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Sample records for aid coastal forest

  1. Impact of Forest Management on Future Forest Carbon Storage in Alaska Coastal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Kushch, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The forest in Coastal Alaska are unique in many ways. Two groups of forest types occur in the Alaska region: boreal and temperate rain forests. About eighty-eight percent of these forests are in public ownership. High proportations of reserved forests and old-growth forests make the forests in coastal Alaska differ from that in other coastal regions. This study is focused on how forest management actions may impact the future carbon stocks and flux in coastal Alaska forests. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data collected by US Forest Service are the primary data used for estimation of current carbon storage and projections of future forest carbon storage for all forest carbon pools in Alaska coastal forests under different management scenarios and climate change effect.

  2. Use of NASA Satellite Data to Improve Coastal Cypress Forest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurce, Joseph; Graham, William; Barras, John

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Information gaps exist regarding health status and location of cypress forests in coastal Louisiana (LA). Such information is needed to aid coastal forest conservation and restoration programs. Approach to Issue Mitigation: Use NASA data to revise cypress forest cover type maps. Landsat and ASTER data. Use NASA data to identify and track cypress forest change. Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS data. Work with partners and end-users to transfer useful products and technology.

  3. Developing New Coastal Forest Restoration Products Based on Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Graham, William; Smoot, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses an ongoing effort to develop new geospatial information products for aiding coastal forest restoration and conservation efforts in coastal Louisiana and Mississippi. This project employs Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data in conjunction with airborne elevation data to compute coastal forest cover type maps and change detection products. Improved forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest restoration and management efforts of State and Federal agencies in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) region. In particular, such products may aid coastal forest land acquisition and conservation easement procurements. This region's forests are often disturbed and subjected to multiple biotic and abiotic threats, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, hurricanes, sea-level rise, insect-induced defoliation and mortality, altered hydrology, wildfire, and conversion to non-forest land use. In some cases, such forest disturbance has led to forest loss or loss of regeneration capacity. In response, a case study was conducted to assess and demonstrate the potential of satellite remote sensing products for improving forest type maps and for assessing forest change over the last 25 years. Change detection products are needed for assessing risks for specific priority coastal forest types, such as live oak and baldcypress-dominated forest. Preliminary results indicate Landsat time series data are capable of generating the needed forest type and change detection products. Useful classifications were obtained using 2 strategies: 1) general forest classification based on use of 3 seasons of Landsat data from the same year; and 2) classification of specific forest types of concern using a single date of Landsat data in which a given targeted type is spectrally distinct compared to adjacent forested cover. When available, ASTER data was

  4. A Project to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forests in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Sader, Steven; Smoot, James

    2012-01-01

    Cypress swamp forests of Louisiana offer many important ecological and economic benefits: wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, water quality, and recreation. Such forests are also threatened by multiple factors: subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, hurricanes, insect and nutria damage, timber harvesting, and land use conversion. Unfortunately, there are many information gaps regarding the type, location, extent, and condition of these forests. Better more up to date swamp forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest conservation and restoration work (e.g., through the Coastal Forest Conservation Initiative or CFCI). In response, a collaborative project was initiated to develop, test and demonstrate cypress swamp forest mapping products, using NASA supported Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data. Research Objectives are: Develop, test, and demonstrate use of Landsat and ASTER data for computing new cypress forest classification products and Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data for detecting and monitoring swamp forest change

  5. Land crabs as key drivers in tropical coastal forest recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, E.S.; Krauss, K.W.; Green, P.T.; O'Dowd, D. J.; Sherman, P.M.; Smith, T. J., III

    2009-01-01

    Plant populations are regulated by a diverse assortment of abiotic and biotic factors that influence seed dispersal and viability, and seedling establishment and growth at the microsite. Rarely does one animal guild exert as significant an influence on different plant assemblages as land crabs. We review three tropical coastal ecosystems-mangroves, island maritime forests, and mainland coastal terrestrial forests-where land crabs directly influence forest composition by limiting tree establishment and recruitment. Land crabs differentially prey on seeds, propagules and seedlings along nutrient, chemical and physical environmental gradients. In all of these ecosystems, but especially mangroves, abiotic gradients are well studied, strong and influence plant species distributions. However, we suggest that crab predation has primacy over many of these environmental factors by acting as the first limiting factor of tropical tree recruitment to drive the potential structural and compositional organisation of coastal forests. We show that the influence of crabs varies relative to tidal gradient, shoreline distance, canopy position, time, season, tree species and fruiting periodicity. Crabs also facilitate forest growth and development through such activities as excavation of burrows, creation of soil mounds, aeration of soils, removal of leaf litter into burrows and creation of carbon-rich soil microhabitats. For all three systems, land crabs influence the distribution, density and size-class structure of tree populations. Indeed, crabs are among the major drivers of tree recruitment in tropical coastal forest ecosystems, and their conservation should be included in management plans of these forests. ?? 2009 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. U.S. to aid coastal research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsouros, Mary Hope

    Prior to the 1964 implementation of the 1958 Convention on the Continental Shelf, oceanographers were free to plan and carry out research projects virtually anywhere on or under the seas of the world (see Article 5(1) and 5(8)). Today, dozens of coastal nations regulate marine research within 200 nautical miles (370 km) of their shores, imposing increasingly severe restrictions and creating diverse and uncertain consent procedures. Both the Reagan administration and Congress have acted recently to alleviate some of these jurisdictional problems being experienced by U.S. marine scientists.On March 10, 1983, President Reagan issued a proclamation on the “Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States of America” and related statements. It is the accompanying “Statement by the President” and the “Fact Sheet” on “United States Oceans Policy” (all three of which are dated March 10), rather than the proclamation, that outline the U.S. position on the conduct of marine scientific research. The “Statement by the President” declares that, While international law provides for a right of jurisdiction over marine scientific research within such a zone, the proclamation does not assert this right. I have elected not to do so because of the United States' interest in encouraging marine scientific research and avoiding any unnecessary burdens. The United States will nevertheless recognize the right of other coastal states to exercise jurisdiction over marine scientific research within 200 nautical miles of their coasts, if that jurisdiction is exercised reasonably in a manner consistent with international law. The “Fact Sheet” states that, The President has decided not to assert jurisdiction over marine scientific research in the United States EEZ [Exclusive Economic Zone]. This is consistent with U.S. interest in promoting maximum freedom for such research. The Department of State will take steps to facilitate access by U.S. scientists to foreign EEZ

  7. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    SciTech Connect

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  8. An Effort to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forest Areas in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Sader, Steve; Smoot, James

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses a collaborative project to develop, test, and demonstrate baldcypress forest mapping and monitoring products for aiding forest conservation and restoration in coastal Louisiana. Low lying coastal forests in the region are being negatively impacted by multiple factors, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, annual insect-induced forest defoliation, timber harvesting, and conversion to urban land uses. Coastal baldcypress forests provide invaluable ecological services in terms of wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, and water quality benefits. Before this project, current maps of baldcypress forest concentrations and change did not exist or were out of date. In response, this project was initiated to produce: 1) current maps showing the extent and location of baldcypress dominated forests; and 2) wetland forest change maps showing temporary and persistent disturbance and loss since the early 1970s. Project products are being developed collaboratively with multiple state and federal agencies. Products are being validated using available reference data from aerial, satellite, and field survey data. Results include Landsat TM- based classifications of baldcypress in terms of cover type and percent canopy cover. Landsat MSS data was employed to compute a circa 1972 classification of swamp and bottomland hardwood forest types. Landsat data for 1972-2010 was used to compute wetland forest change products. MODIS-based change products were applied to view and assess insect-induced swamp forest defoliation. MODIS, Landsat, and ASTER satellite data products were used to help assess hurricane and flood impacts to coastal wetland forests in the region.

  9. Satellite Data Aid Monitoring of Nation's Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service’s Asheville, North Carolina-based Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Prineville, Oregon-based Western Wildlands Environmental Threat Assessment Center partnered with Stennis Space Center and other agencies to create an early warning system to identify, characterize, and track disturbances from potential forest threats. The result was ForWarn, which is now being used by federal and state forest and natural resource managers.

  10. A tale of two "forests": random forest machine learning AIDS tropical forest carbon mapping.

    PubMed

    Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Martin, Roberta E; Anderson, Christopher; Higgins, Mark; Chadwick, K Dana

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and spatially-explicit maps of tropical forest carbon stocks are needed to implement carbon offset mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Deforestation and Degradation Plus). The Random Forest machine learning algorithm may aid carbon mapping applications using remotely-sensed data. However, Random Forest has never been compared to traditional and potentially more reliable techniques such as regionally stratified sampling and upscaling, and it has rarely been employed with spatial data. Here, we evaluated the performance of Random Forest in upscaling airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-based carbon estimates compared to the stratification approach over a 16-million hectare focal area of the Western Amazon. We considered two runs of Random Forest, both with and without spatial contextual modeling by including--in the latter case--x, and y position directly in the model. In each case, we set aside 8 million hectares (i.e., half of the focal area) for validation; this rigorous test of Random Forest went above and beyond the internal validation normally compiled by the algorithm (i.e., called "out-of-bag"), which proved insufficient for this spatial application. In this heterogeneous region of Northern Peru, the model with spatial context was the best preforming run of Random Forest, and explained 59% of LiDAR-based carbon estimates within the validation area, compared to 37% for stratification or 43% by Random Forest without spatial context. With the 60% improvement in explained variation, RMSE against validation LiDAR samples improved from 33 to 26 Mg C ha(-1) when using Random Forest with spatial context. Our results suggest that spatial context should be considered when using Random Forest, and that doing so may result in substantially improved carbon stock modeling for purposes of climate change mitigation. PMID:24489686

  11. After the Forest: AIDS as Ecological Collapse in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Ann Danaiya

    1992-01-01

    The steady degradation of Thailand's forests is related to the emergence of AIDS in the same period. Environmental erosion and the unraveling of rural cultures founded on particular ecosystems are among the pressures that force young people to leave villages and enter the sex industry, exposing them to AIDS. (KS)

  12. An individual-based growth and competition model for coastal redwood forest restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Das, Adrian J.

    2014-01-01

    Thinning treatments to accelerate coastal redwood forest stand development are in wide application, but managers have yet to identify prescriptions that might best promote Sequoia sempervirens (Lamb. ex D. Don) Endl. (redwood) growth. The creation of successful thinning prescriptions would be aided by identifying the underlying mechanisms governing how individual tree growth responds to competitive environments in coastal redwood forests. We created a spatially explicit individual-based model of tree competition and growth parameterized using surveys of upland redwood forests at Redwood National Park, California. We modeled competition for overstory trees (stems ≥ 20 cm stem diameter at breast height, 1.37 m (dbh)) as growth reductions arising from sizes, distances, and species identity of competitor trees. Our model explained up to half of the variation in individual tree growth, suggesting that neighborhood crowding is an important determinant of growth in this forest type. We used our model to simulate the effects of novel thinning prescriptions (e.g., 40% stand basal area removal) for redwood forest restoration, concluding that these treatments could lead to substantial growth releases, particularly for S. sempervirens. The results of this study, along with continued improvements to our model, will help to determine spacing and species composition that best encourage growth.

  13. Discriminating coastal rangeland production and improvements with computer aided techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A.; Faulkner, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and utility of using satellite data and computer-aided remote sensing analysis techniques to conduct range inventories were tested. This pilot study was focused over a 250,000 acre site in Galveston and Brazoria Counties along the Texas Gulf Coast. Rectified enlarged aircraft color infrared photographs of this site were used as the ground truth base. The different land categories were identified, delineated, and measured. Multispectral scanner (MSS) bulk data from LANDSAT-1 was received and analyzed with the Image 100 pattern recognition system. Features of interest were delineated on the image console giving the number of picture elements classified; the picture elements were converted to acreages and the accuracy of the technique was evaluated by comparison with data base results for three test sites. The accuracies for computer aided classification of coastal marshes ranged from 89% to 96%.

  14. Coastal Plain Soil Fertility Degradation And Natural Forest Ecosystem Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Sato, C. A.; Reis-Duarte, R. M.; Soares, M. R.; Galvão Bueno, M. S.

    2009-04-01

    The sand coastal plain vegetation (Restinga Forest) has been described as an ecosystem associated with the Atlantic Forest, constituted of mosaics, which occur in areas of great ecological diversity, particularly the features of the soil which mostly influence the forest, therefore assigned as edaphic community. The Restinga forest is one of the most fragile, showing low resilience to human damage This work was carried out in several points (14) of Restinga Forest (six low - trees from 3 to 10 m high - and eight high forest - trees from 10 to 15 m high) in the litoral coast of the state of São Paulo. Each sample was made of 15 subsamples of each area collected in each depth (one in 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15, 15 - 20, and another in 0 - 20, 20 - 40, 40 and 60 cm). Soil characteristics analyzed were pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, H + Al, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn contents and base saturation, cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. The vegetation physiognomies of Restinga forest (low and high) were associated with soil results and with the history of human occupation. The soils are sandy (2 to 4% of clay), resulting in a low capacity of nutrient retention. Soil fertility analysis to low and high Restinga forest were similar and showed very low contents of phosphorous, calcium and magnesium in all areas investigated. The base saturation was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg. Base saturation presents low level in all cases, less than 10, indicating low nutritional reserve in the soil. The aluminum saturation values varied from 58 to 69%. The level of calcium and magnesium were low in the subsurface soil layer mainly, associate with high aluminum saturation, representing an limiting factor for the root system development in depth. If soil fertility parameters do not show any significant difference between low and high Restinga physiognomy, what make distinction is the recuperation time. In the areas of high Forest can be note a too long time of recuperation

  15. Nitrogen dynamics in the coastal Atlantic Forest of Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, L. D.; Lins, S. M.; Ravagnani, E.; Gragnani, J. G.; Antonio, J.; Mazzi, E. A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are important biomes by several things, among them, they are important reservoirs of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and water (Bonan, 2008). In Brazil, at Sao Paulo State, the coastal Atlantic Forest runs along an altitudinal gradient from near seal level (Lowland Forest) up to more than 1,000m (Montane Forest). Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks as well as above ground biomass are higher at the Montante Forest in relation to the Lowland Forest. In contrast, annual fluxes of N2O and riverine N output are higher lower altitudes, although. Therefore, it seems that lower temperature at higher altitude limits N transfer between different reservoirs, which in turn leads to higher N stocks. In this study we test if the litter decomposition of Fabaceae and non Fabaceae leaves at higher altitudes also decomposes slower than at low altitudes. At the same time we also test if Fabaceae leaves decompose faster than non Fabaceae leaves due to the higher N content and lower C:N ratio of the former in comparison to the later. Preliminary results indicate that both hypothesis seems to be right.

  16. Reduction of tsunami inundation by coastal forests in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, W.; Honda, K.; Harada, K.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal forests are known to protect coastal areas from environmental degradation. In this paper, we examined another important role of coastal forests - to mitigate tsunami devastations to coastal areas. Using a two-dimensional numerical model (Harada and Imamura model, 2005), we evaluated the damping effects of a coastal forest to resist tsunami inundation in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In the simulations, we set up a two-km long control forest with a representative topography of the study site and experimented its damping performance sensitivity under various width configurations, e.g. 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 200 m. The initial tsunami wave was set such that the inundation depth at the front edge of the forest would not exceed 4 m (tree fragility limit). The forest variables such as species, density, DBH, height and canopy size were determined from a typical forest of the site (Casuarina plantation, 4 trees/100 m2, Diameter at Breast Height = 0.20 m). The results showed that coastal forest with 100 m width reduced inundation flux, depth and area by 17.6, 7.0 and 5.7%, respectively. Exponential models were found to describe the relationships between forest width and tsunami inundation transmission. An additional experiment was performed using actual topography and a forest plantation plan with 100 m width for 2.46 km2. In this experiment, the results showed that the plan would reduce inundation flux by 10.1%, while the exponential model estimated it to be 10.6%, close to the numerical model results. It suggests that statistical models of forest width and damping effects are useful tools for plantation planning, as it allows for quicker evaluation of the impact of coastal forest without simulation modeling that requires a lot of data, time and computing power.

  17. Forest response and recovery following disturbance in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Karina V. R.; Renninger, Heidi J.; Carlo, Nicholas J.; Vanderklein, Dirk W.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and water cycling of forests contribute significantly to the Earth's overall biogeochemical cycling and may be affected by disturbance and climate change. As a larger body of research becomes available about leaf-level, ecosystem and regional scale effects of disturbances on forest ecosystems, a more mechanistic understanding is developing which can improve modeling efforts. Here, we summarize some of the major effects of physical and biogenic disturbances, such as drought, prescribed fire, and insect defoliation, on leaf and ecosystem-scale physiological responses as well as impacts on carbon and water cycling in an Atlantic Coastal Plain upland oak/pine and upland pine forest. During drought, stomatal conductance and canopy stomatal conductance were reduced, however, defoliation increased conductance on both leaf-level and canopy scale. Furthermore, after prescribed fire, leaf-level stomatal conductance was unchanged for pines but decreased for oaks, while canopy stomatal conductance decreased temporarily, but then rebounded the following growing season, thus exhibiting transient responses. This study suggests that forest response to disturbance varies from the leaf to ecosystem level as well as species level and thus, these differential responses interplay to determine the fate of forest structure and functioning post disturbance. PMID:25018759

  18. A Tale of Two “Forests”: Random Forest Machine Learning Aids Tropical Forest Carbon Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P.; Knapp, David E.; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Martin, Roberta E.; Anderson, Christopher; Higgins, Mark; Chadwick, K. Dana

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and spatially-explicit maps of tropical forest carbon stocks are needed to implement carbon offset mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Deforestation and Degradation Plus). The Random Forest machine learning algorithm may aid carbon mapping applications using remotely-sensed data. However, Random Forest has never been compared to traditional and potentially more reliable techniques such as regionally stratified sampling and upscaling, and it has rarely been employed with spatial data. Here, we evaluated the performance of Random Forest in upscaling airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-based carbon estimates compared to the stratification approach over a 16-million hectare focal area of the Western Amazon. We considered two runs of Random Forest, both with and without spatial contextual modeling by including—in the latter case—x, and y position directly in the model. In each case, we set aside 8 million hectares (i.e., half of the focal area) for validation; this rigorous test of Random Forest went above and beyond the internal validation normally compiled by the algorithm (i.e., called “out-of-bag”), which proved insufficient for this spatial application. In this heterogeneous region of Northern Peru, the model with spatial context was the best preforming run of Random Forest, and explained 59% of LiDAR-based carbon estimates within the validation area, compared to 37% for stratification or 43% by Random Forest without spatial context. With the 60% improvement in explained variation, RMSE against validation LiDAR samples improved from 33 to 26 Mg C ha−1 when using Random Forest with spatial context. Our results suggest that spatial context should be considered when using Random Forest, and that doing so may result in substantially improved carbon stock modeling for purposes of climate change mitigation. PMID:24489686

  19. Achieving conservation goals in managed forests of the southeastern coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Loehle, Craig; Wigley, T Bently; Schilling, Erik; Tatum, Vickie; Beebe, John; Vance, Eric; Van Deusen, Paul; Weatherford, Philip

    2009-12-01

    Managed forests are a primary land use within the Coastal Plain of the southern United States. These forests are generally managed under standards, guidelines, or regulations to conserve ecosystem functions and services. Economic value of commercial forests provides incentives for landowners to maintain forests rather than convert them to other uses that have substantially reduced environmental benefits. In this review, we describe the historical context of commercial forest management in the southern United States Coastal Plain, describe how working forests are managed today, and examine relationships between commercial forest management and maintenance of functional aquatic and wetland systems and conservation of biological diversity. Significant challenges for the region include increasing human population and urbanization and concomitant changes in forest area and structure, invasive species, and increased interest in forest biomass as an energy feedstock. Research needs include better information about management of rare species and communities and quantification of relationships between ecosystem attributes and forest management, including biomass production and harvest. Incentives and better information may help commercial forest managers in the Coastal Plain more efficiently contribute to landscape-scale conservation goals. PMID:19856021

  20. Satellite-aided coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system is described. This technique uses a LORAN-C navigational system and relays signals via the ATS-3 satellite to a computer driven color video display for real time control. Multi-use applications of the system to search and rescue operations, coastal zone management and marine safety are described. It is emphasized that among the advantages of the system are: its unlimited range; compatibility with existing navigation systems; and relatively inexpensive cost.

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in coastal areas of Karachi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in a coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted among fishermen in coastal area of Karachi from June to September 2012. A total of 297 adult fishermen were selected by using simple random sampling technique from different sectors of coastal village. Data were collected using a structured validated questionnaire. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. Comparisons of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS by socio-demographic characteristics were made using logistic regression. Results Out of 297 fishermen, majority had in-appropriate knowledge (93.6%), negative attitude (75.8%) and less adherent sexual practices (91.6%). In univariate analysis, lower education and higher income were significantly associated (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.11, 4.55), (OR = 3.04 CI 1.03-9.02, p value 0.04) with negative attitude and un-safe practices towards HIV/AIDS respectively, whereas no significant association of socio-economic characteristics with knowledge, attitude and practices were observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This study suggests that fishermen had very poor knowledge, negative attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and had unsafe sexual practices which suggest that they lack the basic understanding of HIV/AIDS infection. Extensive health education campaign should be provided to the vulnerable sections of the society for the control of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24886122

  2. Towards sustainable management of louisiana's coastal wetland forests: Problems, constraints, and a new beginning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, J.L.; Conner, W.H.; Keim, R.F.; Faulkner, S.P.; Day, J.W.; Gardiner, E.S.; Hughes, M.S.; King, S.L.; McLeod, K.W.; Miller, C.A.; Nyman, J.A.; Shaffer, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    Over 345,000 ha of forested swamps occur throughout the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. Natural and anthropogenic changes in hydrology and geomorphology at local and landscape levels have reduced the productivity in many of these coastal wetland forests areas and have caused the complete loss of forest cover in some places. A summary and interpretation of the available science, suggestions for policy change, and a multidisciplinary (multi-responsibility) approach were needed to address these issues [in the context of private land]. In response, the Louisiana Governor's office formed a Coastal Wetland Forest Conservation and Use Science Working Group (SWG) and an associated Advisory Panel to provide the Governor with information and suggestions of strategies for environmental and economic utilization, conservation, and protection of Louisiana's coastal wetland forest ecosystem in the long-term. The process of engaging scientists, resource managers, and other stakeholders in this effort is described, and the recommendations of the SWG are presented relative to forestry practices and the potential for sustainable management of coastal wetland forests.

  3. Towards sustainable management of Louisiana’s coastal wetland forests: problems, constraints, and a new beginning

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, J. L.; Keim, R. F.; Faulkner, S. P.; Day Jr., J. W.; Gardiner, E. S.; Hughes, M. S.; King, S. L.; McLeod, K. W.; Miller, C. A.; Nyman, J. A.; Shaffer, G. P.

    2006-01-01

    Over 345,000 ha of forested swamps occur throughout the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. Natural and anthropogenic changes in hydrology and geomorphology at local and landscape levels have reduced the productivity in many of these coastal wetland forests areas and have caused the complete loss of forest cover in some places. A summary and interpretation of the available science, suggestions for policy change, and a multidisciplinary (multi-responsibility) approach were needed to address these issues [in the context of private land]. In response, the Louisiana Governor's office formed a Coastal Wetland Forest Conservation and Use Science Working Group (SWG) and an associated Advisory Panel to provide the Governor with information and suggestions of strategies for environmental and economic utilization, conservation, and protection of Louisiana's coastal wetland forest ecosystem in the long-term. The process of engaging scientists, resource managers, and other stakeholders in this effort is described, and the recommendations of the SWG are presented relative to forestry practices and the potential for sustainable management of coastal wetland forests.

  4. Importance of Small Isolated Wetlands for Herpetofaunal Diversity in Managed, Young Growth Forests in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.R.; Guynn, D.C., Jr.; Hanlin, H.G.

    2002-03-27

    Assessment and comparison of richness, abundance and difference of herpetofauna at five small isolated wetlands located within a commercial forest landscape in the South Carolina Coastal Plain. Data indicates small isolated wetlands are focal points of herpetofaunal richness and abundance in managed coastal plain forest and contribute more to regional biodiversity than is implied by their small size or ephemeral hydrology.

  5. Computer-aided analysis of Landsat data for surveying Texas coastal zone environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristof, S. J.; Weismiller, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using machine-aided processing of Landsat data to inventory environmental units was studied by analyzing geometrically corrected and spatially registered Landsat data collected over the Matagorda Bay area of the Texas coastal estuarine system. A clustering algorithm (nonsupervised processor) was used to divide the data into groups of sample points of similar spectral characteristics, and correlation of spectral classes with reference data on a point-to-point basis showed the coastal features exhibit unique spectral variations. Use of a maximum likelihood algorithm permitted discrimination of 13 terrestrial and aquatic environments.

  6. Hidden Forests: The role of vegetated coastal habitats in the ocean carbon budget (Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-04-01

    Vegetated coastal habitats, including mangrove forests, salt-marshes, seagrass meadows and macroalgal beds, provide the marine equivalent to terrestrial forests. However, in contrast to the traditional recognition of forests as significant components of the global carbon budget, the biogeochemical significance of vegetated coastal habitats has been largely ignored. However, the past decade has witness a paradigm shift, where vegetated coastal habitats have been recognized to play a globally significant role in the carbon budget of the ocean. Here I synthesize this evidence and consider how current representations of the ocean carbon budget need be reconsidered to incorporate the role of vegetated coastal habitats and globally relevant, sites of intense carbon cycling.

  7. Forest statistics for the northern coastal plain of South Carolina, 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.T.; Sheffield, R.M.

    1993-05-01

    Since 1986, the area of timberland in the Northern Coastal Plain of South Carolina increased by 3 percent to 4.7 million acres. Nonindustrial private forest landowners control 67 percent of the region's timberland. Area classified as a pine type remained stable at 1.9 million acres. More than 116,000 acres were harvested annually, while 177,000 acres were regenerated by artificial and natural means. The volume of softwood growing stock decreased 26 percent to 2.5 billion cubic feet. The volume of hardwood growing stock declined 13 percent to 3.1 billion cubic feet. Extremely high mortality drove net growth downward. Net annual growth of softwoods declined 84 percent to 28 million cubic feet. Hardwood growth dropped 77 percent to 23 million cubic feet. Annual removals of softwood growing stock increased 9 percent to 175 million cubic feet; hardwood removals jumped 18 percent to 87 million cubic feet. Annual mortality of softwood growing stock was up eight times the level recorded in 1986, whereas hardwood mortality was up four times the previous level.

  8. Atlantic tropical forest mapping in the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Simi, R. Jr.; Almeida, S.A.S.; Manso, A.P.

    1997-06-01

    The northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State includes the cities of Ubatuba, Caraguatatuba, Sao Sebastiao and Ilha Bela. Large development projects, such as road and highway constructions and joint real estate exploration of susceptible coastal ecosystems have threatened the harmony and ecological stability of these ecosystems. Recently, the Atlantic tropical rain forest has been the most destructed ecosystem in the coastal zone in response to real estate investments in urban areas along the main roads. In the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, 80% of the counties are included in the State Park of Serra do Mar. As tourism is a strong growing economical activity, as well as coastal production, it should be of interest to create a plan for sustainable development. The objective of this study is to map and characterize land use cover changes with emphasis on the Atlantic tropical rain forest degradation using Landsat TM images. Preliminary results for land use cover changes indicate that the Atlantic tropical rain forest was reduced by 6.1 % during the period of July 1992 and October 1995.

  9. Forest transpiration from sap flux density measurements in a Southeastern Coastal Plain riparian buffer system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forested riparian buffers are prevalent throughout the Southeastern Coastal Plain Region of the United States (US). Because they make up a significant portion of the regional landscape, transpiration within these riparian buffers is believed to have an important impact on the hydrologic budget of r...

  10. Mangrove forests: a potent nexus of coastal biogeochemical cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, J. G.; Fuentes, J. D.; Shoemaker, B.; O'Halloran, T. L.; Lin, G., Sr.; Engel, V. C.

    2014-12-01

    Mangrove forests cover just 0.1% of the Earth's terrestrial surface, yet they provide a disproportionate source (~10 % globally) of terrestrially derived, refractory dissolved organic carbon to the oceans. Mangrove forests are biogeochemical reactors that convert biomass into dissolved organic and inorganic carbon at unusually high rates, and many studies recognize the value of mangrove ecosystems for the substantial amounts of soil carbon storage they produce. However, questions remain as to how mangrove forest ecosystem services should be valuated and quantified. Therefore, this study addresses several objectives. First, we demonstrate that seasonal and annual net ecosystem carbon exchange in three selected mangrove forests, derived from long-term eddy covariance measurements, represent key quantities in defining the magnitude of biogeochemical cycling and together with other information on carbon cycle parameters serves as a proxy to estimate ecosystem services. Second, we model ecosystem productivity across the mangrove forests of Everglades National Park and southern China by relating net ecosystem exchange values to remote sensing data. Finally, we develop a carbon budget for the mangrove forests in the Everglades National Park for the purposes of demonstrating that these forests and adjacent estuaries are sites of intense biogeochemical cycling. One conclusion from this study is that much of the carbon entering from the atmosphere as net ecosystem exchange (~1000 g C m-2 yr-1) is not retained in the net ecosystem carbon balance. Instead, a substantial fraction of the carbon entering the system as net ecosystem exchange is ultimately exported to the oceans or outgassed as reaction products within the adjacent estuary.

