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Sample records for aid category including

  1. Academic Disqualification and Persistence to Graduation by Financial Aid Category and Academic Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel, Roger D.; Bell, Carolyn L.; McPherson, John D.; Costello, Michael T.; Jones, Jim A.

    2007-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of 21,243 students, the academic disqualification and persistence to graduation by financial aid category and academic ability were studied. Students who had greater financial need disqualified at higher rates and persisted to graduation at lower rates. However, when financial aid categories were stratified by academic…

  2. The Proliferation of Categories for "New" Behavioral Disorders. The Struggle to Include the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes five disorders (attention deficit disorder, traumatic brain injury, fetal alcohol syndrome, prenatal substance abuse, and fragile X syndrome) that are part of a proliferation of categories of behavioral disorders, examining how special and general education might approach problems potentially inherent in the process of including students…

  3. Genomic messaging system language including command extensions for clinical data categories.

    PubMed

    Robson, Barry; Mushlin, Richard

    2005-01-01

    This paper, in the area of clinical bioinformatics, highlights relatively efficient means of storing, exchanging, protecting, and searching human and other genomic data, so as to make the data securely accessible to researchers while respecting patient privacy. One important idea is that the GMSL language can be considered as an extension of the way DNA and protein sequences are written so as to carry with them the wishes of the patient in regard to fine-grained consent (as well as retaining the medical experts' cautions, instructions for use, and annotation), and this is carried, whatever environment (e.g., XML) that the data is from or whatever it is going to. At the deepest level, a stream of data expressed in GMSL resembles highly compressed stream of self-checking machine code. For the reader less familiar with the computational aspects, some simple examples illustrate how the raw language looks and works as a raw stream of (interpreted) bytes. The bioinformatics applications are not confined to the clinical domain. This paper completes the initial specification of the language as previously presented and reports on some important extensions including clinical data categories.

  4. Drawing Learners' Attention to Syntactic Context Aids Gender-Like Category Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taraban, Roman

    2004-01-01

    According to "noun-cue" models, arbitrary linguistic categories, like those associated with case and gender systems, are difficult to learn unless members of the target category (i.e., nouns) are marked with phonological or semantic cues that reliably co-occur with grammatical morphemes (e.g., determiners) that exemplify the categories. "Syntactic…

  5. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY I QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...

  6. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY II QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...

  7. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY III QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into four categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that projec...

  8. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY IV QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into four categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that projec...

  9. Relative rates of AIDS among racial/ethnic groups by exposure categories.

    PubMed Central

    Haverkos, H. W.; Turner, J. F.; Moolchan, E. T.; Cadet, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    The relative rates of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were calculated among racial/ethnic populations using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)/Surveillance reports assuming that racial/ethnic distributions reflect that of the US Census Data from 1990. For comparison, a rate of 1 was assigned to whites in each calculation. The overall relative rates were whites--1, African Americans--4.7, Hispanics--3, Asian/Pacific Islanders--0.4, and Native Americans--0.5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance data show higher rates of AIDS for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. The relative rates for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites were highest for injecting drug users, heterosexual contact, and pediatric patients. These results led us to explore possible explanations for increased AIDS reporting in African Americans and Hispanics. We then explored available national datasets regarding those variables. The analyses indicate that variables such as access and receptivity to HIV prevention and treatment efforts, race/ethnicity, sexual behaviors, sexually transmitted diseases, socioeconomic status, and substance abuse interact in a complex fashion to influence HIV transmission and progression to AIDS in affected communities. PMID:10063784

  10. Short communication: oral lesions in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART including efavirenz.

    PubMed

    Aquino-García, S I; Rivas, M A; Ceballos-Salobreña, A; Acosta-Gio, A E; Gaitán-Cepeda, L A

    2008-06-01

    Oral lesions (OL) have an important prognostic value for HIV/AIDS patients. However, the behavior of OL in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy including efavirenz (HAART/EFV) has not been documented. Our objective was to establish the prevalence of OL in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART/EFV and to compare it with the prevalence of OL in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy including a protease inhibitor (HAART/PI). Seventy-three HIV/AIDS patients undergoing antiretroviral treatment for at least for 6 months at "La Raza" Medical Center's Internal Medicine Unit (IMSS, Mexico City) were included. To detect OL, a detailed examination of oral soft tissues was performed in each patient. Patient records recorded gender, seropositivity time, route of contagion, antiretroviral therapy type and duration, CD4 lymphocyte count/ml, and viral load. Two groups were formed: 38 patients receiving HAART/EFV [two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NARTI) plus efavirenz] and 35 patients receiving HAART/PI (two NARTIs plus one PI). OL prevalence was established in each study group. The Chi-square test was applied (p < 0.05(IC95%)). OL prevalence in the HAART/EFV group (32%) was lower (p < 0.007) than in the HAART/PI group (63%). Candidosis was the most prevalent OL in both groups. Herpes labialis, HIV-associated necrotizing periodontitis, xerostomia, hairy leukoplakia, and nonspecific oral sores were identified. The highest prevalence for all OL was found in the HAART/PI group. These findings suggest that HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART/EFV show a lower prevalence of oral lesions than patients undergoing HAART/PI.

  11. Pathogenic Nocardia isolated from clinical specimens including those of AIDS patients in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Poonwan, N; Kusum, M; Mikami, Y; Yazawa, K; Tanaka, Y; Gonoi, T; Hasegawa, S; Konyama, K

    1995-10-01

    Forty strains of nocardioform microorganisms were isolated as clinical specimens including several from AIDS patients in Thailand. Among them, 37 strains were found to belong to the genus Nocardia. Our identification studies revealed that most of the strains (25 strains) belong to the N. asteroides group, i.e., N. asteroides sensu stricto and N. farcinica. Three strains were identified as N. otitidiscaviarum and two strains N. brasiliensis. In addition, 7 strains of rare pathogenic N. transvalensis were also isolated.

  12. Evaluation of the HIV/AIDS Education Program/Including Condom Availability, 1990-1992. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Linda; And Others

    The number of adolescents with AIDS and the number of young adults diagnosed with AIDS who were infected with HIV during adolescence continues to grow at alarming rates. This report evaluates a program that included staff development, mandated HIV/AIDS education for children in kindergarten through grade 12, and a peer leadership component that…

  13. Comparison of Two Modes of Delivery of First Aid Training Including Basic Life Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippmann, John; Livingston, Patricia; Craike, Melinda J.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Flexible-learning first aid courses are increasingly common due to reduced classroom contact time. This study compared retention of first aid knowledge and basic life support (BLS) skills three months after a two-day, classroom-based first aid course (STD) to one utilizing on-line theory learning at home followed by one day of classroom…

  14. Which aid spending categories have the greatest untapped potential to support the reduction of undernutrition? Some ideas on moving forward.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Lawrence; Isenman, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The financial resource needs for the reduction of undernutrition are significant, while the returns from reducing undernutrition are large. Yet the share of public resources allocated to the reduction of undernutrition remains disproportionately small. For overseas development assistance, the investment in nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive categories amounts to less than 3% of the total. What is the potential for other categories of public resource investments to reduce undernutrition, and in which sectors are these investments to be found? This paper proposes a framework for addressing this question and ventures some suggestions as to which of the categories of overseas development assistance beyond the well-known "nutrition-specific" and "nutrition-sensitive" categories are most likely to yield improvements in nutrition status if they could be redesigned with this in mind. We conclude that policy makers should look widely within the underlying and basic determinant intervention space for investments that, when changed at the margins, could result in significant improvements in nutrition.

  15. Going beyond "ABC" to include "GEM": critical reflections on progress in the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Shari L; Ehrhardt, Anke A

    2007-01-01

    A considerable number of studies have sought to identify what factors accounted for substantial reductions in HIV seroprevalence after several countries deployed "ABC" (abstinence, be faithful, condom use) strategies. After much public discourse and research on ABC success stories, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 2004 epidemic report indicated that nearly 50% of infected people worldwide were women, up from 35% in 1985. In light of the feminization of HIV/AIDS, we critically assess the limitations of ABC strategies. We provide 3 additional prevention strategies that focus on gender relations, economics, and migration (GEM) and can speak to the new face of the epidemic. Pressing beyond ABC, GEM strategies provide the basis for a stronger central platform from which national efforts against HIV/AIDS can proceed to reduce transmission risks.

  16. AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  17. Effects of vitamins, including vitamin A, on HIV/AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Saurabh; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 25 million lives have been lost to acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) since the immunodeficiency syndrome was first described in 1981. The progress made in the field of treatment in the form of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV disease/AIDS has prolonged as well as improved the quality of life of HIV-infected individuals. However, access to such treatment remains a major concern in most parts of the world, especially in the developing countries. Hence, there is a constant need to find low-cost interventions to complement the role of ART in prevention of HIV infection and slowing clinical disease progression. Nutritional interventions, particularly vitamin supplementation, have the potential to be a low-cost method for being such an intervention by virtue of their modulation of the immune system. Among all the vitamins, the role of vitamin A has been studied most extensively; most observational studies have found that low vitamin A levels are associated with increased risk of transmission of HIV from mother to child. This finding has not been supported by large randomized trials of vitamin A supplementation; on the contrary, these trials have found that vitamin A supplementation increases the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). There are a number of potential mechanisms that might explain these contradictory findings. One is the issue of reverse causality in observational studies-for instance, advanced HIV disease may suppress release of vitamin A from the liver. This would lead to low levels of vitamin A in the plasma despite the body having enough vitamin A liver stores. Further, advanced HIV disease is likely to increase the risk of MTCT, and hence it would appear that low serum vitamin A levels are associated with increased MTCT. The HIV genome also has a retinoic acid receptor element-hence, vitamin A may increase HIV replication via interacting with this element, thus increasing risk of MTCT. Finally, vitamin A is known to

  18. Color Comprehension and Color Categories among Blind Students: A Multi-Sensory Approach in Implementing Concrete Language to Include All Students in Advanced Writing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antarasena, Salinee

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates teaching methods regarding color comprehension and color categorization among blind students, as compared to their non-blind peers and whether they understand and represent the same color comprehension and color categories. Then after digit codes for color comprehension teaching and assistive technology for the blind had…

  19. Categorial Grammars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Mary McGee; Hudson, Richard, Ed.

    Written as an objective critical assessment, this book is the first linguistic theory guide to categorial grammars. Categorial grammars offer a radical alternative to the phrase-structure paradigm, with roots in the philosophy of language, logic, and algebra. Their historical evolution is outlined and their formal basis is discussed, beginning…

  20. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: U.S. HIV and AIDS Cases Reported through June 2001. Midyear Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This report includes new tables which present trends in estimated annual AIDS incidence from 1996-00, by U.S. region, race/ethnicity, and exposure category. Some of the tables include: persons reported to be living with HIV infection and with AIDS, by state and age group; AIDS cases and annual rates per 100,000 population, by metropolitan area and…

  1. NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides a simple, effective tool to assist aerospace information analysts and database builders in the high-level subject classification of technical materials. Each of the 76 subject categories comprising the classification scheme is presented with a description of category scope, a listing of subtopics, cross references, and an indication of particular areas of NASA interest. The guide also includes an index of nearly 3,000 specific research topics cross referenced to the subject categories. The portable document format (PDF) version of the guide contains links in the index from each input subject to its corresponding categories. In addition to subject classification, the guide can serve as an aid to searching databases that use the classification scheme, and is also an excellent selection guide for those involved in the acquisition of aerospace literature. The CD-ROM contains both HTML and PDF versions.

  2. Revision of Electro-Mechanical Drafting Program to Include CAD/D (Computer-Aided Drafting/Design). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Nancy V.

    North Seattle Community College decided to integrate computer-aided design/drafting (CAD/D) into its Electro-Mechanical Drafting Program. This choice necessitated a redefinition of the program through new curriculum and course development. To initiate the project, a new industrial advisory council was formed. Major electronic and recruiting firms…

  3. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) / reproductive tract infections (RTI) including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) / human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among the women of reproductive age group: a review.

    PubMed

    Nahar, A; Azad, A K

    1999-06-01

    Despite great improvements in preventing and treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and reproductive tract infections (RTIs), including HIV/AIDS, infections have been increasing significantly throughout the world. The problem of STDs, RTIs, and HIV/AIDS among women aged 15-49 years is increasing at an alarming rate. Certain biological risk factors and cultural practices enhance the vulnerability of women of reproductive age. Among these biological risks are age, gender, blood transfusion during pregnancy and childbirth, and the development of asymptomatic STDs/RTIs. These are exacerbated by cultural practices like douching with pharmaceutical products, use of intravaginal substances, and the practice of anal sex. STDs, RTIs, and HIV/AIDS affect female reproductive health in certain ways: mother-to-child transmission, effects on pregnancy (spontaneous abortion, premature birth, stillbirth, low birth weight, ectopic pregnancy), infertility, cancer, and rise in AIDS-related mortality. On the other hand, society will experience an increase in orphans, destabilization of the family unit, and a reduction in family income. Considering the impact of these diseases on the reproductive health of women and the community, measures should be taken to prevent and control the epidemic. The paper discusses certain interventions and diagnostic and preventive strategies against STDs, RTIs, and HIV/AIDS.

  4. Computer-aided analysis of Landsat-1 MSS data - A comparison of three approaches, including a 'modified clustering' approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, M. D.; Berkebile, J. S.; Hoffer, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Three approaches for analyzing Landsat-1 data from Ludwig Mountain in the San Juan Mountain range in Colorado are considered. In the 'supervised' approach the analyst selects areas of known spectral cover types and specifies these to the computer as training fields. Statistics are obtained for each cover type category and the data are classified. Such classifications are called 'supervised' because the analyst has defined specific areas of known cover types. The second approach uses a clustering algorithm which divides the entire training area into a number of spectrally distinct classes. Because the analyst need not define particular portions of the data for use but has only to specify the number of spectral classes into which the data is to be divided, this classification is called 'nonsupervised'. A hybrid method which selects training areas of known cover type but then uses the clustering algorithm to refine the data into a number of unimodal spectral classes is called the 'modified-supervised' approach.

  5. Assessing the performance of four different categories of histological criteria in brain tumours grading by means of a computer-aided diagnosis image analysis system.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulos, S; Konstandinou, C; Sidiropoulos, K; Ravazoula, P; Kalatzis, I; Asvestas, P; Cavouras, D; Glotsos, D

    2015-10-01

    Brain tumours are considered one of the most lethal and difficult to treat forms of cancer, with unknown aetiology and lack of any realistic screening. In this study, we examine, whether the combination of descriptive criteria, used by expert histopathologists in assessing histologic tissue samples, and quantitative image analysis features may improve the diagnostic accuracy of brain tumour grading. Data comprised 61 cases of brain cancers (astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, meningiomas) collected from the archives of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece. Incorporating physician's descriptive criteria and image analysis's quantitative features into a discriminant function, a computer-aided diagnosis system was designed for discriminating low-grade from high-grade brain tumours. Physician's descriptive features, when solely used in the system, proved of high discrimination accuracy (93.4%). When verbal descriptive features were combined with quantitative image analysis features in the system, discrimination accuracy improved to 98.4%. The generalization of the proposed system to unseen data converged to an overall prediction accuracy of 86.7% ± 5.4%. Considering that histological grading affects treatment selection and diagnostic errors may be notable in clinical practice, the utilization of the proposed system may safeguard against diagnostic misinterpretations in every day clinical practice.

  6. Colourful categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, M. L.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents Ramsey theory in category-theoretic terms as a message from a non-expert author to a non-expert reader. Everything is explained starting from the level zero, and an attempt is made to be as self-explanatory in the terminology and notation as possible. For the sake of references, the paper also reproduces traditional terminology, with concepts and theorems often named after (presumed) discoverers who are largely unknown to outsiders to the field. The sources are referred to in a manner so as to make them easy to find on the web; only exceptionally are non-freely accessible items referred to. Certain questions are formulated as 'conjectures', not out of a deep belief in their validity but because they sound better stated explicitly. There are no new results in this article, no deepening of particular aspects of Ramsey theory, no attempts to be comprehensive. But, in the spirit of the ideas of Anatoly Vershik, an attempt is made to move transversally across common directions of research, to see interrelations between them and to formulate questions. In fact, the article reproduces a chapter from the author's as yet unfinished manuscript "A number of questions". Bibliography: 65 titles.

  7. Ideals and Category Typicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ShinWoo; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    Barsalou (1985) argued that exemplars that serve category goals become more typical category members. Although this claim has received support, we investigated (a) whether categories have a single ideal, as negatively valenced categories (e.g., cigarette) often have conflicting goals, and (b) whether ideal items are in fact typical, as they often…

  8. Rank 4 Premodular Categories

    SciTech Connect

    Bruillard, Paul J.; Galindo, Cesar; Ng, Siu Hung; Plavnik, Julia; Rowell, Eric; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-09-01

    We consider the classification problem for rank 4 premodular categories. We uncover a formula for the 2nd Frobenius-Schur indicator of a premodular category is determined and the classification of rank 4 premodular categories (up to Grothendieck equivalence) is completed. In the appendix we show rank finiteness for premodular categories.

  9. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  10. Categories of Arrhythmias

    MedlinePlus

    ... previous page En español Aneurysms and Dissections Angina Arrhythmia Bundle Branch Block Cardiomyopathy Carotid Artery Disease Chronic ... Cardiac Arrest Valve Disease Vulnerable Plaque Categories of Arrhythmias Arrhythmias are generally divided into two categories: ventricular ...

  11. Incidental Auditory Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K.; Zevin, Jason D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in one of four possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from one of four distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. PMID:26010588

  12. Valuation, Categories and Attributes

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic” label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it. PMID:25111831

  13. 47 CFR 36.142 - Categories and apportionment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... JURISDICTIONAL SEPARATIONS PROCEDURES; STANDARD PROCEDURES FOR SEPARATING TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROPERTY COSTS...) Other Information Origination/Termination Equipment—Category 1. This category includes the cost of other information origination/termination equipment not assigned to Category 2. The costs of other...

  14. Rethinking the Category 'Determiner'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Wayne E.

    1975-01-01

    The 'determiner' category was originally set up by structuralists for identifying nouns. The rewrite rule for 'determiners' in transformational generative grammar is inadequate for showing correspondences between type and token. An appraisal of quantity terms might eliminate the concept of the 'determiner,' and replace that category with one of…

  15. Categories of Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauch, Jerold P.

    1994-01-01

    The growing interest in effective parent involvement has produced several ways to classify or describe ways parents are or should be involved. This article reviews and evaluates Ira Gordon's systems approach, the California-based System Development Corporation's categories, Eugenia H. Berger's parental role categories, Chavkin and Williams' parent…

  16. Categories and Music Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatien, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

  17. Health Needs of People Living with HIV/AIDS: From the Perspective of Policy Makers, Physicians and Consultants, and People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    MORADI, Ghobad; MOHRAZ, Minoo; GOUYA, Mohammad Mehdi; DEJMAN, Masoumeh; SEYEDALINAGHI, SeyedAhmad; KHOSHRAVESH, Sahar; MALEKAFZALI ARDAKANI, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV/AIDS has been concentrated among injecting drug users in the country. This study aimed to investigate and identify health and treatment needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2012 in Iran. The study groups consisted of experts, practitioners, and consultants working with People Living with HIV/AIDS and their families. Data was collected through Focus Group Discussions and deep interviews. Data were analyzed using content analysis method. Results The findings of this study included the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS, which were classified in three main categories. The first category was prevention and counseling services with several sub-groups such as education and public and available consultation, distribution of condoms to vulnerable groups, increasing counseling centers in urban areas, providing appropriate psychological and supportive counseling, and family planning services. The second category included diagnostic and treatment services and had several sub-groups such as full retroviral treatment, Tuberculosis treatment and continuing care, providing care and treatment for patients with hepatitis, and providing dental services. The third category included rehabilitation services and had some sub-categories such as home care, social and psychological support, nutritional support, and empowering positive clubs. Conclusions This study puts emphasis on making plans based on the priorities to meet the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran. PMID:26060705

  18. Beginning Spanish in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational Spanish to Third-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This is the first in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fifteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of Spaniards. They include: (1) Greetings, Identifications, and Farewells, (2) Some Classroom Objects and Instructions, (3) Colors, (4) More…

  19. Continuing German in Grade Five: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching German to Fifth-Grade Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memming, Agnes K.; And Others

    This teacher's guide, for use in a fifth-grade German course, contains 12 units of instructional materials which concentrate on the development of basic audiolingual skills. Each of the units consists of conversational skits, dialogue adaptation, directed dialogue review, and classroom drills. Units include: (1) Das Aufstehen und das Fruhstuck,…

  20. Continuing French in Grade Four: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching French to Fourth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This teacher's guide for use in a fourth-grade French course concentrates on the development of basic audiolingual skills. Twelve lessons, each containing an exposition, dialogue, teaching procedures, and dialogue adaptation, emphasize the use of French during classroom instruction. Lessons include: (1) a review unit, (2) "La chemise neuve," (3)…

  1. Continuing Spanish in Grade Four: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational Spanish to Fourth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This is the second volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fourteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, (2) Review Unit 2, (3) Special Unit A--"Cristobal Colon," (4) Review Unit 3, (5)…

  2. 77 FR 44677 - Quad/Graphics Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff Mart and A.I.D., Jonesboro, AR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Quad/Graphics Inc.,Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff Mart and A.I.D.,Jonesboro, AR; Amended Certification Regarding EligibilityTo Apply for Worker Adjustment... Department of Labor issued a Certification of Eligibility to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on...

  3. Continuing Spanish in Grade Five: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational Spanish to Fifth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This is the third volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Nine basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, ("Cristobal Colon"), (2) Review Unit 2, (3) "Un Accidente,""La Navidad," and…

  4. Condom Breakage Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: An In-Depth Investigation Including Men Living With HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Richard A; Mena, Leandro

    2016-02-01

    Correlates of condom breakage (reported by 19% of 398 young black who have sex with men) for anal insertive sex included the following: condoms drying out (P = 0.018), erection loss during application (P = 0.03), and using erection-enhancing drugs (P = 0.003). Breakage was 2.7 times greater for HIV-positive men (P = 0.001). Breakage was associated with testing positive for urethral infections (P = 0.012).

  5. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  6. AIDS and Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Leonard H.; Kelley, Dennis

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the onset and progression of AIDS, its importance as a public health issue, and reducing the risk of AIDS transmission among athletes and those who work with them, including team physicians and athletic trainers. (IAH)

  7. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in murine AIDS inhibit B-cell responses in part via soluble mediators including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and TGF-β.

    PubMed

    Rastad, Jessica L; Green, William R

    2016-12-01

    Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) were increased during LP-BM5 retroviral infection, and were capable of suppressing not only T-cell, but also B-cell responses. In addition to previously demonstrating iNOS- and VISTA-dependent M-MDSC mechanisms, in this paper, we detail how M-MDSCs utilized soluble mediators, including the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species superoxide, peroxynitrite, and nitric oxide, and TGF-β, to suppress B cells in a predominantly contact-independent manner. Suppression was independent of cysteine-depletion and hydrogen peroxide production. When two major mechanisms of suppression (iNOS and VISTA) were eliminated in double knockout mice, M-MDSCs from LP-BM5-infected mice were able to compensate using other, soluble mechanisms in order to maintain suppression of B cells. The IL-10 producing regulatory B-cell compartment was among the targets of M-MDSC-mediated suppression.

  8. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Aids On this page: What is a hearing aid? ... the ear through a speaker. How can hearing aids help? Hearing aids are primarily useful in improving ...

