Jin, Sun Hwa; Choi, Ji Eun; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to find and compare the effect of directional (DIR) processing of two different hearing aids via both subjective and objective methods, to determine the association between the results of the subjective and objective evaluations, and to find out individual predictive factors influencing the DIR benefit. Methods Twenty-six hearing aid users fitted unilaterally with each two different experimental hearing aid performed modified Korean Hearing in Noise Test (K-HINT) in three DIR conditions; omnidirectional (OMNI) mode, OMNI plus noise reduction feature, fixed DIR mode. In order to determine benefits from DIR benefit within a hearing aid and compare performance of the DIR processing between hearing aids, a subjective questionnaire was administrated on speech quality (SQ) and discomfort in noise (DN) domain. Correlation analysis of factors influencing DIR benefit was accomplished. Results Benefits from switching OMNI mode to DIR mode within both hearing aids in K-HINT were about 2.8 (standard deviation, 3.5) and 2.1 dB SNR (signal to ratio; SD, 2.5), but significant difference in K-HINT results between OMNI and OMNI plus noise reduction algorithm was not shown. The subjective evaluation resulted in the better SQ and DN scores in DIR mode than those in OMNI mode. However, the difference of scores on both SQ and DN between the two hearing aids with DIR mode was not statistically significant. Any individual factors did not significantly affect subjective and objective DIR benefits. Conclusion DIR benefit was found not only in the objective measurement performed in the laboratory but also in the subjective questionnaires, but the subjective results was failed to have significant correlation with the DIR benefit obtained in the K-HINT. Factors influencing individual variation in perceptual DIR benefit were still hard to explain. PMID:26330918

  7. Developing an appropriate digital hearing aid for low-resource countries: a case study.

    PubMed

    Israsena, P; Isaradisaikul, S; Noymai, A; Boonyanukul, S; Hemakom, A; Chinnarat, C; Navacharoen, N; Lekagul, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the development process and discusses the key findings which resulted from our multidisciplinary research team's effort to develop an alternative digital hearing suitable for low-resource countries such as Thailand. A cost-effective, fully programmable digital hearing aid, with its specifications benchmarking against WHO's recommendations, was systematically designed, engineered, and tested. Clinically it had undergone a full clinical trial that employed the outcome measurement protocol adopted from the APHAB, the first time implemented in Thai language. Results indicated that using the hearing aid improves user's satisfaction in terms of ease of communication, background noises, and reverberation, with clear benefit after 3 and 6 months, confirming its efficacy. In terms of engineering, the hearing aid also proved to be robust, passing all the designated tests. As the technology has successfully been transferred to a local company for the production phase, we also discuss other challenges that may arise before the device can be introduced into the market.

  8. [Implementation of the new quality assurance agreement for the fitting of hearing aids in daily practice. Part 2: New diagnostic aspects of speech audiometry].

    PubMed

    Löhler, J; Akcicek, B; Wollenberg, B; Schönweiler, R

    2014-09-01

    Upon review of the statutory health insurance reimbursement guidelines, a specific quality assurance questionnaire concerned with the provision of hearing aids was introduced that assesses elements of patient satisfaction within Germany's public healthcare system. APHAB questionnaire-based patient evaluation of the benefit of hearing aids represents the third pillar of audiological diagnostics, alongside classical pure-tone and speech audiometry. Another new aspect of the national guidelines is inclusion of free-field measurements in noise with and without hearing aids. Part 2 of this review describes new diagnostic aspects of speech audiometry. In addition to adaptive speech audiometry, a proposed method for applying the gold standard of speech audiometry - the Freiburg monosyllabic speech test - in noise is described. Finally, the quality assurance questionnaire will be explained as an appendix to template 15 of the regulations governing hearing aids.

  9. Prelingual deafness: Benefits from cochlear implants versus conventional hearing aids

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Torre, Ana Adelina Giantomassi Della; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Brito, Rubens de

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The majority of patients with hearing loss, including those with severe hearing loss, benefits from the use of hearing aids. The cochlear implant is believed to achieve better results in a child with hearing loss in cases where the severity of disability renders hearing aids incapable of providing adequate sound information, as they require sufficient cochlear reserve so that acoustic detention occurs. Objective: To assess if cochlear implants provide more benefit than conventional hearing aids in prelingually deaf patients. Summary of the findings: The study was a systematic review of scientific papers selected by a search of the SciELO, Cochrane, MEDLINE, and LILACS-BIREME databases. Among the 2169 articles found, 12 studies proved relevant to the issue and presented an evidence strength rating of B. No publications rated evidence strength A. Seven of the studies analyzed were prospective cohorts and 5 were cross-sectional studies. Conclusion: Based on several studies, cochlear implants were demonstrated to be the best current alternative for bilateral severe or profound hearing loss, achieving better results in speech perception and development in prelingual children when compared to conventional hearing aids. PMID:25991962

  10. 40 CFR 7.55 - Separate or different aid, benefits, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separate or different aid, benefits, or... Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Handicap § 7.55 Separate or different aid, benefits, or services... participate in or benefit from the aid, benefit, or service in the program or activity receiving...

  11. Benefits from upgrade to the CP810 sound processor for Nucleus 24 cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Mosnier, Isabelle; Marx, Mathieu; Venail, Frederic; Loundon, Natalie; Roux-Vaillard, Samantha; Sterkers, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure performance benefits obtained by upgrading recipients of the Cochlear Nucleus CI24 cochlear implant to the new CP810 sound processor. Speech recognition in quiet and in spatially separated noise was measured in established users of the Cochlear ESPrit 3G (n = 22) and Freedom (n = 13) sound processors, using the "Everyday" listening program. Subjects were then upgraded to the CP810 processor and were re-assessed after a 3-month period, using both the "Everyday" program and the new "Noise" program, which incorporates several pre-processing features including a new directional microphone algorithm ("Zoom"). Subjective perceptions were also recorded using the abbreviated profile of hearing aid benefit (APHAB) questionnaire. Mean scores for monosyllables in quiet, presented at 50 and 60 dB SPL, increased by 11% (p < 0.0001) and 8% (p < 0.001), respectively, after upgrade, for all subjects combined. Significant increases were also recorded for both processor groups. In noise, the mean scores were 60.0 and 67.4% for the original and CP810 Everyday programs, respectively (difference not significant). With the CP810 Noise programs the mean score increased to 82.5% (p < 0.01), with significant increases in both processor groups. There was evidence of slightly greater upgrade benefit in users of the ESPrit 3G processor and in relatively poor performers. The APHAB questionnaire also indicated significant reduction in perceived difficulty in the background noise and reverberation sub-scales after upgrade. The findings of the study appear to support the expectation of increased benefit from the new CP810 sound processor. PMID:23408020

  12. Benefits from upgrade to the CP810 sound processor for Nucleus 24 cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Mosnier, Isabelle; Marx, Mathieu; Venail, Frederic; Loundon, Natalie; Roux-Vaillard, Samantha; Sterkers, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure performance benefits obtained by upgrading recipients of the Cochlear Nucleus CI24 cochlear implant to the new CP810 sound processor. Speech recognition in quiet and in spatially separated noise was measured in established users of the Cochlear ESPrit 3G (n = 22) and Freedom (n = 13) sound processors, using the "Everyday" listening program. Subjects were then upgraded to the CP810 processor and were re-assessed after a 3-month period, using both the "Everyday" program and the new "Noise" program, which incorporates several pre-processing features including a new directional microphone algorithm ("Zoom"). Subjective perceptions were also recorded using the abbreviated profile of hearing aid benefit (APHAB) questionnaire. Mean scores for monosyllables in quiet, presented at 50 and 60 dB SPL, increased by 11% (p < 0.0001) and 8% (p < 0.001), respectively, after upgrade, for all subjects combined. Significant increases were also recorded for both processor groups. In noise, the mean scores were 60.0 and 67.4% for the original and CP810 Everyday programs, respectively (difference not significant). With the CP810 Noise programs the mean score increased to 82.5% (p < 0.01), with significant increases in both processor groups. There was evidence of slightly greater upgrade benefit in users of the ESPrit 3G processor and in relatively poor performers. The APHAB questionnaire also indicated significant reduction in perceived difficulty in the background noise and reverberation sub-scales after upgrade. The findings of the study appear to support the expectation of increased benefit from the new CP810 sound processor.

  13. Factors affecting the use and perceived benefit of ITE and BTE hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Baumfield, A; Dillon, H

    2001-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that might affect hearing aid use, satisfaction and perceived benefit. A further aim was to look at which variables affect the choice of hearing aid, in particular, an in-the-ear (ITE) versus a behind-the-ear (BTE) device. Twenty-nine elderly hearing-impaired people with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss were fitted with both an ITE and a BTE hearing aid with similar electroacoustic performance. Both hearing aids were linear with output compression limiting and were fitted in a randomized order. After wearing each device for a six-week period, subj ets were asked to select the hearing aid they preferred. Variables significantly related to hearing aid choice, use and perceived benefit included ease of management, accuracy with which the NAL-R insertion gain target was achieved, earmould comfort and the type of hearing aid the client preferred initially.

  14. Experiences and benefits of volunteering in a community AIDS organization.

    PubMed

    Crook, Joan; Weir, Robin; Willms, Dennis; Egdorf, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the AIDS service organization-volunteer relationship from the volunteer's point of view. Factors that led to a relationship with an AIDS service organization included personal values and individual characteristics and needs. Volunteers reported many rewards from the work itself and the responses of others. Volunteers also encountered challenges that included role demands, role-ability fit, and stress/burnout concerns as well as limited organizational resources and structural obstacles. These results suggest that care must be taken to ensure that the volunteer role meets the needs, skills, and abilities of the individual volunteering. The need to ameliorate challenges is clear for AIDS service organizations seeking to retain volunteers. Some of the preventive strategies include goal-setting and feedback, individual-sensitive role redesign, opportunity to participate in decisions, and increased communication.

  15. Experiences and benefits of volunteering in a community AIDS organization.

    PubMed

    Crook, Joan; Weir, Robin; Willms, Dennis; Egdorf, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the AIDS service organization-volunteer relationship from the volunteer's point of view. Factors that led to a relationship with an AIDS service organization included personal values and individual characteristics and needs. Volunteers reported many rewards from the work itself and the responses of others. Volunteers also encountered challenges that included role demands, role-ability fit, and stress/burnout concerns as well as limited organizational resources and structural obstacles. These results suggest that care must be taken to ensure that the volunteer role meets the needs, skills, and abilities of the individual volunteering. The need to ameliorate challenges is clear for AIDS service organizations seeking to retain volunteers. Some of the preventive strategies include goal-setting and feedback, individual-sensitive role redesign, opportunity to participate in decisions, and increased communication. PMID:16849088

  16. California court to rule on insurer's denial of AIDS benefits.

    PubMed

    1999-04-16

    California Insurance Commissioner Chuck Quakenbush is asking the California Supreme Court to overturn a lower court ruling that bars policyholders from receiving disability payments because of AIDS. The State Court of Appeals ruled that Paul Revere Life Insurance Co. could deny coverage to [name removed] because his HIV infection amounted to a pre-existing condition. [Name removed] applied for the policy in 1988. He paid premiums for 5 years, longer than the 2 years the company had to confirm his medical condition. When he became unable to work because of AIDS, he applied for disability. The Commissioner says the intent behind the incontestability clause is to protect consumers from having claims denied after 2 years because of pre-existing conditions. One of [name removed]'s lawyers noted that the company's practice of offering insurance without any medical qualifications is not in line with industry standards. No date has been scheduled for oral arguments in the case.

  17. Benefits planning--what you must know: interview with Daniel Fortuno, AIDS Benefits Counselors. Interview by John S. James.

    PubMed

    Fortuno, D

    1996-09-20

    Daniel Fortuno, a counselor with AIDS Benefits Counselors (ABC), summarizes key insurance and benefits information for persons living with AIDS (PWAs), particularly those who reside in California. Fortuno explains the managed care concept and basic health insurance terms, such as pre-existing conditions, health maintenance organizations (HMOs), preferred provider organizations (PPOs), contestability, and the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA). Fortuno explains a California law that became effective in July 1993 that greatly restricts the ability of health insurance companies to refuse insurance due to preexisting conditions to small groups of persons. This law, AB 1672, makes health insurance available to the sick with little overall rises in prices. Federal insurance laws and regulations that impact PWAs and HIV-positive individuals are outlined. In the interview, Fortuno also discusses Medicaid/Medi-Cal (California's Medicaid), Social Security programs, State disability, and the AIDS Drug Assistance Program. Fortuno offers suggestions for obtaining good private insurance and evaluates the pros and cons of HMOs, PPOs, and indemnity insurance.

  18. Minnesota Computer Aided Library System (MCALS); University of Minnesota Subsystem Cost/Benefits Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourey, Eugene D., Comp.

    The Minnesota Computer Aided Library System (MCALS) provides a basis of unification for library service program development in Minnesota for eventual linkage to the national information network. A prototype plan for communications functions is illustrated. A cost/benefits analysis was made to show the cost/effectiveness potential for MCALS. System…

  19. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Technology's Edge: The Educational Benefits of Computer-Aided Instruction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The study, "Technology's Edge: The Educational Benefits of Computer-Aided Instruction," examined whether the "I CAN Learn"[R] computer-based curriculum is more effective than traditional classroom instruction at teaching pre-algebra and algebra concepts to middle- and high-school students. The study included about 1,600 students in 15 high schools…

  20. The traditional treatment of AIDS in Uganda: benefits and problems. Key issues and debates: traditional healers.

    PubMed

    Baguma, P

    1996-07-01

    Many Ugandans turn to the traditional healing system for help in dealing with the psychosocial stress associated with HIV infection as well as for herbal treatments. Use of traditional healers for this purpose is encouraged by social and cultural beliefs that posit AIDS is a result of witchcraft or a curse from God. It is believed that if a sick person does not obtain treatment and dies, his spirit will cause further disease. Of concern is a tendency for people with AIDS to travel from one part of the country to another, seeking a cure from spiritualists, pure herbalists, and visionaries. Moreover, the intensified emergence of cults in response to the AIDS crisis creates potential for serious exploitation and further spread of the AIDS virus. Not only do these groups drain a family's financial resources, some practice unsafe practices such as intergroup sex or contact with unscreened blood. The estimated 6000-120,000 traditional healers in Uganda have the potential to provide a structure through which AIDS-related psychosocial problems are managed ("psychohealing"). Steps should be taken to understand the conditions that facilitate the emergence of healers purporting to be able to cure AIDS, the type of clients attracted to these services, and the costs and benefits of traditional medicine, with the ultimate goal of involving traditional healers in ongoing AIDS information, education, and counseling programs.

  1. The traditional treatment of AIDS in Uganda: benefits and problems. Key issues and debates: traditional healers.

    PubMed

    Baguma, P

    1996-07-01

    Many Ugandans turn to the traditional healing system for help in dealing with the psychosocial stress associated with HIV infection as well as for herbal treatments. Use of traditional healers for this purpose is encouraged by social and cultural beliefs that posit AIDS is a result of witchcraft or a curse from God. It is believed that if a sick person does not obtain treatment and dies, his spirit will cause further disease. Of concern is a tendency for people with AIDS to travel from one part of the country to another, seeking a cure from spiritualists, pure herbalists, and visionaries. Moreover, the intensified emergence of cults in response to the AIDS crisis creates potential for serious exploitation and further spread of the AIDS virus. Not only do these groups drain a family's financial resources, some practice unsafe practices such as intergroup sex or contact with unscreened blood. The estimated 6000-120,000 traditional healers in Uganda have the potential to provide a structure through which AIDS-related psychosocial problems are managed ("psychohealing"). Steps should be taken to understand the conditions that facilitate the emergence of healers purporting to be able to cure AIDS, the type of clients attracted to these services, and the costs and benefits of traditional medicine, with the ultimate goal of involving traditional healers in ongoing AIDS information, education, and counseling programs. PMID:12179373

  2. US Supreme Court allows limits on AIDS-related insurance benefits.

    PubMed

    Elliott, R

    2000-01-01

    In a ruling issued on 10 January 2000 with respect to Doe v Mutual of Omaha Insurance, the US Supreme Court refused to review a lower-court decision allowing an insurance company to limit health-care benefits for AIDS-related claims to less than one-tenth of what it pays under the same policies for expenses related to other illnesses. The lower court had ruled that anti-discrimination legislation does not apply to insurance policies.

  3. A Process and Outcomes Evaluation of the International AIDS Conference: Who Attends? Who Benefits Most?

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Bernadette; Wolvaardt, Jacqueline E.; Webb, Elize M; Tournas-Hardt, Amy

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to conduct a process and outcomes evaluation of the International AIDS Conference (IAC). Reaction evaluation data are presented from a delegate survey distributed at the 2004 IAC held in Thailand. Input and output data from the Thailand IAC are compared to data from previous IACs to ascertain attendance and reaction trends, which delegates benefit most, and host country effects. Outcomes effectiveness data were collected via a survey and intercept interviews. Data suggest that the host country may significantly affect the number and quality of basic science IAC presentations, who attends, and who benefits most. Intended and executed HIV work-related behavior change was assessed under 9 classifications. Delegates who attended 1 previous IAC were more likely to report behavior changes than attendees who attended more than 1 previous IAC. The conference needs to be continually evaluated to elicit the required data to plan effective future IACs. PMID:17435615

  4. A Process and Outcomes Evaluation of the International AIDS Conference: Who Attends? Who Benefits Most?

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to conduct a process and outcomes evaluation of the International AIDS Conference (IAC). Reaction evaluation data are presented from a delegate survey distributed at the 2004 IAC held in Thailand. Input and output data from the Thailand IAC are compared to data from previous IACs to ascertain attendance and reaction trends, which delegates benefit most, and host country effects. Outcomes effectiveness data were collected via a survey and intercept interviews. Data suggest that the host country may significantly affect the number and quality of basic science IAC presentations, who attends, and who benefits most. Intended and executed HIV work-related behavior change was assessed under 9 classifications. Delegates who attended 1 previous IAC were more likely to report behavior changes than attendees who attended more than 1 previous IAC. The conference needs to be continually evaluated to elicit the required data to plan effective future IACs. PMID:19825138

  5. Selecting Appropriate Tests to Assess the Benefits of Bilateral Amplification With Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Michael; Boymans, Monique; Wagener, Kirsten C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Kollmeier, Birger

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bilateral hearing aids (HA) in subjects with mild and moderate-to-severe hearing loss. This study was designed as a within-subject feasibility study. Bilateral HA use was assessed using different laboratory tests on speech reception, listening effort, noise tolerance, and localization. All data were evaluated with bilateral and unilateral HA fittings. Forty experienced bilateral HA users were included with hearing impairment ranging from mild to moderate-to-severe. Subjects were stratified into two groups based on the degree of hearing loss. Speech reception in noise, listening effort, and localization tests showed a bilateral benefit for the moderate-to-severely hearing-impaired subjects. A bilateral benefit was also observed for listening effort in the mildly hearing-impaired group. The assessment of listening effort shows promise as a measure of bilateral HA benefit for mild hearing impairment. Localization and speech reception in noise tests provide additional value for larger losses. The next step is to compare experienced unilateral with bilateral HA users. PMID:27460871

  6. Who Does Not Benefit from Federal and State Financial Aid Programs? Information Brief. Volume 7, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Board of Governors, State University System, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brief presents statistics showing that many students from middle-income and lower-income Florida families do not qualify for federal or state grants and scholarships, and that nearly half of state university system middle- and lower-income families do not receive benefits from federal or state financial aid programs. (Contains technical…

  7. The Physical Costs and Psychosocial Benefits of Travel Aids for Persons Who Are Visually Impaired or Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, L. N.; Mount, J.; Lucas, W.; Weirich, L. C.; Gramberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated the musculoskeletal consequences of travel aids, particularly white canes and guide dogs, as perceived by 21 individuals (ages 27-68) with visual impairments or blindness. They experienced a variety of negative physical effects that they denied, ignored, or minimized because of benefits derived from being independently…

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Benefits of a Multimedia Educational Program for First-Time Hearing Aid Users

    PubMed Central

    Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) develop a series of short interactive videos (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]) covering a broad range of practical and psychosocial issues relevant to the auditory rehabilitation for first-time hearing aid users; (2) establish the accessibility, take-up, acceptability and adherence of the RLOs; and (3) assess the benefits and cost-effectiveness of the RLOs. Design: The study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial with two arms. The intervention group (RLO+, n = 103) received the RLOs plus standard clinical service including hearing aid(s) and counseling, and the waitlist control group (RLO−, n = 100) received standard clinical service only. The effectiveness of the RLOs was assessed 6-weeks posthearing aid fitting. Seven RLOs (total duration 1 hr) were developed using a participatory, community of practice approach involving hearing aid users and audiologists. RLOs included video clips, illustrations, animations, photos, sounds and testimonials, and all were subtitled. RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV (50.6%) and PC (15.2%), or via the internet (32.9%). Results: RLO take-up was 78%. Adherence overall was at least 67%, and 97% in those who attended the 6-week follow-up. Half the participants watched the RLOs two or more times, suggesting self-management of their hearing loss, hearing aids, and communication. The RLOs were rated as highly useful and the majority of participants agreed the RLOs were enjoyable, improved their confidence and were preferable to written information. Postfitting, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, overall hearing aid use. However, there was significantly greater hearing aid use in the RLO+ group for suboptimal users. Furthermore, the RLO+ group had significantly better knowledge of practical and psychosocial issues, and significantly better practical hearing aid skills than the RLO− group. Conclusions: The RLOs

  9. College Financial Aid and the Employee Tuition Benefit Programs of the Fortune 500 Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Joseph P.

    Ways are discussed that internal changes in pricing, tuition collection, and cash-flow management might be sources of financial aid for college students ineligible for state and federal assistance programs. The experiences described are the result of two FIPSE (Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education) projects, one dealing with…

  10. Technology's Edge: The Educational Benefits of Computer-Aided Instruction. NBER Working Paper No. 14240

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lisa; Markman, Lisa; Rouse, Cecilia E.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from a randomized study of a well-defined use of computers in schools: a popular instructional computer program for pre-algebra and algebra. We assess the program using a test designed to target pre-algebra and algebra skills. Students randomly assigned to computer-aided instruction score 0.17 of a standard deviation higher on…

  11. Enhancing the benefits of antiretroviral therapy in Vietnam: towards ending AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masaya; Long, Nguyen Hoang; Duong, Bui Duc; Nhan, Do Thi; Nguyen, Thi Thuy Van; Hai, Nguyen Huu; Giang, Le Minh; Hoa, Do Mai; Van, Nguyen Thanh; Suthar, Amitabh B; Fontaine, Chris; Nadol, Patrick; Lo, Ying-Ru; McConnell, Michelle S

    2014-12-01

    Vietnam has a concentrated HIV epidemic, with the highest HIV prevalence being observed among people who inject drugs (PWID). Based on its experience scaling-up robust HIV interventions, Vietnam aims to further strengthen its response by harnessing the preventive benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Mathematical modelling suggests that prioritizing key populations for earlier access to ART, combined with other prevention interventions, may have significant impact on the epidemic, cost-effectively reducing new HIV infections and deaths. Pilot studies are being conducted to assess feasibility and acceptability of expansion of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and early ART among key populations and to demonstrate innovative service delivery models to address challenges in uptake of services across the care cascade. Earlier access of key populations to combination prevention interventions, combined with sustained political commitment and supportive environment for key populations, are essential for maximum impact of ART on the HIV epidemic in Vietnam.

  12. Utilization of Negotiated Tuition Aid Benefits. A Summary of the Study "Where Are the Women? A Study of the Underutilization of Tuition Aid Plans."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovitz, Mimi

    A chapter from the forthcoming book, "Practitioners' Guide to Education for Working Adults," describes a year-long study to explore the low utilization of tuition aid plans in three unionized companies. The research has shown that the use of tuition aid programs is in inverse ratio to need. Workers who tend to utilize tuition aid are those who…

  13. Self-report outcome in new hearing-aid users: Longitudinal trends and relationships between subjective measures of benefit and satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Vestergaard, Martin D.

    2008-01-01

    This study focussed on self-report outcome in new hearing-aid users. The objectives of the experiment were changes in self-report outcome over time, and relationships between different subjective measures of benefit and satisfaction. Four outcome inventories and a questionnaire on auditory lifestyle were administered to 25 hearing-aid users repeatedly after hearing-aid fitting, and assessments took place one week, four weeks, and 13 weeks after hearing-aid provision. The results showed that, for first-time users who used their hearing aids more than four hours per day, self-reported outcome increased over 13 weeks in some scales, although there was no change in amplification during this time. Furthermore, it was found that, for data collected immediately post-fitting, some subscales were much less face valid than for data collected later. This result indicates that the way in which hearing-aid users assess outcome changes over time. The practical consequence of the results is that early self-report outcome assessment may be misleading for some self-report outcome schemes. PMID:16938796

  14. The Clinical Impact of Continuing to Prescribe Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients with Advanced AIDS Who Manifest No Virologic or Immunologic Benefit

    PubMed Central

    Wohl, David A.; Kendall, Michelle A.; Feinberg, Judith; Alston-Smith, Beverly; Owens, Susan; Chafey, Suzette; Marco, Michael; Maxwell, Sharon; Benson, Constance; Keiser, Philip; van der Horst, Charles; Jacobson, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Despite the efficacy and tolerability of modern antiretroviral therapy (ART), many patients with advanced AIDS prescribed these regimens do not achieve viral suppression or immune reconstitution as a result of poor adherence, drug resistance, or both. The clinical outcomes of continued ART prescription for such patients have not been well characterized. Methods We examined the causes and predictors of all-cause mortality, AIDS-defining conditions, and serious non-AIDS-defining events among a cohort of participants in a clinical trial of pre-emptive therapy for CMV disease. We focused on participants who, despite ART had failed to achieve virologic suppression and substantive immune reconstitution. Results 233 ART-receiving participants entered with a median baseline CD4+ T cell count of 30/mm3 and plasma HIV RNA of 5 log10 copies/mL. During a median 96 weeks of follow-up, 24.0% died (a mortality rate of 10.7/100 patient-years); 27.5% reported a new AIDS-defining condition, and 22.3% a new serious non-AIDS event. Of the deaths, 42.8% were due to an AIDS-defining condition, 44.6% were due to a non-AIDS-defining condition, and 12.5% were of unknown etiology. Decreased risk of mortality was associated with baseline CD4+ T cell count ≥25/mm3 and lower baseline HIV RNA. Conclusions Among patients with advanced AIDS prescribed modern ART who achieve neither virologic suppression nor immune reconstitution, crude mortality percentages appear to be lower than reported in cohorts of patients studied a decade earlier. Also, in contrast to the era before modern ART became available, nearly half of the deaths in our modern-era study were caused by serious non-AIDS-defining events. Even among the most advanced AIDS patients who were not obtaining apparent immunologic and virologic benefit from ART, continued prescription of these medications appears to alter the natural history of AIDS—improving survival and shifting the causes of death from AIDS- to non-AIDS

  15. Benefit of Wearing a Hearing Aid on the Unimplanted Ear in Adult Users of a Cochlear Implant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Camille C.; Tyler, Richard S.; Witt, Shelley A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to document performance of participants wearing a cochlear implant and hearing aid in opposite ears on speech-perception and localization tests. Twelve individuals who wore a cochlear implant and a hearing aid on contralateral ears were tested on their abilities to understand words in quiet and sentences in…

  16. The Stress Moderating Role of Benefit Finding on Psychological Distress and Well-Being Among Women Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karolynn; Schrimshaw, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether the perception of having experienced growth as a result of a stressful event, often termed benefit finding, moderates the effects of stress (both physical symptomatology and social conflict) on psychological distress and well-being. For this cross-sectional study, an ethnically diverse sample (N =138) of women living with HIV/AIDS completed a series of self-report measures. Hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated that physical symptoms, social conflict, and benefit finding were associated with psychological distress and positive affect, even after controlling for social support, locus of control, and demographic confounds. Significant interactions revealed that among women with a high number of HIV-related physical symptoms, benefit finding moderated the negative effects of physical symptoms on both depressive and anxious symptoms. Benefit finding was not found to moderate the effects of social conflict. These findings suggest a potential mechanism (i.e., stress buffering) by which benefit finding could promote psychological adjustment. Further, the finding that benefit finding only moderated the growth-inducing stressor (e.g., the illness), but not the effects of other stressors (e.g., social conflict), suggests possible limits to the stress-buffering role of benefit finding. PMID:17103124

  17. Benefits of an educational program for journalists on media coverage of HIV/AIDS in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective a) To assess the suitability of the curriculum content and didactical quality of information delivered to educate journalists in the J2J program in HIV/AIDS (process evaluation) and b) to explore the effects of such programs on journalists' reporting of HIV/AIDS related information (outcome evaluation). Design Descriptive study. Methods For the process evaluation, each J2J program curriculum was evaluated for accuracy and pertinence by individuals with high familiarity with HIV/AIDS research. For the outcome evaluation, a survey of J2J attendees and evaluations of the program lectures by attendees were performed in chronological order to determine their perception on usefulness of the program. Results Overall, the J2J curriculum is successful in providing journalists with a clear understanding of the current HIV/AIDS medical research objectives and issues with most journalists reporting an increased ability to better investigate and disseminate accurate information on this subject. Furthermore, the journalists surveyed reported positive community responses directly as a result of the J2J training. Conclusion The J2J program helps to increase global awareness of pertinent HIV/AIDS concepts. Through this professional development strategy, journalists from around the world may help to amplify efforts to prevent new HIV infections and quench the dissemination of inaccurate information and folklore. PMID:19014657

  18. The WHO-DAS II: Measuring Outcomes of Hearing Aid Intervention for Adults

    PubMed Central

    McArdle, Rachel; Chisolm, Theresa H.; Abrams, Harvey B.; Wilson, Richard H.; Doyle, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Scale II (WHO-DAS II) is a generic health-status instrument that provides six domain scores and a total, aggregate score. Two of the domain scores, communication and participation, and the total score, have good validity, internal-consistency reliability, and test-retest stability in individuals with adult-onset hearing loss. As such, these two domain scores and the total WHO-DAS II score may be useful as generic outcome measures to assess the effectiveness of hearing aid intervention for this population. Before the use of the WHO-DAS II in hearing aid clinical trials, however, the responsiveness of the instrument and the short- and long-term outcomes to hearing aid intervention had to be determined. Responsiveness and outcomes were assessed in 380 veterans (approximately half received hearing aids and half served as controls) by examining group differences, effect-size estimates, and individual differences as a function of hearing aid intervention. For comparison, data also were obtained on two disease-specific measures, the APHAB and the HHIE. The WHO-DAS II communication domain and total scores were sufficiently responsive to hearing aid intervention for use in future studies in which group differences are to be detected. The WHO-DAS II participation domain was not sufficiently responsive to hearing aid intervention. The APHAB and HHIE, both disease-specific measures, were more sensitive to hearing aid intervention than the generic measure. The short- and long-term outcomes of hearing aid intervention were also examined in the present study. Group outcomes for hearing aid intervention can be expected to be stable for at least 6 months when measured by WHO-DAS II total score and for at least 12 months when measured by the WHO-DAS II communication domain scores. Effect-size estimates and examination of the number of individuals exhibiting change scores exceeding 90% critical differences for true changes in

  19. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  20. Student Aid and Tax Benefits: Better Research and Guidance Will Facilitate Comparison of Effectiveness and Student Use. Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    To assist Congress as it prepares for the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act, a study was undertaken of Title IV aid programs and higher education tax provisions designed to assist students and families. Focusing on the HOPE and Lifetime Learning tax credits. Data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study and other databases were…

  1. A Comparison of the Benefit Provided by Well-Fit Linear Hearing Aids and Instruments with Automatic Reductions of Low-Frequency Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humes, Larry E.; Christensen, Laurel A.; Bess, Fred H.; Hedley-Williams, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    Patients (N=110) at three different clinics were fitted binaurally with linear, in-the-canal hearing aids. In all patient groups, significant improvement in performance was observed for linear amplification and for base increase at low levels (BILL) processing when compared to unaided performance. There were no significant differences in aided…

  2. Assessment of the Incremental Benefit of Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) for Interpretation of CT Colonography by Experienced and Inexperienced Readers

    PubMed Central

    Boone, Darren; Mallett, Susan; McQuillan, Justine; Taylor, Stuart A.; Altman, Douglas G.; Halligan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the incremental benefit of computer-assisted-detection (CAD) for polyps, for inexperienced readers versus experienced readers of CT colonography. Methods 10 inexperienced and 16 experienced radiologists interpreted 102 colonography studies unassisted and with CAD utilised in a concurrent paradigm. They indicated any polyps detected on a study sheet. Readers’ interpretations were compared against a ground-truth reference standard: 46 studies were normal and 56 had at least one polyp (132 polyps in total). The primary study outcome was the difference in CAD net benefit (a combination of change in sensitivity and change in specificity with CAD, weighted towards sensitivity) for detection of patients with polyps. Results Inexperienced readers’ per-patient sensitivity rose from 39.1% to 53.2% with CAD and specificity fell from 94.1% to 88.0%, both statistically significant. Experienced readers’ sensitivity rose from 57.5% to 62.1% and specificity fell from 91.0% to 88.3%, both non-significant. Net benefit with CAD assistance was significant for inexperienced readers but not for experienced readers: 11.2% (95%CI 3.1% to 18.9%) versus 3.2% (95%CI -1.9% to 8.3%) respectively. Conclusions Concurrent CAD resulted in a significant net benefit when used by inexperienced readers to identify patients with polyps by CT colonography. The net benefit was nearly four times the magnitude of that observed for experienced readers. Experienced readers did not benefit significantly from concurrent CAD. PMID:26355745

  3. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  4. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  5. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  6. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  7. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  8. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  9. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  10. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  11. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  12. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  13. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  14. Software aids plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Winiger, T. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that for most utilities, computer aided engineering (CAE) systems are currently used for operating plant support rather than new plant design particularly for nuclear plant maintenance. For nuclear power generating utilities, switching to a modern, integrated CAE information system can offer significant benefits. During the last decade, however, most engineering automation in the power generation industry focused on computer-aided drafting and stand-alone engineering applications. An integrated CAE system can be a useful too, assisting engineers with many engineering and operational activities. It also can be used to manage the massive amount of information created throughout the life of a plant.