  11. Soil Carbon Storage and Turnover in an Old-Growth Coastal Redwood Forest and Adjacent Prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, K. J.; Torn, M. S.; Mambelli, S.; Dawson, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests store lots of carbon in aboveground tree biomass because redwoods are very long-lived and can grow very large. Redwood is known for its high resistance to decay, a result of high levels of aromatic compounds (tannins) in the tree’s tissues. We tested the hypothesis that because coastal redwoods are highly productive and produce organic matter that is chemically resistant to decay, old-growth redwood forests should store large amounts of stabilized soil carbon. We measured soil C storage to 110 cm depth in an old-growth coastal redwood forest and used physical soil fractionation combined with radiocarbon measurements to determine soil organic matter turnover time. In addition, we measured soil C storage and turnover at an adjacent prairie experiencing the same climate and with soils derived from the same parent material. We found larger soil C stocks to 110 cm at the prairie (350 Mg C ha-1) than the redwood forest (277 Mg C ha-1) even with O-horizons included for the forest. Larger N stocks were also observed at the prairie than the redwood and these differences in stocks were driven by higher C and N concentrations in mineral soils at the prairie. Differences between ecosystems in soil C and N concentrations, C:N ratios, and C and N stocks were observed for the top 50 cm only, suggesting that the influence of the different litter types did not extend to deeper soils. Contrary to what was expected, bulk soil and heavy density-fraction Δ14C values were higher, indicating shorter turnover times, for the redwood forest than the prairie. In summary, we did not observe greater C storage or 14C-based turnover times in old-growth redwood forest compared to adjacent prairie, suggesting chemical recalcitrance of litter inputs does not drive soil C stabilization at these ecosystems.

  12. Floods and mangrove forests, friends or foes? Perceptions of relationships and risks in Cameroon coastal mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munji, Cecilia A.; Bele, Mekou Y.; Idinoba, Monica E.; Sonwa, Denis J.

    2014-03-01

    Faced with the growing influence of climate change on climate driven perturbations such as flooding and biodiversity loss, managing the relationship between mangroves and their environment has become imperative for their protection. Hampering this is the fact that the full scope of the threats faced by specific mangrove forests is not yet well documented. Amongst some uncertainties is the nature of the relationship/interaction of mangroves with climate driven perturbations prevalent in their habitat such as coastal floods. We investigated the relationship between coastal flooding and mangrove forest stabilization, identify perceptions of flood risk and responses to offset identified effects. Random household surveys were carried out within four communities purposively sampled within the Cap Cameroon. Coastal changes were investigated over a period of 43 years (1965-2008). Seasonal flooding improved access to mangrove forests and hence promoted their exploitation for non-timber forest products (NTFPs) such as fuel wood and mangrove poles. 989 ha of mangrove forests were estimated to be lost over a period of 43 years in Cap Cameroon with implications on forest resources base, ecosystem stability, and livelihoods. Alternative livelihood activities were found to be carried out to moderate interruptions in fishing, with associated implications for mangrove forest dynamics. Respondents were of the opinion that risks associated with floods and mangrove deforestation will pose a major challenge for sustainable management of mangroves. These locally relevant perceptions and responses should however enable the identification of pertinent needs, challenges and opportunities to inform and orient effective decision-making, and to facilitate the development and participation in adaptive management strategies.

  13. Hurricane impacts on tree mortality and carbon cycling in coastal forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, J. Q.; Negron-Juarez, R. I.; Zeng, H.; Henkel, T. K.; Baker, D. B.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2008-12-01

    Forests recovering from land-use, the encroachment of woody vegetation, and other ecological processes, cause terrestrial ecosystems to act as a net sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Changes in the strength and sign of this sink over the coming decades are difficult to predict. One process that can act to diminish the terrestrial carbon sink is an increase in disturbance frequency and intensity, which transfers greater amounts of biomass from live to dead respiring pools, and shifts the forest size distribution toward smaller average tree size and lower biomass stocks. A number of studies predict an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events and the intensity of tropical cyclones under a warming climate, which may ultimately result in elevated forest disturbance regimes. Here we present a novel synthetic approach combining detailed ecological field investigations with remote sensing image analysis to provide spatially explicit estimates of forest damage, tree mortality, and biomass loss for U.S. landfalling hurricanes. Analysis results for Hurricane Katrina predicted the death and severe structural damage to about 320 million trees, representing a 100 Tg carbon transfer from live to dead biomass. Under the same wind-field, forest susceptibility to damage was highly tree species dependent, with cypress-tupelo swamp forests exhibiting the greatest resistance. Statistical models were useful for separating storm surge from wind effects on coastal forests. Similar analyses are currently underway for Hurricane Gustav, and will also be presented.

  14. Carbon Cycling Studies in Forest and Rangeland Ecosystems of Northern and Central Coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Gross, P.; Hiatt, S.; Genovese, V.

    2008-12-01

    The varied topography and micro-climates of northern and central coastal California result in high biodiversity and many different levels of primary production driving regional carbon cycles. Coastal mountains trap moisture from low clouds and fog in summer to supplement rainfall in winter. This creates a favorable micro-environment for coniferous forests, including the southernmost habitat of the coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), which grows mainly on lower north-facing slopes in Big Sur. In rain shadows, forests transition to open oak woodland, and then into the more fire-tolerant chaparral and coast scrub. Field sites for our on-going climate change studies on the California northern and central coasts currently include the University of California Santa Cruz Campus Natural Reserve, the US Forest Service Brazil Ranch, and the University of California Big Creek Reserve. We are conducting research at each of these sites to better understand possible impacts of climate change, including: (1) biological and physical capacity of soils to capture carbon and retain plant-essential nutrients; (2) rates of plant-soil water and carbon cycling and energy flow; and (3) recovery mechanisms for disturbances such as invasive weed species, grazing, and wildfire. The NASA-CASA simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate carbon cycling for much of the central coast as far north as Mendocino County. Net primary production (NPP) of all vegetation cover was mapped at 30-meter resolution for selected years by combining MODIS and Landsat images across the region. Results show annual NPP predictions of between 200-400 grams C per square meter for coastal scrub and 800-1200 grams C per square meter for coastal evergreen forests, Net ecosystem fluxes of carbon will be presented for the region based on NASA-CASA modeling and field measurements of soil respiration fluxes.

  15. Use of sediment amendments to rehabilitate sinking coastal swamp forests in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.; Jiang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are losing elevation worldwide, so that techniques to increase elevation such as sediment amendment might benefit these wetlands. This study examined the potential of sediment amendment to raise elevation and support the production and regeneration of vegetation in coastal forests in Louisiana. Before sediment amendment, the vegetation did not differ in these Taxodium distichum–Nyssa aquatica forests with respect to herbaceous and tree seedling composition, and sapling and tree characteristics. After the application of sediment in January 2007, sediment-amended swamps had higher elevations and salinity levels than natural swamps. The layer of sediment applied to Treasure Island in Jean Lafitte National Historic Park and Preserve was relatively deep (sediment depth at Site One and Site Two: 0.89 and 0.69 m, respectively, six months after application), and may have exceeded an optimal threshold. Sediment-amended swamp with the highest elevation had some tree mortality and little tree growth of T. distichum. Also, sediment-amended swamp had higher root biomasses of ruderal species, and lower species richness and cover of herbaceous species. Nevertheless, during controlled water releases during an oil spill emergency in 2010, both sediment-amended and reference forest had higher production levels than in other years. While sediment amendment is a compelling management alternative for sinking coastal wetlands, optimal thresholds were not determined for these T. distichum–N. aquatica swamps.

  16. Effect of Forest Structural Change on Carbon Storage in a Coastal Metasequoia glyptostroboides Stand

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiangrong; Yu, Mukui; Wu, Tonggui

    2013-01-01

    Forest structural change affects the forest's growth and the carbon storage. Two treatments, thinning (30% thinning intensity) and underplanting plus thinning, are being implemented in a coastal Metasequoia glyptostroboides forest shelterbelt in Eastern China. The vegetation carbon storage significantly increased in the underplanted and thinned treatments compared with that in the unthinned treatment (P < 0.05). The soil and litterfall carbon storage in the underplanted treatment were significantly higher than those in the unthinned treatment (P < 0.05). The total forest ecosystem carbon storage in the underplanted and thinned treatments increased by 35.3% and 26.3%, respectively, compared with that in the unthinned treatment, an increase that mainly came from the growth of vegetation aboveground. Total ecosystem carbon storage showed no significant difference between the underplanted and thinned treatments (P > 0.05). The soil light fraction organic carbon (LFOC) was significantly higher at the 0–15 cm soil layer in the thinned and underplanted stands compared with that in the unthinned stand (P < 0.05). The soil respiration of the underplanted treatment was significantly higher than that of the unthinned treatment only in July (P < 0.05). This study concludes that 30% thinning and underplanting after thinning could be more favorable to carbon sequestration for M. glyptostroboides plantations in the coastal areas of Eastern China. PMID:24187525

  17. A model inter-comparison study of forest growth on two coastal and boreal forest landscapes in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, P. Y.; Wang, Z.; Grant, R. F.; Arain, A.; Chen, B.; Chen, J.; Coops, N.; Govind, A.; Guindon, L.; Hember, R.; Kurz, W. A.; Peng, C.; Price, D. T.; Stinson, G.; Sun, J.; Trofymow, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Projection of carbon stocks in Canada is presently accomplished using CBM-CFS3, an inventory-based model. We have performed a comparison exercise among 6 process-based models of forest growth (Can-IBIS, INTEC, ECOSYS, 3PG, TRIPLEX, CN-CLASS) and CBM-CFS3 as part of an effort to better capture inter-annual climate variability in the carbon accounting of Canada's forests. Comparisons were made on multi-decadal simulations for a Pacific Coastal Douglas-fir forest (2500ha, Oyster River, British Columbia) and a Boreal Black Spruce forest (3825ha, Chibougamau, Quebec). Models were initiated using reconstructions of forest composition and biomass from 1920 (Oyster River, OR) and 1928 (Chibougamau, CH), followed by transition to current forest composition as derived from recent forest inventories (OR 1999, CH 1998). Forest management events and natural disturbances over the simulation period were provided as maps and disturbance impacts on a number of carbon pools were simulated using the same transfer coefficients parameters as CBM-CFS3. Simulations were conducted from 1920 to 2006 for OR, and from 1928 to 1998 for CH. For CH, final above-ground tree biomass in 1998 was also extracted from the independent forest inventory. The coastal OR area initially contained about four times more ecosystem C than the boreal CH area. CBM- CFS3 simulations suggest a decline in ecosystem carbon by about 200 Mg C ha-1, dominated by a loss of biomass and woody debris C, over the 86-year period in OR as the entire area transitioned from coastal old- growth to second growth conditions. In CH, a smaller proportion of the area was affected by management and the CBM-CFS3 estimated a small net increase in total ecosystem C of about 11 Mg C ha-1 over 70 years, almost all attributed to increased biomass. Changes in tree biomass at CH were 10% less than estimates derived by difference between successive inventories. The source of this small simulation bias is attributable to the underlying growth

  18. Complex mass wasting response of drainage basins to forest management in coastal British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brardinoni, Francesco; Hassan, Marwan A.; Slaymaker, H. Olav

    2003-01-01

    The impacts of logging activities on mass wasting were examined in five watersheds in the coastal mountains of British Columbia. Historical aerial photos were used to document mass wasting events, and their occurrence was related to logging activities in the study basins. Logged and forested areas were compared in terms of mass wasting magnitude and frequency, with reference to site characteristics. The recovery time of the landscape after logging was assessed. Bedrock type and basin physiography had no identifiable effect on mass wasting frequency and magnitude. Mass wasting failure was primarily controlled by slope gradient. Basin vulnerability increased, following clearcutting relative to forested areas, in that mass wasting was initiated on gentler slopes. The volume of sediment produced from logged slopes is of the same order as that from forested areas, which are steeper by as much as 10°. In both logged and forested areas, the size distribution of mass wasting events follows an exponential distribution. However, the variability in mass wasting size in forested areas is much higher than that obtained for logged areas. The recovery time after forest harvesting is over 20 years, which confirms published estimates based on vegetation reestablishment. Continuous disturbance of the basin, however, may extend the recovery time for the whole basin well beyond 20 years.

  19. Tree responses to hummock hydrology in a forested coastal swamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsueh, Y. H.; Keim, R.; Krauss, K. W.; Chambers, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Microtopographic controls on variability in growth stressors, such as salinity and flooding, may be crucial to some forested wetlands, especially because wetland trees generally occupy hummocks more frequently than swales. We quantified how elevation differences of less than one meter affect sources of water uptake by individual trees in the Mississippi River Delta, Louisiana. Salinity and naturally occurring stable isotopes of water were used as tracers of hydrologic and physiologic processes. Water samples were taken from tree xylem and soil at multiple depths across a range of drought and wet conditions. Hummocks were frequently but temporarily submerged after rainfall (total 9% of the time) and tides influenced inundation (every 46.9 hours). Isotopic composition of surface water and throughfall were similar, and were temporally more variable than was groundwater in hummocks. Salinity was lower but more temporally variable in the upper hummocks than in lower hummocks. Low deuterium excess indicated evaporative concentration in the unsaturated zone. Low deuterium excess (1.9 ± 2.1‰ below the local meteoric water line) and low temporal variability in groundwater suggested long residence time and limited exchange with surface water. The δD/δ18O ratio of xylem water (3.9) matched that of pore water in the unsaturated zone, showing that the water source for trees was the upper portion of hummocks. This study indicates that trees rely on hummocks as refuge from salinity in addition to reducing flood durations.

  20. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

  1. The derivation of sub-canopy surface terrain models of coastal forests using synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Gesch, D. B.

    1988-01-01

    Radar data acquired by the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B mission covering a portion of the Mouths of the Ganges forests were used to create a terrain model for use in determining tidal flow and eventual nutrient transport from the forest to the marine habitat. Results show that good digital topographic terrain models of wet coastal forests can be generated using multiple sets of L-band SAR and ancillary tide elevation data. The dominance of the interaction phenomenon in the radar backscatter of flooded forests can be used to create sub-canopy inundation maps which when merged with tide surface data can be used to generate reasonable topographic models. Ideally models could be improved by using multiple sets of data at a constant incidence angle over the total tide range. The optimal angle for the SAR depends upon the characteristics of the forest. The range of 46 to 57 deg seems applicable to the 12.5 m tall closed canopy in this example. Such models can be an extremely valuable tool for studying and mapping the mangal ecosystem.

  2. Simulation of Tsunami Resistance of a Pinus Thunbergii tree in Coastal Forest in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanko, K.; Suzuki, S.; Noguchi, H.; Hagino, H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests reduce fluid force of tsunami, whereas extreme tsunami sometimes breaks down the forest trees. It is difficult to estimate the interactive relationship between the fluid and the trees because fluid deform tree architecture and deformed tree changes flow field. Dynamic tree deformation and fluid behavior should be clarified by fluid-structure interaction analysis. For the initial step, we have developed dynamic simulation of tree sway and breakage caused by tsunami based on a vibrating system with multiple degrees of freedom. The target specie of the simulation was Japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii), which is major specie in the coastal forest to secure livelihood area from the damage by blown sand and salt in Japanese coastal area. For the simulation, a tree was segmented into 0.2 m long circular truncated cones. Turning moment induced by tsunami and self-weight was calculated at each segment bottom. Tree deformation was computed on multi-degree-of-freedom vibration equation. Tree sway was simulated by iterative calculation of the tree deformation with time step 0.05 second with temporally varied flow velocity of tsunami. From the calculation of bending stress and turning moment at tree base, we estimated resistance of a Pinus thunbergii tree from tsunami against tree breakage.

  3. Spatial distribution and genetic structure of Cenococcum geophilum in coastal pine forests in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yosuke; Takeuchi, Kosuke; Obase, Keisuke; Ito, Shin-ichiro

    2015-10-01

    The asexual ectomycorrhizal fungus Cenococcum geophilum has a wide geographic range in diverse forest ecosystems. Although its genetic diversity has been documented at a stand or regional scale, knowledge of spatial genetic structure is limited. We studied the genetic diversity and spatial structure of C. geophilum in eight Japanese coastal pine forests with a maximum geographic range of 1364 km. A total of 225 samples were subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GAPDH) followed by microsatellite analysis with five loci. The phylogenetic analysis based on GAPDH resolved three groups with most isolates falling into one dominant lineage. Microsatellite analyses generated 104 multilocus genotypes in the overall populations. We detected significant genetic variation within populations and genetic clusters indicating that high genetic diversity may be maintained by possible recombination processes at a stand scale. Although no spatial autocorrelation was detected at a stand scale, the relationship between genetic and geographic distances among the populations was significant, suggesting a pattern of isolation by distance. These results indicate that cryptic recombination events at a local scale and unknown migration events at both stand and regional scales influence spatial distribution and genetic structure of C. geophilum in coastal pine forests of Japan. PMID:26347080

  4. Lidar Estimation of Aboveground Biomass in a Tropical Coastal Forest of Gabon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, V.; Saatchi, S. S.; Poulsen, J.; Clark, C.; Lewis, S.; White, L.

    2012-12-01

    Estimation of tropical forest carbon stocks is a critical yet challenging problem from both ground surveys and remote sensing measurements. However, with its increasing importance in global climate mitigation and carbon cycle assessment, there is a need to develop new techniques to measure forest carbon stocks at landscape scales. Progresses have been made in terms of above ground biomass (AGB) monitoring techniques using ground measurements, with the development of tree allometry techniques. Besides, studies have shown that new remote sensing technologies such as Lidar can give accurate information on tree height and forest structure at a landscape level and can be very useful to estimate AGB. This study examines the ability of small footprint Lidar to estimate above ground biomass in Mondah forest, Gabon. Mondah forest is a coastal tropical forest that is partially flooded and includes areas of mangrove. Its mean annual temperature is 18.8C and mean annual precipitation is 2631mm/yr. Its proximity to the capital of Gabon, Libreville, makes it particularly subject to environmental pressure. The analysis is based on small footprint Lidar waveform information and relative height (RH) metrics that correspond to the percentiles of energy of the signal (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). AGB estimation is calibrated with ground measurements. Ground-estimated AGB is calculated using allometric equations based on tree diameter, wood density and tree height. Lidar-derived AGB is calculated using a linear regression model between the four Lidar RH metrics and ground-estimated AGB and using available models developed in other tropical regions that use one height metric, average wood density, and tree stocking number. We present uncertainty of different approaches and discuss the universality of lidar biomass estimation models in tropical forests.

  5. Regeneration of a Coastal Pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) Forest 11 Years after Thinning, Niigata, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiaojun; Gonda, Yutaka; Yu, Lizhong; Li, Fengqin; Yan, Qiaoling; Sun, Yirong

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of thinning intensity on wind vulnerability and regeneration in a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii) forest, thinning with intensities of 20%, 30% and 50% was conducted in December 1997; there was an unthinned treatment as the control (total 8 stands). We re-measured the permanent sites to assess the regeneration characteristics 11 years after thinning. In the 50% thinned stand, seedlings aged from 2 to 10 years exhibited the highest pine seedling density and growth. The age composition ranged from 1–3 years with densities of 9.9 and 5.1 seedlings m−2 in 30% and 20% thinned stands; only 1-year-old seedlings with a density of 6.1 seedlings m−2 in the unthinned stand. Similar trends were found for the regeneration of broadleaved species such as Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus serrulata. We speculate that the canopy openness and moss coverage contributed to the regeneration success in the 50% thinned stand, while the higher litter depth and lack of soil moisture induced the regeneration failure in the unthinned stand. The stands thinned at 20% or 30% were less favourable for pine regeneration than the stands thinned at 50%. Therefore, thinning with less than 30% canopy openness (20% and 30% thinned stands) should be avoided, and thinning at higher than 30% canopy openness (50% thinned stand, approximately 1500 stems ha−1 at ages 40–50 years) is suggested for increasing regeneration in the coastal pine forest. The implications of thinning-based silviculture in the coastal pine forest management are also discussed. The ongoing development of the broadleaved seedlings calls for further observations. PMID:23091632

  6. Regeneration of a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) forest 11 years after thinning, Niigata, Japan.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiaojun; Gonda, Yutaka; Yu, Lizhong; Li, Fengqin; Yan, Qiaoling; Sun, Yirong

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of thinning intensity on wind vulnerability and regeneration in a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii) forest, thinning with intensities of 20%, 30% and 50% was conducted in December 1997; there was an unthinned treatment as the control (total 8 stands). We re-measured the permanent sites to assess the regeneration characteristics 11 years after thinning. In the 50% thinned stand, seedlings aged from 2 to 10 years exhibited the highest pine seedling density and growth. The age composition ranged from 1-3 years with densities of 9.9 and 5.1 seedlings m(-2) in 30% and 20% thinned stands; only 1-year-old seedlings with a density of 6.1 seedlings m(-2) in the unthinned stand. Similar trends were found for the regeneration of broadleaved species such as Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus serrulata. We speculate that the canopy openness and moss coverage contributed to the regeneration success in the 50% thinned stand, while the higher litter depth and lack of soil moisture induced the regeneration failure in the unthinned stand. The stands thinned at 20% or 30% were less favourable for pine regeneration than the stands thinned at 50%. Therefore, thinning with less than 30% canopy openness (20% and 30% thinned stands) should be avoided, and thinning at higher than 30% canopy openness (50% thinned stand, approximately 1500 stems ha(-1) at ages 40-50 years) is suggested for increasing regeneration in the coastal pine forest. The implications of thinning-based silviculture in the coastal pine forest management are also discussed. The ongoing development of the broadleaved seedlings calls for further observations. PMID:23091632

  7. Laboratory Experiments of Tsunami Inundation in Patchy Coastal Forest on a Steep Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irish, J. L.; Weiss, R.; Yang, Y.; Zainali, A.; Marivela Colmenarejo, R.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis are a leading natural threat to coastal communities, and events such as the 2011 Japan and 2004 Indian Ocean tsunamis caused widespread, crippling damages to coastal infrastructure. Yet, these events also called attention to the role of coastal forest as sustainable mitigation against tsunami hazard. Here, we present large-scale experiments of tsunami runup and withdrawal on a steeply sloping beach in the presence of patchy forest. The forest is modeled using 1.2-m diameter macro-roughness patches of varying resistance were constructed from staggered arrays of 2.7-cm diameter rigid cylinders. Macro-roughness patches were affixed in a staggered arrangement with mean spacing of 3.2 m between patches (Fig. 1). The basin depth and wave height at the wavemaker were 0.73 m and 0.43 m, respectively, such that a broken roller formed offshore of the still-water line. Point measurements of velocity and flow depth were made at twenty locations using co-located acoustic Doppler velocimeters and sonic wave gauges, respectively, in order to construct a flow field in the vicinity of three macro-roughness patches. Simultaneous, high-resolution video was also collected in order to track the runup bore position in time. Analysis of mean flow conditions reveals that patchy roughness induces non-uniform changes in momentum flux throughout the patch array (Fig. 2). During runup, momentum flux is generally reduced in the lee of the patches. However, flow channelization between cross-shore rows of patches leads to an increase in momentum flux. During withdrawal, the strong gravity-driven flows that develop as a result of the steep 1:10 beach lead to an increase in momentum flux in areas behind the patches, which benefited from reduced momentum flux during runup. The experiment findings indicate that flow interactions with the natural environment are indeed complex and that care must be exercised when considering the use of coastal forest as a tsunami bioshield. Acknowledgements

  8. Microbial Responses to Forest Management in the Western Gulf Coastal Plain, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, J. A.; Boutton, T. W.; Scott, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    to the more severe harvest treatments; however, while TN was significantly impacted by harvest and varied over time, SOC varied only with time. Temporal variations in SMB-C and -N, TN, and SOC were correlated with temperature, precipitation, and volumetric soil moisture. Data suggest that forest harvest practices that minimize removal of above-ground biomass will favor soil N retention and the maintenance of the SMB pool. Since N limits tree growth in the sandy soils of the western Gulf Coastal Plain, and because SMB plays a key role in N mineralization, harvest practices that favor N retention and SMB will ensure the productivity of future rotations.

  9. Multitemporal analysis of landscape metrics for monitoring forested patterns in coastal and mountainous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carone, M. T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.; Macchiato, M.; Simoniello, T.

    2009-04-01

    The role of forested areas for the maintaining of an acceptable landscape balance is crucial. As an example, they contribute to higher biodiversity levels directly and to cleaner fluvial waters indirectly, thus, the degradation of such ecosystems has strong repercussions on many ecological processes. In order to preserve their natural stability, monitoring forest temporal dynamics is very important for a correct management, particularly, in fragile Mediterranean environments that are highly vulnerable to both natural and human-induced perturbations. For analysing the evolution of forested patterns, especially in areas with a strong human presence, landscape metrics are a basilar tool since they allow for evaluating the structure of landscape patterns at different spatio-temporal scales and the relationship between natural environment and human environment. Starting from this premise, we selected a set of Landscape Metrics to evaluate the temporal dynamics of forested covers in two different environments (coastal and mountainous) located in Basilicata Region, Southern Italy. The first one (area A) is located along the Ionian coast and is largely characterized by evergreen forests; in such an area, even if many sites are protected by the European Community (SCI), forests are subjected to a strong incidence of human activities mainly linked to agriculture and tourism as well as to frequent fire events and coastal erosion processes that favour salt-water intrusion. The second one (area B) is a high heterogeneous mountainous area, which also comprehends alluvial planes. The particular configuration of the territory allows for the presence of a very rich faunal and vegetation biodiversity; thus, it is partially under the protection of a National Park, but there are also many critical anthropical activities (e.g. oil drilling, agriculture, etc.). The landscape ecology analyses were performed on multi temporal land cover maps, obtained from hybrid classifications of a time

  10. Soil fluxes of methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide from aggrading forests in coastal Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Heather E.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Soil exchanges of greenhouse and other gases are poorly known for Pacific Northwest forests where gradients in nutrient availability and soil moisture may contribute to large variations in fluxes. Here we report fluxes of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO) over multiple seasons from three naturally N-rich, aggrading forests of coastal Oregon, USA. Mean methane uptake rates (3.2 mg CH4 m−2 d−1) were high compared with forests globally, negatively related to water-filled pore space (WFPS), but unrelated to N availability or temperature. Emissions of NO (6.0 μg NO–N m−2 h−1) exceeded N2O (1.4 μg N2O–N m−2 h−1), except when WFPS surpassed 55%. Spatial variation in NO fluxes correlated positively with soil nitrate concentrations (which generally exceeded ammonium concentrations, indicating the overall high N status for the sites) and negatively with soil pH, and at one site increased with basal area of N2-fixing red alder. Combined NO and N2O emissions were greatest from the site with highest annual net N mineralization and lowest needle litterfall C/N. Our findings of high CH4 uptake and NO/N2O ratios generally >1 most likely reflect the high porosity of the andic soils underlying the widespread regenerating forests in this seasonally wet region.

  11. ForWarn Forest Disturbance Change Detection System Provides a Weekly Snapshot of US Forest Conditions to Aid Forest Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. To help forest and natural resource managers rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests, ForWarn produces sets of national maps showing potential forest disturbances at 231m resolution every 8 days, and posts the results to the web for examination. ForWarn compares current greenness with the "normal," historically seen greenness that would be expected for healthy vegetation for a specific location and time of the year, and then identifies areas appearing less green than expected to provide a strategic national overview of potential forest disturbances that can be used to direct ground and aircraft efforts. In addition to forests, ForWarn also tracks potential disturbances in rangeland vegetation and agriculural crops. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in

  12. A new species of arboreal forest-dwelling gecko (Hemidactylus: Squamata: Gekkonidae) from coastal Kenya, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Malonza, Patrick K; Bauer, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Hemidactylus, H. mrimaensis sp. nov., is described from coastal kaya forests of Kenya. This small-sized, arboreal gecko may be distinguished from its probable close relative, the sympatric H. mabouia, by its more slender habitus, golden color, small adult body length (maximum SVL 50 mm in females) and features of scalation including keeled dorsal tubercles in 11-14 longitudinal rows, pointed tubercles on tail larger than those on the dorsum, and 32-34 precloacal pores in males. This gecko may be endemic to the coastal forests and given the ongoing threats to this habitat, the species is of high conservation concern. PMID:24869535

  13. Landscape characteristics of Rhizophora mangle forests and propagule deposition in coastal environments of Florida (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sengupta, R.; Middleton, B.; Yan, C.; Zuro, M.; Hartman, H.

    2005-01-01

    Field dispersal studies are seldom conducted at regional scales even though reliable information on mid-range dispersal distance is essential for models of colonization. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential distance of dispersal of Rhizophora mangle propagules by comparing deposition density with landscape characteristics of mangrove forests. Propagule density was estimated at various distances to mangrove sources (R. mangle) on beaches in southwestern Florida in both high-and low-energy environments, either facing open gulf waters vs. sheltered, respectively. Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems were used to identify source forests and to determine their landscape characteristics (forest size and distance to deposition area) for the regression analyses. Our results indicated that increasing density of propagules stranded on beaches was related negatively to the distance of the deposition sites from the nearest stands of R. mangle and that deposition was greatly diminished 2 km or more from the source. Measures of fragmentation such as the area of the R. mangle forests were related to propagule deposition but only in low-energy environments. Our results suggest that geographic models involving the colonization of coastal mangrove systems should include dispersal dynamics at mid-range scales, i.e., for our purposes here, beyond the local scale of the forest and up to 5 km distant. Studies of mangrove propagule deposition at various spatial scales are key to understanding regeneration limitations in natural gaps and restoration areas. Therefore, our study of mid-range propagule dispersal has broad application to plant ecology, restoration, and modeling. ?? Springer 2005.

  14. A field investigation into the effects of a kelp forest (Macrocystis pyrifera) on coastal hydrodynamics and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosman, Johanna H.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Grover, Jamie

    2007-02-01

    Macrocystis pyrifera (Giant Kelp) forests form important habitats in temperate coastal regions. Hydrodynamics control the transport of nutrients, food particles, larvae and spores at scales ranging from boundary layers around individual blades to entire kelp forests. Our measurements include vertical profiles of current and temperature, and concurrent wave measurements, at a number of different locations in and around a kelp forest at Santa Cruz, California. We find that flow at the site is dominated by variations at diurnal and semidiurnal frequencies. A vertically sheared across-shore flow, consistent with flow driven by an across-shore density gradient, is thought to be important for exchange between the kelp forest and the surrounding coastal ocean. Within the kelp forest, currents are reduced by a factor that correlates with surface canopy coverage, higher frequency internal waves are damped, and onshore transport due to waves (Stokes drift) is estimated to be similar in magnitude to that due to currents. Richardson numbers within the kelp forest are higher than those outside the kelp forest and indicate that the water column within the kelp forest is usually stable to turbulence generation by mean velocity shear.