  9. An Expanded Analysis of Pharmacogenetics Determinants of Efavirenz Response that Includes 3′-UTR Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms among Black South African HIV/AIDS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Marelize; Evans, Jonathan; Skelton, Michelle; Castel, Sandra; Wiesner, Lubbe; Smith, Peter J.; Dandara, Collet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Efavirenz (EFV) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor prescribed as part of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in South Africa. Despite administration of fixed doses of EFV, inter-individual variability in plasma concentrations has been reported. Poor treatment outcomes such as development of adverse drug reactions or treatment failure have been linked to EFV plasma concentrations outside the therapeutic range (1–4 μg/mL) in some studies. The drug metabolizing enzyme (DME), CYP2B6, is primarily responsible for EFV metabolism with minor contributions by CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and UGT2B7. DME coding genes are also regulated by microRNAs through targeting the 3′-untranslated region. Expanded analysis of 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including those in the 3′-UTR, was performed to identify pharmacogenetics determinants of EFV plasma concentrations in addition to CYP2B6 c.516G>T and c.983T>C SNPs. Methods: SNPs in CYP1A2, CYP2B6, UGT2B7, and NR1I2 (PXR) were selected for genotyping among 222 Bantu-speaking South African HIV-infected patients receiving EFV-containing HAART. This study is a continuation of earlier pharmacogenetics studies emphasizing the role of genetic variation in the 3′-UTR of genes which products are either pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic targets of EFV. Results: Despite evaluating thirty SNPs, CYP2B6 c.516G>T and c.983T>C SNPs remain the most prominent predictors of EFV plasma concentration. Conclusion: We have shown that CYP2B6 c.516G>T and c.983T>C SNPs are the most important predictors of EFV plasma concentration after taking into account all other SNPs, including genetic variation in the 3′-UTR, and variables affecting EFV metabolism. PMID:26779253

  10. Sleep Aid Use During and Following Breast Cancer Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Tiffany A.; Berger, Ann M.; Dizona, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background Knowledge of sleep aid use is limited despite the high prevalence of insomnia among women before, during, and following breast cancer adjuvant chemotherapy treatments (CTX). This study's purpose was to 1) determine the frequency and characteristics of participants taking sleep aid(s); 2) identify the frequency and percent of sleep aid use by category (prescription sedative/hypnotics, prescription anti-depressants, prescription analgesics, prescription anti-emetics, over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, OTC cold/flu/sinus, OTC sleep, alcohol, and herbal supplements); and 3) compare sleep aid use by category in the experimental and control groups within a randomized-controlled clinical trial RCT). Methods Longitudinal, descriptive, secondary RCT data analysis of women (n=219) receiving out-patient CTX, and at 30, 60, and 90 days following the last CTX and 1 year following CTX1. Participants recorded daily sleep aid use on a Sleep Diary. Analyses included descriptives, chi-square, and RM-ANOVA. Results Approximately 20% of participants took at least one sleep aid before CTX1; usage decreased over time (12-18%); a 2nd sleep aid was used infrequently. Prescription sedative/hypnotics (46%) and OTC analgesics (24%) were used most frequently. OTC sleep aids were most commonly used as a 2nd aid. Prescription sedative/hypnotics [F(7,211)=4.26, p=0.00] and OTC analgesics [F(7,211)=2.38, p=0.023] use decreased significantly over time. Conclusions Results reflect the natural course of CTX, recovery, and healing. Comprehensive screening for sleep-wake disturbances and sleep aid use may lead to a better understanding of the risks and benefits of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions, and ultimately lead to selection of the safest and most effective treatment. PMID:20878849

  11. Does State Aid Stimulate Public Library Expenditures? Evidence from Pennsylvania's Enhancement Aid Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, William F.

    2006-01-01

    Pennsylvania public libraries began receiving increased allotments of state aid in 2000. In the first two years of enhancement aid, total state aid received by Pennsylvania libraries more than doubled. This reversed the trend of little growth in the years preceding 2000. The enhancement aid program also redesigned certain categories of state aid…

  12. Consumer Product Category Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  13. Garrett County Aids AID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Garrett County, Maryland volunteered to act as a pre-overseas learning laboratory for AID (Agency for International Development) interns who practiced data collection and planning techniques with the help of local citizenry. (JC)

  14. AIDS in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Donald B.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the increase in AIDS patients in rural California, which is greater than that in urban areas, including AIDS population projections through 1991. Describes differences between AIDS populations in rural and urban areas and relates these to state expenditure patterns and differential needs. (DHP)

  15. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  16. Creating Motivating Job Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilaro, Angie; Rossett, Allison

    1993-01-01

    Explains how to create job aids that employees will be motivated to use, based on a review of pertinent literature and interviews with professionals. Topics addressed include linking motivation with job aids; Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model of motivation; and design strategies for job aids based on Keller's…

  17. Cross-category demand effects of price promotions.

    PubMed

    Leeflang, Peter S H; Parreño-Selva, Josefa

    Do promotions in a certain category lead to higher revenues in other categories? If so, to what degree? The answers to these questions are highly relevant for retailers that supply products in different categories. Empirical findings in studies that consider a limited number of categories indicate small promotional cross-category effects. This study develops a framework to determine the impact of price promotions on category revenues that include interdependencies among a substantial number of categories at the category demand level. The own- and cross-category demand effects are moderated by variables such as promotion intensity, category characteristics (own-category effects), and spatial distances between shelf locations (cross-category effects). The empirical results based on daily store-level scanner data show that approximately half of all price promotions expand own-category revenues, especially for categories with deeper supported discounts. There is a high probability (61%) that a price promotion affects sales of at least one other category. The number of categories affected is not greater than two. Moderate evidence supports the existence of cross-promotional effects between categories more closely located in a store.

  18. Sound categories or phonemes?

    PubMed

    Redford, Melissa A

    2017-02-01

    Vihman emphasizes the importance of early word production to the emergence of phonological knowledge. This emphasis, consistent with the generative function of phonology, provides insight into the concurrent representation of phonemes and words. At the same time, Vihman's focus on phonology leads her to possibly overstate the influence of early word acquisition on the emergence of sound categories that are probably purely phonetic in nature at the outset of learning.

  19. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin HIV/AIDS HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is the virus ... HIV/AIDS. Why Is the Study of HIV/AIDS a Priority for NIAID? Nearly 37 million people ...

  20. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... to restrict your daily activities. Properly fitted hearing aids and aural rehabilitation (techniques used to identify and ...

  1. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hearing Aids KidsHealth > For Teens > Hearing Aids Print A A ... with certain types of hearing loss. How Hearing Aids Help So you went to audiologist and found ...

  2. Gene-Category Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Gene-category analysis is one important knowledge integration approach in biomedical sciences that combines knowledge bases such as Gene Ontology with lists of genes or their products, which are often the result of high-throughput experiments, gained from either wet-lab or synthetic experiments. In this chapter, we will motivate this class of analyses and describe an often used variant that is based on Fisher's exact test. We show that this approach has some problems in the context of Gene Ontology of which users should be aware. We then describe some more recent algorithms that try to address some of the shortcomings of the standard approach.

  3. On Monoids in the Category of Sets and Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenčová, Anna; Jenča, Gejza

    2017-02-01

    The category R e l is the category of sets (objects) and relations (morphisms). Equipped with the direct product of sets, R e l is a monoidal category. Moreover, R e l is a locally posetal 2-category, since every homset R e l(A,B) is a poset with respect to inclusion. We examine the 2-category of monoids R e l M o n in this category. The morphism we use are lax. This category includes, as subcategories, various interesting classes: hypergroups, partial monoids (which include various types of quantum logics, for example effect algebras) and small categories. We show how the 2-categorical structure gives rise to several previously defined notions in these categories, for example certain types of congruence relations on generalized effect algebras. This explains where these definitions come from.

  4. Category Coherence and Category-Based Property Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehder, Bob; Hastie, Reid

    2004-01-01

    One important property of human object categories is that they define the sets of exemplars to which newly observed properties are generalized. We manipulated the causal knowledge associated with novel categories and assessed the resulting strength of property inductions. We found that the theoretical coherence afforded to a category by…

  5. Jordan Algebraic Quantum Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graydon, Matthew; Barnum, Howard; Ududec, Cozmin; Wilce, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    State cones in orthodox quantum theory over finite dimensional complex Hilbert spaces enjoy two particularly essential features: homogeneity and self-duality. Orthodox quantum theory is not, however, unique in that regard. Indeed, all finite dimensional formally real Jordan algebras -- arenas for generalized quantum theories with close algebraic kinship to the orthodox theory -- admit homogeneous self-dual positive cones. We construct categories wherein these theories are unified. The structure of composite systems is cast from universal tensor products of the universal C*-algebras enveloping ambient spaces for the constituent state cones. We develop, in particular, a notion of composition that preserves the local distinction of constituent systems in quaternionic quantum theory. More generally, we explicitly derive the structure of hybrid quantum composites with subsystems of arbitrary Jordan algebraic type.

  6. Beyond the Categories.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  7. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  8. Conservation Level and Category Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, C. Rayfield; Kulhavy, Raymond W.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that category recall is related to the quantity conservation of mass, weight, and volume. The predicted association between conservation level and category recall was observed. (JMB)

  9. Parametric modelling of survival following HIV and AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: data from Australia.

    PubMed

    Nakhaee, F; Law, M

    2011-03-01

    Parametric survival models have not previously been applied to survival following a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS in Australia. Four different parametric models--exponential, Weibull, log-normal and log-logistic--were applied to data both on HIV-positive cases and on cases diagnosed with AIDS collected through the national HIV/AIDS surveillance system. Using likelihood based goodness-of-fit criteria the Weibull model was found to be the best-fitted model for predicting survival following a diagnosis of HIV infection without and with a diagnosis of AIDS. Several covariates-age, sex, combined HIV exposure category, CD4 cell counts, antiretroviral treatment and AIDS-defining illnesses--were included in the parametric model to predict factors associated with future mortality. Predicted deaths were in agreement with the observed deaths following HIV infection and AIDS. The Weibull model will be applied for future projections of deaths from HIV/AIDS.

  10. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  11. Teaching AIDS.

    PubMed

    Short, R V

    1989-06-01

    This article reviews a peer group Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educational program at a university in Australia. Studies in the US have shown that most adolescents, although sexually active, do not believe they are likely to become infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and therefore do not attempt to modify their sexual behavior. A 1st step in educating students is to introduce them to condoms and impress upon them the fact that condoms should be used at the beginning of all sexual relationships, whether homosexual or heterosexual. In this program 3rd year medical students were targeted, as they are effective communicators and disseminators of information to the rest of the student body. After class members blow up condoms, giving them a chance to handle various brands and observe the varying degrees of strength, statistical evidence about the contraceptive failure rate of condoms (0.6-14.7 per 100 women-years) is discussed. Spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9 used in conjunction with condoms, are also discussed, as are condoms for women, packaging and marketing of condoms, including those made from latex and from the caecum of sheep, the latter condoms being of questionable effectiveness in preventing transmission of the virus. The care of terminal AIDS cases and current global and national statistics on AIDS are presented. The program also includes cash prizes for the best student essays on condom use, the distribution of condoms, condom key rings and T-shirts, and a student-run safe sex stand during orientation week. All of these activities are intended to involve students and attract the interest of the undergraduate community. Questionnaires administered to students at the end of the course revealed that the lectures were received favorably. Questionnaires administered to new medical and English students attending orientation week revealed that 72% of students thought the stand was a good idea and 81% and 83%, respectively found it

  12. Human category learning 2.0.

    PubMed

    Ashby, F Gregory; Maddox, W Todd

    2011-04-01

    During the 1990s and early 2000s, cognitive neuroscience investigations of human category learning focused on the primary goal of showing that humans have multiple category-learning systems and on the secondary goals of identifying key qualitative properties of each system and of roughly mapping out the neural networks that mediate each system. Many researchers now accept the strength of the evidence supporting multiple systems, and as a result, during the past few years, work has begun on the second generation of research questions-that is, on questions that begin with the assumption that humans have multiple category-learning systems. This article reviews much of this second generation of research. Topics covered include (1) How do the various systems interact? (2) Are there different neural systems for categorization and category representation? (3) How does automaticity develop in each system? and (4) Exactly how does each system learn?

  13. Words can slow down category learning.

    PubMed

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  14. 47 CFR 36.142 - Categories and apportionment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Equipment to the jurisdictions shall be updated annually. Cable and Wire Facilities ... Information Origination/termination (iot) Equipment § 36.142 Categories and apportionment procedures. (a) Other Information Origination/Termination Equipment—Category 1. This category includes the cost of...

  15. 40 CFR 98.440 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.440 Definition of the source category. (a) The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category... Underground Injection Control program. (c) This source category does not include a well or group of...

  16. 40 CFR 98.440 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide § 98.440 Definition of the source category. (a) The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category... Underground Injection Control program. (c) This source category does not include a well or group of...

  17. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: U.S. HIV and AIDS Cases Reported through December 2001. Year-End Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This report presents tables on: persons reported to be living with HIV infection and AIDS, by area and age group; AIDS cases and annual rates and HIV infection cases, by area and age group; male and female adult/adolescent annual AIDS and HIV infection rates; AIDS and HIV cases by age group, exposure category, and sex; male and female…

  18. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  19. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  20. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other regions significantly affected by HIV/AIDS include Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. CDC’s Global AIDS website explains what CDC is ...

  1. Hospital Nurse Aide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Coll. of Education.

    This report presents results of a project to revise the current 120-hour advanced nurse aide course to include all recommended minimum competencies. A three-page description of project objectives, activities, and outcomes is followed by a list of the competencies for the 75-hour nurse aide course for long-term care and for the 120-hour advanced…

  2. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  3. 47 CFR 36.152 - Categories of Cable and Wire Facilities (C&WF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Categories of Cable and Wire Facilities (C&WF... Telecommunications Property Cable and Wire Facilities § 36.152 Categories of Cable and Wire Facilities (C&WF). (a) C... categories: (1) Exchange Line C&WF Excluding Wideband—Category 1—This category includes C&W...

  4. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-Based Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object's specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial…

  5. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-based Induction

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2009-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object’s specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial categories investigated these two sources of induction by looking at whether people used information about correlated features within categories, suggesting that they focused on feature-feature relations rather than summary categorical information. The results showed that people relied heavily on such correlations, even when there was no reason to think that the correlations exist in the population. The results suggested that people’s use of this strategy is largely unreflective, rather than strategically chosen. These findings have important implications for models of category-based induction, which generally ignore feature-feature relations. PMID:20526447

  6. Implications of the HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis Project for the efforts of state, territorial, and local health departments.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Julie M; Smith, Raymond A

    2002-07-01

    State, territorial and local health departments have responsibility for all three of the HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis (PRS) project's intervention categories: behavioral, social, and policy. These health departments may be aided by the PRS project in a number of ways. These ways include the provision of information on scientifically proven interventions; the determination of sociodemographic categories underrepresented in research; the promotion of consistent methodologies and standards for reporting findings; and the fostering of greater engagement with HIV prevention research among program staff. Further development of the PRS project can enhance and expand these benefits, although the project must be sure to keep practical applications in mind.

  7. 40 CFR 98.280 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.280 Definition of the source category. Silicon carbide production includes any process that produces silicon carbide for...

  8. 40 CFR 98.280 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.280 Definition of the source category. Silicon carbide production includes any process that produces silicon carbide for...

  9. 40 CFR 98.280 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.280 Definition of the source category. Silicon carbide production includes any process that produces silicon carbide for...

  10. 40 CFR 98.280 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.280 Definition of the source category. Silicon carbide production includes any process that produces silicon carbide for...

  11. 40 CFR 98.280 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Silicon Carbide Production § 98.280 Definition of the source category. Silicon carbide production includes any process that produces silicon carbide for...

  12. 40 CFR 98.30 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... purposes of producing electricity, generating steam, or providing useful heat or energy for industrial... turbines, engines, incinerators, and process heaters. (b) This source category does not include:...

  13. The Coordination of Unlike Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Samuel

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the account of coordination of unlike categories ought to be unified with the account of feature neutralization under phonological identity. Further argues that this unified account ought not be couched in terms of string of features, but rather in terms of the logic of categories. Study concludes with a discussion of the interactions…

  14. Financial Aid for Higher Education: Anything's Possible!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Handicapped Children and Youth, Washington, DC.

    Information on programs that provide financial aid to colleges and students are described in this information sheet of the National Information Center for Handicapped Children and Youth. Four basic categories of financial aid are grants, loans, work, and benefits. The Division of Personnel Preparation of the U.S. Department of Education makes…

  15. Manual for Student Financial Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Douglas S.

    This manual was designed to provide structural guidelines for financial aid program operations and administration at the Community College of Baltimore. Topics discussed include: the philosophy of student aid at an open door college; the objectives of the student financial aid office; staff development and administrative improvement; organization,…

  16. Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Kenneth H.

    1991-01-01

    Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…

  17. A history of chorological categories.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, S

    2016-09-01

    One of the purposes of the research program referred to as "systematic biogeography" is the use of species distributions to identify regions and reconstruct biotic area relationships. The reverse, i.e. to group species according to the areas that they live in, leads to the recognition of chorological categories. Biogeographers, working under these two different approaches, have proposed several terms to refer to groups of species that have similar distributions, such as "element", "chorotype" and "component". A historical reconstruction, including semantic observations and philosophical implications, shows that these terms have been used in a variety of senses. The word "component" should not be used in biogeography. The word "element" has been used to identify both a group of species defined according to the biogeographic areas they occupy and a group of species with an assumed shared biogeographic history. It is especially because of the influence of the dispersalist paradigm, which dominated evolutionary thought until the mid-twentieth century, that the second definition has been frequently adopted. The term "element" is therefore ambiguous and its use should always be associated with an explicit definition. The word "chorotype" should be used to define groups of species with similar ranges when no causal assumption is made. The concept of "chorotype," finally, should not be confounded with other concepts such as distributional pattern, cenocron, horofauna, biota, endemic area, area of endemism, biotic element, and generalized track, which are also discussed in this paper.

  18. 40 CFR 98.440 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... geologic formations. (b) This source category includes all wells permitted as Class VI under the Underground Injection Control program. (c) This source category does not include a well or group of wells where a CO2 stream is being injected in subsurface geologic formations to enhance the recovery of oil...

  19. 40 CFR 98.440 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... geologic formations. (b) This source category includes all wells permitted as Class VI under the Underground Injection Control program. (c) This source category does not include a well or group of wells where a CO2 stream is being injected in subsurface geologic formations to enhance the recovery of oil...

  20. 40 CFR 98.80 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.80 Definition of the source category. The cement production source category consists of each kiln and each in-line kiln/raw mill at any portland cement manufacturing facility including alkali bypasses, and includes kilns and in-line...

  1. 40 CFR 98.80 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.80 Definition of the source category. The cement production source category consists of each kiln and each in-line kiln/raw mill at any portland cement manufacturing facility including alkali bypasses, and includes kilns and in-line...

  2. 40 CFR 98.80 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.80 Definition of the source category. The cement production source category consists of each kiln and each in-line kiln/raw mill at any portland cement manufacturing facility including alkali bypasses, and includes kilns and in-line...

  3. Psychopathic disorder: a category mistake?

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, C A

    1991-01-01

    Although the concept of psychopathy retains its currency in British psychiatry, apparently being meaningful as well as useful to practitioners (1), it is often taken to refer to a purely legal category with social control functions rather than a medical diagnosis with treatment implications. I wish, in this brief article, to suggest that it is essentially, and most usefully, an ethical category which stands outside the diagnostic framework of present-day psychiatry. PMID:1870086

  4. 77 FR 9163 - Removal of Category IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc Definitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 1 RIN 2120-AK03 Removal of Category IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc Definitions AGENCY: Federal... removing the definitions of Category IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc operations. The definitions are outdated because... definitions will aid in international harmonization efforts, future landing minima reductions, and...

  5. Data categories for marine planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  6. Optimal Financial Aid Policies for a Selective University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Sherman, Daniel R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper provides a model of optimal financial aid policies for a selective university. The model implies that the financial aid package to be offered to each category of admitted applicants depends on the elasticity of the fraction who accept offers of admission with respect to the financial aid package offered them. (Author/SSH)

  7. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... hair cells (outer and inner rows). When the vibrations move through this fluid, the tiny outer hair ... ear to the brain. Hearing aids intensify sound vibrations that the damaged outer hair cells have trouble ...

  8. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways.

  9. Prognosis of Hurricanes CATEGORIE-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Peraza, Jorge; Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Zapotitla Roman, Julian; Juarez Zuñiga, Alan

    Category-5 Hurricanes are the most devastating from the standpoint of human and economic losses. Approximately 80 cyclones per year occurring worldwide, from which 8.8 per year occur on average in different regions of the Atlantic. However, category-5 Hurricanes do not follow a cyclic pattern but ar rather of quasi-stochastic nature. To assist in the alert processes o of hurricanes, we propose here a method to predict those kinds of hurricanes based on the Wavelet Analysis and applying techniques of Fuzzy Logic. For our study we consider North Atlantic category-5 hurricanes since 1920. Data was transformed into a series of Pulses with unitary value at the dates of hurricanes occurrence and 0 for dates of no occurrence. By means of the Wavelet transform we determine dominant oscillation periods. Under the hypothesis that the occurrence of hurricanes of this category can be described by the certain periodicities, we can define the dominant periods of oscillation and establish correspondence rules using fuzzy logic. The fuzzy logic searches for associations between the hurricanes occurrence and the behavior of the harmonics, and then delimits the occurrence of the next hurricane. The Wavelet Power Spectrum yields the following periodicities 2, 9, 14 and 24 years. According to the behavior of the harmonics we found that their combination restricts regions of possible Hurricane occurrence. Interpolation of this sinusoidal behavior allows for a good reconstruction of past Hurricanes dates as well as extrapolation to the future. In this way we conclude that there is a good probability that the next category-5 Hurricane in the north Atlantic occur of 2014-2015. Regarding categorie-5 typhoons in the pacific we delimitate the genesis regions of western of these kind of typhoons.

  10. On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol

    In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.

  11. A comparison of different category scales for estimating disease severity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathologists most often obtain quantitative information on disease severity using visual assessments. Category scales are widely used for assessing disease severity, including for screening germplasm. The most widely used category scale is the Horsfall-Barratt (H-B) scale, but reports show tha...

  12. 40 CFR 98.170 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Iron and Steel Production § 98.170 Definition of the source category. The iron and steel production source category includes facilities with any of the following processes: taconite iron ore processing, integrated iron and steel manufacturing, cokemaking not...

  13. 40 CFR 98.170 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Iron and Steel Production § 98.170 Definition of the source category. The iron and steel production source category includes facilities with any of the following... means the production of steel from iron ore or iron ore pellets. At a minimum, an integrated iron...

  14. 40 CFR 98.170 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Iron and Steel Production § 98.170 Definition of the source category. The iron and steel production source category includes facilities with any of the following... means the production of steel from iron ore or iron ore pellets. At a minimum, an integrated iron...

  15. 40 CFR 98.170 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Iron and Steel Production § 98.170 Definition of the source category. The iron and steel production source category includes facilities with any of the following processes: taconite iron ore processing, integrated iron and steel manufacturing, cokemaking not...

  16. 40 CFR 98.200 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Magnesium Production § 98.200 Definition of source category. The magnesium production and processing source category consists of the following processes: (a) Any process in which magnesium metal is produced through smelting (including electrolytic smelting),...

  17. 40 CFR 98.200 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Magnesium Production § 98.200 Definition of source category. The magnesium production and processing source category consists of the following processes: (a) Any process in which magnesium metal is produced through smelting (including electrolytic smelting),...

  18. 40 CFR 98.200 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Magnesium Production § 98.200 Definition of source category. The magnesium production and processing source category consists of the following processes: (a) Any process in which magnesium metal is produced through smelting (including electrolytic smelting),...

  19. 40 CFR 98.200 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Magnesium Production § 98.200 Definition of source category. The magnesium production and processing source category consists of the following processes: (a) Any process in which magnesium metal is produced through smelting (including electrolytic smelting),...

  20. 40 CFR 98.90 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electronics Manufacturing § 98.90 Definition of the source category. (a) The electronics manufacturing source category consists of any of the production processes... (including light-emitting diodes (LEDs)). (1) Any electronics production process in which the etching...