  15. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  16. Teaching AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonks, Douglas

    This book presents a curriculum to educate students about the risk of AIDS and HIV infection. The opening chapters of the book presents a discussion of: how teachers can create an environment of support for an AIDS education program; the political and educational implications of winning principal, district, and parental support for an AIDS…

  17. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  18. AIDS lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Middleton, G W; Lau, R K

    1992-01-01

    Chronically immunosuppressed individuals are susceptible to lymphoreticular tumors. Up to 15% of patients with congenital deficiencies such as ataxia=telangiectasia may develop malignancies, mainly high-grade B cell non=Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). AIDS lymphomas are comprised of NHLs including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and primary cerebral lymphomas (PCLs). Almost 3% of all AIDS patients (2824 of 97,258 cases) developed NHL. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a co-factor in AIDS lymphomagenesis has been studied: in 12 cases of 24 AIDS lymphomas EBV by DNA in situ hybridization was found. In an analysis of 6 primary cerebral lymphomas, .5 were positive for EBV DNA by Southern blotting. In Burkitt's lymphoma the characteristic genetic alteration affects the c-myc oncogene. In 1/3 of BL p53 mutations were found but none in the 43 NHLs suggesting that p53 mutations and c-myc activation act synergistically in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Cytotoxic agents dideoxyinosine, dideoxycytosine, and zidovudine may cause secondary neoplasia. 8 of 55 AIDS patients under zidovudine treatment developed high-grade lymphoma 23.8 months subsequently; recently doses were reduced. PCL was found in 21 of 90 patients. A 5.2 months survival was associated with combined treatment with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin (vincristine), methotrexate, etoposide, and cytosine arabinoside compared with 11.3 months with chemotherapy. Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) alleviate drug-induced myelotoxicity and zidovudine-induced neutropenia, however, l8 of 11 patients receiving granulocyte-macrophage CSF developed hematological toxicity. Interleukine-2 produced by T-helper cells enhancing tumor cells cytotoxicity has been used in AIDS-associated cryptosporidial diarrhea and in 4 patients with AIDS lymphoma with modest response, but its stimulation of the HIV-infected substrate may increase viral proliferation.

  19. Confronting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-03-01

    By 2020, HIV/AIDS will be the leading infectious killer of young and middle-aged adults in the developing world. Past gains in life expectancy are already being eroded in some countries. Millions of lives can, however, be saved if developing country governments, the international community, and nongovernmental organizations act now. Although more than 11 million people have already died of AIDS, 2.3 billion people live in developing countries in which the disease has not yet spread beyond certain risk groups. If the spread of HIV is checked, the quality of care available to people who are infected with HIV will probably be better than it would be in the context of a full-blown AIDS epidemic. However, while governments need to respond urgently to HIV/AIDS, using resources to help people with AIDS will reduce the resources available for other investments, such as child education, providing safe drinking water, and building roads. Economics can help governments set priorities as they decide how best to allocate their available resources. Externalities, public goods, and redistribution are discussed. All countries will need to use some combination of preventive and coping measures. PMID:12293445

  20. Restoration of hearing by hearing aids: conventional hearing aids – implantable hearing aids – cochlear implants – auditory brainstem implants

    PubMed Central

    Leuwer, R.; Müller, J.

    2005-01-01

    Aim of this report is to explain the current concept of hearing restoration using hearing aids. At present the main issues of conventional hearing aids are the relative benefits of analogue versus digital devices and different strategies for the improvement of hearing in noise. Implantable hearing aids provide a better sound quality and less distortion. The lack of directional microphones is the major disadvantage of the partially implantable hearing aids commercially available. Two different clinical studies about fully implantable hearing aids have been started in 2004. One of the most-promising developments seems to be the electric-acoustic stimulation. PMID:22073051

  1. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  2. Dietitian Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the dietitian aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with health care facilities personnel, this course was prepared by teachers and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested,…

  3. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  4. Digital Hearing Aids From the Perspective of One Consumer/Audiologist

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in hearing aids are reviewed in the context of the author's personal experience as an audiologist and as a hearing aid wearer. The need for evidence of benefit specific to digital signal processing in hearing aids is stressed, as well as addressing cost-benefit ratios in view of the high cost of digital hearing aids. PMID:17301335

  5. Financial Aid for Higher Education: Anything's Possible!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Handicapped Children and Youth, Washington, DC.

    Information on programs that provide financial aid to colleges and students are described in this information sheet of the National Information Center for Handicapped Children and Youth. Four basic categories of financial aid are grants, loans, work, and benefits. The Division of Personnel Preparation of the U.S. Department of Education makes…

  6. Multiple Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreider, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of dome architecture for a community's middle- and high-school multi-purpose facility. The dome construction is revealed as being cost effective in construction and in maintenance and energy costs. (GR)

  7. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  8. Physicians mutual aid group: a response to AIDS-related burnout.

    PubMed

    Garside, B

    1993-11-01

    Physicians providing primary health care to people with AIDS are exposed to the same stressful experiences as other AIDS caregivers. Although mutual aid groups have proved useful in relieving stress for AIDS caregivers in general, physicians as a professional group present particular problems that impede their access to mutual aid. This article describes the origins and functioning of a physician's mutual aid group facilitated by the author. It offers suggestions related to overcoming resistance physicians might have to participating in such a group and reviews modalities that were found helpful in facilitating participants' ability to share emotional stresses within the group. The commitment of the physicians to the group over a prolonged period and their own testimony indicate that with appropriate facilitation, physicians under stress from providing care to people with AIDS can benefit from the experience of mutual aid that has been so beneficial to other caregivers.

  9. Medicaid Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Eligibility Benefits Cost Sharing Waivers Long Term Services and Supports Delivery Systems Quality of Care Data and Systems Enrollment Strategies Access to Care Program Integrity Financing and ... type, amount, duration, and scope of services within broad federal guidelines. States are required to ...

  10. 20 CFR 654.417 - Fire, safety, and first aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fire, safety, and first aid. 654.417 Section..., safety, and first aid. (a) All buildings in which people sleep or eat shall be constructed and maintained...-type water extinguisher. (g) First aid facilities shall be provided and readily accessible for use...

  11. Wake Vortex Systems Cost/Benefits Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, Vicki K.

    1997-01-01

    The goals of cost/benefit assessments are to provide quantitative and qualitative data to aid in the decision-making process. Benefits derived from increased throughput (or decreased delays) used to balance life-cycle costs. Packaging technologies together may provide greater gains (demonstrate higher return on investment).

  12. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  13. Food aid: pitfalls and potential.

    PubMed

    Stewart, F

    1986-11-01

    This article poses the question of whether it is possible to use food aid to meet short-run needs while supporting and not undermining the achievement of long-term goals of self-reliance at the household and national levels. Often either some degree of self-reliance is sacrificed or people will suffer malnutrition. Food aid may be used to generate employment for low income families (food-for-work schemes), to reduce food prices during shortages by increasing the supply, and it can be delivered to target groups as a direct entitlement. What happens to food after delivery is important: often it goes to family members not targeted. Other factors (e.g. measles) affect nutritional status. Food aid must often continue for long periods to avoid nutritional regression. The stage in distribution at which food is used is important; e.g. a measles epidemic might affect the consumption but not the supply of food, or poor targeting might benefit families who do not need it. Complementary actions may improve conditions; for example, if food is sold, increasing income improves the situation. A problem with provision of food is depression of local prices, reducing incentives to produce food locally. Most food aid does not increase demand, and in fact if the effect is to change tastes away from local products demand may be reduced. The effect on demand depends on the type of aid scheme, the timing and duration, and the locality of the project. Most objectives are better achieved by the use of cash aid, which promotes rather than weakens local food producers' incentives, reduces transport and storage, redistributes food, does not affect taste, and adds income by contributing to local decentralized transport. Food aid is a good temporary intervention, but cash aid should be used in the long term.

  14. Technology Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, William

    2001-01-01

    An assessment was recently performed by NASA s Inter-Center Systems Analysis Team to quantify the potential emission reduction benefits from technologies being developed under UEET. The CO2 and LTO NO, reductions were estimated for 4 vehicles: a 50-passenger regional jet, a twin-engine, long-range subsonic transport, a high-speed (Mach 2.4) civil transport and a supersonic (Mach 2) business jet. The results of the assessment confirm that the current portfolio of technologies within the UEET program provides an opportunity for substantial reductions in CO2 and NO, emissions.

  15. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  16. A Study of the Combined Use of a Hearing Aid and Tactual Aid in an Adult with Profound Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Charlotte M.; Delhorne, Lorraine A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of the combined used of a hearing aid and tactual aid to supplement lip-reading in the reception of speech and for the recognition of environmental sounds in an adult with profound hearing loss. Speech conditions included lip-reading alone (L), lip-reading + tactual aid (L+TA) lip-reading + hearing aid (L+HA) and…

  17. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  18. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  19. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  20. NASA Technology Benefits Orthotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Neill; Shadoan, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama have designed a knee brace to aid in the rehabilitation of medical patients. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, was designed for knee injury and stroke patients but may potentially serve in many more patient applications. Individuals with sports related injuries, spinal cord injuries and birth defects, such as spina bifida, may also benefit from the device. The Selectively Lockable Knee Brace is designed to provide secure support to the patient when weight is applied to the leg; however; when the leg is not supporting weight, the device allows free motion of the knee joint. Braces currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight or bent position, or by manually pulling a pin, allow continuous free joint motion.

  1. Ergogenic aids.

    PubMed

    Coyle, E F

    1984-07-01

    The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant. This effect is most obvious in subjects under laboratory conditions and is less evident in athletes who are highly motivated prior to competition. Fatigue is associated with acidosis in the working musculature when attempts are made to maximize work output during a 4 to 15-minute period. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion may act to buffer the acid produced, provided that blood flow to the muscle is adequate. Prolonged intense exercise can be maintained for approximately two hours before carbohydrate stores become depleted. Carbohydrate feedings delay fatigue during prolonged exercise, especially in subjects who display a decline in blood glucose during exercise in the fasting state. Caffeine ingestion prior to an endurance bout has been reported to allow an individual to exercise somewhat more intensely than he or she would otherwise. Its effect may be mediated by augmenting fat metabolism or by altering the perception of effort. Amphetamines may act in a similar manner. Water ingestion during prolonged exercise that results in dehydration and hyperthermia can offset fluid losses and allow an individual to better maintain work output while substantially reducing the risk of heat-related injuries. PMID:6100848

  2. Students' Attitudes toward the Use of Hearing Aids in Al-Ahsa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alodail, Abdullah Kholifh

    2011-01-01

    Hearing aid devices are worn within people's ears to help them hear the sounds around them. Teachers have to accept the use of hearing aids in the classroom as a device to assist students with hearing loss (Plumley, 2008). Further study is helpful to hearing aid research because it demonstrates the importance of hearing aid benefit awareness in…

  3. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    conditions were successfully treated with antibiotics, and only 1% to 2% required surgical revision. Less than 1% required removal of the fixture. Other complications included failure to osseointegrate and loss of fixture and/or abutment due to trauma or infection. Effectiveness Studies showed that BAHAs were implanted in people who have conduction or mixed hearing loss, congenital atresia or suppurative otitis media who were not candidates for surgical repair, and who cannot use conventional bone conduction hearing aids. The need for BAHA is not age- related. Objective audiometric measures and subjective patient satisfaction surveys showed that BAHA significantly improved the unaided and aided free field and sound field thresholds as well as speech discrimination in quiet and in noise for former users of conventional bone conduction hearing aids. The outcomes were ambiguous for former users of air conduction hearing aids. BAHA has been shown to reduce the frequency of ear infection and reduce the discharge particularly among patients with suppurative otitis media. Patients have reported that BAHA improved their quality of life. Reported benefits were improved speech intelligibility, better sound comfort, less pressure on the head, less skin irritation, greater cosmetic acceptance and increase in confidence. Main reported shortcomings were wind noise, feedback and difficulty in using the telephone. Experts and the BAHA manufacturer recommended that recipients of a BAHA implant be at least 5 years old. Challenges associated with the implantation of BAHA in pediatric patients include thin bone, soft bone, higher rates of fixture loss due to trauma, psychological problems, and higher revision rates due to rapid bone growth. The overall outcomes are comparable to adult BAHA. The benefits of pediatric BAHA (e.g. on speech development) appear to outweigh the disadvantages. Screening according to strict eligibility criteria, preoperative counselling, close monitoring by a physician

  4. The benefit of forgetting.

    PubMed

    Williams, Melonie; Hong, Sang W; Kang, Min-Suk; Carlisle, Nancy B; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2013-04-01

    Recent research using change-detection tasks has shown that a directed-forgetting cue, indicating that a subset of the information stored in memory can be forgotten, significantly benefits the other information stored in visual working memory. How do these directed-forgetting cues aid the memory representations that are retained? We addressed this question in the present study by using a recall paradigm to measure the nature of the retained memory representations. Our results demonstrated that a directed-forgetting cue leads to higher-fidelity representations of the remaining items and a lower probability of dropping these representations from memory. Next, we showed that this is made possible by the to-be-forgotten item being expelled from visual working memory following the cue, allowing maintenance mechanisms to be focused on only the items that remain in visual working memory. Thus, the present findings show that cues to forget benefit the remaining information in visual working memory by fundamentally improving their quality relative to conditions in which just as many items are encoded but no cue is provided. PMID:23208769

  5. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  6. Who benefits from child benefit?

    PubMed

    Blow, Laura; Walker, Ian; Zhu, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Governments, over much of the developed world, make significant financial transfers to parents with dependent children. For example, in the United States the recently introduced Child Tax Credit (CTC), which goes to almost all children, costs almost $1 billion each week, or about 0.4% of GNP. The United Kingdom has even more generous transfers and spends an average of about $30 a week on each of about 8 million children—about 1% of GNP. The typical rationale given for these transfers is that they are good for our children and here we investigate the effect of such transfers on household spending patterns. In the United Kingdom such transfers, known as Child Benefit (CB), have been simple lump sum universal payments for a continuous period of more than 20 years. We do indeed find that CB is spent differently from other income—paradoxically, it appears to be spent disproportionately on adult-assignable goods. In fact, we estimate that as much as half of a marginal dollar of CB is spent on alcohol. We resolve this puzzle by showing that the effect is confined to unanticipated variation in CB so we infer that parents are sufficiently altruistic toward their children that they completely insure them against shocks. PMID:22329051

  7. Who benefits from child benefit?

    PubMed

    Blow, Laura; Walker, Ian; Zhu, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Governments, over much of the developed world, make significant financial transfers to parents with dependent children. For example, in the United States the recently introduced Child Tax Credit (CTC), which goes to almost all children, costs almost $1 billion each week, or about 0.4% of GNP. The United Kingdom has even more generous transfers and spends an average of about $30 a week on each of about 8 million children—about 1% of GNP. The typical rationale given for these transfers is that they are good for our children and here we investigate the effect of such transfers on household spending patterns. In the United Kingdom such transfers, known as Child Benefit (CB), have been simple lump sum universal payments for a continuous period of more than 20 years. We do indeed find that CB is spent differently from other income—paradoxically, it appears to be spent disproportionately on adult-assignable goods. In fact, we estimate that as much as half of a marginal dollar of CB is spent on alcohol. We resolve this puzzle by showing that the effect is confined to unanticipated variation in CB so we infer that parents are sufficiently altruistic toward their children that they completely insure them against shocks.

  8. General Framework of Hearing Aid Fitting Management.

    PubMed

    Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak

    2016-04-01

    Hearing aids are one of the most widely used treatment options for the hearing impaired and optimal outcomes of hearing aids are supported by comprehensive hearing aid fitting protocols. Currently, the term 'hearing aid fitting' is prevalently used among service and industry sectors with its comprehensive procedures not systematically explicated. In addition, a variety of non-normalized guidelines for hearing aid fitting has led to non-uniform care, outcome variability, and dissatisfaction of the use of hearing aids. The main purpose of the present study is to suggest a general framework of standardized practice for hearing aid fitting management including its pre- and post-fitting stages. The management framework centers on its fitting process with its prior steps of assessment as well as its posterior steps of follow-up, thereby eliminating diverging interpretations and non-uniform practices. Outcomes of this study are also expected to improve potential benefits such as quality of hearing aid fitting, user satisfaction, and cost effectiveness across relevant stakeholders.

  9. General Framework of Hearing Aid Fitting Management

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Soo Hee

    2016-01-01

    Hearing aids are one of the most widely used treatment options for the hearing impaired and optimal outcomes of hearing aids are supported by comprehensive hearing aid fitting protocols. Currently, the term 'hearing aid fitting' is prevalently used among service and industry sectors with its comprehensive procedures not systematically explicated. In addition, a variety of non-normalized guidelines for hearing aid fitting has led to non-uniform care, outcome variability, and dissatisfaction of the use of hearing aids. The main purpose of the present study is to suggest a general framework of standardized practice for hearing aid fitting management including its pre- and post-fitting stages. The management framework centers on its fitting process with its prior steps of assessment as well as its posterior steps of follow-up, thereby eliminating diverging interpretations and non-uniform practices. Outcomes of this study are also expected to improve potential benefits such as quality of hearing aid fitting, user satisfaction, and cost effectiveness across relevant stakeholders. PMID:27144226

  10. General Framework of Hearing Aid Fitting Management.

    PubMed

    Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak

    2016-04-01

    Hearing aids are one of the most widely used treatment options for the hearing impaired and optimal outcomes of hearing aids are supported by comprehensive hearing aid fitting protocols. Currently, the term 'hearing aid fitting' is prevalently used among service and industry sectors with its comprehensive procedures not systematically explicated. In addition, a variety of non-normalized guidelines for hearing aid fitting has led to non-uniform care, outcome variability, and dissatisfaction of the use of hearing aids. The main purpose of the present study is to suggest a general framework of standardized practice for hearing aid fitting management including its pre- and post-fitting stages. The management framework centers on its fitting process with its prior steps of assessment as well as its posterior steps of follow-up, thereby eliminating diverging interpretations and non-uniform practices. Outcomes of this study are also expected to improve potential benefits such as quality of hearing aid fitting, user satisfaction, and cost effectiveness across relevant stakeholders. PMID:27144226

  11. Answering the AIDS denialists: is AIDS real?

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    2000-12-01

    This article looks at theories that say AIDS does not exist, or is not a new disease but only a collection of old ones--and explains some of the history behind earlier changes in the official definition of AIDS in the U.S., changes which caused some public confusion. PMID:12171004

  12. Portable Tactile Aids for Speech Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Experiments using portable tactile aids in speech perception are reviewed, focusing on training studies, additive benefit studies, and device comparison studies (including the "Tactaid II,""Tactaid V,""Tacticon 1600," and "Tickle Talker"). The potential of tactual information in perception of the overall speech code by hearing-impaired individuals…

  13. Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowell, Louis

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management at John F. Kennedy Space Center. The contents include: 1) Corrosion at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC); 2) Requirements and Objectives; 3) Program Description, Background and History; 4) Approach and Implementation; 5) Challenges; 6) Lessons Learned; 7) Successes and Benefits; and 8) Summary and Conclusions.

  14. Resource Recovery. Energy and Environment. Teacher's Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Smith and Hills, Inc., Jacksonville, FL.

    Designed to assist students in understanding solid waste resource recovery, this teaching aid package aims to get students involved in practical activities that require participation, observation, and interpretation. Provided in this package are definitions, methods, causes and effects, costs, and benefits of resource recovery presented in the…

  15. Clinton calls for 3 percent boost in Federal AIDS programs.

    PubMed

    1996-04-19

    President Bill Clinton's fiscal 1997 budget includes a 3 percent increase in Federal funding for AIDS research, prevention, treatment, and care programs. Total discretionary spending on AIDS would approach $3 billion. Federal programs that will benefit include the Ryan White CARE Act, research conducted at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), restoration of full authority of the NIH's Office of AIDS Research, and prevention programs administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

  16. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  17. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  18. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  19. Students with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadwell, Cathy Allen; Strope, John L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the law as it pertains to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in public elementary and secondary schools. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 has been used successfully in the majority of the AIDS cases discussed. (MLF)

  20. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... person is unconscious and: Does not return to consciousness quickly (within a minute) Has fallen down or ...

  1. Frostbite, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  2. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  3. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  4. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  5. Bruises, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  6. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  7. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  8. Overcoming the Financial Aid Barrier for E-Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaloux, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Financial aid systems help make higher education available to all who can benefit. To "adjust" the existing financial aid system to make it more student friendly and open doors currently closed to many part-time learners and students with the greatest financial challenges, state policy changes and greater private sector initiatives targeted at…

  9. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  10. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  11. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  12. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  13. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  14. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  15. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  16. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  17. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  18. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  19. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  20. 14 CFR 152.421 - Public accommodations, services, and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public accommodations, services, and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.421 Public accommodations, services, and benefits. Requirements relating to the provision of public accommodations,...

  1. 14 CFR 152.421 - Public accommodations, services, and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public accommodations, services, and... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.421 Public accommodations, services, and benefits. Requirements relating to the provision of public accommodations,...

  2. 14 CFR 152.421 - Public accommodations, services, and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public accommodations, services, and benefits. 152.421 Section 152.421 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.421...

  3. 14 CFR 152.421 - Public accommodations, services, and benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public accommodations, services, and benefits. 152.421 Section 152.421 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.421...

  4. Women and food aid: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Katona-apte, J

    1986-08-01

    The unique aspect of food aid projects is that food, rather than money, is used for achieving developmental objectives. As food is usually controlled by women, they benefit most from considering it to be of economic value. Poor women seem to be short of resources--time and money--which can be supplemented by food aid. Through its income-transfer effect, food aid can enable women to work fewer hours/day and thus have more discretionary time. It can also provide, directly or indirectly, the cash necessary for women to use skills they already possess to set themselves up in small businesses. Food aid projects achieve their developmental objectives through: the nutritional content of the distributed commodity; the income transfer effect; cooperatives or associations; specific activities associated with the project; community improvement aspects resulting from the project; and provision of budgetary support to release resources for additional developmental activities. There are a number of ways through which food aid exerts its effect on women from a developmental perspective. Consumption of the food aid commodity provides women with an improved diet. Food aid as an income transfer can enable women to have more discretionary time. Providing women with opportunities for income-generating activities is an important aspect of development. Women's cooperatives or associations funded by food aid commodities can provide women with income. Current food aid projects, if properly planned, can be beneficial to women without the incorporation of specific activities or skills training. One way that food aid helps women gain more time is by freeing them from wage employment. Another way is to use the income transfer for the purchasing of consumer goods that reduce their labor.

  5. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  6. Women in the time of AIDS: barriers, bargains, and benefits.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; Stein, Zena A; Susser, Ida

    2008-04-01

    We comment here on the implications of new HIV prevention technologies (physical and chemical barriers) for women's health and women's rights. Four relevant themes are selected that have emerged in the social and behavioral science literature: structural factors (global and national) limiting the availability of female condoms, control and empowerment with female-initiated HIV prevention technologies, covert use of female-initiated HIV prevention technologies, and male partners as part of the bargain for barriers. There is now a rich and diverse literature on all of these issues, relevant and informative (much is addressed in this issue), which we draw together in this commentary. Discussion of these themes suggests guidelines for policy, research, and action. First, the misconceptions, biases, and prejudices of global and national leaders, including donors, necessitate that we persevere in presenting data to them and engaging them in discussion. Second, we need to support women within their local social contexts to negotiate for their rights, balancing pragmatic approaches to their partners in their initiation of protection, and applying according to each situation as appropriate, a continuum from discretion and clandestine use to deception. Third, men have to be brought in as active participants, and their positive and negative experiences and interests inserted into practices and policies. PMID:18433316

  7. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  8. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  9. [An organized sector mobilized against AIDS].

    PubMed

    Mehra-Kerpelman, K

    1995-01-01

    A seminar of the International Labor Organization (ILO) was held to shed light on the role of AIDS in decimating qualified professionals in Anglophone Africa. The estimates of the World Health Organization indicate that the number of people infected with HIV in the whole world was 13-15 million persons at the end of 1994, of which 8 million lived in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda it is calculated that 1.5 million people are carriers of HIV, and by 1998 this figure could increase to 1.9 million. In both Zambia and Zimbabwe, in the 20-39 year age group, AIDS cases amount to 70% and 74%, respectively. Studies carried out in Rwanda, Zaire, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe revealed that AIDS is most frequent among members of the higher socioeconomic classes. The inability to find replacements for jobs requiring higher qualifications will result in dire consequences for these economies. During the 6-year period between 1988-89 and 1993-94 the Uganda Commercial Bank registered 229 deaths due to AIDS among its 1600 employees (14%). AIDS also requires the expenditure of scarce health resources on treatment: in 1992, hospital occupancy for diseases associated with AIDS reached 40-60% in Kinshasa, Zaire; 50% in Lusaka, Zambia; 60% in Kigali, Rwanda; and 70% in Bujumbura, Burundi. Various programs have been launched to fight HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Uganda, to sensitize and educate people about the epidemic. The protection of human rights, the avoidance of discrimination, and the adoption of safe sex techniques are promoted by these programs. Companies have programs to combat AIDS. Ubombo Ranches Ltd. in Swaziland started an information program in 1991 and distributed free condoms. BAT Uganda Ltd. also started an information and training-of-trainers program in 1989, which by 1994 had benefitted about 90% of the employees. This has resulted in the reduction of AIDS cases and associated medical costs.