  15. Rapid seawater circulation through animal burrows in mangrove forests - A significant source of saline groundwater to the tropical coastal ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. F.; Stieglitz, T. C.; Hancock, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    A common approach for quantifying rates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean is to use geochemical tracers that are part of the U- and Th-decay chains such as Rn-222 and short lived radium isotopes. These radionuclides are naturally enriched in groundwater relative to seawater and have well understood chemistries within the marine environment. They occur in both fresh (continental) and saline (marine) groundwaters and thus the water source is often ambiguous. Stieglitz (2005, Marine Pollution Bulletin 51, 51-59) has shown that some coastal areas within the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon (Australia) are enriched in the SGD tracer, Rn-222; he attributed this to four possible processes including the tidal flushing of mangrove forest floors. Here, we present a detailed investigation into the tidal circulation of seawater through animal burrows using Rn-222 and isotopes of radium in the Coral Creek mangrove forest, Hinchinbrook Island, Queensland, Australia. The study was conducted at the end of the dry season in a creek with no freshwater inputs. Significant export of radionuclides and salt from the forest into the creek indicates continuous tidally driven circulation through the burrows. Results demonstrate that the forest sediment is efficiently flushed, with a water flux of about 30 L/m2/ day of forest floor, which is equivalent to flushing about 10% of the total burrow volume per tidal cycle. Annual average circulation flux through mangrove forest floors are of the same order as annual river discharge in the central GBR. However, unlike the river discharge, the tidal circulation should be relatively stable throughout the year. This work documents the importance of animal burrows in maintaining productive sediments in these systems, and illustrates the physical process that supports large exports of organic and inorganic matter from mangrove forests to the coastal zone. It also illustrates the importance of considering saline groundwater

  16. [Prevention and control of invaded plant Phytolacca americana in sandy coastal shelter forests].

    PubMed

    Fu, Jun-Peng; Li, Chuan-Rong; Xu, Jing-Wei; Cheng, Wan-Li; Song, Rui-Feng; Liu, Yun

    2012-04-01

    The invasion of Phytolacca americana has produced serious damage to the coastal shelter forests in China. In order to search for the effective measures for controlling the growth of P. americana, several plots in the Robinia pseudoacacia forest invaded by P. Americana to the relatively same extent were installed, and the measures of physical control (mowing and root cutting) and chemical control (spraying herbicides) were adopted to control the invasion of P. Americana, taking the site with good growth of Amorpha fruticosa in the forest and without any control measures as the comparison. The results showed that mowing could rapidly decrease the growth of P. americana in the same year, but the growth recovered in the next year. 1/3 root cutting only reduced the aboveground growth of P. americana in the same year, and the growth was recovered in the third year; while 2/3 root cutting and whole cutting could effectively cleanup the P. americana plants all the time. Spraying quizalofop-p-ethyl and paraquat only killed the aboveground part of P. americana in the same year, but this part of P. americana recovered to the normal level in the next year; while spraying 45 g x L(-1) of glyphosate could completely kill the whole P. americana plants till the third year. The growth of P. americana at the site with good growth of A. fruticosa and without any control measures maintained at a low level all the time, suggesting that planting A. fruticosa in R. pseudoacacia forest would be an effective approach to prevent and control the P. americana invasion. PMID:22803465

  17. Atmospheric organic and inorganic nitrogen inputs to coastal urban and montane Atlantic Forest sites in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Patricia A.; Ponette-González, Alexandra G.; de Mello, William Z.; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Santos, Isimar A.

    2015-06-01

    Tropical regions are currently experiencing changes in the quantity and form of nitrogen (N) deposition as a result of urban and industrial emissions. We quantified atmospheric N inputs to two coastal urban and two montane (400 m and 1000 m) Atlantic Forest sites downwind of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (MRRJ), Brazil, from August 2008 to August 2009. Concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and urea were measured in bulk precipitation at all sites, as well as in canopy throughfall in the lower montane forest. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between TDN and DIN (NH4+ + NO3- + NO2-). Annual volume-weighted mean bulk concentrations of all N species were higher at the coastal urban than montane forest sites, with DON accounting for 32-56% and 26-32%, respectively, of the TDN concentration in bulk precipitation. Bulk deposition of TDN ranged 12.1-17.2 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1 and tended to decrease with increasing distance from the coastal urban region. In the lower montane forest, throughfall TDN flux, 34.3 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1, was over 2-fold higher than bulk TDN deposition, and DON comprised 57% of the total N deposited by throughfall to the forest soil. Urea comprised 27% of DON in throughfall compared to up to 100% in bulk precipitation. Our findings show that DON is an important, yet understudied, component of TDN deposition in tropical forest regions, comprising one-third to greater than one-half of the N deposited in rainfall and throughfall. Further, in this lower montane Atlantic Forest site, throughfall DIN flux was 1.5-3 fold higher than the suggested empirical critical load for humid tropical forests, highlighting the potential for increasing N pollution emitted from the MRRJ to impact N cycling in adjacent ecosystems.

  18. Winter climate change and coastal wetland foundation species: salt marshes vs. mangrove forests in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Osland, Michael J; Enwright, Nicholas; Day, Richard H; Doyle, Thomas W

    2013-05-01

    We live in an era of unprecedented ecological change in which ecologists and natural resource managers are increasingly challenged to anticipate and prepare for the ecological effects of future global change. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of winter climate change upon salt marsh and mangrove forest foundation species in the southeastern United States. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) What is the relationship between winter climate and the presence and abundance of mangrove forests relative to salt marshes; (2) How vulnerable are salt marshes to winter climate change-induced mangrove forest range expansion; and (3) What is the potential future distribution and relative abundance of mangrove forests under alternative winter climate change scenarios? We developed simple winter climate-based models to predict mangrove forest distribution and relative abundance using observed winter temperature data (1970-2000) and mangrove forest and salt marsh habitat data. Our results identify winter climate thresholds for salt marsh-mangrove forest interactions and highlight coastal areas in the southeastern United States (e.g., Texas, Louisiana, and parts of Florida) where relatively small changes in the intensity and frequency of extreme winter events could cause relatively dramatic landscape-scale ecosystem structural and functional change in the form of poleward mangrove forest migration and salt marsh displacement. The ecological implications of these marsh-to-mangrove forest conversions are poorly understood, but would likely include changes for associated fish and wildlife populations and for the supply of some ecosystem goods and services. PMID:23504931

  19. Winter climate change and coastal wetland foundation species: salt marshes vs. mangrove forests in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Enwright, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    We live in an era of unprecedented ecological change in which ecologists and natural resource managers are increasingly challenged to anticipate and prepare for the ecological effects of future global change. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of winter climate change upon salt marsh and mangrove forest foundation species in the southeastern United States. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) What is the relationship between winter climate and the presence and abundance of mangrove forests relative to salt marshes; (2) How vulnerable are salt marshes to winter climate change-induced mangrove forest range expansion; and (3) What is the potential future distribution and relative abundance of mangrove forests under alternative winter climate change scenarios? We developed simple winter climate-based models to predict mangrove forest distribution and relative abundance using observed winter temperature data (1970–2000) and mangrove forest and salt marsh habitat data. Our results identify winter climate thresholds for salt marsh–mangrove forest interactions and highlight coastal areas in the southeastern United States (e.g., Texas, Louisiana, and parts of Florida) where relatively small changes in the intensity and frequency of extreme winter events could cause relatively dramatic landscape-scale ecosystem structural and functional change in the form of poleward mangrove forest migration and salt marsh displacement. The ecological implications of these marsh-to-mangrove forest conversions are poorly understood, but would likely include changes for associated fish and wildlife populations and for the supply of some ecosystem goods and services.

  20. Cloud and fog interactions with coastal forests in the California Channel Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Still, C. J.; Baguskas, S. A.; Williams, P.; Fischer, D. T.; Carbone, M. S.; Rastogi, B.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal forests in California are frequently covered by clouds or immersed in fog in the rain-free summer. Scientists have long surmised that fog might provide critical water inputs to these forests. However, until recently, there has been little ecophysiological research to support how or why plants should prefer foggy regions; similarly, there is very little work quantifying water delivered to ecosystems by fog drip except for a few notable sites along the California coast. However, without spatial datasets of summer cloudcover and fog inundation, combined with detailed process studies, questions regarding the roles of cloud shading and fog drip in dictating plant distributions and ecosystem physiology cannot be addressed effectively. The overall objective of this project is to better understand how cloudcover and fog influence forest metabolism, growth, and distribution. Across a range of sites in California's Channel Islands National Park we measured a wide variety of ecosystem processes and properties. We then related these to cloudcover and fog immersion maps created using satellite datasets and airport and radiosonde observations. We compiled a spatially continuous dataset of summertime cloudcover frequency of the Southern California bight using satellite imagery from the NOAA geostationary GOES-11 Imager. We also created map of summertime cloudcover frequency of this area using MODIS imagery. To assess the ability of our mapping approach to predict spatial and temporal fog inundation patterns, we compared our monthly average daytime fog maps for GOES pixels corresponding to stations where fog inputs were measured with fog collectors in a Bishop pine forest. We also compared our cloudcover maps to measurements of irradiance measurements. Our results demonstrate that cloudcover and fog strongly modulate radiation, water, and carbon budgets, as well as forest distributions, in this semi-arid environment. Measurements of summertime fog drip, pine sapflow and

  1. Soil Fertility and Radicular System Depth of Sand Coastal Plain Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, José Carlos; Akemi Sato, Claudia; Reis-Duarte, Rose Mary; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Sérgio Galvão Bueno, Mário

    2010-05-01

    The sand coastal plain vegetation (Restinga Forest) is a type of ecosystem associated with the Atlantic Forest constituted of mosaics, which occur in areas of great ecological diversity. This vegetation is currently assigned as edaphic communities. In this study we present data on soil fertility in different vegetation physiognomies to discuss on abiotic factors related to Restinga Forest stability and recovery potential. This work was carried out in several points of Restinga Forest in the litoral coast of the state of São Paulo, namely: State Park of the Serra do Mar, Picinguaba, in the city of Ubatuba (23°20' e 23°22' S / 44°48' e 44°52' W); State Park of Anchieta Island, in the city of Ubatuba (45°02' e 45°05' W / 23°31' e 23° 45' S); Restinga Forest in the residential joint ownership Riviera of São Lourenço, in the city of Bertioga (46°08' W e 23°51' S); Ecological Station Juréia-Itatins, Ecological Station of Chauas , in the city of Iguape (24°45' S e 47°33' W) and State Park of Cardoso Island, Pereirinha Restinga Forest, in the city of Cananéia (25°03'05" e 25°18'18" S / 47°53'48" e 48° 05'42" W), Brazil. Sampling was carried out as follows in every area above mentioned. One sample was made of 15 subsamples of each area collected in each depth (one in 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15, 15 - 20, and another in 0 - 20, 20 - 40, 40 and 60 cm). Soil characteristics analyzed were pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, H + Al, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn contents and base saturation, cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. All areas investigated showed very low contents of phosphorous, calcium and magnesium. The base saturation, less than 10, was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg, indicating low nutritional reserve into the soil. The nutritional reserve is present primarily in a depth of 15 cm, although mainly in the vegetable biomass. The level of calcium and magnesium were mainly low in the subsurface soil layer, associate with high concentration of

  2. Diversity and distribution of vascular epiphytes in an insular Brazilian coastal forest.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Rodrigo de Andrade; Borgo, Marília; Silva, Sandro Menezes

    2009-09-01

    The study was carried out in a 3,000 m2 area of coastal Atlantic rain forest at Ilha do Mel island (25 degrees 30"S 48 degrees 23'W), on 100 assorted trees separated into 2 meter-high strata starting from the ground. In each stratum all of the occurring epiphytic species were recorded. The sampled species were grouped into three categories: exclusive, preferential, and indifferent, according to their abundance in each strata, and selective, preferential and indifferent, according to abundance on the forophytes. Intermediate strata registered the highest diversity. Six species were considered exclusive to one or two strata, 15 were restricted to some strata and 5 presented a broad distribution. No epiphytic species showed uniform horizontal distribution on the area. The epiphyte richness in a host tree varied from zero to 30. Regarding to fidelity on host tree species, few selective or preferential, and mainly indifferent epiphyte species, were found. A total of 82 epiphyte species were sampled in the surveyed tree, and the Wittaker plot indicate a highly dominant assemblage. PMID:19928468

  3. An instrument design and sample strategy for measuring soil respiration in the coastal temperate rain forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nay, S. M.; D'Amore, D. V.

    2009-12-01

    The coastal temperate rainforest (CTR) along the northwest coast of North America is a large and complex mosaic of forests and wetlands located on an undulating terrain ranging from sea level to thousands of meters in elevation. This biome stores a dynamic portion of the total carbon stock of North America. The fate of the terrestrial carbon stock is of concern due to the potential for mobilization and export of this store to both the atmosphere as carbon respiration flux and ocean as dissolved organic and inorganic carbon flux. Soil respiration is the largest export vector in the system and must be accurately measured to gain any comprehensive understanding of how carbon moves though this system. Suitable monitoring tools capable of measuring carbon fluxes at small spatial scales are essential for our understanding of carbon dynamics at larger spatial scales within this complex assemblage of ecosystems. We have adapted instrumentation and developed a sampling strategy for optimizing replication of soil respiration measurements to quantify differences among spatially complex landscape units of the CTR. We start with the design of the instrument to ease the technological, ergonomic and financial barriers that technicians encounter in monitoring the efflux of CO2 from the soil. Our sampling strategy optimizes the physical efforts of the field work and manages for the high variation of flux measurements encountered in this difficult environment of rough terrain, dense vegetation and wet climate. Our soil respirometer incorporates an infra-red gas analyzer (LiCor Inc. LI-820) and an 8300 cm3 soil respiration chamber; the device is durable, lightweight, easy to operate and can be built for under $5000 per unit. The modest unit price allows for a multiple unit fleet to be deployed and operated in an intensive field monitoring campaign. We use a large 346 cm2 collar to accommodate as much micro spatial variation as feasible and to facilitate repeated measures for tracking

  4. Vicariance and marine migration in continental island populations of a frog endemic to the Atlantic Coastal forest

    PubMed Central

    Duryea, M C; Zamudio, K R; Brasileiro, C A

    2015-01-01

    The theory of island biogeography is most often studied in the context of oceanic islands where all island inhabitants are descendants from founding events involving migration from mainland source populations. Far fewer studies have considered predictions of island biogeography in the case of continental islands, where island formation typically splits continuous populations and thus vicariance also contributes to the diversity of island populations. We examined one such case on continental islands in southeastern Brazil, to determine how classic island biogeography predictions and past vicariance explain the population genetic diversity of Thoropa taophora, a frog endemic to the Atlantic Coastal Forest. We used nuclear microsatellite markers to examine the genetic diversity of coastal and island populations of this species. We found that island isolation has a role in shaping the genetic diversity of continental island species, with island populations being significantly less diverse than coastal populations. However, area of the island and distance from coast had no significant effect on genetic diversity. We also found no significant differences between migration among coastal populations and migration to and from islands. We discuss how vicariance and the effects of continued migration between coastal and island populations interact to shape evolutionary patterns on continental islands. PMID:25920672

  5. Evaluation of Surface Hydrological Connectivity Between a Forested Coastal Wetland and Regulated Waters of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, D. D.; Wilcox, B. P.; Jacob, J. S.; Sipocz, A.; Munster, C.

    2008-12-01

    Rapid urbanization, industry, and agriculture have put enormous developmental pressure on coastal forested wetlands along the Texas coast. At least 97,000 acres of freshwater forested wetlands on the Texas coast have been lost since 1955, amid much larger losses of other coastal wetland types (TPWD-Texas Wetlands Conservation Plan, 1996). Some coastal wetlands are protected by federal regulations under the Clean Water Act in an effort to maintain wetland hydrological and ecological services, such as water quality improvement and flood control. However, federal protection of many important coastal wetlands is dependent upon documented proof of a hydrologic connection to federally protected Waters of the United States and reasonable influence on the quality of those waters. This study focuses on a 13 acre catchment of coastal flatwoods wetland with an ambiguous legal status because of a possible , but undocumented, hydrologic connection to regulated Waters of the United States. Documentation of the hydrologic connectivity of this type of wetland is critical because of the geographic extent of similar wetlands and their contributions to water quality. The objective of the study was to determine if a hydrologic connection exists, and if so, to quantify the strength of the connection. A surface connection was established based on runoff and rainfall data collected since April of 2005, with the wetland discharging surface water directly into an adjacent protected wetland. The connection was weak during dry years, but in years with average rainfall, surface runoff accounted for a much more significant portion of the water budget. These results suggest that runoff water from similar wetlands contributes directly to protected wetland waters, and may influence water quality downstream.

  6. Comparing Stable Water Isotope Variation in Atmospheric Moisture Observed over Coastal Water and Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, C. T.; Rambo, J. P.; Welp, L. R.; Bible, K.; Hollinger, D. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Stable oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopologues of atmospheric moisture are strongly influenced by large-scale synoptic weather cycles, surface evapotranspiration and boundary layer mixing. Atmospheric water isotope variation has been shown to empirically relate to relative humidity (Rh) of near surface moisture, and to a less degree, air temperature. Continuous δ18O and δD measurements are becoming more available, providing new opportunities to investigate processes that control isotope variability. This study shows the comparison of δ18O and δD measured at a continental location and over coastal waters for 3 seasons (spring to fall, 2014). The surface moisture isotope measurements were made using two LGR spectroscopy water vapor isotope analyzers (Los Gatos Research Inc.), one operated in an old-growth coniferous forest at Wind River field station, WA (45.8205°N, 121.9519°W), and another sampling marine air over seawater at the Scripps Pier in San Diego, CA (32.8654°N, 117.2536°W), USA. Isotope variations were measured at 1Hz and data were reported as hourly averages with an overall accuracy of ±0.1‰ for δ18O, ±0.5‰ for δ2H. Day-to-day variations in δ18O and δD are shown strongly influenced by synoptic weather events at both locations. Boundary layer mixing between surface moisture and the dry air entrained from the free troposphere exerts a midday maximum and a consistent diel pattern in deuterium excess (dx). At the forest site, surface moisture also interacts with leaf water through transpiration during the day and re-equilibration at night. The latter occurs by retro-diffusion of atmospheric H2O molecules into leaf intercellular space, which becomes intensified as Rh increaes after nightfall, and continues until sunrise, to counter-balance the evaporative isotopic enrichment in leaf water on a daily basis. These vegetation effects lead to negative dx values consistently observed at nighttime in this continental location that were not

  7. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009,. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were

  8. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were

  9. Stream and bed temperature response to partial-retention forest harvesting in a coastal headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. D.; Guenther, S.; Gomi, T.

    2012-12-01

    This study quantified the effects of partial-retention forest harvesting on stream and bed temperatures in a headwater catchment in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Stream temperature was recorded between 2002 and 2005 at four sites, three located within the harvested area and one upstream. Logging occurred in autumn 2004. Shallow groundwater temperatures, along with bed temperature profiles at depths of 1 to 30 cm, were recorded at 10-minute intervals in two hydrologically distinct reaches beginning in 2003 or 2004, depending on the site. The lower reach had smaller discharge contributions via lateral inflow from the hillslopes and fewer areas with upwelling and/or neutral flow across the stream bed compared to the middle reach. Based on a paired-catchment analysis, the logging treatment resulted in higher daily maximum stream and bed temperatures but smaller changes in daily minima. Changes in daily maximum stream temperature, averaged over July and August of the post-harvest year, ranged from 1.6 to 3 oC at different locations within the cut block. Post-harvest changes in bed temperature in the lower reach were lower than the changes in stream temperature, greater at sites with downwelling flow, and decreased with depth at both upwelling and downwelling sites, dropping to about 1 oC at a depth of 30 cm. In the middle reach, changes in daily maximum bed temperature, averaged over July and August, were generally about 1 oC and did not vary significantly with depth. The pre-harvest regression models for shallow groundwater were not suitable for applying the paired-catchment analysis to estimate the effects of harvesting.

  10. Understanding sources of carbon from a coastal mangrove forest: Shark River - Everglades National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palya, A. P.; Anderson, W. T.; Jaffe, R.; Swart, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical and subtropical estuaries, particularly those occupied by mangrove forests, sequester a large amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to be stored in biomass and ultimately in sediments. However, a significant portion of this carbon is lost as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exported to the ocean. Therefore, the processes that transform and transport DOC within estuarine systems are an important part of the global carbon cycle. Analysis of stable carbon isotopes can provide insight on carbon dynamics in these coastal environments. Although DOC is the largest pool of reduced carbon in the ocean, few measurements of δ13C-DOC have been made for marine waters. Low DOC:DIC ratios and interference from large halide concentrations make such measurements difficult, time consuming, and costly. We have developed an approach that allows for the simultaneous measurement of DOC and δ13C-DOC in marine waters. By coupling a carbon analyzer utilizing a wet chemical oxidation technique to a high sensitivity cavity ring down spectrometer (WCO-CRDS), we are able to analyze δ13C-DOC of marine waters with DOC concentrations as low as 3 ppm C. Our approach uses an ambient atmospheric CO2 CRDS system originally designed to measure at 300 ppm (pCO2) which is an order-of-magnitude more sensitive than standard CRDS systems. This method for seawater analysis was developed by maximizing both the sample and sodium persulfate reagent volumes used in the oxidation reaction, as well as increasing the sodium persulfate concentration. Additionally, we operate the WCO-CRDS system using ultra high purity nitrogen as a carrier gas to prevent the oxidation of halides which reduces damage to the machines. These parameters allow for complete oxidation of the DOC in the sample, which was confirmed using two DOC standards mixed in an artificial seawater with a salinity around 30 g/L, and produces a sufficient volume of CO2 for detection and measurement by the CRDS. This configuration

  11. Seasonal Trends in Boundary Layer Concentrations of Halocarbons at Coastal and Forest Sites in Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Andrew; Harris, Neil; Gostlow, Bryan; O'Brien, Louise; Hawkes, Jeff; Ashfold, Matt; Yang, Xin; Warwick, Nicola; Pyle, John; Nadzir, Shahrul

    2010-05-01

    Halogen compounds are increasingly recognised as being important in atmospheric chemistry processes in the stratosphere and the troposphere. The sources of the halogens include natural (marine and terrestrial) and anthropogenic emissions of organic species. Long term measurements of halocarbons are currently made from various sites globally (e.g. by the AGAGE network and by NOAA-ESRL), however these sites are generally in background locations and have sparse coverage of the maritime continent which is anyway an understudied region. From April 2008 until present we have been making measurements in Borneo from inland (forest) and coastal sites using two µDirac instruments. One instrument is based at the Bukit Atur Research Station, Danum Valley (5.0°N, 117.8°E) and the other is based at a coastal site in Borneo (Tawau, 4.2°N, 118.0°E). The instruments are gas chromatographs with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and are capable of operating quasi-autonomously with a low level of local support. They were initially deployed as part of the OP3 project and thereafter through another NERC funded project. Here we present the results from the first two years of measurements of certain short-lived halocarbons (including CHCl3, CH2Br2/CHCl2Br, C2Cl4 and CHBr3). High concentrations of some halocarbons have been observed at the coastal site. For 2-3 weeks in September 2008 the lowest observed values of CHBr3 were around 4 pptv, though there was no well defined background level and there were also significantly higher values (peaking at 50-150 pptv). Since then, lower background values (1-2 pptv) have been measured, with transient peaks present in all seasons except northern winter when the air comes predominantly from the northern hemisphere. The observed background concentrations at the inland site (about 85 km away) are around 1-2 pptv with relatively few of the transient peaks observed at the coast (occasional excursions to 5 pptv). These peaks are thus attributed to

  12. Wood litter consumption by three species of Nasutitermes termites in an area of the Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Moura, Flávia Maria da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Termites constitute a considerable fraction of the animal biomass in tropical forest, but little quantitative data are available that indicates their importance in the processes of wood decomposition. This study evaluated the participation of Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky) (Isoptera: Termitidae), N. ephratae (Holmgren), and N. macrocephalus (Silvestri) in the consumption of the wood litter in a remnant area of Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil. The populations of this species were quantified in nests and in decomposing tree trunks, while the rate of wood consumption was determined in the laboratory using wood test-blocks of Clitoria fairchildiana Howard (Fabales: Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. (Urticales: Cecropiaceae), and Protium heptaphyllum (Aublet) Marchand (Sapindales: Burseraceae). The abundance of the three species of termites varied from 40.8 to 462.2 individuals/m(2). The average dry wood consumption for the three species was 9.4 mg/g of termites (fresh weight)/day, with N. macrocephalus demonstrating the greatest consumption (12.1 mg/g of termite (fresh weight)/day). Wood consumption by the three species of Nasutitermes was estimated to be 66.9 kg of dry wood /ha/year, corresponding to approximately 2.9% of the annual production of wood-litter in the study area. This consumption, together with that of the other 18 exclusively wood-feeders termite species known to occur in the area, indicates the important participation of termites in removing wood-litter within the Atlantic Coastal Forest domain. PMID:20673190

  13. Carbon and nitrogen stock and fluxes in coastal Atlantic Forest of southeast Brazil: potential impacts of climate change on biogeochemical functioning.

    PubMed

    Villela, D M; Mattos, E A de; Pinto, A S; Vieira, S A; Martinelli, L A

    2012-08-01

    The Atlantic Forest is one of the most important biomes of Brazil. Originally covering approximately 1.5 million of km², today this area has been reduced to 12% of its original size. Climate changes may alter the structure and the functioning of this tropical forest. Here we explore how increases in temperature and changes in precipitation distribution could affect dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in coastal Atlantic Forest of the southeast region of Brazil The main conclusion of this article is that the coastal Atlantic Forest has high stocks of carbon and nitrogen above ground, and especially, below ground. An increase in temperature may transform these forests from important carbon sinks to carbon sources by increasing loss of carbon and nitrogen to the atmosphere. However, this conclusion should be viewed with caution because it is based on limited information. Therefore, more studies are urgently needed to enable us to make more accurate predictions. PMID:23011294

  14. Stem cubic-foot volume tables for tree species in the upper coastal plain. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.; Souter, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    Steamwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 11 species and 8 species groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Upper Coastal Plain. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 521 trees sampled in the Upper Coastal Plain and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for each species based on diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) in combination with total height and height to a 4-inch diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) top. Volume tables are also presented based on d.b.h. in combination with height to a 7-inch d.o.b. top for softwoods and height to a 9-inch d.o.b. top for hardwoods.

  15. Stem cubic-foot volume tables for tree species in the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plain. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.; Souter, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    Steamwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 14 species and 9 species groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plain. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 2,728 trees sampled in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plain and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for each species based on diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) in combination with total height and height to a 4-inch diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) top. Volume tables are also presented based on d.b.h. in combination with height to a 7-inch d.o.b. top for softwoods and height to a 9-inch d.o.b. top for hardwoods.

  16. Do physicochemical sediment variables and their soft sediment macrofauna differ among microsize coastal lagoons with forested and urbanised catchments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikac, K. M.; Maher, W. A.; Jones, A. R.

    2007-03-01

    Microsize intermittently open and closed coastal lagoons are a common feature of the coast of southern New South Wales, in southeast Australia. Many of these lagoons are undergoing development and urbanisation of their catchments, leading to concern about their ecological health. Consequently, it was hypothesised that lagoons with urbanised catchments should hav e finer, more contaminated sediments and fewer macrofaunal taxa (represented by opportunistic taxa) than lagoons that have undeveloped, forested catchments. To test these hypotheses, five lagoons with catchments dominated by either native forest or urban development were compared with respect to their sediment composition (i.e. sediment grain size, trace metal concentrations, organic carbon and nutrients) and soft sediment macrofaunal assemblages in the Batemans Bay region of southeast Australia. Using a nested design without temporal replication, replicate core samples were taken from sampling stations nested within lagoons that were nested within catchment type. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to test for significant differences and dissimilarities between catchment types and among lagoons. Of all the abiotic and biotic variables measured, only total nitrogen showed a difference between the two catchment types. Thus providing support to refute the explanatory model that urbanisation had negatively affected the sedimentary environment and macrofaunal composition of these microsize coastal lagoons. In contrast, differences among lagoons were usually significant with differences between the two forested lagoons, North Head and Acheron lagoon, being particularly large for assemblage composition and the abundance of some taxa; this variation may, potentially, obscure any effects of urbanisation. In addition, the information collected in this study provides a basic understanding of the physicochemical and biological aspects of microsize coastal lagoons in southeast Australia. Such

  17. Seabird nutrient subsidies benefit non-nitrogen fixing trees and alter species composition in South American coastal dry forests.