  1. Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ronald, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

  2. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  3. Sentence Processing with Empty Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Edward; Hickok, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    Pickering and Barry's recent argument against the existence of empty categories (ECs) in human sentence processing is disputed. It is argued here that ECs may still play a linking role between thematic role assigners and wh-phrases. One possible parsing algorithm is given that accounts for Pickering and Barry's data. (28 references) (Author/LB)

  4. Hurricane Irene at Category 3

    NASA Video Gallery

    Video sequence taken by the crew of the ISS on Aug. 23, 2011 at approximately 2:15PM EST. At that time, Hurricane Irene was a Category 3 storm with peak winds estimated at 115mph, moving west-north...

  5. Linguistic Markedness and Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Todd R.; Mansfield, Cade D.; Brewer, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several psycholinguistic theories have appealed to the linguistic notion of markedness to help explain asymmetrical patterns of behavioural data. We suggest that this sort of markedness is best thought of as a derived rather than a primitive notion, emerging when the distributional properties of linguistic categories interact with general-purpose…

  6. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  7. Causal Categories: Relativistically Interacting Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coecke, Bob; Lal, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    A symmetric monoidal category naturally arises as the mathematical structure that organizes physical systems, processes, and composition thereof, both sequentially and in parallel. This structure admits a purely graphical calculus. This paper is concerned with the encoding of a fixed causal structure within a symmetric monoidal category: causal dependencies will correspond to topological connectedness in the graphical language. We show that correlations, either classical or quantum, force terminality of the tensor unit. We also show that well-definedness of the concept of a global state forces the monoidal product to be only partially defined, which in turn results in a relativistic covariance theorem. Except for these assumptions, at no stage do we assume anything more than purely compositional symmetric-monoidal categorical structure. We cast these two structural results in terms of a mathematical entity, which we call a causal category. We provide methods of constructing causal categories, and we study the consequences of these methods for the general framework of categorical quantum mechanics.

  8. Case-like Categories in Children: The Actor and Some Related Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braine, Martin D. S.; Wells, Robin S.

    1978-01-01

    Five experiments were performed in which nursery school children were taught to identify persons, animals, or objects in pictures that took the nominative, objective, or locative case in sentences about the pictures. Inferences are made about categories in children's thinking including animate, and actor and agent. (CTM)

  9. HIV/AIDS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www. ...

  10. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  11. Environmental Sustainability - Including Land and Water Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments of environmental sustainability can be conducted in many ways with one of the most quantitative methods including Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). While historically LCIA has included a comprehensive list of impact categories including: ozone depletion, global c...

  12. Traditional beliefs about the cause of AIDS and AIDS-related stigma in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, S C; Simbayi, L

    2004-07-01

    AIDS-related stigmas are pervasive in some segments of South African society and stigmas can impede efforts to promote voluntary counselling and testing and other HIV-AIDS prevention efforts. The current study examined associations among the belief that AIDS is caused by spirits and supernatural forces, AIDS-related knowledge and AIDS-related stigmas. A street intercept survey with 487 men and women living in a Black township in Cape Town, South Africa showed that 11% (n=54) believed that AIDS is caused by spirits and supernatural forces, 21% (n=105) were unsure if AIDS is caused by spirits and the supernatural, and 68% (n=355) did not believe that AIDS is caused by spirits and supernatural forces. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for participant age, gender, years of education and survey venue showed that people who believed HIV-AIDS is caused by spirits and the supernatural demonstrated significantly more misinformation about AIDS and were significantly more likely to endorse repulsion and social sanction stigmatizing beliefs against people living with HIV-AIDS. However, nearly all associations between beliefs that AIDS is caused by spirits and AIDS stigmas were non-significant when logistic regressions were repeated with AIDS-related knowledge included as a control variable. This finding suggests that relationships between traditional beliefs about the cause of HIV-AIDS and AIDS stigmas are mediated by AIDS-related knowledge. AIDS education efforts are urgently needed to reach people who hold traditional beliefs about AIDS to remedy AIDS stigmas.

  13. First Aid and Transportation Course Contents Based on Experience gained in the Iran-Iraq War: a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sarhangi, Forogh; Gholami, Hamid Reza; Khaghanizade, Morteza; Najafi Mehri, Soheil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Effective first aid and transportation influences injury-induced mortality. But few qualitative studies have been conducted so far in this area. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the content of the first aid and patient transportation course based on experience gained from the Iran-Iraq war. Patients and Methods: This was a conventional qualitative content analysis study; a purposeful sample of 14 first aid and transportation experts who had worked during the Iran-Iraq war was recruited. We collected and analyzed the study data by using the semi-structured interview method and the conventional content analysis approach respectively. Each interview transcript was reviewed several times. Words, sentences, and paragraphs were labeled with codes. Codes were compared with each other and categorized according to their similarities. Similar sub-categories and categories were also grouped together and formed themes. Results: Study participants’ experiences of wartime first aid and transportation (FAT) education fell into two main themes including ‘the congruence of education and educational needs’ and ‘managers’ engagement in FAT education. The four main categories of these two themes were use of appropriate educational facilities, adopting effective teaching strategies, universal FAT education and specialized training skills. Conclusions: The two key requirements of the first aid and transportation courses are practicality and managerial engagement. We developed and provided specific guidance of FAT curriculum by using the study findings. This curriculum is recommended for educating FAT staffs, paramedics, emergency technicians, and military nurses. PMID:25825700

  14. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  15. Frequency-Shift Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed hearing aid maps spectrum of speech into band of lower frequencies at which ear remains sensitive. By redirecting normal speech frequencies into frequency band from 100 to 1,500 Hz, hearing aid allows people to understand normal conversation, including telephone calls. Principle operation of hearing aid adapted to other uses such as, clearing up noisy telephone or radio communication. In addition, loud-speakers more easily understood in presence of high background noise.

  16. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  17. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  18. Metacognitive Control of Categorial Neurobehavioral Decision Systems

    PubMed Central

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2016-01-01

    The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive) functions that engender normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements) of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel) processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally demanding, sequential) processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling. PMID:26925004

  19. Category 4b - A Regulatory Alternative to TMDLs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The paper describes the extent to which states have successfully employed TMDL alternatives to address impaired waters and assigned these waters to Category 4b, and includes several Washington State examples.

  20. Category selectivity in human visual cortex: Beyond visual object recognition.

    PubMed

    Peelen, Marius V; Downing, Paul E

    2017-04-02

    Human ventral temporal cortex shows a categorical organization, with regions responding selectively to faces, bodies, tools, scenes, words, and other categories. Why is this? Traditional accounts explain category selectivity as arising within a hierarchical system dedicated to visual object recognition. For example, it has been proposed that category selectivity reflects the clustering of category-associated visual feature representations, or that it reflects category-specific computational algorithms needed to achieve view invariance. This visual object recognition framework has gained renewed interest with the success of deep neural network models trained to "recognize" objects: these hierarchical feed-forward networks show similarities to human visual cortex, including categorical separability. We argue that the object recognition framework is unlikely to fully account for category selectivity in visual cortex. Instead, we consider category selectivity in the context of other functions such as navigation, social cognition, tool use, and reading. Category-selective regions are activated during such tasks even in the absence of visual input and even in individuals with no prior visual experience. Further, they are engaged in close connections with broader domain-specific networks. Considering the diverse functions of these networks, category-selective regions likely encode their preferred stimuli in highly idiosyncratic formats; representations that are useful for navigation, social cognition, or reading are unlikely to be meaningfully similar to each other and to varying degrees may not be entirely visual. The demand for specific types of representations to support category-associated tasks may best account for category selectivity in visual cortex. This broader view invites new experimental and computational approaches.

  1. Decoding the neural representation of fine-grained conceptual categories.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Marta; Vaghi, Matilde Maria Serena; Perani, Daniela; Tettamanti, Marco

    2016-05-15

    Neuroscientific research on conceptual knowledge based on the grounded cognition framework has shed light on the organization of concrete concepts into semantic categories that rely on different types of experiential information. Abstract concepts have traditionally been investigated as an undifferentiated whole, and have only recently been addressed in a grounded cognition perspective. The present fMRI study investigated the involvement of brain systems coding for experiential information in the conceptual processing of fine-grained semantic categories along the abstract-concrete continuum. These categories consisted of mental state-, emotion-, mathematics-, mouth action-, hand action-, and leg action-related meanings. Thirty-five sentences for each category were used as stimuli in a 1-back task performed by 36 healthy participants. A univariate analysis failed to reveal category-specific activations. Multivariate pattern analyses, in turn, revealed that fMRI data contained sufficient information to disentangle all six fine-grained semantic categories across participants. However, the category-specific activity patterns showed no overlap with the regions coding for experiential information. These findings demonstrate the possibility of detecting specific patterns of neural representation associated with the processing of fine-grained conceptual categories, crucially including abstract ones, though bearing no anatomical correspondence with regions coding for experiential information as predicted by the grounded cognition hypothesis.

  2. AIDS Researcher Gives Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, renowned immunologist James E.K. Hildreth, M.D., Ph.D., was compelled to start researching the virus that causes AIDS. He marveled at its enigma and was pressed into action by its ability to cut lives short and devastate communities. The disease set him on a course of medical inquiry that has included biomedical breakthroughs…

  3. Eighteen years of research on AIDS: contribution of and collaborations between different world regions.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Bliziotis, Ioannis A; Kondilis, Barbara; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S

    2006-12-01

    The scientific community invests significant resources on HIV/AIDS research to confront the current epidemic. We reviewed the medical literature in order to evaluate the contribution of different world regions on HIV/AIDS research during the past 18 years. We retrieved articles, using an elaborate methodology, from three journals focusing on HIV/AIDS between 1986 and 2003, indexed in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) and the Web of Science databases of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). Comparisons were made by dividing the world into nine geographic regions, and by using the human development index (HDI) categorization. A total of 9502 articles on HIV/AIDS were retrieved from three AIDS journals over an 18-year study period. The United States and Western Europe together and five developed out of nine world regions made up a striking 83% and 92% of the world's research production on HIV/AIDS, respectively. Scientists from the developing world participated in 10.4% of the articles published during 1986-1991, 14.7% during 1992-1997, and 21.3% during 1998-2003. Researchers from countries included in the high, medium, and low HDI category produced 2240, 9, and 15 articles per billion population, respectively. About half of articles originating in Latin America and the Caribbean and half in Asia were produced in collaboration with the United States. However, 40% of articles from Africa and 58% from Eastern Europe were produced in cooperation with Western Europe. Collaboration between researchers within developing regions was negligible. The vast majority of the world's research on AIDS is produced in the developed world. Although research production was minimal in the developing world, we found that regions included in the low and medium HDI categories showed a higher proportion of increase in research productivity than the developed countries. International collaborations should significantly increase and expand beyond the traditional cultural and

  4. Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapists. See How to Become One $54,520 Personal Care Aides Personal care aides help clients with self-care and everyday tasks. They also provide social supports and assistance that enable clients to participate in ... tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools ...

  5. AIDS Resource Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sara A., Ed.; And Others

    This manual presents, for educators, known facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), how it is transmitted, and how it can be prevented. Answers to common questions about AIDS are listed and a summary sheet is provided. A resource list is included that contains names, addresses, and phone numbers of organizations that produce or…

  6. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  7. Spatial Visualization of Multivariate Datasets: An Analysis of STD and HIV/AIDS Diagnosis Rates and Socioeconomic Context Using Ring Maps

    PubMed Central

    Lòpez-De Fede, Ana; Stewart, John E.; Hardin, James W.; Mayfield-Smith, Kathy; Sudduth, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We used existing data systems to examine sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates and explore potential county-level associations between HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates and socioeconomic disadvantage. Methods Using South Carolina county data, we constructed multivariate ring maps to spatially visualize syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates; gender- and race-specific HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates; and three measures of socioeconomic disadvantage—an unemployment index, a poverty index, and the Townsend index of social deprivation. Statistical analyses were performed to quantitatively assess potential county-level associations between HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates and each of the three indexes of socioeconomic disadvantage. Results Ring maps revealed substantial spatial association in STD and HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates and highlighted large gender and racial disparities in HIV/AIDS across the state. The mean county-level HIV/AIDS diagnosis rate (per 100,000 population) was 24.2 for males vs. 11.2 for females, and 34.8 for African Americans vs. 5.2 for white people. In addition, ring map visualization suggested a county-level association between HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates and socioeconomic disadvantage. Significant positive bivariate relationships were found between HIV/AIDS rate categories and each increase in poverty index category (odds ratio [OR] = 2.03; p=0.006), as well as each increase in Townsend index of social deprivation category (OR=4.98; p<0.001). A multivariate ordered logistic regression model in which all three socioeconomic disadvantage indexes were included showed a significant positive association between HIV/AIDS and Townsend index categories (adjusted OR=6.10; p<0.001). Conclusions Ring maps graphically depicted the spatial coincidence of STD and HIV/AIDS and revealed large gender and racial disparities in HIV/AIDS across South Carolina counties. This spatial visualization method used existing data systems to

  8. Within-Category Discontinuity Interacts with Verbal Rule Complexity in Perceptual Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, W. Todd; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Lauritzen, J. Scott

    2007-01-01

    A test of the predicted interaction between within-category discontinuity and verbal rule complexity on information-integration and rule-based category learning was conducted. Within-category discontinuity adversely affected information-integration category learning but not rule-based category learning. Model-based analyses suggested that some…

  9. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  10. The AIDS Challenge: Prevention Education for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Marcia, Ed.; And Others

    This book on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education was developed by national and international experts to aid educators, professionals, parents, and youth leaders in developing and implementing AIDS education programs. Included are: (1) "Living with AIDS" (Jack Martin Balcer); (2) "The AIDS Epidemic: Problems in Limiting Its Impact"…

  11. How to Make Financial Aid "Freshman-Friendly"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Susan L.; Johnson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Ultimately, making financial aid "freshman friendly" also makes financial aid "sophomore friendly," "junior friendly," and "senior friendly." Indiana University has in place an Office of Enrollment Management (OEM) model that includes focused financial aid packaging strategies complemented by unique contact…

  12. Stabilizing the HIV/AIDS workforce: lessons from the New York City experience.

    PubMed

    Healton, C; Haviland, L; Weinberg, G; Messeri, P; Aidala, A; Stein, G; Jessop, D; Jetter, D

    1996-01-01

    The Ryan White Title I Personnel Needs Study described here is an evaluation of the human resource needs of HIV/AIDS service agencies in New York City. The research presented here was conducted in collaboration with researchers from the Medical and Health Research Association and the New York City Department of Health and the Planning and Evaluation Committee of the New York City HIV Health and Human Services Planning Council. The assessment is divided into two components. The first component is a survey of 100 key informants from HIV/ AIDS service agencies. The second component is a detailed staffing survey of 70 personnel directors of HIV/AIDS service agencies. HIV/AIDS service directors perceived staff recruitment as a more difficult process than staff retention, regardless of agency type. Vacancy rates at the surveyed agencies varied by professional category; they were especially high in the category of nurse practitioners (13%) and outreach/education workers (15%). Agencies stressed that incentives that would positively affect recruitment and retention should be tailored to address the concerns of varied health care and social service professionals. In addition, agencies were not routinely able to provide some incentives deemed effective such as higher salaries, housing subsidies, and smaller caseloads. To reduce recruitment and retention problems, agency informants recommended a variety of incentive programs including malpractice insurance for physicians, flexible hours for full-time employees (including case managers, nurses, physician's assistants), smaller caseloads, and a decrease in the proportion of staff time devoted to direct client contact. Overall health care trends including truncated federal budgets, state Medicaid cutbacks, and the rapid conversion to managed care all affect the quality of patient care and of the work setting for health care and social service providers serving persons with AIDS. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): AIDS, health

  13. When is category specific in Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Laws, Keith R; Gale, Tim M; Leeson, Verity C; Crawford, John R

    2005-08-01

    Mixed findings have emerged concerning whether category-specific disorders occur in Alzheimer's disease. Factors that may contribute to these inconsistencies include: ceiling effects/skewed distributions for control data in some studies; differences in the severity of cognitive deficit in patients; and differences in the type of analysis (in particular, if and how controls are used to analyse single case data). We examined picture naming in Alzheimer's patients and matched elderly healthy normal controls in three experiments. These experiments used stimuli that did and did not produce ceiling effects/skewed data in controls. In Experiment 1, we examined for category effects in individual DAT patients using commonly used analyses for single cases (chi2 and z-scores). The different techniques produced quite different outcomes. In Experiment 2a, we used the same techniques on a different group of patients with similar outcomes. Finally, in Experiment 2b, we examined the same patients but (a) used stimuli that did not produce ceiling effects/skewed distributions in healthy controls, and (b) used statistical methods that did not treat the control sample as a population. We found that ceiling effects in controls may markedly inflate the incidence of dissociations in which living things are differentially impaired and seriously underestimate dissociations in the opposite direction. In addition, methods that treat the control sample as a population led to inflation in the overall number of dissociations detected. These findings have implications for the reliability of category effects previously reported both in Alzheimer patients and in other pathologies. In particular, they suggest that the greater proportion of living than nonliving deficits reported in the literature may be an artifact of the methods used.

  14. The Role of Corticostriatal Systems in Speech Category Learning.

    PubMed

    Yi, Han-Gyol; Maddox, W Todd; Mumford, Jeanette A; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-04-01

    One of the most difficult category learning problems for humans is learning nonnative speech categories. While feedback-based category training can enhance speech learning, the mechanisms underlying these benefits are unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated neural and computational mechanisms underlying feedback-dependent speech category learning in adults. Positive feedback activated a large corticostriatal network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus, caudate, putamen, and the ventral striatum. Successful learning was contingent upon the activity of domain-general category learning systems: the fast-learning reflective system, involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that develops and tests explicit rules based on the feedback content, and the slow-learning reflexive system, involving the putamen in which the stimuli are implicitly associated with category responses based on the reward value in feedback. Computational modeling of response strategies revealed significant use of reflective strategies early in training and greater use of reflexive strategies later in training. Reflexive strategy use was associated with increased activation in the putamen. Our results demonstrate a critical role for the reflexive corticostriatal learning system as a function of response strategy and proficiency during speech category learning.

  15. Incremental Bayesian Category Learning from Natural Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frermann, Lea; Lapata, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    Models of category learning have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this paper, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, that is, words (e.g., "chair" is a member of the furniture category). We present a Bayesian model that, unlike…

  16. What Children Infer from Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Eldror, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Children hold the belief that social categories have essences. We investigated what kinds of properties children feel licensed to infer about a person based on social category membership. Seventy-two 4-6-year-olds were introduced to novel social categories defined as having one internal--psychological or biological--and one external--behavioral or…

  17. The Micro-Category Account of Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Adam E.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.; Kraemer, David J. M.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate how activation of mental representations of categories during analogical reasoning influences subsequent cognitive processing. Specifically, we present and test the central predictions of the "Micro-Category" account of analogy. This account emphasizes the role of categories in aligning terms for analogical mapping. In a…

  18. Federal AIDS funding tops $4 billion in FY 99.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    AIDS-related funding for fiscal year (FY) 1999 is up $800 million from FY 1998 levels. The increases are earmarked for treatment and prevention programs, Ryan White funding, AIDS research, and housing for people with HIV. The spending package also allocates more funding for substance abuse treatment and prevention programs. A chart details the breakdown of funding by category.

  19. Education and preparation of physicians entering an international pediatric AIDS program: the Pediatric AIDS Corps.

    PubMed

    Schutze, Gordon E; Ferris, Margaret G; Jones, David C; Calles, Nancy R; Mizwa, Michael B; Schwarzwald, Heidi L; Wanless, R Sebastian; Kline, Mark W

    2008-09-01

    The Pediatric AIDS Corps (PAC) are a group of physicians that were hired to provide clinical care and treatment to children and their families infected with HIV/AIDS and to help educate local health care professionals in the management of children with HIV/AIDS located in the high prevalence areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Prior to their departure the PAC were required to participate in a 4-week educational training program that included travel and tropical medicine and HIV infections in children, teaching skills, bioethics, and good clinical practice in human research training. Evaluation of the program was done using a 50-question pretest/posttest design, a standard postcourse evaluation, and a PAC focus group follow-up. Fifty-two physicians were hired who had been trained in the following specialties: pediatrics (77%), medicine/pediatrics (9%), family medicine (8%), and internal medicine (6%). Posttest scores improved by a mean of 10 points for all PAC physicians (p < 0.001) but those that had been in Africa for 5 months or more prior to the course continued to score higher than the other participants. Reviewing the results by category demonstrated significant improvement in all areas (p < or = 0.002) except for general pediatrics for the HIV/AIDS infected patients (p = 0.124) and psychosocial issues (p = 0.376). Changes for the next training were implemented based upon the information obtained from the PAC focus group. The foundation provided by this educational course was an important beginning for the PAC physicians. Other groups providing specialized care to patients in developing countries might consider a similar educational program.

  20. Functional categories for future flight deck designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    1993-01-01

    With the addition of each new system on the flight deck, the danger of increasing overall operator workload while reducing crew understanding of critical mission information exists. The introduction of more powerful onboard computers, larger databases, and the increased use of electronic display media may lead to a situation of flight deck 'sophistication' at the expense of losses in flight crew capabilities and situational awareness. To counter this potentially negative impact of new technology, research activities are underway to reassess the flight deck design process. The fundamental premise of these activities is that a human-centered, systems-oriented approach to the development of advanced civil aircraft flight decks will be required for future designs to remain ergonomically sound and economically competitive. One of the initial steps in an integrated flight deck process is to define the primary flight deck functions needed to support the mission goals of the vehicle. This would allow the design team to evaluate candidate concepts in relation to their effectiveness in meeting the functional requirements. In addition, this would provide a framework to aid in categorizing and bookkeeping all of the activities that are required to be performed on the flight deck, not just activities of the crew or of a specific system. This could then allow for a better understanding and allocation of activities in the design, an understanding of the impact of a specific system on overall system performance, and an awareness of the total crew performance requirements for the design. One candidate set of functional categories that could be used to guide an advanced flight deck design are described.

  1. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the air-conduction hearing aid and the bone-conduction hearing aid, but... subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to § 874.9. (2) Class II for the bone-conduction hearing aid....

  2. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the air-conduction hearing aid and the bone-conduction hearing aid, but... subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to § 874.9. (2) Class II for the bone-conduction hearing aid....

  3. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the air-conduction hearing aid and the bone-conduction hearing aid, but... subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to § 874.9. (2) Class II for the bone-conduction hearing aid....

  4. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the air-conduction hearing aid and the bone-conduction hearing aid, but... subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to § 874.9. (2) Class II for the bone-conduction hearing aid....

  5. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the air-conduction hearing aid and the bone-conduction hearing aid, but... subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to § 874.9. (2) Class II for the bone-conduction hearing aid....

  6. The Invisible Epidemic: Teenagers and AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humm, Andy; Kunreuther, Frances

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the alarming spread of AIDS among teenagers, virtually ignored until recently. Discusses reasons why adolescents are at high risk, including misinformation and denial about who can contract the AIDS virus. Addresses the recent controversy over AIDS education and condom distribution in the public schools and suggests ways to better reach…

  7. Organized simultaneous displays facilitate learning of complex natural science categories.

    PubMed

    Meagher, Brian J; Carvalho, Paulo F; Goldstone, Robert L; Nosofsky, Robert M

    2017-02-24

    Subjects learned to classify images of rocks into the categories igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. In accord with the real-world structure of these categories, the to-be-classified rocks in the experiments had a dispersed similarity structure. Our central hypothesis was that learning of these complex categories would be improved through observational study of organized, simultaneous displays of the multiple rock tokens. In support of this hypothesis, a technique that included the presentation of the simultaneous displays during phases of the learning process yielded improved acquisition (Experiment 1) and generalization (Experiment 2) compared to methods that relied solely on sequential forms of study and testing. The technique appears to provide a good starting point for application of cognitive-psychology principles of effective category learning to the science classroom.

  8. Children's Evaluative Categories and Inductive Inferences within the Domain of Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.