  10. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in African American Communities: Lessons from UNAIDS and Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okigbo, Charles; Okigbo, Carol A.; Hall, William B., Jr.; Ziegler, Dhyana

    2002-01-01

    Both African states and African American communities can benefit from a new communication framework that the United Nations Global AIDS Program and the Pennsylvania State University developed to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The framework contains five universal values recommended for AIDS intervention programs worldwide (government policies,…

  11. A New Partnership: Reshaping the Federal and State Commitment to Need-Based Aid. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.

    2013-01-01

    This brief provides five recommendations for reforming the college financial aid system. Five principles for reform are presented: (1) The purpose of federal financial aid is to ensure that individuals who can benefit from college and would not otherwise attend are able to enroll. (2) Efforts to reform financial aid must limit the unsustainable…

  12. AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2012-05-01

    Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria.

  13. Clinton plans conference to discuss AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    1995-10-20

    President Bill Clinton scheduled the White House Conference on HIV and AIDS in December 1995. The one-day meeting was organized to assemble experts from around the nation to discuss the status of the epidemic and consider strategies to deal with it. The meeting is also intended to raise public awareness to increase prevention. Participants will be divided into working groups to address the status of research, prevention, and care programs; discrimination and legal issues; benefit programs; and coping strategies for those living with HIV and AIDS.

  14. AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. PMID:22469532

  15. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  16. Pediatric AIDS: psychosocial impact.

    PubMed

    Mangos, J A; Doran, T; Aranda-Naranjo, B; Rodriguez-Escobar, Y; Scott, A; Setzer, J R

    1990-06-01

    There is no question that the domain of the American family has been invaded by the HIV infection/AIDS epidemic. The disease, and particularly its form affecting children (pediatric AIDS), has had marked psychosocial impact on patients and families (intellectual/cognitive, emotional/behavioral, spiritual, and financial) and on our society in general (adverse or favorable). These impacts of pediatric AIDS are discussed in the present communication. PMID:2371699

  17. 50 CFR 82.18 - Officials not to benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Officials not to benefit. 82.18 Section 82... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR GRANTS-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.18 Officials not to benefit....

  18. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  19. HIV / AIDS Network.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  20. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  1. AIDS and civil disobedience.

    PubMed

    Spiers, H R

    1989-01-01

    Members of groups such as ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) risk arrest and criminal charges to protest laws and policies they view as unjust to persons with AIDS. Spiers, a founding member of ACT UP, discusses the rationale behind the tactics of civil disobedience employed by AIDS activists. He argues that civil disobedience is justified by American political and legal traditions, and by the federal government's lack of response to the needs of its citizens. Spiers warns that while AIDS protests have been nonviolent and characterized by conscientious planning and execution, violence cannot be ruled out as a "political act born of desperation."

  2. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  3. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  4. Assessing the binocular advantage in aided vision.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Lawrence K; McIntire, John P; Hopper, Darrel G

    2014-09-01

    Advances in microsensors, microprocessors, and microdisplays are creating new opportunities for improving vision in degraded environments through the use of head-mounted displays. Initially, the cutting-edge technology used in these new displays will be expensive. Inevitably, the cost of providing the additional sensor and processing required to support binocularity brings the value of binocularity into question. Several assessments comparing binocular, binocular, and monocular head-mounted displays for aided vision have concluded that the additional performance, if any, provided by binocular head-mounted displays does not justify the cost. The selection of a biocular [corrected] display for use in the F-35 is a current example of this recurring decision process. It is possible that the human binocularity advantage does not carry over to the aided vision application, but more likely the experimental approaches used in the past have been too coarse to measure its subtle but important benefits. Evaluating the value of binocularity in aided vision applications requires an understanding of the characteristics of both human vision and head-mounted displays. With this understanding, the value of binocularity in aided vision can be estimated and experimental evidence can be collected to confirm or reject the presumed binocular advantage, enabling improved decisions in aided vision system design. This paper describes four computational approaches-geometry of stereopsis, modulation transfer function area for stereopsis, probability summation, and binocular summation-that may be useful in quantifying the advantage of binocularity in aided vision.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of a light based Contact Hearing Device for the hearing impaired

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Jonathan P.; Perkins, Rodney; Levy, Suzanne Carr; Nilsson, Michael; Puria, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety, stability, and performance of the broad spectrum, light based Contact Hearing Device (CHD) on listeners with hearing impairment. Study Design Feasibility study. Setting Single-Site Research and Development Facility. Subjects Thirteen subjects with symmetric mild to severe sensorineural hearing impairment had the CHD placed bilaterally. Intervention A custom-molded light activated Tympanic Contact Actuator (TCA) was placed into each ear by a physician, where it stayed in contact with the umbo and a portion of the medial wall of the ear canal for four months. Each CHD was calibrated and programmed to provide appropriate broad-spectrum amplification. Main Outcome Measures Safety was determined through routine otologic examinations. Aided and pre-TCA-insertion unaided audiometric thresholds, Reception Threshold for Sentences (RTS), and Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) measurements were made to characterize system performance as well as the benefits of amplification via the CHD. Results The TCAs remained on subjects’ ears for an average total of 122 days, without causing signs of inflammation or infection, and there were no serious device-related adverse events. Measured average maximum output of 90–110 dB SPL in the 0.25–10 kHz range, average maximum gain before feedback of 40 dB, and functional gain through 10 kHz show extended bandwidth broad spectrum output and gain. RTS results showed significant aided improvements of up to 2.8 dB, and APHAB results showed clinically significant aided benefits in 11/12 (92%) subjects. Conclusion The safety, stability, and performance demonstrated in this initial 4-month study suggest that the CHD may offer a feasible way of providing broad-spectrum amplification appropriate to treat listeners with mild to severe hearing impairment. PMID:23524632

  6. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  7. The New Merit Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Merit aid, a discount to college costs contingent upon academic performance, is nothing new. Colleges and private organizations have long rewarded high-achieving, college-bound high school students with scholarships. While merit aid has a long history in the private sector, it has not played a major role in the public sector. At the state level,…

  8. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  9. What about AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Katharine R.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Suggests ways in which camp directors can establish procedures for making appropriate decisions about accepting campers/staff workers with AIDS. Reviews aspects of environmental sanitation, physical health, confidentiality, camper/staff drug use and sexual behavior, medical…

  10. Detecting Student Aid Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Describes the varied kinds of student aid fraud found to be occurring within and outside colleges and universities, and examines implications for public policy on student aid programs. Discusses specific fraud cases and their outcomes, and makes suggestions for institutional action if student fraud is suspected. (MSE)

  11. Teachers with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strope, John L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the application of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as a legal theory available to an employee of a public school system who faces isolation, transfer, suspension, or termination because of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Addresses AIDS in the workplace and the law. (MLF)

  12. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  13. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  14. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  15. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  16. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  17. AIDS: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-08-01

    Each country currently experiencing an AIDS epidemic did not believe that the epidemics would develop, but they did and more than 6 million people have since died. However, if the governments of the approximately 2.3 billion people who live in developing countries where HIV/AIDS has not yet spread to the general population, together with the international community and nongovernmental organizations, act promptly, many lives will be saved. The World Bank publication "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" brings, for the first time, an economic perspective to the problem of AIDS. The author considers how developing country governments should respond to the AIDS epidemic when they also face so many other major and pressing problems related to raising more than 1 billion people out of severe poverty. While AIDS is an important problem which must be immediately addressed, using resources to help people with AIDS will come at the expense of other objectives such as sending children to school, providing safe drinking water, and building infrastructure. The serious nature of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and what governments should do are considered. PMID:12294026

  18. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  19. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  20. Community responses to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S

    1994-01-01

    Some examples of care in the community for people with HIV/AIDS are reported from Africa. Members of communities committed to fighting the AIDS epidemic cannot do so alone and should be given every possible help. Inadequate care favours the spread of HIV, as does the stigmatization of people with HIV infection and their families.

  1. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  2. AIDS -- a modern hydra.

    PubMed

    Chen, D W

    1988-10-01

    So far, AIDS has not been a major problem in Taiwan. Only 79 people have tested HIV-seropositive, and only 6 have been stricken by the disease. The government has allocated money for AIDS research; blood screening is mandatory in all hospitals; confidential AIDS testing is widely available; and doctors are advised to administer azidothymidine to anyone who tests positive. Azidothymidine is not a cure, but it can prevent the virus from destroying more cells. Nevertheless, a climate of irrational fear of and ignorance about AIDS pervades Taiwan. Many people believe that AIDS can be transmitted by casual contact, and people who are HIV-seropositive are treated as social outcasts. One student at the University of Taipei, only a few credits from graduation, has been refused readmission to the university because he tested HIV-positive. Sex education in the schools is not a good route for AIDS education because sex and especially homosexuality are simply not mentioned in public in Taiwan. Activists, including gay-rights representative, Chi Chia-Wei, have turned to the mass media, especially television as a vehicle for AIDS education, and several programs on AIDS have been shown since 1986.

  3. NASA's online machine aided indexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.

  4. Mass media entertainment for AIDS communication in Zaire.

    PubMed

    Convisser, J

    1992-01-01

    Health communicators use entertainment and mass media to prevent HIV transmission. Population Services International operates an AIDS Mass Media Project as an adjunct to its Condom Social Marketing Project. It collaborates with the Government of Zaire's National AIDS Program. Its 1st target is urban youth because most AIDS cases in Zaire were infected as teenagers, urban youth have access to television (TV), and they take part in high risk sexual behavior. The project uses various AIDS songs to reach this group. A 6-month posttest shows that the 1st song was so effective that 65% heard it and that 93% of them recalled the major AIDS messages and 85% said that they changed their behavior. The project distributes a video of the 1990 World AIDS Day concert. Research in Zaire and other African countries shows that the threat AIDS poses to children's health strongly motivates parents' behavior. Thus the 2nd target is the 20-30 year old group--young and prospective parents. The project boasts a 4-part TV series about a groom who does not reveal his AIDS status to his young bride until after their wedding night. 2 scenes stress the benefits of condoms. After its 1st airing, 66% of the 20-30 year old group in Kinshasa watched all 4 parts of the series. Of these, about 75% said they would change their behavior. Most people in Zaire change behavior by using condoms. Indeed, during the mass media campaign, condom sales grew 1000% which saved almost 7200 lives. The project also features comic strips informing working men and women and teenagers about AIDS and distributes an inexpensive notebook listening AIDS facts and myths for school children. The project uses regional radio stations to broadcast 28 AIDS feature programs, 22 radio spots, 8 AIDS radio dramas, and 2 songs to high priority rural areas. These AIDS radio efforts have indeed influenced AIDS knowledge and attitudes. PMID:12285440

  5. Low vision aids (evaluation of 185 patients).

    PubMed

    Temel, A

    1989-07-01

    One hundred and eighty-five referred patients with various eye pathologies were evaluated retrospectively after they had undergone an examination and issued with a prescription for low vision. The majority of patients (77%) benefited from the prescribing of low vision aids (LVA). Spectacle-mounted magnifiers, high reading additions and telescopes were used as LVAs. Visual acuity, age and magnification are important factors in the assessment of an LVA.

  6. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  7. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways. PMID:12349153

  8. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  9. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways.

  10. Solidarity and AIDS: introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N

    1991-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival.

  11. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  12. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  13. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  14. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  15. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  16. Latina women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Worth, D; Rodriguez, R

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of AIDS in Latina women is over 11 times that of white women. Women account for 13% of all Latino AIDS deaths since 1980. This examination of the impact of AIDS on Latino women concentrates on Manhattan's Lower East Side. The AIDS deaths among Puerto Rican women in this neighborhood are predominantly intravenous drug abuse related. Latina women accounted for more than 1/2 of all female AIDS deaths on the Lower East Side during the 1980-1985 period. The age range is parallel with that in the rest of New York City, with the exception of a higher number of deaths on the Lower East Side in the age ranges of 15-19 and over 40. Serious obstacles exist to providing AIDS risk reduction information to Puerto Rican women and their partners. Latinos account for 11% of all US AIDS cases among gay and bisexual men. The cultural proscription against these sexual practices in the Puerto Rican community makes AIDS education related to such practices extremely difficult. Many of the female sex partners of these men are unaware of their bisexuality, and, therefore not aware that they are at risk of HIV infection. The Latina women most at risk are young, poor, and have low educational levels. Latina women seriously underutilize ongoing primary health care, family planning, prenatal or pediatric care. Attempts to reach Latina women with AIDS risk reduction education must also contend with issues such as cultural gender roles. Females tend to be dependent on males and defer to male decision making related to sexual practices. In formulating policy regarding services and education, it is essential to involve the leadership of the Latino community. PMID:12268416

  17. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  18. AIDS and public health.

    PubMed

    Moskop, J C

    1988-01-01

    After briefly stating the significance of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for public health, this paper considers programs or proposals to control the spread of AIDS in the following eight general areas: (a) education; (b) distribution of sterile needles; (c) screening and treatment of blood, blood products, and other tissues; (d) voluntary and mandatory screening of persons for evidence of infection; (e) reporting; (f) contact tracing; (g) isolation and other restrictions on freedom of movement or association; and (h) physical marking of persons with AIDS. Significant moral issues within each of these areas are discussed, and the overall justifiability of various proposals is examined.

  19. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  20. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  1. Benefits Outgrow Salaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses employee benefits offered to various manufacturing industry workers, especially for chemical professionals. Indicates that in the chemicals and allied products industry, such benefits averaged more than 30 percent of payroll in 1971. (CC)

  2. AIDS.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... October 15th observance calls attention to the disproportionate impact of HIV/AIDS on the Latinx community. The ...

  3. Implantable digital hearing aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

  4. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  5. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... They also have greater flexibility in hearing aid programming so that the sound they transmit can be ... 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) Contact ...

  6. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  7. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  8. AIDS: the hidden enemy.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread. PMID:12314457

  9. [AIDS and society].

    PubMed

    Koupernik, C

    1988-03-01

    On the basis of information gathered from media the writer delineates the following aspects of the impact of AIDS upon social life: advertising the danger, sex education of the youth, purposeful contamination by AIDS-patients, legal repressive measures, the doctors and the right to test, Anglican Church and acceptance of homosexuality among ministers, antagonistic incentives epidemiologic research and the right to confidentiality. Finally, he endorses the recent declaration of the America Psychiatric Association determined to fight discrimination and refusal of care.

  10. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S

    1991-01-01

    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival.

  11. AIDS and haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Carr, R

    1985-01-01

    Approximately 1% of all AIDS cases are haemophiliacs. LAV/HTLV-III is transmitted by blood and in factor VIII concentrates. Since 1981, increasing numbers of haemophiliacs have been infected, as indicated by detection of antibodies to LAV/HTLV-III. Up to 90% of haemophiliacs in some populations are now seropositive, but to date less than 1% have progressed to clinical AIDS. Immunological abnormalities, in particular reduced T-lymphocyte helper/suppressor ratios, are common in haemophiliacs treated with factor VIII. Such abnormalities do not necessarily indicate past infection by the AIDS virus, but they may predispose to infection following exposure to the virus. Blood Transfusion agencies are introducing screening tests for antibodies to LAV/HTLV-III to help prevent the spread of AIDS by blood products. Heat treated factor VIII concentrate is now available and appears not to transmit AIDS. Factor IX concentrate may also transmit LAV/HTLV-III, but less frequently. A few cases of AIDS have occurred in Haemophilia B (Christmas Disease) patients.

  12. Level of User Satisfaction with Hearing Aids and Environment: The International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, Lorena; Almeida, Gleide; Ribas, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The main function of hearing is to enable oral communication. Hearing loss impairs communication skills. Objective To evaluate the level of user satisfaction with hearing aids. Methods This is a cross-sectional group study comprising 108 subjects (56% men and 44% women). The average age of the subjects was 77 years. These subjects had been recently fitted with their hearing aids and showed sensorineural (90%) and mixed (10%) hearing loss as determined via the Questionnaire International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids Outcome Inventory (IOI-HA), which determined the benefit and satisfaction obtained by sound amplification. Results The hearing aids improved the quality of life of 52.78% of the patients, which was revealed by their high scores (mean = 27.3). The relationship of the user with the environment was significantly better (p < 0.001) than that of the user with the hearing aid. Conclusion IOI-HA is a simple and easy-to-use tool. Based on the results of this study, we can show a high degree of satisfaction with their hearing aids in the majority of the participants, which improved the quality of life. PMID:25992097

  13. [Benefit assessment of drugs].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Thomas; Vervölgyi, V; Wieseler, B

    2015-03-01

    In Germany, new drugs are subject to a benefit assessment at the time of their market access. This "early benefit assessment" is the method primarily used for the benefit assessment of pharmaceuticals in Germany. While for the authorization of a drug a positive risk-benefit ratio is sufficient, early benefit assessment examines whether the new drug has an added benefit compared with other therapies, and thus differs significantly from authorization. For the evaluation, the manufacturer is required to submit a dossier, which must contain all the relevant studies. Early benefit assessment is very transparent in international comparisons, because all the relevant data and the evaluation report will be published. The assessment is carried out with regard to the evidence-based standard of care (the "appropriate comparator"). If the new drug is found to have an additional benefit, the extent of this added benefit is assessed. In addition, groups of patients should be identified with the particular extent of the added benefit. Therefore, subgroup analyses have to be carried out frequently. Often, for new drugs, only registration studies are available. General requirements for such studies (e.g., placebo comparison, endpoints) and decisions regarding the approval process (e.g., dosage regimens) can affect the level of confidence of these studies in the benefit assessment. Joint scientific advice by regulatory authorities and HTA (health technology assessment) agencies are provided to solve this problem. However, this is not possible without additional expense for the pharmaceutical companies. PMID:25566842

  14. Is AGC beneficial in hearing aids?

    PubMed

    King, A B; Martin, M C

    1984-02-01

    Three different functions of Automatic Gain Control (AGC) circuits in hearing aids are distinguished and the evidence for their benefits is considered. The value of AGC's function as a relatively distortion-free means of limiting output has been well established. With regard to compression, the benefit of short-term or 'syllabic' compression has not been demonstrated convincingly. Most evaluations of this type of AGC have looked for increase in speech intelligibility, but theoretical predictions of its effect do not appear to take account of the acoustic cues to consonant contrasts actually used by hearing impaired people, and empirical studies have often used listening conditions which do not give a realistic test of benefit. Relatively little attention has been paid to long-term compression, or to the effect of AGC on comfort rather than intelligibility. Listening tests carried out at the RNID and reported here have shown that AGC can benefit hearing aid users by allowing them to listen to a wider range of sound levels without either strain or discomfort, and, if time constants are well chosen, without adverse effects on speech intelligibility in quiet or in noise.

  15. Expectations of older adults regarding the use of hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Kricos, P B; Lesner, S A; Sandridge, S A

    1991-07-01

    A 48-item questionnaire was administered to 100 older adults to determine their expectations regarding hearing aid use. The sample consisted of volunteers from a variety of senior citizen organizations and ranged in age from 55 to 92 years. Only individuals who reported no prior hearing aid usage were included in the sample. Expectations for the following factors were considered: cosmetics, acoustics, communication benefits, comfort, ease of use, cost and upkeep, and attitudes toward hearing aid use. In general, the older adults in this sample appeared to have very positive expectations regarding the use of hearing aids. Eighty-seven percent apparently have medium to high expectations for hearing aid use. Since the older adult's satisfaction with amplification may be influenced by original expectations and attitudes, the information provided in this study may be useful in improving the pre-fitting counseling of older hearing-impaired adults.

  16. Economic benefits of meteorological services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freebairn, John W.; Zillman, John W.

    2002-03-01

    There is an increasing need for more rigorous and more broadly based determination of the economic value of meteorological services as an aid to decision-making on the appropriate level of funding to be committed to their provision at the national level. This paper develops an overall framework for assessment of the economic value of meteorological services based on the recognition that most national meteorological infrastructure and services possess the non rival properties of public goods. Given this overall framework for determination of both total and marginal benefits, four main methodologies appropriate for use in valuation studies - market prices, normative or prescriptive decision-making models, descriptive behavioural response studies and contingent valuation studies - are outlined and their strengths and limitations described. Notwithstanding the methodological limitations and the need for a much more comprehensive set of studies for the various application sectors, it is clear that the actual and potential benefits to individuals, firms, industry sectors and national economies from state-of-the-art meteorological and related services are substantial and that, at this stage, they are inadequately recognised and insufficiently exploited in many countries.

  17. AIDS and racism in America.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J

    1992-02-01

    Institutionalized racism affects general health care as well as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health intervention and services in minority communities. The overrepresentation of minorities in various disease categories, including AIDS, is partially related to racism. The national response to the AIDS epidemic in minority communities has been slow, showing an insensitivity to ethnic diversity in prevention efforts and AIDS health services.

  18. The First Aid Training Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

  19. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  20. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  1. The Student Aid Gauntlet: Making Access to College Simple and Certain. Final Report of the Special Study of Simplification of Need Analysis and Application for Title IV Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Jeneva E., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Millions of students and adult learners who aspire to college are overwhelmed by the complexity of student aid. Uncertainty and confusion rob them of its significant benefits. Rather than promote access, student aid often creates a series of barriers--a gauntlet that the poorest students must run to get to college. Replacing complexity with a…

  2. A moment in time: AIDS and business.

    PubMed

    Bloom, D E; Rosenfield, A

    2000-09-01

    Business has transformed the planet. But this gives it new responsibilities. People now expect business leaders to lead--and not just respond when things go wrong. HIV/AIDS is a global problem, with over 16.3 million people now thought to have died of the disease (Global Summary of HIV/AIDS Epidemic, UNAIDS, December 1999). Without action now, the pandemic will worsen, health services will come under relentless pressure and the number of people dying will increase exponentially. So why should business sit up and take notice? First: money. AIDS is slowly strangling many businesses and economies--and in a global market, everyone eventually suffers. Without profit, there is no business--so the business community needs to act to protect its bottom line. Second: people. Over 80% of those dying are in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. Businesses are losing workers and customers, and human networks that have taken decades to build. Third: imagination. Business is inventive, creative and fast-moving. It has the opportunity to use these strengths for the benefit of the wider community. It's time to pit business ideas (and some money, too) against the threat of AIDS. The course of the AIDS epidemic is not inevitable. The world's businesses have the skills and intensity to make a measurable difference, especially if they find public sector and NGO partners with whom they share a vision. A focused, coordinated, results-driven effort will hit AIDS hard. The HIV virus moves fast (and is mutating all the time). Business has the opportunity to make a difference. It must grasp this opportunity. And grasp if fast. PMID:11051635

  3. A moment in time: AIDS and business.

    PubMed

    Bloom, D E; Rosenfield, A

    2000-09-01

    Business has transformed the planet. But this gives it new responsibilities. People now expect business leaders to lead--and not just respond when things go wrong. HIV/AIDS is a global problem, with over 16.3 million people now thought to have died of the disease (Global Summary of HIV/AIDS Epidemic, UNAIDS, December 1999). Without action now, the pandemic will worsen, health services will come under relentless pressure and the number of people dying will increase exponentially. So why should business sit up and take notice? First: money. AIDS is slowly strangling many businesses and economies--and in a global market, everyone eventually suffers. Without profit, there is no business--so the business community needs to act to protect its bottom line. Second: people. Over 80% of those dying are in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. Businesses are losing workers and customers, and human networks that have taken decades to build. Third: imagination. Business is inventive, creative and fast-moving. It has the opportunity to use these strengths for the benefit of the wider community. It's time to pit business ideas (and some money, too) against the threat of AIDS. The course of the AIDS epidemic is not inevitable. The world's businesses have the skills and intensity to make a measurable difference, especially if they find public sector and NGO partners with whom they share a vision. A focused, coordinated, results-driven effort will hit AIDS hard. The HIV virus moves fast (and is mutating all the time). Business has the opportunity to make a difference. It must grasp this opportunity. And grasp if fast.

  4. Missing College Attendance Costs: Opportunity, Financing, and Risk. ACT Student Financial Aid Research Report Series 89-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Thomas G.

    The way in which costs enter the potential college student's calculation of the benefits of college attendance is examined. In particular, the paper considers how costs not considered in financial aid need analysis can increase college attendance costs and thereby decrease net benefits of college attendance for those who use financial aid. The…

  5. Gay youth and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Feldman, D A

    1989-01-01

    Gay male teenagers face considerable adversity during their "coming out" process due to the AIDS epidemic. They must decide whether to be tested for HIV-1 infection, whether to postpone sexual activity, how to select a partner, and which kinds of sexual practices to engage in. Gay youth often make such decisions based upon misinformation and faulty premises. This paper reviews what is known about gay youth and AIDS, and assesses their possible risk for HIV-1 infection. It is recommended that school and community-based health education programs be developed to teach gay and bisexual youth about safe sex. Moreover, research is needed into sociocultural variations among gay youth in order to develop appropriate and effective intervention strategies for AIDS risk reduction in this diverse population.

  6. Recapture training aid.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, James Edward

    2004-08-01

    The breacher's training aid described in this report was designed to simulate features of magazine and steel-plate doors. The training aid enables breachers to practice using their breaching tools on components that they may encounter when attempting to enter a facility. Two types of fixtures were designed and built: (1) a large fixture incorporates simulated hinges, hasps, lock shrouds, and pins, and (2) a small fixture simulates the cross section of magazine and steel-plate doors. The small fixture consists of steel plates on either side of a structural member, such as an I-beam. The report contains detailed descriptions and photographs of the training aids, assembly instructions, and drawings.

  7. A constitution for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  8. AIDS--legal issues.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M

    1988-01-01

    Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs.

  9. Benefits of Java

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Facts Fitness Fitness Find out more Categories Sports and Performance Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Man ...

  10. Ethical issues in HIV/AIDS research.

    PubMed

    Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2005-04-01

    Globally the HIV/AIDS epidemic has presented unique health challenges to populations, including a host of ethical and moral issues related to human life and dignity. The disease has most affected the vulnerable groups of people in the world often leading to stigma and discrimination. Currently the critical areas of concern include access to treatment and developing newer, more effective therapeutic and prevention methods while taking care of ethical values in health care and research. The ethical issues mainly revolve around the standard of care, informed consent across cultures, privacy and confidentiality, stigma and discrimination, protection of vulnerable groups, community consultation, ethical review mechanisms, international collaboration, epidemiological studies, clinical trials and also sociobehavioural studies on HIV/AIDS. In addition major concerns are raised regarding HIV/AIDS vaccine trials, microbicidal trials as well as prevention of parent-to-child transmission (PPTCT) trials especially in resource-poor countries. For international collaborative research appropriate standard of care, community benefits, and host country needs must be kept in mind. Improving our understanding of the various ethical and societal concerns related to HIV/AIDS treatment and research would help in development of appropriate policies for disease control and prevention.

  11. Effectiveness of a teleaudiology approach to hearing aid fitting.

    PubMed

    Blamey, Peter J; Blamey, Jeremy K; Saunders, Elaine

    2015-12-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an online speech perception test (SPT) for the measurement of hearing and hearing aid fitting in comparison with conventional methods. Phase 1 was performed with 88 people to evaluate the SPT for the detection of significant hearing loss. The SPT had high sensitivity (94%) and high selectivity (98%). In Phase 2, phonetic stimulus-response matrices derived from the SPT results for 408 people were used to calculate "Infograms™." At every frequency, there was a highly significant correlation (p < 0.001) between hearing thresholds derived from the Infogram and conventional audiograms. In Phase 3, initial hearing aid fittings were derived from conventional audiograms and Infograms for two groups of hearing impaired people. Unaided and aided SPTs were used to measure the perceptual benefit of the aids for the two groups. The mean increases between unaided and aided SPT scores were 19.6%, and 22.2% (n = 517, 484; t = 2.2; p < 0.05) for hearing aids fitted using conventional audiograms and Infograms respectively. The research provided evidence that the SPT is a highly effective tool for the detection and measurement of hearing loss and hearing aid fitting. Use of the SPT reduces the costs and increases the effectiveness of hearing aid fitting, thereby enabling a sustainable teleaudiology business model.

  12. Effectiveness of a teleaudiology approach to hearing aid fitting.

    PubMed

    Blamey, Peter J; Blamey, Jeremy K; Saunders, Elaine

    2015-12-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an online speech perception test (SPT) for the measurement of hearing and hearing aid fitting in comparison with conventional methods. Phase 1 was performed with 88 people to evaluate the SPT for the detection of significant hearing loss. The SPT had high sensitivity (94%) and high selectivity (98%). In Phase 2, phonetic stimulus-response matrices derived from the SPT results for 408 people were used to calculate "Infograms™." At every frequency, there was a highly significant correlation (p < 0.001) between hearing thresholds derived from the Infogram and conventional audiograms. In Phase 3, initial hearing aid fittings were derived from conventional audiograms and Infograms for two groups of hearing impaired people. Unaided and aided SPTs were used to measure the perceptual benefit of the aids for the two groups. The mean increases between unaided and aided SPT scores were 19.6%, and 22.2% (n = 517, 484; t = 2.2; p < 0.05) for hearing aids fitted using conventional audiograms and Infograms respectively. The research provided evidence that the SPT is a highly effective tool for the detection and measurement of hearing loss and hearing aid fitting. Use of the SPT reduces the costs and increases the effectiveness of hearing aid fitting, thereby enabling a sustainable teleaudiology business model. PMID:26556060

  13. A comparison of behind-the-ear high-fidelity linear hearing aids and two-channel compression aids, in the laboratory and in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Laurence, R F; Moore, B C; Glasberg, B R

    1983-02-01

    Eight patients suffering from sensorineural hearing losses with recruitment took part in a trial comparing their own hearing aids (or no aid if they did not normally wear one) with 'high-fidelity' linear aids and with aids incorporating two-channel syllabic compression. All aids were worn behind the ear. Speech intelligibility was measured both in quiet and in noise, and the patients were given questionnaires enquiring about the effectiveness of the aids in everyday situations. Both the intelligibility tests and the questionnaires indicated that the linear aids were substantially better than own/no aid, and the compressor aids were substantially better than the linear aids, allowing good speech discrimination over a wide range of sound levels. Six out of the eight patients derived significant benefit from being fitted with two aids rather than one. The use of directional microphones in the linear and compressor aids allowed a significant improvement for speech intelligibility in noise when the speech and noise were spatially separated.