    PubMed

    Havik, Gilles; Catenazzi, Alessandro; Holmgren, Milena

    2014-01-01

    Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing species, increasing the relative abundance of non-nitrogen fixing species close to seashore. Moreover, we proposed that herbivores can alter the effects of nutrient supplementation by preferentially feeding on high nutrient plants. We studied the effects of nutrient fertilization by seabird guano on tree recruitment and how these effects can be modulated by herbivorous lizards in the coastal dry forests of northwestern Peru. We combined field studies, experiments and stable isotope analysis to study the response of the two most common tree species in these forests, the nitrogen-fixing Prosopis pallida and the non-nitrogen-fixing Capparis scabrida. We did not find differences in herbivore pressure along the sea-inland gradient. We found that the non-nitrogen fixing C. scabrida assimilates marine-derived nitrogen and is more abundant than P. pallida closer to guano-rich soil. We conclude that the input of marine-derived nitrogen through guano deposited by seabirds feeding in the Pacific Ocean affects the two dominant tree species of the coastal dry forests of northern Peru in contrasting ways. The non-nitrogen fixing species, C. scabrida may benefit from sea nutrient subsidies by incorporating guano-derived nitrogen into its foliar tissues, whereas P. pallida, capable of atmospheric fixation, does not. PMID:24466065

  18. Seabird Nutrient Subsidies Benefit Non-Nitrogen Fixing Trees and Alter Species Composition in South American Coastal Dry Forests

    PubMed Central

    Havik, Gilles; Catenazzi, Alessandro; Holmgren, Milena

    2014-01-01

    Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing species, increasing the relative abundance of non-nitrogen fixing species close to seashore. Moreover, we proposed that herbivores can alter the effects of nutrient supplementation by preferentially feeding on high nutrient plants. We studied the effects of nutrient fertilization by seabird guano on tree recruitment and how these effects can be modulated by herbivorous lizards in the coastal dry forests of northwestern Peru. We combined field studies, experiments and stable isotope analysis to study the response of the two most common tree species in these forests, the nitrogen-fixing Prosopis pallida and the non-nitrogen-fixing Capparis scabrida. We did not find differences in herbivore pressure along the sea-inland gradient. We found that the non-nitrogen fixing C. scabrida assimilates marine-derived nitrogen and is more abundant than P. pallida closer to guano-rich soil. We conclude that the input of marine-derived nitrogen through guano deposited by seabirds feeding in the Pacific Ocean affects the two dominant tree species of the coastal dry forests of northern Peru in contrasting ways. The non-nitrogen fixing species, C. scabrida may benefit from sea nutrient subsidies by incorporating guano-derived nitrogen into its foliar tissues, whereas P. pallida, capable of atmospheric fixation, does not. PMID:24466065

  19. Assessing Surface Fuel Hazard in Coastal Conifer Forests through the Use of LiDAR Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulas, Christos

    The research problem that this thesis seeks to examine is a method of predicting conventional fire hazards using data drawn from specific regions, namely the Sooke and Goldstream watershed regions in coastal British Columbia. This thesis investigates whether LiDAR data can be used to describe conventional forest stand fire hazard classes. Three objectives guided this thesis: to discuss the variables associated with fire hazard, specifically the distribution and makeup of fuel; to examine the relationship between derived LiDAR biometrics and forest attributes related to hazard assessment factors defined by the Capitol Regional District (CRD); and to assess the viability of the LiDAR biometric decision tree in the CRD based on current frameworks for use. The research method uses quantitative datasets to assess the optimal generalization of these types of fire hazard data through discriminant analysis. Findings illustrate significant LiDAR-derived data limitations, and reflect the literature in that flawed field application of data modelling techniques has led to a disconnect between the ways in which fire hazard models have been intended to be used by scholars and the ways in which they are used by those tasked with prevention of forest fires. It can be concluded that a significant trade-off exists between computational requirements for wildfire simulation models and the algorithms commonly used by field teams to apply these models with remote sensing data, and that CRD forest management practices would need to change to incorporate a decision tree model in order to decrease risk.

  20. Urine as an important source of sodium increases decomposition in an inland but not coastal tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Clay, Natalie A; Donoso, David A; Kaspari, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Nutrient pulses can profoundly impact ecosystem processes and urine is a frequently deposited source of N and K, and Na. Na is unimportant to plants, but its addition can increase decomposition and change invertebrate community structure in Na-poor tropical forests. Here we used synthetic urine to separate the effects of Na from urine's other nutrients and contrasted their roles in promoting decomposition and detritivore recruitment in both a Na-poor inland Ecuadorian and Na-rich coastal Panamanian tropical forest. After 2 days, invertebrate communities did not vary among +Na, H2O, Urine+Na, and Urine-Na treatments. But after 2 weeks, Ecuador wood, but not cellulose, decomposition was twofold higher on Urine+Na and +Na plots compared to H2O and Urine-Na plots accompanied by >20-fold increases in termite abundance on these plots. Panama, in contrast, showed no effect of Na on decomposition. In both forests, plots fertilized with urine had nearly twofold decrease in detritivores after 2 weeks that was likely a shock effect from ammonification. Moreover, the non-Na nutrients in urine did not enhance decomposition at this time scale. On control plots, Panama had higher decomposition rates for both cellulose and wood than Ecuador, but the addition of Na in Ecuador alleviated these differences. These results support the hypothesis that in Na-poor tropical forests, urine can enhance wood decomposition and generate an important source of heterogeneity in the abundance and activity of brown food webs. PMID:25519175

  1. Assessing stand water use in four coastal wetland forests using sapflow techniques: annual estimates, errors and associated uncertainties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ken W.; Duberstein, Jamie A.; Conner, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Forests comprise approximately 37% of the terrestrial land surface and influence global water cycling. However, very little attention has been directed towards understanding environmental impacts on stand water use (S) or in identifying rates of S from specific forested wetlands. Here, we use sapflow techniques to address two separate but linked objectives: (1) determine S in four, hydrologically distinctive South Carolina (USA) wetland forests from 2009–2010 and (2) describe potential error, uncertainty and stand-level variation associated with these assessments. Sapflow measurements were made from a number of tree species for approximately 2–8 months over 2 years to initiate the model, which was applied to canopy trees (DBH > 10–20 cm). We determined that S in three healthy forested wetlands varied from 1.97–3.97 mm day−1 or 355–687 mm year−1 when scaled. In contrast, saltwater intrusion impacted individual tree physiology and size class distributions on a fourth site, which decreased S to 0.61–1.13 mm day−1 or 110–196 mm year−1. The primary sources of error in estimations using sapflow probes would relate to calibration of probes and standardization relative to no flow periods and accounting for accurate sapflow attenuation with radial depth into the sapwood by species and site. Such inherent variation in water use among wetland forest stands makes small differences in S (<200 mm year−1) difficult to detect statistically through modelling, even though small differences may be important to local water cycling. These data also represent some of the first assessments of S from temperate, coastal forested wetlands along the Atlantic coast of the USA.

  2. Long-term patterns of fruit production in five forest types of the South Carolina upper coastal plain.

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Levey, Douglas J.; Kwit, Charles; McCarty, John P.; Pearson, Scott F.; Sargent, Sarah; Kilgo, John

    2012-02-06

    ABSTRACT Fleshy fruit is a key food resource for many vertebrates and may be particularly important energy source to birds during fall migration and winter. Hence, land managers should know how fruit availability varies among forest types, seasons, and years. We quantified fleshy fruit abundance monthly for 9 years (1995-2003) in 56 0.1-ha plots in 5 forest types of South Carolina's upper Coastal Plain, USA. Forest types were mature upland hardwood and bottomland hardwood forest, mature closed-canopy loblolly (Pinus taeda) and longleaf pine (P. palustris) plantation, and recent clearcut regeneration harvests planted with longleaf pine seedlings. Mean annual number of fruits and dry fruit pulp mass were highest in regeneration harvests (264,592 _ 37,444 fruits; 12,009 _ 2,392 g/ha), upland hardwoods (60,769 _ 7,667 fruits; 5,079 _ 529 g/ha), and bottomland hardwoods (65,614 _ 8,351 fruits; 4,621 _ 677 g/ha), and lowest in longleaf pine (44,104 _ 8,301 fruits; 4,102 _ 877 g/ha) and loblolly (39,532 _ 5,034 fruits; 3,261 _ 492 g/ha) plantations. Fruit production was initially high in regeneration harvests and declined with stand development and canopy closure (1995-2003). Fruit availability was highest June-September and lowest in April. More species of fruit-producing plants occurred in upland hardwoods, bottomland hardwoods, and regeneration harvests than in loblolly and longleaf pine plantations. Several species produced fruit only in 1 or 2 forest types. In sum, fruit availability varied temporally and spatially because of differences in species composition among forest types and age classes, patchy distributions of fruiting plants both within and among forest types, fruiting phenology, high inter-annual variation in fruit crop size by some dominant fruit-producing species, and the dynamic process of disturbance-adapted species colonization and decline, or recovery in recently harvested stands. Land managers could enhance fruit availability for wildlife by

  3. Vine maple (Acer circinatum) clone growth and reproduction in managed and unmanaged coastal Oregon douglas-fir forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dea, Mary E.; Zasada, John C.; Tappeiner, John C., II

    1995-01-01

    Vine maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) clone development, expansion, and regeneration by seedling establishment were studied in 5-240 yr old managed and unmanaged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in coastal Oregon. Stem length, number of stems, and crown area were all significantly (P @10 m long and basal sprouts 1-2 m long; some stems had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen trees or branches and had layered. In stands >120 yr in age, clones were often quite complex, composed of several decumbent stems each of which connected the ramets of 1-10 new aerial stems. Vine maple clone expansion occurs by the layering of long aerial stems. Over 95% of the layered stems we observed had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen debris. Unsevered stems that we artificially pinned to the forest floor initiated roots within 1 yr. Thinning may favor clonal expansion because fallen slash from thinning often causes entire clones to layer, not just individual stems. Clonal vine maple seed production and seedling establishment occurred in all stages of stand development except dense, young stands following crown closure. There were more seedlings in thinned stands than in unthinned stands and in unburned clearcuts than in burned clearcuts.

  4. Applying Climate Compatible Development and economic valuation to coastal management: A case study of Kenya's mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    Huxham, Mark; Emerton, Lucy; Kairo, James; Munyi, Fridah; Abdirizak, Hassan; Muriuki, Tabitha; Nunan, Fiona; Briers, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Mangrove forests are under global pressure. Habitat destruction and degradation persist despite longstanding recognition of the important ecological functions of mangroves. Hence new approaches are needed to help stakeholders and policy-makers achieve sound management that is informed by the best science. Here we explore how the new policy concept of Climate Compatible Development (CCD) can be applied to achieve better outcomes. We use economic valuation approaches to combine socio-economic data, projections of forest cover based on quantitative risk mapping and storyline scenario building exercises to articulate the economic consequences of plausible alternative future scenarios for the mangrove forests of the South Kenya coast, as a case study of relevance to many other areas. Using data from 645 household surveys, 10 focus groups and 74 interviews conducted across four mangrove sites, and combining these with information on fish catches taken at three landing sites, a mangrove carbon trading project and published data allowed us to make a thorough (although still partial) economic valuation of the forests. This gave a current value of the South Coast mangroves of USD 6.5 million, or USD 1166 ha(-1), with 59% of this value on average derived from regulating services. Quantitative risk mapping, projecting recent trends over the next twenty years, suggests a 43% loss of forest cover over that time with 100% loss at the most vulnerable sites. Much of the forest lost between 1992 and 2012 has not been replaced by high value alternative land uses hence restoration of these areas is feasible and may not involve large opportunity costs. We invited thirty eight stakeholders to develop plausible storyline scenarios reflecting Business as Usual (BAU) and CCD - which emphasises sustainable forest conservation and management - in twenty years time, drawing on local and regional expert knowledge of relevant policy, social trends and cultures. Combining these scenarios with

  5. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT III

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal waers in the US include estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, ,mangrove and kelp forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical coastal habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. The n...

  6. Leaf δ15N as an indicator of arbuscular mycorrhizal nitrogen uptake in a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardegan, S. F.; Valadares, R.; Martinelli, L.

    2013-12-01

    Restinga diversity contrasts with a series of adverse environmental conditions that constrain their development, including nutrient limitation. In this sense, the mutualistic symbiosis between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may contribute in nutrient acquisition, including nitrogen. However, this association deeply affects plant nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N), since assimilation processes and biochemical reactions within the fungi may reflect in a delivered product with an isotopic composition about 8 to 10 ‰ lower than that observed at the fungal symbiont per se. Here we assessed if the association with AMF affects δ15N values of plant species from a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at Southeastern Brazil. Accordingly, we analyzed the nutritional and isotopic compositions from ecosystem key-compartments (soil, litter and leaves), relating plant δ15N with the colonization rates. The study was carried out in a permanent plot (1 ha) at a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at the Serra do Mar State Park, SP, Brazil. Sampled vegetation is characterized by the lack of a well-defined stratification and a rather open canopy. It also comprises trees ranging from 10 to 15-m high. Soils are deep and sandy, being characterized by high acidity, nutrient deficiency and a dense litter cover. We randomly collected five samples (250 mg) from topsoil (0-10 cm) and five to ten leaves from individuals belonging to 16 plant species of high relevance within the site (IVI index). We also collected superficial (0-10 cm depth) fine roots (5 g) and 13 samples (100 g) of fine litter next to the individuals sampled. Soil samples were air-dried, sieved, homogenized and used in the physical-chemical characterization. The remainder was ground to a fine powder to determine nitrogen concentrations and δ15N values. Leaves were dried at 50 °C, finely milled and used for the determination of nitrogen concentrations, C/N ratios and δ15N values. Root samples were

  7. Aggregation and Aggregate Carbon in a Forested Southeastern Coastal Plain Spodosol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil aggregation is influenced by the soil environment and is a factor in soil carbon sequestration. Sandy Coastal Plain soils often do not have the clay to promote aggregation nor have been considered soils with high levels of aggregation. This study was conducted to examine the aggregate morpholog...

  8. Nitrogen Bsalance for a Plantation Forest Drainage Canal on the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has led to increased riverine nitrogen loads, contributing to the eutrophication of lakes, streams, estuaries, and near-coastal oceans. These riverine nitrogen loads are usually less than the total nitrogen inputs to the system, indicating nitrogen removal duri...

  9. Statistical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Seawalls and Coastal Forests in Mitigating Tsunami Impacts in Iwate and Miyagi Prefectures.

    PubMed

    Nateghi, Roshanak; Bricker, Jeremy D; Guikema, Seth D; Bessho, Akane

    2016-01-01

    The Pacific coast of the Tohoku region of Japan experiences repeated tsunamis, with the most recent events having occurred in 1896, 1933, 1960, and 2011. These events have caused large loss of life and damage throughout the coastal region. There is uncertainty about the degree to which seawalls reduce deaths and building damage during tsunamis in Japan. On the one hand they provide physical protection against tsunamis as long as they are not overtopped and do not fail. On the other hand, the presence of a seawall may induce a false sense of security, encouraging additional development behind the seawall and reducing evacuation rates during an event. We analyze municipality-level and sub-municipality-level data on the impacts of the 1896, 1933, 1960, and 2011 tsunamis, finding that seawalls larger than 5 m in height generally have served a protective role in these past events, reducing both death rates and the damage rates of residential buildings. However, seawalls smaller than 5 m in height appear to have encouraged development in vulnerable areas and exacerbated damage. We also find that the extent of flooding is a critical factor in estimating both death rates and building damage rates, suggesting that additional measures, such as multiple lines of defense and elevating topography, may have significant benefits in reducing the impacts of tsunamis. Moreover, the area of coastal forests was found to be inversely related to death and destruction rates, indicating that forests either mitigated the impacts of these tsunamis, or displaced development that would otherwise have been damaged. PMID:27508461

  10. Statistical Analysis of the Effectiveness of Seawalls and Coastal Forests in Mitigating Tsunami Impacts in Iwate and Miyagi Prefectures

    PubMed Central

    Nateghi, Roshanak; Bricker, Jeremy D.; Guikema, Seth D.; Bessho, Akane

    2016-01-01

    The Pacific coast of the Tohoku region of Japan experiences repeated tsunamis, with the most recent events having occurred in 1896, 1933, 1960, and 2011. These events have caused large loss of life and damage throughout the coastal region. There is uncertainty about the degree to which seawalls reduce deaths and building damage during tsunamis in Japan. On the one hand they provide physical protection against tsunamis as long as they are not overtopped and do not fail. On the other hand, the presence of a seawall may induce a false sense of security, encouraging additional development behind the seawall and reducing evacuation rates during an event. We analyze municipality-level and sub-municipality-level data on the impacts of the 1896, 1933, 1960, and 2011 tsunamis, finding that seawalls larger than 5 m in height generally have served a protective role in these past events, reducing both death rates and the damage rates of residential buildings. However, seawalls smaller than 5 m in height appear to have encouraged development in vulnerable areas and exacerbated damage. We also find that the extent of flooding is a critical factor in estimating both death rates and building damage rates, suggesting that additional measures, such as multiple lines of defense and elevating topography, may have significant benefits in reducing the impacts of tsunamis. Moreover, the area of coastal forests was found to be inversely related to death and destruction rates, indicating that forests either mitigated the impacts of these tsunamis, or displaced development that would otherwise have been damaged. PMID:27508461

  11. Cumulative ecological and socioeconomic effects of forest policies in coastal Oregon.

    PubMed

    Spies, Thomas A; Johnson, K Norman; Burnett, Kelly M; Ohmann, Janet L; McComb, Brenda C; Reeves, Gordon H; Bettinger, Pete; Kline, Jeffrey D; Garber-Yonts, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Forest biodiversity policies in multi-ownership landscapes are typically developed in an uncoordinated fashion with little consideration of their interactions or possible unintended cumulative effects. We conducted an assessment of some of the ecological and socioeconomic effects of recently enacted forest management policies in the 2.3-million-ha Coast Range Physiographic Province of Oregon. This mountainous area of conifer and hardwood forests includes a mosaic of landowners with a wide range of goals, from wilderness protection to high-yield timber production. We projected forest changes over 100 years in response to logging and development using models that integrate land use change and forest stand and landscape processes. We then assessed responses to those management activities using GIS models of stand structure and composition, landscape structure, habitat models for focal terrestrial and aquatic species, timber production, employment, and willingness to pay for biodiversity protection. Many of the potential outcomes of recently enacted policies are consistent with intended goals. For example, we project the area of structurally diverse older conifer forest and habitat for late successional wildlife species to strongly increase. 'Other outcomes might not be consistent with current policies: for example, hardwoods and vegetation diversity strongly decline within and across owners. Some elements of biodiversity, including streams with high potential habitat for coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and sites of potential oak woodland, occur predominately outside federal lands and thus were not affected by the strongest biodiversity policies. Except for federal lands, biodiversity policies were not generally characterized in sufficient detail to provide clear benchmarks against which to measure the progress or success. We conclude that land management institutions and policies are not well configured to deal effectively with ecological issues that span broad

  12. The Effect of Altitudinal Gradient on the Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Coastal Atlantic Forest of Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolo, M. D.; Martins, S. C.; Camargo, P. B.; Almeida, D. Q.; Correa, L. O.; Carmo, J. B.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic forest is a vast heterogeneous region with 1.5 million km2, encompassing a large variety of forest physiognomies and compositions, containing large number of species. These forests are distributed in different topographic and climatic conditions, with high levels of precipitation. The rate of deforestation is high, approaching 350 km2 per year, showing be highly fragmented with a large number of species in extinction. The aim of this study was to understanding of the basic biogeochemistry functioning of the coastal Atlantic Forest. The study was carried out in São Paulo State, Brazil (23° 24' S and 45° 11' W). The studied areas were: Restinga Forest at sea level; Lowland Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 100m of altitude asl; Submontana Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 400m of altitude asl and; Montane Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 1000m of altitude asl. A sampling area of 1 ha in each phytophysiognomies was subdivided in contiguous sub-parcels (10 x 10m). The forest floor litter accumulated (0.06m2) was collected monthly (n=15), during 12 months, in each phytophysiognomies. Soils samples (0-0.05m depth) were collected (n=32) from square regular grids, 30m away from each other. Techniques of multivariate like principal components analysis (PCA) were used to determine correlations between the variable. The ordination graphs make possible to observe frequent of standards, representing a significant ratio of the variability of the data. The two first PCA axes cumulatively explained 60% of the total variance of the litter variables. Litter C and δ13C values were strongly influenced by altitude at 1000m. The N and δ15N of litter were influenced by altitude at 100 and 400m. The C/N relation was influenced by altitude at 0m. The lignin was elevated (p<0.01) at sea level in comparison with the other phytophysiognomies. The cellulose values did not vary significantly along the altitudinal gradient. Soil C and N concentrations progressively increased along the

  13. Contrasting Patterns of Carbon Flux and Storage in Pine Forest Ecosystems of the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Implications for Ecosystem Restoration and Climate Change Mitigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, S. R.; Christensen, N.; Cohen, S.; Cunningham, P.

    2015-12-01

    Forest ecosystems in the Southeastern US have high rates of productivity but are underutilized as a medium for the mitigation of atmospheric CO2. In the lower Atlantic coastal plain, three pine species (longleaf [Pinus palustris], loblolly [P. taeda] and pond [P. serotina]) are the dominant overstory trees in a variety of wetland and upland ecosystems. These forest types can exist in close proximity throughout coastal plain landscapes, but exhibit contrasting patterns of productivity, pyrogenic C emissions, and mortality, thereby creating contrasting patterns of C assimilation and long-term C storage. Here, we combine field-based estimates of forest C storage and pyrogenic C emissions with LiDAR-based estimates of forest canopy heights in three contrasting forest ecosystems to 1) model their respective patterns of forest growth, mortality, and decomposition, 2) estimate the contribution of pyrogenic C fluxes to the ecosystem C budget, 3) estimate their potential upper bounds of forest C storage, and 4) model the impacts of current forest management practices and disturbance regimes on long-term forest C storage. Our results suggest that even though longleaf pine forests store comparatively little C in soil or belowground biomass, these forests nevertheless have the highest capacity for long-term C storage, in part due to their longevity. By contrast, while pond pine ecosystems have the highest capacity for long-term belowground C storage, they also have the lowest capacity for long-term aboveground C storage, one that is rarely achieved due to infrequent, high-severity disturbance regimes. Loblolly pine forests, while capable of higher growth rates than either longleaf or pond pine when in early stages of succesion, lack the long-term C storage capabilities of longleaf pine due to earlier senescence. Pyrogenic C emissions in these ecosystems are dominated by the combustion of ground and duff materials and occur over timescales ranging from rapid combustion in fire

  14. The Influence of Land Subsidence, Quarrying, Drainage, Irrigation and Forest Fire on Groundwater Resources and Biodiversity Along the Southern Po Plain Coastal Zone (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, M. A.; Mollema, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal zone of the southern Po plain is characterized by low lying land, which is reclaimed to permit settlements and agriculture. The history, tourism resorts and peculiar coastal environments make this territory attractive and valuable. Natural and fluid-extraction-induced land subsidence along with coastal erosion are major problems. Touristic development has strongly modified the landscape; coastal dunes have been in part removed to make room for hotels and quarrying has caused the formation of gravel pit lakes close to the shoreline. Protected natural areas include a belt of coastal dunes, wetlands, and the internal historical forests of San Vitale and Classe. The dunes have largely lost their original vegetation ecosystem, because years ago they have been colonized with pine trees to protect the adjacent farmland from sea spray. These pine forests are currently a fire hazard. Land reclamation drainage keeps the water table artificially low. Results of these anthropogenic disturbances on the hydrology include a decrease in infiltration rates, loss of freshwater surface bodies, encroachment of saltwater inland from the river estuaries, salinization of the aquifer, wetlands and soil with a loss in plant and aquatic species biodiversity. Feedback mechanisms are complex: as land subsidence continues, drainage increases at the same pace promoting sea-water intrusion. The salinity of the groundwater does not allow for plant species richness nor for the survival of large pine trees. Farmland irrigation and fires in the pine forests, on the other hand, allow for increased infiltration and freshening of the aquifer and at the same time promote plant species diversity. Our work shows that the characteristics of the southern Po coastal zone require integrated management of economic activities, natural areas, and resources. This approach is different from the ad hoc measures taken so far, because it requires long term planning and setting a priority of objectives.

  15. Management and climate change in coastal Oregon forests: The Panther Creek Watershed as a case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The highly productive forests of the Oregon Coast Range Mountains have been intensively harvested for many decades, and recent interest has emerged in the potential for removing harvest residue as a source of renewable woody biomass energy. However, the long-term consequences of ...

  16. Landslide Sediment Flux and Forest Management in Northeastern Vancouver Island, Coastal British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brardinoni, F.; Maynard, D.; Rollerson, T.

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate landslide response of mountain drainage basins to forest management we examine a historical inventory in northeastern Vancouver Island. The study area is underlain by extrusive (upper Triassic Karmutsen Formation) and intrusive rocks (Jurassic Island Intrusions). The dataset, compiled via interpretation of sequential aerial photosets, helicopter traverses, and extensive fieldwork, comprises a total of 1961 sediment sources, including 798 field-measured events. Field- and photo-based data cover a time window of approximately 70 years. The effects of forest management on landslide activity are assessed in terms of landslide density, sediment production, landslide geometry, landslide magnitude-frequency relations, topographic conditions of landslide initiation and deposition, and sediment redistribution across landscape components. Results indicate that forest management alters natural landslide dynamics in many respects. Logging-related debris avalanches are typically smaller. Consequently, the magnitude-frequency relation in logged terrain occupies the small-medium magnitude spectrum (< 6000 m3), with frequencies increasing by over an order of magnitude. Lithologic effects on sediment production appear amplified, in that terrain underlain by extrusive rocks become increasingly more unstable than intrusive ones. Analysis of landslide initiation and deposition zones reveals that forest management promotes colluvial aggradation on mid and lower hillslopes and in gullies. This pattern, which accelerates sediment recharge of gully systems, has the potential of increasing the frequency of channelized debris-flows, hence cause an extended period of disturbance, before sediment dynamics recover to pre-logging conditions. The effects of forest clearing on hillslope-channel coupling are composite: in cutblocks the percentage of sediment delivered to streams is reduced by 20-60% whereas road-related landslides are associated with highest connectivity to streams.

  17. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James; Kuper, Phillip; Prados, Donald; Russell, Jeffrey; Ross, Kenton; Gasser, Gerald; Sader, Steven; McKellip, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    This report details one of three experiments performed during FY 2007 for the NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) at Stennis Space Center. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). The intent of the RPC experiment was to assess the degree to which VIIRS data can provide forest disturbance monitoring information as an input to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) as compared to the level of information that can be obtained from MODIS data. The USDA Forest Service (USFS) plans to use MODIS products for generating broad-scaled, regional monitoring products as input to an EWS for forest health threat assessment. NASA SSC is helping the USFS to evaluate and integrate currently available satellite remote sensing technologies and data products for the EWS, including the use of MODIS products for regional monitoring of forest disturbance. Gypsy moth defoliation of the mid-Appalachian highland region was selected as a case study. Gypsy moth is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003; the gypsy moth threatens eastern U.S. hardwood forests, which are also a concern highlighted in the HFRA of 2003. This region was selected for the project because extensive gypsy moth defoliation occurred there over multiple years during the MODIS operational period. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including agricultural efficiency, coastal management, ecological forecasting, disaster management, and carbon management. In this experiment, MODIS data and VIIRS data simulated from MODIS were assessed for their ability to contribute broad, regional geospatial information on gypsy moth defoliation. Landsat and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission

  18. Assessment of forest plantations from low altitude aerial photography. [North Carolina coastal plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical color, and color-infrared, aerial photography obtained from altitudes between 183 m and 915 m provide a cost effective method of determining tree survival and height growth in pine plantations on the North Carolina Coastal Plain. All interpretations were performed by professional forestry personnel from the original 70 mm color transparencies. Prompt assessment of tree survival is necessary if failed spots are to be successfully replanted. Counts of living trees made after the third growing season, and sometimes only two growing seasons after planting, are accurate enough to permit planning of replanting operations without extensive ground surveys.

  19. Impacts of prescribed fire on Pinus rigida Mill. in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Nicholas J; Renninger, Heidi J; Clark, Kenneth L; Schäfer, Karina V R

    2016-08-01

    A comparative analysis of the impacts of prescribed fire on three upland forest stands in the Northeastern Atlantic Plain, NJ, USA, was conducted. Effects of prescribed fire on water use and gas exchange of overstory pines were estimated via sap-flux rates and photosynthetic measurements on Pinus rigida Mill. Each study site had two sap-flux plots, one experiencing prescribed fire and one control (unburned) plot for comparison before and after the fire. We found that photosynthetic capacity in terms of Rubisco-limited carboxylation rate and intrinsic water-use efficiency was unaffected, while light compensation point and dark respiration rate were significantly lower in the burned vs control plots post-fire. Furthermore, quantum yield in pines in the pine-dominated stands was less affected than pines in the mixed oak/pine stand, as there was an increase in quantum yield in the oak/pine stand post-fire compared with the control (unburned) plot. We attribute this to an effect of forest type but not fire per se. Average daily sap-flux rates of the pine trees increased compared with control (unburned) plots in pine-dominated stands and decreased in the oak/pine stand compared with control (unburned) plots, potentially due to differences in fuel consumption and pre-fire sap-flux rates. Finally, when reference canopy stomatal conductance was analyzed, pines in the pine-dominated stands were more sensitive to changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD), while stomatal responses of pines in the oak/pine stand were less affected by VPD. Therefore, prescribed fire affects physiological functioning and water use of pines, but the effects may be modulated by forest stand type and fuel consumption pattern, which suggests that these factors may need to be taken into account for forest management in fire-dominated systems. PMID:27259637

  20. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of leaves, litter and soils of the coastal Atlantic Forest of Southeast Brazil along an altitudinal range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lins, S. M.; Della Coletta, L.; Ravagnani, E.; Gragnani, J. G.; Antonio, J.; Mazzi, E. A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study the carbon and nitrogen concentrations, and stable carbon (δ13C) and stable nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic composition were determined in samples of Fabaceae and non Fabaceae leaves, litter, and soil samples in two different altitudes (Lowland and Montane Forests) of the coastal Atlantic Forest situated in the Southeast region of Brazil. In both altitudes there were two main differences between Fabaceae and non Fabaceae specimens. Fabaceae had a higher foliar nitrogen content and lower foliar δ15N than non Fabaceae specimens. As a consequence it seems that most of the Fabaceae specimens are fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere in both altitudes. This fact is contrary to most of other studies that found that most Fabaceae are not fixing nitrogen in tropical forests. We speculate that the main reason that Fabaceae are actively fixing nitrogen in the coastal Atlantic Forest is the steepness of the terrain that leads to frequent landslides, causing frequent disturbances of the nitrogen cycle, fostering nitrogen fixation. The main difference between the Lowland and the Montane Forest plots was the higher δ15N in the former in comparison with the later. We speculated that this difference is caused by larger losses of nitrogen by denitrification and riverine output, leading an enriched 15N substrate.

  1. Elevated genetic structure in the coastal tailed frog (Ascaphus truei) in managed redwood forests.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Andres; Douglas, Robert B; Gordon, Eric; Baumsteiger, Jason; Goldsworthy, Matthew O

    2013-03-01

    Landscape alterations have dramatic impacts on the distribution of genetic variation within and among populations and understanding these effects can guide contemporary and future conservation strategies. We initiated a landscape-scale genetic study of the coastal tailed frog (Ascaphus truei) on commercial timberlands within the southern range of the species in Mendocino County (CA, USA). In total, 294 individuals from 13 populations were analyzed at 9 microsatellite loci. None of the sampled populations departed from mutation-drift equilibrium, indicating recent population bottlenecks were not detected in contemporary samples. Fine-scale analysis indicated sampled populations were structured at the watershed level (mean F (ST) = 0.077 and mean G'(ST) = 0.425). Landscape analyses suggested wet and moist areas may serve as significant corridors for gene flow within watersheds in this region (r (2) = 0.32-0.54 for moisture-related features). Results indicate populations of frogs may have persisted at this scale through intense periods of timber harvest, making southern range edge populations of coastal tailed frogs resilient to past land use practices. PMID:23325865

  2. Modeling Storm Water Runoff and Soil Interflow in a Managed Forest, Upper Coastal Plain of the Southeast US.

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, T.J.; Cook, J.D.; Coleman, Mark D.; Amatya, Devendra M.; Trettin, Carl C.