    2008-01-01

    Evaluative categories include items that share the same value-laden assessment. Given that these categories have not been examined extensively within the child concepts literature, the present research explored evaluative categorization and induction within the domain of food as a test case. Specifically, two studies examined the categories of…

  9. A Bayesian Model of Category-Specific Emotional Brain Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Tor D.; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Satpute, Ajay B.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories—fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness—is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  10. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Evidence for a New Category for DSM-5

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, C. Neill; Steiner, Meir; Hartlage, S. Ann; Eriksson, Elias; Schmidt, Peter J.; Jones, Ian; Yonkers, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, which affects 2%–5% of premenopausal women, was included in Appendix B of DSM-IV, “Criterion Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study.” Since then, aided by the inclusion of specific and rigorous criteria in DSM-IV, there has been an explosion of research on the epidemiology, phenomenology, pathogenesis, and treatment of the disorder. In 2009, the Mood Disorders Work Group for DSM-5 convened a group of experts to examine the literature on premenstrual dysphoric disorder and provide recommendations regarding the appropriate criteria and placement for the disorder in DSM-5. Based on thorough review and lengthy discussion, the work group proposed that the information on the diagnosis, treatment, and validation of the disorder has matured sufficiently for it to qualify as a full category in DSM-5. A move to the position of category, rather than a criterion set in need of further study, will provide greater legitimacy for the disorder and encourage the growth of evidence-based research, ultimately leading to new treatments. PMID:22764360

  11. Development Aid: A Guide to Facts and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Silva, Leelananda

    This eight-chapter book provides information on Official Development Assistance (ODA), its importance in relation to developed and developing countries, and its prospects and limitations. Major areas discussed include: (1) the institutional evolution of development aid; (2) forms of ODA, including project aid, program aid, bilateral aid,…

  12. Feature-Based versus Category-Based Induction with Uncertain Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K.; Newell, Ben R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is…

  13. AIDS.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... concerns. Search Services Share This Help National HIV/AIDS Strategy Check out NHAS's latest progress in the ... from AIDS.gov Read more AIDS.gov tweets AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  14. Incremental Bayesian Category Learning From Natural Language.

    PubMed

    Frermann, Lea; Lapata, Mirella

    2016-08-01

    Models of category learning have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this paper, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, that is, words (e.g., chair is a member of the furniture category). We present a Bayesian model that, unlike previous work, learns both categories and their features in a single process. We model category induction as two interrelated subproblems: (a) the acquisition of features that discriminate among categories, and (b) the grouping of concepts into categories based on those features. Our model learns categories incrementally using particle filters, a sequential Monte Carlo method commonly used for approximate probabilistic inference that sequentially integrates newly observed data and can be viewed as a plausible mechanism for human learning. Experimental results show that our incremental learner obtains meaningful categories which yield a closer fit to behavioral data compared to related models while at the same time acquiring features which characterize the learned categories. (An earlier version of this work was published in Frermann and Lapata .).

  15. Conceptual influences on category-based induction

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Davidson, Natalie S.

    2013-01-01

    One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductive inferences. However, there are competing theories to explain this phenomenon, differing in the roles attributed to conceptual information versus perceptual similarity. Seven experiments with 4- to 5-year-old children and adults (N = 344) test these theories by teaching categories for which category membership and perceptual similarity are in conflict, and varying the conceptual basis of the novel categories. Results indicate that for non-natural kind categories that have little conceptual coherence, children make inferences based on perceptual similarity, whereas adults make inferences based on category membership. In contrast, for basic- and ontological-level categories that have a principled conceptual basis, children and adults alike make use of category membership more than perceptual similarity as the basis of their inferences. These findings provide evidence in favor of the role of conceptual information in preschoolers’ inferences, and further demonstrate that labeled categories are not all equivalent; they differ in their inductive potential. PMID:23517863

  16. Procedural-based category learning in patients with Parkinson's disease: impact of category number and category continuity

    PubMed Central

    Filoteo, J. Vincent; Maddox, W. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Maddox and Filoteo, 2001; Filoteo et al., 2005a,b). We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting “striatal units” to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1) the number of categories, and (2) category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients' cognitive impairment. PMID:24600355

  17. Computer aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    The application of computer technology to the construction of the NASA Thesaurus and in NASA Lexical Dictionary development is discussed in a brief overview. Consideration is given to the printed and online versions of the Thesaurus, retrospective indexing, the NASA RECON frequency command, demand indexing, lists of terms by category, and the STAR and IAA annual subject indexes. The evolution of computer methods in the Lexical Dictionary program is traced, from DOD and DOE subject switching to LCSH machine-aided indexing and current techniques for handling natural language (e.g., the elimination of verbs to facilitate breakdown of sentences into words and phrases).

  18. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  19. Funding Education beyond High School: The Guide to Federal Student Aid 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Federal student aid is a financial help for eligible students to pay for educational expenses at an eligible postsecondary school (e.g., college, vocational school, graduate school). There are three categories of federal student aid: grants, workstudy, and loans. Federal student aid covers expenses such as tuition and fees, room and board, books…

  20. On Flat Objects of Finitely Accessible Categories

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Flat objects of a finitely accessible additive category 𝒞 are described in terms of some objects of the associated functor category of 𝒞, called strongly flat functors. We study closure properties of the class of strongly flat functors, and we use them to deduce the known result that every object of a finitely accessible abelian category has a flat cover. PMID:24292562

  1. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  2. Buying a Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... aids typically cannot be custom-fit. What are costs and styles of hearing aids? Hearing aids vary ... and for improvement in hearing tones. Real ear measurements may also be done, which determine how much ...

  3. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient & Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Neurological Complications of AIDS Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump ... Where can I get more information? What is AIDS? AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a condition ...

  4. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS Print A ... serious infection. continue How Many People Have HIV/AIDS? Since the discovery of the virus in 1983, ...

  5. Ergogenic aids.

    PubMed

    Coyle, E F

    1984-07-01

    The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant. This effect is most obvious in subjects under laboratory conditions and is less evident in athletes who are highly motivated prior to competition. Fatigue is associated with acidosis in the working musculature when attempts are made to maximize work output during a 4 to 15-minute period. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion may act to buffer the acid produced, provided that blood flow to the muscle is adequate. Prolonged intense exercise can be maintained for approximately two hours before carbohydrate stores become depleted. Carbohydrate feedings delay fatigue during prolonged exercise, especially in subjects who display a decline in blood glucose during exercise in the fasting state. Caffeine ingestion prior to an endurance bout has been reported to allow an individual to exercise somewhat more intensely than he or she would otherwise. Its effect may be mediated by augmenting fat metabolism or by altering the perception of effort. Amphetamines may act in a similar manner. Water ingestion during prolonged exercise that results in dehydration and hyperthermia can offset fluid losses and allow an individual to better maintain work output while substantially reducing the risk of heat-related injuries.

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space heaters... supplies industry sector of this source category includes establishments primarily engaged in high...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space heaters... supplies industry sector of this source category includes establishments primarily engaged in high...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space heaters... supplies industry sector of this source category includes establishments primarily engaged in high...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space heaters... supplies industry sector of this source category includes establishments primarily engaged in high...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space heaters... supplies industry sector of this source category includes establishments primarily engaged in high...

  11. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  12. Geometric Representation of Association between Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Willem J.

    2004-01-01

    Categories can be counted, rated, or ranked, but they cannot be measured. Likewise, persons or individuals can be counted, rated, or ranked, but they cannot be measured either. Nevertheless, psychology has realized early on that it can take an indirect road to measurement: What can be measured is the strength of association between categories in…

  13. Generalized Categorial Grammar for Unbounded Dependencies Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Luan Viet

    2014-01-01

    Accurate recovery of predicate-argument dependencies is vital for interpretation tasks like information extraction and question answering, and unbounded dependencies may account for a significant portion of the dependencies in any given text. This thesis describes a Generalized Categorial Grammar (GCG) which, like other categorial grammars,…

  14. 7 CFR 993.515 - Size categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Size categories. 993.515 Section 993.515 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... respective size categories expressed as follows or in an applicable equivalent range expressed in the...

  15. SUSTAIN: A Network Model of Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Bradley C.; Medin, Douglas L.; Gureckis, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN…

  16. Category-Specificity in Visual Object Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the…

  17. Conceptual Influences on Category-Based Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Davidson, Natalie S.

    2013-01-01

    One important function of categories is to permit rich inductive inferences. Prior work shows that children use category labels to guide their inductive inferences. However, there are competing theories to explain this phenomenon, differing in the roles attributed to conceptual information vs. perceptual similarity. Seven experiments with 4- to…

  18. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  19. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  20. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  1. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  2. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  3. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  4. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  5. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  6. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  7. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  8. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 129.353 Section 129.353 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital...

  9. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  10. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  11. 46 CFR 183.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 183.352 Section 183.352 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 183.310 for secondary sources of power...

  12. 46 CFR 120.352 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 120.352 Section 120.352 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.352 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to... sources of power to final emergency loads. (a) Large. A large battery installation is one connected to...

  13. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W.

    2015-01-01

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined. PMID:26557193

  14. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  15. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  16. AIDS in India: constructive chaos?

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1991-08-01

    Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.

  17. Handbook of Student Financial Aid: Programs, Procedures, and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Robert H.; And Others

    The full range of topics relevant to student financial aid are covered in this book by a variety of experts in financial aid administration and scholarship. The volume details how to organize, implement and assess a financial aid program--including how to determine student need, deal with student bankruptcy and aid termination, and improve…

  18. Informational Memorandum: Student Financial Aid, 1998-99 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. System, Madison.

    This publication presents data on student financial aid trends in the University of Wisconsin (UW) System. Tables include: an overview of student financial aid trends; sources of aid for UW System students; loans; grants; the Federal Work Study Program; characteristics of financial aid recipients; and student indebtedness. Highlights noted…

  19. 40 CFR 156.68 - First aid statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First aid statement. 156.68 Section... aid statement. (a) Product as sold and distributed. Each product must bear a first aid statement if... with water prior to use, the label may also include a statement describing how the first aid...

  20. 40 CFR 156.68 - First aid statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First aid statement. 156.68 Section... aid statement. (a) Product as sold and distributed. Each product must bear a first aid statement if... with water prior to use, the label may also include a statement describing how the first aid...

  1. 40 CFR 156.68 - First aid statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First aid statement. 156.68 Section... aid statement. (a) Product as sold and distributed. Each product must bear a first aid statement if... with water prior to use, the label may also include a statement describing how the first aid...

  2. 40 CFR 156.68 - First aid statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First aid statement. 156.68 Section... aid statement. (a) Product as sold and distributed. Each product must bear a first aid statement if... with water prior to use, the label may also include a statement describing how the first aid...

  3. 40 CFR 156.68 - First aid statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid statement. 156.68 Section... aid statement. (a) Product as sold and distributed. Each product must bear a first aid statement if... with water prior to use, the label may also include a statement describing how the first aid...

  4. The Cape Observatory: all Categories of Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Ian S.

    2012-09-01

    In this presentation I will give an outline of the various types of heritage related to the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, established in 1820 and now the headquarters campus of the South African Astronomical Observatory, located quite close to downtown Cape Town. In terms of tangible, fixed heritage, the campus itself, the domes and the various other buildings are obviously relevant. This category includes the Classical Revival Main Building of 1828 and the McClean dome of 1895 by the leading colonial architect Herbert Baker as well as many other buildings and even the graves of two directors. Tangible movable items include, in principle, the telescopes, the accessory instruments and many pieces of apparatus that have been preserved. In addition, extensive collections of antique paintings, drawings, furniture and books add to the site's cultural significance. Many of the Observatory's archives are still kept locally. The intangible heritage of the Observatory consists for example of its history, its major discoveries, its interaction with the City, its central role in the history of science in South Africa and its appeal as a living cultural institution. Especially notable were the observations by Henderson (ca 1831) leading to the distance of a Cen and the early sky survey known as the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung.

  5. The pathology of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Macher, A M

    1988-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This retrovirus causes profound immunoincompetence in its infected hosts, who are thereafter susceptible to develop myriad severe and relapsing protozoal, fungal, bacterial, viral, and arthropodal opportunistic infections, as well as unusual malignancies. The more than 50,000 patients who have developed AIDS in the United States have produced a sudden unexpected deluge of diagnostic dilemmas that are stressing laboratories of pathology everywhere. This paper describes the gross and microscopic pathology of the numerous complications in patients infected by HIV: (a) the prodromal AIDS-related complex with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, (b) lymphoid infiltration of salivary gland and lung, including the complex of lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis-pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia, (c) extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, (d) multifocal mucocutaneous and visceral Kaposi's sarcoma, (e) small cell undifferentiated (oat cell) carcinomas, (f) protozoal infections caused by Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, Acanthamoeba, Cryptosporidium species (sp.), and Isospora belli, (g) the causes of chronic enteritis, (h) mycotic infections caused by Candida sp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Sporothrix schenckii, (i) bacterial infections caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii, Nocardia sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella sp., Treponema pallidum, and others, (j) viral infections caused by cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex and zoster, polyomavirus (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy), hepatitis B, molluscum contagiosum, and papillomavirus, (k) oral hairy leukoplakia, (l) subacute encephalopathy, and (m) Norwegian scabies. PMID:2836878

  6. Pharyngeal Fricatives, and Pike's "Fricative" and "Frictional" Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprigg, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of pharyngeal fricatives in Arabic looks at voiced and voiceless varieties within the context of K. L. Pike's classifications. Pike treated pharyngeal fricatives as standing apart from others, including a number of oral fricatives and one glottal fricative in a category he called "frictionals." Later, however, he…

  7. 14 CFR 61.68 - Category III pilot authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The addition of another type of aircraft to the applicant's Category III pilot authorization. (2) To... height, as applicable, including use of a radar altimeter; (iii) Recognition of and proper reaction to...; and (xii) Recognition of, and reaction to, airborne or ground system faults or...

  8. Separating the Sheep from the Goats: Differentiating Global Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandler, Jean M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The conceptual categories that children have developed in their second year were studied in five experiments using object manipulation tasks. Subjects included 152 children from 18 to 31 months of age. These very young children had formed global conceptions of many domains of objects. (SLD)

  9. 40 CFR 98.390 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products § 98.390 Definition of the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... same meaning given in § 98.6 and includes any entity that imports petroleum products or natural...

  10. 40 CFR 98.210 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., glass, ferroalloys, iron and steel, lead, lime, phosphoric acid, pulp and paper, soda ash, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide, or zinc. (c) This source category does not include carbonates used in sorbent...: limestone, dolomite, ankerite, magnesite, siderite, rhodochrosite, or sodium carbonate. Facilities...

  11. 40 CFR 98.210 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., glass, ferroalloys, iron and steel, lead, lime, phosphoric acid, pulp and paper, soda ash, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide, or zinc. (c) This source category does not include carbonates used in sorbent...: limestone, dolomite, ankerite, magnesite, siderite, rhodochrosite, or sodium carbonate. Facilities...

  12. 40 CFR 98.210 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., glass, ferroalloys, iron and steel, lead, lime, phosphoric acid, pulp and paper, soda ash, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide, or zinc. (c) This source category does not include carbonates used in sorbent...: limestone, dolomite, ankerite, magnesite, siderite, rhodochrosite, or sodium carbonate. Facilities...

  13. Chemical Category Formation and Read-Across for the Prediction of Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoch, Steven J.

    The aim of this chapter is to outline the principles of chemical category formation and the use of read-across methods to fill data gaps to aid regulatory toxicological decision making. The chapter outlines the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) principles for the design of a chemical category. This section aims to give a flavour of the steps that need to be considered when forming a chemical category. This is followed by a description of the advantages that considering chemicals within categories bring in risk assessment. The importance of how to define chemical similarity and several commonly used methods is discussed. Finally a brief review of the limited literature available showing actual examples of read-across methods is presented

  14. Open-ended category learning for language acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabra Lopes, Luis; Chauhan, Aneesh

    2008-12-01

    Motivated by the need to support language-based communication between robots and their human users, as well as grounded symbolic reasoning, this paper presents a learning architecture that can be used by robotic agents for long-term and open-ended category acquisition. To be more adaptive and to improve learning performance as well as memory usage, this learning architecture includes a metacognitive processing component. Multiple object representations and multiple classifiers and classifier combinations are used. At the object level, the main similarity measure is based on a multi-resolution matching algorithm. Categories are represented as sets of known instances. In this instance-based approach, storing and forgetting rules optimise memory usage. Classifier combinations are based on majority voting and the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. All learning computations are carried out during the normal execution of the agent, which allows continuous monitoring of the performance of the different classifiers. The measured classification successes of the individual classifiers support an attentional selection mechanism, through which classifier combinations are dynamically reconfigured and a specific classifier is chosen to predict the category of a new unseen object. A simple physical agent, incorporating these learning capabilities, is used to test the approach. A long-term experiment was carried out having in mind the open-ended nature of category learning. With the help of a human mediator, the agent incrementally learned 68 categories of real-world objects visually perceivable through an inexpensive camera. Various aspects of the approach are evaluated through systematic experiments.

  15. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  16. God's Categories: The Effect of Religiosity on Children's Teleological and Essentialist Beliefs about Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Haber, Lital

    2009-01-01

    Creationism implies that God imbued each category with a unique nature and purpose. These implications closely correspond to what some cognitive psychologists define as an essentialistic and teleological stance towards categories. This study assessed to what extent the belief in God as creator of categories is related to the mappings of these…

  17. How to Get Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Products Hearing Aids How to get Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... my hearing aids? How do I get hearing aids? Before getting a hearing aid, you should consider ...

  18. Topical Search: AIDS and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Inst. of Justice.

    This topical search includes 30 of the most representative citations on the subject of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and youth selected from the National Institute of Justice/NCJRS (National Criminal Justice Reference Service) database. Topics covered in this package include education programs for in-school youth, policies and…

  19. HIV infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A

    1996-09-01

    Many of the clinical features of HIV/AIDS can be ascribed to the profound immune deficiency which develops in infected patients. The destruction of the immune system by the virus results in opportunistic infection, as well as an increased risk of autoimmune disease and malignancy. In addition, disease manifestations related to the virus itself may occur. For example, during the primary illness which occurs within weeks after first exposure to HIV, clinical symptoms occur in at least 50% of cases, typically as a mononucleosis syndrome. HIV-related complications are rarely encountered in patients with preserved immunity (i.e. CD4 T-cell counts greater than 500 cells/mm3). Recurrent mucocutaneous herpes simplex (HSV), herpes zoster (VZV), oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia occur with increasing frequency as the CD4 count drops below this level. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) occurs in association with HIV and often presents early in the clinical course. The risk of developing opportunistic infections and malignancies typical of AIDS increases progressively as CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/mm3. The clinical manifestations of infections associated with AIDS tend to fall into well-recognized patterns of presentation, including pneumonia, dysphagia/odynophagia, diarrhoea, neurological symptoms, fever, wasting, anaemia and visual loss. The commonest pathogens include Candida albicans, Pneumocystis carinii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium avium intracellulare and cytomegalovirus. Malignant disease in patients with HIV infection also occurs in a characteristic pattern. Only two tumours are prevalent: Kaposi's sarcoma, a multifocal tumour of vascular endothelium which typically involves skin and mucosal surfaces; and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is typically high grade in phenotype, often arising within the central nervous system. The principles of therapy include reduction of HIV replication by antiretroviral

  20. Perceiving expatriate coworkers as foreigners encourages aid: social categorization and procedural justice together improve intergroup cooperation and dual identity.

    PubMed

    Leonardelli, Geoffrey J; Toh, Soo Min

    2011-01-01

    We propose that social categorization can encourage particular forms of intergroup cooperation because it differentiates a group in need from a group that can give aid. Moreover, social categorization is most likely to occur when individuals perceive procedural justice (i.e., fair treatment) from authorities in a superordinate group that includes the individuals' subgroup. Two field studies investigating relations between local and foreign coworkers tested not only this prediction, but also whether high social categorization and procedural justice would yield a dual identity, in which group members identify simultaneously with their social category and the superordinate group. Both studies supported our predictions: Local employees engaged a dual identity and offered knowledge to aid a foreign coworker's adjustment more often when local-foreign categorization and procedural justice from organizational authorities were high than when these variables were low. These discoveries point to controllable mechanisms that enable intergroup cooperation, and our findings have important implications for intergroup aid, expatriate adjustment, immigration, and multiculturalism.

  1. Opening the Market for Lower Cost Hearing Aids: Regulatory Change Can Improve the Health of Older Americans

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Barbara E.

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss is a leading cause of disability among older people. Yet only one in seven US adults who could benefit from a hearing aid uses one. This fraction has not increased over the past 30 years, nor have hearing aid prices dropped, despite trends of steady improvements and price reductions in the consumer electronics industry. The President’s Council on Science and Technology has proposed changes in the regulation of hearing aids, including the creation of a “basic” low-cost over-the-counter category of devices. We discuss the potential to reduce disability as well as to improve public health, stakeholder responses to the president’s council’s proposal, and public health efforts to further mitigate the burden of disability stemming from age-related hearing loss. PMID:27077339

  2. Categorial Compositionality: A Category Theory Explanation for the Systematicity of Human Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric) theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes). In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe—replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them. PMID:20661306

  3. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2010-07-22

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric) theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes). In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  4. HIV/AIDS eradication.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Matthew D; Zack, Jerome A

    2013-07-15

    Antiretroviral therapy can inhibit HIV replication in patients and prevent progression to AIDS. However, it is not curative. Here we provide an overview of what antiretroviral drugs do and how the virus persists during therapy in rare reservoirs, such as latently infected CD4+ T cells. We also outline several innovative methods that are currently under development to eradicate HIV from infected individuals. These strategies include gene therapy approaches intended to create an HIV-resistant immune system, and activation/elimination approaches directed towards flushing out latent virus. This latter approach could involve the use of novel chemically synthesized analogs of natural activating agents.

  5. Feature-based versus category-based induction with uncertain categories.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K; Newell, Ben R

    2012-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is known. The present experiments examined the conditions that drive feature-based and category-based strategies in induction under category uncertainty. Specifically, 2 experiments investigated whether reliance on feature-based inductive strategies is a product of the lack of coherence in the categories used in previous research or is due to the use of a decision-only induction procedure. Experiment 1 found that feature-based reasoning remained the preferred strategy even when categories with relatively high internal coherence were used. Experiment 2 found a shift toward category-based reasoning when participants were trained to classify category members prior to feature induction. Together, these results suggest that an appropriate conceptual representation must be formed through experience with a category before it is likely to be used as a basis for feature induction.

  6. Searching for Category-Consistent Features: A Computational Approach to Understanding Visual Category Representation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen-Ping; Maxfield, Justin T; Zelinsky, Gregory J

    2016-06-01

    This article introduces a generative model of category representation that uses computer vision methods to extract category-consistent features (CCFs) directly from images of category exemplars. The model was trained on 4,800 images of common objects, and CCFs were obtained for 68 categories spanning subordinate, basic, and superordinate levels in a category hierarchy. When participants searched for these same categories, targets cued at the subordinate level were preferentially fixated, but fixated targets were verified faster when they followed a basic-level cue. The subordinate-level advantage in guidance is explained by the number of target-category CCFs, a measure of category specificity that decreases with movement up the category hierarchy. The basic-level advantage in verification is explained by multiplying the number of CCFs by sibling distance, a measure of category distinctiveness. With this model, the visual representations of real-world object categories, each learned from the vast numbers of image exemplars accumulated throughout everyday experience, can finally be studied.

  7. Families, children, migration and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Haour-Knipe, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Migration is very often a family affair, and often involves children, directly or indirectly. It may give rise to better quality of life for an entire family, or to bitter disappointment, and may also increase vulnerability to HIV and AIDS. This review, carried out for the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS, links the literature on "migration", on "HIV and AIDS" and on "families". Three themes are sketched: (1) As both HIV prevalence and circular migration increase, former migrant workers affected by AIDS may return to their families for care and support, especially at the end of life, often under crisis conditions. Families thus lose promising members, as well as sources of support. However, very little is known about the children of such migrants. (2) Following patterns of migration established for far different reasons, children may have to relocate to different places, sometimes over long distances, if their AIDS-affected parents can no longer care for them. They face the same adaptation challenges as other children who move, but complicated by loss of parent(s), AIDS stigma, and often poverty. (3) The issue of migrant families living with HIV has been studied to some extent, but mainly in developed countries with a long history of migration, and with little attention paid to the children in such families. Difficulties include involuntary separation from family members, isolation and lack of support, disclosure and planning for children's care should the parent(s) die and differences in treatment access within the same family. Numerous research and policy gaps are defined regarding the three themes, and a call is made for thinking about migration, families and AIDS to go beyond description to include resilience theory, and to go beyond prevention to include care.