  14. Hospital benefit segmentation.

    PubMed

    Finn, D W; Lamb, C W

    1986-12-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic to both health care practitioners and researchers. The authors explore the relative importance that health care consumers attach to various benefits available in a major metropolitan area hospital. The purposes of the study are to test, and provide data to illustrate, the efficacy of one approach to hospital benefit segmentation analysis.

  15. Good Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins with these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, How to Lead a Field Trip, Natural Resources in the City, Mysteries of Bird Migration, Rock Stories and How to Read Them, The Ground Water Table, The Terrarium, Some Adventures With Wild Plants Outdoors and Indoors, Plant Propagation in the…

  16. AIDS Researcher Gives Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, renowned immunologist James E.K. Hildreth, M.D., Ph.D., was compelled to start researching the virus that causes AIDS. He marveled at its enigma and was pressed into action by its ability to cut lives short and devastate communities. The disease set him on a course of medical inquiry that has included biomedical breakthroughs…

  17. More than First Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  18. Living with AIDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Because events move swiftly in the contemporary world, it is easy to forget that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a phenomenon of the 1980s. It is generally agreed that this is only the very beginning of a scientific investigation that will go on well into the 21st century. This issue attempts to provide some of the basic information…

  19. First Aid Instruction Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Mines (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the Department of the Interior, this teaching guide is for the instructors' use in teaching a first aid course. Six fundamental areas include: (1) Artificial Respiration, (2) Control of Bleeding, (3) Physical Shock, (4) Open Wounds, Closed Wounds, and Burns, (5) Fractures and Dislocations, and (6) Transportation. A complete…

  20. Kool-Aid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Christie L.

    1986-01-01

    Offers guidelines and suggests activities that can introduce middle school students to the process and principles of chromatography in an inexpensive and safe manner. Proposes that experiences with Kool-aid and food coloring chromatography can provide insights into how scientists think, work, and communicate. (ML)

  1. First Aid Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  2. Child Care Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the child care aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with child care center personnel, the course was prepared by teacher and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested, and…

  3. Coil Welding Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  4. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  5. Circulation Aide Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Alan O.

    This training manual provides instruction on shelving and other duties for student assistants in the learning resources center at the College of Dupage, located in Illinois. It is noted that prospective student circulation aides are required to read the manual and pass a written test on policies and procedures before they are allowed to shelve…

  6. AIDS: The Second Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heather G., Ed.; And Others

    This report reviews the course of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its current status, examining changing patterns of sexual behavior and intravenous drug use, the distribution of cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and the results of intervention efforts under way. It also discusses prevention…

  7. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  8. The War against AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, L. Thompson

    1987-01-01

    Efforts of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to combat AIDS are reported. Health implications of the viral disease are summarized, along with economic costs, research achievements, the importance of education, and appropriate and workable solutions. (LB)

  9. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  10. Instructional Aide Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Henry

    The Instructional Aide Program (Shoreline Community College, Seattle, Washington) is a flexible curriculum designed to prepare students to meet the paraprofessional manpower needs of several kinds of institution. It was prepared after consultation with representatives of the schools, the YMCA, and the country park system. Other agencies still to…

  11. First Aid: Chickenpox

    MedlinePlus

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Chickenpox ... Chickenpox (varicella) is an illness that has become much less common in the U.S. due to the chickenpox vaccine . The infection and rash will go away without ...

  12. Newspaper Lesson Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET), 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides photocopy-ready lesson aids on story ideas, interviewing, inverted pyramid writing style, newswriting, sports/scavenger hunt, finding feature material, identifying feature leads, feature lead selection, evaluating feature leads, compiling survey material, cutlines, headlines, paste-up rules, advertising, final semester project, newspaper…

  13. Street Youth & AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Joyce L.; And Others

    Interviews were conducted with 712 Canadian street youth (ages 15-20 years) to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Youth were interviewed in 10 cities across Canada on the basis of 5 street culture lifestyles: prostitution, drug…

  14. Sleep Aid Use During and Following Breast Cancer Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Tiffany A.; Berger, Ann M.; Dizona, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background Knowledge of sleep aid use is limited despite the high prevalence of insomnia among women before, during, and following breast cancer adjuvant chemotherapy treatments (CTX). This study's purpose was to 1) determine the frequency and characteristics of participants taking sleep aid(s); 2) identify the frequency and percent of sleep aid use by category (prescription sedative/hypnotics, prescription anti-depressants, prescription analgesics, prescription anti-emetics, over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, OTC cold/flu/sinus, OTC sleep, alcohol, and herbal supplements); and 3) compare sleep aid use by category in the experimental and control groups within a randomized-controlled clinical trial RCT). Methods Longitudinal, descriptive, secondary RCT data analysis of women (n=219) receiving out-patient CTX, and at 30, 60, and 90 days following the last CTX and 1 year following CTX1. Participants recorded daily sleep aid use on a Sleep Diary. Analyses included descriptives, chi-square, and RM-ANOVA. Results Approximately 20% of participants took at least one sleep aid before CTX1; usage decreased over time (12-18%); a 2nd sleep aid was used infrequently. Prescription sedative/hypnotics (46%) and OTC analgesics (24%) were used most frequently. OTC sleep aids were most commonly used as a 2nd aid. Prescription sedative/hypnotics [F(7,211)=4.26, p=0.00] and OTC analgesics [F(7,211)=2.38, p=0.023] use decreased significantly over time. Conclusions Results reflect the natural course of CTX, recovery, and healing. Comprehensive screening for sleep-wake disturbances and sleep aid use may lead to a better understanding of the risks and benefits of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions, and ultimately lead to selection of the safest and most effective treatment. PMID:20878849

  15. [Robot-aided training in rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Hachisuka, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    Recently, new training techniques that involve the use of robots have been used in the rehabilitation of patients with hemiplegia and paraplegia. Robots used for training the arm include the MIT-MANUS, Arm Trainer, mirror-image motion enabler (MIME) robot, and the assisted rehabilitation and measurement (ARM) Guide. Robots that are used for lower-limb training are the Rehabot, Gait Trainer, Lokomat, LOPES Exoskeleton Robot, and Gait Assist Robot. Robot-aided therapy has enabled the functional training of the arm and the lower limbs in an effective, easy, and comfortable manner. Therefore, with this type of therapy, the patients can repeatedly undergo sufficient and accurate training for a prolonged period. However, evidence of the benefits of robot-aided training has not yet been established.

  16. First lady meets AIDS patients in Thailand.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, during her tour of Thailand: 1) joined a panel discussion at New Life Center, a missionary shelter and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) hospice that houses and educates 151 girls from remote hill tribes who were rescued from being, or from becoming, brothel prostitutes or "restaurant hostesses"; 2) inspected a U.S. supported program in Chiang Rai province that provides scholarships, vocational training, and jobs to 1200 girls as income alternatives to their sale; and 3) toured a school that extends the education of girls beyond the mandatory age of 12, the age at which many are sold to Bangkok brothel middlemen. There are 500,000-700,000 prostitutes in Thailand; many die of AIDS. Girls can be sold for $1000 and send money home later; instead of poverty, the family has a new home, a motorcycle, and status. Mrs. Clinton emphasized the lifetime benefit available to a family when a girl is educated.

  17. Machine-aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD), a machine-aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI). This system automatically suggests a set of candidate terms from NASA's controlled vocabulary for any designated natural language text input. The system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, nonsyntactic analysis of input text and an extensive knowledge base that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The functions of the various NLD system components are described in detail, and production and quality benefits resulting from the implementation of machine-aided indexing at CASI are discussed.

  18. First lady meets AIDS patients in Thailand.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, during her tour of Thailand: 1) joined a panel discussion at New Life Center, a missionary shelter and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) hospice that houses and educates 151 girls from remote hill tribes who were rescued from being, or from becoming, brothel prostitutes or "restaurant hostesses"; 2) inspected a U.S. supported program in Chiang Rai province that provides scholarships, vocational training, and jobs to 1200 girls as income alternatives to their sale; and 3) toured a school that extends the education of girls beyond the mandatory age of 12, the age at which many are sold to Bangkok brothel middlemen. There are 500,000-700,000 prostitutes in Thailand; many die of AIDS. Girls can be sold for $1000 and send money home later; instead of poverty, the family has a new home, a motorcycle, and status. Mrs. Clinton emphasized the lifetime benefit available to a family when a girl is educated. PMID:12320489

  19. Screening for AIDS.

    PubMed

    1985-03-29

    Tests to detect serum antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses whole disrupted HTLV-III virus antigens, are now commercially available in the US. Recent surveys of groups at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have found that 22-65% of homosexual men, 87% of active intravenous drug users, 56-72% of hemophiliacs, and 35% of women who were sexual partners of men with AIDS have had postitive ELISA tests compared with fewer than 1% of those with no known risk factors. A positive ELISA test could be due to subclinical infection, immunity, or cross-reactivity with other viral antigens. Laboratory error can also produce false positive results. Thus, it is recommended that the ELISA test be repeated at least once on all seropositive specimens before the result is reported to the patient. The western blot test appears to be more specific and less sensitive than the ELISA. Studies of asymptomatic seropositive homosexual men followed for 2-5 years have found that over 50% remain asymptomatic, 5-19% develop full blown AIDS, and 25% develop signs suggestive of the AIDS-related complex. Asymptomatic patients with positive ELISA tests should be made aware of early signs and symptoms of AIDS. Other data suggest that seropositive patients have the HTLV-III virus in their blood, semen, and/or saliva and can transmit the infection. Precautions to prevent transmission, such as the use of condoms, should be taken by such patients. Physicians should be sensitive to the fear and anxiety that a positive ELISA test will create.

  20. AIDS: there's hope.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices.

  1. Patient Decision Aids: A Case for Certification at the National Level in the United States.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Urbashi; Brownlee, Shannon; Stacey, Dawn; Volk, Robert J; Williams, John W; Elwyn, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    Patient decision aids enable patients to be better informed about the potential benefits and harms of their healthcare options. Certification of patient decision aids at the national level in the United States is a critical step towards responsible governance-primarily as a quality measure that increases patients' safety, as mandated in the U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). Certification would provide a verification process to identify conflicts of interest that may otherwise bias the scientific evidence presented in decision aids. Certification also benefits clinicians who may otherwise face malpractice claims based on harm to patients caused by possible reliance on patient decision aids that are inaccurate, incomplete, or presented in a manner that biases the patient's decision. Existing work by the International Patient Decision Aid Standards Collaboration could guide the establishment of a certification process within the U.S. This article argues for national certification of patient decision aids and discusses how that may be achieved.

  2. [Clinical comparison of a digital with an analog hearing aid].

    PubMed

    Meister, H; Klüser, H; Wolf, A; Walger, M; von Wedel, H

    2000-04-01

    The benefit of innovative hearing aid technology can be evaluated in clinical trials. The present study describes the comparison of a new digital hearing aid with an analogue device serving as a reference. The tests were carried out with 15 experienced hearing aid wearers. To prevent the influence of different fitting algorithms such as prescriptive or loudness-based the digital devices were not renewed fitted but their level- and frequency-depending gain was adjusted to that of the reference. Different tests concerning loudness perception (category loudness scaling) speech discrimination in noise (the Göttingen sentence test) and self-assessment of the benefit by questionnaires were performed. All tests yielded slightly better results for the digital hearing aid. The speech audiometric evaluation showed somewhat better discrimination for the test-device. The questionnaires yielded a marked preference for the digital device. Because the study was not blinded influences due to the knowledge of the subjects of testing a new technology generally can occur. On the other hand, the question arises whether present audiometric tests sufficiently consider signal processing of modern hearing systems. Furthermore, one has to take into account that only a few of the features of digital technology such as noise-reduction and feedback-cancellation were considered in this study to allow for a sensible comparison. Because of the large number of possibilities offered by digital technology additional benefit by the hearing aid can be expected. PMID:10810675

  3. Expanding the partnership. The private sector's role in HIV / AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Lamptey, P

    1996-07-01

    The public sector supports most HIV/AIDS prevention and care activities in developing countries, with significant funding provided by the US Agency for International Development, the Overseas Development Authority, the European Community, and international banking institutions such as the World Bank. Local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and international private voluntary organizations (PVOs) implement many of the grassroots prevention and care efforts in developing countries, but often require support from donor agencies. While the private commercial sector has played a minor role in supporting HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts, a number of local and multinational companies are beginning to recognize the importance of protecting their workers from HIV infection. These companies are motivated by a sense of moral obligation and/or view HIV/AIDS prevention as a cost-effective investment. Mainly affecting the most economically productive age groups, the HIV/AIDS epidemic will have a significant impact upon private industry. Workplace-based prevention programs and policies, private sector resources for HIV/AIDS prevention and care, how HIV/AIDS programs can benefit from the private sector's experience in commercial service delivery, research and development, and corporate direct cash and in-kind contributions to government and NGO HIV/AIDS prevention activities are discussed. The AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's Businesses Managing AIDS Project helps owners and managers understand the potential impact of HIV/AIDS upon their businesses and the benefits of HIV/AIDS prevention. PMID:12347592

  4. HIV/AIDS and Pediatric AIDS. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Jo Anne T.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and pediatric AIDS and applies this information to children in school settings. Questions and answers address the following topics: what the AIDS disease and HIV infection are; estimates…

  5. [Evaluation of hearing aid rehabilitation using the Freiburg Monosyllabic Test].

    PubMed

    Hoppe, U

    2016-08-01

    The benefit of hearing aids is not always directly subjectively perceivable. Therefore, objective and quantifiable speech audiometric measurements are required. Beside acoustic gain measurements and structured interviews, speech audiometry in quiet and in noise is one of the three pillars of hearing aid evaluation.The Freiburg monosyllabic test has been used for decades for hearing aid prescription and evaluation in German speaking countries. Relative and absolute targets can be individually defined for the rehabilitation of speech perception by hearing aids as assessed by the Freiburg monosyllabic test in quiet and at conversational levels.The general applicability of speech audiometric measurements in noise is limited. Alternative ("modern") methods and the definitions of noise situations relevant to everyday life have been discussed for years. However, the introduction of these methods into everyday use has proven difficult. On one hand, there is comparatively little practical experience; on the other, it has not yet been demonstrated what additional benefits these more complicated measurements might have for standard hearing aid evaluations and hearing aid users.

  6. Financial Aid for Native Americans, 1997-99. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlachter, Gail Ann; Weber, R. David

    This directory contains information on programs open primarily or exclusively to Native Americans including scholarships, fellowships, loans, grants, awards, internships, state sources of educational benefits, and general financial aid directories for minorities. The directory is divided into six sections. Within sections, each entry lists program…

  7. Financial Aid Can Prepare Schools for a Full Takeoff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, James P.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that by offering financial aid to more students, Catholic schools can add programs and attract more tuition-paying students. Asserts that, just as an airline carefully monitors the price of each seat and the negative impact of each empty seat, Catholic schools can benefit from doing the same by setting optimal enrollment goals and offering…

  8. Financial Aid for Asian Americans, 1997-99. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlachter, Gail Ann; Weber, R. David

    This directory contains information on programs open primarily or exclusively to Asian Americans including scholarships, fellowships, loans, grants, awards, internships, state sources of educational benefits, and general financial aid directories for minorities. The directory is divided into six sections. Within sections, each entry lists program…

  9. Women and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... action on HIV/AIDS National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day – March 10 Programs Share your story Anonymous from Illinois says... Although I am HIV negative, I would like to share my story. ...

  10. Different Styles of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... aids available and offer some cosmetic and listening advantages. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image ... in place. These aids offer cosmetic and listening advantages and are used typically for adults. Photo courtesy ...

  11. Teaching Business Statistics in a Computer Lab: Benefit or Distraction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Linda R.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching in a classroom configured with computers has been heralded as an aid to learning. Students receive the benefits of working with large data sets and real-world problems. However, with the advent of network and wireless connections, students can now use the computer for alternating tasks, such as emailing, web browsing, and social…

  12. Streamline and Improve the Targeting of Education Tax Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This one-page document presents The Institute for College Access & Success' (TICAS') recommendations for ways to improve the targeting of higher education tax benefits. The TICAS white paper, "Aligning the Means and the Ends: How to Improve Federal Student Aid and Increase College Access and Success," recommends almost entirely…

  13. Types of Workers' Education Benefits. Topic Paper No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory B.

    Negotiated educational benefits represent the larger part of union involvement in membership education and training. In order of program incidence within contracts, the six major forms are (1) apprenticeship programs, (2) on-the-job training plans, (3) tuition aid plans, (4) educational leave and leave of absence plans, (5) education and training…

  14. Crossing borders: HIV / AIDS and migrant communities.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The annual National Council for International Health Private Volunteer Organization (PVO)/AIDS workshop took place June 30, 1994, in Arlington, Virginia. About 90 representatives of PVOs, domestic and international nongovernmental organizations (NGO), universities, and research organizations were in attendance. Speakers presented both domestic and international perspectives upon the relationship between migration trends and HIV transmission. The keynote address spelled out the UN High Commission on Refugees' policy on HIV/AIDS: refugees are not a risk group per se, and they should benefit from the same control measures as the general host population; there will be no mandatory HIV screening in any population; and the rights of HIV-positive refugees against being deported and for asylum and eventual repatriation need to be protected. The following issues were presented at the workshop: an overview of HIV/AIDS and migration issues; STD/HIV control and prevention; HIV/AIDS among highly mobile populations along the Thailand/Myanmar border; migration trends in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; migrant farmworkers working in the US; changes in sexual practices among Mexican migrants to the US and their impact on the risk of HIV transmission; the importance of understanding the epidemiology, health-care seeking behaviors, and health beliefs of immigrants; the ability of PVOs and NGOs to provide effective HIV/AIDS prevention for refugees and migrants; the impact of political instability and civil strife on population movements and the prevalence of high-risk behaviors; and the important considerations needed for work with special target populations such as adolescents, women, mobile seasonal migrants, and urban residents.

  15. Experiential Service-Based Learning: An Integrated HIV/AIDS Education Model for College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Judith R.; Schwartz, Lisa B.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a approach to teaching the sociology of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) by combining coursework with weekly volunteer work in an AIDS agency. Concludes with a discussion of the benefits of experiential learning and five guidelines for establishing similar community service programs. (CFR)

  16. Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates

    SciTech Connect

    Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

    2005-06-01

    Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Direct and Unrestricted State Financial Aid and Private Higher Education in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John F.; Baynes, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    Traces state financial aid to private colleges in New York State, culminating in McGeorge Bundy's subsidy program beginning in 1967. Questions whether students have actually benefited from Bundy Aid. A statistical analysis shows that private college tuition levels are determined more by academic quality than by costs, religious affiliation, or…

  18. Funding Education Beyond High School: The Guide to Federal Student Aid 2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Federal Student Aid's core mission is to ensure that all eligible Americans benefit from federal financial assistance--grants, loans and work-study programs--for education beyond high school. The programs administered comprise the nation's largest source of student aid. Every year, the U.S. Department of Education provides more than $83 billion in…

  19. Effects of a Wearable, Tactile Aid on Language Comprehension of Prelingual Profoundly Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele

    Factors influencing the use of nonacoustic aids (such as visual displays and tactile devices) with the hearing impaired are reviewed. The benefits of tactile devices in improving speech reading/lipreading and speech are pointed out. Tactile aids which provide information on rhythm, rate, intensity, and duration of speech increase lipreading and…

  20. Benefits of Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Making the decision to breastfeed Secrets to breastfeeding success The benefits ...

  1. Country living with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kletecka, C

    1998-12-01

    The number of people with HIV in rural areas is small, but it is growing. In rural areas, AIDS organizations must deal with a fragmented client base that is spread out over a large geographic area. The logistics and costs of maintaining these services are higher per person than in urban areas. A description of what it is like to live with HIV in rural Vermont is provided. Although most people in rural Vermont seem to accept the concept of AIDS, few have known someone with the disease. Specialized medical care is difficult to obtain because only one specialty clinic and three part-time sites exist in the state of Vermont. Many who require more complex care, with better treatment options, go out of state to receive it.

  2. Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Kenneth H.

    1991-01-01

    Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…

  3. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  4. Manual for Student Financial Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Douglas S.

    This manual was designed to provide structural guidelines for financial aid program operations and administration at the Community College of Baltimore. Topics discussed include: the philosophy of student aid at an open door college; the objectives of the student financial aid office; staff development and administrative improvement; organization,…

  5. How Do People Get AIDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  6. Living with AIDS: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…

  7. College Costs and Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    The growing campus role in providing student financial aid is discussed based on data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program, Peterson's Guide, and other sources. The campus contribution to student aid programs has grown far more than recent tuition increases. A significant portion of the financial aid burden has passed from federal…

  8. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  9. Directional Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing-aid device indicates visually whether sound is coming from left, right, back, or front. Device intended to assist individuals who are deaf in at least one ear and unable to discern naturally directions to sources of sound. Device promotes safety in street traffic, on loading docks, and in presence of sirens, alarms, and other warning sounds. Quadraphonic version of device built into pair of eyeglasses and binaural version built into visor.

  10. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes. PMID:1867668

  11. Women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Seghal, P N

    1991-04-01

    In this article, Dr. P.N. Sehgal, former director of the National Institute of Communicable Diseases in Delhi, explains the steps that women need to take to protect themselves against AIDS and discusses some issues facing women who have already contracted the disease. Because of women's lack of status in the family and society, it is harder for them to ensure their safety. Women based at home often lack information on AIDS, and those women who are informed sometimes depend on their male partner for financial support, which means that they are forced to engage in unsafe sexual practices. Safer sexual practices can reduce the risk for women. Though varying in degree of safety, some safer practices include: monogamous relationships between uninfected partners; the use of condoms for all types of sexual intercourse; non-penetrative sex practices (hugging, kissing, masturbating); reducing the number of sexual partners; avoiding sex when either of the partners has open sores or any STD. Pregnant women should also receive information concerning AIDS, including: a baby born from an HIV-infected mother has a 20-40% of being infected; the risk of transmission is higher when the mother already shows signs of AIDS; and an infected baby may die within the first few years of life. the HIV transmission may occur prepartum or during birth itself, but the risk of transmission from breastfeeding is extremely low. Dr. Sehgal stresses the need for privacy and confidentiality when dealing with carriers of the disease or when carrying out HIV testing. Above all, the rights of HIV-infected people must be protected.

  12. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes.

  13. Redirecting British foreign aid.

    PubMed

    Dean, M

    1994-01-01

    Britain has longed followed a disease-control strategy for providing aid in the health sector to developing, low-income countries. Given, however, the high level of waste upon tertiary care and specialized medicine in current health programs of low-income countries as documented by the World Bank; the poor performance of existing general government hospitals and clinics; and the poor image of Third World health systems in the eyes of Western officials and government ministers, the chief health advisor of the Overseas Development Administration has called for a drastic redirection of policy toward development aid. Specifically, a shift away from a specific-disease control approach toward an overall, sweeping reform of the health sector in developing countries is urged. The level of waste needs to be reduced and more attention given to the poor. Unless such changes result, government ministers will grow increasingly reluctant to provide tangible aid to the health sectors of countries in need. The availability of such funds invested in effective, well-managed health programs will grow more critical to health in the Third World as populations shift away from communicable disease morbidity and mortality toward illnesses which are of a more noncommunicable nature such as stroke and cancer.

  14. AIDS in women: epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, A

    1989-09-01

    Several facts concerning the distribution of AIDS in U.S. female populations are clear. This disease has made significant inroads, in a quantitative sense, into the female segment of our society as documented by AIDS surveillance data, information on pregnant women and parturients, and by screening data from the military. The impact on women in the reproductive years, on the reproductive health of these women, and on the reproductive outcome of their pregnancies is of substantial concern. Monitoring epidemiologic trends in certain groups will require clever and creative strategies like those of Hoff and colleagues. Additional data may be derived from the CDC's Family of Surveys that will examine HIV prevalence in five groups (in addition to the newborn infant survey described above): intravenous drug users, patients admitted to hospitals, sexually transmitted disease clinic patients, women's health and reproductive health clinics, and tuberculosis clinics. It is hoped that the data obtained from these studies, as well as data gathered on college students and Job Corps applicants, will contribute additional information on HIV infection in women. Monitoring the progress of the AIDS epidemic in women will be difficult. Even more difficult will be the effort to respond to the epidemic in the women it most frequently affects: the poor, minority, disenfranchised women who may be involved in illegal activities (drug use, prostitution, illegal immigration) who are not well networked into the medical and social services of our society. PMID:2776374

  15. Visual aids improve diagnostic inferences and metacognitive judgment calibration

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T.; Hoffrage, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Visual aids can improve comprehension of risks associated with medical treatments, screenings, and lifestyles. Do visual aids also help decision makers accurately assess their risk comprehension? That is, do visual aids help them become well calibrated? To address these questions, we investigated the benefits of visual aids displaying numerical information and measured accuracy of self-assessment of diagnostic inferences (i.e., metacognitive judgment calibration) controlling for individual differences in numeracy. Participants included 108 patients who made diagnostic inferences about three medical tests on the basis of information about the sensitivity and false-positive rate of the tests and disease prevalence. Half of the patients received the information in numbers without a visual aid, while the other half received numbers along with a grid representing the numerical information. In the numerical condition, many patients–especially those with low numeracy–misinterpreted the predictive value of the tests and profoundly overestimated the accuracy of their inferences. Metacognitive judgment calibration mediated the relationship between numeracy and accuracy of diagnostic inferences. In contrast, in the visual aid condition, patients at all levels of numeracy showed high-levels of inferential accuracy and metacognitive judgment calibration. Results indicate that accurate metacognitive assessment may explain the beneficial effects of visual aids and numeracy–a result that accords with theory suggesting that metacognition is an essential part of risk literacy. We conclude that well-designed risk communications can inform patients about healthrelevant numerical information while helping them assess the quality of their own risk comprehension. PMID:26236247

  16. Managing AIDS in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M D; Myers, J E

    1993-01-01

    Because of the AIDS epidemic and the protections afforded individuals with AIDS under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), employers are well advised to ensure compliance under applicable law to reduce exposure to employee claims of discrimination and to efficiently manage workplace issues associated with AIDS. Employers should implement AIDS policies and programs designed to educate their workforce to reduce the spread of AIDS and to clear up any misunderstandings about the disease which could wreak havoc in the workplace. This article summarizes suggested action steps for employers and outside resources to consult for guidance.

  17. Financial Aid Administrators' Views on Simplifying Financial Aid: NASFAA's 2008 Financial Aid Simplification Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade of simplification efforts, students and families are often still baffled by the student aid process and cringe at the sight of financial aid application forms. Contrary to its purpose of helping students to access college, the student aid application process causes families frustration and confusion that has been cited as an…

  18. Phase II Trial of Imatinib in AIDS-Associated Kaposi's Sarcoma: AIDS Malignancy Consortium Protocol 042

    PubMed Central

    Koon, Henry B.; Krown, Susan E.; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Honda, Kord; Rapisuwon, Suthee; Wang, Zhenghe; Aboulafia, David; Reid, Erin G.; Rudek, Michelle A.; Dezube, Bruce J.; Noy, Ariela

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a disease of multifocal vascular proliferation that requires infection with KS herpes virus (KSHV/HHV-8). Activation of the c-kit and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors by autocrine/paracrine mechanisms follows endothelial cell KSHV infection. In a pilot study, imatinib, a c-kit/PDGF-receptor inhibitor, induced partial regression of AIDS-associated KS (AIDS-KS) in five of 10 patients. Patients and Methods This multicenter phase II study was designed to estimate the response rate to imatinib in AIDS-KS. Secondary objectives included investigation of predictors of response and imatinib pharmacokinetics in patients on antiretrovirals. Patients received imatinib 400 mg/day by mouth for up to 12 months with dose escalation up to 600 mg/day at 3 months if their disease was stable. Results Thirty patients were treated at 12 AIDS Malignancy Consortium sites. Ten patients (33.3%) achieved partial response, six (20%) had stable disease, and seven (23.3%) exhibited KS progression. Nine patients completed 52 weeks of imatinib therapy. The median treatment duration was 22.5 weeks. Only five patients (16.7%) discontinued therapy owing to adverse events. Antiretroviral regimens did not significantly alter imatinib metabolism. Activating mutations in PDGF-R and c-kit were not found at baseline or at disease progression. We found no correlation with response with changes in any of the candidate cytokines. Conclusion Imatinib has activity in AIDS-KS. Pharmacokinetic interactions with antiretroviral drugs did not correlate with toxicity. Thirty percent of patients showed long-term clinical benefit and remained on imatinib for the entire year. These results suggest imatinib is well tolerated and may be an alternative therapy for some patients with AIDS-KS. PMID:24378417

  19. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  20. Emergency laparotomy in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Davidson, T; Allen-Mersh, T G; Miles, A J; Gazzard, B; Wastell, C; Vipond, M; Stotter, A; Miller, R F; Fieldman, N R; Slack, W W

    1991-08-01

    The presentation, operative management and final diagnosis were reviewed in 28 patients with AIDS (27 men and one woman) who underwent emergency laparotomy. On clinical and radiological examination, six patients showed features of toxic megacolon, five patients had small bowel obstruction, six patients had localized peritonitis and three had perforated viscus with generalized peritonitis. The most common disease processes were acute colitis in seven patients (associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in six), intra-abdominal lymphoma in five patients, acute appendicitis in five patients (associated with CMV infection in two), and atypical mycobacterial (MAI) infection in four patients. Two perioperative deaths occurred; one in a patient with acute pancreatitis and a second with generalized peritonitis. Later deaths were due to progression of AIDS, and patient survival at 1 month, 3 months and 6 months was 89 per cent, 64 per cent and 48 per cent, respectively. Lower operative mortality than in previously reported series may be due to earlier intervention in CMV toxic megacolon. Surgery, however, conferred less benefit in patients with acute abdominal pain from MAI infection or lymphoma. With careful patient selection, emergency laparotomy may achieve worthwhile palliation in patients with AIDS. PMID:1655153

  1. HIV / AIDS and the retail sector.

    PubMed

    Michael, K

    1999-01-01

    Employing approximately 1.5 million employees and comprised of 80,000 employers, the retail and wholesale sector accounted for 16.1% of South Africa's gross domestic product in 1996. HIV/AIDS threatens the retail sector, but it is unclear whether the pandemic threatens equally every sub-sector of the industry. The 4 main sub-sectors are fast-moving consumer goods; clothing, footwear, and textiles; vehicles; and furniture and major appliances. The nature of retail infrastructure and competitive and economic trends are described. Over the next decade, AIDS may reduce the size of consumer markets through increased mortality, and will certainly slow growth in spending. The pandemic may also divert spending away from retail merchandise to health care, and threaten businesses which extend credit and offer death benefits and funeral policies to clients. AIDS morbidity and mortality could also disrupt supply chains, especially for retailers who buy their products locally. The vulnerability of retail activities is discussed, with reference to the Living Standards Measure (LSM) developed by the South African Advertising Research Foundation.