    2004-08-01

    The Forest Service-Savannah River is conducting a hectare-scale monitoring and modeling study on forest productivity in a Short Rotation Woody Crop plantation at the Savannah River Site, which is on Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Detailed surveys, i.e., topography, soils, vegetation, and dainage network, of small (2-5 ha) plots have been completed in a 2 square-km watershed draining to Fourmile Creek, a tributary of the Savannah River. We wish to experimentally determine the relative importance of interflow on water yield and water quality at this site. Interflow (shallow subsurface lateral flow) can short-circuit rainfall infiltration, preventing deep seepage and resulting in water and chemical residence times in the watershed much shorter than that if deep seepage were the sole component of infiltration. The soil series at the site (Wagram, Dothan, Fuquay, Ogeechee, and Vaucluse) each have a clay-rich B horizon of decimeter-scale thickness at depths of 1-2 m below surface. As interflow is affected by rainfall intensity and duration and soil properties such as porosity, permeability, and antecedent soil moisture, our calculations made using the Green and Ampt equation show that the intensity and duration of a storm event must be greater than about 3 cm per hour and 2 hours, respectively, in order to initiate interflow for the least permeable soils series (Vaucluse). Tabulated values of soil properties were used in these preliminary calculations. Simulations of the largest rainfall events from 1972-2002 data using the Green and Ampt equation provide an interflow: rainfall ratio of 0 for the permeable Wagram soil series (no interflow) compared to 0.46 for the less permeable Vaucluse soil series. These initial predictions will be compared to storm water hydrographs of interflow collected at the outflow point of each plot and refined using more detailed soil property measurements.

  3. Community Ecology of Euglossine Bees in the Coastal Atlantic Forest of São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha-Filho, Léo Correia; Garofalo, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest stretches along Brazil's Atlantic coast, from Rio Grande do Norte State in the north to Rio Grande do Sul State in the south, and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina. This biome is one of the eight biodiversity hotspots in the world and is characterized by high species diversity. Euglossini bees are known as important pollinators in this biome, where their diversity is high. Due to the high impact of human activities in the Atlantic Forest, in the present study the community structure of Euglossini was assessed in a coastal lowland area, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar - Núcleo Picinguaba (PESM), and in an island, Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta (PEIA), Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Sampling was carried out monthly, from August 2007 to July 2009, using artificial baits with 14 aromatic compounds to attract males. Twenty-three species were recorded. On PEIA, Euglossa cordata (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) represented almost two thirds of the total species collected (63.2%). Euglossa iopoecila (23.0%) was the most abundant species in PESM but was not recorded on the island, and Euglossa sapphirina (21.0%) was the second most frequent species in PESM but was represented by only nine individuals on PEIA. The results suggest that these two species may act as bioindicators of preserved environments, as suggested for other Euglossini species. Some authors showed that Eg. cordata is favored by disturbed environments, which could explain its high abundance on Anchieta Island. Similarly, as emphasized by other authors, the dominance of Eg. cordata on the island would be another factor indicative of environmental disturbance. PMID:23901873

  4. [Historic record of Gastrotheca ovifera (Anura: Hemiphractidae): decline evidence in Venezuelan coastal cloud forests].

    PubMed

    Valera-Leal, Javier; Acevedo, Aldemar; Pérez-Sánchez, Antonio; Vega, Jorge; Manzanilla, Jesús

    2011-03-01

    G. ovifera is a marsupial frog of the cloud and riparian forest from Western and Litoral sections of the Venezuelan Cordillera de la Costa (820-2 000m). This amphibian is considered as an endangered species by the IUCN Species Red List, due to its population decline in pristine and well preserved environments. This conservation status is based on anecdotic interpretations. We collected disperse data from museum records (national and international) and explored the possible association between collection records and precipitation data available for the Henri Pittier National Park (PNHP). Likewise, we carried out a systematic population monitoring of G. ovifera in historic and additional localities among the cloud forest of Rancho Grande, PNHP. We found 106 individuals in 11 zoological collections deposited during 1929-2007. After an effort of 646 hours/person we did not detect G. ovifera individuals in the evaluated localities; as well as no statistical significant associations between the annual precipitation average and the historic records of the species during 1941-1997 period (r = -0.054, p = 0.820, n = 19). We discussed the distribution, fluctuation and population changes of this species, analyzing it conservation status. PMID:21516654

  5. Vegetation composition and structure of southern coastal plain pine forests: An ecological comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedman, C.W.; Grace, S.L.; King, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystems are characterized by a diverse community of native groundcover species. Critics of plantation forestry claim that loblolly (Pinus taeda) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii) forests are devoid of native groundcover due to associated management practices. As a result of these practices, some believe that ecosystem functions characteristic of longleaf pine are lost under loblolly and slash pine plantation management. Our objective was to quantify and compare vegetation composition and structure of longleaf, loblolly, and slash pine forests of differing ages, management strategies, and land-use histories. Information from this study will further our understanding and lead to inferences about functional differences among pine cover types. Vegetation and environmental data were collected in 49 overstory plots across Southlands Experiment Forest in Bainbridge, GA. Nested plots, i.e. midstory, understory, and herbaceous, were replicated four times within each overstory plot. Over 400 species were identified. Herbaceous species richness was variable for all three pine cover types. Herbaceous richness for longleaf, slash, and loblolly pine averaged 15, 13, and 12 species per m2, respectively. Longleaf pine plots had significantly more (p < 0.029) herbaceous species and greater herbaceous cover (p < 0.001) than loblolly or slash pine plots. Longleaf and slash pine plots were otherwise similar in species richness and stand structure, both having lower overstory density, midstory density, and midstory cover than loblolly pine plots. Multivariate analyses provided additional perspectives on vegetation patterns. Ordination and classification procedures consistently placed herbaceous plots into two groups which we refer to as longleaf pine benchmark (34 plots) and non-benchmark (15 plots). Benchmark plots typically contained numerous herbaceous species characteristic of relic longleaf pine/wiregrass communities found in the area. Conversely

  6. Genetic Diversity in Nothofagus alessandrii (Fagaceae), an Endangered Endemic Tree Species of the Coastal Maulino Forest of Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Ruiz, Eduardo; González, Fidelina; Fuentes, Glenda; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The endemic tree Nothofagus alessandrii (Fagaceae) has been historically restricted to the coastal range of Region VII of central Chile, and its forests have been increasingly destroyed and fragmented since the end of the 19th century. In this study, the patterns of within- and among-population genetic diversity in seven fragments of this endangered narrowly endemic tree were examined. Methods Allozyme electrophoresis of seven loci of N. alessandrii was used to estimate genetic diversity, genetic structure and gene flow. Key Results High levels of genetic diversity were found as shown by mean expected heterozygosity (He = 0·182 ± 0·034), percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp = 61·2 %), mean number of alleles per locus (A = 1·8) and mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus (Ap = 2·3). Genetic differentiation was also high (GST = 0·257 and Nm = 0·7). These values are high compared with more widespread congeneric species. Conclusions Despite its endemic status and restricted geographical range N. alessandrii showed high levels of genetic diversity. The observed patterns of diversity are explained in part by historical processes and more recent human fragmentation. PMID:17513870

  7. Satellite data analysis for identification of groundwater salinization effects on coastal forest for monitoring purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarella, M.; De Giglio, M.; Panciroli, L.; Greggio, N.

    2015-05-01

    In the phreatic aquifer below the San Vitale pinewood (Ravenna, Italy), natural and anthropogenic land subsidence, the low topography and the artificial drainage system have led to widespread saltwater intrusion. Since changes in the groundwater concentration induce variations in the vegetation properties, recognizable by different spectral bands, a comparison between satellite images, ASTER and Worldview-2, was made using the NDVI. The aim was to identify the portions of pinewood affected by salinization through a procedure that could reduce the expensive and time consuming ground monitoring campaigns. Moreover, the Worldview-2 high resolutions were used to investigate the Thermophilic Deciduous Forest (TDF) spectral behaviour without the influence of the allochthonous Pinus pinea species that is scattered throughout the pinewood. The NDVI, calculated with traditional bands, identified the same stressed areas using both satellite data. Instead, the new Red-Edge band of the Worldview-2 image allowed a greater correlation between NDVI and groundwater salinity.

  8. The Effect of Altered Rainfall Interception on Peakflows in a Logged Coastal Redwood Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, L. M.; Lewis, J.

    2006-12-01

    Throughfall and stemflow were monitored in a 1-ha plot in a 120-year-old redwood forest at the Caspar Creek experimental watersheds in Mendocino County, California. Three years of 10-minute-resolution throughfall measurements from 6 randomly located, 1.5-m2 plywood collectors show an annual interception rate of 24.9% relative to rainfall measured in an identical collector located in a nearby clearing. About 2.5% of the intercepted rainfall reappears as stemflow, producing a total interception loss of 22.4% for the study period. The proportional interception loss is highest for the smallest storms, dropping to an average loss of about 21% for storms producing more than 70 mm of rainfall. During a storm, interception rates increase with increasing rainfall intensity, maintaining a near-constant proportional loss rate. Once the foliage is thoroughly wetted, the proportional loss rate generally does not diminish through the storm. Continuing in-storm losses are likely to be attributable primarily to in-storm evaporation and to progressive filling of bark storage. Models were developed to predict peakflow discharges in forested second-order watersheds of North Fork Caspar Creek from antecedent and storm rainfall using data from 24 storms during a 4-year pre-logging calibration period. Rainfall parameters were then modified to account for the changes in transpiration and interception expected after logging, and the resulting models were applied to the post-logging rainfall record to estimate the expected changes in peakflows during the first two years after logging. The predicted average increase in peakflow of 50% to 70% is consistent with observed increases following clearcut logging in the North Fork Caspar Creek watershed, suggesting that much of the increase in peakflows may be attributable to altered interception and transpiration.

  9. The impact of vegetation on humus formation and morphology of brown forest soils in coastal areas of the southeastern part of Russian far east

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pshenichnikov, B. F.; Pshenichnikova, N. F.

    2015-04-01

    Specific features of brown forest soils (burozems, Cambisols) in coastal areas of the southeastern part of Russian Far East are discussed. It is shown that the color of the illuvial horizons in these soils depends on the character of vegetation; it is reddish brown under oak forests and dark gray under herb-shrub and post-pyrogenic communities. These soils combine the features shaped by the humus-accumulative and humus-illuvial processes. In the soils under oak forests, the humate-fulvate type of humus predominates; in the soils under herb-shrub and post-pyrogenic communities, the fulvate-humate humus is formed. The dynamics of humus and its separate fractions in the soil profiles control the morphochromatic differentiation of brown forest soils under different vegetation communities. In the soils under oak forests, the maximum precipitation of the aggressive fraction of fulvic acids (fraction FA-1a) in the illuvial-humus horizons coincides with the maximum concentration of oxalate-extractable iron oxides; these substances ensure the reddish brown color of the illuvial horizons in these soils. In the brown forest soils under herb-shrub and post-pyrogenic communities, the illuvial horizon is the zone of accumulation of not only the aggressive fraction of fulvic acids but also the second (Ca-bound) fractions of fulvic and humic acids ensuring the dark gray color of this horizon.

  10. Evaluation of SLAR and simulated thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Dean, M. E.; Knowlton, D. J.; Latty, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Kershaw County, South Carolina was selected as the study site for analyzing simulated thematic mapper MSS data and dual-polarized X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The impact of the improved spatial and spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT D thematic mapper data on computer aided analysis for forest cover type mapping was examined as well as the value of synthetic aperture radar data for differentiating forest and other cover types. The utility of pattern recognition techniques for analyzing SAR data was assessed. Topics covered include: (1) collection and of TMS and reference data; (2) reformatting, geometric and radiometric rectification, and spatial resolution degradation of TMS data; (3) development of training statistics and test data sets; (4) evaluation of different numbers and combinations of wavelength bands on classification performance; (5) comparison among three classification algorithms; and (6) the effectiveness of the principal component transformation in data analysis. The collection, digitization, reformatting, and geometric adjustment of SAR data are also discussed. Image interpretation results and classification results are presented.

  11. Wind damage and salinity effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on coastal baldcypress forests of Louisiana: Chapter 6F in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Conner, William H.; Day, Richard H.; Krauss, Ken W.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of hurricane landfall in a given coastal stretch may play a more important role in the ecology of coastal forests than previously thought because of direct and indirect impacts of fallen trees and the introduction of salt water that lingers long after the storm passes. Findings show that surge events can inundate interior freshwater forests many miles from the coast and elevate soil salinities twofold to threefold. These elevated salinities may contribute to delayed mortality of certain tree species and set the stage for eventual forest decline and dieback.

  12. Plants of the Olympic Coastal Forests: ancient knowledge of materials and medicines and future heritage.

    PubMed

    Forlines, D R; Tavenner, T; Malan, J C; Karchesy, J J

    1992-01-01

    The indigenous people of the west coast of Washington State's Olympic Peninsula have used a wide variety of forest plants for centuries to make materials and medicines. The late David Forlines shared at least eight generations of the knowledge of uses of these plants for materials and medicines with us in hopes that this information might be used 'to help science catch up with the old people.' Dyes, paints and adhesives were some of the materials made. The medicines were often administered as teas, but in some cases, fresh plant material was required. Some parallels were found to European and Chinese uses of similar species. Plants from the family Rosaceae had the greatest number of medicinal uses, but several other plant families known to contain polyphenols were also encountered. The role of polyphenols in the use of these plants is difficult to estimate because in many cases the plants have not been studied chemically. A preliminary screening indicated that many of the plants were rich in procyanidins and associated compounds. PMID:1417699

  13. Nutrient-cycling microbes in coastal Douglas-fir forests: regional-scale correlation between communities, in situ climate, and other factors

    PubMed Central

    Shay, Philip-Edouard; Winder, Richard S.; Trofymow, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Microbes such as fungi and bacteria play fundamental roles in litter-decay and nutrient-cycling; however, their communities may respond differently than plants to climate change. The structure (diversity, richness, and evenness) and composition of microbial communities in climate transects of mature Douglas-fir stands of coastal British Columbia rainshadow forests was analyzed, in order to assess in situ variability due to different temperature and moisture regimes. We compared denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of fungi (18S-FF390/FR1), nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NifH-universal) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AmoA) polymerase chain reaction amplicons in forest floor and mineral soil samples from three transects located at different latitudes, each transect spanning the Coastal Western Hemlock and Douglas-fir biogeoclimatic zones. Composition of microbial communities in both soil layers was related to degree days above 0°C (2725–3489), while pH (3.8–5.5) best explained shifts in community structure. At this spatial scale, climatic conditions were likely to directly or indirectly select for different microbial species while local site heterogeneity influenced community structure. Significant changes in microbial community composition and structure were related to differences as small as 2.47% and 2.55°C in mean annual moisture and temperature variables, respectively. The climatic variables best describing microbial composition changed from one functional group to the next; in general they did not alter community structure. Spatial distance, especially associated with latitude, was also important in accounting for community variability (4–23%); but to a lesser extent than the combined influence of climate and soil characteristics (14–25%). Results suggest that in situ climate can independently account for some patterns of microbial biogeography in coastal Douglas-fir forests. The distribution of up to 43% of nutrient-cycling microorganisms

  14. A GIS-based multicriteria evaluation for aiding risk management Pinus pinaster Ait. forests: a case study in Corsican Island, western Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk (M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration-Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)-for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions. PMID:21499931

  15. A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  16. Interactions Between Hillslope Processes and Channel Form in a Logged Coastal Redwood Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisle, T. E.; Reid, L. M.; Hilton, S.

    2009-12-01

    Impacts of land-use activities can appear far downstream of the activity sites, introducing potentials for downstream impact accumulation and for lengthy time-lags between activity and impact. Consequently, attribution of particular downstream changes to specific upstream activities is often difficult. We conducted a series of hydrologic and geomorphic studies to evaluate pathways of influence between changes occurring on hillslopes and downstream channel responses at the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds in northwest California. About 39% of the second-growth redwood forest in the 473-ha North Fork Caspar Creek watershed was clearcut between 1989 and 1991. Stream gauges at the mouths of five logged subwatersheds showed increased average peakflow, runoff, and suspended sediment yield relative to three control watersheds. Modeling on the basis of rainfall interception measurements suggests that about 2/3 of the change in peakflow magnitudes results from altered interception after logging and 1/3 from reduced transpiration. Field surveys of erosion process distribution—including landslides, surface erosion, bank erosion, and gully erosion—suggest that in-channel erosion processes provided the dominant influence on sediment increases in the three years following logging. Changes in sediment load are most strongly correlated with runoff changes, but sediment increases at the mouth of the watershed are lower than predicted from sub-watershed outputs, suggesting deposition has occurred along the mainstem. Comparison of channel characteristics in logged and control watersheds indicates that networks expanded headward in the logged watersheds to a point that stream-power indices reflecting the altered hydrology are equivalent to those at channel heads before logging. In addition, channels are wider and deeper in reaches draining logged watersheds. Cross sections are resurveyed and woody debris tagged and remapped at approximately 2-year intervals along the North

  17. Habitat selection by anurofauna community at rocky seashore in coastal Atlantic Forest, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pontes, R C; Santori, R T; Gonçalves e Cunha, F C; Pontes, J A L

    2013-08-01

    height of the plant and the diameter on top view were correlated with the occurrence of amphibians, while during the driest period there was no correlation among variables and the bromeliad usage by amphibians. Recorded species were strongly associated to the Atlantic Forest domain. Nevertheless, the occupation of rocky seashores by anurans may be more associated with the specialized reproductive modes presented by species, since there is no permanent water available in ponds or streams. PMID:24212694

  18. COMPUTER-AIDED GLEASON GRADING OF PROSTATE CANCER HISTOPATHOLOGICAL IMAGES USING TEXTON FORESTS

    PubMed Central

    Khurd, Parmeshwar; Bahlmann, Claus; Maday, Peter; Kamen, Ali; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Frangioni, John V.

    2010-01-01

    The Gleason score is the single most important prognostic indicator for prostate cancer candidates and plays a significant role in treatment planning. Histopathological imaging of prostate tissue samples provides the gold standard for obtaining the Gleason score, but the manual assignment of Gleason grades is a labor-intensive and error-prone process. We have developed a texture classification system for automatic and reproducible Gleason grading. Our system characterizes the texture in images belonging to a tumor grade by clustering extracted filter responses at each pixel into textons (basic texture elements). We have used random forests to cluster the filter responses into textons followed by the spatial pyramid match kernel in conjunction with an SVM classifier. We have demonstrated the efficacy of our system in distinguishing between Gleason grades 3 and 4. PMID:21221421

  19. COMPUTER-AIDED GLEASON GRADING OF PROSTATE CANCER HISTOPATHOLOGICAL IMAGES USING TEXTON FORESTS.

    PubMed

    Khurd, Parmeshwar; Bahlmann, Claus; Maday, Peter; Kamen, Ali; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer; Genega, Elizabeth M; Frangioni, John V

    2010-04-17

    The Gleason score is the single most important prognostic indicator for prostate cancer candidates and plays a significant role in treatment planning. Histopathological imaging of prostate tissue samples provides the gold standard for obtaining the Gleason score, but the manual assignment of Gleason grades is a labor-intensive and error-prone process. We have developed a texture classification system for automatic and reproducible Gleason grading. Our system characterizes the texture in images belonging to a tumor grade by clustering extracted filter responses at each pixel into textons (basic texture elements). We have used random forests to cluster the filter responses into textons followed by the spatial pyramid match kernel in conjunction with an SVM classifier. We have demonstrated the efficacy of our system in distinguishing between Gleason grades 3 and 4. PMID:21221421

  20. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal waters in the US include estuaries, coastalwetlands, coral reefs, mangrove and kep forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical coastal habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. the nat...

  1. Free-living and particle-associated prokaryote metabolism in giant kelp forests: Implications for carbon flux in a sub-Antarctic coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schapira, Mathilde; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Froneman, Pierre W.

    2012-06-01

    -community and is mainly respired within the kelp forest. These results suggest the retention of particles within giant kelp forests. In controlling the metabolic activity of PA and FL prokaryotes, this retention will influence overall carbon flux around the archipelago. In particular, the observation of a common pattern across different M. pyrifera forests has important implications for the role of this species as an autogenic ecological engineer in coastal environments.

  2. Use of Land Use Land Cover Change Mapping Products in Aiding Coastal Habitat Conservation and Restoration Efforts of the Mobile Bay NEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Swann, Roberta; Smooth, James

    2010-01-01

    The Mobile Bay region has undergone significant land use land cover change (LULC) over the last 35 years, much of which is associated with urbanization. These changes have impacted the region s water quality and wildlife habitat availability. In addition, much of the region is low-lying and close to the Gulf, which makes the region vulnerable to hurricanes, climate change (e.g., sea level rise), and sometimes man-made disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Land use land cover change information is needed to help coastal zone managers and planners to understand and mitigate the impacts of environmental change on the region. This presentation discusses selective results of a current NASA-funded project in which Landsat data over a 34-year period (1974-2008) is used to produce, validate, refine, and apply land use land cover change products to aid coastal habitat conservation and restoration needs of the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program (MB NEP). The project employed a user defined classification scheme to compute LULC change mapping products for the entire region, which includes the majority of Mobile and Baldwin counties. Additional LULC change products have been computed for select coastal HUC-12 sub-watersheds adjacent to either Mobile Bay or the Gulf of Mexico, as part of the MB NEP watershed profile assessments. This presentation will include results of additional analyses of LULC change for sub-watersheds that are currently high priority areas, as defined by MB NEP. Such priority sub-watersheds include those that are vulnerable to impacts from the DWH oil spill, as well as sub-watersheds undergoing urbanization. Results demonstrating the nature and permanence of LULC change trends for these higher priority sub-watersheds and results characterizing change for the entire 34-year period and at approximate 10-year intervals across this period will also be presented. Future work will include development of value-added coastal habitat quality

  3. Terrestrial activity and conservation of adult California red-legged frogs Rana aurora draytonii in coastal forests and grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulger, J.B.; Scott, N.J., Jr.; Seymour, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The federally threatened California red-legged frog Rana aurora draytonii occupies both aquatic and terrestrial habitats in its adult life stage. The terrestrial activities of this species are not well known and require documentation to assist in the development of appropriate levels of protection under the US Endangered Species Act. We studied the terrestrial activities of radio-tagged red-legged frogs (n = 8-26) inhabiting a coastal watershed in Santa Cruz County, California, during 1997-1998. In particular, we investigated (1) the use of terrestrial habitats by non-migrating adults in relation to season, breeding chronology, and precipitation, and (2) adult migration behavior, including seasonal timing, duration, distances traveled, and the use of corridors. Non-migrating red-legged frogs occupied terrestrial habitats briefly (median = 4-6 days) following infrequent summer rains, but resided nearly continuously on land (median = 20-30 days) from the onset of the winter wet-season until breeding activities commenced 1-2 months later. All of the non-migrating frogs remained within 130 m of their aquatic site of residence (median <25 m). Intervals spent on land were again brief during mid/late winter (median = 1-4 days), despite frequent and copious rainfall. Adult migration to and from breeding sites occurred from late October through mid-May (wet season). We monitored 25 migration events between aquatic sites that were 200-2800 m apart. Short distance movements ( <300 m) were completed in 1-3 days, longer movements required up to 2 months. Most migrating frogs moved overland in approximately straight lines to target sites without apparent regard to vegetation type or topography. Riparian corridors were neither essential nor preferred as migration routes. Frogs traveling overland occurred in upland habitats as far as 500 m from water. Approximately 11-22% of the adult population was estimated to migrate to and from breeding sites annually, whereas the bulk of the

  4. Quantifying Forest and Coastal Disturbance from Industrial Mining Using Satellite Time Series Analysis Under Very Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo, M.; Van Den Hoek, J.; Ahmed, N.

    2015-12-01

    The open-pit Grasberg mine, located in the highlands of Western Papua, Indonesia, and operated by PT Freeport Indonesia (PT-FI), is among the world's largest in terms of copper and gold production. Over the last 27 years, PT-FI has used the Ajkwa River to transport an estimated 1.3 billion tons of tailings from the mine into the so-called Ajkwa Deposition Area (ADA). The ADA is the product of aggradation and lateral expansion of the Ajkwa River into the surrounding lowland rainforest and mangroves, which include species important to the livelihoods of indigenous Papuans. Mine tailings that do not settle in the ADA disperse into the Arafura Sea where they increase levels of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and associated concentrations of dissolved copper. Despite the mine's large-scale operations, ecological impact of mine tailings deposition on the forest and estuarial ecosystems have received minimal formal study. While ground-based inquiries are nearly impossible due to access restrictions, assessment via satellite remote sensing is promising but hindered by extreme cloud cover. In this study, we characterize ridgeline-to-coast environmental impacts along the Ajkwa River, from the Grasberg mine to the Arafura Sea between 1987 and 2014. We use "all available" Landsat TM and ETM+ images collected over this time period to both track pixel-level vegetation disturbance and monitor changes in coastal SPM levels. Existing temporal segmentation algorithms are unable to assess both acute and protracted trajectories of vegetation change due to pervasive cloud cover. In response, we employ robust, piecewise linear regression on noisy vegetation index (NDVI) data in a manner that is relatively insensitive to atmospheric contamination. Using this disturbance detection technique we constructed land cover histories for every pixel, based on 199 image dates, to differentiate processes of vegetation decline, disturbance, and regrowth. Using annual reports from PT-FI, we show

  5. Changes in Carbon Pools 50 Years after Reversion of a Landscape Dominated by Agriculture to Managed Forests in the Upper Southeastern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Z.; Trettin, C.; Parresol, B. R.; Li, C.

    2010-12-01

    The landscape of the upper coastal plain of South Carolina in the late 1940’s was typified by rural agricultural communities and farms comprising cleared fields and mixed-use woodlots. Approximately 80,000 ha of that landscape was appropriated by the US Government in the early 1950’s to form the Savannah River Site which is now managed by the US Dept. of Energy. The US Forest Service was engaged to reforest the agricultural parcels, 40% of the tract, and to develop sustainable management practices for the woodlots and restored areas. As part of the acquisition process in 1951, a complete inventory of the land and forest resources were conducted. In 2001, an intensive forest survey was conducted which encompassed 90% of the tract, detailing the above-ground biomass pools. We’ve used those inventories in conjunction with soil resource data to assemble a carbon balance sheet encompassing the above and belowground carbon pools over the 50 year period. We’ve also employed inventories on forest removals, forest burning and runoff to estimate fluxes from the landscape over the same period. There was a net sequestration of 5,486 Gg of C in forest vegetation over the 50 yr. period (1.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1), with carbon density increasing from 6.3 to 83.3 Mg ha-1. The reforestation of the agricultural land and the increased density of the former woodlots was the cause of the gain. Fifty years after imposition of silvicultural prescriptions, the forest composition has changed from being dominated by hardwoods to pine. The forest floor increased by 311 Gg carbon. Fluxes in form of harvested wood and oxidation from burning were 24% and 10% respectively of the net gain in vegetative biomass. These findings document real changes in carbon storage on a landscape that was changed from mixed agricultural use to managed forests, and they suggest responses that should be similar if reforestation for biofuels production is expanded.

  6. [Ecology and social organization of African tropical forest primates: aid in understanding retrovirus transmission].

    PubMed

    Tutin, C E

    2000-07-01

    The risk of transmission of primate viruses to humans is great because of their genetic proximity. It is now clear that the HIV group of retroviruses came from primates and that the origin of HIV1 is the chimpanzee subspecies of Central Africa, Pan troglodytes troglodytes. Many African primates are natural hosts of retroviruses and details of the natural history of both hosts and viruses are essential to understand the evolution of the latter. Data on the demography, ecology and behaviour of three species of primates (gorillas, chimpanzees and mandrills), studied in the Lopé Reserve in Central Gabon since 1983, are analysed to identify the factors that allow, or favour, disease transmission within each species, between different species and between primates and humans. The comparison of the relative degree of risk suggests that of the three species, chimpanzees are the most susceptible to exposure to infection both from conspecifics and from other species. With respect to humans, the comparative analysis suggests greater exposure to viruses of mandrills and gorillas than to those of chimpanzees. For primates, major risk factors are: large social groups; bites inflicted in fights; social grooming; and predation on mammals. However, given that contacts between social groups of the same species are rare, the spread of a virus through a population will be slow and uncertain. Hunting wild animals is the behaviour most likely to provide transmission routes for primate viruses into human populations because of the high probability of blood-blood contact. Not only the hunters themselves, but also women who prepare bush meat for cooking and people involved in trade of carcasses are at high risk of transmission of pathogens. Hunting of bush meat is increasing in Central Africa due to the economic recession and the spread of logging into the forests of the interior of the region. To counter the significant risk of transmission of known, as well as new, diseases from primates

  7. Uranium disequilibrium as a hydrological aid in studying the salinization processes in the Southeastern Coastal Plain of Israel.