  8. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Gorodkin, J

    2004-12-01

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary structure in cases where some predicted pairs go into the category "unknown" due to lack of reliability in predicted pairs or unpaired residues. Hence, predicting base pairs of RNA secondary structure can be a three-category problem. The measure is further shown to be well in agreement with existing performance measures used for ranking protein secondary structure predictions. Server and software is available at http://rk.kvl.dk/.

  9. On Gauging Symmetry of Modular Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Galindo, César; Plavnik, Julia Yael; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-12-01

    Topological order of a topological phase of matter in two spacial dimensions is encoded by a unitary modular (tensor) category (UMC). A group symmetry of the topological phase induces a group symmetry of its corresponding UMC. Gauging is a well-known theoretical tool to promote a global symmetry to a local gauge symmetry. We give a mathematical formulation of gauging in terms of higher category formalism. Roughly, given a UMC with a symmetry group G, gauging is a 2-step process: first extend the UMC to a G-crossed braided fusion category and then take the equivariantization of the resulting category. Gauging can tell whether or not two enriched topological phases of matter are different, and also provides a way to construct new UMCs out of old ones. We derive a formula for the {H^4}-obstruction, prove some properties of gauging, and carry out gauging for two concrete examples.

  10. AIDS: Understanding and Prevention. Student and Teacher Editions. The Merrill Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Linda; Heit, Philip

    This two-document set includes a student workbook and a teacher guide designed to present factual information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Subjects covered include; transmission of AIDS, risk behaviors, detection of AIDS, AIDS infection, treatment and research, and prevention of AIDS infection. The teacher guide presents…

  11. AIDS orphanages in China: reality and challenges.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Li, Xiaoming; Kaljee, Linda M; Fang, Xiaoyi; Stanton, Bonita; Zhang, Liying

    2009-04-01

    With the increasing number of AIDS orphans in China, the government has been building AIDS orphanages since 2004 to accommodate some of those children who have lost both parents to AIDS. However, no data are available regarding the quality of this model of institutional care of AIDS orphans in China. This study, based on qualitative data from children and workers in AIDS orphanages, examines the daily lives, needs, and feelings of orphans and explores the advantages and disadvantages of institutionalized care of AIDS orphans in China. The current study was conducted in 2006-2007 in two rural counties of central China. Data in the current study included individual in-depth interviews with 23 children who lost both of their parents to HIV/AIDS (ages 8 to 17 years) living in AIDS orphanages and 5 AIDS orphanage workers. Findings in this study reveal that children living in orphanages mostly felt that the living conditions were better than the families they lived with after the death of their parents. However, according to the children and orphanage workers, the institutional care has some disadvantages, such as administrative restraints, limited psychological guidance, stigma, lack of education on AIDS, and financial burdens of the operation. Implications for intervention programs include continuing support from the government and nongovernmental organizations, improvements in administrative styles, and the need of incorporating psychological support within the institutions.

  12. Learning, retention, and generalization of haptic categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Phuong T.

    This dissertation explored how haptic concepts are learned, retained, and generalized to the same or different modality. Participants learned to classify objects into three categories either visually or haptically via different training procedures, followed by an immediate or delayed transfer test. Experiment I involved visual versus haptic learning and transfer. Intermodal matching between vision and haptics was investigated in Experiment II. Experiments III and IV examined intersensory conflict in within- and between-category bimodal situations to determine the degree of perceptual dominance between sight and touch. Experiment V explored the intramodal relationship between similarity and categorization in a psychological space, as revealed by MDS analysis of similarity judgments. Major findings were: (1) visual examination resulted in relatively higher performance accuracy than haptic learning; (2) systematic training produced better category learning of haptic concepts across all modality conditions; (3) the category prototypes were rated newer than any transfer stimulus followed learning both immediately and after a week delay; and, (4) although they converged at the apex of two transformational trajectories, the category prototypes became more central to their respective categories and increasingly structured as a function of learning. Implications for theories of multimodal similarity and categorization behavior are discussed in terms of discrimination learning, sensory integration, and dominance relation.

  13. On the flexibility of phonetic categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2002-05-01

    Research on phonetic category acquisition suggests that over the course of development children shift the relative weight given to various acoustic cues to particular phonetic categories [S. Nittrouer, J. Phon. 20, 1-32 (1992)]. Adults also show flexibility in acquiring second language categories and learning to recognize synthetic speech. In both cases listeners must shift attention among some acoustic cues and change the weighting and mapping of others. Recent research demonstrated that category-level feedback can induce adult listeners to shift attention between conflicting cues to native stop-consonant categories. Subsequent research showed that adult listeners also reorganize the distribution of their attention to acoustic cues in learning to better understand synthetic speech. Moreover, research on learning foreign phonetic contrasts suggests that listeners can learn to direct attention to unfamiliar acoustic cues. These results suggest that phonetic categories are flexible in terms of the nature and quality of the acoustic cues that define them. We argue that this flexibility is a consequence of the basic nature of the general mechanism that mediates speech perception: In order to resolve the problem of context-conditioned variability, listeners must dynamically modify attention to the acoustic signal in a context-dependent manner.

  14. Adherence to HIV/AIDS antiretroviral therapy among drug users: A qualitative study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Zahra; Eftkhar, Hasan; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ebadi, Abbas; Abbasian, Ladan; Zamani, Fereshte; Aghamollaei, Teamur; Shojaeizade, Davood

    2016-01-01

    Background: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy has caused a remarkable decrease in the occurrence of diseases and mortality among HIV-positive patients, while this success has not been achieved among injection addicts due to a low adherence to antiretroviral medicine. This study aims at clarifying the important factors affecting adherence to treatment in addicts suffering from HIV. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative research, data were gathered through in-depth interviews and field notes, and were interpreted through content analysis in the form of constant comparison. The participants were 16 drug addicts living with HIV/AIDS. Most of them had records of imprisonment and were receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) drug treatments in the AIDS center of Imam Khomeini Hospital complex, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Sampling was started in a purposive method and was continued until data were saturated. Results: Four main categories including psychological reactions, contradictory beliefs, perceived support, and individual and environmental barriers were extracted from the data, each having some sub-categories. Conclusions: The obtained results indicated that adherence to the treatment of HIV is not constant and mono-dimensional, but is a function of different factors. Hence, an individual having feeble adherence in a specific time and under specific circumstances may show desirable adherence under a different circumstance. Thus, treatment of addicts living with HIV/AIDS requires physical, psychological, and social attention along with drug treatments. PMID:26985220

  15. An idiotypic network model of AIDS immunopathogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, G W; Kion, T A; Grant, M D

    1991-01-01

    Considerations from a network theory of the immune system suggest that human immunodeficiency virus and allogeneic stimuli may act synergistically to cause AIDS. The immune responses to these stimuli include two components that are directed against each other. In some AIDS risk groups other antigens that mimic major histocompatibility complex antigens may substitute for allogeneic stimuli. Implications for the prevention of AIDS are discussed. Images PMID:1901653

  16. [Social representations of health education in a time of AIDS].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Elizabeth; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This is a qualitative and descriptive study, which aimed at identifying and analyzing social representations of health education to HIV patients among health professionals. The setting included three healthcare DST/HIV/AIDS services in Belém-PA, Brazil, and 37 health professionals participated in the study. Data collection was conducted in 2012-2013 on the basis of in-depth interviews and analysis was made on Alceste 4.0 software. Final results indicated that health education can be comprehended in light of categories: educational action; sine qua non: education and training at work, and unit structure; teaching-learning process. Conclusions show that social representations are set as guidance-information for precaution-prevention and that they come forth along continuous and emerging action flow, bringing about permanent health education to ensure healthcare services in full.

  17. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-hoc and Well-defined Categories

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this population. Aims The present study explores the possible contributors to the typicality effect in persons with aphasia by analyzing and comparing data from both normal and language-disordered populations, from persons with aphasia with more semantic impairment versus those with less semantic impairment, and from two types of categories with very different boundary structure (ad-hoc vs. well-defined). Methods and procedures A total of 40 neurologically healthy adults (20 older, 20 younger) and 35 persons with aphasia (20 LSI (less-semantically impaired) patients, 15 MSI (more-semantically impaired) patients) participated in the study. Participants completed one of two tasks: either category verification for ad-hoc categories or category verification for well-defined categories. Outcomes and Results Neurologically healthy participants showed typicality effects for both ad-hoc and well-defined categories. MSI patients showed a typicality effect for well-defined categories, but not for ad-hoc categories, whereas LSI patients showed a typicality effect for ad-hoc categories, but not for well-defined categories. Conclusions These results suggest that the degree of semantic impairment mediates the typicality effect in persons with aphasia depending on the structure of the category. PMID:22261305

  18. Student Aid Research. A Manual for Financial Aid Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jerry Sheehan, Ed.

    This manual contains nine articles intended to assist student financial aid professionals in conducting research. Initial chapters provide basic information for those starting to do such research while later chapters deal with more complex issues. Some chapters include appendices that provide examples of the techniques under consideration. from…

  19. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... the neurological complications of AIDS. Some disorders require aggressive therapy while others are treated symptomatically. Medicines range ... certain bacterial infections, and penicillin to treat neurosyphilis. Aggressive antiretroviral therapy is used to treat AIDS dementia ...

  20. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... person is unconscious and: Does not return to consciousness quickly (within a minute) Has fallen down or ...

  1. First Aid Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI for Kids > First Aid Tips All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  2. Home Health Aides

    MedlinePlus

    ... do the following: Assist clients in their daily personal tasks, such as bathing or dressing Provide basic ... social networks and communities Home health aides, unlike personal care aides , typically work for certified home health ...

  3. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  4. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... yeast infection (thrush) Shingles (herpes zoster) Progression to AIDS If you receive no treatment for your HIV ... childbirth or breast-feeding. How does HIV become AIDS? HIV destroys CD4 cells — a specific type of ...

  5. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  6. [Feelings and conflicts of women living with HIV/AIDS: a literature research].

    PubMed

    Botti, Maria Luciana; Waidman, Maria Angélica Pagliarini; Marcon, Sonia Silva; Scochi, Maria José

    2009-03-01

    This is a literature review with the purpose to identify how the conflicts and feelings of women living with HIV/AIDS are addressed in the national literature, and the proposed pathways for an integral care approach. Data were collected in November, 2006, in the LILACS database, using the following keywords: women, feelings, HIV, AIDS, suffering, depression and fear. The inclusion criterion was that these studies should have been published in the past five years. The sample was made up of 14 studies (four dissertations, two theses and eight articles). The content analysis method allowed for the identification of three thematic categories: the researcher's perspective, what their perspective identifies and their perspective beyond the physical body--which reveal the necessity of addressing women considering their whole context as human beings, including issues of vulnerability, social gender ideology and the promotion of self-esteem and citizenship.

  7. Women and HIV/AIDS in the kingdom of Swaziland: culture and risks.

    PubMed

    Mathunjwa, Tengetile R; Gary, Faye A

    2006-12-01

    In Swaziland, a polygamous society in Southern Africa, the prevalence of the human immune virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is continuing to proliferate at an alarming rate. In 1992 the prevalence rate was 3.9%. However in 12 years, by 2004, the prevalence rate had reached 42.6%. This article explores some of the traditional cultural practices and experiences that increase Swazi women's vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. The traditional cultural practices fall into four categories: (1) socialization and the roles of women, (2) the minority status of women, (3) the practice of a dowry, and (4) the wife as an inheritance. The women's experiences include the Swazi men's beliefs in the virginity cure myth, the women's extreme poverty, and the Swazi men who are migrant workers in neighboring states. This article concludes with recommendations for public policy and for future research within the context of Swazi culture.

  8. Controlled Access Headings in EAD Finding Aids: Current Practices in Number of and Types of Headings Assigned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascaro, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a study of controlled access headings assigned to encoded archival description finding aids in the Ohio Library and Information Network Finding Aid Repository, focusing on the number of headings per finding aid and the category of terms assigned. Assigning multiple controlled access headings was widely…

  9. Difficult Decisions: AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on public education about the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Discusses the problems of a second epidemic of fear and anxiety. Presents several questions for classroom discussion and analysis of the public fear of AIDS. Gives some statistics highlighting misinformation about AIDS. (CW)

  10. Stroke: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when normal blood flow to ... next several hours. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...

  11. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A What's in this article? ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  12. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  13. Body-part-specific representations of semantic noun categories.

    PubMed

    Carota, Francesca; Moseley, Rachel; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2012-06-01

    Word meaning processing in the brain involves ventrolateral temporal cortex, but a semantic contribution of the dorsal stream, especially frontocentral sensorimotor areas, has been controversial. We here examine brain activation during passive reading of object-related nouns from different semantic categories, notably animal, food, and tool words, matched for a range of psycholinguistic features. Results show ventral stream activation in temporal cortex along with category-specific activation patterns in both ventral and dorsal streams, including sensorimotor systems and adjacent pFC. Precentral activation reflected action-related semantic features of the word categories. Cortical regions implicated in mouth and face movements were sparked by food words, and hand area activation was seen for tool words, consistent with the actions implicated by the objects the words are used to speak about. Furthermore, tool words specifically activated the right cerebellum, and food words activated the left orbito-frontal and fusiform areas. We discuss our results in the context of category-specific semantic deficits in the processing of words and concepts, along with previous neuroimaging research, and conclude that specific dorsal and ventral areas in frontocentral and temporal cortex index visual and affective-emotional semantic attributes of object-related nouns and action-related affordances of their referent objects.

  14. Impact of feature saliency on visual category learning

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Rubi

    2015-01-01

    People have to sort numerous objects into a large number of meaningful categories while operating in varying contexts. This requires identifying the visual features that best predict the ‘essence’ of objects (e.g., edibility), rather than categorizing objects based on the most salient features in a given context. To gain this capacity, visual category learning (VCL) relies on multiple cognitive processes. These may include unsupervised statistical learning, that requires observing multiple objects for learning the statistics of their features. Other learning processes enable incorporating different sources of supervisory information, alongside the visual features of the categorized objects, from which the categorical relations between few objects can be deduced. These deductions enable inferring that objects from the same category may differ from one another in some high-saliency feature dimensions, whereas lower-saliency feature dimensions can best differentiate objects from distinct categories. Here I illustrate how feature saliency affects VCL, by also discussing kinds of supervisory information enabling reflective categorization. Arguably, principles debated here are often being ignored in categorization studies. PMID:25954220

  15. Category structure and the two learning systems of COVIS.

    PubMed

    Milton, Fraser; Pothos, Emmanuel M

    2011-10-01

    An influential multi-process model of category learning, COmpetition between Verbal and Implicit Systems (COVIS), suggests that a verbal or a procedural category learning process is adopted, depending on the nature of the learning problem. While the architectural assumptions of COVIS have been widely supported, there is still uncertainty regarding the types of category structures that are likely to engage each of the COVIS systems. We examined COVIS in an fMRI study with two novel (in terms of COVIS research) categorizations. One of the categorizations could be described by a simple, unidimensional, rule that was expected to favor the verbal system. The other categorization possessed characteristics typically associated with the procedural system, but could also potentially be verbalized using a rule more complex than the ones previously associated with the verbal system. We found that both categorizations engaged regions associated with the verbal system. Additionally, for both categorizations, frontal lobe regions (including left ventrolateral frontal cortex) were more engaged in the first compared to the second session, possibly reflecting the greater use of hypothesis-testing processes in the initial stages of category acquisition. In sum, our results extend our knowledge of the conditions under which the verbal system will operate. These findings indicate that much remains to be understood concerning the precise interplay of the verbal and procedural categorization systems.

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis from hearing aid materials.

    PubMed

    Sood, Apra; Taylor, James S

    2004-03-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented with dermatitis of the ear canal. The dermatitis had developed after she started wearing hearing aids that fit into the ear canals. Patch-test results were positive for (1) several acrylics, including polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, which were present in the hearing aid shell; (2) the hearing aid shell materials; and (3) the finish coat. The dermatitis resolved after she discontinued wearing the hearing aid, and a device with a silicone earpiece to be worn behind the ear was recommended as an alternative.

  17. Multimedia category preferences of working engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-09-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories of multimedia, with two types in each category, were studied: verbal (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), dynamic non-interactive graphics (animation and video), and dynamic interactive graphics (simulated virtual reality (VR) and photo-real VR). The results showed that working engineers strongly preferred text over narration and somewhat preferred drawing over photograph, animation over video, and simulated VR over photo-real VR. These results suggest that a variety of multimedia types should be used in the instructional design of CEE content.

  18. Moduli of linear and abelian categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anel, Mathieu

    2006-07-01

    Linear categories naturally have several identification relations : isomorphisms, categorical equivalences and Morita equivalences. In this thesis, we construct the classifying stacks for these three relations (\\ukcatiso, \\ukcateq, \\ukcatmor) together with the classifying stack of abelian categories (\\ukab), the originality of the subject being that, apart from the first one, these are higher stacks. The principal result is that, under some finiteness assumptions, these stacks are geometric in the sense of C. Simpson. In particular, one recover the Hochschild cohomology of a category C as the tangent complex, i.e. the object classifying first order deformations of C, of these stacks at the point defined by C. Moreover, there exists a natural sequence of surjective morphisms of stacks : \\ukcatiso tto \\ukcateq tto \\ukcatmor tto \\ukab for which we prove that the middle one is etale, and the right one is an equivalence.

  19. Children's internal organization of locative categories.

    PubMed

    Erreich, A; Valian, V

    1979-12-01

    4 locative categories were investigated to determine whether their examples were organized according to the prototype/nonprototype distinction. A ranking task was presented to 30 adult subjects to see whether they would judge those instances which had been designated as prototypes by the experimenter to be the best exemplars of each category. An elicited-drawing task was administered to see whether there was a preference for drawing adult-designated prototypical instances. A matching task was presented to determine whether fewer errors would occur in response to adult-designated prototypical instances. The latter 2 tasks were presented to 4-year-olds, 6-year-olds, and adults, with 17 subjects in each group. The results provide strong evidence of prototype/nonprototype organization in 3 of the locative categories and weak evidence in the fourth. Tentative conclusions regarding the development of such organization are drawn.

  20. Space Technology for Medical Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    A line of biomedical devices based on aerospace expertise leads a sampling of spinoffs in the field of medicine. These include a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-developed computer program used by the Centers for Disease Control, medical products research, crawling aid, portable medical system, and human tissue stimulator.…

  1. AIDS Victims and Heterosexual Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Knud S.; And Others

    This study reports on the development of a Likert scale measuring attitudes toward Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) victims (ATAV) in five phases. Participants included a total of 215 male and 268 female undergraduates at Oregon State University. The results for phase 1 yielded a scale with high part-whole correlations, corrected…

  2. Computer-Aided Geometry Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoosmith, J. N. (Compiler); Fulton, R. E. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Techniques in computer-aided geometry modeling and their application are addressed. Mathematical modeling, solid geometry models, management of geometric data, development of geometry standards, and interactive and graphic procedures are discussed. The applications include aeronautical and aerospace structures design, fluid flow modeling, and gas turbine design.

  3. Clinical Criteria for Physician Aid in Dying

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Rich, Ben A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract More than 20 years ago, even before voters in Oregon had enacted the first aid in dying (AID) statute in the United States, Timothy Quill and colleagues proposed clinical criteria AID. Their proposal was carefully considered and temperate, but there were little data on the practice of AID at the time. (With AID, a physician writes a prescription for life-ending medication for a terminally ill, mentally capacitated adult.) With the passage of time, a substantial body of data on AID has developed from the states of Oregon and Washington. For more than 17 years, physicians in Oregon have been authorized to provide a prescription for AID. Accordingly, we have updated the clinical criteria of Quill, et al., based on the many years of experience with AID. With more jurisdictions authorizing AID, it is critical that physicians can turn to reliable clinical criteria. As with any medical practice, AID must be provided in a safe and effective manner. Physicians need to know (1) how to respond to a patient's inquiry about AID, (2) how to assess patient decision making capacity, and (3) how to address a range of other issues that may arise. To ensure that physicians have the guidance they need, Compassion & Choices convened the Physician Aid-in-Dying Clinical Criteria Committee, in July 2012, to create clinical criteria for physicians who are willing to provide AID to patients who request it. The committee includes experts in medicine, law, bioethics, hospice, nursing, social work, and pharmacy. Using an iterative consensus process, the Committee drafted the criteria over a one-year period. PMID:26539979

  4. Uncovering Contrast Categories in Categorization with a Probabilistic Threshold Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheyen, Steven; De Deyne, Simon; Dry, Matthew J.; Storms, Gert

    2011-01-01

    A contrast category effect on categorization occurs when the decision to apply a category term to an entity not only involves a comparison between the entity and the target category but is also influenced by a comparison of the entity with 1 or more alternative categories from the same domain as the target. Establishing a contrast category effect…

  5. A Probabilistic Account of Exemplar and Category Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jern, Alan; Kemp, Charles

    2013-01-01

    People are capable of imagining and generating new category exemplars and categories. This ability has not been addressed by previous models of categorization, most of which focus on classifying category exemplars rather than generating them. We develop a formal account of exemplar and category generation which proposes that category knowledge is…

  6. AIDS, Alcohol & Health Care. Chapter 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains 10 papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TC) that deal with a variety of health-related subjects. Papers include: (1) "AIDS among IV Drug Users: Epidemiology, Natural History & TC Experiences" (Don C. Des Jarlais, et al.); (2) "AIDS and Therapeutic Communities: Policy Implications" (Don C. Des…

  7. Business and AIDS: sectoral challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Weston, Mark D; Churchyard, Gavin J; Mametja, David; McIntyre, James A; Randera, Fazel

    2007-07-01

    The Business and AIDS think tank held in Durban, South Africa, in June 2006, included a discussion of the policies with which different types of employer could address HIV/AIDS in southern Africa. Breakout groups discussed the role of large and small private sector firms, the public sector, and parastatal organizations. They made recommendations for policies, programmes and future research for each sector.

  8. First Aid Procedures for Dental Emergencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsky, Nancy Happel; Londeree, Kathy

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines for first aid procedures for temporary relief of dental emergencies include information on: (1) dental first aid supplies; (2) treatment of oral injuries; (3) orthodontic emergencies; (4) toothaches; and (5) prolonged bleeding due to an extraction. Consulting a dentist as soon as possible is strongly recommended. (JN)

  9. Telemedicine for AIDS patients accommodations.

    PubMed

    Kulik, J F; de la Tribonnière, X; Bricon-Souf, N; Beuscart, R J; Mouton, Y

    1997-01-01

    People suffering from AIDS are subject to frequent hospitalisations. In some cases, they cannot go back home after hospitalisations, due to severe illness, family or sociologic problems. This is the reason why some therapeutic flats are at their disposal to make easier their medical follow-up after the hospital's discharge. In these Therapy Accommodation, they are treated by trained GP who often suffer from lack of information and lack of expertise in difficult cases. For this purpose we included these flats in the regional Telemedicine AIDS network to give these physicians free access to the computerised multimedia medical record of their patients and to provide them with synchronous co-operation facilities.

  10. Category number impacts rule-based and information-integration category learning: a reassessment of evidence for dissociable category-learning systems.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Roger D; Nosofsky, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    Researchers have proposed that an explicit reasoning system is responsible for learning rule-based category structures and that a separate implicit, procedural-learning system is responsible for learning information-integration category structures. As evidence for this multiple-system hypothesis, researchers report a dissociation based on category-number manipulations in which rule-based category learning is worse when the category is composed of 4, rather than 2, response categories; however, information-integration category learning is unaffected by category-number manipulations. We argue that within the reported category-number manipulations, there exists a critical confound: Perceptual clusters used to construct the categories are spread apart in the 4-category condition relative to the 2-category one. The present research shows that when this confound is eliminated, performance on information-integration category learning is worse for 4 categories than for 2 categories, and this finding is demonstrated across 2 different information-integration category structures. Furthermore, model-based analyses indicate that a single-system learning model accounts well for both the original findings and the updated experimental findings reported here.