  2. AIDS and family planning.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training. PMID:12159262

  3. Study Guide for First Aid Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thygerson, Alton L.

    This study guide is designed to accompany the American National Red Cross texts ADVANCED FIRST AID AND EMERGENCY CARE and STANDARD FIRST AID AND PERSONAL SAFETY. Part one serves as an introduction to first aid. The legal aspects of first aid are discussed along with a list of suggested first aid kit contents, and information on first aid books is…

  4. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  5. HIV/AIDS eradication

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Matthew D.; Zack, Jerome A.

    2013-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy can inhibit HIV replication in patients and prevent progression to AIDS. However, it is not curative. Here we provide an overview of what antiretroviral drugs do and how the virus persists during therapy in rare reservoirs, such as latently infected CD4+ T cells. We also outline several innovative methods that are currently under development to eradicate HIV from infected individuals. These strategies include gene therapy approaches intended to create an HIV-resistant immune system, and activation/elimination approaches directed towards flushing out latent virus. This latter approach could involve the use of novel chemically synthesized analogs of natural activating agents. PMID:23735743

  6. Revitalizing AIDS activism.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M

    1998-12-01

    Maxine Wolf, an activist with ACT UP New York, suggests ways to motivate others in her organization and revitalize AIDS activism. Reach out to the gay and lesbian community, get them involved in grassroots efforts, and gain their input. Participate in discussions on larger issues such as research, funding, and treatment options. Wolf also suggests becoming educated, acting in a more public way, and finding more creative ways to act. Lastly, strive for goals with high expectations that can effect change instead of merely gathering and dispensing information.

  7. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  8. Refocusing disaster aid.

    PubMed

    Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg

    2005-08-12

    With new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing the risks of natural disasters, the donor community is now in a position to help the poor cope with the economic repercussions of disasters by assisting before they happen. Such assistance is possible with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risks to the global financial markets. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs not only would leverage limited disaster-aid budgets but also would free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of postdisaster assistance. Both donors and recipients stand to gain, especially because the instruments can be closely coupled with preventive measures. PMID:16099976

  9. Should Aid Reward Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Onishi, Junko; Wong, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment in 3,000 villages that tested whether incentives improve aid efficacy. Villages received block grants for maternal and child health and education that incorporated relative performance incentives. Subdistricts were randomized into incentives, an otherwise identical program without incentives, or control. Incentives initially improved preventative health indicators, particularly in underdeveloped areas, and spending efficiency increased. While school enrollments improved overall, incentives had no differential impact on education, and incentive health effects diminished over time. Reductions in neonatal mortality in non-incentivized areas did not persist with incentives. We find no systematic scoring manipulation nor funding reallocation toward richer areas. PMID:25485039

  10. Benefits of infant massage.

    PubMed

    Day, Jane

    2014-05-01

    After spending three months as a clinical midwifery tutor at a remote hospital in Zambia, where I helped to train student midwives and other students, my interest in infant massage was ignited, having witnessed the benefits of massage to both mother and baby. Once back in the UK, I trained and qualified as a massage instructor with an international infant massage training organisation, which has led me to work extensively with parents and babies, offering one-to-one and group courses. It has been a privilege to be able to teach parents the valuable skill of infant massage, and consequently pass on the benefits both physiological and psychosocial. PMID:24873112

  11. [Women and AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Coll Seck, A M

    1990-10-01

    The theme of "World Aids Day" for 1990 was "Women and AIDS." This theme was chosen because of the devastating effects AIDS has on women. The World Health Organization's (WHO) latest figures state that women represent 1/3 of the estimated 6 million people infected with AIDS worldwide. The majority of these women are in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the Caribbean. The outcomes of a recent study done in a Central African country showed that women were 4 times more susceptible to getting AIDS than men, in spite of the fact that there are more men than women in this area of SSA. The reasons that women are so vulnerable are multiple: illiteracy, lack of access to information, prejudices, sexual taboos, and an economic dependency which have all led women towards prostitution and the growing incidence of hetero sexual transmission of AIDS in SSA. Prostitutes are 88% seropositive in Kigali; 16% in Dakar and 90% in Nairobi. 10% of all AIDS cases in SSA are due to transfusions where the blood banks are not monitored because women are loosing large quantities of blood through abortions, hemorrhages, deliveries and chronic anemia due to continuous pregnancies that are badly spaced. Additional problems for women are transmitting AIDS to their babies -- 25-30% of pediatric AIDS are transmitted from mother to child through "vertical transmission (VT)." This VT is a serious problem in East Africa where a survey in Uganda showed that 24% of pregnant women were infected with AIDS. The WHO estimated that between 1980-1987, 80,000 children were infected with AIDS of which 80% died before age 5. AIDS in SSA is taking its toll on women who face environmental, socio-cultural, political and economic discrimination. Such a loss to AIDS to incalculable to society.

  12. Epigenetic regulation of HIV, AIDS, and AIDS-related malignancies.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Although epigenetics is not a new field, its implications for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) research have not been explored fully. To develop therapeutic and preventive approaches against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of interaction between the virus and the host, involvement of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, characterization of viral reservoirs, and factors influencing the latency of the virus. Both methylation of viral genes and histone modifications contribute to initiating and maintaining latency and, depending on the context, triggering viral gene repression or expression. This chapter discusses progress made at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), recommendations from the International AIDS Society Scientific Working Group on HIV Cure, and underlying epigenetic regulation. A number of epigenetic inhibitors have shown potential in treating AIDS-related malignancies. Epigenetic drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and their implications for the eradication of HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related malignancies also are discussed.Past and current progress in developing treatments and understanding the molecular mechanisms of AIDS and HIV infection has greatly improved patient survival. However, increased survival has been coupled with the development of cancer at higher rates than those observed among the HIV/AIDS-negative population. During the early days of the AIDS epidemic, the most frequent AIDS-defining malignancies were Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Now, with increased survival as the result of widespread use in the developed world of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), non-AIDS defining cancers (i.e., anal, skin, and lung cancers, and Hodgkin disease) are on the increase in HIV-infected populations. The current status of AIDS-related malignancies also is discussed.

  13. Fuel dispenser aid

    SciTech Connect

    Bobst, J.M.

    1993-08-31

    A fuel dispenser aid is described for holding a trigger-like valve operating lever relative to a pistol grip-like handle portion of a valving device for dispensing gasoline or other fuels through a nozzle of the valving device, said fuel dispenser aid comprising: a mounting member formed of a material having a resilient, shape retaining character and configured for mounting over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device, a flexible strap secured at a first end thereof to the mounting member and extending freely therefrom such that when the mounting member is mounted over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device the free portion of the strap can he looped under the trigger-like valve operating lever and up to the mounting member, and fastening means for releasably and adjustably fastening the free portion of the strap to the mounting member after the free portion of the strap has been looped under the valve operating lever and up to the mounting member whereby the valve operating lever can be held in a desired set position relative to the handle portion of the valving device for dispensing fuel without requiring that the operating lever of the valving device continuously be manually held in said set position.

  14. Teacher Retirement Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert; Podgursky, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The ongoing global financial crisis is forcing many employers, from General Motors to local general stores, to take a hard look at the costs of the compensation packages they offer employees. For public school systems, this will entail a consideration of fringe benefit costs, which in recent years have become an increasingly important component of…

  15. The Benefits of Latin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the…

  16. Benefits of Conducting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Frances E.

    2001-01-01

    Metaphors for researchers, such as a crusader; a traveler; an explorer; a miner; an astronaut; a biblical Daniel; a Samurai; and an archaeologist are discussed. Benefits of conducting research are enumerated, including building the knowledge base for art therapy; increasing professional opportunities; improving client care; and advancing the…

  17. More Benefits of Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Malcolm

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that measured the benefits of an automated catalog and automated circulation system from the library user's point of view in terms of the value of time saved. Topics discussed include patterns of use, access time, availability of information, search behaviors, and the effectiveness of the measures used. (seven references)…

  18. Space for Mankind's Benefit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Puttkamer, Jesco, Ed.; McCullough, Thomas J., Ed.

    Presented are the proceedings of the first international Congress on "Space for Mankind's Benefit" organized by the Huntsville Association of Technical Societies and held November 15-19, 1971, at Huntsville, Alabama. Following introductory statements, a total of 45 articles read in 10 sessions are incorporated. The session headings are: Man in…

  19. Costs and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Two models of cost benefit analysis are illustrated and the application of these models to assessing the economic scope of space applications programs was discussed. Four major areas cited as improvable through space derived information - food supply and distribution, energy sources, mineral reserves, and communication and navigation were - discussed. Specific illustrations are given for agriculture and maritime traffic.

  20. Inclusion: Who Really Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson-Younger, Dylinda

    2009-01-01

    Since the reauthorization of 2003, schools across the nation are mandated to educate students within the regular educational environment. What impact does this merger have on students and teachers? Who really benefits from this merger of regular education and special education? This article discusses the attitudes of general education teachers…

  1. A bone-anchored hearing aid for patients with pure sensorineural hearing impairment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stenfelt, S; Håkansson, B; Jönsson, R; Granström, G

    2000-01-01

    This pilot study assesses the potential benefits of an optimized bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) for patients with a mild to moderate pure sensorineural high frequency hearing impairment. The evaluation was conducted with eight first-time hearing aid users by means of psycho-acoustic sound field measurements and a questionnaire on subjective experience; all of the patients benefited from the BAHA. On average, the eight patients showed improvement in PTA threshold of 3.4 dB and in speech intelligibility in noise of 14%. Seven of the subjects, also fitted with present standard air conduction hearing aids (ACHA) found the ACHA thresholds to be improved more than the BAHA ones. In speech tests, the ACHA was only slightly better; these patients chose between their different hearing aids according to the sound environment. Although the BAHA was preferred for wearing and sound comfort, it cannot be used as the sole aid for patients with pure sensorineural impairment.

  2. Frequency-Shift Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed hearing aid maps spectrum of speech into band of lower frequencies at which ear remains sensitive. By redirecting normal speech frequencies into frequency band from 100 to 1,500 Hz, hearing aid allows people to understand normal conversation, including telephone calls. Principle operation of hearing aid adapted to other uses such as, clearing up noisy telephone or radio communication. In addition, loud-speakers more easily understood in presence of high background noise.

  3. Survey of House Staff Benefits at Forty-Four Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutzwiller, Roberta; Shawhan, Gerald L.

    As an aid in evaluating the present and future benefits given house staff personnel (residents, interns, and clinical fellows) at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center, the Department of Institutional Studies sent out questionnaires concerning benefits extended to house staff personnel to the 46 medical schools using university owned or…

  4. Clinical trials with a programmable hearing aid set for various listening environments.

    PubMed

    Ringdahl, A; Eriksson-Mangold, M; Israelsson, B; Lindkvist, A; Mangold, S

    1990-08-01

    A conventional hearing aid has a frequency response that does not change much at normal listening levels. It is therefore unlikely that optimal speech intelligibility and optimal listening comfort can be obtained simultaneously, or in different listening environments. With a programmable hearing aid with multiple memories the listener can choose between a range of sound pictures, which increases the chance of finding a suitable frequency curve for each listening situation. The programmable hearing aid with eight separate settings stored in eight memories, was compared with personal hearing aids fitted according to the recommendations of the National Acoustic Laboratories (NAL) by 22 experienced hearing aid users. One memory of the programmable hearing aid was initially fitted according to the NAL recommendation. The other memories were programmed to give variations around that recommendation. One aim was to investigate whether the hearing-impaired user took advantage of different frequency responses to achieve listening improvements in acoustically different environments. Another aim was to evaluate the ergonomic and acoustical features of the programmable hearing aid, compared with other well fitted hearing aids. The evaluations were based on comparisons of the test hearing aid to the personal aid for each subject, looking at speech tests, direct paired comparison judgements, sound quality judgements and interviews. A majority of the subjects experienced substantial benefit from being able to use different frequency response curves in different environments. With the test hearing aid the subjects performed better in speech discrimination tests in noise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1984 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: questions on general benefits, such as insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave policy;…

  6. University Benefits Survey: Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Information on all benefits, excluding pensions, provided by 16 Ontario universities is presented. The following general questions concerning benefits are covered: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefit programs to employees, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave…

  7. [Case report: swallowed hearing aid].

    PubMed

    Walther, E K

    1995-11-01

    An 86-year-old man presented ambulatory with acute dysphagia. Radiologic examination and endoscopy revealed a swallowed postauricular hearing aid. The earmold of the hearing aid became visible in the hypopharynx after mucus and saliva were removed. It could be extracted without effort once the connecting tube was disconnected from the coupling device lodged in the upper esophageal sphincter. The hearing aid itself was impacted in the proximal esophagus and was extracted without any problems. The postoperative phase was uneventful with normal swallowing and discharge. Technical inspection revealed that the hearing aid no longer worked. Diffusion of toxic substances (zinc, mercury) from the impacted batteries is not to be expected.

  8. Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M J; Waters, W E

    1987-04-01

    In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed. PMID:3105789

  9. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  10. Learning to aid learning.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development.

  11. Neurologic presentations of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Singer, Elyse J; Valdes-Sueiras, Miguel; Commins, Deborah; Levine, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of AIDS, has infected an estimated 33 million individuals worldwide. HIV is associated with immunodeficiency, neoplasia, and neurologic disease. The continuing evolution of the HIV epidemic has spurred an intense interest in a hitherto neglected area of medicine, neuroinfectious diseases and their consequences. This work has broad applications for the study of central nervous system (CNS) tumors, dementias, neuropathies, and CNS disease in other immunosuppressed individuals. HIV is neuroinvasive (can enter the CNS), neurotrophic (can live in neural tissues), and neurovirulent (causes disease of the nervous system). This article reviews the HIV-associated neurologic syndromes, which can be classified as primary HIV neurologic disease (in which HIV is both necessary and sufficient to cause the illness), secondary or opportunistic neurologic disease (in which HIV interacts with other pathogens, resulting in opportunistic infections and tumors), and treatment-related neurologic disease (such as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome). PMID:19932385

  12. Learning to aid learning.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development. PMID:26975128

  13. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  14. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants.

  15. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants. PMID:27348226

  16. AIDS and sex tourism.

    PubMed

    Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior.

  17. AIDS and sex tourism.

    PubMed

    Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior. PMID

  18. [AIDS information in Zimbabwe].

    PubMed

    Meyer, L

    1993-11-20

    The difficulties of health education concerning AIDs prevention in Zimbabwe include communicating simple information about complicated processes, resistance to the information because of status or tradition, and lack of experience with translating material that was produced in the West. The beliefs in ghosts and witch doctors are still part of the tradition in Zimbabwe, providing cultural diversity and a sense of identification. Traditional medicine is characterized by Westerners as often irrational behavior that is deleterious to one's health. However, even in the allegedly educated part of the world compliance is often lacking and alternative treatment forms are actively pursued in tandem with formal medicine. When there is a short time period between harmful behavior and infection, most people realize that there is a causative connection. On the other hand, it is a more complicated mental exercise to fathom that intercourse can result in HIV infection that 5 years later may lead to death from tuberculosis. No other disease is known by these people that has a corresponding delay from the time of infection to disease or death. It is also confusing that a sexually transmitted disease does not produce symptoms such as discharge or genital sores. It is difficult to comprehend that a sole causative agent, HIV, can lead to so many different diseases and symptoms. When a young man died after having been hospitalized with protracted cough and TB as a result of HIV infection that he had contracted from a girlfriend, the father told the folks at home that his son had died of TB. These conflicting pieces of information make AIDS prevention education wrought with difficulties, which adds to the rapid spread of the disease, although the authorities and international organizations have responded with strategies, informational materials, and educational courses. PMID:8273086

  19. Visual Aids for English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Masahira

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for the use of the following visual aids are described: hand gestures, drawing diagrams on the blackboard, real objects, magnetic boards and pictures and charts. The aids help to maintain student interest and bridge the gap between drill and communication. (AG)

  20. AIDS--mémoire.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, L

    1994-08-13

    A czar was born when President Clinton named Kristine M. Gebbie to be his national AIDS policy coordinator. But a year later, under unrelenting fire from AIDS activists, Gebbie resigned. Her departure underscores the trouble that some activists have had shifting from the outsider's game to the insider's.

  1. The Underpinnings of Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsley, Coral B.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the basic concepts governing student aid funding and the mechanics of delivery, including a review of the development of current federal financial aid programs, the complexities of determining student need, institutional responsibility, and suggested areas for institutional research. Notes that the challenges ahead include strengthening…

  2. [AIDS: faith healers versus medicine].

    PubMed

    Gottingar, V

    1989-09-01

    The majority of AIDS patients in Africa rely on traditional healers to treat their disease rather than on Western medicine. Most western medical treatments currently available are beyond the financial resources of all but the wealthiest Africans, and most African countries lack the means to provide serious medical treatment for AIDS patients. AZT is almost the only drug used on a wide scale against AIDS, but its cost is estimated by the World Health Organization at $7-8000/year for each individual, not counting other treatments and hospital care. AIDS therapies offered by African health services exhaust their already meager health budgets. The money is lacking even to buy condoms to prevent the epidemic from spreading. Hospital hygiene may be poor and diagnostic and therapeutic tools lacking even for those AIDS patients able to be treated by modern medical specialists. Africa lacks the financial, scientific, social, and economic means of combatting AIDS. Some AIDS experts suggest that African governments underestimate the number of seropositive individuals in order to avoid frightening the population and discouraging tourists and investors. In the absence of an effective treatment or vaccine, the only tools to fight AIDS will be raising the awareness of the population to the gravity of the threat, systematic screening of blood donors, sterilization of syringes, and distribution of condoms.

  3. Who Receives Federal Student Aid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Washington, DC.

    Information on federal student aid recipients by income, undergraduate and graduate level, and financial dependency status is presented for Pell Grants, campus-based programs, and Guaranteed Student Loans (GSL). Income data are reported for all aid recipients and for financially dependent and independent students for 1983-1984 and for 1976-1977,…

  4. Teaching Aids at Low Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Felicity Savage

    1985-01-01

    Describes the activities of Teaching Aids at Low Cost (TALC), a nonprofit component of the Institute of Child Health in London. TALC develops and distributes books, sets of slides, flannelgraphs, and other teaching aids to developing nations for use in teaching health workers--nurses, auxiliary medical workers, medical students, and doctors. (MBR)

  5. Moral Character and Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  6. HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health care ...

  7. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  8. School Teachers' Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Van; Spangler, Tracy

    A survey was conducted of 100 elementary and secondary teachers in northwestern Ohio concerning their knowledge of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results indicated a lack of basic knowledge of AIDS among the majority of respondents, with a mean score of 14 out of 21 points (67 percent). Several of the most frequently missed questions…

  9. Children's Aid and the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, William M.; Duane, Edward A.

    In Ontario, Canada, the agency which has the foremost obligation for the discovery and amelioration of child abuse and neglect is Children's Aid. Elementary schools are the target of much child-abuse detection. This article develops the perceptions of a representative group of 10 workers in Children's Aid on the schools relative to child abuse.…

  10. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All How many people are diagnosed with HIV each year in the United States? In 2014, ...

  11. AIDS Resource Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sara A., Ed.; And Others

    This manual presents, for educators, known facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), how it is transmitted, and how it can be prevented. Answers to common questions about AIDS are listed and a summary sheet is provided. A resource list is included that contains names, addresses, and phone numbers of organizations that produce or…

  12. Aids and the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, M.L. ); Levy, R.M. ); Bredesen, D.E. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease.

  13. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  14. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  15. An introduction to hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrlund, Ole

    2003-04-01

    This presentation reviews hearing-aid development from analog to advanced digital technology. A basic hearing aid consists of a microphone, an amplification circuit that provides a gain that varies with frequency to accommodate variations in hearing loss with frequency, and a small earphone. In recent years, hearing aid technology has developed rapidly. Digital hearing aids have become commonplace and their share of the marketplace is increasing rapidly. Therefore, the main focus of this talk is signal-processing schemes in advanced digital hearing aids, including microphones with digitally controlled directional characteristics, wide-dynamic-range compression in multiple channels that allow the compression characteristics to vary with frequency, noise reduction, and feedback cancellation. Each of these signal-processing functions help address the needs of individuals with hearing losses.

  16. Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

    Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

  17. HIV/AIDS, Reproductive and Sexual Health, and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Gostin, Lawrence O.; Hodge, James G.

    2008-01-01

    The law is a frequently overlooked tool for addressing the complex practical and ethical issues that arise from the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The law intersects with reproductive and sexual health issues and HIV/AIDS in many ways. Well-written and rigorously applied laws could benefit persons living with (or at risk of contracting) HIV/AIDS, particularly concerning their reproductive and sexual health. Access to reproductive health services should be a legal right, and discrimination based on HIV status, which undermines access, should be prohibited. Laws against sexual violence and exploitation, which perpetuate the spread of HIV and its negative effects, should be enforced. Finally, a human rights framework should inform the drafting of laws to more effectively protect health. PMID:18703431

  18. [Hearing aid rehabilitation of hearing disorders in adults].

    PubMed

    Spillmann, T

    1993-09-01

    Hearing-aid provision is still partly a medical task, in spite of technological progress and a confusing variety of types and models of devices. The diagnosis of the underlying disease, the appreciation of the consequences of hearing loss and the counseling of the hearing impaired person are prerequisites of the treatment. The physician should try to determine the etiology of the hearing loss. Also, a state-of-the-art otologic examination should be performed and the physician should be sensitive to the psychological and social consequences of the patient's hearing loss. For the assessment of fitted hearing aids, basic knowledge of the technical background is required. To measure hearing-aid benefit in the ENT office, suprathreshold and speech audiometry are indispensable tools.

  19. Preventing the sexual transmission of AIDS during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Remafedi, G J

    1988-03-01

    In order to be effective, the national effort to contain the spread of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) must include a youth focus. Knowledge of adolescent sexual behavior, drug use, and sexually transmitted diseases suggests that many adolescents are in jeopardy of acquiring Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections; and they are among those most likely to benefit from preventative efforts as they explore adult roles and lifestyles. Preventative education should particularly target gay and other homosexually active young men. Effective teaching uses a variety of approaches and media, both inside and outside the classroom. Learning about AIDS is most likely to effect behavioral change when accompanied by other programs to build social supports, self-esteem, and positive identity. The ethical and rational use of HIV antibody testing may be a helpful adjunct to education for certain adolescents. Ultimately, our society's ability to address complex, associated social issues will determine our ability to control AIDS.

  20. Africa and the AIDS myth.

    PubMed

    Versi, A

    1990-04-01

    The recently released television documentary, "Monkey Business, AIDS: The African Story," has created controversy in Europe with its premise that AIDS did not originate in Africa. Although AIDS 1st appeared in New York in 1981 and was not recorded in Africa until 1983, researchers and the media have promoted the theory that AIDS came from Africa through human contact with the green monkey. Subsequent research forced the original champions of this "green monkey connection" theory to acknowledge that the AIDS virus and the green monkey virus are so dissimilar that they could not be historically linked. Then, the focus turned to the theory that a remote pygmy tribe had been endemically infected with the AIDS virus and carried the disease, by airplane, out of the country. This theory, too, was refuted by the failure to locate any HIV-positive pygmies in the Central African Republic. Still determined to prove that AIDS did not have an American or European origin, researchers reported that blood testing conducted in 1984 revealed 50-90% of Africans to be HIV-infected. Retesting with a more accurate procedure revealed the rate of infectivity to be only 0.02%; yet the media have continued to portray Africa as the source of the AIDS scourge. Moreover, it appears that AIDS cases are actually overreported from Africa--not underreported--due to confusion with conditions such as malnutrition and tropical diseases. To some, this relentless drive to vilify Africa reflects racism. Others believe that it represents an effort to cover up the possibility that the AIDS virus is man-made--a result of an accident in gene technology or microbiology.

  1. Pharmacy benefit management companies.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, R

    1995-09-01

    The principal services offered by pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs) are described. A PBM contracts with employers, insurers, and others to provide accessible and cost-effective benefits to those groups' members. PBMs vary in their organization and services because they originate from different types of businesses. Many PBMs have been formed by publicly traded companies that have combined traditional ways of controlling cost and use, such as formularies, with new elements to form organizations whose primary function is managing the pharmacy benefit. Often, the PBM is paid a fixed amount for which it must provide all contracted services. PBMs may provide pharmacy services themselves (e.g., mail order prescription service is offered by Medco, one of the largest PBMs); more often, they subcontract with others to provide certain services. Full-service PBMs have the following functions: establishing networks of pharmacies for use by plan members; processing claims electronically at the time a prescription is filled and thus maintaining a database on drug use and cost; using these data to generate various reports; encouraging the use of generic products; managing existing formularies, helping to establish customized formularies, or providing a national formulary; providing information to support formulary guidelines (counter-detailing); offering programs in which prescriptions for maintenance medications are filled less frequently with larger amounts, often by mail order; negotiating volume-based rebates from manufacturers; performing drug-use review; developing disease management programs based on clinical practice guidelines and measurements of patient outcome; and evaluating outcomes by combining data on drug therapy with information about other parts of the patient's care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kort, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America.Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme.The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010.

  3. [AIDS. The trend of HIV/AIDS and the nurse's role in AIDS care].

    PubMed

    Chang, S B

    1993-01-01

    Since the first case of AIDS was found among male homosexuals, the AIDS related problem has been in the male homosexual population, but the AIDS trend is changing from homosexuals to heterosexuals, with the majority of cases in the general population. Even though currently the reported HIV/AIDS cases in Korea are only 324 in Korea, the number of people infected with HIV/AIDS is projected to increase greatly over the next few years. As the number of these cases increases, there will be a major strain on nursing care resources. Since there is no known cure, the only way of halting this epidemic is through the prevention of further infection. In various stages of HIV infection, different problems occur, calling for various specific services and nursing skills. Nurses must develop a strategy to alleviate the negative attitudes related to care of AIDS patients and anxiety and dislike for care of terminally ill patients. Also, nurses must be prepared for teaching the general population about prevention of AIDS, counseling individuals in risk of HIV infection, HIV testing, and transmission risks, and caring for AIDS patients using Hospice concepts in various settings.

  4. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

  5. BEMFAM delivers AIDS alert.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    The Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar (BEMFAM) of Brazil developed a project using integrated communication strategies to alert prostitutes and their clients about the risks of contracting HIV. The project specifically promoted condom use and was conducted within the context of BEMFAM's Integrated Family Planning Program. Villa Mimoza, a prostitution zone in the Estacio neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, was the site of the intervention. This neighborhood harbors 44 houses of prostitution where an estimated 500 female prostitutes receive clients. An agreement was reached with the Association of Prostitutes of the State of Rio de Janeiro whereby it would help mobilize local women, merchants, brothel owners, and clients. Initial needs were assessed by BEMFAM and AIDSCOM through questionnaires and focus groups. It was subsequently resolved that radio programs, counter displays of educational materials in brothels, and posters in brothel rooms would be the most effective channels through which to carry integrated, effective messages to the community. Final evaluation found a change in attitude and an awareness of the importance of measures to prevent AIDS along with a prevalent increase in condom use.

  6. Peircean Decision Aid

    2008-08-14

    The Peircean decision aid (PDA) is a decision support architecture and embedded functionality that supports a decision maker in very complex environments dealing with massive amounts of disparate data, information and knowledge. The solution generated is a hybrid system solution employing a number of technologies that are based on Peircean reasoning, modal logic, and formal concept analysis. The system convolves data/information with knowledge to create a virtual belief state that is passed to a decisionmore » maker for consideration. The system can capture categorized knowledge or it can inductively learn or acquire new knowledge from suites of observations. Captured knowledge is used to abductively generate hypotheses that are potential explanations to observations or collected data. The zero order modal logic architecture is designed to augment knowledge update and belief revision and can be extended to include disjunctive screening of collected data. While intended to be a library for integration into a decision support architecture it possesses a basic stand-alone GUI for use as an analysis support tool.« less

  7. Peircean Decision Aid

    SciTech Connect

    SENGLAUB, MICHAEL; & WHITFIELD, GREG

    2008-08-14

    The Peircean decision aid (PDA) is a decision support architecture and embedded functionality that supports a decision maker in very complex environments dealing with massive amounts of disparate data, information and knowledge. The solution generated is a hybrid system solution employing a number of technologies that are based on Peircean reasoning, modal logic, and formal concept analysis. The system convolves data/information with knowledge to create a virtual belief state that is passed to a decision maker for consideration. The system can capture categorized knowledge or it can inductively learn or acquire new knowledge from suites of observations. Captured knowledge is used to abductively generate hypotheses that are potential explanations to observations or collected data. The zero order modal logic architecture is designed to augment knowledge update and belief revision and can be extended to include disjunctive screening of collected data. While intended to be a library for integration into a decision support architecture it possesses a basic stand-alone GUI for use as an analysis support tool.