    PubMed

    Avisar, D; Kronfeld, J

    2009-01-01

    Saline waters, of unknown origin, have been encountered in the basal portions of the phreatic Coastal Plain aquifer of Israel. (234)U/(238)U disequilibrium was used to trace their origin to the evaporate layers within the Saqiye aquiclude, the most saline, and the warmest (up to 42 degrees C) waters are also those that have the highest uranium concentrations combined with low (234)U/(238)U activity ratios, derived as the ascending brines traverse underlying uranium-rich Senonian phosphorites, in secular equilibrium along fault conduits. PMID:18805016

  8. Dom Export from Coastal Temperate Bog Forest Watersheds to Marine Ecosystems: Improving Understanding of Watershed Processes and Terrestrial-Marine Linkages on the Central Coast of British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, A. A.; Giesbrecht, I.; Tank, S. E.; Hunt, B. P.; Lertzman, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal temperate bog forests of British Columbia, Canada, export high amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) relative to the global average. Little is known about the factors influencing the quantity and quality of DOM exported from these forests or the role of this terrestrially-derived DOM in near-shore marine ecosystems. The objectives of this study are to better understand patterns and controls of DOM being exported from bog forest watersheds and its potential role in near-shore marine ecosystems. In 2013, the Kwakshua Watershed Ecosystems Study at Hakai Beach Institute (Calvert Island, BC) began year-round routine collection and analysis of DOM, nutrients, and environmental variables (e.g. conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen) of freshwater grab samples from the outlets of seven watersheds draining directly to the ocean, as well as near-shore marine samples adjacent to freshwater outflows. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) varied across watersheds (mean= 11.45 mg L-1, sd± 4.22) and fluctuated synchronously with seasons and storm events. In general, higher DOC was associated with lower specific UV absorbance (SUVA254; mean= 4.59 L mg-1 m-1, sd± 0.55). The relationship between DOC and SUVA254 differed between watersheds, suggesting exports in DOM are regulated by individual watershed attributes (e.g. landscape classification, flow paths) as well as precipitation. We are using LiDAR and other remote sensing data to examine watershed controls on DOC export. At near-shore marine sites, coupled CTD (Conductivity Temperature Depth) and optical measures (e.g. spectral slopes, slope ratios (SR), EEMs), showed a clear freshwater DOM signature within the system following rainfall events. Ongoing work will explore the relationship between bog forest watershed attributes and DOM flux and composition, with implications for further studies on biogeochemical cycling, carbon budgets, marine food webs, and climate change.

  9. Inventory of forest resources (including water) by multi-level sampling. [nine northern Virginia coastal plain counties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, R. C.; Dana, R. W.; Roberts, E. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A stratified random sample using LANDSAT band 5 and 7 panchromatic prints resulted in estimates of water in counties with sampling errors less than + or - 9% (67% probability level). A forest inventory using a four band LANDSAT color composite resulted in estimates of forest area by counties that were within + or - 6.7% and + or - 3.7% respectively (67% probability level). Estimates of forest area for counties by computer assisted techniques were within + or - 21% of operational forest survey figures and for all counties the difference was only one percent. Correlations of airborne terrain reflectance measurements with LANDSAT radiance verified a linear atmospheric model with an additive (path radiance) term and multiplicative (transmittance) term. Coefficients of determination for 28 of the 32 modeling attempts, not adverseley affected by rain shower occurring between the times of LANDSAT passage and aircraft overflights, exceeded 0.83.

  10. Mangrove Forest Cover Extraction of the Coastal Areas of Negros Occidental, Western Visayas, Philippines Using LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pada, A. V.; Silapan, J.; Cabanlit, M. A.; Campomanes, F.; Garcia, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Mangroves have a lot of economic and ecological advantages which include coastal protection, habitat for wildlife, fisheries and forestry products. Determination of the extent of mangrove patches in the coastal areas of the Philippines is therefore important especially in resource conservation, protection and management. This starts with a well-defined and accurate map. LiDARwas used in the mangrove extraction in the different coastal areas of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas, Philippines. Total coastal study area is 1,082.55 km² for the 14 municipalities/ cities processed. Derivatives that were used in the extraction include, DSM, DTM, Hillshade, Intensity, Number of Returns and PCA. The RGB bands of the Orthographic photographs taken at the same time with the LiDAR data were also used as one of the layers during the processing. NDVI, GRVI and Hillshade using Canny Edge Layer were derived as well to produce an enhanced segmentation. Training and Validation points were collected through field validation and visual inspection using Stratified Random Sampling. The points were then used to feed the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on tall structures. Only four classes were used, namely, Built-up, Mangroves, Other Trees and Sugarcane. Buffering and contextual editing were incorporated to reclassify the extracted mangroves. Overall accuracy assessment is at 98.73% (KIA of 98.24%) while overall accuracy assessment for Mangroves only is at 98.00%. Using this workflow, mangroves can already be extracted in a large-scale level with acceptable overall accuracy assessments.

  11. Radar monitoring of hydrology in Maryland's forested coastal plain wetlands: Implications for predicted climate change and improved mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner Lang, Megan

    Wetlands provide important services to society but Mid-Atlantic wetlands are at high risk for loss, with forested wetlands being especially vulnerable. Hydrology (flooding and soil moisture) controls wetland function and extent but it may be altered due to changes in climate and anthropogenic influence. Wetland hydrology must better understood in order to predict and mitigate the impact of these changes. Broad-scale forested wetland hydrology is difficult to monitor using ground-based and traditional remote sensing methods. C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data could improve the capability to monitor forested wetland hydrology but the abilities and limitations of these data need further investigation. This study examined: (1) the link between climate and wetland hydrology; (2) the ability of ENVISAT SAR (C-HH and C-VV) data to monitor inundation and soil moisture in forested wetlands; (3) limitations inherent to C-band data (incidence angle, polarization, and phenology) when monitoring forested wetland hydrology; and (4) the accuracy of forested wetland maps produced using SAR data. The study was primarily conducted near the Patuxent River in Maryland but the influence of incidence angle was considered along the Roanoke River in North Carolina. This study showed: (1) climate was highly correlated with wetland inundation; (2) significant differences in C-VV and C-HH backscatter existed between forested areas of varying hydrology (uplands and wetlands) throughout the year; (3) C-HH backscatter was better correlated to hydrology than C-VV backscatter; (4) correlations were stronger during the leaf-off season; (5) the difference in backscatter between flooded and non-flooded areas did not sharply decline with incidence angle, as predicted; and (6) maps produced using SAR data had relatively high accuracy levels. Based on these findings, I concluded that hydrology is influenced by climate at the study site, and C-HH data should be able to monitor changes in

  12. Evaluating total inorganic nitrogen in coastal waters through fusion of multi-temporal RADARSAT-2 and optical imagery using random forest algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meiling; Liu, Xiangnan; Li, Jin; Ding, Chao; Jiang, Jiale

    2014-12-01

    Satellites routinely provide frequent, large-scale, near-surface views of many oceanographic variables pertinent to plankton ecology. However, the nutrient fertility of water can be challenging to detect accurately using remote sensing technology. This research has explored an approach to estimate the nutrient fertility in coastal waters through the fusion of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and optical images using the random forest (RF) algorithm. The estimation of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) in the Hong Kong Sea, China, was used as a case study. In March of 2009 and May and August of 2010, a sequence of multi-temporal in situ data and CCD images from China's HJ-1 satellite and RADARSAT-2 images were acquired. Four sensitive parameters were selected as input variables to evaluate TIN: single-band reflectance, a normalized difference spectral index (NDSI) and HV and VH polarizations. The RF algorithm was used to merge the different input variables from the SAR and optical imagery to generate a new dataset (i.e., the TIN outputs). The results showed the temporal-spatial distribution of TIN. The TIN values decreased from coastal waters to the open water areas, and TIN values in the northeast area were higher than those found in the southwest region of the study area. The maximum TIN values occurred in May. Additionally, the estimation accuracy for estimating TIN was significantly improved when the SAR and optical data were used in combination rather than a single data type alone. This study suggests that this method of estimating nutrient fertility in coastal waters by effectively fusing data from multiple sensors is very promising.

  13. Effects of Upland Forest Management on Small Isolated Wetland Herptofauna in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.R.

    2000-08-01

    Forest management practices were compared in five isolated wetlands. These isolated wetlands support a large number of reptiles and amphibians in the forest landscape. However, the effect of adjacent conditions on juvenile and adult mortality was unknown. Several treatments were applied around each bay. The latter included harvesting, harvesting plus site preparation, and a control or intact forest cover. The richness of the communities were similar at the five sites; however, significant differences were observed and associated with upland conditions prior to harvest. No differences in the richness abundance or diversity were detected among treatments. Short term decreases in the abundance of turtles and snakes were noted, but not after 1.5 years.

  14. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles).

    PubMed

    Séne, Seynabou; Avril, Raymond; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Geoffroy, Alexandre; Ndiaye, Cheikh; Diédhiou, Abdala Gamby; Sadio, Oumar; Courtecuisse, Régis; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Selosse, Marc-André; Bâ, Amadou

    2015-10-01

    We studied belowground and aboveground diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal species colonizing Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape) mature trees and seedlings naturally regenerating in four littoral forests of the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles). We collected 546 sporocarps, 49 sclerotia, and morphotyped 26,722 root tips from mature trees and seedlings. Seven EM fungal species only were recovered among sporocarps (Cantharellus cinnabarinus, Amanita arenicola, Russula cremeolilacina, Inocybe littoralis, Inocybe xerophytica, Melanogaster sp., and Scleroderma bermudense) and one EM fungal species from sclerotia (Cenococcum geophilum). After internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, the EM root tips fell into 15 EM fungal taxa including 14 basidiomycetes and 1 ascomycete identified. Sporocarp survey only weakly reflected belowground assessment of the EM fungal community, although 5 fruiting species were found on roots. Seagrape seedlings and mature trees had very similar communities of EM fungi, dominated by S. bermudense, R. cremeolilacina, and two Thelephoraceae: shared species represented 93 % of the taxonomic EM fungal diversity and 74 % of the sampled EM root tips. Furthermore, some significant differences were observed between the frequencies of EM fungal taxa on mature trees and seedlings. The EM fungal community composition also varied between the four investigated sites. We discuss the reasons for such a species-poor community and the possible role of common mycorrhizal networks linking seagrape seedlings and mature trees in regeneration of coastal forests. PMID:25711744

  15. The floodplain large-wood cycle hypothesis: A mechanism for the physical and biotic structuring of temperate forested alluvial valleys in the North Pacific coastal ecoregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Brian D.; Montgomery, David R.; Fetherston, Kevin L.; Abbe, Tim B.

    2012-02-01

    A 'floodplain large-wood cycle' is hypothesized as a mechanism for generating landforms and influencing river dynamics in ways that structure and maintain riparian and aquatic ecosystems of forested alluvial river valleys of the Pacific coastal temperate rainforest of North America. In the cycle, pieces of wood large enough to resist fluvial transport and remain in river channels initiate and stabilize wood jams, which in turn create alluvial patches and protect them from erosion. These stable patches provide sites for trees to mature over hundreds of years in river valleys where the average cycle of floodplain turnover is much briefer, thus providing a future source of large wood and reinforcing the cycle. Different tree species can function in the floodplain large-wood cycle in different ecological regions, in different river valleys within regions, and within individual river valleys in which forest composition changes through time. The cycle promotes a physically complex, biodiverse, and self-reinforcing state. Conversely, loss of large trees from the system drives landforms and ecosystems toward an alternate stable state of diminished biogeomorphic complexity. Reestablishing large trees is thus necessary to restore such rivers. Although interactions and mechanisms may differ between biomes and in larger or smaller rivers, available evidence suggests that large riparian trees may have similarly fundamental roles in the physical and biotic structuring of river valleys elsewhere in the temperate zone.

  16. A remotely-sensed disturbance history and decrease in basal area of coastal forests of the lower Florida Keys, FL, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogurcak, D. E.; Ross, M. S.; Zhang, K.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change and ensuing sea level rise are predicted to have serious impacts on the severity of disturbance from tropical storms experienced by coastal forest communities worldwide, resulting in changes in terrestrial carbon dynamics. In the lower Florida Keys, with elevations averaging 1 meter and where an increase in sea level rise of 23 cm has been documented over the past century (Key West, NOAA 2001), these impacts are already evident. While freshwater requiring coastal forests of the Florida Keys, specifically hardwood hammock and pine rockland communities, have co-existed with hurricanes and fires over the past several thousand years, recent decades have seen the extent of these forests seriously diminished. Using an approach that combines remote sensing techniques and ground-based measurements of tree basal area, this study quantifies changes to coastal forests of the lower Florida Keys over the last three decades (1983-2012) in reference to known disturbances and looks at recovery from Hurricane Wilma (2005), which flooded the islands with up to 8 feet of salt water. Yearly vegetation indices were derived from a 30-year catalog of Landsat TM 4-5 satellite imagery, with cloud-free images available for most years. Images were acquired mostly in the months of January through March (mid-dry season). Whenever possible, cloud-free images acquired in other months were used to track how indices changed seasonally. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) was used to document changes in vegetation drought stress and TM band 5 was used to approximate changes in tree basal area. Areas of hardwood hammock and pine rockland occurring on eight islands were extracted for the analysis from a landcover map digitized from a combination of elevation, canopy height, and high resolution aerial imagery. Additionally, seven 60 m by 10 m permanent plots, established and first sampled in 1990 on 2 of the islands, were resampled for tree basal area and shrub

  17. Hurricane Impacts on Ecological Services and Economic Values of Coastal Urban Forest: A Case Study of Pensacola, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    As urbanized areas continue to grow and green spaces dwindle, the importance of urban forests increases for both ecologically derived health benefits and for their potential to mitigate climate change. This study examined pre- and post- hurricane conditions of Pensacola's urban f...

  18. USING C-BAND SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR DATA TO MONITOR FORESTED WETLAND HYDROLOGY IN MARYLAND'S COASTAL PLAIN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wetland hydrology (inundation and soil moisture) is the dominant control on wetland function and extent, but scientists predict that it will be altered due to climate change and anthropogenic impact. Unfortunately, broad-scale forested wetland hydrology is difficult to monitor with ground-based and ...

  19. Headwater Stream Temperature Response to Forest Harvesting in Coastal British Columbia, Canada: Influences of Riparian Buffer Width, Channel Morphology and Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Gomi, T.; Dhakal, A.

    2003-12-01

    Forest harvesting can influence stream temperature regimes, and the potentially deleterious impacts of higher temperatures on salmonids and other species have generated significant debate. One common approach to protecting streams is to leave a riparian buffer to provide shade. However, little information has been collected on the effectiveness of different buffer widths. We report the results of a 6-year field experiment to evaluate the effects of different riparian buffer widths on stream and riparian ecosystems, including stream temperature response, in headwater streams in coastal British Columbia. The experiment included 13 streams, with at least three being assigned to each of four treatments, including no harvesting (80 yr-old second growth conifer riparian forest), clear-cut harvesting with 10 m and 30 m riparian buffers, and clear-cut harvesting with no buffer. Regression analysis was used to calibrate the pre-harvest data for each treatment stream with one of the control streams, to provide a basis for estimating post-harvest treatment effects. Autoregressive and heteroskedastic errors were included in the regression model, because stream temperature exhibited serial correlation and the error variance increased with stream temperature. Temperature response was substantial in the clearcut treatments with no buffers, with maximum temperatures increasing by up to 8 degrees C. The magnitude of temperature response amongst the no-buffer treatments varied with channel morphology, particularly in relation to bank shading and stream depth. The treatment effect for daily maximum water temperature increased with decreasing flow and increasing maximum air temperature on the current day, and also exhibited significant autocorrelation, indicating that the sequence of daily weather conditions can influence the magnitude of temperature response.

  20. Multivariable integration method for estimating sea surface salinity in coastal waters from in situ data and remotely sensed data using random forest algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meiling; Liu, Xiangnan; Liu, Da; Ding, Chao; Jiang, Jiale

    2015-02-01

    A random forest (RF) model was created to estimate sea surface salinity (SSS) in the Hong Kong Sea, China, by integrating in situ and remotely sensed data. Optical remotely sensed data from China's HJ-1 satellite and in situ data were collected. The prediction model of salinity was developed by in situ environmental variables in the ocean, namely sea surface temperature (SST), pH, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and Chl-a, which are strongly related to SSS according to Pearson's correlation analysis. The large-scale SSS was estimated using the established salinity model with the same input parameters. The ordinary kriging interpolation using in situ data and the retrieval model based on remotely sensed data were developed to obtain the large-scale input parameters of the model. The different number of trees in the forest (ntree) and the number of features at each node (mtry) were adjusted in the RF model. The results showed that an optimum RF model was obtained with mtry=32 and ntree=2000, and the most important variable of the model for SSS prediction was SST, followed by TIN, Chl-a and pH. Such an RF model was successful in evaluating the temporal-spatial distribution of SSS and had a relatively low estimation error. The root mean square error (RMSE) was less than 2.0 psu, the mean absolute error (MAE) was below 1.5 psu, and the absolute percent error (APE) was lower than 5%. The final RF salinity model was then compared with a multiple linear regression model (MLR), a back-propagation artificial neural network model, and a classification and regression trees (CART) model. The RF had a lower estimation error than the other three models. In addition, the RF model was used extensively under different periods and could be universal. This demonstrated that the RF algorithm has the capability to estimate SSS in coastal waters by integrating in situ and remotely sensed data.

  1. Lejeunea hodgsoniana, a newly described, long recognised Lejeunea (Jungermanniopsida, Lejeuneaceae) from lowland coastal forest habitats in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Lewington, Rodney J.; Beveridge, Peter; Renner, Matt A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lejeunea hodgsoniana Grolle ex R.J.Lewington, P.Beveridge & M.A.M.Renner sp. nov., A taxon originally recognised by Riclef Grolle in 1980, but not described, known from a number of coastal sites in the North Island, the northern extremity of the South Island, the Kermadec Islands, and the Chatham Islands of New Zealand, is described and illustrated. The species is distinctive amongst species of Lejeunea in the Australasian flora in the combination of complanate shoots, relatively large broadly-ovate leaf lobes, with some lobules bearing prominent multicellular triangular teeth on a base of two to four cells, the flattened perianths having a faint dorsal carina. Its publication brings the number of species recognized for New Zealand to 14, seven of which are currently considered endemic. PMID:24399893

  2. Conserving biodiversity in managed forests: Lessons from natural forests

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.J. ); Spies, T.A.; Swanson, F.J.; Ohmann, J.L. )

    1991-06-01

    In this article, the authors review patterns of disturbance and succession in natural forests in the Coastal Northwest and compare structure and composition across an age gradient of unmanaged stands. Stand and landscape patterns in managed forests are then examined and compared with those in natural forests. They draw on the results to offer guidance on the management of Coastal Northwest forests that are dedicated to both wood production and conservation of biodiversity. Finally, the authors suggest that the lessons learned from natural forests here may be useful in other biomes, where unmanaged forests are rare and standards for designing seminatural forests are not available.

  3. Colonization and decomposition of salal (Gaultheria shallon) leaf litter by saprobic fungi in successional forests on coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Osono, Takashi; Iwamoto, Susumu; Trofymow, John A

    2008-06-01

    The colonization of leaf litter by saprobic fungi was studied in old-growth and post-harvest successional Douglas-fir forests on southeast Vancouver Island, British Columbia. This study focused on leaf litter of salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh.), a dominant understory shrub in all stands. Salal litter is characterized by the occurrence of bleached portions attributable to fungal colonization of the litter and to the variable decomposition of recalcitrant compounds, such as lignin. Analyses of proximate chemical fractions, fungal assemblages on the bleached leaf area, and pure culture decomposition assays indicated that Marasmius sp. and Coccomyces sp. were responsible for rapid decomposition and bleaching of salal leaf litter. The bleached area accounted for 17%-22% of total area of salal leaf litter collected in immature (40-60 years old), mature (85-105 years old), and old-growth (more than 290 years old) stands, but for only 2% in regeneration (5-15 years old) stands. The reduction of bleached leaf area occupied by Marasmius sp. and Coccomyces sp. in regeneration stands could be due to the changes in microenvironmental conditions on the forest floor, in litter quality, or in food-web structure in soils. The decrease of fungi able to decay recalcitrant compounds may lead to a reduction of salal decomposition rates in clear-cut sites that would persist until canopy closure occurs. PMID:18535627

  4. Variation in mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovelock, C.E.; Feller, Ilka C.; McKee, K.L.; Thompson, R.

    2005-01-01

    Mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics were examined in the extensive mangroves of Bocas del Toro, Republic of Panama. Forest structure was characterized to determine if spatial vegetation patterns were repeated over the Bocas del Toro landscape. Using a series of permanent plots and transects we found that the forests of Bocas del Toro were dominated by Rhizophora mangle with very few individuals of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Despite this low species diversity, there was large variation in forest structure and in edaphic conditions (salinity, concentration of available phosphorus, Eh and sulphide concentration). Aboveground biomass varied 20-fold, from 6.8 Mg ha-1 in dwarf forests to 194.3 Mg ha-1 in the forests fringing the land. But variation in forest structure was predictable across the intertidal zone. There was a strong tree height gradient from seaward fringe (mean tree height 3.9 m), decreasing in stature in the interior dwarf forests (mean tree height 0.7 m), and increasing in stature in forests adjacent to the terrestrial forest (mean tree height 4.1 m). The predictable variation in forest structure emerges due to the complex interactions among edaphic and plant factors. Identifying predictable patterns in forest structure will aid in scaling up the ecosystem services provided by mangrove forests in coastal landscapes. Copyright 2005 College of Arts and Sciences.

  5. Structural Characterization of New Peptide Variants Produced by Cyanobacteria from the Brazilian Atlantic Coastal Forest Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Miriam; Andreote, Ana Paula Dini; Fiore, Marli Fatima; Dörr, Felipe Augusto; Pinto, Ernani

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria from underexplored and extreme habitats are attracting increasing attention in the search for new bioactive substances. However, cyanobacterial communities from tropical and subtropical regions are still largely unknown, especially with respect to metabolite production. Among the structurally diverse secondary metabolites produced by these organisms, peptides are by far the most frequently described structures. In this work, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization coupled to high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry with positive ion detection was applied to study the peptide profile of a group of cyanobacteria isolated from the Southeastern Brazilian coastal forest. A total of 38 peptides belonging to three different families (anabaenopeptins, aeruginosins, and cyanopeptolins) were detected in the extracts. Of the 38 peptides, 37 were detected here for the first time. New structural features were proposed based on mass accuracy data and isotopic patterns derived from full scan and MS/MS spectra. Interestingly, of the 40 surveyed strains only nine were confirmed to be peptide producers; all of these strains belonged to the order Nostocales (three Nostoc sp., two Desmonostoc sp. and four Brasilonema sp.). PMID:26096276

  6. Radarsat-1 and ERS InSAR analysis over southeastern coastal Louisiana: Implications for mapping water-level changes beneath swamp forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Kwoun, Oh-Ig

    2008-01-01

    Detailed analysis of C-band European Remote Sensing 1 and 2 (ERS-1/ERS-2) and Radarsat-1 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) imagery was conducted to study water-level changes of coastal wetlands of southeastern Louisiana. Radar backscattering and InSAR coherence suggest that the dominant radar backscattering mechanism for swamp forest and saline marsh is double-bounce backscattering, implying that InSAR images can be used to estimate water-level changes with unprecedented spatial details. On the one hand, InSAR images suggest that water-level changes over the study site can be dynamic and spatially heterogeneous and cannot be represented by readings from sparsely distributed gauge stations. On the other hand, InSAR phase measurements are disconnected by structures and other barriers and require absolute water-level measurements from gauge stations or other sources to convert InSAR phase values to absolute water-level changes. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  7. Stocks of carbon and nitrogen and partitioning between above- and belowground pools in the Brazilian coastal Atlantic Forest elevation range

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Simone A; Alves, Luciana F; Duarte-Neto, Paulo J; Martins, Susian C; Veiga, Larissa G; Scaranello, Marcos A; Picollo, Marisa C; Camargo, Plinio B; do Carmo, Janaina B; Neto, Eráclito Sousa; Santos, Flavio A M; Joly, Carlos A; Martinelli, Luiz A

    2011-01-01

    We estimated carbon and nitrogen stocks in aboveground biomass (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB) along an elevation range in forest sites located on the steep slopes of the Serra do Mar on the north coast of the State of São Paulo, southeast Brazil. In elevations of 100 m (lowland), 400 m (submontane), and 1000 m (montane) four 1-ha plots were established, and above- (live and dead) and belowground (live and dead) biomass were determined. Carbon and nitrogen concentrations in each compartment were determined and used to convert biomass into carbon and nitrogen stocks. The carbon aboveground stock (CAGB) varied along the elevation range from approximately 110 to 150 Mg·ha−1, and nitrogen aboveground stock (NAGB), varied from approximately 1.0 to 1.9 Mg·ha−1. The carbon belowground stock (CBGB) and the nitrogen belowground stock (NBGB) were significantly higher than the AGB and varied along the elevation range from approximately 200–300 Mg·ha−1, and from 14 to 20 Mg·ha−1, respectively. Finally, the total carbon stock (CTOTAL) varied from approximately 320 to 460 Mg·ha−1, and the nitrogen total stock (NTOTAL) from approximately 15 to 22 Mg·ha−1. Most of the carbon and nitrogen stocks were found belowground and not aboveground as normally found in lowland tropical forests. The above- and belowground stocks, and consequently, the total stocks of carbon and nitrogen increased significantly with elevation. As the soil and air temperature also decreased significantly with elevation, we found a significantly inverse relationship between carbon and nitrogen stocks and temperature. Using this inverse relationship, we made a first approach estimate that an increase of 1°C in soil temperature would decrease the carbon and nitrogen stocks in approximately 17 Mg·ha−1 and 1 Mg·ha−1 of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. PMID:22393511

  8. Population structure, persistence, and seasonality of autochthonous Escherichia coli in temperate, coastal forest soil from a Great Lakes watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Sadowsky, M.J.; Ishii, S.

    2006-01-01

    The common occurrence of Escherichia coli in temperate soils has previously been reported, however, there are few studies to date to characterize its source, distribution, persistent capability and genetic diversity. In this study, undisturbed, forest soils within six randomly selected 0.5 m2 exclosure plots (covered by netting of 2.3 mm2 mesh size) were monitored from March to October 2003 for E. coli in order to describe its numerical and population characteristics. Culturable E. coli occurred in 88% of the samples collected, with overall mean counts of 16 MPN g-1, ranging from <1 to 1657 (n = 66). Escherichia coli counts did not correlate with substrate moisture content, air, or soil temperatures, suggesting that seasonality were not a strong factor in population density control. Mean E. coli counts in soil samples (n = 60) were significantly higher inside than immediately outside the exclosures; E. coli distribution within the exclosures was patchy. Repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Rep-PCR) demonstrated genetic heterogeneity of E. coli within and among exclosure sites, and the soil strains were genetically distinct from animal (E. coli) strains tested (i.e. gulls, terns, deer and most geese). These results suggest that E. coli can occur and persist for extended periods in undisturbed temperate forest soils independent of recent allochthonous input and season, and that the soil E. coli populations formed a cohesive phylogenetic group in comparison to the set of fecal strains with which they were compared. Thus, in assessing E. coli sources within a stream, it is important to differentiate background soil loadings from inputs derived from animal and human fecal contamination. ?? 2005 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Modeling the Effect of Geomorphic Change Triggered by Large Wood Addition on Salmon Habitat in a Forested Coastal Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bair, R.; Segura, C.; Lorion, C.

    2015-12-01

    Large wood (LW) additions are often part of fish habitat restorations in the PNW where historic forest clear-cutting limited natural wood recruitment. These efforts' relative successes are rarely reported in terms of ecological significance to different life stages of fish. Understanding the effectiveness of LW additions will contribute to successfully managing forest land. In this study we quantify the geomorphic change of a restoration project involving LW additions to three alluvial reaches in Mill Creek, OR. The reaches are 110-130m in plane-bed morphology and drain 2-16km2. We quantify the change in available habitat to different life stages of coho salmon in terms of velocity (v), shear stress (t), flow depth, and grain size distributions (GSD) considering existing thresholds in the literature for acceptable habitat. Flow conditions before and after LW additions are assessed using a 2D hydrodynamic model (FaSTMECH). Model inputs include detailed channel topography, discharge, and surface GSD. The spatial-temporal variability of sediment transport was also quantified based the modeled t distributions and the GSD to document changes in the overall geomorphic regime. Initial modeling results for pre wood conditions show mean t and v values ranging between 0 and 26N/m2 and between 0 and 2.4m/s, respectively for up to bankfull flow (Qbf). The distributions of both t and v become progressively wider and peak at higher values as flow increases with the notable exception at Qbf for which the area of low velocity increases noticeably. The spatial distributions of velocity results indicates that the extent of suitable habitat for adult coho decreased by 18% between flows 30 and 55% of BF. However the area of suitable habitat increased by 15% between 0.55Qbf and Qbf as the flow spreads from the channel into the floodplain. We expect the LW will enhance floodplain connectivity and thus available habitat by creating additional areas of low v during winter flows.

  10. Seven Guideposts for Tropical Rain Forest Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Identifies seven guideposts for tropical rain forest education. Aids teachers in finding structure and creating educational experiences that promote more complete understanding of tropical rain forests. (CCM)

  11. Coastal resource degradation in the tropics: does the tragedy of the commons apply for coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Clive; Salvat, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    The keynote paper by Garrett Hardin 44 years ago introduced the term 'tragedy of the commons' into our language (Hardin, 1968); this term is now used widely, but it is neither universally accepted nor fully understood. Irrespective, the 'tragedy of the commons' is an increasing reality for more than 500 million people that rely on the biodiversity resources and services of tropical coral reefs, mangrove forests, seagrass beds and associated fisheries. These natural resources continue to decline despite major advances in our scientific understanding of how ecosystems and human populations interact, and the application of considerable conservation and management efforts at scales from local user communities to oceans. Greater effort will be required to avert increasing damage from over-exploitation, pollution and global climate change; all deriving from increasing exploitation driven by poverty and progress i.e. continuing to expand development indefinitely and extraction of resources at industrial scales. However, the 'tragedy' concept has been widely criticized as a simple metaphor for a much larger set of problems and solutions. We argue that the 'tragedy' is essentially real and will continue to threaten the lives of millions of people unless there are some major moral and policy shifts to reverse increasing damage to coastal habitats and resources. We agree with the conclusion by Hardin that the solution to the tragedy will not be through the application of natural sciences, but via implementing exceedingly difficult and controversial moral decisions. An extreme example of a moral and controversial direction suggested by Hardin was in re-examining the 'freedom to breed' as an inherent human value. The need for 'moral decisions' is even greater in 2012. PMID:22349467

  12. Chemical Indicators of Groundwater-Stream Water Interactions in a Forested, Wetland-Dominated Watershed within the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, C. G.; Vulava, V. M.; Callahan, T. J.; Ginn, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    The dynamics of groundwater recharge have been well-documented in a variety of landscapes and soil types yet there is limited information in lowland watersheds. We studied groundwater recharge and its relationship to stream flow in a third-order, 7000-ha forested watershed in the Atlantic coastal plain of the U.S. The objective was to delineate the different sources of water moving into the riparian corridor and stream channel of Turkey Creek, a small ephemeral blackwater stream in a rural area near Charleston, South Carolina. Our methods included collecting stream water and discrete-depth groundwater samples from piezometers installed in transects orthogonal to and along the stream channel. Time series data for water level and water chemistry showed clear signals due to seasonal climate trends, individual storm events, and daily evapotranspiration forcing.. Concentrations of natural chemical tracers (Na+, Ca2+, SO42-, Cl-, HCO3- and water quality indicators (pH, temperature, specific conductance) were related to fluctuating water table levels in the stream. End member mixing analysis of the chemical tracer data from stream, groundwater, and precipitation samples indicated that precipitation and shallow groundwater from the upper meter of streambed sediment played a significant role in stream discharge. However, seasonal variation in precipitation patterns affected the relative distribution of precipitation and the shallow groundwater. As expected, during dry periods, groundwater was a more significant contributor to streamflow than during relatively wet periods. Deeper groundwater seemed to play a relatively minor role to streamflow in this watershed. Ultimately, the aim of this study is to develop a geochemically constrained groundwater-surface water model for lowland watersheds for this and similar regions that are under increasing threat from burgeoning population, associated land development, and resulting changes to the hydrologic cycle in these systems.