  11. Derived Categories and Zero-Brane Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-07-25

    We define a particular class of topological field theories associated to open strings and prove the resulting D-branes and open strings form the bounded derived category of coherent sheaves. This derivation is a variant of some ideas proposed recently by Douglas. We then argue that any 0-brane on any Calabi-Yau threefold must become unstable along some path in the Kahler moduli space. As a byproduct of this analysis we see how the derived category can be invariant under a birational transformation.

  12. "I'll have one of each": how separating rewards into (meaningless) categories increases motivation.

    PubMed

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Gino, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    We propose that separating rewards into categories can increase motivation, even when those categories are meaningless. Across six experiments, people were more motivated to obtain one reward from one category and another reward from another category than they were to obtain two rewards from a pool that included all items from either reward category. As a result, they worked longer when potential rewards for their work were separated into meaningless categories. This categorization effect persisted regardless of whether the rewards were presented using a gain or loss frame. Using both moderation and mediation analyses, we found that categorizing rewards had these positive effects on motivation by increasing the degree to which people felt they would "miss out" if they did not obtain the second reward. We discuss implications for research on motivation and incentives.

  13. Study preferences for exemplar variability in self-regulated category learning.

    PubMed

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; DeSoto, K Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Increasing exemplar variability during category learning can enhance classification of novel exemplars from studied categories. Four experiments examined whether participants preferred variability when making study choices with the goal of later classifying novel exemplars. In Experiments 1-3, participants were familiarised with exemplars of birds from multiple categories prior to making category-level assessments of learning and subsequent choices about whether to receive more variability or repetitions of exemplars during study. After study, participants classified novel exemplars from studied categories. The majority of participants showed a consistent preference for variability in their study, but choices were not related to category-level assessments of learning. Experiment 4 provided evidence that study preferences were based primarily on theoretical beliefs in that most participants indicated a preference for variability on questionnaires that did not include prior experience with exemplars. Potential directions for theoretical development and applications to education are discussed.

  14. [The making of AIDS news].

    PubMed

    Spink, M J; Medrado, B; Menegon, V M; Lyra, J; Lima, H

    2001-01-01

    This study is part of the overall research effort on the role of the media in making sense of events in late modernity. The main objective is to investigate the context in which news about AIDS is produced at the interface between norms for producing news (as expressed by professional journalists) and an analysis of news stories published in four mainstream Brazilian newspapers. The results are organized in three broad topics: (a) the construction of news about AIDS; (b) the visibility of AIDS news during the study period; and (c) factors that facilitate or hinder the production of AIDS news. Important factors include exclusiveness of the story and/or novelty of the content, the notion of hot (or cold) news, and the specific contents. The authors also emphasize the inevitable chance elements associated with organizational characteristics and daily journalism. They conclude by pointing to recent changes in both the shape of the AIDS epidemic and the communications dynamics resulting from recent developments in the electronic media.

  15. HIV/AIDS and blindness.

    PubMed Central

    Kestelyn, P. G.; Cunningham, E. T.

    2001-01-01

    Nearly 34 million people are currently living with HIV/AIDS: ocular complications are common, affecting 50% to 75% of all such patients at some point during the course of their illness. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is by far the most frequent cause of vision loss in patients with AIDS. Although the prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis is decreasing in industrialized countries because of the widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy, between 10% and 20% of HIV-infected patients worldwide can be expected to lose vision in one or both eyes as a result of ocular cytomegalovirus infection. Less frequent but important causes of bilateral vision loss in patients with HIV/AIDS include varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus retinitis, HIV-related ischaemic microvasculopathy, ocular syphilis, ocular tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, and ocular toxic or allergic drug reactions. At present, most patients with HIV/AIDS in developing countries who lose their vision have a very limited life expectancy. As antiretroviral therapy makes its way to these countries, however, both life expectancy and the prevalence of blindness related to HIV/AIDS can be expected to increase dramatically. PMID:11285664

  16. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Subscribe Translate Text Size Print What Is HIV/AIDS? Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV stands for human ... use the HIV Testing & Care Services Locator. GO Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AIDS ...

  17. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  18. 47 CFR 36.125 - Local switching equipment-Category 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Local switching equipment-Category 3. 36.125... Central Office Equipment § 36.125 Local switching equipment—Category 3. (a) Local switching equipment is included in accounts 2210, 2211, and 2212. It comprises all central office switching equipment not...

  19. 47 CFR 36.124 - Tandem switching equipment-Category 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tandem switching equipment-Category 2. 36.124... Central Office Equipment § 36.124 Tandem switching equipment—Category 2. (a) Tandem switching equipment is contained in Accounts 2210, 2211, and 2212. It includes all switching equipment in a tandem central...

  20. 77 FR 40527 - New Express Mail Price Category-Express Mail Padded Flat Rate Envelope

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... 111 New Express Mail Price Category--Express Mail Padded Flat Rate Envelope AGENCY: Postal Service TM... Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ), to expand Express Mail product options to include a new Padded Flat... a new price category under Express Mail, Express Mail Padded Flat Rate Envelope, established by...

  1. 14 CFR 29.77 - Landing Decision Point (LDP): Category A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing Decision Point (LDP): Category A... Decision Point (LDP): Category A. (a) The LDP is the last point in the approach and landing path from which... include the pilot recognition time interval following failure of the critical engine....

  2. Event-related potential parameters of category and property violations during semantic category-based induction.

    PubMed

    Long, Changquan; Lei, Xu; Chen, Jie; Chang, Yun; Chen, Antao; Li, Hong

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have failed to clarify the event-related potentials (ERPs) that occur in response to categorization and property inferences during category-based induction. The present study examined ERP differences among acceptable-induction conclusions, unrelated-category conclusions, and unrelated-property conclusions to dissociate categorization and property-inference processing during category-based induction. The results showed that: (a) conclusions with categories that were unrelated to the premise evoked greater frontal N2 amplitudes, smaller P3b amplitudes, and greater N400 amplitudes, compared to conclusions with categories that were logically related to the premise; and (b) conclusions with unrelated properties evoked larger late positive components (LPCs) during the 700-800ms time interval compared to conclusions with related properties. These results suggest that the N2-P3b-N400 effects reflect categorization violations, while the LPCs are related to property violations during category-based induction, therefore, the ERP responses to category-related and property-related processes are dissociated respectively during category-based induction.

  3. 75 FR 40756 - Implementation Guidance for Physical Protection of Byproduct Material; Category 1 and Category 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ...; Federal Register #0; #0; #0;This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains notices to the public of #0;the... Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft guidance for public comment. SUMMARY: The U. S... requirements for the use and transport of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material. The...

  4. 75 FR 62694 - Implementation Guidance for Physical Protection of Byproduct Material Category 1 and Category 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... July 14, 2010, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) noticed for public comment implementation guidance for a proposed rule to establish security requirements for the use and transport of Category 1 and Category 2 quantities of radioactive material. The public comment period for this guidance was to...

  5. Category Label Effects on Chinese Children's Inductive Inferences: Modulation by Perceptual Detail and Category Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deak, Gedeon O.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs…

  6. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  7. 40 CFR 94.106 - Supplemental test procedures for Category 1 and Category 2 marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... heated by the engine); (ii) Without correction at any ambient water temperature (or equivalent) between 5... commercial Category 1 engines certified using the duty cycle specified in § 94.105(b), the Not to Exceed... Exceed zone which follows: ER29DE99.002 (2) For Category 2 engines certified using the duty...

  8. 10 CFR 37.71 - Additional requirements for transfer of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category 2 quantities of radioactive material. 37.71 Section 37.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in... radioactive material. A licensee transferring a category 1 or category 2 quantity of radioactive material to...

  9. Development of Implicit and Explicit Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Maddox, W. Todd; Karalunas, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    We present two studies that examined developmental differences in the implicit and explicit acquisition of category knowledge. College-attending adults consistently outperformed school-age children on two separate information-integration paradigms due to children's more frequent use of an explicit rule-based strategy. Accuracy rates were also…

  10. 40 CFR 2.105 - Exemption categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 2.105 Exemption categories. (a) The...; (7) Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes, but only to the extent that the production of such law enforcement records or information: (i) Could reasonably be expected to interfere...

  11. 40 CFR 2.105 - Exemption categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 2.105 Exemption categories. (a) The...; (7) Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes, but only to the extent that the production of such law enforcement records or information: (i) Could reasonably be expected to interfere...

  12. Biased allocation of faces to social categories.

    PubMed

    Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2011-06-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features--a stereotypical negative trait--to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if they were prejudiced. On the contrary, the stereotype-irrelevant negative trait stupid did not lead to overallocation to the Moroccan category. In Study 3, using the stigmatized category homosexual, the previously used negative trait criminal--irrelevant to the homosexual stereotype--did not lead to overallocation, but the stereotype-relevant positive trait femininity did. These results demonstrate that normative fit is higher for faces with stereotype-relevant features regardless of valence. Moreover, individual differences in implicit prejudice predicted the extent to which stereotype-relevant traits elicited overallocation: Whereas more negatively prejudiced people showed greater overallocation of faces associated with negative stereotype-relevant traits, they showed less overallocation of faces associated with positive stereotype-relevant traits. These results support our normative fit hypothesis: In general, normative fit is better for faces with stereotypical features. Moreover, normative fit is enhanced for prejudiced individuals when these features are evaluatively congruent. Social categorization thus may be biased in itself.

  13. Production Determines Category: An Ontology of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    It is a mainstream view within the ontology of art that there are singular as well as multiple artworks, but it is also a view that is contested. In this article, the author investigates whether the singular/multiple distinction can be sustained and argues for a new way to determine the category to which an artwork belongs. The author stresses…

  14. Prior Knowledge Enhances the Category Dimensionality Effect

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Aaron B.; Harris, Harlan D.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2008-01-01

    A study of the combined influence of prior knowledge and stimulus dimensionality on category learning was conducted. Subjects learned category structures with the same number of necessary dimensions but more or fewer additional redundant dimensions, and with either knowledge-related or knowledge-unrelated features. Minimal-learning models predict that all subjects, regardless of condition, should learn either the same number of dimensions, or else should respond more slowly to each dimension. Despite similar learning rates and response times, subjects learned more features in the high-dimensional than in the low-dimensional condition. Furthermore, prior knowledge interacted with dimensionality, increasing what was learned especially in the high-dimensional case. A second experiment confirmed that the participants did in fact learn more features during the training phase, rather than simply inferring them at test. These effects can be explained by direct associations among features (representing prior knowledge) combined with feedback between features and the category label, as shown by simulations of the knowledge-resonance, or KRES, model of category learning. PMID:18426059

  15. Measuring Category Intuitiveness in Unconstrained Categorization Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Perlman, Amotz; Bailey, Todd M.; Kurtz, Ken; Edwards, Darren J.; Hines, Peter; McDonnell, John V.

    2011-01-01

    What makes a category seem natural or intuitive? In this paper, an unsupervised categorization task was employed to examine observer agreement concerning the categorization of nine different stimulus sets. The stimulus sets were designed to capture different intuitions about classification structure. The main empirical index of category…

  16. Neoliberalism in Two Hong Kong School Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the link between the governance of Hong Kong's international school and Direct Subsidy Scheme school categories and changes in the broader Hong Kong society through a neoliberal framework. As Hong Kong's economy has grown since the 1997 handover to the People's Republic of China, an increasing number of people have come to…

  17. Learning about Tool Categories via Eavesdropping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Brenda; Seston, Rebecca; Kelemen, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has found that toddlers will form enduring artifact categories after direct exposure to an adult using a novel tool. Four studies explored whether 2- (N = 48) and 3-year-olds (N = 32) demonstrate this same capacity when learning by eavesdropping. After surreptitiously observing an adult use 1 of 2 artifacts to operate a bell via a…

  18. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  19. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  20. Categories Influence Predictions about Individual Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting how people will behave in the future is a critical social-cognitive task. In four studies (N = 150, ages preschool to adult), young children (ages 4-5) used category information to guide their expectations about individual consistency. They predicted that psychological properties (preferences and fears) would remain consistent over time…

  1. When Does Fading Enhance Perceptual Category Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pashler, Harold; Mozer, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Training that uses exaggerated versions of a stimulus discrimination (fading) has sometimes been found to enhance category learning, mostly in studies involving animals and impaired populations. However, little is known about whether and when fading facilitates learning for typical individuals. This issue was explored in 7 experiments. In…

  2. Right-of-Way Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The thrust of this document is vegetation management in public service rights-of-way such as along utility lines, railroads and highways. Different categories of herbicides are discussed with attention given to how they should be applied, the…

  3. Young Children's Automatic Encoding of Social Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated young children's automatic encoding of two social categories that are highly relevant to adults: gender and race. Three- to 6-year-old participants learned facts about unfamiliar target children who varied in either gender or race and were asked to remember which facts went with which targets. When participants…

  4. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  5. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  6. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  7. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  8. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN DRUGS WHICH ARE GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND...

  9. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  10. Opposite RHOA functions within the ATLL category.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shumpei

    2016-02-04

    In this issue of Blood, Nagata et al reported that different Ras homolog gene family, member A (RHOA) hotspot mutations among the adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) category have opposite biochemical activities, which are linked to different T-cell phenotypes.

  11. 40 CFR 2.105 - Exemption categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption categories. 2.105 Section 2.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Procedures...; (4) Trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from a person and privileged...

  12. The Schetic Categories of the Tlingit Verb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leer, Jeffry A.

    An analysis of verbs in Tlingit, a U.S. Northwest Coast Indian language, begins with an overview of its situation and usage and of previous research. The second chapter sketches its phonological and syntactic characteristics. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with the verb. An analysis of verb categories distinguishes two groups: argumental…

  13. Learning Phonetic Categories by Tracking Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Bruno; Shi, Rushen; Xu, Yi

    2007-01-01

    We explore in this study how infants may derive phonetic categories from adult input that are highly variable. Neural networks in the form of self-organizing maps (SOMs; Kohonen, 1989, 1995) were used to simulate unsupervised learning of Mandarin tones. In Simulation 1, we trained the SOMs with syllable-sized continuous F[subscript 0] contours,…

  14. Empire: An Analytical Category for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    In this article Roland Sintos Coloma argues for the relevance of empire as an analytical category in educational research. He points out the silence in mainstream studies of education on the subject of empire, the various interpretive approaches to deploying empire as an analytic, and the importance of indigeneity in research on empire and…

  15. Iconicity in English and Spanish and Its Relation to Lexical Category and Age of Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Lupyan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Signed languages exhibit iconicity (resemblance between form and meaning) across their vocabulary, and many non-Indo-European spoken languages feature sizable classes of iconic words known as ideophones. In comparison, Indo-European languages like English and Spanish are believed to be arbitrary outside of a small number of onomatopoeic words. In three experiments with English and two with Spanish, we asked native speakers to rate the iconicity of ~600 words from the English and Spanish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Developmental Inventories. We found that iconicity in the words of both languages varied in a theoretically meaningful way with lexical category. In both languages, adjectives were rated as more iconic than nouns and function words, and corresponding to typological differences between English and Spanish in verb semantics, English verbs were rated as relatively iconic compared to Spanish verbs. We also found that both languages exhibited a negative relationship between iconicity ratings and age of acquisition. Words learned earlier tended to be more iconic, suggesting that iconicity in early vocabulary may aid word learning. Altogether these findings show that iconicity is a graded quality that pervades vocabularies of even the most “arbitrary” spoken languages. The findings provide compelling evidence that iconicity is an important property of all languages, signed and spoken, including Indo-European languages. PMID:26340349

  16. Iconicity in English and Spanish and Its Relation to Lexical Category and Age of Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Perry, Lynn K; Perlman, Marcus; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Signed languages exhibit iconicity (resemblance between form and meaning) across their vocabulary, and many non-Indo-European spoken languages feature sizable classes of iconic words known as ideophones. In comparison, Indo-European languages like English and Spanish are believed to be arbitrary outside of a small number of onomatopoeic words. In three experiments with English and two with Spanish, we asked native speakers to rate the iconicity of ~600 words from the English and Spanish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Developmental Inventories. We found that iconicity in the words of both languages varied in a theoretically meaningful way with lexical category. In both languages, adjectives were rated as more iconic than nouns and function words, and corresponding to typological differences between English and Spanish in verb semantics, English verbs were rated as relatively iconic compared to Spanish verbs. We also found that both languages exhibited a negative relationship between iconicity ratings and age of acquisition. Words learned earlier tended to be more iconic, suggesting that iconicity in early vocabulary may aid word learning. Altogether these findings show that iconicity is a graded quality that pervades vocabularies of even the most "arbitrary" spoken languages. The findings provide compelling evidence that iconicity is an important property of all languages, signed and spoken, including Indo-European languages.

  17. An efficient robust sound classification algorithm for hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Nordqvist, Peter; Leijon, Arne

    2004-06-01

    An efficient robust sound classification algorithm based on hidden Markov models is presented. The system would enable a hearing aid to automatically change its behavior for differing listening environments according to the user's preferences. This work attempts to distinguish between three listening environment categories: speech in traffic noise, speech in babble, and clean speech, regardless of the signal-to-noise ratio. The classifier uses only the modulation characteristics of the signal. The classifier ignores the absolute sound pressure level and the absolute spectrum shape, resulting in an algorithm that is robust against irrelevant acoustic variations. The measured classification hit rate was 96.7%-99.5% when the classifier was tested with sounds representing one of the three environment categories included in the classifier. False-alarm rates were 0.2%-1.7% in these tests. The algorithm is robust and efficient and consumes a small amount of instructions and memory. It is fully possible to implement the classifier in a DSP-based hearing instrument.

  18. AIDS-Related Stigma and Health Professionals in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Torres, Yamilette; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska N.; Varas-Díaz, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses an important issue in the AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico: AIDS stigma among health professionals and health profession students. AIDS stigma has been documented among health services providers such as doctors, nurses, psychologists, and social workers. It has detrimental effects of the services provided and the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The main objective of this study was to explore AIDS stigma manifestations among a sample composed of eighty health professionals and health profession students who participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Four thematic categories stemmed from the data analysis process. These addressed the following subjects: social manifestations of stigma, stigma manifestations in the workplace, use of sensitive information to control PLWHA, and surveillance of PLWHA. Participants manifested instances of stigmatization they had witnessed in their work and training scenarios. Furthermore, they elaborated on the need to place effective surveillance mechanism on PLWHA in order to control the epidemic. PMID:21423837

  19. College Financial Aid Rules and the Allocation of Savings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jessica Wolpaw

    2008-01-01

    The college financial aid system imposes an implicit asset tax that is prevalent and substantial. Facing this tax, rational families should reduce their total assets and shelter assets in protected categories. I find that the tax induces a 7-12% reduction in total assets, a result in line with the literature. Furthermore, I find evidence that…

  20. Selected Bibliography on AIDS for Health Services Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Joyce V., Comp.; Ball, Judy K., Comp.

    This bibliography cites 355 references to journal articles and other reports dealing with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and how it is being addressed through the health services delivery system. Annotations are arranged alphabetically by principal author within the following major categories: (1) bibliographies; (2) classification and…

  1. Management Aids and Procedures for Strategic Planning. Staff Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Robert G.

    Management aids required in strategic planning are divided into three categories: (1) assessing the environment, (2) providing a process for reaching decisions, and (3) presenting criteria to evaluate strategic decisions. A model for scanning the environment has four dimensions that concern economic, social, knowledge-technology, and public policy…

  2. Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Paul; Faith, Joe; Rossiter, Nick

    2013-06-01

    This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not.

  3. Neural Changes Associated with Nonspeech Auditory Category Learning Parallel Those of Speech Category Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ran; Holt, Lori L.

    2010-01-01

    Native language experience plays a critical role in shaping speech categorization, but the exact mechanisms by which it does so are not well understood. Investigating category learning of nonspeech sounds with which listeners have no prior experience allows their experience to be systematically controlled in a way that is impossible to achieve by studying natural speech acquisition, and it provides a means of probing the boundaries and constraints that general auditory perception and cognition bring to the task of speech category learning. In this study, we used a multimodal, video-game-based implicit learning paradigm to train participants to categorize acoustically complex, nonlinguistic sounds. Mismatch negativity responses to the nonspeech stimuli were collected before and after training to investigate the degree to which neural changes supporting the learning of these nonspeech categories parallel those typically observed for speech category acquisition. Results indicate that changes in mismatch negativity resulting from the nonspeech category learning closely resemble patterns of change typically observed during speech category learning. This suggests that the often-observed “specialized” neural responses to speech sounds may result, at least in part, from the expertise we develop with speech categories through experience rathr than from properties unique to speech (e.g., linguistic or vocal tract gestural information). Furthermore, particular characteristics of the training paradigm may inform our understanding of mechanisms that support natural speech acquisition. PMID:19929331

  4. Treatment of category generation and retrieval in aphasia: Effect of typicality of category items.

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Kiran and colleagues (Kiran, 2007, 2008; Kiran & Johnson, 2008; Kiran & Thompson, 2003) have previously suggested that training atypical examples within a semantic category is a more efficient treatment approach to facilitating generalization within the category than training typical examples. The present study extended our previous work examining the notion of semantic complexity within goal-derived (ad-hoc) categories in individuals with aphasia. Methods: Six individuals with fluent aphasia (range = 39-84 years) and varying degrees of naming deficits and semantic impairments were involved. Thirty typical and atypical items each from two categories were selected after an extensive stimulus norming task. Generative naming for the two categories was tested during baseline and treatment. Results: As predicted, training atypical examples in the category resulted in generalization to untrained typical examples in five out the five patient-treatment conditions. In contrast, training typical examples (which was in examined three conditions) produced mixed results. One patient showed generalization to untrained atypical examples, whereas two patients did not show generalization to untrained atypical examples. Conclusions: Results of the present study supplement our existing data on the effect of a semantically based treatment for lexical retrieval by manipulating the typicality of category exemplars. PMID:21173393

  5. An Annotated Bibliography about AIDS for Educators of the Life Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Person, Mark A.

    This study was conducted to identify information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) that educators should know to effectively teach about the disease in the classroom. The references identified were divided into seven major categories: (1) current scientific research concerned with the virus that causes AIDS; (2) the effects of the…

  6. Designing Visual Aids That Promote Risk Literacy.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T

    2017-02-01

    Background Effective risk communication is essential for informed decision making. Unfortunately, many people struggle to understand typical risk communications because they lack essential decision-making skills. Objective The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effect of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, and to evaluate the benefits of visual aids in risk communication. Method We present a conceptual framework describing the influence of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, followed by a systematic review of the benefits of visual aids in risk communication for people with different levels of numeracy and graph literacy. The systematic review covers scientific research published between January 1995 and April 2016, drawn from the following databases: Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, Medline, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria were investigation of the effect of numeracy and/or graph literacy, and investigation of the effect of visual aids or comparison of their effect with that of numerical information. Thirty-six publications met the criteria, providing data on 27,885 diverse participants from 60 countries. Results Transparent visual aids robustly improved risk understanding in diverse individuals by encouraging thorough deliberation, enhancing cognitive self-assessment, and reducing conceptual biases in memory. Improvements in risk understanding consistently produced beneficial changes in attitudes, behavioral intentions, trust, and healthy behaviors. Visual aids were found to be particularly beneficial for vulnerable and less skilled individuals. Conclusion Well-designed visual aids tend to be highly effective tools for improving informed decision making among diverse decision makers. We identify five categories of practical, evidence-based guidelines for heuristic evaluation and design of effective visual aids.