  8. Occupational health of home care aides: results of the safe home care survey

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Margaret M; Markkanen, Pia K; Galligan, Catherine J; Sama, Susan R; Kriebel, David; Gore, Rebecca J; Brouillette, Natalie M; Okyere, Daniel; Sun, Chuan; Punnett, Laura; Laramie, Angela K; Davis, Letitia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In countries with ageing populations, home care (HC) aides are among the fastest growing jobs. There are few quantitative studies of HC occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess quantitatively the OSH hazards and benefits for a wide range of HC working conditions, and (2) compare OSH experiences of HC aides who are employed via different medical and social services systems in Massachusetts, USA. Methods HC aides were recruited for a survey via agencies that employ aides and schedule their visits with clients, and through a labour union of aides employed directly by clients or their families. The questionnaire included detailed questions about the most recent HC visits, as well as about individual aides’ OSH experiences. Results The study population included 1249 HC aides (634 agency-employed, 615 client-employed) contributing information on 3484 HC visits. Hazards occurring most frequently related to musculoskeletal strain, exposure to potentially infectious agents and cleaning chemicals for infection prevention and experience of violence. Client-hired and agency-hired aides had similar OSH experiences with a few exceptions, including use of sharps and experience of verbal violence. Conclusions The OSH experience of HC aides is similar to that of aides in institutional healthcare settings. Despite OSH challenges, HC aides enjoy caring for others and the benefits of HC work should be enhanced. Quantification of HC hazards and benefits is useful to prioritise resources for the development of preventive interventions and to provide an evidence base for policy-setting. PMID:26209318

  9. They Only See It when the Sun Shines in My Ears: Exploring Perceptions of Adolescent Hearing Aid Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Bruce; Smith, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Hard-of-hearing (HOH) young people may encounter multiple challenges to their educational, social, and emotional development. The benefits of wearing hearing aids to enhance communication may be countered by negative stigma associated with hearing aids. This study explored the experience of 16 bilaterally, moderately to severely HOH adolescents in…

  10. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  11. Who accepts first aid training?

    PubMed

    Pearn, J; Dawson, B; Leditschke, F; Petrie, G; Nixon, J

    1980-09-01

    The percentage of individuals trained in first aid skills in the general community is inadequate. We report here a study to investigate factors which influence motivation to accept voluntary training in first aid. A group of 700 randomly selected owners of inground swimming pools (a parental high-risk group) was offered a course of formal first aid instruction. Nine per cent attended the offered training course. The time commitment involved in traditional courses (eight training nights spread over four weeks) is not a deterrent, the same percentage accepting such courses as that who accept a course of one night's instruction. Cost is an important deterrent factor, consumer resistance rising over 15 cost units (one cost unit = the price of a loaf of bread). The level of competent first aid training within the community can be raised by (a) keeping to traditional course content, but (b) by ensuring a higher acceptance rate of first aid courses by a new approach to publicity campaigns, to convince prospective students of the real worth of first aid training. Questions concerning who should be taught first aid, and factors influencing motivation, are discussed.

  12. Nontraditional 'aids' to hearing: assistive listening devices.

    PubMed

    Rupp, R R; Vaughn, G R; Lightfoot, R K

    1984-03-01

    Unresolved hearing loss and its associated sense of isolation burden the hearing-impaired elderly. The plight of both listeners and talkers justifies every effort to encourage and enhance communication. Assistive listening devices can benefit many family practice patients. The following service welcomes questions or comments about implementing these devices: Audiology-Speech Pathology Service, VA Medical Center, 700 South 19th Street, Birmingham, AL 35203; (205)933-8101, ext. 6701 and 6702. In addition, local professional audiologists certified by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association will provide information on traditional hearing aids and assistive listening devices. To obtain the names of local audiological resources in your area, contact: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 10801 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852; (800)638-6868. PMID:6698401

  13. AIDS prevention program for Puerto Rican women.

    PubMed

    Castro de Alvarez, V

    1990-04-01

    Historically women are considered the family's primary care provider and biologically, they are the link in the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Because of this dual role, they need programs that are culturally sensitive and effective. Many Latinas do not perceive themselves to be at risk despite the educational resources available to them. This article examines cultural factors that influence risk perception and behavioral changes in response to educational intervention. Interviews and literature review were used in assessing availability, applicability and cultural sensitivity of AIDS prevention programs. Effective programs need to be culturally sensitive to gender role expectation and the role of motherhood for Latinas. Educators expressed the belief that women benefit most from programs that help them implement the behaviors that will help protect them. Programs must be cognizant of the cultures' demand for respect and modesty while providing factual information/instruction.

  14. AIDS prevention program for Puerto Rican women.

    PubMed

    Castro de Alvarez, V

    1990-04-01

    Historically women are considered the family's primary care provider and biologically, they are the link in the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Because of this dual role, they need programs that are culturally sensitive and effective. Many Latinas do not perceive themselves to be at risk despite the educational resources available to them. This article examines cultural factors that influence risk perception and behavioral changes in response to educational intervention. Interviews and literature review were used in assessing availability, applicability and cultural sensitivity of AIDS prevention programs. Effective programs need to be culturally sensitive to gender role expectation and the role of motherhood for Latinas. Educators expressed the belief that women benefit most from programs that help them implement the behaviors that will help protect them. Programs must be cognizant of the cultures' demand for respect and modesty while providing factual information/instruction. PMID:2270255

  15. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.

    PubMed

    Clements, A

    1992-07-25

    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital.

  16. AIDS in India: constructive chaos?

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1991-08-01

    Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.

  17. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.

    PubMed

    Clements, A

    1992-07-25

    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital. PMID:1392821

  18. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh. PMID:12285939

  19. AIDS: what should we do?

    PubMed

    Sorensen, A

    1990-08-01

    There is no 1 AIDS epidemic in the US. The 1st epidemic includes gay and bisexual men. The 2nd consists of intravenous (IV) drug users and their infants, pimps, lovers, and customers. The 3rd and most recent epidemic affects individuals who are exclusively heterosexual who have never had a blood transfusion, never used IV drugs, and have not had sex with those who did any of these things. The former director of the Center for AIDS Research in Baltimore, MD put out 8 proposals that, if implemented, would reduce the transmission of HIV and provide adequate medical care for AIDS patients. Health and educational professionals must develop improved AIDS education programs directed to those at risk. Since many of them are functionally illiterate, television should carry AIDS education messages. In addition, all AIDS prevention and educational programs need to be evaluated strongly so the country can focus on those activities which are most effective. Those who determine public policy should heed the advice of those who truly understand AIDS. Government, drug companies, and university scientists should all increase research to develop antiretroviral drugs that are not dependent on refrigeration, can be transported rapidly, and are inexpensive. Scientists also need to continue working on a vaccine and determine if an HIV vaccine can indeed immunize entire populations. Moreover affordable health care must be available to all AIDS patients. The present haphazard structure of AIDS treatment services must be recognized and integrated into a system that provides patients with coordinated medical and social services. Likewise, all research, treatment and education programs at federal, state, and local levels must be coordinated so that various players do not bicker over priorities. PMID:12283707

  20. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh.

  1. Psychological first-aid: a practical aide-memoire.

    PubMed

    Leach, J

    1995-07-01

    Despite advances made in recent years in medical first aid, psychiatric intervention, survival training and equipment design, many people still perish quickly during and immediately following a disastrous event. In this study, individuals and groups of survivors of life-threatening events were debriefed and the behavior of those who coped well during such a threat to life were compared with those who did not. The behaviors of those who coped well were distilled into a set of principles for psychological first aid; that is, a series of simple actions for use within a disaster which serves to recover victims to functional behavior as quickly as possible, thus increasing their chance for survival. These principles of psychological first aid have recently been introduced into basic first aid and survival training courses for both military and civilian units.

  2. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1985 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of information on benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental death and dismemberment insurance,…

  3. University Benefits Survey. Part 1 (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy,…

  4. University Benefits Survey, Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    The results of a survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy, Ontario…

  5. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1986 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self- administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental death and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave…

  6. Positioning the image of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cooter, Roger; Stein, Claudia

    2010-03-01

    AIDS posters can be treated as material objects whose production, distribution and consumption varied across time and place. It is also possible to reconstruct and analyse the public health discourse at the time these powerful images appeared. More recently, however, these conventional historical approaches have been challenged by projects in literary and art criticism. Here, images of AIDS are considered in terms of their function in and for a new discursive regime of power centred on the human body and its visualization. How images of AIDS came to be understood in Western culture in relation to wider political and economic conditions redefines the historical task.

  7. AIDS and homophobia among nurses.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Y K; Wu, Y W; Haughey, B P

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study nurses' attitudes toward homosexuality and caring for homosexual patients. The results reported in this article are a component of a larger study of nurses' knowledge about and attitudes toward caring for patients with AIDS. The sample comprised 581 Registered Nurses residing in Erie County, New York. Data were gathered by mailed questionnaires. Results of the study indicate that issues concerning the care of patients with AIDS may be complicated by the fact that many of these individuals are homosexuals. The results of this research provide data for developing intervention strategies to help nurses cope with their concerns about caring for homosexual patients with AIDS.

  8. Integrated computer-aided design using minicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, O. O.

    1980-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), a highly interactive software, has been implemented on minicomputers at the NASA Langley Research Center. CAD/CAM software integrates many formerly fragmented programs and procedures into one cohesive system; it also includes finite element modeling and analysis, and has been interfaced via a computer network to a relational data base management system and offline plotting devices on mainframe computers. The CAD/CAM software system requires interactive graphics terminals operating at a minimum of 4800 bits/sec transfer rate to a computer. The system is portable and introduces 'interactive graphics', which permits the creation and modification of models interactively. The CAD/CAM system has already produced designs for a large area space platform, a national transonic facility fan blade, and a laminar flow control wind tunnel model. Besides the design/drafting element analysis capability, CAD/CAM provides options to produce an automatic program tooling code to drive a numerically controlled (N/C) machine. Reductions in time for design, engineering, drawing, finite element modeling, and N/C machining will benefit productivity through reduced costs, fewer errors, and a wider range of configuration.

  9. Are informal caregivers important in AIDS care?

    PubMed

    Decarlo, P; Folkman, S

    1997-01-01

    Informal caregivers of people with AIDS provide practical help and nursing care at home. They are often the lovers, spouses, friends, or family of someone with AIDS and are not professional care providers. They provide essential care, saving society considerable expense. Caregivers provide practical support such as shopping, housekeeping, and transportation to clinics, as well as basic assistance such as help with bathing, going to the bathroom, and feeding. As symptoms worsen, caregivers are also likely to adopt the more clinical roles of keeping track of medications, giving injections, inserting catheters, and cleaning wounds. Caregivers also often assess medical and mental conditions, being the first to notice changes in health and to decide when to seek help. Caregivers, however, can suffer considerable care-related stress, leading to numbness, compassion fatigue, or burnout. Caregivers may also fear social rejection, loss of job and/or housing and may therefore hide their caregiving status from family, friends, and co-workers. For women with HIV, being responsible for children at home may make it difficult or impossible to obtain caregiving support for themselves. Helping caregivers benefits both the caregiver and the patient. Professional clinicians can include the caregiver in the triad of care comprised of the doctor, caregiver, and patient. Participating in support groups can also help caregivers.

  10. AIDS knows no borders.

    PubMed

    Hulewicz, J M

    1994-09-01

    No one knows for sure how many migrants there are around the world, but the UN High Commission for Refugees estimates the existence of more than 43 million displaced people and the International Labor Organization estimates there are up to 85 million male and female temporary and permanent migrant workers. Many of these millions of migrants and refugees who leave home each year in search of work, peace, and/or survival contract HIV. The global HIV/AIDS situation of migrants is in fact growing steadily worse. Refugees who arrive at some temporary endpoint destination are justifiably preoccupied with securing the basic and immediate necessities of food, clothing, and shelter; they really aren't thinking about the potential for contracting and/or transmitting HIV and the attendant long-term consequences. Refugees otherwise sell sex, trade sex, or are raped and sexually exploited. An estimated 30-50% of the world's 100 million streetchildren prostitute themselves. Among the primarily male population of migrant workers, they frequently have sex with each other despite the existence of strong taboos against homosexuality in many of their home cultures. These norms are even documented in the case of South Africa's mines dating back to at least the turn of the century. Targeted, sensitive projects supported with money, know-how, and political will are called for to reduce the incidence of HIV infection in these populations. Such projects should be designed in culturally appropriate fashion with attention to accommodate the refugees and migrants who are illiterate. Finally, the deleterious public health effects of immigration laws which discourage aliens from partaking of public health program services should be understood with changes made accordingly.

  11. Novel lesion detection aids.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, K W; Longbottom, C; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A

    2009-01-01

    Several non-invasive and novel aids for the detection of (and in some cases monitoring of) caries lesions have been introduced in the field of 'caries diagnostics' over the last 15 years. This chapter focusses on those available to dentists at the time of writing; continuing research is bound to lead to further developments in the coming years. Laser fluorescence is based on measurements of back-scattered fluorescence of a 655-nm light source. It enhances occlusal and (potentially) approximal lesion detection and enables semi-quantitative caries monitoring. Systematic reviews have identified false-positive results as a limitation. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence is another sensitive method to quantitatively detect and measure mineral loss both in enamel and some dentine lesions; again, the trade-offs with lower specificity when compared with clinical visual detection must be considered. Subtraction radiography is based on the principle of digitally superimposing two radiographs with exactly the same projection geometry. This method is applicable for approximal surfaces and occlusal caries involving dentine but is not yet widely available. Electrical caries measurements gather either site-specific or surface-specific information of teeth and tooth structure. Fixed-frequency devices perform best for occlusal dentine caries but the method has also shown promise for lesions in enamel and other tooth surfaces with multi-frequency approaches. All methods require further research and further validation in well-designed clinical trials. In the future, they could have useful applications in clinical practice as part of a personalized, comprehensive caries management system. PMID:19494675

  12. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  13. Hurricanes benefit bleached corals

    PubMed Central

    Manzello, Derek P.; Brandt, Marilyn; Smith, Tyler B.; Lirman, Diego; Hendee, James C.; Nemeth, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Recent, global mass-mortalities of reef corals due to record warm sea temperatures have led researchers to consider global warming as one of the most significant threats to the persistence of coral reef ecosystems. The passage of a hurricane can alleviate thermal stress on coral reefs, highlighting the potential for hurricane-associated cooling to mitigate climate change impacts. We provide evidence that hurricane-induced cooling was responsible for the documented differences in the extent and recovery time of coral bleaching between the Florida Reef Tract and the U.S. Virgin Islands during the Caribbean-wide 2005 bleaching event. These results are the only known scenario where the effects of a hurricane can benefit a stressed marine community. PMID:17606914

  14. Hurricanes benefit bleached corals.

    PubMed

    Manzello, Derek P; Brandt, Marilyn; Smith, Tyler B; Lirman, Diego; Hendee, James C; Nemeth, Richard S

    2007-07-17

    Recent, global mass-mortalities of reef corals due to record warm sea temperatures have led researchers to consider global warming as one of the most significant threats to the persistence of coral reef ecosystems. The passage of a hurricane can alleviate thermal stress on coral reefs, highlighting the potential for hurricane-associated cooling to mitigate climate change impacts. We provide evidence that hurricane-induced cooling was responsible for the documented differences in the extent and recovery time of coral bleaching between the Florida Reef Tract and the U.S. Virgin Islands during the Caribbean-wide 2005 bleaching event. These results are the only known scenario where the effects of a hurricane can benefit a stressed marine community.

  15. Atomic bomb health benefits.

    PubMed

    Luckey, T D

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation, leukemia and solid tissue cancer mortality rates, and increased average lifespan. Each study exhibits a threshold that repudiates the LNT dogma. The average threshold for acute exposures to atomic bombs is about 100 cSv. Conclusions from these studies of atomic bomb survivors are: One burst of low dose irradiation elicits a lifetime of improved health.Improved health from low dose irradiation negates the LNT paradigm.Effective triage should include radiation hormesis for survivor treatment.

  16. NASA Benefits Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several ways in which NASA research has benefited Earth and made life on Earth better. These innovations include: solar panels, recycled pavement, thermometer pill, invisible braces for straightening teeth, LASIK, aerodynamic helmets and tires for bicycles, cataract detection, technology that was used to remove Anthrax spores from mail handling facilities, study of atomic oxygen erosion of materials has informed the restoration of artwork, macroencapsulation (a potential mechanism to deliver anti cancer drugs to specific sites), and research on a salmonella vaccine. With research on the International Space Station just beginning, there will be opportunities for entrepreneurs and other government agencies to access space for their research and development. As well as NASA continuing its own research on human health and technology development.

  17. Great social benefits.

    PubMed

    Huang, B

    1991-06-01

    The Integrated Project (IP), originated by the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) was started in China in 1984. The 2nd phase covered 210,000 people in 8 townships in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and others in Liaoning, Jiangsu and Shandong Provinces, in 1987-1989. 2 pilot areas, monitored by representatives from IPPF's East and Southeast Asia and Oceania Region in September 1990, showed significant gains in contraceptive prevalence as well as health benefits and community acceptance. The IP consists of integrated family planning, maternal and child health and parasite control for rural areas. In Tumotezuo County, Inner Mongolia, the village of Bashi with 2526 people was mobilized to construct its own health clinic with a delivery room and a maternal and child health unit, where night classes were held for women. Because of antihelminthic treatment, installation of water pipes and toilets, parasites were controlled. Neighboring towns benefited by treatment of common disorders such as anemia and rickets. In the pilot areas there have been no maternal deaths in 3 years, and declines in perinatal mortality from 33.3 to 17.9/1000, and in infant mortality from 35.1 to 21.5/1000. Incidence of roundworm infection fell from 27.8 to 7.6%, Contraceptive prevalence, already high at 91.8%, rose to 93.7% among the Han majority, and from 65.9 to 77.2% in minorities. Family planning was spread by using the "core household" approach. The large household of the village leader, with 13 women of childbearing age, subscribed to several periodicals on family planning and farm and home economics, so people learned how to become well off by raising vegetables and pigs, and how to limit family size with the correct concept of a happy healthy family.

  18. Refactoring and Its Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerraju, R. P. S. P.; Rao, A. Srinivasa; Murali, G.

    2010-10-01

    Refactoring is a disciplined technique for restructuring an existing body of code, altering its internal structure without changing its external behavior. It improves internal code structure without altering its external functionality by transforming functions and rethinking algorithms. It is an iterative process. Refactoring include reducing scope, replacing complex instructions with simpler or built-in instructions, and combining multiple statements into one statement. By transforming the code with refactoring techniques it will be faster to change, execute, and download. It is an excellent best practice to adopt for programmers wanting to improve their productivity. Refactoring is similar to things like performance optimizations, which are also behavior- preserving transformations. It also helps us find bugs when we are trying to fix a bug in difficult-to-understand code. By cleaning things up, we make it easier to expose the bug. Refactoring improves the quality of application design and implementation. In general, three cases concerning refactoring. Iterative refactoring, Refactoring when is necessary, Not refactor. Mr. Martin Fowler identifies four key reasons to refractor. Refactoring improves the design of software, makes software easier to understand, helps us find bugs and also helps in executing the program faster. There is an additional benefit of refactoring. It changes the way a developer thinks about the implementation when not refactoring. There are the three types of refactorings. 1) Code refactoring: It often referred to simply as refactoring. This is the refactoring of programming source code. 2) Database refactoring: It is a simple change to a database schema that improves its design while retaining both its behavioral and informational semantics. 3) User interface (UI) refactoring: It is a simple change to the UI which retains its semantics. Finally, we conclude the benefits of Refactoring are: Improves the design of software, Makes software

  19. Room reverberation effects in hearing aid feedback cancellation.

    PubMed

    Kates, J M

    2001-01-01

    Room reverberation can affect feedback cancellation in hearing aids, with the strength of the effects depending on the acoustical conditions. These effects were studied using a behind the ear (BTE) hearing aid mounted on a dummy head and coupled to the ear canal via an open fitting. The hearing aid impulse response was measured for the dummy head placed at eight closely spaced locations in a typical office. The feedback cancellation in the hearing aid used a set of filter coefficients that were initialized for one location within the room, and then allowed to adapt to the feedback path measured at the same or to a different location. The maximum stable gain for the hearing aid was then estimated without feedback cancellation, for the initial set of feedback cancellation filter coefficients prior to adaptation, and for the feedback cancellation filter after adaptation. A low-order ARMA model combining a fixed set of poles with an adaptive FIR filter is shown to be effective in representing the feedback path exclusive of reverberation. Increasing the adaptive filter length has only a small benefit in improving the feedback cancellation performance due to the inability of the system to model the room reverberation. The mismatch between the modeled and actual feedback paths limits the headroom increase that can be achieved when using feedback cancellation, and varies with the location within the room. PMID:11206165

  20. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 4: Economic feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the economic analysis of the AIDS 3 system design are presented. AIDS 3 evaluated a set of economic feasibility measures including life cycle cost, implementation cost, annual operating expenditures and annual capital expenditures. The economic feasibility of AIDS 3 was determined by comparing the evaluated measures with the same measures, where applicable, evaluated for the current system. A set of future work load scenarios was constructed using JPL's environmental evaluation study of the fingerprint identification system. AIDS 3 and the current system were evaluated for each of the economic feasibility measures for each of the work load scenarios. They were compared for a set of performance measures, including response time and accuracy, and for a set of cost/benefit ratios, including cost per transaction and cost per technical search. Benefit measures related to the economic feasibility of the system are also presented, including the required number of employees and the required employee skill mix.

  1. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To ... D.A.M., Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Animal Bites A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  2. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... UNAIDS. Global AIDS Update 2016; 2016. ← Return to text UNAIDS. 2016 Core Epidemiology Slides ; 2016. UNAIDS. AIDSinfo ... available at: http://aidsinfo.unaids.org/ . ← Return to text WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF. Global update on HIV treatment ...

  3. AIDS activists arrested in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R

    2000-05-27

    Health activists in India are outraged over the arrests of 11 AIDS activists belonging to the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Sahyog. These AIDS activists were charged with obscenity and rioting. Rioting broke out when the local print media published details of a report entitled ¿AIDS and Us¿ that was produced by Sahyog in Hindi. The report tackled prevalent sexual practices, very low level of awareness, and other risk factors related to contracting HIV infection or developing AIDS in the rural areas of the Almora district. Critics charged the activists with destroying the image of the people of the region, portraying them as promiscuous and practicing high-risk sexual behavior. Consequently, Sahyog issued a statement of apology and promised to withdraw the report, but the district administration still banned their work in the area. Several NGOs also feel that the presentation of the report should have been more cautious.

  4. HIV/AIDS in Women

    MedlinePlus

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV often ...

  5. Benefit Plans in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Francis P.; Cook, Thomas J.

    Fifth in a series and the latest of several studies on employee benefits in higher education, this book constitutes a full-scale revision of the earlier "Benefit Plans in American Colleges" (1969). The principal benefit plans provided by U.S. colleges and universities are described, analyzed, and evaluated. Included are retirement (including…

  6. Benefit Plans in Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Francis P.

    This study describes the present status of benefit planning in the junior colleges, discusses the principles governing benefit plans, and raises questions regarding the development of sound benefit plans in light of the needs of individual faculty and staff as well as of the goals of the institution. The base of the study was a questionnaire…

  7. Pakistan combats hidden AIDS menace.

    PubMed

    1996-05-20

    The conservative Islamic society in Pakistan associates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with prostitution, homosexuality, and drug abuse, activities which are prohibited in Pakistan. There are 1000 reported cases of HIV, 55 with advanced AIDS (53 have died) in Pakistan. Birjees Mazhar Kazi, head of the National AIDS Program, believes that, based on the computer model of the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of HIV cases in Pakistan can be 50,000 to 80,000. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government has allocated $2 million for AIDS prevention. Although some officials argue that Islamic strictures and traditional social pressures discourage sexual license, the poor public health and education standards in Pakistan make it vulnerable to AIDS. Drug abuse has risen in the last 20 years; there are an estimated 1.5 million heroin users among an estimated 3 million addicts. According to Health Ministry Director General Naik Muhammad Shaikh, the government has established 30 HIV/AIDS screening centers and is sponsoring a law that would require all blood banks to provide only safe blood and blood products for transfusion. Marvi states that the reuse and poor disposal of needles, a common practice in Pakistan, could be responsible for most of the transmission there of AIDS and hepatitis C. Health experts acknowledge the obstacles placed in the way of AIDS awareness campaigns by sex taboos and religious sensitivities; condoms cannot be mentioned or displayed in shops, or used in electronic or print media campaigns. They can be mentioned in a recorded message on a 24-hr AIDS hotline. Community-based and nongovernmental organizations are being used to reach segments of society who cannot use the hotline. Eunuchs (hijras), who are much in demand as "female" entertainers at weddings, are particularly resistant to safe sex messages, according to Abid Atiq, head of the information and education section of the

  8. Can You Give First Aid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bontrager, Frances M.

    This pamphlet is a guide for first aid. Areas discussed are: (1) the first-aid box; (2) how to call a doctor; (3) what to do before the doctor comes; (4) how to stop bleeding; (5) what to do for shock; (6) when breathing stops; (7) how to treat an unconscious person; (8) what to do for broken bones; (9) what to do for burns; (10) minor wounds and…

  9. Opportunity Egress Aid Contacts Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's egress aid touching the martian soil at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken after the rear lander petal hyperextended in a manuever to tilt the lander forward. The maneuver pushed the front edge lower, placing the tips of the egress aids in the soil. The rover will drive straight ahead to exit the lander.

  10. Facing AIDS in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mata, L

    1988-03-01

    The 1st AIDS case was diagnosed in Costa Rica in 1985. By January 1988, 47 cases were recorded. Most cases are in hemophiliacs and homosexuals; one is in the heterosexual partner of a hemophiliac. 55% of hemophiliacs in Costa Rica are infected with HIV -- one of the highest levels in the world. 10 women, including 2 prostitutes, are known to be HIV-positive. The number of new cases is expected to nearly double every year, and deaths from AIDS may come to exceed deaths from diarrhea and all other infectious diseases. Since 1985, all donated blood has been screened. A national education campaign began in 1985, using television, talks, workshops, and pamphlets, and coordinated by the National AIDS Commission. AIDS education is included in secondary and high school curricula, and condoms have been distributed in gay discotheques and other public places since 1987. Failure to recognize the problem early enough resulted in fear of and discrimination against AIDS patients by health workers as well as failure to provide enough funds for AIDS prevention and control. PMID:12315654

  11. Contralateral routing of signal hearing aid versus transcutaneous bone conduction in single-sided deafness.

    PubMed

    Leterme, Gaëlle; Bernardeschi, Daniele; Bensemman, Anissa; Coudert, Cyrille; Portal, Jean-Jacques; Ferrary, Evelyne; Sterkers, Olivier; Vicaut, Eric; Frachet, Bruno; Bozorg Grayeli, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a contralateral routing of signal (CROS) hearing aid to a transcutaneous bone-anchored device in the same conditions. This prospective crossover study included 18 adult patients with a single-sided deafness (SSD). After a trial period of 60 days with CROS and 7 days with a transcutaneous bone-anchored device (Alpha 1®, Sophono, Boulder, Colo., USA) on a headband, 13 (72%) patients opted for Alpha 1, 2 patients for CROS, and 3 rejected both rehabilitation methods. Clinical tolerance, satisfaction, hearing performances (pure-tone audiometry, speech test in quiet and in noise, stereo audiometry, sound localization, and Hearing in Noise Test), and quality of life (Glasgow Benefit Inventory, Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit and Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit questionnaires) were measured at 3 and 12 months after the implantation. Both devices improved equally the hearing in noise and the quality of life. Transcutaneous devices represent an effective option in SSD.

  12. Vibrant SoundBridge application to middle ear windows versus conventional hearing aids: a comparative study based on international outcome inventory for hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Atas, Ahmet; Tutar, Hakan; Gunduz, Bulent; Bayazıt, Yıldırım A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the outcomes of satisfaction of the patients who used hearing aids preceding the vibrant sound bridge (VSB) application on middle ear windows (14 oval window and 5 round window). Nineteen adult patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss were included in the study. All patients used behind the ear hearing aids on the site which was selected for VSB application. The patients used hearing aids for at least 3 months before the VSB operation. The floating mass transducer (FMT) was placed on one of the middle ear windows (oval or round) in VSB operation. The patients were evaluated with International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) preoperatively after at least 3 months trial of conventional hearing aid and postoperatively after 3 months use of VSB. No perioperative problem was encountered. The total score of IOI-HA was significantly higher with VSB compared with conventional hearing aids (p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the daily use, residual activity limitations, satisfaction, impact on others, quality of life between middle ear implant and hearing aid (p > 0.05). The IOI-HA scores were significantly higher with the middle ear implant than the conventional hearing aid regarding benefit and residual participation restrictions (p < 0.05). Although the scores for quality of life assessment was similar between VSB and hearing aid use, there was a superiority of VSB in terms of benefit and residual participation restrictions as well as overall IOI-HA scores as the FMT was placed on one of the middle ear windows.

  13. Health benefits of tennis

    PubMed Central

    Pluim, Babette M; Staal, J Bart; Marks, Bonita L; Miller, Stuart; Miley, Dave

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the role of tennis in the promotion of health and prevention of disease. The focus was on risk factors and diseases related to a sedentary lifestyle, including low fitness levels, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. A literature search was undertaken to retrieve relevant articles. Structured computer searches of PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL were undertaken, along with hand searching of key journals and reference lists to locate relevant studies published up to March 2007. These had to be cohort studies (of either cross sectional or longitudinal design), case–control studies, or experimental studies. Twenty four studies were identified that dealt with physical fitness of tennis players, including 17 on intensity of play and 16 on maximum oxygen uptake; 17 investigated the relation between tennis and (risk factors for) cardiovascular disease; and 22 examined the effect of tennis on bone health. People who choose to play tennis appear to have significant health benefits, including improved aerobic fitness, a lower body fat percentage, a more favourable lipid profile, reduced risk for developing cardiovascular disease, and improved bone health. PMID:17504788

  14. 45 CFR 148.220 - Excepted benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... insurance. These benefits include the following: (1) Limited scope dental or vision benefits. These benefits are dental or vision benefits that are limited in scope to a narrow range or type of benefits that...