  13. Quantifying spatiotemporal dynamics of root-zone soil water in a mixed forest on subtropical coastal sand dune using surface ERT and spatial TDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Junliang; Scheuermann, Alexander; Guyot, Adrien; Baumgartl, Thomas; Lockington, David A.

    2015-04-01

    We jointly used surface electrical resistivity tomography (surface ERT) and spatial time domain reflectometry (spatial TDR) to quantify spatial patterns and seasonal dynamics of root-zone soil water under three contrasting vegetation covers in a sand dune forest of subtropical coastal Australia. We wanted to obtain a better understanding of the applicability of both techniques in these environments as well as investigate vegetation-soil water interactions. Soil temperature and topographic changes were taken into account in soil resistivity interpretation. The results demonstrated the capability of both surface ERT and spatial TDR to spatially monitor root-zone soil water dynamics, with root mean square error (RMSE) <0.018 cm3 cm-3 and absolute deviation <0.034 cm3 cm-3 between gravimetrically derived water content and those derived by the two geophysical techniques. Soil water was depleted to low levels during the dry season but quickly replenished with onset of the wet season. Soil water content profiles revealed obvious differences in water dynamics of the dune sands under different vegetation covers, with highest infiltration and deep drainage under the grassland compared with tree cover. The spatial variation in soil water content due to rainfall interception by trees, root water uptake and preferential infiltration associated with stemflow could be detected by the joint use of surface ERT and spatial TDR. We conclude that surface ERT can be an effective method for quantifying two-dimensional root-zone soil water dynamics and understanding the hydrological processes in these sand dune environments, if complemented by the one-dimensional high-resolution soil water measurements from spatial TDR.

  14. Developing custom fire behavior fuel models from ecologically complex fuel structures for upper Atlantic Coastal Plain forests.

    SciTech Connect

    Parresol, Bernard, R.; Scott, Joe, H.; Andreu, Anne; Prichard, Susan; Kurth, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    Currently geospatial fire behavior analyses are performed with an array of fire behavior modeling systems such as FARSITE, FlamMap, and the Large Fire Simulation System. These systems currently require standard or customized surface fire behavior fuel models as inputs that are often assigned through remote sensing information. The ability to handle hundreds or thousands of measured surface fuelbeds representing the fine scale variation in fire behavior on the landscape is constrained in terms of creating compatible custom fire behavior fuel models. In this study, we demonstrate an objective method for taking ecologically complex fuelbeds from inventory observations and converting those into a set of custom fuel models that can be mapped to the original landscape. We use an original set of 629 fuel inventory plots measured on an 80,000 ha contiguous landscape in the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. From models linking stand conditions to component fuel loads, we impute fuelbeds for over 6000 stands. These imputed fuelbeds were then converted to fire behavior parameters under extreme fuel moisture and wind conditions (97th percentile) using the fuel characteristic classification system (FCCS) to estimate surface fire rate of spread, surface fire flame length, shrub layer reaction intensity (heat load), non-woody layer reaction intensity, woody layer reaction intensity, and litter-lichen-moss layer reaction intensity. We performed hierarchical cluster analysis of the stands based on the values of the fire behavior parameters. The resulting 7 clusters were the basis for the development of 7 custom fire behavior fuel models from the cluster centroids that were calibrated against the FCCS point data for wind and fuel moisture. The latter process resulted in calibration against flame length as it was difficult to obtain a simultaneous calibration against both rate of spread and flame length. The clusters based on FCCS fire behavior

  15. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Training and test data sets for CAM1S from NS-001 MSS data for two dates (geometrically adjusted to 30 meter resolution) were used to evaluate wavelength band. Two sets of tapes containing digitized HH and HV polarization data were obtained. Because the SAR data on the 9 track tapes contained no meaningful data, the 7 track tapes were copied onto 9 track tapes at LARS. The LARSYS programs were modified and a program was written to reformat the digitized SAR data into a LARSYS format. The radar imagery is being qualitatively interpreted. Results are to be used to identify possible cover types, to produce a classification map to aid in the numerical evaluation classification of radar data, and to develop an interpretation key for radar imagery. The four spatial resolution data sets were analyzed. A program was developed to reduce the spatial distortions resulting from variable viewing distance, and geometrically adjusted data sets were generated. A flowchart of steps taken to geometrically adjust a data set from the NS-001 scanner is presented.

  16. Carbon Emissions from Residue Burn Piles Estimated Using LiDAR or Ground Based Measurements of Pile Volumes in a Coastal Douglas-Fir Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Coops, N.; Hayhurst, D.

    2012-12-01

    Following forest harvest, residues left on site and roadsides are often disposed of to reduce fire risk and free planting space. In coastal British Columbia burn piles are the main method of disposal, particularly for accumulations from log processing. Quantification of residue wood in piles is required for: smoke emission estimates, C budget calculations, billable waste assessment, harvest efficiency monitoring, and determination of bioenergy potentials. A second-growth Douglas-fir dominated (DF1949) site on eastern Vancouver Island and subject of C flux and budget studies since 1998, was clearcut in winter 2011, residues piled in spring and burned in fall. Prior to harvest, the site was divided into 4 blocks to account for harvest plans and ecosite conditions. Total harvested wood volume was scaled for each block. Residue pile wood volume was determined by a standard Waste and Residue Survey (WRS) using field estimates of pile base area and plot density (wood volume / 0.005 ha plot) on 2 piles per block, by a smoke emissions geometric method with pile volumes estimated as ellipsoidal paraboloids and packing ratios (wood volume / pile volume) for 2 piles per block, as well as by five other GIS methods using pile volumes and areas from LiDAR and orthophotography flown August 2011, a LiDAR derived digital elevation model (DEM) from 2008, and total scaled wood volumes of 8 sample piles disassembled November 2011. A weak but significant negative relationship was found between pile packing ratio and pile volume. Block level avoidable+unavoidable residue pile wood volumes from the WRS method (20.0 m3 ha-1 SE 2.8) were 30%-50% of the geometric (69.0 m3 ha-1 SE 18.0) or five GIS/LiDAR (48.0 to 65.7 m3 ha-1 ) methods. Block volumes using the 2008 LiDAR DEM (unshifted 48.0 m3 ha-1 SE 3.9, shifted 53.6 m3 ha-1 SE 4.2) to account for pre-existing humps or hollows beneath piles were not different from those using the 2011 LiDAR DEM (50.3 m3 ha-1 SE 4.0). The block volume ratio

  17. Coastal fog during summer drought improves the water status of sapling trees more than adult trees in a California pine forest.

    PubMed

    Baguskas, Sara A; Still, Christopher J; Fischer, Douglas T; D'Antonio, Carla M; King, Jennifer Y

    2016-05-01

    Fog water inputs can offset seasonal drought in the Mediterranean climate of coastal California and may be critical to the persistence of many endemic plant species. The ability to predict plant species response to potential changes in the fog regime hinges on understanding the ways that fog can impact plant physiological function across life stages. Our study uses a direct metric of water status, namely plant water potential, to understand differential responses of adult versus sapling trees to seasonal drought and fog water inputs. We place these measurements within a water balance framework that incorporates the varying climatic and soil property impacts on water budgets and deficit. We conducted our study at a coastal and an inland site within the largest stand of the regionally endemic bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) on Santa Cruz Island. Our results show conclusively that summer drought negatively affects the water status of sapling more than adult trees and that sapling trees are also more responsive to changes in shallow soil moisture inputs from fog water deposition. Moreover, between the beginning and end of a large, late-season fog drip event, water status increased more for saplings than for adults. Relative to non-foggy conditions, we found that fog water reduces modeled peak water deficit by 80 and 70 % at the inland and coastal sites, respectively. Results from our study inform mechanistically based predictions of how population dynamics of this and other coastal species may be affected by a warmer, drier, and potentially less foggy future. PMID:26852312

  18. Monitoring the Condition of the Estuaries of the United States: The National Coastal Assessment Experience

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal waters in the United States include estuaries, bays, sounds, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, intertidal zones, mangrove and kelp forests, seagrass meadows, and coastal ocean and upwelling areas (i.e. deep water rising to surface). These coastal areas encompass a wide diver...

  19. Design of a field experiment for injection of natural colloids in a sandy coastal plain aquifer, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute, Georgetown, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Toran, L.E.; McCarthy, J.F. ); Williams, T.M. . Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Inst.)

    1990-06-01

    This report summarizes the design of field injection experiments that constitute one task in the larger project described in the report Experiments Using Natural Organics.'' In the experiment, we plan to inject a large volume of colloidal organic matter (COM) into a sandy, unconsolidated coastal aquifer and observe the migration of COM into the groundwater flow system. The report provides a brief overview of the research project, including hypotheses to be tested; describes the purpose of the field injection experiments; summarizes the site characterization preliminary to the experiments; and explains the design of the experiments. 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Neto, E.; Carmo, J. B.; Keller, M.; Martins, S. C.; Alves, L. F.; Vieira, S. A.; Piccolo, M. C.; Camargo, P.; Couto, H. T. Z.; Joly, C. A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2011-03-01

    Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes along an altitudinal transect and the relation between these fluxes and other climatic, edaphic and biological variables (temperature, fine roots, litterfall, and soil moisture). Annual means of N2O flux were 3.9 (± 0.4), 1.0 (± 0.1), and 0.9 (± 0.2) ng N cm-2 h-1 at altitudes 100, 400, and 1000 m, respectively. On an annual basis, soils consumed CH4 at all altitudes with annual means of -1.0 (± 0.2), -1.8 (± 0.3), and -1.6 (± 0.1) mg m-2 d-1 at 100 m, 400 m and 1000 m, respectively. Estimated mean annual fluxes of CO2 were 3.5, 3.6, and 3.4 μmol m-2 s-1 at altitudes 100, 400 and 1000 m, respectively. N2O fluxes were significantly influenced by soil moisture and temperature. Soil-atmosphere exchange of CH4 responded to changes in soil moisture. Carbon dioxide emissions were strongly influenced by soil temperature. While the temperature gradient observed at our sites is only an imperfect proxy for climatic warming, our results suggest that an increase in air and soil temperatures may result in increases in decomposition rates and gross inorganic nitrogen fluxes that could support consequent increases in soil N2O and CO2 emissions and soil CH4 consumption.

  1. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Neto, E.; Carmo, J. B.; Keller, M.; Martins, S. C.; Alves, L. F.; Vieira, S. A.; Piccolo, M. C.; Camargo, P.; Couto, H. T. Z.; Joly, C. A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2010-07-01

    Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) as well as methane (CH4) emissions and consumptions along an altitudinal transect and the relation between these fluxes and other climatic, edaphic and biological variables (temperature, fine roots, litterfall, and soil moisture). Annual means of N2O flux were 2.6 (±0.5), 0.9 (±0.1), and 0.7 (±0.2) ng N cm-2 h-1 at altitudes 100, 400, and 1000 m, respectively. On an annual basis, soils consumed CH4 at all altitudes with annual means of -1.0 (±0.2), -1.8 (±0.1), and -1.6 (±0.3) mg m-2 d-1 at 100 m, 400 m and 1000 m, respectively. Although not sampled in the hottest and wettest portion of the year because of instrument malfunctions, mean fluxes of CO2 averaged 3.6 (±0.2), 3.5 (±0.3), and 3.1 (±0.3) μmol m-2 s-1 at altitudes 100, 400 and 1000 m, respectively. N2O fluxes were significantly influenced by soil moisture and temperature. Soil-atmosphere exchange of methane responded to changes in soil moisture. Carbon dioxide emissions were strongly influenced by soil temperature. While the temperature gradient observed at our sites is only an imperfect proxy for climate warming, our results suggest that increasing temperatures will result in increased in microbial activity with a consequent increase in soil N2O and CO2 emissions and soil CH4 consumption.

  2. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  3. Edaphic and climatic effects on forest stand development, net primary production, and net ecosystem productivity simulated for Coastal Plain loblolly pine in Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, D. A.; Wynne, R. H.; Seiler, J. R.

    2008-03-01

    We used SECRETS-3PG to simulate net primary production (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) growing on the Virginia Coastal Plain, focusing on the effects of soils and climate, and stand age over a 30-year rotation. Soil type was influential, with heavier soils having greater NEP earlier in the rotation than lighter, sandier soils, although these differences disappeared by the rotation end. Climate had only a small effect. Stand age had the largest effect, with simulated annual NEP strongly negative during the first 5 to 8 years of development but peaking at +600 g C m-2 a-1 by age 13. Modest declines in NEP after 13 years were associated with declines in LAI as stands aged. The 30-year mean annual NEP was positive over most of the study area but in a few cases was indistinguishable from zero for northwestern portions of the study. Simulated annual NPP rose from zero to over 2300 g biomass m-2 a-1 by age 12, after which it declined to ˜1700 g biomass m-2 a-1 by rotation end. These results suggest that loblolly pine plantations on the Coastal Plain of Virginia may become net annual C sinks 5 to 9 years after planting but that when averaged over a whole rotation the net carbon accumulation during the baseline rotation simulated here is indistinguishable from zero. Our results also suggest, however, that this finding is sensitive to the length of the rotation, soil type (and thus fertility), and climate, implying that changes in management practices could significantly influence the carbon balance in managed loblolly pine plantations.

  4. Using multi-frequency radar and discrete-return LiDAR measurements to estimate above-ground biomass and biomass components in a coastal temperate forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Olivier W.; Coops, Nicholas C.; Wulder, Michael A.; Marshall, Peter L.; McCardle, Adrian

    2012-04-01

    Height measurements from small-footprint discrete-return LiDAR and backscatter coefficients from C- and L-band radar were used independently and in combination to estimate above-ground component and total biomass for a coniferous temperate forest, located on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Reference biomass data were obtained from plot-level data and used for comparison against the LiDAR and radar-based biomass models. For the LiDAR-only model, height metrics such as mean first return height and percentiles (e.g., 10th and 90th) of first returns correlated best to total above-ground and stem biomass. While percent of first returns above 2 m and percentiles (75th and 90th) of first returns height metrics correlated best to crown biomass. A comparison between above-ground components and total biomass indicate that stem biomass displayed the highest relationship with the LiDAR measurements while crown biomass showed the lowest relationship with relative root mean squared error ranging from 16% to 22%, respectively. Alternatively, the radar-only models indicated that for C-band radar, a combination of HH and VV backscatter demonstrated the most significant correlation with forest biomass compared to coherence based models with a relative root mean squared error of 53%. For L-band radar, a combination of HH and HV backscatter showed the most significant correlation compared to coherence based models with a relative root mean squared error of 44%. Exploring a mixture of C- and L-band backscatter and coherence based models revealed that a combination of C-HV and L-HV coherence magnitudes provided the best radar relationship with forest biomass with a relative root mean squared error of 35%. Also for all radar-based models, L- and C-band backscatter and coherence magnitudes were poorly correlated with individual biomass components when compared to total above-ground biomass. The addition of C- and L-band backscatter and coherence variables to the Li

  5. Adaptation to Sea Level Rise in Coastal Units of the National Park Service (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavers, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    83 National Park Service (NPS) units contain nearly 12,000 miles of coastal, estuarine and Great Lakes shoreline and their associated resources. Iconic natural features exist along active shorelines in NPS units, including, e.g., Cape Cod, Padre Island, Hawaii Volcanoes, and the Everglades. Iconic cultural resources managed by NPS include the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, Fort Sumter, the Golden Gate, and heiaus and fish traps along the coast of Hawaii. Impacts anticipated from sea level rise include inundation and flooding of beaches and low lying marshes, shoreline erosion of coastal areas, and saltwater intrusion into the water table. These impacts and other coastal hazards will threaten park beaches, marshes, and other resources and values; alter the viability of coastal roads; and require the NPS to re-evaluate the financial, safety, and environmental implications of maintaining current projects and implementing future projects in ocean and coastal parks in the context of sea level rise. Coastal erosion will increase as sea levels rise. Barrier islands along the coast of Louisiana and North Carolina may have already passed the threshold for maintaining island integrity in any scenario of sea level rise (U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Program Report 4.1). Consequently, sea level rise is expected to hasten the disappearance of historic coastal villages, coastal wetlands, forests, and beaches, and threaten coastal roads, homes, and businesses. While sea level is rising in most coastal parks, some parks are experiencing lower water levels due to isostatic rebound and lower lake levels. NPS funded a Coastal Vulnerability Project to evaluate the physical and geologic factors affecting 25 coastal parks. The USGS Open File Reports for each park are available at http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/. These reports were designed to inform park planning efforts. NPS conducted a Storm Vulnerability Project to provide ocean and coastal

  6. Impacts of Forest Management, Climate, and Productivity on Soil CO2 Efflux from Loblolly Pine (Pinus Taeda L.) Stands Located on the Virginia piedmont and the South Carolina coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, C. M.; Seiler, J. R.; Wiseman, P. E.

    2003-12-01

    Managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests occupy over 13 million hectares or nearly 1.5% of the total land area in the United States. Typically, over 70% of stored carbon (C) in forests resides in soils, emphasizing the need to better understand the impact forest management has on belowground processes affecting C storage. We measured soil CO2 efflux (Ec) from loblolly pine stands located on the Virginia piedmont (VAp) and SC coastal plain (SCcp) in efforts to quantify soil C loss from sites differing in climate, productivity, and common management practices. VAp sites were less productive and subjected to a cooler climate than SCcp sites. VAp sites were burned prior to planting as a form of weed and slash reduction while SCcp sites were bedded to raise planting rows above the water table. Ec was measured monthly for one year in four replicated age classes (1 to >20 years) on both VAp and SCcp sites using a closed dynamic chamber. Spatial variability for a given site was accounted for by taking measurements both near the base of the tree and between rows. Concurrent with Ec measurements, soil temperature (top 10 cm), soil moisture (top 10 cm), stand age, and site index were recorded. Empirical models were developed for the VAp and SCcp sites to assess the relationship between Ec and potential drivers. Soil temperature (top 10 cm) was the major Ec driver on both VAp and SCcp sites, explaining half or more of the variance. Stand age was positively correlated with Ec on VAp sites, but we observed no relationship between stand age and Ec on the SCcp sites. Using the empirical models developed from small chamber measurements, we scaled up soil C losses to the stand level for a 20-year rotation. We estimate a total efflux rate of 278.6 Mg C/ha over a 20-year rotation for SCcp and 210.9 Mg C/ha over the same time period for VAp. The contribution of heterotrophic respiration to Ec was greatest early in the rotation on the SCcp sites, where soils were tilled and

  7. Effects of Landscape History and Forest Management on Landslide-Driven Sediment Dynamics in Mountain Drainage Basins of Coastal British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brardinoni, F.

    2006-12-01

    Landslide magnitude-frequency (LMF) and yield-area relations are examined for evaluating landslide-driven sediment dynamics in the Tsitika and Eve Rivers (612 km{2}), British Columbia. Research methods couple field work and air photo interpretation (API) in a GIS environment. API covers a seventy year time window. Results show that the long history of glacial erosion and the more recent forest management affect contemporary landslide activity in many respects. First, the nature and distribution of Quaternary-derived surficial deposits confounds primary lithologic effects; therefore, topographies underlain by less resistant geology are not typically associated with higher rates of landsliding. Second, the stratifications of LMF by landslide and terrain attributes have allowed detecting for the first time characteristic landslide length scales dependent on (i) movement style (i.e., slide, avalanche, and flow); (ii) type of material mobilized (i.e., bedrock and debris); and (iii) land use (i.e., forest clearing). As a conclusion, landscape bio-morphometric controls override the theoretical self-organized criticality of LMF relations. Third, slope-area analysis of landslide initiation and deposition zones reveals that bedrock landslides dominate the landscape on mountain summits and ridges; these processes deliver material to colluvial channels, in which debris is temporarily stored until remobilization occurs via full-scale debris flows. In undisturbed forest, during the seventy years examined, colluvial activity across geomorphic process domains (seen as sediment reservoirs) has generated net volume accumulation in unchannelled valleys, sink colluvial, and fluvially-dominated channels; in contrast, planar slopes and gullies have been degrading. Logging operations have accentuated aggradation in gullies and in unchannelled topographies. Finally, the area-based scaling relation of landslide sediment yield appears to match the spatial organization of geomorphic process

  8. The floristic compositions of vascular epiphytes of a seasonally inundated forest on the coastal plain of Ilha do Mel Island, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Rodrigo de Andrade; Silva, Sandro Menezes

    2006-09-01

    A 3,000 m2 area of seasonally inundated forest on the island of Ilha do Mel (25 degrees 30" S 48 degrees 23" W) in Paraná, Brazil, was sampled by collecting plants from all strata, using climbing equipment when necessary. The area harbors 103 species of epiphytes, in 49 genera and 20 families, of which 28 species are pteridophytes and 75 magnoliophytes (64 Liliopsida, 11 Magnoliopsida). The most common families are Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, Polypodiaceae and Araceae, and frequent genera are Vriesea, Epidendrum, Maxillaria, Pleurothallis and Prosthechea. Eight families were represented by one species each. Most species were classified as obligatory holoepiphytes (62 %), followed by the relatively more rare preferential holoepiphytes (13 %), facultative epiphytes (11 %), hemiepiphytes (9 %) and accidental epiphytes (6 %). PMID:18491635

  9. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Net Ecosystem and Net Primary Productivities as Determined from Flux Tower, Biometric, and Model Estimates for a Coastal Douglas-fir Forest in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Metsaranta, J. M.; Black, T. A.; Jassal, R. S.; Filipescu, C.

    2013-12-01

    In coastal BC, 6,000-10,000 ha of public and significant areas of private forest land are annually fertilized with nitrogen, with or without thinning, to increase merchantable wood and reduce rotation age. Fertilization has also been viewed as a way to increase carbon (C) sequestration in forests and obtain C offsets. Such offset projects must demonstrate additionality with reference to a baseline and include monitoring to verify net C gains over the project period. Models in combination with field-plot measurements are currently the accepted methods for most C offset protocols. On eastern Vancouver Island, measurements of net ecosystem production (NEP), ecosystem respiration (Re) and gross primary productivity (GPP) using the eddy-covariance (EC) technique as well as component C fluxes and stocks have been made since 1998 in an intermediate-aged Douglas-fir dominated forest planted in 1949. In January 2007 an area around the EC flux tower was aerially fertilized with 200 kg urea-N ha-1. Ground plots in the fertilized area and an adjacent unfertilized control area were also monitored for soil (Rs) and heterotrophic (Rh) respiration, litterfall, and tree growth. To determine fertilization effects on whole tree growth, sample trees were felled in both areas for the 4-year (2003-06) pre- and the 4-year (2007-10) post-fertilization periods and were compared with EC NEP estimates and tree-ring based NEP estimates from Carbon Budget Model - Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) for the same periods. Empirical equations using climate and C fluxes from 1998-2006 were derived to estimate what the EC fluxes would have been in 2007-10 for the fertilized area had it been unfertilized. Mean EC NEP for 2007-10 was 561 g C m2 y-1 , a 64% increase above pre-fertilization NEP (341 g C m2 y-1) or 28% increase above estimated unfertilized NEP (438 g C m2 y-1). Most of the increase was attributed to increased tree C uptake (i.e., GPP), with little change in Re. In 2007 fertilization

  10. Resolving coastal conflicts using marine spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Arthur O; Stevens, Tim F; Rodwell, Lynda D

    2014-01-15

    We applied marine spatial planning (MSP) to manage conflicts in a multi-use coastal area of Kenya. MSP involves several steps which were supported by using geographical information systems (GISs), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and optimization. GIS was used in identifying overlapping coastal uses and mapping conflict hotspots. MCDA was used to incorporate the preferences of user groups and managers into a formal decision analysis procedure. Optimization was applied in generating optimal allocation alternatives to competing uses. Through this analysis three important objectives that build a foundation for future planning of Kenya's coastal waters were achieved: 1) engaging competing stakeholders; 2) illustrating how MSP can be adapted to aid decision-making in multi-use coastal regions; and 3) developing a draft coastal use allocation plan. The successful application of MSP to resolve conflicts in coastal regions depends on the level of stakeholder involvement, data availability and the existing knowledge base. PMID:24361729

  11. Effects of climate change on southeastern forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harcombe, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    Forests of the coastal plain region of the southeastern United States are among the most productive in North America. Because they form the basis of a large timber and wood products industry, these forests are of considerable economic importance. Also, the forests are rich in plant and animal species. Because they are diverse as well as productive, they have considerable conservation importance. Therefore, understanding potential impacts of climate change on southern forests is critical.

  12. Techniques for computer-aided analysis of ERTS-1 data, useful in geologic, forest and water resource surveys. [Colorado Rocky Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Forestry, geology, and water resource applications were the focus of this study, which involved the use of computer-implemented pattern-recognition techniques to analyze ERTS-1 data. The results have proven the value of computer-aided analysis techniques, even in areas of mountainous terrain. Several analysis capabilities have been developed during these ERTS-1 investigations. A procedure to rotate, deskew, and geometrically scale the MSS data results in 1:24,000 scale printouts that can be directly overlayed on 7 1/2 minutes U.S.G.S. topographic maps. Several scales of computer-enhanced "false color-infrared" composites of MSS data can be obtained from a digital display unit, and emphasize the tremendous detail present in the ERTS-1 data. A grid can also be superimposed on the displayed data to aid in specifying areas of interest.

  13. Cross-Sectional Survey of Rift Valley Fever Virus Exposure in Bodhei Village Located in a Transitional Coastal Forest Habitat in Lamu County, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Muiruri, Samuel; Kabiru, Ephantus W.; Muchiri, Eric M.; Hussein, Hassan; Kagondu, Frederick; LaBeaud, A. Desirée; King, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) transmission in less arid, transitional landscapes surrounding known high-risk regions. The objective of this study was to identify evidence of RVFV exposure in Bodhei Village in a forested area at the edge of the RVFV-epidemic Garissa region. In a household cluster-based survey conducted between epidemics in early 2006, 211 participants were enrolled. Overall seroprevalence for anti-RVFV was high (18%) and comparable with rates in the more arid, dense brush regions farther north. Seroprevalence of adults was 28%, whereas that of children was significantly lower (3%; P < 0.001); the youngest positive child was age 3 years. Males were more likely to be seropositive than females (25% versus 11%; P < 0.01), and animal husbandry activities (birthing, sheltering, and butchering) were strongly associated with seropositivity. The results confirm that significant RVFV transmission occurs outside of recognized high-risk areas and independent of known epidemic periods. PMID:25535309

  14. Source and Export of Particulate Nitrogen in Forested Catchments: Two Case Studies from the Oregon Coast Range and Gulf Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, B.; Hatten, J. A.; Mangum, C. N.; Dewey, J.; Goni, M. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Particulate nitrogen is an important but often neglected flux of nitrogen in many watershed studies. As a constituent of sediment, particulate nitrogen is highly dependent on storms and high discharge events for mobilization and transport. We present two case studies on the source and export of particulate nitrogen from two systems during base and storm flow over one year. We measured the concentration of particulate nitrogen and multiplied that by discharge to calculate the particulate nitrogen flux from each of the watersheds. Source of particulate N was determined through stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) of suspended sediments and end-member soils. In the first case study we examine the Alsea River, a small mountainous river in the Oregon Coast Range with a 1,220 km2 basin. In this study we collected suspended sediment from the lowermost USGS gaging station. We found that the watershed exported 2.35 kg N ha-1 during the 2008 water year. This is roughly equivalent to 15-60% of all the nitrogen fixed by red alder (Alnus rubra) in the watershed on an annual basis. Subsequent analysis of the lignin biomarkers suggest that areas dominated by hardwoods (e.g. red alder) play a disproportionate role in the source of particulate nitrogen. The second case study took place in the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain in Mississippi State. We studied the flux of water, particulate nitrogen and dissolved nitrogen from 4 ephemeral headwater streams (1.8-3.8 ha) and 1 perennial stream (~32 ha and downstream from the ephemeral streams). Particulate nitrogen comprised 18-100% of the total nitrogen (particulate plus dissolved) concentration of both classes (ephemeral and perennial) of streams studied. The fraction of total N as particulate does not appear to be dependent on discharge or total suspended sediment concentration. The stable isotopic signature of particulate N suggests that it is derived from clay sized particles from surface mineral soil horizons (e.g. A horizons). Both these

  15. PESTICIDE INPUTS AND RISKS IN COASTAL WETLANDS PROVINCE - 1991

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetland habitats may receive pesticide inputs indirectly from agricultural and forest control of weeds and insects in upland drainage areas; indirectly or directly from weed, insect, and biofouling control from development of adjacent lands for agricultural, recreational ...