  7. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1983-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of utmost importance. PMID:6342737

  8. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  9. Medical aid schemes respond to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G

    1999-01-01

    The insurance and medical aid industries reacted strongly in the 1980s to alarmist predictions of the likely impact of HIV upon employee benefits. Actuaries and accountants moved quickly to contain the risk, and most medical aid trustees quickly implemented a total exclusion of HIV treatment from their benefits. For more than 1 decade, it was argued that HIV/AIDS is a self-inflicted illness, often categorized with other STDs. In response, healthcare providers simply bypassed insurance restrictions and compensation limits by masking patient diagnoses to reflect pneumonia or other ambiguous, yet fully reimbursable, illnesses. Now, common sense has finally prevailed as a few managed healthcare programs are stepping forward to break the impasse. The largest such program is Aid for AIDS, run by Pharmaceutical Benefit Management Ltd. for schemes within the Medscheme Group. The Group built an entirely new, secure unit off-site from their normal branches to guarantee the confidentiality of patients' records and diagnoses, while treatment guidelines have been issued to every practicing physician in the country.

  10. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  11. Minority Women's Health: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS more than women of other races include: Poverty — One in 4 African-American women lives in poverty, which is strongly linked to HIV risk. People living in poverty also get lower-quality health care in general, ...

  12. Clustering header categories extracted from web tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, George; Embley, David W.; Krishnamoorthy, Mukkai; Seth, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    Revealing related content among heterogeneous web tables is part of our long term objective of formulating queries over multiple sources of information. Two hundred HTML tables from institutional web sites are segmented and each table cell is classified according to the fundamental indexing property of row and column headers. The categories that correspond to the multi-dimensional data cube view of a table are extracted by factoring the (often multi-row/column) headers. To reveal commonalities between tables from diverse sources, the Jaccard distances between pairs of category headers (and also table titles) are computed. We show how about one third of our heterogeneous collection can be clustered into a dozen groups that exhibit table-title and header similarities that can be exploited for queries.

  13. Security threats categories in healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ganthan Narayana; Ahmad, Rabiah; Ismail, Zuraini

    2010-09-01

    This article attempts to investigate the various types of threats that exist in healthcare information systems (HIS). A study has been carried out in one of the government-supported hospitals in Malaysia.The hospital has been equipped with a Total Hospital Information System (THIS). The data collected were from three different departments, namely the Information Technology Department (ITD), the Medical Record Department (MRD), and the X-Ray Department, using in-depth structured interviews. The study identified 22 types of threats according to major threat categories based on ISO/IEC 27002 (ISO 27799:2008). The results show that the most critical threat for the THIS is power failure followed by acts of human error or failure and other technological factors. This research holds significant value in terms of providing a complete taxonomy of threat categories in HIS and also an important component in the risk analysis stage.

  14. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  15. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  16. AIDS and confidentiality.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, M B; Bell, S K

    1989-01-01

    AIDS has created many challenges for those who provide care for AIDS patients. One major challenge has been the request of many public officials for healthcare professionals to abandon the traditional view of confidentiality and to reveal AIDS patients' names. This ethical dilemma is explored and some ethical theories are presented as possible resolutions. The conclusion presented is that healthcare professionals must recognize that the power of the healthcare system over an AIDS patient is immense. Therefore, healthcare professionals must make a commitment to protect the patient's right to privacy by preventing any unauthorized disclosure at all costs.

  17. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  18. Legal briefing: Shared decision making and patient decision aids.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Hexum, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    This "Legal Briefing" column covers recent legal developments involving patient decision aids.This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. It is included in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. And it has received significant attention in the biomedical literature, including a new book, a thematic issue of Health Affairs, and a recent article in the New England Journal of Medicine. Moreover, physicians and health systems across the United States are increasingly integrating decision aids into their clinical practice. Both federal and state laws play a significant role in promoting this expanded use. On the other hand, concerns about liability could stymie development and implementation. We categorize legal developments concerning patient decision aids into the following five sections: 1. Development of decision aids. 2. Effectiveness of decision aids. 3. Federal regulation of decision aids. 4. State regulation of decision aids. 5. Legal concerns regarding decision aids.

  19. Federal Aid to Education: A Student Level Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.; Torrence, Patricia T.

    A study that examined the magnitude of federal aid to individual students and the targeting of those funds based on need found that although federal aid to education averages 7 percent nationwide, little work has been done that disaggregates these amounts by locality. The study included an intradistrict analysis of federal-education aid per pupil.…

  20. HIV/AIDS and Children in the English Speaking Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Barbara A., Ed.

    This collection of papers addresses the HIV/AIDS situation among English-speaking children in the Caribbean. Papers include: "Preface" (C. James Hospedales); "Introduction"; (Barbara A. Dicks); "HIV/AIDS: Challenging a Monster" (Brendan Bain); "HIV/AIDS in Caribbean Children and Adolescents" (Noreen Jack);…

  1. The Student Guide. Financial Aid, 2002-2003. [Braille Version].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    This Braille publication discusses federal student aid programs for postsecondary education and how to apply for them. It begins by outlining sources for finding out about student aid and offers tips for choosing schools carefully. The guide presents general information about federal student aid, including eligibility in terms of need and…

  2. The Student Guide. Financial Aid, 2003-2004. [Braille Version].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This Braille publication discusses federal student aid programs for postsecondary education and how to apply for them. It outlines sources for finding out about student aid and presents general information about federal student aid, including eligibility in terms of need and dependency status, the application process, deadlines, and important…

  3. Guidelines for Seeking Funding for Communication Aids. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePape, Donna J.

    The guidelines are intended to assist individuals seeking government or private agency help to obtain funding for the purchase of communication aids or prostheses. First, the need for a communication aid and selection of an aid or prosthesis are considered. Five steps are identified in the process of securing funding and include: (1) selecting a…

  4. HIV and AIDS--employers grapple with difficult issues.

    PubMed

    Pranschke, S C; Wright, B M

    1995-01-01

    HIV infection and AIDS pose special challenges to employers. Myriad laws affect how the employer must respond when an applicant or employee is infected with HIV or is ill due to AIDS. An overall compliance strategy should include thorough knowledge of those laws and a policy on HIV and AIDS, put in place before a crisis occurs.

  5. 30 CFR 56.15001 - First-aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First-aid materials. 56.15001 Section 56.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....15001 First-aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including stretchers and blankets, shall...

  6. 30 CFR 57.15001 - First aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First aid materials. 57.15001 Section 57.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Surface and Underground § 57.15001 First aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including...

  7. 30 CFR 56.15001 - First-aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid materials. 56.15001 Section 56.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....15001 First-aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including stretchers and blankets, shall...

  8. 30 CFR 56.15001 - First-aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First-aid materials. 56.15001 Section 56.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....15001 First-aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including stretchers and blankets, shall...

  9. 30 CFR 57.15001 - First aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First aid materials. 57.15001 Section 57.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Surface and Underground § 57.15001 First aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including...

  10. 30 CFR 56.15001 - First-aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First-aid materials. 56.15001 Section 56.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....15001 First-aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including stretchers and blankets, shall...

  11. 30 CFR 57.15001 - First aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First aid materials. 57.15001 Section 57.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Surface and Underground § 57.15001 First aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including...

  12. 30 CFR 57.15001 - First aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First aid materials. 57.15001 Section 57.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Surface and Underground § 57.15001 First aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including...

  13. 30 CFR 56.15001 - First-aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First-aid materials. 56.15001 Section 56.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE....15001 First-aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including stretchers and blankets, shall...

  14. 30 CFR 57.15001 - First aid materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid materials. 57.15001 Section 57.15001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Surface and Underground § 57.15001 First aid materials. Adequate first-aid materials, including...

  15. Does Institutional Aid Compensate for or Comply with State Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.; Delaney, Jennifer A.; Naughton, Blake Alan

    2009-01-01

    To what extent does state policy for student financial aid affect the distribution of institutional aid awarded to students at public institutions? Using data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey we employ a Tobit model to investigate the relationship between student characteristics, including family income and academic…

  16. An Evaluation of an Undergraduate Course on AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The impact of an undergraduate course on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was studied. Results of a post-test, completed by 352 students (including 96 controls), suggested that the course had a beneficial impact on knowledge, attitudes, and behavior relevant to the transmission of AIDS. Implications for AIDS education are discussed. (SLD)

  17. State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creusere, Marlena; Fletcher, Carla; Klepfer, Kasey; Norman, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    TG provides critical support to schools, students, and borrowers at every stage of the federal student aid process--from providing information on how to pay for a higher education including financial aid options, to facilitating successful loan repayment after graduation. This issue of "State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas"…

  18. Structural processing and category-specific deficits.

    PubMed

    Marques, J Frederico; Raposo, Ana; Almeida, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the contribution of four structural dimensions (object parts, internal details, objects contours and variability of the representation), as a possible source of categorical processing differences and category-specific deficits. Importantly, these dimensions aggregate 22 different structural measures that have been proposed to describe the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) picture set. Study 1 analysed the differences between the four dimensions across domains and categories. Study 2 investigated how these dimensions may contribute to the performance of two patients with category-specific deficits that have been reported previously in the literature (Farah et al., 1991). The results showed that living things were structurally more complex than non-living things, scoring higher in object parts and object contours. Regarding the variability of the representation, living things did not show much within-item diversity but did show more contour overlap and less visual similarity, the latter two qualities of living things being detrimental to object processing in a naming task. Parts, contours and variability of the representation also differentiated animals, fruits and vegetables and, to a certain degree, non-living things: animals had more parts, fruits had more object contours and non-living things had a lower variability of the representation (which was especially related to higher within-item diversity and lower contour overlap). The same three dimensions predicted patient performance. However, when structural dimensions were considered together with domain (living/non-living) and concept familiarity, only variability of the representation contributed significantly to patient performance.

  19. Improving Causality Induction with Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhihong; Shao, Zhiqing

    2014-01-01

    Causal relations are of fundamental importance for human perception and reasoning. According to the nature of causality, causality has explicit and implicit forms. In the case of explicit form, causal-effect relations exist at either clausal or discourse levels. The implicit causal-effect relations heavily rely on empirical analysis and evidence accumulation. This paper proposes a comprehensive causality extraction system (CL-CIS) integrated with the means of category-learning. CL-CIS considers cause-effect relations in both explicit and implicit forms and especially practices the relation between category and causality in computation. In elaborately designed experiments, CL-CIS is evaluated together with general causality analysis system (GCAS) and general causality analysis system with learning (GCAS-L), and it testified to its own capability and performance in construction of cause-effect relations. This paper confirms the expectation that the precision and coverage of causality induction can be remarkably improved by means of causal and category learning. PMID:24883419

  20. 47 CFR 36.122 - Categories and apportionment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Central Office Equipment § 36.122 Categories and apportionment procedures. (a) The following categories of central office equipment and apportionment procedures therefore are set forth in §§ 36.123 through 36.126. Operator Systems Equipment Category 1. Tandem Switching Equipment Category 2. Local Switching...

  1. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense.

  2. A Categorial Semantic Representation of Quantum Event Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafiris, Elias; Karakostas, Vassilios

    2013-09-01

    The overwhelming majority of the attempts in exploring the problems related to quantum logical structures and their interpretation have been based on an underlying set-theoretic syntactic language. We propose a transition in the involved syntactic language to tackle these problems from the set-theoretic to the category-theoretic mode, together with a study of the consequent semantic transition in the logical interpretation of quantum event structures. In the present work, this is realized by representing categorically the global structure of a quantum algebra of events (or propositions) in terms of sheaves of local Boolean frames forming Boolean localization functors. The category of sheaves is a topos providing the possibility of applying the powerful logical classification methodology of topos theory with reference to the quantum world. In particular, we show that the topos-theoretic representation scheme of quantum event algebras by means of Boolean localization functors incorporates an object of truth values, which constitutes the appropriate tool for the definition of quantum truth-value assignments to propositions describing the behavior of quantum systems. Effectively, this scheme induces a revised realist account of truth in the quantum domain of discourse. We also include an Appendix, where we compare our topos-theoretic representation scheme of quantum event algebras with other categorial and topos-theoretic approaches.

  3. 75 FR 52860 - Final Airworthiness Design Standards for Acceptance Under the Primary Category Rule; Orlando...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    .... Taylor, Aerospace Engineer, Standards Office (ACE-111), Small Airplane Directorate, Aircraft... for aircraft was created specifically for the simple, low performance personal aircraft. Section 21.17... category aircraft. The FAA procedure establishing appropriate airworthiness standards includes...

  4. AIDE - Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Cathy L.

    2013-04-28

    Would you like to know when someone has dropped an undesirable executable binary on our system? What about something less malicious such as a software installation by a user? What about the user who decides to install a newer version of mod_perl or PHP on your web server without letting you know beforehand? Or even something as simple as when an undocumented config file change is made by another member of the admin group? Do you even want to know about all the changes that happen on a daily basis on your server? The purpose of an intrusion detection system (IDS) is to detect unauthorized, possibly malicious activity. The purpose of a host-based IDS, or file integrity checker, is check for unauthorized changes to key system files, binaries, libraries, and directories on the system. AIDE is an Open Source file and directory integrity checker. AIDE will let you know when a file or directory has been added, deleted, modified. It is included with the Red Hat Enterprise 6. It is available for other Linux distros. This is a case study describing the process of configuring AIDE on an out of the box RHEL6 installation. Its goal is to illustrate the thinking and the process by which a useful AIDE configuration is built.

  5. General Framework of Hearing Aid Fitting Management

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Soo Hee

    2016-01-01

    Hearing aids are one of the most widely used treatment options for the hearing impaired and optimal outcomes of hearing aids are supported by comprehensive hearing aid fitting protocols. Currently, the term 'hearing aid fitting' is prevalently used among service and industry sectors with its comprehensive procedures not systematically explicated. In addition, a variety of non-normalized guidelines for hearing aid fitting has led to non-uniform care, outcome variability, and dissatisfaction of the use of hearing aids. The main purpose of the present study is to suggest a general framework of standardized practice for hearing aid fitting management including its pre- and post-fitting stages. The management framework centers on its fitting process with its prior steps of assessment as well as its posterior steps of follow-up, thereby eliminating diverging interpretations and non-uniform practices. Outcomes of this study are also expected to improve potential benefits such as quality of hearing aid fitting, user satisfaction, and cost effectiveness across relevant stakeholders. PMID:27144226

  6. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS].

    PubMed

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa

    2010-09-01

    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women.

  7. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  8. Detecting Student Aid Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Describes the varied kinds of student aid fraud found to be occurring within and outside colleges and universities, and examines implications for public policy on student aid programs. Discusses specific fraud cases and their outcomes, and makes suggestions for institutional action if student fraud is suspected. (MSE)

  9. Computer Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krollmann, Friedrich

    1981-01-01

    Describes the structure and modes of operation of the Bundessprachenamt's (BSprA: Federal Office of Languages of the Federal Republic of Germany) terminology data bank as an aid to translation. Analyzes advantages and disadvantages of each user mode, and discusses probable developments in the immediate future of machine-aided translation. (MES)

  10. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  11. AIDS as Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Liz

    1994-01-01

    Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)

  12. First Aid: Diaper Rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Diaper Rash KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Diaper Rash A A A Diaper rash is a common skin condition in babies. ... rash is due to irritation caused by the diaper, but it can have other causes not related ...

  13. THE AIDS MYTH

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Karl Horst

    1996-01-01

    AIDS is now said to threaten humanity as a modern-day scourge. However, there is a group of scientists which maintains that this scare is unwarranted. Some arguments in favour of the re-evaluation of the AIDS hypothesis are presented in this article. PMID:22556763

  14. AIDS: Children Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…

  15. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  16. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  17. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  18. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A en español Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...

  19. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  20. Inertially Aided Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-31

    0031 dis~bti:,1 is uitsnjt( Deczmllcr 31: 1989 92-05530 2:.-: 3o : T >VE?-A ~ : Inertially Aided Robotics FINAL REPORT for Contract No. DAAHO1 -88-D-0057...1 2 Advantages of Inertially Aided Robotics ...86 iii List of Figures Figure 1 - Robot Manipulator having Joint Sensor Based Control ..................... 2

  1. Marketing Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Thomas, Jr.; Batty, Burt F.

    1978-01-01

    Student financial assistance services are becoming a major part of the institutional marketing plan as traditional college-age students decline in numbers and price competition among institutions increases. The effect of financial aid on enrollment and admissions processes is discussed along with the role of the financial aid officer. (Author/LBH)

  2. Participative AIDS Education Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    Since assuring quality health care delivery to patients suffering from Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and those who test positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a priority, development of effective staff training methods is imperative. This pilot study assessed the effect on staff attitudes of a participative AIDS/HIV staff…

  3. Innovative Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christner, Chris

    1988-01-01

    Describes the DACUM (Developing A CurriculUM) process and how it is used at Universal Technical Institute to determine what types of training aids to produce. Indicates that examining the employment needs of industry and educational needs of students enhances programs and promotes development of innovative aids. (JOW)

  4. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...

  5. The New Merit Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Merit aid, a discount to college costs contingent upon academic performance, is nothing new. Colleges and private organizations have long rewarded high-achieving, college-bound high school students with scholarships. While merit aid has a long history in the private sector, it has not played a major role in the public sector. At the state level,…

  6. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  7. First aid in the dental practice: an overview.

    PubMed

    Jevon, P

    2016-06-24

    First aid encompasses a wide range of scenarios ranging from simple reassurance following a minor mishap to dealing with a life-threatening emergency. Dentists may need to provide first aid in their dental practice to a patient, relative or member of staff. This article provides an overview to first aid in the dental practice, including priorities, responsibilities when providing first aid, assessment of the environment and the casualty (primary survey &secondary survey). The new A3 'First Aid in the Workplace' poster is now available and is included as an insert in this issue (BDJ Vol. 220, Issue 12).

  8. Category Number Impacts Rule-Based but Not Information-Integration Category Learning: Further Evidence for Dissociable Category-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, W. Todd; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Hejl, Kelli D.; Ing, A. David

    2004-01-01

    Category number effects on rule-based and information-integration category learning were investigated. Category number affected accuracy and the distribution of best-fitting models in the rule-based task but had no effect on accuracy and little effect on the distribution of best-fining models in the information-integration task. In the 2 category…

  9. AIDS in the pre-AIDS era.

    PubMed

    Huminer, D; Rosenfeld, J B; Pitlik, S D

    1987-01-01

    A search of the medical literature published since 1950 disclosed 19 cases of probable AIDS reported before the start of the current epidemic. These cases retrospectively met the Centers for Disease Control's surveillance definition of the syndrome and had a clinical course suggestive of AIDS. The reports originated from North America, Western Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The mean age of patients was 37 years, and the ratio of male to female patients was 1.7:1. Sixteen patients had opportunistic infections(s) without Kaposi's sarcoma. The remainder had disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma. The commonest opportunistic infection was Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Two patients were reported to be homosexual. Three others had been living in Africa, and one patient was born in Haiti. In two instances concurrent or subsequent opportunistic infection occurred in family members. All patients died 1 month to 6 years after the initial manifestation of disease. In view of the historical data, unrecognized cases of AIDS appear to have occurred sporadically in the pre-AIDS era.

  10. Who Benefits from Student Aid? The Economic Incidence of Tax-Based Federal Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Federal benefit programs, including federal student aid, are designed to aid targeted populations. Behavioral responses to these programs may alter the incidence of their benefits, a possibility that receives less attention in the literature compared to tax incidence. I demonstrate the importance of benefit incidence analysis by showing that the…

  11. First Aid Lessons. Correlated Conversation for Use with "You Can Give First Aid." Workplace Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacy, Roselynn; Smith, Polly

    This unit contains lesson plans designed to teach first aid skills to adults with limited language skills. The lesson plans were developed, using the Laubach literacy method, for a workplace literacy project in Anchorage, Alaska. The lesson plans, which are correlated with the book, "You Can Give First Aid," include conversational skills…

  12. 10 CFR 37.21 - Personnel access authorization requirements for category 1 or category 2 quantities of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or category 2 quantities of radioactive material. 37.21 Section 37.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Background... 1 or category 2 quantities of radioactive material. (a) General. (1) Each licensee that possesses...

  13. 10 CFR 37.73 - Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category 2 quantities of radioactive material during transit. 37.73 Section 37.73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Protection in Transit § 37.73 Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material during transit. (a) For shipments of category 1 quantities of radioactive material,...

  14. On a categorial aspect of knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataj, Emanuel; Mulawka, Jan; Nieznański, Edward

    Adequate representation of data is crucial for modeling any type of data. To faithfully present and describe the relevant section of the world it is necessary to select the method that can easily be implemented on a computer system which will help in further description allowing reasoning. The main objective of this contribution is to present methods of knowledge representation using categorial approach. Next to identify the main advantages for computer implementation. Categorical aspect of knowledge representation is considered in semantic networks realisation. Such method borrows already known metaphysics properties for data modeling process. The potential topics of further development of categorical semantic networks implementations are also underlined.

  15. Ambiguity produces attention shifts in category learning.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Orgaz, Cristina; Luque, David; Nelson, James Byron

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that people and nonhuman animals protect their knowledge from interference by shifting attention toward the context when presented with information that contradicts their previous beliefs. Despite that suggestion, no studies have directly measured changes in attention while participants are exposed to an interference treatment. In the present experiments, we adapted a dot-probe task to track participants' attention to cues and contexts while they were completing a simple category learning task. The results support the hypothesis that interference produces a change in the allocation of attention to cues and contexts.

  16. Ambiguity produces attention shifts in category learning

    PubMed Central

    Orgaz, Cristina; Luque, David; Nelson, James Byron

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that people and nonhuman animals protect their knowledge from interference by shifting attention toward the context when presented with information that contradicts their previous beliefs. Despite that suggestion, no studies have directly measured changes in attention while participants are exposed to an interference treatment. In the present experiments, we adapted a dot-probe task to track participants’ attention to cues and contexts while they were completing a simple category learning task. The results support the hypothesis that interference produces a change in the allocation of attention to cues and contexts. PMID:26980780

  17. Psychometric properties of the Halstead Category Test.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M N; Charter, R A; Newman, R J

    2000-05-01

    Using the Kuder-Richardson formula 20 (KR-20) corrected for item difficulty, the internal consistency reliability of the Halstead Category Test (HCT) was calculated for a sample (N = 398) of normal patients and volunteers, diffusely brain-damaged patients, and undiagnosed patients sent for neuropsychological assessment. The HCT Total Score reliability was.9716 and the subtest reliabilities ranged from.4587 to.9590. An item analysis found that most of the test items, except for those from Subtests I and II, were within established criteria for item difficulty and the discrimination index.

  18. Encoding tasks dissociate the effects of divided attention on category-cued recall and category-exemplar generation.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Munley, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of encoding tasks and divided attention upon category-exemplar generation and category-cued recall were examined. Participants were presented with pairs of words each comprising a category name and potential example of that category. They were then asked to indicate either (i) their liking for both of the words or (ii) if the exemplar was a member of the category. It was found that divided attention reduced performance on the category-cued recall task under both encoding conditions. However, performance on the category-exemplar generation task remained invariant across the attention manipulation following the category judgment task. This provides further evidence that the processes underlying performance on conceptual explicit and implicit memory tasks can be dissociated, and that the intentional formation of category-exemplar associations attenuates the effects of divided attention on category-exemplar generation.

  19. [The AIDS epidemic in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Perez-stable, E J

    1992-01-01

    The strategy of the Cuban government to control HIV consists of examining the whole adult population and quarantining all seropositive persons in local institutions. Between 1986 and 1990, a total of 8,832,726 HIV tests were done using domestic ELISA and Western blot methods. 497 persons (362 men and 135 women) were found to be HIV-positive. 122 infections were directly attributed to Cuban intervention in Africa. 150 infected men were homosexuals and bisexuals. Infected blood products caused 9 cases, and neonatal transmission produced 3 infections. 63 AIDS cases were reported since December 1989. Compulsory testing would be more acceptable if HIV infected persons would get zidovudine (AZT) for secondary prevention. It is estimated that this policy has prevented 4000 new infections. The violation of human rights by quarantining people with false positive results is real: 23-53 such people are estimate to be quarantined. Tourists are not examined because of the economic need for more revenue from tourism, thus HIV transmission could continue despite quarantines. The cost of testing is high, although health care already made up 12% of the budget in 1989, increasing from 7.8% in 1983. Tracing sexual contacts requires 450 nurses and 200 epidemiologist. The public education campaign about AIDS involved 30 television programs and several hundred radio programs by groups of experts discussing transmission, AZT treatment, and treatment of opportunistic infections. Since 1988, schools have also included AIDS education from the 5th grade on. Condom use is stressed, but machismo often hinders its acceptance. While AIDS is a menace, the rate of syphilis increased from 7.2/100,000 in 1970 to 84.3/100,000 in 1987. Stressing personal responsibility in preventing HIV infection skirts the need for modification of high risk behavior and lulls the public into a false sense of security because of the belief that full protection from AIDS is provided by the quarantine.