  15. 45 CFR 148.220 - Excepted benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... insurance. These benefits include the following: (1) Limited scope dental or vision benefits. These benefits are dental or vision benefits that are limited in scope to a narrow range or type of benefits that...

  16. Separate spheres and indirect benefits

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Dan W

    2003-01-01

    On any plausible account of the basis for health care resource prioritization, the benefits and costs of different alternative resource uses are relevant considerations in the prioritization process. Consequentialists hold that the maximization of benefits with available resources is the only relevant consideration. Non-consequentialists do not reject the relevance of consequences of benefits and costs, but insist that other considerations, and in particular the distribution of benefits and costs, are morally important as well. Whatever one's particular account of morally justified standards for the prioritization of different health interventions, we must be able to measure those interventions' benefits and costs. There are many theoretical and practical difficulties in that measurement, such as how to weigh extending life against improving health and quality of life as well as how different quality of life improvements should be valued, but they are not my concern here. This paper addresses two related issues in assessing benefits and costs for health resource prioritization. First, should benefits be restricted only to health benefits, or include as well other non health benefits such as economic benefits to employers from reducing the lost work time due to illness of their employees? I shall call this the Separate Spheres problem. Second, should only the direct benefits, such as extending life or reducing disability, and direct costs, such as costs of medical personnel and supplies, of health interventions be counted, or should other indirect benefits and costs be counted as well? I shall call this the Indirect Benefits problem. These two issues can have great importance for a ranking of different health interventions by either a cost/benefit or cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) standard. PMID:12773217

  17. An AIDS management service for the managements of South African companies.

    PubMed

    1998-02-01

    About 15% of South Africa's sexually active adult population is infected with HIV, and some companies in KwaZulu have up to 30% of their work force infected. South African companies do not, however, realize the impact that AIDS will have in the workplace. Areas which will be affected include employee benefits, medical schemes, staffing, and training. Managers are already dealing with issues of confidentiality regarding employee AIDS status and providing HIV-positive employees with meaningful benefits which are affordable to employee benefit and medical schemes. Financial analyses indicate that these risk costs could double over the next 5 years. Indirectly, AIDS will manifest itself in the form of increased staff turnover and the greater use of sick and compassionate leave. Budgets need to include adequate resources for teaching staff about AIDS. AIDS management in the workplace will increasingly become a strategic issue. With that understanding, Metropolitan Life has worked with HIV Management Services to create AIDSwise, a package designed to help companies develop practical solutions and to be proactive against AIDS.

  18. Assessing business responses to HIV / AIDS in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M; Wangombe, J

    1995-01-01

    A consulting firm conducted interviews with managers of 16 businesses in 3 Kenyan cities, representatives of 2 trade unions, focus groups with workers at 13 companies, and an analysis of financial/labor data from 4 companies. It then did a needs assessment. The business types were light industry, manufacturing companies, tourism organizations, transport firms, agro-industrial and plantation businesses, and the service industry. Only one company followed all the workplace policy principles recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization. Six businesses required all applicants and/or employees to undergo HIV testing. All their managers claimed that they would not discriminate against HIV-infected workers. Many workers thought that they would be fired if they were--or were suspected to be--HIV positive. Lack of a non-discrimination policy brings about worker mistrust of management. 11 companies had some type of HIV/AIDS education program. All the programs generated positive feedback. The main reasons for not providing HIV/AIDS education for the remaining 5 companies were: no employee requests, fears that it would be taboo, and assumptions that workers could receive adequate information elsewhere. More than 90% of all companies distributed condoms. 60% offered sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. About 33% offered counseling. Four companies provided volunteer HIV testing. Almost 50% of companies received financial or other external support for their programs. Most managers thought AIDS to be a problem mainly with manual staff and not with professional staff. Almost all businesses offered some medical benefits. The future impact of HIV/AIDS would be $90/employee/year (by 2005, $260) due to health care costs, absenteeism, retraining, and burial benefits. The annual costs of a comprehensive workplace HIV/AIDS prevention program varied from $18 to $54/worker at one company.

  19. Assessing business responses to HIV / AIDS in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M; Wangombe, J

    1995-01-01

    A consulting firm conducted interviews with managers of 16 businesses in 3 Kenyan cities, representatives of 2 trade unions, focus groups with workers at 13 companies, and an analysis of financial/labor data from 4 companies. It then did a needs assessment. The business types were light industry, manufacturing companies, tourism organizations, transport firms, agro-industrial and plantation businesses, and the service industry. Only one company followed all the workplace policy principles recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization. Six businesses required all applicants and/or employees to undergo HIV testing. All their managers claimed that they would not discriminate against HIV-infected workers. Many workers thought that they would be fired if they were--or were suspected to be--HIV positive. Lack of a non-discrimination policy brings about worker mistrust of management. 11 companies had some type of HIV/AIDS education program. All the programs generated positive feedback. The main reasons for not providing HIV/AIDS education for the remaining 5 companies were: no employee requests, fears that it would be taboo, and assumptions that workers could receive adequate information elsewhere. More than 90% of all companies distributed condoms. 60% offered sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. About 33% offered counseling. Four companies provided volunteer HIV testing. Almost 50% of companies received financial or other external support for their programs. Most managers thought AIDS to be a problem mainly with manual staff and not with professional staff. Almost all businesses offered some medical benefits. The future impact of HIV/AIDS would be $90/employee/year (by 2005, $260) due to health care costs, absenteeism, retraining, and burial benefits. The annual costs of a comprehensive workplace HIV/AIDS prevention program varied from $18 to $54/worker at one company. PMID:12289839

  20. Quantitative enhancement of speech in noise through a wireless equipped hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, A; Zattara, S; Loroni, G; Prosser, S

    2014-02-01

    The development of new hearing aid technology can improve speech understanding in complex listening environments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the benefit offered by the use of wireless technology applied to hearing aids. Participants were fit with binaural hearing instruments and underwent speech-in-noise tests. The signal was transmitted either by a speaker or wirelessly directly to the hearing aid. In our experience, hearing aids with wireless systems have an advantage in two particular conditions. The first can be achieved while listening wirelessly with microphones excluded (recommended when listening in noisy environments), while the second is in conditions of asymmetric listening; the wireless signal perception remains effective, but at the same time it allows the patient to receive environmental signals. Hearing aids equipped with wireless systems may be particularly useful when listening to people talking even in noisy environments and/ or receiving other sound sources such as TV and landline or cell phones.

  1. The Effectiveness and Need for Facility Based Nurse Aide Training Competency Evaluation Programs.

    PubMed

    Mileski, Michael; McIlwain, Amber S; Kruse, Clemens Scott; Lieneck, Cristian; Sokan, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    It has become crucial for nursing facilities to rapidly train future nurse aides and remove any barriers to their matriculation into the field of care. Facilities feel the organizational burden of insufficient staffing and need to lever all effective programs to train future employees. The facility-based, Nurse Aide Training Competency Evaluation Programs (NATCEP) serve as a viable option to help fill shortages in the professional medical workforce. Data were analyzed from the National Nursing Assistant Survey to provide an overview of the benefits of using facility-trained nurse aides, versus those trained elsewhere, including their own perceptions of training and abilities. These findings also show the importance of facility based training programs for nurse aides on a global level. Providing training on site increases the efficiency and proficiency of nurse aides, making the transition to caregivers an easier for students, employers and residents. PMID:26930768

  2. The Effectiveness and Need for Facility Based Nurse Aide Training Competency Evaluation Programs.

    PubMed

    Mileski, Michael; McIlwain, Amber S; Kruse, Clemens Scott; Lieneck, Cristian; Sokan, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    It has become crucial for nursing facilities to rapidly train future nurse aides and remove any barriers to their matriculation into the field of care. Facilities feel the organizational burden of insufficient staffing and need to lever all effective programs to train future employees. The facility-based, Nurse Aide Training Competency Evaluation Programs (NATCEP) serve as a viable option to help fill shortages in the professional medical workforce. Data were analyzed from the National Nursing Assistant Survey to provide an overview of the benefits of using facility-trained nurse aides, versus those trained elsewhere, including their own perceptions of training and abilities. These findings also show the importance of facility based training programs for nurse aides on a global level. Providing training on site increases the efficiency and proficiency of nurse aides, making the transition to caregivers an easier for students, employers and residents.

  3. Social Security's special minimum benefit.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K A; Hoffmeyer, D

    Social Security's special minimum primary insurance amount (PIA) provision was enacted in 1972 to increase the adequacy of benefits for regular long-term, low-earning covered workers and their dependents or survivors. At the time, Social Security also had a regular minimum benefit provision for persons with low lifetime average earnings and their families. Concerns were rising that the low lifetime average earnings of many regular minimum beneficiaries resulted from sporadic attachment to the covered workforce rather than from low wages. The special minimum benefit was seen as a way to reward regular, low-earning workers without providing the windfalls that would have resulted from raising the regular minimum benefit to a much higher level. The regular minimum benefit was subsequently eliminated for workers reaching age 62, becoming disabled, or dying after 1981. Under current law, the special minimum benefit will phase out over time, although it is not clear from the legislative history that this was Congress's explicit intent. The phaseout results from two factors: (1) special minimum benefits are paid only if they are higher than benefits payable under the regular PIA formula, and (2) the value of the regular PIA formula, which is indexed to wages before benefit eligibility, has increased faster than that of the special minimum PIA, which is indexed to inflation. Under the Social Security Trustees' 2000 intermediate assumptions, the special minimum benefit will cease to be payable to retired workers attaining eligibility in 2013 and later. Their benefits will always be larger under the regular benefit formula. As policymakers consider Social Security solvency initiatives--particularly proposals that would reduce benefits or introduce investment risk--interest may increase in restoring some type of special minimum benefit as a targeted protection for long-term low earners. Two of the three reform proposals offered by the President's Commission to Strengthen

  4. 29 CFR 1915.98 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 1915.98 Section 1915.98 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.98 First aid...) Unless a first aid room and a qualified attendant are close at hand and prepared to render first aid...

  5. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral... Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all... aid training shall be made available to all interested miners....

  6. Learning Aids for the Hearing Impaired Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Learning Resource Center of Pennsylvania, King of Prussia.

    Intended for parents, the booklet provides a practical guide to the types of learning aids that are helpful to the hearing impaired child. Sections cover the following: an explanation of residual hearing; types of hearing aids and hearing aid equipment; language development aids (brief descriptions are provided for materials in beginning language,…

  7. Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ronald, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

  8. 76 FR 76025 - World AIDS Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... States of America A Proclamation On World AIDS Day, 30 years after the first cases of HIV/AIDS were reported, we stand with the individuals and communities affected by HIV and recommit to progress toward an AIDS-free generation. My Administration is taking action to turn the corner on the HIV/AIDS pandemic...

  9. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Prevention HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials (Last updated 9/15/2015; last reviewed 9/15/2015) Key Points HIV/AIDS clinical trials are ... and effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help researchers ...

  10. Training Aids for Online Instruction: An Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Robin Frederick

    This paper describes a number of different types of training aids currently employed in online training: non-interactive audiovisual presentations; interactive computer-based aids; partially interactive aids based on recorded searches; print-based materials; and kits. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of aid are noted, and a table…

  11. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet

    MedlinePlus

    ... English Español | Spanish नेपाली | Nepali About the AIDS InfoNet The AIDS InfoNet is an educational project ... site visitor and her/his healthcare provider. The AIDS InfoNet provides current information on HIV/AIDS treatment ...

  12. Evaluation of Speech Intelligibility and Sound Localization Abilities with Hearing Aids Using Binaural Wireless Technology.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Iman; Parsa, Vijay; Macpherson, Ewan; Cheesman, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Wireless synchronization of the digital signal processing (DSP) features between two hearing aids in a bilateral hearing aid fitting is a fairly new technology. This technology is expected to preserve the differences in time and intensity between the two ears by co-ordinating the bilateral DSP features such as multichannel compression, noise reduction, and adaptive directionality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of wireless communication as implemented in two commercially available hearing aids. More specifically, this study measured speech intelligibility and sound localization abilities of normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners using bilateral hearing aids with wireless synchronization of multichannel Wide Dynamic Range Compression (WDRC). Twenty subjects participated; 8 had normal hearing and 12 had bilaterally symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss. Each individual completed the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) and a sound localization test with two types of stimuli. No specific benefit from wireless WDRC synchronization was observed for the HINT; however, hearing impaired listeners had better localization with the wireless synchronization. Binaural wireless technology in hearing aids may improve localization abilities although the possible effect appears to be small at the initial fitting. With adaptation, the hearing aids with synchronized signal processing may lead to an improvement in localization and speech intelligibility. Further research is required to demonstrate the effect of adaptation to the hearing aids with synchronized signal processing on different aspects of auditory performance.

  13. Evaluation of Speech Intelligibility and Sound Localization Abilities with Hearing Aids Using Binaural Wireless Technology

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Iman; Parsa, Vijay; Macpherson, Ewan; Cheesman, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Wireless synchronization of the digital signal processing (DSP) features between two hearing aids in a bilateral hearing aid fitting is a fairly new technology. This technology is expected to preserve the differences in time and intensity between the two ears by co-ordinating the bilateral DSP features such as multichannel compression, noise reduction, and adaptive directionality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of wireless communication as implemented in two commercially available hearing aids. More specifically, this study measured speech intelligibility and sound localization abilities of normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners using bilateral hearing aids with wireless synchronization of multichannel Wide Dynamic Range Compression (WDRC). Twenty subjects participated; 8 had normal hearing and 12 had bilaterally symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss. Each individual completed the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) and a sound localization test with two types of stimuli. No specific benefit from wireless WDRC synchronization was observed for the HINT; however, hearing impaired listeners had better localization with the wireless synchronization. Binaural wireless technology in hearing aids may improve localization abilities although the possible effect appears to be small at the initial fitting. With adaptation, the hearing aids with synchronized signal processing may lead to an improvement in localization and speech intelligibility. Further research is required to demonstrate the effect of adaptation to the hearing aids with synchronized signal processing on different aspects of auditory performance. PMID:26557339

  14. Obstacles to local-level AIDS competence in rural Zimbabwe: putting HIV prevention in context

    PubMed Central

    Nhamo, Mercy; Campbell, Catherine; Gregson, Simon

    2010-01-01

    We explore the wider social context of an HIV-prevention programme in rural Zimbabwe. We make no comment on the programme itself, rather seeking to examine the wider community dynamics into which it was inserted, to highlight how pre-existing social dynamics may have influenced community “readiness” to derive optimal benefit from the intervention. Using the concept of “the AIDS competent community”, we analysed 44 interviews and 11 focus groups with local people. Despite high levels of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, there were several ways gender, poverty and low literacy may have undermined its perceived relevance to peoples’ lives. Lack of opportunities for dialogue in the social milieu beyond the intervention may have limited opportunities for translating factual AIDS knowledge into action plans, or sharing hidden individual experiences of HIV/AIDS-affected family members or friends, given stigma and denial. The initiative of women and young people to respond effectively to AIDS was limited in a context dominated by adult males. People spoke of HIV/AIDS in a passive and fatalistic way, expecting outsiders to solve the problem. This tendency was exacerbated given the community's previous experiences of HIV/AIDS-related NGOs, which had often regarded local people as unpaid volunteer labour rather than building their capacity to make significant decisions and play leadership roles in health programmes. Despite obstacles, however, there were many potential community strengths and resources. There were high levels of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Public denial of HIV/AIDS masked huge reservoirs of private support and kindness to AIDS-affected family and friends. There were many strong community organisations and clubs, potentially forming the springboard for more empowered community responses to HIV/ AIDS. HIV/AIDS programmers should pay greater attention to community readiness for interventions, especially around: (1) identifying and anticipating pre

  15. Obstacles to local-level AIDS competence in rural Zimbabwe: putting HIV prevention in context.

    PubMed

    Nhamo, Mercy; Campbell, Catherine; Gregson, Simon

    2010-01-01

    We explore the wider social context of an HIV-prevention programme in rural Zimbabwe. We make no comment on the programme itself, rather seeking to examine the wider community dynamics into which it was inserted, to highlight how pre-existing social dynamics may have influenced community "readiness" to derive optimal benefit from the intervention. Using the concept of "the AIDS competent community", we analysed 44 interviews and 11 focus groups with local people. Despite high levels of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, there were several ways gender, poverty and low literacy may have undermined its perceived relevance to peoples' lives. Lack of opportunities for dialogue in the social milieu beyond the intervention may have limited opportunities for translating factual AIDS knowledge into action plans, or sharing hidden individual experiences of HIV/AIDS-affected family members or friends, given stigma and denial. The initiative of women and young people to respond effectively to AIDS was limited in a context dominated by adult males. People spoke of HIV/AIDS in a passive and fatalistic way, expecting outsiders to solve the problem. This tendency was exacerbated given the community's previous experiences of HIV/AIDS-related NGOs, which had often regarded local people as unpaid volunteer labour rather than building their capacity to make significant decisions and play leadership roles in health programmes. Despite obstacles, however, there were many potential community strengths and resources. There were high levels of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Public denial of HIV/AIDS masked huge reservoirs of private support and kindness to AIDS-affected family and friends. There were many strong community organisations and clubs, potentially forming the springboard for more empowered community responses to HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS programmers should pay greater attention to community readiness for interventions, especially around: (1) identifying and anticipating pre-existing obstacles to

  16. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  17. How to perform first aid.

    PubMed

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John

    2016-01-13

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .

  18. HIV/AIDS and blindness.

    PubMed Central

    Kestelyn, P. G.; Cunningham, E. T.

    2001-01-01

    Nearly 34 million people are currently living with HIV/AIDS: ocular complications are common, affecting 50% to 75% of all such patients at some point during the course of their illness. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is by far the most frequent cause of vision loss in patients with AIDS. Although the prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis is decreasing in industrialized countries because of the widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy, between 10% and 20% of HIV-infected patients worldwide can be expected to lose vision in one or both eyes as a result of ocular cytomegalovirus infection. Less frequent but important causes of bilateral vision loss in patients with HIV/AIDS include varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus retinitis, HIV-related ischaemic microvasculopathy, ocular syphilis, ocular tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, and ocular toxic or allergic drug reactions. At present, most patients with HIV/AIDS in developing countries who lose their vision have a very limited life expectancy. As antiretroviral therapy makes its way to these countries, however, both life expectancy and the prevalence of blindness related to HIV/AIDS can be expected to increase dramatically. PMID:11285664

  19. How to perform first aid.

    PubMed

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John

    2016-01-13

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26758166

  20. Asia: fastest growing AIDS problem.

    PubMed

    A recent UN report noted that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is growing faster in Asia than in any other region. Recent figures indicate that 2.3% of adults in Thailand are infected, and 50,000 die annually from AIDS. It is estimated that, by the year 2000, 12 million Asians could be infected and that the economic burden of this epidemic could be as high as $52 billion as the work force is lost to the disease. The increased incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is adding to the problem, with India, China, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Indonesia, and the Philippines together contributing half of the world's TB cases. Efforts to fight these epidemics are hampered by political unrest, religious opposition, the economic crisis, and poverty. Worldwide, 5.8 million people have become infected with HIV/AIDS this year, bringing the total number of those infected to 33 million. Children under age 15 account for 90% of the 590,000 new cases in sub-Sahara Africa, a region which expects 2 million AIDS deaths this year. In developed countries, new drug therapies have reduced AIDS deaths, but the rate of new infection remains unchanged.

  1. Will Schools Risk Teaching about the Risk of AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unks, Gerald

    1996-01-01

    Discusses schools and current AIDS education; facts about AIDS; teaching about behavioral change; the use of condoms; an AIDS awareness curriculum; HIV/AIDS awareness and sex education; and HIV/AIDS awareness and democratic schooling. (SR)

  2. Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Corlis, N. E.

    1980-05-01

    The adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique data system which uses computer controlled data systems, video cameras and recorders, analog-to-digital conversion, environmental sensors, and digital recorders to collect sensor data. The data can be viewed either manually or with a special computerized data-reduction system which adds new data to a data base stored on a magnetic disc recorder. This report provides a synoptic account of the AIDS as it presently exists. Modifications to the purchased subsystems are described, and references are made to publications which describe the Sandia-designed subsystems.

  3. Space assembly fixtures and aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, K. A.; Lillenas, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    Concepts and requirements for assembly fixtures and aids necessary for the assembly and maintenance of spare platforms were studied. Emphasis was placed on erectable and deployable type structures with the shuttle orbiter as the assembly base. Both single and multiple orbiter flight cases for the platform assembly were considered. Applicable space platform assembly studies were reviewed to provide a data base for establishing the assembly fixture and aids design requirements, assembly constraints, and the development of representative design concepts. Conclusions indicated that fixture requirements will vary with platform size. Larger platforms will require translation relative to the orbiter RMS working volume. The installation of platform payloads and subsystems (e.g., utility distribution) must also be considered in the specification of assembly fixtures and aids.

  4. First aid in acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Reitmayer, Michael; Raschick, Marlitt; Erbguth, Frank; Neundörfer, Bernhard; Babjar, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    Objective First aid training is well established to teach the public how to recognize a medical emergency and take appropriate action. Though it is now handled as a high priority emergency stroke is not among the main topics of first aid. We investigated if first aid training may be useful for enhancing stroke awareness. Methods We developed a 15–20 minute teaching session about stroke as an emergency including signs and symptoms and first hands-on measures. The session was integrated in standard first aid training of the St John Ambulance of Germany and participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding their knowledge about stroke. Subjects were questioned before the stroke lesson and again at the end of the training. Results 532 participants of the training responded to the questionnaire (mean age 28.6 years, 53.6% male). There was a significant increase in proportion of subjects correctly defining what stroke is (28.4% vs. 69.9%, p < 0,001) and in the mean number of stroke symptoms listed (1.52 vs. 3.35, p < 0,001) by the participants. The number of participants unable to list at least 1 symptom decreased significantly (12.8 vs. 3.6%, p<0.001). Conclusions In our study a teaching lesson integrated in first aid training was effective in improving stroke knowledge of participants. First aid training should be used for stroke information complementary to other activities like mass media campaigns as it is effective, could reach younger people that are not primarily interested in stroke and provides connections to other health topics. PMID:16896518

  5. Who Benefits from Volunteering? Variations in Perceived Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Song-Iee; Tang, Fengyan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document the benefits of volunteering perceived by older adults and to explain variation in these self-perceived benefits. Design and Methods: This is a quantitative study of 13 volunteer programs and 401 older adults serving in those programs. Program directors completed telephone interviews, and older…

  6. AIDS as a social phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Bennett, F J

    1987-01-01

    AIDS as a new lethal and at present incurable sexually transmitted disease is already having remarkable social repercussions not yet fully explicit and hence it can be termed a social phenomenon. Political, behavioural, economic and legal reactions and social responses such as stigmatization, changes in the sick role and the growth of voluntary organizations and international collaboration are described. Communication, education and information aspects of AIDS are considered using material from the press and it is clear that a massive educational approach to modify behaviour must be the basis for a control programme. PMID:3317877

  7. Programs To Aid FORTRAN Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragosta, Arthur E.

    1987-01-01

    Program-development time decreased while program quality increased. FORTRAN Programming Tools are series of programming tools used to support development and maintenance of FORTRAN 77 source codes. Included are debugging aid, central-processing-unit time-monitoring program, source-code maintenance aids, print utilities, and library of useful, well-documented programs. Tools assist in reducing development time and encouraging high-quality programming. Although intended primarily for FORTRAN programmers, some tools used on data files and other programming languages. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  8. HIV/AIDS in African Americans. National Minority AIDS Council.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    The National Minority AIDS Council (NMAC) answered the call of the Congressional Black Caucus by asking President Clinton to declare a state of emergency on HIV and AIDS among African-Americans. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that of the seven Americans infected with HIV every hour, three are African-Americans. NMAC is calling on Federal, State, and local government leaders to implement widespread public information and education campaigns that target African-Americans, and that address voluntary HIV testing, dispel the shame and stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, discuss the needs of gay African-American men, address the accessibility of appropriate resources for HIV treatment, coordinate the expansion of drug prevention and treatment programs, implement a national needle exchange policy, and allocate funds for researching HIV treatment in minority populations. Dr. Beny Primm, vice-chair of NMAC, states that efforts to fight HIV/AIDS must be integrated with other obstacles affecting the African-American community.

  9. Modeling strategic behavior in human-automation interaction - Why an 'aid' can (and should) go unused

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirlik, Alex

    1993-01-01

    Task-offload aids (e.g., an autopilot, an 'intelligent' assistant) can be selectively engaged by the human operator to dynamically delegate tasks to automation. Introducing such aids eliminates some task demands but creates new ones associated with programming, engaging, and disengaging the aiding device via an interface. The burdens associated with managing automation can sometimes outweigh the potential benefits of automation to improved system performance. Aid design parameters and features of the overall multitask context combine to determine whether or not a task-offload aid will effectively support the operator. A modeling and sensitivity analysis approach is presented that identifies effective strategies for human-automation interaction as a function of three task-context parameters and three aid design parameters. The analysis and modeling approaches provide resources for predicting how a well-adapted operator will use a given task-offload aid, and for specifying aid design features that ensure that automation will provide effective operator support in a multitask environment.

  10. Modeling strategic behavior in human-automation interaction: why an "aid" can (and should) go unused.

    PubMed

    Kirlik, A

    1993-06-01

    Task-offload aids (e.g., an autopilot, an "intelligent" assistant) can be selectively engaged by the human operator to dynamically delegate tasks to automation. Introducing such aids eliminates some task demands but creates new ones associated with programming, engaging, and disengaging the aiding device via an interface. The burdens associated with managing automation can sometimes outweigh the potential benefits of automation to improved system performance. Aid design parameters and features of the overall multitask context combine to determine whether or not a task-offload aid will effectively support the operator. A modeling and sensitivity analysis approach is presented that identifies effective strategies for human-automation interaction as a function of three task-context parameters and three aid design parameters. The analysis and modeling approaches provide resources for predicting how a well-adapted operator will use a given task-offload aid, and for specifying aid design features that ensure that automation will provide effective operator support in a multitask environment.

  11. Taxability of Educational Benefits Trusts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Law Quarterly, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Corporations have found the promise of providing a college education to the children of employees--without the recognition of income to the parent-employee--to be a popular fringe benefit. The Internal Revenue Service has attacked educational benefit trusts in Revenue Ruling 75-448. Implications are discussed. (LBH)

  12. Who Benefits from Pension Enhancements?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedel, Cory; Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the late 1990s public pension funds across the United States accrued large actuarial surpluses. The seemingly flush conditions of the pension funds led legislators in most states to substantially improve retirement benefits for public workers, including teachers. In this study we examine the benefit enhancements to the teacher pension…

  13. Gauging Technology Costs and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestner, Rich

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of the role technology plays in a school district, district personnel should know the costs associated with technology, understand the consequences of technology purchases, and be able to measure the benefits of technology, so they can make more informed decisions. However, determining costs and benefits of current technology or…

  14. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1996-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: First, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities.

  15. Trends in Student Aid, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, New York, NY.

    This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance--grants, loans, and work-study--available to help students pay for postsecondary education. The College Board began this data series in 1983 to track the value of such aid over time from federal, state, and institutional sources. This year, information on federal education tax…

  16. Computer-Aided Geometry Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoosmith, J. N. (Compiler); Fulton, R. E. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Techniques in computer-aided geometry modeling and their application are addressed. Mathematical modeling, solid geometry models, management of geometric data, development of geometry standards, and interactive and graphic procedures are discussed. The applications include aeronautical and aerospace structures design, fluid flow modeling, and gas turbine design.

  17. AIDE - Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Cathy L.

    2013-04-28

    Would you like to know when someone has dropped an undesirable executable binary on our system? What about something less malicious such as a software installation by a user? What about the user who decides to install a newer version of mod_perl or PHP on your web server without letting you know beforehand? Or even something as simple as when an undocumented config file change is made by another member of the admin group? Do you even want to know about all the changes that happen on a daily basis on your server? The purpose of an intrusion detection system (IDS) is to detect unauthorized, possibly malicious activity. The purpose of a host-based IDS, or file integrity checker, is check for unauthorized changes to key system files, binaries, libraries, and directories on the system. AIDE is an Open Source file and directory integrity checker. AIDE will let you know when a file or directory has been added, deleted, modified. It is included with the Red Hat Enterprise 6. It is available for other Linux distros. This is a case study describing the process of configuring AIDE on an out of the box RHEL6 installation. Its goal is to illustrate the thinking and the process by which a useful AIDE configuration is built.