  20. Economic Impacts of the Category 3 Marine Rule on Great ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a scenario-based economic assessment of the impacts of EPA’s Category 3 Marine Diesel Engines Rule on certain cargo movements in the Great Lakes shipping network. During the proposed phase of the rulemaking, Congress recommended that EPA conduct such a study, and EPA will docket the final peer-reviewed product at EPA-HQ-OAR-2007-0121. The objective is to assess how the requirement to switch to cleaner, more expensive fuel will affect certain shippers and operators on the Great Lakes, including the likelihood of cargo movements shifting away from marine transport.

  1. Computer-aided design of LSI topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliutin, V. A.

    The problems and methods of the computer-aided design of the topology of LSI circuits and computer-aided manufacture of LSI templates are reviewed. Topics discussed include algorithms for the layout of cells and circuit units, algorithms for tracing connections, the design of the topology of matrix LSI, and the topology of functional LSI circuit units based on MIS structures. The discussion also covers the design of the layout of LSI circuits with single-layer commutation, application examples, and the main trends in the computer-aided design of LSI circuits.

  2. AIDS radio triggers.

    PubMed

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  3. Hearing AIDS and music.

    PubMed

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues-both compression ratio and knee-points-and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a "music program,'' unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions.

  4. Solidarity and AIDS: introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N

    1991-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival.

  5. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  6. Women and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS email updates Enter email Submit HIV and AIDS The human immunodeficiency (IH-myoo-noh-di-FISH- ... health Pregnancy and HIV View more HIV and AIDS resources Related information Birth control methods Sexually transmitted ...

  7. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  8. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  9. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  10. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIAID). /* // ** // */ Prevention Research Vaccines Microbicides Related Topics on AIDS.gov Clinical Trials Immune System 101 HIV Vaccine ... Be the Generation Last revised: 12/09/2016 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  11. Political dimensions of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Blewett, N

    1988-01-01

    World political aspects and the example of Australia as a national political response to AIDS are presented. Global policy on AIDS is influenced by the fact that the AIDS epidemic is the 1st to be largely predictable, that long lag times occur between intervention and measurable events, and by the prompt, professional leadership of WHO, lead by Dr. J. Mann. WHO began a Global Programme on AIDS in 1987, modelled on the responses of Canada and Australia. A world summit of Ministers of Health was convened in January 1988. These moves generated a response qualified by openness, cooperation, hope and common sense. The AIDS epidemic calls for unprecedented involvement of politicians: they must coordinate medical knowledge with community action, deal with public fear, exert strong, rational leadership and avoid quick, appealing counterproductive responses. 3 clear directions must be taken to deal with the epidemic: 1) strong research and education campaigns; 2) close contact with political colleagues, interest groups and the community; 3) a national strategy which enjoins diverse interest groups, with courage, rationality and compassion. In Australia, the AIDS response began with the unwitting infection of 3 infants by blood transfusion. A public information campaign emphasizing a penetrating TV ad campaign was instituted in 1987. Policy discussions were held in all parliamentary bodies. The AIDS epidemic demands rapid, creative responses, a break from traditions in health bureaucracy, continual scrutiny of funding procedures and administrative arrangements. In practical terms in Australia, this meant establishing a special AIDS branch within the Health Advancement Division of the Community Health Department. AIDS issues must remain depoliticized to defuse adversary politics and keep leaders in a united front.

  12. The Role of Grammatical Category Information in Spoken Word Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production. PMID

  13. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  14. Limits of Generalization between Categories and Implications for Theories of Category Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Phillips, W. Stewart; Gauthier, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Both domain-specific and expertise accounts of category specialization assume that generalization occurs within a domain but not between domains. Yet it is often difficult to define the boundaries and critical features of object domains. Differences in how categories are defined make it difficult to adjudicate between accounts of category specificity and may lead to contradictory results. For example, evidence for whether car experts recruit the fusiform face area is mixed and this inconsistency may be due to the inclusion of antique cars in one of the studies. The current study tested the generalization of expertise from modern to antique cars and found that modern car experts showed expert discrimination and holistic processing of modern cars, but not antique cars. These findings suggest that the neural specialization underlying perceptual expertise is highly specific and may not generalize to distinct subclasses, even when they share some degree of perceptual and conceptual features. PMID:20952784

  15. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  16. AIDS education reaches Pacific atolls.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The Republic of Kiribati consists of 33 islands and 69,000 inhabitants dispersed over a large area of the Central Pacific. It includes the former Gilbert Islands, which were linked as British colonies with the Ellice Islands until the latter declared themselves independent as Tuvalu. Kiribati became independent from Britain in 1979 and joined WHO [the World Health Organization] in 1984. Launched in 1988, the national AIDS program is now implementing its second medium-term plan. As part of this plan, the program recently held its first AIDS awareness workshop for hotel workers, health care workers and youth. The workshop was held on Kiritimati, the world's largest atoll. Also known as Christmas Island, the atoll of 2650 inhabitants has excellent bird-watching and fishing opportunities, which have drawn growing numbers of tourists in recent years. Although neither of the two HIV infections identified in Kiribati by March 1994 were on Kiritimati, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases there has been on the rise. Meeting in a traditional thatched building, the workshop participants proved eager to learn about HIV and STDs [sexually transmitted diseases]. They received instruction in prevention skills, including a demonstration of proper condom use led by the national AIDS coordinator. At the close of the workshop, condoms were provided to hotel staff for distribution.

  17. [Pharmaceutical aids in gerontopharmacology].

    PubMed

    Kircher, W

    2013-01-01

    The administration of drugs is often subject to error when performed by geriatric patients, resulting in reduced therapeutic effects. In particular, the correct administration technique for different dosage forms is a problem in elderly patients with limited audiovisual and ergonomic abilities. In addition to physician and carer intervention, community pharmacists can also contribute to solving outpatient problems of this kind at the time of issuing the drugs. This should preferably be done in collaboration with the respective medical practice. Some of the most common problems in drug administration, as well as the corresponding solutions offered by the pharmacist, are featured in the present paper. Inhalers, injection devices and ophthalmic solutions often cause difficulties for geriatric patients, as do even simple dosage forms such as drops. Pharmacy-based solutions to these problems include for instance: taking over the assembly of complex devices comprising multiple components, instructing patients in the proper use of additional dosing aids or adapting the administration technique to the patient's abilities.

  18. Financial Aid for Minorities in Health Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett Park Press, MD.

    This directory of financial aid sources for minority students majoring in health or health-related fields includes the following types of information: (1) summary and description of the fields, including college enrollment statistics, demand for graduates, including salary ranges, and definitions of the fields and specialty areas; (2) directory of…

  19. Restaurant noise, hearing loss, and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Lebo, C P; Smith, M F; Mosher, E R; Jelonek, S J; Schwind, D R; Decker, K E; Krusemark, H J; Kurz, P L

    1994-07-01

    Our multidisciplinary team obtained noise data in 27 San Francisco Bay Area restaurants. These data included typical minimum, peak, and average sound pressure levels; digital tape recordings; subjective noise ratings; and on-site unaided and aided speech discrimination tests. We report the details and implications of these noise measurements and provide basic information on selecting hearing aids and suggestions for coping with restaurant noise.

  20. Restaurant noise, hearing loss, and hearing aids.

    PubMed Central

    Lebo, C P; Smith, M F; Mosher, E R; Jelonek, S J; Schwind, D R; Decker, K E; Krusemark, H J; Kurz, P L

    1994-01-01

    Our multidisciplinary team obtained noise data in 27 San Francisco Bay Area restaurants. These data included typical minimum, peak, and average sound pressure levels; digital tape recordings; subjective noise ratings; and on-site unaided and aided speech discrimination tests. We report the details and implications of these noise measurements and provide basic information on selecting hearing aids and suggestions for coping with restaurant noise. Images PMID:7941506

  1. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  2. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  3. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type of defense cell in the body called a CD4 helper ... are part of the body's immune system , the defense system that fights infections. When HIV destroys these ...

  4. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  5. Convulsions - first aid - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100212.htm Convulsions - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... slide 2 out of 2 Overview When a seizure occurs, the main goal is to protect the ...

  6. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns ... Being Safe in the Kitchen Finding Out About Fireworks Safety Playing With Fire? Dealing With Burns Fireworks ...

  7. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  8. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... with each breath has a pale or bluish color around the mouth drools or has difficulty swallowing ...

  9. Computer Aided Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)

  10. HIV/AIDS Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV/AIDS Influenza Malaria Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Tuberculosis Zika Virus Find a Funding Opportunity Opportunities & Announcements ... related co-infections, such as hepatitis, malaria, and tuberculosis. Treatment of HIV Infection In the early 1980s ...

  11. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficulty swallowing becomes tired easily Think Prevention! Frequent hand washing and avoiding contact with people who have respiratory ... Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand Washing So Important? Coughing Croup Contact Us Print Resources ...

  12. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  13. AIDS in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-09

    have recommended that Africans infected with HIV be treated with an antibiotic/ sulfa drug combination known as cotrimoxazole in order to prevent...response is the subject of much debate. An estimated 500,000 Africa AIDS patients were being treated with antiretroviral drugs in mid-2005, up from 150,000...whether drugs can be made widely accessible without costly health infrastructure improvements. U.S. concern over AIDS in Africa grew in the 1980s, as the

  14. Naval Tactical Decision Aids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Strike Planning Aid ( ESPA ) . .V-14 5.4. Tactical Environmental Ship Routing (TESR) V-24 5.5. Chaff Prediction and Planning System (CHAPPS).. V-29...chapter four TDAS from TESS: NAVSAR, acAS program for search and rescue (SARjat sea; ESPA , the Environmental Strike Planning Aid; TESR, the Tactical...STATISTICS CURRENT LOCATION AND CHARACTERISTICS SATELLITE DATA CONVERSION CONSTANTS In 5.1, we give a brief history of TESS. The TDAS NAVSAR, ESPA

  15. AIDS and National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the body loses its ability to fight off other infections like the flu or pneumonia that it could normally handle with ease.11 These infections are... children orphaned by AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.32 Failing states are not able to provide care for these orphans so they are lured into crime or...four major program elements funded by USAID are primary prevention, caring for children affected by AIDS, home and community based care and treatment

  16. A Quarter of a Century with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Cerdeira, C; Cruces, M.J; Taboada, J.A

    2011-01-01

    In Northwestern Spain (NWS), the annual incidence of AIDS diagnoses increased from 1984 (when the first case was diagnosed) until 1996. However, since 1996, this incidence has reduced considerably, including a notable 40% reduction between 1997 and 1998. The Galician Register of AIDS supplies information on the evolution of AIDS pathology in NWS. This report compiles data on patients who were diagnosed with AIDS in NWS between 1984 and 2008. From 1981, when the first case of AIDS was described, until December 31, 2008, a total of 3,766 AIDS cases were registered in NWS. Of these, 2,085 cases (55.4%) resulted in death. Examining data from individual provinces revealed that the highest number of cases was in A Coruña (1,548 cases) followed by Pontevedra (1,485 cases). For almost half of the new cases of AIDS diagnosed between 2003 and 2008 (44%), less than six months passed between the diagnosis of infection and manifestations of the disease. Thus, the number of patients that do not receive early diagnosis of HIV infection has remained high. With regard to the transmission mechanism, 64% of the cases occurring during these years resulted from needle-sharing among injected drug users (IDUs). Unprotected heterosexual and homosexual practices were responsible for 20% and 17% of the cases, respectively. PMID:21629502

  17. Gender and HIV / AIDS: transforming prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G R

    1995-11-01

    The Women and AIDS Research Program (International Center for Research on Women) has identified a series of obstacles to preventing HIV infection among women, including social norms that mandate female ignorance about sexual matters, women's economic dependence on men, widespread acceptance of male promiscuity, and violence against women. Most AIDS prevention programs fail to challenge these contextual determinants and continue to focus on the promotion of condom use among men. Recommendations to empower women and improve their status are dismissed as long-term measures outside the domain of AIDS prevention. Feasible, however, is the modification of existing AIDS prevention programs to ensure they are gender-sensitive. This would mean measures such as providing services at times that are convenient to women and integrating services to reduce waiting and travelling times. To address the contextual issues at the root of women's vulnerability to HIV, AIDS prevention programs can link up with economic interventions such as credit programs, agricultural extension services, and women's cooperatives. Moreover, AIDS programs can provide HIV-infected women with social support through group educational sessions or counseling. Finally, because improvements in women's socioeconomic status are essential for the success of all AIDS prevention, program managers should be in the forefront of broader struggles to enact policy changes to eliminate gender-based discrimination and inequality.

  18. 12 CFR 573.6 - Information to be included in privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 573.6 Information to be included in...: (1) The categories of nonpublic personal information that you collect; (2) The categories of nonpublic personal information that you disclose; (3) The categories of affiliates and nonaffiliated...

  19. 12 CFR 573.6 - Information to be included in privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 573.6 Information to be included in...: (1) The categories of nonpublic personal information that you collect; (2) The categories of nonpublic personal information that you disclose; (3) The categories of affiliates and nonaffiliated...

  20. Algebraic Theories and (Infinity,1)-Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranch, James

    2010-11-01

    We adapt the classical framework of algebraic theories to work in the setting of (infinity,1)-categories developed by Joyal and Lurie. This gives a suitable approach for describing highly structured objects from homotopy theory. A central example, treated at length, is the theory of E_infinity spaces: this has a tidy combinatorial description in terms of span diagrams of finite sets. We introduce a theory of distributive laws, allowing us to describe objects with two distributing E_infinity stuctures. From this we produce a theory of E_infinity ring spaces. We also study grouplike objects, and produce theories modelling infinite loop spaces (or connective spectra), and infinite loop spaces with coherent multiplicative structure (or connective ring spectra). We use this to construct the units of a grouplike E_infinity ring space in a natural manner. Lastly we provide a speculative pleasant description of the K-theory of monoidal quasicategories and quasicategories with ring-like structures.

  1. The structure and formation of natural categories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Douglas; Langley, Pat

    1990-01-01

    Categorization and concept formation are critical activities of intelligence. These processes and the conceptual structures that support them raise important issues at the interface of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. The work presumes that advances in these and other areas are best facilitated by research methodologies that reward interdisciplinary interaction. In particular, a computational model is described of concept formation and categorization that exploits a rational analysis of basic level effects by Gluck and Corter. Their work provides a clean prescription of human category preferences that is adapted to the task of concept learning. Also, their analysis was extended to account for typicality and fan effects, and speculate on how the concept formation strategies might be extended to other facets of intelligence, such as problem solving.

  2. Title I Instructional Aides' Training Sessions (Nampa, Idaho, School District 131, November 21, 1974-January 2, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Consuelo Q. de

    The four training sessions for instructional aides working with migrant children in the Nampa, Idaho school district included objectives to facilitate: (1) awareness of aide influence; (2) aide self-confidence; (3) comfortable interaction between aides and school district personnel; (4) problem detection and prevention; (5) the aide's role in…

  3. [Aids, physicians, Catholic Church].

    PubMed

    Pipino, Marica; Boldrini, Elena; Cristani, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    The latest AIDS' congress (Barcelona) reminded the world this dramatic situation. The shown data are remarkable: 5 million people of new infected in 2001, 68 million people could die in the next 20 years because of AIDS and the biggest part of them is living in the South of the world. There are two different kind of AIDS: the AIDS of rich people (2% of infected ones), who can reach the modern therapies that changed the course of the disease now curable out of hospital, and the AIDS of poor ones, without therapies and future. The political-economic effort of Western governments, of global fund anti-AIDS and of non governmental organizations now is not able to answer to this emergency in the right way. The lacking sensibility of Western doctors and the inflexible position of Catholic Church about contraception make the situation more complicated. It's hopeful the overcoming of this position using a Catholic Church's precious concept: the distinction between "simpliciter" and "secundum quid" to agree the use of condoms in case of absolute need.

  4. AIDS in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Karel, S G; Robey, B

    1988-09-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been an African and Western concern due to its epidemic nature. Although nearly 99% of all reported cases occurred in these regions, Asia has reported cases, and the potential for devastation of Asia's already strained health care reserves are undeniable. This review compiled by analysis of 1986-88 articles on AIDS research, demographics, official statements from government and health organizations, news reports, and public statements describe how AIDS has spread in well documented regions like America, Europe, and Africa, and how the Asian regions have attempted to handle the AIDS epidemic before it becomes as serious as in the West. The topics covered include a clinical overview of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS, how it is transmitted, and what are the primary forms of transmission in well documented regions. The report briefly documents what policies China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Australia, and New Zealand have individually instituted to stem the flow of AIDS into their country, and/or stop the spread of AIDS already found there. The efforts to combat AIDS globally by the World Health Organization/United Nations Development Program alliance (WHO-UNDP) along with the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and UNICEF are highlighted. The available research and aid programs are contrasted with how the Asian nations are preparing to deal with the AIDS epidemic. 1) AIDS has an incubation time wherein an infected individual is not AIDS symptomatic, but is capable of infecting others, and this hidden infected population makes it essential that containment policies are also enforced in countries with few reported cases. 2) A committee should be established in all Asian countries to coordinate education on safe sexual behaviors with specific programs for prostitutes

  5. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  6. [HIV/AIDS infection. The Brazilian view. AIDS in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, A P; De Sa, C A; Rubini, N

    1996-01-01

    The Ministry of Health coordinates and orients in Brazil all the activities concerning the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome which is officially designated as AIDS. The first AIDS' case registered in Brazil was, by retrospective diagnosis, in 1981 but it was in 1982 that the first two diagnosis in live patients were made. The incidence is very high in this country that is among the ones where the higher number of cases are being registered. The great majority of the Brazilian cases occurs in the cities and in direct proportion to the population index. The groups of risk are the same universally known and a comparative increase of heterosexual transmission is noted, chiefly due to the use of injectable drugs and bisexuality of the male partners. Another problem that is being increased is pediatric AIDS, with raising importance of perinatal transmission as well as the use of injectable drugs and precocious prostitution in adolescence. The transfusional and haemophilic AIDS have proportionally decreased due to the control of blood products. The control and the orientation activity of the Ministry of Health is directed to varied points such as: compulsory cases notification, cooperation between public and private sectors, preventive and sexual orientation, freely delivered medication and laboratory tests including sigilous tests, lay and technical personnel preparation, diversified informative and educational campaigns. Trial tests with anti-HIV vaccines have begun to be performed. Multiple Reference Centers were officially established by the administration. Among them is to be quoted the Hospital Universitário Gaffrée Guinle of Rio de Janeiro where the authors work. It is credited for its intensive activity and pioneerism. In this Institution special attention was due against discrimination of HIV-infected patients, to diagnosis, to anonymous and sigilous tests, to medical and psychological assistance, to myocardium involvement, to the virologic study of the

  7. 14 CFR 29.181 - Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft....181 Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed from.... Ground and Water Handling Characteristics...

  8. 14 CFR 29.181 - Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft....181 Dynamic stability: Category A rotorcraft. Any short-period oscillation occurring at any speed from.... Ground and Water Handling Characteristics...

  9. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  10. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities....

  11. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities....

  12. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities....

  13. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities....

  14. 40 CFR 98.330 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Zinc Production § 98.330 Definition of the source category. The zinc production source category consists of zinc smelters and secondary zinc recycling facilities....

  15. 40 CFR 98.50 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Adipic Acid Production § 98.50 Definition of source category. The adipic acid production source category consists of all adipic acid production facilities that use oxidation to produce adipic acid....

  16. 40 CFR 98.50 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Adipic Acid Production § 98.50 Definition of source category. The adipic acid production source category consists of all adipic acid production facilities that use oxidation to produce adipic acid....

  17. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  18. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.420 Definition of the source category. (a) The carbon dioxide (CO2) supplier source category consists of the following: (1)...

  19. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Carbon Dioxide § 98.420 Definition of the source category. (a) The carbon dioxide (CO2) supplier source category consists of the following: (1)...

  20. 12 CFR 390.452 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... the FDI Act and this subpart or that the State savings association's capital category has changed...

  1. 12 CFR 208.42 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... member bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI... Board to the bank of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart...

  2. 12 CFR 390.452 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... the FDI Act and this subpart or that the State savings association's capital category has changed...

  3. 12 CFR 6.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this part as of the date the national bank or... association of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this part or that...

  4. 12 CFR 390.452 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... the FDI Act and this subpart or that the State savings association's capital category has changed...

  5. 12 CFR 208.42 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... member bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI... Board to the bank of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart...

  6. 12 CFR 208.42 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... member bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI... Board to the bank of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart...

  7. 12 CFR 565.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... FDI Act and this part or that the savings association's capital category has changed as provided...

  8. 12 CFR 565.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... FDI Act and this part or that the savings association's capital category has changed as provided...

  9. 12 CFR 565.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... FDI Act and this part or that the savings association's capital category has changed as provided...

  10. 12 CFR 565.3 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... association shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act... FDI Act and this part or that the savings association's capital category has changed as provided...

  11. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  12. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  13. 40 CFR 98.310 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Titanium Dioxide Production § 98.310 Definition of the source category. The titanium dioxide production source category consists of facilities that use the chloride process to produce titanium dioxide....

  14. Feature distribution and background knowledge in category learning.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G L; Kaplan, A S

    2000-11-01

    Three experiments examined the interactions of category structure and prior knowledge in category learning. Experiment 1 examined the distribution of atypical or "crossover" features in category learning. In real categories, crossover features may be unevenly distributed--found primarily in very unusual examples of a category (like whales or ostriches). In contrast, in many psychology experiments, each item has exactly one crossover feature. Even versus uneven distribution of crossover features did not affect category learning when the features were neutral. However, when the features were connected by prior knowledge, it was much harder for subjects to learn the structure with the uneven distribution of crossover features. Experiments 2 and 3 found similar results with a slightly less uneven condition. We conclude that learning is a function of the interaction of category structure and prior knowledge rather than either one alone. Furthermore, knowledge benefits learning even when the category contains contradictions of the knowledge, so long as the contradictions are not very salient.

  15. Language, Perceptual Categories and their Interaction: Insights from Computational Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belpaeme, Tony; Bleys, Joris

    How do humans acquire perceptual categories? This question is far from being resolved. Specifically the balance between the influence of nature and nurture on perceptual categories remains the topic of heated debate. We present a computational model and take as case study colour categories to study two issues in perceptual category acquisition. The first issue is the effect of linguistic communication on categories during their acquisition: we demonstrate how categories can become coordinated under the influence of language. The second issue concerns the amount of coordination needed between the categories of individuals in order to achieve unambiguous communication. We show that, depending on how strictly linguistic utterances are interpreted, coordination of the individuals' categories is not always a prerequisite for successful communication.

  16. 40 CFR 98.470 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.470 Definition of the source category. (a) The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of...

  17. 40 CFR 98.470 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.470 Definition of the source category. (a) The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of...

  18. 40 CFR 98.470 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.470 Definition of the source category. (a) The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of...

  19. 40 CFR 98.470 - Definition of the source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Injection of Carbon Dioxide § 98.470 Definition of the source category. (a) The injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) source category comprises any well or group of...

  20. 12 CFR 208.42 - Notice of capital category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... member bank shall be deemed to be within a given capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI... Board to the bank of its capital category for purposes of section 38 of the FDI Act and this subpart...