  18. Suicide in Relation to AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckerman, Nancy L.

    1995-01-01

    Explores many dimensions of suicide among the terminally ill, including preemptive, surcease, and rational suicide. The critical issues addressed are the incidence of suicide in HIV-positive individuals, contributing factors associated with the risk of suicide among people with HIV/AIDS, and the clinical and ethical implications of this issue for…

  19. Homemaker/Home Health Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Mothe, Dolores; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist vocational instructors in preparing students for entry-level employment as homemakers/home health aides and getting them ready for advanced training in the workplace. The package contains a competency/skill and task list, an instructor's guide, and an annotated bibliography. The following competencies…

  20. Computer Aided Drafting. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Michael A.

    This guide is intended for use in introducing students to the operation and applications of computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons: understanding CAD (CAD versus traditional manual drafting and care of software and hardware); using the components of a CAD system (primary and other input…

  1. First Aid in Emergency Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcel, Guy S.

    This book is written for advanced courses in first aid. The content of the book is the combined work of contributing authors including health educators, an emergency medical technician, nurses, physicians, a lawyer, a community organizer, a social worker, and a sociologist. There are five major sections: (1) parameters for administering first aid…

  2. An Interactive Aid to Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersting, John M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A brief nontechnical description of time-sharing computer software developed at Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis as an aid in disseminating class schedule information. Design criteria include maintenance of a data base on sections offered, display of sections closed, and creation of reports on in individual schedules for closed…

  3. A Hearing Aid Primer 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yetter, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    This hearing aid primer is designed to define the differences among the three levels of hearing instrument technology: conventional analog circuit technology (most basic), digitally programmable/analog circuit technology (moderately advanced), and fully digital technology (most advanced). Both moderate and advanced technologies mean that hearing…

  4. A Communication Configuration of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughey, Jim D.

    A study focused on the way that image, knowledge, behavioral intent, and communicative responsiveness are configured for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The classic model of the adoption process expects that knowledge about a subject will lead to a favorable evaluation of it, which in turn will lead to a decision to act. But the…

  5. Homemaker/Home Health Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a five-unit home health aide course. Each unit contains 4 to 36 lesson plans. Unit topics and representative lesson plan topics are as follows: (1) introduction (ethical and legal responsibilities, time management, reporting and recording); (2) communication (techniques, meeting the public, therapeutic…

  6. The sombre view of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Rees, M

    Extrapolation from short-term data is risky, but the development of AIDS among those infected with HIV by blood transfusions, if properly described by a normal distribution, suggests a 15-year mean incubation and a high incidence of disease among carriers of the virus.

  7. Treatments for HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS HIV medicines are giving women longer, healthier futures and new strength. While there's no cure for HIV, the treatments today allow women to live longer, fuller lives. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved many drugs for treating HIV. ...

  8. AIDS Victims and Heterosexual Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Knud S.; And Others

    This study reports on the development of a Likert scale measuring attitudes toward Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) victims (ATAV) in five phases. Participants included a total of 215 male and 268 female undergraduates at Oregon State University. The results for phase 1 yielded a scale with high part-whole correlations, corrected…

  9. Dietetic Aide. [Teacher's Copy]. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    The curriculum guide, one of a series prepared to assist teacher-coordinators in promoting and teaching home economics cooperative education programs, provides a course of study for the dietetic aide occupation. In addition to a brief overview, job description, and job analysis of the occupation, the guide's four main sections are: instructional…

  10. Living with HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    Infection with HIV is serious. But the outlook for people with HIV/AIDS is improving. If you are infected with HIV, there are many things you can do to ... health care provider who knows how to treat HIV. You may want to join a support group. ...

  11. Space Technology for Medical Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    A line of biomedical devices based on aerospace expertise leads a sampling of spinoffs in the field of medicine. These include a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-developed computer program used by the Centers for Disease Control, medical products research, crawling aid, portable medical system, and human tissue stimulator.…

  12. Adolescents, AIDS and HIV. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resources for Educators, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This compilation of educational resources is designed for communities which have been either overlooked in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education efforts or disproportionately affected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The materials listed target Blacks, Latinos, Asians and Pacific Islanders, Native Americans, young…

  13. AIDS. CSAP Prevention Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Karen, Ed.

    This resource guide was compiled from a variety of publications and data bases and represents the most current information to date on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention. The guide is organized into three major sections. The first section lists prevention materials. For each entry, information is provided on the organization…

  14. Spanish Aid in Clinical Dietetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringas, Juliet G.; Chan, Teresa Y.

    Designed to aid dietitians, nutritionists, and other health professionals to better serve the nutritional needs of Hispanics, this bilingual booklet describes the different cultural eating habits of Mexican, Cuban, and Puerto Rican Americans, with in-depth description of Mexican Americans. Written in Spanish and English, the booklet includes…

  15. Highway noise barrier perceived benefit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, D. N.; Osman, M. M.

    1980-05-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed in which 82 subjects judged the benefit of a noise barrier by listening to tape recordings of before-barrier and after-barrier traffic noise. These perceived benefit judgments were related by regression analysis to the barrier attenuation, the before-barrier traffic sound level, and a music background level, all of which were varied over the course of the experiment. Prediction equations were developed for barrier benefit in terms of these sound levels, their purpose being to provide a model for barrier benefit that can be used in barrier site selection and design. An unexpected finding was that barrier benefit was highest when before-barrier sound levels were lowest: i.e., subjects preferred a noise barrier that solved a moderate noise problem over an equally-attenuating barrier that only partially solved a more severe noise problem.

  16. Arab nations: attitudes to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kandela, P

    1993-04-01

    In the Arab world the number of people infected with HIV is uncertain, but official figures underreport the disease, even in Lebanon where public information is credible. The Ministry of Health figure of 130 recorded cases of AIDS since 1984 has been disputed by doctors, who also disclosed that a recent traffic-accident victim acquired HIV after a blood transfusion in a large Beirut hospital. In Marrakesh the blood bank releases figures on proportions of HIV-positive cases among blood donors only under special permission from the Ministry of Health. However, public health, education material is being produced in Morocco in a joint venture between the Pasteur Foundation and the Moroccan Association against AIDS. In Tunisia disputable figures released in January 1993 state that there are only 350 known cases of AIDS. In Jordan a Ministry of Health ruling mandates graduates of foreign medical schools seeking appointments at government hospitals to undergo pre-employment tests for HIV. In the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia similar rules apply to foreign medical workers, and those found to be HIV-positive are deported. The chairman of the Egyptian Medical Association disclosed that his association is testing doctors regularly to ensure their safety. Doctors found to be HIV-positive should be isolated from society with suitable medical care. A specialist at Abasa Fever Hospital has proposed the establishment of an AIDS colony for all infected persons and a national screening program for all Egyptians. Aswan district is to institute a pilot scheme of annual HIV testing for all hotel employees because of their contact with foreigners. According to WHO figures, Egypt's AIDS rate is not high, and the HIV seropositivity rate among blood donors was 1 in 110,254 in 1991. More health education is being carried out in Egypt than in any other Arab country except Lebanon, and the availability of condoms for family planning purposes helps in the protection against HIV

  17. [AIDS in Madagascar. I. Epidemiology, projections, socioeconomic impact, interventions].

    PubMed

    Andriamahenina, R; Ravelojaona, B; Rarivoharilala, E; Ravaoarimalala, C; Andriamiadana, J; Andriamahefazafy, B; May, J F; Behets, F; Rasamindrakotroka, A

    1998-01-01

    Madagascar is still among the rare states of low prevalence of HIV. The seroprevalence rate is nevertheless rising. The aim of this study is to show the current view of the epidemic, its future tendency, its economical and social impact on people and what measures to be taken at the national scale. In Madagascar, we can state by 1995 20 cases of notified AIDS and probably 130 cases of non-notified AIDS. Seroprevalence data are collected every year by the National Reference Laboratory STD/AIDS. But, they are insufficient to estimate the number of infected people. So, they had been completed by a serosurveillance study of AIDS and syphilis in middle of 1995 and at the beginning of 1996. Pregnant women, persons with STDs and prostitutes are been screened in the six biggest cities of the Island. Results show, not only a high prevalence of syphilis, but also indicate that now, we have about 5,000 seropositive people in the country. Besides, by the number of people with STDs, it is estimated that one million Malgasy adults risk to be infected. Based on estimates of the epidemic, be it the cases of a high scenario, (Kenya) or of a low one (Thailand) by the year 2015, the seroprevalence rate could represent 3% or 15% of adults. Demographic consequences of the epidemic will be serious, particularly if HIV spreads quickly. Nevertheless, it does not stop the increase of population. Therefore, there will be more infected people with the disease, especially young people between 15 and 49 years old. The increase of dead people will be serious. Social consequences of the epidemic (case of high scenario) will be gravely felt, in particular by the rise of the number of AIDS orphans. Tuberculosis outbreak can be observed too. This disease is already a serious problem in Madagascar. At last, the epidemic will bring with it a high increase of money spent on health and will have grave consequences on agriculture, industry and commerce. Nevertheless, Madagascar still benefit a big luck

  18. Electrophysiologic Assessment of Auditory Training Benefits in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Samira; Jenkins, Kimberly

    2015-11-01

    Older adults often exhibit speech perception deficits in difficult listening environments. At present, hearing aids or cochlear implants are the main options for therapeutic remediation; however, they only address audibility and do not compensate for central processing changes that may accompany aging and hearing loss or declines in cognitive function. It is unknown whether long-term hearing aid or cochlear implant use can restore changes in central encoding of temporal and spectral components of speech or improve cognitive function. Therefore, consideration should be given to auditory/cognitive training that targets auditory processing and cognitive declines, taking advantage of the plastic nature of the central auditory system. The demonstration of treatment efficacy is an important component of any training strategy. Electrophysiologic measures can be used to assess training-related benefits. This article will review the evidence for neuroplasticity in the auditory system and the use of evoked potentials to document treatment efficacy. PMID:27587912

  19. 34 CFR 106.56 - Fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... benefits. (a) Fringe benefits defined. For purposes of this part, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any profit-sharing...

  20. Nursing home employee attitudes towards AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sarvela, P D; Moore, J R

    1989-01-01

    This article examines nursing home employee attitudes toward issues related to AIDS and is based on data collected from 343 employees from 13 nursing homes in rural, small towns in sourthern Illinois during the spring of 1988. Results suggested that a large majority of the employees had negative attitudes toward people with AIDS. For example, 67% of the sample indicated that it was more important to limit the spread of AIDS rather than to protect the rights of people with AIDS. Furthermore, 42% suggested that AIDS patients should be sent to sanitariums to protect others from AIDS. Greater than half of the sample (56%) responded that they would feel uncomfortable around people with AIDS. About one third (32%) felt that being around someone with AIDS would put their health in danger, and 21% would be afraid to even take care of a family member with AIDS. With regard to job-specific AIDS attitudes, 51% indicated that health-care workers should be able to refuse to work with AIDS patients, and another 46% felt that hospitals and nursing homes should be able to refuse to admit people with AIDS. In addition to these and other results, this article presents a brief discussion concerning possible educational strategies which might be implemented in this setting to reduce the negative attitudes of these employees. Considerations are also presented for nursing home administrators, who face the problem of developing effective policies for dealing with the rising number of AIDS patients who will be admitted to their facilities.

  1. The perspectives of iranian physicians and patients towards patient decision aids: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient preference is one of the main components of clinical decision making, therefore leading to the development of patient decision aids. The goal of this study was to describe physicians’ and patients’ viewpoints on the barriers and limitations of using patient decision aids in Iran, their proposed solutions, and, the benefits of using these tools. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2011 in Iran by holding in-depth interviews with 14 physicians and 8 arthritis patient. Interviewees were selected through purposeful and maximum variation sampling. As an example, a patient decision aid on the treatment of knee arthritis was developed upon literature reviews and gathering expert opinion, and was presented at the time of interview. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the data by using the OpenCode software. Results The results were summarized into three categories and ten codes. The extracted categories were the perceived benefits of using the tools, as well as the patient-related and physician-related barriers in using decision aids. The following barriers in using patient decision aids were identified in this study: lack of patients and physicians’ trainings in shared decision making, lack of specialist per capita, low treatment tariffs and lack of an exact evaluation system for patient participation in decision making. Conclusions No doubt these barriers demand the health authorities’ special attention. Hence, despite patients and physicians’ inclination toward using patient decision aids, these problems have hindered the practical usage of these tools in Iran - as a developing country. PMID:24066792

  2. Patient Decision Aids: A Case for Certification at the National Level in the United States.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Urbashi; Brownlee, Shannon; Stacey, Dawn; Volk, Robert J; Williams, John W; Elwyn, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    Patient decision aids enable patients to be better informed about the potential benefits and harms of their healthcare options. Certification of patient decision aids at the national level in the United States is a critical step towards responsible governance-primarily as a quality measure that increases patients' safety, as mandated in the U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). Certification would provide a verification process to identify conflicts of interest that may otherwise bias the scientific evidence presented in decision aids. Certification also benefits clinicians who may otherwise face malpractice claims based on harm to patients caused by possible reliance on patient decision aids that are inaccurate, incomplete, or presented in a manner that biases the patient's decision. Existing work by the International Patient Decision Aid Standards Collaboration could guide the establishment of a certification process within the U.S. This article argues for national certification of patient decision aids and discusses how that may be achieved. PMID:26752384

  3. Making the health care system 'safe' for persons with HIV infection or AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, A M; Lafferty, B; Shields, A; Smyser, M

    1995-01-01

    If health care reform is implemented in states and nationally, the safety of this process needs to be examined for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Reform should assure ongoing prevention and transmission control of HIV and continuous coverage of medical costs for persons ill with HIV or AIDS. These persons currently benefit from various state and federal categoric programs designed to assure access to preventive and personal care services. Washington State has passed health care reform legislation that envisions integrating these programs to provide a system of population-based and personal health care. This legislation was analyzed using existing epidemiologic and entitlement information about persons with HIV infection or AIDS in the state to assess its effect. The relationship between public health and personal care services will be a central concern for those with HIV infection or AIDS, and complete coverage of this group may be achieved relatively late in the process of implementing health care reform. Health personnel planning under health care reform will affect the delivery of HIV- and AIDS-related services. Including treatment of AIDS in the basic benefit package merits particular attention. These issues parallel those being faced by the nation as a whole as it seeks to ensure epidemic disease control and compassionate care for long-term disabling illness if health care reform is implemented. Images PMID:7725706

  4. Task Lists for Health Occupations. Radiologic Aide. Activity Aide. Optometric Assistant. Physical Therapy Aide. Education for Employment Task Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, Janice

    These task lists contain employability skills and tasks for the following health occupations: radiologic aide, activity aide, physical therapy aide, and optometric assistant. The duties and tasks found in these lists form the basis of instructional content for secondary, postsecondary, and adult occupational training programs. Employability skills…

  5. Benefits of acid rain controls

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.G.

    1984-04-01

    The acid rain debate has been distorted by a mistaken political paradigm. This paradigm holds that acid rain controls will benefit only a few lakes and streams, mostly in the Adirondack Mountains in northeastern New York State. It holds that the costs of a control program will fall on the Midwest but that none of the benefits will occur there since no sensitive lakes and streams are found in that area. The author discussed this problem and pointed out that sulfur dioxide was responsible for several types of pollution damage and that all the states would benefit from the reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions.

  6. Pharmacy benefits: new concepts in plan design.

    PubMed

    Goff, Veronica V

    2002-03-01

    This issue brief examines changes to prescription drug benefit coverage in large employer plans and implications for a Medicare prescription drug benefit. The brief discusses reasons behind employer benefit plan redesign and recent coverage trends, as well as potential paths to modernize benefits. Information is based on a literature review and conversations and interviews with employers, benefit consultants, and pharmacy benefit management executives.

  7. Operation of a computer aided drafting system: improvements, results and hopes

    SciTech Connect

    Millaud, J.; Goulding, F.; Salz, P.; Shimada, K.

    1983-10-01

    A two workstation Computer Aided Drafting system has been in operation since September 1982 at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Department of Instrument Science and Engineering. Improvements made to the original hardware and software configuration are described. Benefits from this installation are reported and future developments are outlined.

  8. 2-Year-College Students Miss out on Aid--Because Many Don't Apply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    Community colleges serve a large proportion of low-income students each year, but nearly 40 percent of their full-time students don't even fill out a Free Application for Federal Student Aid. Students offer a number of reasons for not making the effort, according to a report, "Apply to Succeed: Ensuring Community College Students Benefit From…

  9. General Information about AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About AIDS-Related Lymphoma Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  10. AIDS, the Schools, and Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the discovery of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and describes the biology of the disease. The problem of AIDS among children is discussed and implications for school policy decisions are cited. (Author/MT)

  11. HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts Treatments Work, but Prevention Is ... than 30 years since a disease now called AIDS was first recognized in the United States. Back ...

  12. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... Most people who have become recently infected with HIV will not have any symptoms. They may, however, ...

  13. World AIDS Day: a time to act.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    The AIDS Control and Prevention Project (AIDSCAP) used World AIDS Day 1993 and its theme "A Time to Act" as an opportunity to focus attention on the urgency of the struggle against AIDS. Some of the events AIDSCAP promoted included the release of hundreds of balloons inscribed with the message "Think: AIDS is Still Here" in Haiti, where a major radio station also devoted all of the day's advertising time to HIV/AIDS prevention messages; the distribution of 500,000 condoms as inserts in a major Brazilian newspaper; and a 15-km walk in Ethiopia undertaken by thousands of people to promote AIDS prevention. While such events are not expected to have a measurable impact on the epidemic, they could instigate the long-term efforts to create a social environment conducive to HIV prevention through individual behavior change. The theme chosen for the 1994 World AIDS Day is "AIDS and the Family." PMID:12345905

  14. Object in Eye or Skin, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... newsletter | contact Share | Object in Eye or Skin, First Aid A A A A splinter is considered a ... and should be conducted while awaiting medical assistance. First Aid Guide In the case of a foreign object ...

  15. Using the Kaldor-Hicks Tableau Format for Cost-Benefit Analysis and Policy Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krutilla, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    This note describes the Kaldor-Hicks (KH) tableau format as a framework for distributional accounting in cost-benefit analysis and policy evaluation. The KH tableau format can serve as a heuristic aid for teaching microeconomics-based policy analysis, and offer insight to policy analysts and decisionmakers beyond conventional efficiency analysis.

  16. Space benefits to mankind as seen from a French point of view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pujes, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Benefits to mankind from space as determined from the French space programs are outlined. Data cover improved photographs for predicting numerical atmospheric parameters, monitoring natural resources via satellite from increased aircraft and balloon heights, and the use of satellites as navigation aids. The use of space research to improve international cooperation is also discussed.

  17. Cutting Welfare Benefits to Working Mothers. Federal Government Retrenchment: Issues of Fairness, Cost Effectiveness, and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touhsaent, Susan M.

    To facilitate planning of services to low income, single-parent working women with young children, a client impact study was made of former recipients of Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) in Monroe County, New York. Those surveyed had lost their supplementary income and related benefits due to mandated eligibility constraints in the federal Omnibus…

  18. A condom sense approach to AIDS prevention: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Salem, A

    1992-10-01

    Condoms have come a long way since their use in ancient Egypt three millennia ago. Their benefit is well established for the prevention of both contraception and STDs. Although AIDS has revitalized the condom, we must remember that condoms do not prevent the spread of HIV infection, people do. Everyone must take personal responsibility to avoid high risk behavior (e.g.; IV drug use, promiscuous sex, casual sex, etc). If one does engage in high risk sexual behavior, he/she should at least use condom sense.

  19. Video art and AIDS: artists shouting out.

    PubMed

    Miskell, B

    1996-01-01

    Video art in AIDS activism can be used in many formats, such as public service announcements, documentaries, and investigative reporting. Some public service announcements have been trendy, using an MTV-type format and involving diverse characters and situations. Other forms of video art are more commemorative, humanizing AIDS and persons living with AIDS. These cultural practices need to be continued to present the struggle against AIDS. PMID:11363330

  20. Food aid in emergencies and public health nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Rita; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    HUNGER LEAVES SCARS: The visible kind may be born by the survivors of famine. Less visible, but all the more damaging, are the long-term effects of hunger that run through families through generations. Hunger passed from mother to child represents a ruinous inheritance. It marks a cycle of hunger that transcends generations, unless the cycle is broken. Food aid provided at crucial times in the lives of women and infants represents an investment for future. Thus, in contrast to former conceptions of food aid as an exclusively life-saving vehicle, modern aims of food aid also include preventing increases in the prevalence of malnutrition and asset depletion. Mass migration and food shortages have been responsible for most deaths following civil conflicts around the world. The most visible form of migration occurs when people cross international borders. The reasons for the flight of refugees and internally displaced persons are generally same; war, civil strife, and persecution. "NUTRITIONAL GATEWAYS": Finally, the importance of timely and sustained delivery of adequate food aid adequate in quality and quantity to people in dire need during the emergency is paramount. Food aid is the most direct means for conveying nutritional benefits: the time frame is often limited, sustainability is not an issue. However, in the case of drought victims, refugees or displaced people, the nutritional situation and the actions needed are more complex. In many situations people arrive are often in very bad state. While high prevalence of malnutrition is associated with inadequate food rations, in some situation malnutrition developed primarily because of the high incidence of diarrhoeal diseases. The synergism between high malnutrition and increased incidence of communicable diseases explains much of excess mortality seen in refugee and displaced persons.

  1. Communication skills training in a nursing home: effects of a brief intervention on residents and nursing aides.

    PubMed

    Sprangers, Suzan; Dijkstra, Katinka; Romijn-Luijten, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication by nursing home staff is related to a higher quality of life and a decrease in verbal and physical aggression and depression in nursing home residents. Several communication intervention studies have been conducted to improve communication between nursing home staff and nursing home residents with dementia. These studies have shown that communication skills training can improve nursing aides' communication with nursing home residents. However, these studies tended to be time-consuming and fairly difficult to implement. Moreover, these studies focused on the communicative benefits for the nursing home residents and their well-being, while benefits and well-being for the nursing aides were neglected. The current study focused on implementing a brief communication skills training program to improve nursing aides' (N=24) communication with residents with dementia (N=26) in a nursing home. The effects of the training on nursing aides' communication, caregiver distress, and job satisfaction and residents' psychopathology and agitation were assessed relative to a control group condition. Nursing aides in the intervention group were individually trained to communicate effectively with residents during morning care by using short instructions, positive speech, and biographical statements. Mixed ANOVAs showed that, after training, nursing aides in the intervention group experienced less caregiver distress. Additionally, the number of short instructions and instances of positive speech increased. Providing nursing aides with helpful feedback during care aids communication and reduces caregiver burden, even with a brief intervention that requires limited time investments for nursing home staff.

  2. Benefits for Children with Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Social Security . . . 3 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Supplemental Security Income ( SSI) payments for children with disabilities. . . . . 4 Social Security ... for adults disabled since childhood. . . . . 10 Applying for SSI payments or SSDI benefits and how you can ...

  3. Employee Benefit Reporting After ERISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Wesley W.

    1976-01-01

    The statutory reporting requirements of ERISA and some of the regulations recently promulgated are discussed. All type of employee benefit plans are covered. For journal availability see HE 508 741. (LBH)

  4. 76 FR 21252 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY... Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation's regulation on Benefits Payable in Terminated...

  5. Intelligent computer-aided training and tutoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, R. Bowen; Savely, Robert T.

    1991-01-01

    Specific autonomous training systems based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel that demonstrate an alternative to current training systems are described. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide, for the trainee, much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training. By integrating domain expertise with a knowledge of appropriate training methods, an ICAT session should duplicate, as closely as possible, the trainee undergoing on-the-job training in the task environment, benefitting from the full attention of a task expert who is also an expert trainer. Thus, the philosophy of the ICAT system is to emulate the behavior of an experienced individual devoting his full time and attention to the training of a novice - proposing challenging training scenarios, monitoring and evaluating the actions of the trainee, providing meaningful comments in response to trainee errors, responding to trainee requests for information, giving hints (if appropriate), and remembering the strengths and weaknesses displayed by the trainee so that appropriate future exercises can be designed.

  6. Machine aided indexing from natural language text

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD) Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) system was designed to (1) reuse the indexing of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC); (2) reuse the indexing of the Department of Energy (DOE); and (3) reduce the time required for original indexing. This was done by automatically generating appropriate NASA thesaurus terms from either the other agency's index terms, or, for original indexing, from document titles and abstracts. The NASA STI Program staff devised two different ways to generate thesaurus terms from text. The first group of programs identified noun phrases by a parsing method that allowed for conjunctions and certain prepositions, on the assumption that indexable concepts are found in such phrases. Results were not always satisfactory, and it was noted that indexable concepts often occurred outside of noun phrases. The first method also proved to be too slow for the ultimate goal of interactive (online) MAI. The second group of programs used the knowledge base (KB), word proximity, and frequency of word and phrase occurrence to identify indexable concepts. Both methods are described and illustrated. Online MAI has been achieved, as well as several spinoff benefits, which are also described.

  7. Is AIDS a just punishment?

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, T F

    1988-01-01

    There are religious and philosophical versions of the thesis that AIDS is a punishment for homosexual behaviour. It is argued here that the religious version is seriously incomplete. Because of this incompleteness and because of the indeterminacies that ordinarily attend religious argumentation, it is concluded that the claim may be set aside as unconvincing. Homosexual behaviour is then judged for its morality against utilitarian, deontological, and natural law theories of ethics. It is argued that such behaviour involves no impediment to important moral goals and is not therefore immoral. Where natural law might be used to condemn homosexual behaviour, it is argued that the theory itself is not well established. Consequently there is a prima facie reason for rejecting the philosophical version of the punishment thesis. This conclusion is further supported by noting the lack of proportion between the purported immorality of homosexuality and a punishment as devastating as AIDS. PMID:3184138

  8. Is international conservation aid enough?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-01

    Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.

  9. AIDS victims and heterosexual attitudes.

    PubMed

    Larsen, K S; Serra, M; Long, E

    1990-01-01

    This study reports on the development of a Likert scale that measures attitudes toward AIDS victims (ATAV) in five phases. A total of 582 undergraduate (means age = 24.2) completed the survey forms, 249 males and 333 females. The results for Phase 1 yielded a scale with high part-whole correlations (.62-.90, p less than .001), corrected split-half reliability (.87, p less than .001), and alpha coefficients (.91, p less than .001). The following phases yielded significant correlations between the ATAV scale and attitudes toward homosexuals (.60, p less than .001), homosexual parenting (.64, p less than .001), other minority groups (.33, .37, p less than .001), capital punishment (-.27 p less than .001), and sexually liberal attitudes (.22, .37, .23, p, less than .025). Attitudes toward homosexuals are the central component in attitudes toward AIDS victims. A varimax rotated factor analysis of the ATAV yielded one primary factor accounting for 85.9% of the variance.

  10. Mobility aid for the blind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A project to develop an effective mobility aid for blind pedestrians which acquires consecutive images of the scenes before a moving pedestrian, which locates and identifies the pedestrian's path and potential obstacles in the path, which presents path and obstacle information to the pedestrian, and which operates in real-time is discussed. The mobility aid has three principal components: an image acquisition system, an image interpretation system, and an information presentation system. The image acquisition system consists of a miniature, solid-state TV camera which transforms the scene before the blind pedestrian into an image which can be received by the image interpretation system. The image interpretation system is implemented on a microprocessor which has been programmed to execute real-time feature extraction and scene analysis algorithms for locating and identifying the pedestrian's path and potential obstacles. Identity and location information is presented to the pedestrian by means of tactile coding and machine-generated speech.

  11. Computer-aided drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Computational approaches are an integral part of interdisciplinary drug discovery research. Understanding the science behind computational tools, their opportunities, and limitations is essential to make a true impact on drug discovery at different levels. If applied in a scientifically meaningful way, computational methods improve the ability to identify and evaluate potential drug molecules, but there remain weaknesses in the methods that preclude naïve applications. Herein, current trends in computer-aided drug discovery are reviewed, and selected computational areas are discussed. Approaches are highlighted that aid in the identification and optimization of new drug candidates. Emphasis is put on the presentation and discussion of computational concepts and methods, rather than case studies or application examples. As such, this contribution aims to provide an overview of the current methodological spectrum of computational drug discovery for a broad audience. PMID:26949519

  12. 76 FR 23712 - Impact Aid Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) for the Impact Aid Discretionary Construction program in the Federal Register (75 FR 49432... CFR Part 222 RIN 1810-AA94 Impact Aid Programs AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education... regulations governing the Impact Aid Discretionary Construction program, authorized under section 8007(b)...

  13. 30 CFR 56.18010 - First aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 56.18010 Section 56.18010 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs § 56.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all shifts. The individual...

  14. Living with HIV/AIDS in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedletter, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter article is concerned with understanding what schools can and must do to sustain life in the age of human immunodeficiency virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The article looks at the incidence of AIDS and reviews legislation related to AIDS infection and school attendance. School policy as it relates to…

  15. Engineering Aid 1 & C. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The manual is written primarily to aid in the training of personnel to meet the professional qualifications of the engineering aid, first class and chief. In chapter one, the trainee becomes familiar with the rewards and responsibilities of an engineering aid. Chapter two deals with principles of SEABEE administration, the organization and…

  16. Financial Aid Handbook for High School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Scholarship Commission, Eugene.

    This booklet is intended to supply high school counselors in Oregon with information and forms that will aid in helping high school students obtain financial aid for higher education. It is divided into three parts. The first section, "About Student Financial Aid," provides information on how and when to apply and what happens after the…

  17. Microcomputer Software: Update on Communication Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysley, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    This column describes British technological aids that can support children with communication and writing difficulties, including (1) writing aids such as predictive typing, abbreviation expansion systems, and alternative keyboards; and (2) socially interactive communication aids such as synthetic speech using portable computers. (JDD)

  18. Employment Considerations of AIDS in Dental Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumpler, Diane C.; Carey, Moses

    1987-01-01

    Policies governing the employment of health care workers with AIDS, and the AIDS employment issue facing dental practitioners, administrators, and educators are discussed. Legal considerations of AIDS in the workplace are addressed as to HIV testing, employee rights to gain and/or retain employment, economic considerations, and confidentiality…

  19. Aid to Libraries: Policies and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clow, David V.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the scope and nature of aid for information and library development and analyzes contributions of bilateral and multilateral aid agencies and nongovernmental agencies. Forms of library aid are discussed, including consultancy, book and periodical donations, gifts of furniture, equipment and buildings, and provision of education and…

  20. Summary of Student Financial Aid in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board.

    Data on student financial aid in Texas are presented. Tables cover financial aid resources for students in Texas postsecondary institutions by program for 1982-1983, 1984-1985 and 1985-1986. For 17 state aid programs and 6 federal programs, the amount of funding is indicated for the state as a whole and for the following categories of colleges:…