  16. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  17. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  18. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  19. Coastal Upwelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Features a three-part activity designed to teach students about coastal upwelling, the upward movement of cooler, more nutrient-rich water along a coast. Activity includes a mapping exercise, a graphing exercise, and questions for analyzing the map and graph. (Author/WRM)

  20. COASTAL GUIDELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Developed to support effluent guidelines for the coastal subcategory of the oil and gas extraction industry. Data were used to develop environmental impacts, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation.
    Legislation/Enabling Authority:...

  1. Forest Resource Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mrocznyski, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-three processing functions aid in utilizing LANDSAT data for forest resource management. Designed to work primarily with digital data obtained from measurements recorded by multispectral remote sensors mounted on aerospace platforms. communication between processing functions, simplicity of control, and commonality of data files in LARSFRIS enhance usefulness of system as tool for research and development of remote sensing systems.

  2. Forest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weicherding, Patrick J.; And Others

    This bulletin deals with forest management and provides an overview of forestry for the non-professional. The bulletin is divided into six sections: (1) What Is Forestry Management?; (2) How Is the Forest Measured?; (3) What Is Forest Protection?; (4) How Is the Forest Harvested?; (5) What Is Forest Regeneration?; and (6) What Is Forest…

  3. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  4. Forest nutrition management

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book draws on the fields of silviculture, soil studies, ecology, and economics to provide information on how to enhance the nutritional status of forest soils in order to increase their long-term stand productivity. It covers the use of fertilizers to enhance biological nitrogen fixation and how the nutrition status of forests is affected by other operations, such as harvesting and site preparation. Methods for assessing nutrient status, the economics of nutrition management, and models to aid in decision-making are included.

  5. Unearthing Secrets of the Forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beldin, Sarah I.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    Forests are a defining feature for large areas of the Pacific northwestern United States from northern California to Alaska. Coniferous temperate rainforests in the western Cascade and coastal mountain ranges are appreciated for their aesthetic value and abundant natural resources. Few people recognize the riches beneath the forest floor; yet, soil is a key ecosystem component that makes each type of forest unique. Soils harbor immense biological diversity and control the release of water and nutrients that support life above ground. Understanding how carbon and nutrients cycle in forests, known as forest biogeochemistry, is crucial for evaluating forest productivity, composition, diversity, and change. At the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, research in the Terrestrial Ecosystems Laboratory focuses on nutrient cycling in five themes: climate change, nutrition and sustainability, fire effects, restoration, and forest-stream linkages. This research is essential to understand the entire forest ecosystem and to use the best science available to make informed policy and management decisions.

  6. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  7. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  8. Ecological gradients within a Pennsylvanian mire forest

    SciTech Connect

    DiMichele, W.A.; Falcon-Lang, H.J.; Nelson, W.J.; Brick, S.D.; Ames, P.R.

    2007-05-15

    Pennsylvanian coals represent remains of the earliest peat-forming rain forests, but there is no current consensus on forest ecology. Localized studies of fossil forests suggest intermixture of taxa (heterogeneity), while, in contrast, coal ball and palynological analyses imply the existence of pronounced ecological gradients. Here, we report the discovery of a spectacular fossil forest preserved over 1000 ha on top of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Herrin (No. 6) Coal of Illinois, United States. The forest was abruptly drowned when fault movement dropped a segment of coastal mire below sea level. In the largest study of its kind to date, forest composition is statistically analyzed within a well-constrained paleogeographic context. Findings resolve apparent conflicts in models of Pennsylvanian mire ecology by confirming the existence of forest heterogeneity at the local scale, while additionally demonstrating the emergence of ecological gradients at landscape scale.

  9. Ecological gradients within a Pennsylvanian mire forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiMichele, W.A.; Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Nelson, W.J.; Elrick, S.D.; Ames, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Pennsylvanian coals represent remains of the earliest peat-forming rain forests, but there is no current consensus on forest ecology. Localized studies of fossil forests suggest intermixture of taxa (heterogeneity), while, in contrast, coal ball and palynological analyses imply the existence of pronounced ecological gradients. Here, we report the discovery of a spectacular fossil forest preserved over ???1000 ha on top of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Herrin (No. 6) Coal of Illinois, United States. The forest was abruptly drowned when fault movement dropped a segment of coastal mire below sea level. In the largest study of its kind to date, forest composition is statistically analyzed within a well-constrained paleogeographic context. Findings resolve apparent conflicts in models of Pennsylvanian mire ecology by confirming the existence of forest heterogeneity at the local scale, while additionally demonstrating the emergence of ecological gradients at landscape scale. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  10. Responses of Isolated Wetland Herpetofauna to Upland Forest Management

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.R.; Hanlin, H.G.; Wigley, T.B.; Guynn, D.C., Jr.

    2002-01-02

    Measurement of responses of herpetofauna at isolated wetlands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina to disturbance of adjacent loblolly pine forest. Many species of isolated wetland herpetofauna in the Southeastern Coastal Plain may tolerate some disturbance in adjacent upland stands. Responses of isolated wetland herpetofauna to upland silviculture and the need for adjacent forested buffers likely depend on the specific landscape context in which the wetlands occur and composition of the resident herpetofaunal community.

  11. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  12. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  13. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  14. Microhabitat Use by Trichoptera in a Lake Erie Coastal Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C. M.; Keiper, J.

    2005-05-01

    We examined the differences in microhabitat use by caddisfly (Trichoptera) adults at a Lake Erie coastal wetlands complex in northwestern Ohio. Light traps were employed in three vegetative zones; a Pontedaria stand, a submerged willow/cottonwood forest, and an adjacent open water area. We used concealed UV lights inside of replicate traps (n = 4 per habitat), attracting only caddisflies near the habitat, that were run May, June, and September 2004. Analysis of the data revealed differences in adult abundance between habitats and months for some taxa. Principal components analyses run at the level of genera and species showed that sites cluster by habitat type and by month, suggesting differences occur temporally and spatially but not exclusively of each other. ANOVA reveals statistical differences between habitats and months for the most common taxa. Hydroptilidae, including Agraylea multipunctata, Orthotrichia aegerfasciella, and Oxyethira pallida, were the most abundant taxa contributing approximately 90% of samples depending on vegetative zone. Information on the microscale preferences of adult caddisflies indicates potential habitat specificity. This may aid managers who decide which habitats within wetlands to conserve based on productivity and unique potential contribution of insect taxa.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF RIPARIAN MANAGEMENT ON DETRITUS PROCESSING AND INVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES IN COASTAL PLAIN INTERMITTENT STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silviculture is the primary land use within many Coastal Plain watersheds of the southeastern United States, where most forested wetlands are found along headwater intermittent streams. Our study compared invertebrate assemblages and breakdown of buried detritus (leaves, wood, a...

  16. Effect of Group-Selection Opening Size on Breeding Bird Habitat Use in a Bottomland Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Moorman, C.E.; D.C. Guynn, Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Research on the effects of creating group-selection openings of various sizes on breeding birds habitat use in a bottomland hardwood forest of the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Creation of 0.5-ha group selection openings in southern bottomland forests should provide breeding habitat for some field-edge species in gaps and habitat for forest-interior species and canopy-dwelling forest-edge species between gaps provided that enough mature forest is made available.

  17. Coastal Zone Management program in Kerala, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mallik, T.K. )

    1987-01-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Program was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programs included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programs discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management program according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  18. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  19. Mapping forest vegetation with ERTS-1 MSS data and automatic data processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messmore, J.; Copeland, G. E.; Levy, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the intent of elucidating the forest mapping capabilities of ERTS-1 MSS data when analyzed with the aid of LARS' automatic data processing techniques. The site for this investigation was the Great Dismal Swamp, a 210,000 acre wilderness area located on the Middle Atlantic coastal plain. Due to inadequate ground truth information on the distribution of vegetation within the swamp, an unsupervised classification scheme was utilized. Initially pictureprints, resembling low resolution photographs, were generated in each of the four ERTS-1 channels. Data found within rectangular training fields was then clustered into 13 spectral groups and defined statistically. Using a maximum likelihood classification scheme, the unknown data points were subsequently classified into one of the designated training classes. Training field data was classified with a high degree of accuracy (greater than 95%), and progress is being made towards identifying the mapped spectral classes.

  20. Mapping forest vegetation with ERTS-1 MSS data and automatic data processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messmore, J.; Copeland, G. E.; Levy, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken with the intent of elucidating the forest mapping capabilities of ERTS-1 MSS data when analyzed with the aid of LARS' automatic data processing techniques. The site for this investigation was the Great Dismal Swamp, a 210,000 acre wilderness area located on the Middle Atlantic coastal plain. Due to inadequate ground truth information on the distribution of vegetation within the swamp, an unsupervised classification scheme was utilized. Initially pictureprints, resembling low resolution photographs, were generated in each of the four ERTS-1 channels. Data found within rectangular training fields was then clustered into 13 spectral groups and defined statistically. Using a maximum likelihood classification scheme, the unknown data points were subsequently classified into one of the designated training classes. Training field data was classified with a high degree of accuracy (greater than 95 percent), and progress is being made towards identifying the mapped spectral classes.

  1. The Ants of the Arabuko Sokoke Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandau, E.

    2014-12-01

    The core location of my research project was the Arabuko Sokoke Forest. The forest is located along the east coast of Kenya and belongs to the coastal forest zone of eastern Africa. The forest is considered a biodiversity hotspot, having many species being endemic to this habitat. The Arabuko Sokoke Forest is not a rainforest, like the Kakamega Forest in western Kenya, but a tropical dry forest. The objective of my research was to create a general checklist of the ant species collected in teh Arabuko Sokoke Forest in 2009. The general checklist of ant species will be used to document the differences between the three different forest habitat types (Cynometra, Brachystegia and mixed forest) and ant communities found within the forest, as well as the fauna found in those locations. The ants were collected using the leaf litter extraction method and were then mounted and idenified. The results from my research were that out of 73 specimens, there were 13 genera and 24 different species. Four of the 24 species have not been recorded for this forest before and one of the Tetramorium is likely to be a new species. The results also showed that the species diversity on the two transects are almost the same. There was very low overlap between the two transects as well: there were two shared species between the two different forest habitat types. For future work, there are still many undiscovered ant species in the Arabuko Sokoke Forest. In order to get a more complete faunal overview, more samples have to be collected from different parts of the forest. To do this, the canopy ant fauna might offer additional species that were not collected in the leaf litter samples.

  2. The Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests of East Africa-an archive to understand large-scale biogeographical patterns: Pseudotomias, a new genus of African Pseudophyllinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    PubMed

    Hemp, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    A new genus of Pseudophyllinae restricted to East Africa is described. Data on the ecology, and the habitat are provided. The biogeographical pattern and morphology suggests an old radiation since Tomias from Central and West Africa is the closest relative to Pseudotomias. The old forests of East Africa could hereby be the source of representatives of this old radiation since venation is less reduced in East African taxa of Phyllomimini. PMID:27395601

  3. World's forests

    SciTech Connect

    Sedjo, R.A.; Clawson, M.

    1982-10-01

    An appropriate rate of deforestation is complicated because forests are associated with many problems involving local economic and social needs, the global need for wood, and the environmental impact on climates and the biological genetic pool. Stable forest land exists in the developed regions of North America, Europe, the USSR, Oceania, and China in the Temperate Zone. Tropical deforestation, however, is estimated at 0.58% per year, with the pressure lowest on virgin forests. While these data omit plantation forests, the level of replacement does not offset the decline. There is some disagreement over the rate and definition of deforestation, but studies showing that the world is in little danger of running out of forests should not discourage tropical areas where forests are declining from making appropriate responses to the problem. 3 references. (DCK)

  4. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  5. Is international conservation aid enough?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-01

    Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.

  6. Forest Fragmentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes forest fragmentation in the contiguous United States circa 2001. This information provides a broad, recent picture of the spatial pattern of the nation’s forests and the extent to which they are being broken into smaller patches and pierced or interspe...

  7. Coastal Ecosystems. Project CAPE Teaching Module [with Student Materials].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowal, Michael; And Others

    Intended for grades K-2, this science unit on coastal ecosystems aids teachers in helping students to: (1) identify marine organisms; (2) learn their basic characteristics; and (3) understand the web of interdependence among organisms of the same habitat. The teacher's guide is divided into four sections. The first section gives background…

  8. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  9. Contribution of Near Real Time MODIS-Based Forest Disturbance Detection Products to a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip

    2011-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx. 751 million acres (approx. 1/3 of total land). These forests are exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic threats that collectively damage extensive acreages each year. Hazardous forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest monitoring products are needed to aid forest management and decision making by the US Forest Service and its state and private partners. Daily MODIS data products provide a means to monitor regional forest disturbances on a weekly basis. In response, we began work in 2006 to develop a Near Real Time (NRT) forest monitoring capability, based on MODIS NDVI data, as part of a national forest threat early warning system (EWS)

  10. Predicting the retreat and migration of tidal forests along the northern Gulf of Mexico under sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, T.W.; Krauss, K.W.; Conner, W.H.; From, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Tidal freshwater forests in coastal regions of the southeastern United States are undergoing dieback and retreat from increasing tidal inundation and saltwater intrusion attributed to climate variability and sea-level rise. In many areas, tidal saltwater forests (mangroves) contrastingly are expanding landward in subtropical coastal reaches succeeding freshwater marsh and forest zones. Hydrological characteristics of these low-relief coastal forests in intertidal settings are dictated by the influence of tidal and freshwater forcing. In this paper, we describe the application of the Sea Level Over Proportional Elevation (SLOPE) model to predict coastal forest retreat and migration from projected sea-level rise based on a proxy relationship of saltmarsh/mangrove area and tidal range. The SLOPE model assumes that the sum area of saltmarsh/mangrove habitat along any given coastal reach is determined by the slope of the landform and vertical tide forcing. Model results indicated that saltmarsh and mangrove migration from sea-level rise will vary by county and watershed but greater in western Gulf States than in the eastern Gulf States where millions of hectares of coastal forest will be displaced over the next century with a near meter rise in relative sea level alone. Substantial losses of coastal forests will also occur in the eastern Gulf but mangrove forests in subtropical zones of Florida are expected to replace retreating freshwater forest and affect regional biodiversity. Accelerated global eustacy from climate change will compound the degree of predicted retreat and migration of coastal forests with expected implications for ecosystem management of State and Federal lands in the absence of adaptive coastal management.

  11. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  12. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  13. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  14. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  15. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... has a change in mental status, follow these first aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . ...

  16. Resilience from coastal protection.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. PMID:26392613

  17. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition report compiles several available data sets from different agencies and areas of the country and summarizes them to present a broad baseline picture of the condition of coastal waters. Although data sets presented in this report do not cover all coa...

  18. NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's coastal resources on a state, regional and national basis. Based on NCA monitoring from 1999-2001, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters (at over 2500 locati...

  19. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  20. Near coastal program plan for 1991: Estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Environmental regulatory programs in the United States have been estimated to cost more than $70 billion annually. The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is a nationwide initiative being implemented by EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD). It was developed in response to the demand for information on the condition of the nation's ecological resources. The goal of EMAP is to assess and document the status and trends in the condition of the nation's forests, wetlands, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes, rivers, and streams, Great Lakes, agricultural lands, and arid lands on an integrated and continuing basis.

  1. Coastal Hazards: Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Coastal Erosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Details an ocean-based lesson and provides background information on the designation of 1998 as the "Year of the Ocean" by the United Nations. Contains activities on the poster insert that can help raise student awareness of coastal-zone hazards. (DDR)

  2. Coastal mapping handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Ellis, Melvin Y., (Edited By)

    1978-01-01

    Passage of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 focused attention on the Nation's coastal land and water areas. As plans for more effective management of the coastal zone evolved, it soon became apparent that improved maps and charts of these areas were needed. This handbook was prepared with the requirements of the entire coastal community in mind, giving greatest attention to the needs of coastal zone managers and planners at the State and local levels. Its principal objective is to provide general information and guidance; it is neither a textbook nor a technical manual, but rather a primer on coastal mapping. This handbook should help planners and managers of coastal programs to determine their mapping requirements, select the best maps and charts for their particular needs, and to deal effectively with personnel who gather data and prepare maps. The sections on "Sources of Assistance and Advice" and "Product and Data Sources" should be especially useful to all involved in mapping the coastal zone. Brief summaries of the mapping efforts of several State coastal zone management programs are included. "Future outlook" discusses anticipated progress and changes in mapping procedures and techniques. Illustrations are inserted, where appropriate, to illustrate the products and equipment discussed. Because of printing restrictions, the colors in map illustrations may vary from those in the original publication. The appendixes include substantial material which also should be of interest. In addition a glossary and an index are included to provide easy and quick access to the terms and concepts used in the text. For those interested in more technical detail than is provided in this handbook, the "Selected references" will be useful. Also, the publications of the professional societies listed in appendix 4 will provide technical information in detail.

  3. Derivation of Ground Surface and Vegetation in a Coastal Florida Wetland with Airborne Laser Technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Harris, Melanie S.; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Carter, William E.

    2008-01-01

    The geomorphology and vegetation of marsh-dominated coastal lowlands were mapped from airborne laser data points collected on the Gulf Coast of Florida near Cedar Key. Surface models were developed using low- and high-point filters to separate ground-surface and vegetation-canopy intercepts. In a non-automated process, the landscape was partitioned into functional landscape units to manage the modeling of key landscape features in discrete processing steps. The final digital ground surface-elevation model offers a faithful representation of topographic relief beneath canopies of tidal marsh and coastal forest. Bare-earth models approximate field-surveyed heights by + 0.17 m in the open marsh and + 0.22 m under thick marsh or forest canopy. The laser-derived digital surface models effectively delineate surface features of relatively inaccessible coastal habitats with a geographic coverage and vertical detail previously unavailable. Coastal topographic details include tidal-creek tributaries, levees, modest topographic undulations in the intertidal zone, karst features, silviculture, and relict sand dunes under coastal-forest canopy. A combination of laser-derived ground-surface and canopy-height models and intensity values provided additional mapping capabilities to differentiate between tidal-marsh zones and forest types such as mesic flatwood, hydric hammock, and oak scrub. Additional derived products include fine-scale shoreline and topographic profiles. The derived products demonstrate the capability to identify areas of concern to resource managers and unique components of the coastal system from laser altimetry. Because the very nature of a wetland system presents difficulties for access and data collection, airborne coverage from remote sensors has become an accepted alternative for monitoring wetland regions. Data acquisition with airborne laser represents a viable option for mapping coastal topography and for evaluating habitats and coastal change on marsh

  4. AIDS: Education's New Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, D. Kay; Faber, Charles F.

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an incurable, fatal disease that is caused by a virus that eventually destroys the body's immune system. While AIDS is contagious, the risk of contracting AIDS through casual contact is said to be negligible. A review of the court cases involving students with AIDS reveals that the precedent has…

  5. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O Halloran, John

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo) in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory), one pan-European (Forest Map 2006) and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change) product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees) are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1-98.5%), with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (<0.5%). Increasing levels of post classification filtering led to a decrease in estimated forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42%) whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%), although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting. PMID:26262681

  6. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O`Halloran, John

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo) in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory), one pan-European (Forest Map 2006) and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change) product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees) are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1–98.5%), with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (<0.5%). Increasing levels of post classification filtering led to a decrease in estimated forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42%) whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%), although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting. PMID:26262681

  7. The master hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

    2013-06-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  8. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  9. Evapotranspiration—Flooding Feedback in Forested Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. T.; Keim, R.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a principle efflux from flooded swamps. However, for many reasons (e.g., difficulties in measuring across small gradients), controls over ET in wetlands, and swamps particularly, remain unclear. We investigate how the interaction of vegetation and hydrology controls ET and energy partitioning in flooded forests in three different hydrologic landscapes of the southeastern USA: mesohaline coastal shrub forest, floodplain hardwood forest, and backswamp baldcypress-tupelo forest. Energy components were measured by eddy covariance, sapflow, Bowen ratio energy balance, and evaporation pan to partition canopy transpiration, understory transpiration, and evaporation from floodwaters. Together, we found the energy balances of forested wetlands often differed from that of terrestrial systems, because of the potentially substantial role of evaporation from the free water surface, and flood / salinity stress inhibiting transpiration. Highest ET rates were observed in the coastal shrub forest in flooded conditions, when saline water levels dropped below the root zone (on hummocks) with concurrent lateral advection of dry air. The other two sites behaved similar to terrestrial systems, with increasing transpiration during periosd of greater water availability, although with radiation transmitted to the understory mostly partitioned to latent heat which partially compensated for the variability in canopy transpiration. Identifying these differential controls over ET is critical to understanding long-term trajectory of these systems. Many wetlands of the southeastern US have been impounded and disconnected, necessitating some degree of balance between ET and precipitation for sustainability. The positive feedbacks between ET and water levels in the coastal system suggest lower ecosystem resilience than the other two systems that showed negative feedbacks between ET and water levels.

  10. Arctic Coastal Dynamics (ACD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachold, V.; Boike, J.

    2003-04-01

    Coastal dynamics directly reflecting the complicated land-ocean interactions play an important role in the balance of sediments, organic carbon and nutrients in the Arctic basin. Recent studies indicate that sediment input to the Arctic shelves resulting from erosion of ice-rich, permafrost-dominated coasts may be equal to or greater than input from river discharge. Thus, the understanding and quantification of coastal processes is critical for interpreting the geological history of the Arctic shelves. The predictions of future behavior of these coasts in response to climatic and sea level changes is an important issue because most of the human activity that occurs at high latitudes concentrates on the Arctic coastlines. As an initiative of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) the multi-disciplinary, multi-national forum Arctic Coastal Dynamics (ACD), which was recently accepted as a project of the International Arctic Sciences Committee (IASC), had been developed. The overall objective of ACD is to improve our understanding of circum-Arctic coastal dynamics as a function of environmental forcing, coastal geology and cryology and morphodynamic behavior. In particular, the project aims to: - establish the rates and magnitudes of erosion and accumulation of Arctic coasts; - develop a network of long-term monitoring sites including local community-based observational sites; - identify and undertake focused research on critical processes; - estimate the amount of sediments and organic carbon derived from coastal erosion; - refine and apply an Arctic coastal classification (includes ground-ice, permafrost, geology etc.) in digital form (GIS format); - extract and utilize existing information on relevant environmental forcing parameters (e.g. wind speed, sea level, fetch, sea ice etc.); - produce a series of thematic and derived maps (e.g. coastal classification, ground-ice, sensitivity etc.); - develop empirical models to assess the sensitivity of Arctic

  11. Forested wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, A.E.; Brinson, M.; Brown, S.

    1990-01-01

    Forested wetlands have important roles in global biogeochemical cycles, supporting freshwater and saltwater commercial fisheries, and in providing a place for wildlife of all kinds to flourish. Scientific attention towards these ecosystems has lagged with only a few comprehensive works on forested wetlands of the world. A major emphasis of this book is to develop unifying principles and data bases on the structure and function of forested wetlands, in order to stimulate scientific study of them. Wetlands are areas that are inundated or saturated by surface-water or ground-water, at such a frequency and duration that under natural conditions they support organisms adapted to poorly aerated and/or saturated soil. The strategy of classifying the conditions that control the structure and behavior of forested wetlands by assuming that the physiognomy and floristic composition of the system will reflect the total energy expenditure of the ecosystem; and the structural and functional characteristics of forested wetlands from different parts of the world are the major topics covered.

  12. Highlights of Coastal Waves 1996.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, David P.; Dorman, Clive E.; Edwards, Kathleen A.; Brooks, Ian M.; Melville, W. Kendall; Burk, Stephen D.; Thompson, William T.; Holt, Teddy; Ström, Linda M.; Tjernström, Michael; Grisogono, Branko; Bane, John M.; Nuss, Wendell A.; Morley, Bruce M.; Schanot, Allen J.

    1998-07-01

    Some of the highlights of an experiment designed to study coastal atmospheric phenomena along the California coast (Coastal Waves 1996 experiment) are described. This study was designed to address several problems, including the cross-shore variability and turbulent structure of the marine boundary layer, the influence of the coast on the development of the marine layer and clouds, the ageostrophy of the flow, the dynamics of trapped events, the parameterization of surface fluxes, and the supercriticality of the marine layer.Based in Monterey, California, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130 Hercules and the University of North Carolina Piper Seneca obtained a comprehensive set of measurements on the structure of the marine layer. The study focused on the effects of prominent topographic features on the wind. Downstream of capes and points, narrow bands of high winds are frequently encountered. The NCAR-designed Scanning Aerosol Backscatter Lidar (SABL) provided a unique opportunity to connect changes in the depth of the boundary layer with specific features in the dynamics of the flow field.An integral part of the experiment was the use of numerical models as forecast and diagnostic tools. The Naval Research Laboratory's Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Model System (COAMPS) provided high-resolution forecasts of the wind field in the vicinity of capes and points, which aided the deployment of the aircraft. Subsequently, this model and the MIUU (University of Uppsala) numerical model were used to support the analysis of the field data.These are some of the most comprehensive measurements of the topographically forced marine layer that have been collected. SABL proved to be an exceptionally useful tool to resolve the small-scale structure of the boundary layer and, combined with in situ turbulence measurements, provides new insight into the structure of the marine atmosphere. Measurements were made sufficiently far offshore to distinguish between the

  13. Coastal geomorphology of arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter W.; Rawlinson, Stuart E.; Reimnitz, Erk

    1988-01-01

    The treeless, tundra-plain of northern Alaska merges with the Arctic Ocean along a coastal area characterized by low tundra bluffs, and sparse coastal and delta dunes. Coastal engineering projects that aggrade or degrade permafrost will alter the geomorphology and rates of coastal processes by changing coastal stability. Similarly, projects that modify the ice environment (artificial islands) or the coastal configuration (causeways) will cause nature to readjust to the new process regime, resulting in modification of the coast. In this paper the authors describe the coastal geomorphology from Barrow to the Canadian border. In addition, they provide a general outline and extensive references of the major coastal processes operating in this environment that will be useful on coastal environments elsewhere in the Arctic.

  14. Teaching Forest Planning with Computer Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Richard A.; Magid, David

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes a series of FORTRAN IV computer models which are the content-oriented subject matter for a college course in forest planning. The course objectives, the planning problem, and the ten planning aid models are listed. Student comments and evaluation of the program are included. (BT)

  15. Groundwater-ocean interaction and its effects on coastal ecological processes - are there groundwater-dependant ecosystems in the coastal zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, T. C.

    2013-05-01

    Hydrological land-ocean connectivity is an important driver of coastal ecosystems. Rivers are obvious and visible pathways for terrestrial runoff. The critical role of surface water discharge from rivers to coastal ecosystems has been well documented. Hidden from view, 'downstream' effects of coastal (supra-tidal, intertidal and submarine) groundwater discharge are far less well understood. Whilst hydrological and geochemical processes associated with coastal groundwater discharge have received an increasing amount of scientific attention over the past decade or so, the effects of groundwater flow on productivity, composition, diversity and functioning of coastal ecosystems along the world's shorelines have received little attention to date. Coastal groundwater discharge includes both terrestrial (fresh) groundwater fluxes and the recirculation of seawater through sediments, analogous to hyporheic flow in rivers. I will present an overview over relevant coastal hydrological processes, and will illustrate their ecological effects on examples from diverse tropical coastal ecosystems, e.g. (1) perennial fresh groundwater discharge from coastal sand dune systems permitting growth of freshwater-dependent vegetation in the intertidal zone of the Great Barrier Reef (Australia), (2) recirculation of seawater through mangrove forest floors directly affecting tree health and providing a pathway for carbon export from these ecosystems, (3) the local hydrology of groundwater-fed coastal inlets on Mexico's Yucatan peninsula affecting the movement behaviour of and habitat use by the queen conch Strombus gigas, an economically important species in the Caribbean region. These examples for hydrological-ecological coupling in the coastal zone invite the question if we should not consider these coastal ecosystems to be groundwater-dependent, in analogy to groundwater-dependency in freshwater aquatic systems.

  16. Forests & Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Susan

    1989-01-01

    This newsletter discusses the disappearance of the world's forests and the resulting environmental problems of erosion and flooding; loss of genetic diversity; climatic changes such as less rainfall, and intensifying of the greenhouse effect; and displacement and destruction of indigenous cultures. The articles, lessons, and activities are…

  17. Forest Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  18. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  19. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  20. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  1. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ... cancers. When that happens, the illness is called AIDS. Once a person has the virus, it stays ...

  2. Frostbite, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  3. Poisoning first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  4. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  5. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  6. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  7. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  8. Bruises, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  9. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  10. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  11. MICROFICHE AIDS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death.

  12. Coastal sediment elevation change following anthropogenic mangrove clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Heather L.; Granek, Elise F.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal mangrove forests along tropical shorelines serve as an important interface between land and sea. They provide a physical buffer protecting the coastline from erosion and act as sediment "traps" catching terrestrial sediment, thus preventing smothering of subtidal coral reefs. Coastal development that removes mangrove habitat may impact adjacent nearshore coral reefs through sedimentation and nutrient loading. We examined differences in sediment elevation change between patches of open-coast intact and anthropogenically cleared red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) on the east side of Turneffe Atoll, Belize, to quantify changes following mangrove clearing. Samples were collected over a 24 month period at five study sites, each containing paired intact (+mangrove) and cleared (-mangrove) plots. Five sediment elevation pins were deployed in each plot: behind areas cleared of mangroves (-mangrove) and behind adjacent intact mangroves (+mangrove). Sediment elevation increased at intact mangrove sites (M = +3.83 mm, SE = 0.95) whereas cleared mangrove areas suffered elevation loss (M = -7.30 mm, SE = 3.38). Mangroves inshore of partial or continuous gaps in the adjacent fringing reefs had higher rates of elevation loss (M = -15.05 mm) than mangroves inshore of continuous fringing reefs (M = -1.90 mm). Our findings provide information on potential effects of mangrove clearing and the role of offshore habitat characteristics on coastal sediment trapping and maintenance of sediment elevation by mangroves. With implications for coastline capacity to adjust to sea level rise, these findings are relevant to management of coastal fringing mangrove forests across the Caribbean.

  13. Chinese Tallow: Invading the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain. Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management. When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests. In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist. Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  14. Remote Sensing Monitoring of Tide Propagation Through Coastal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowinski, S.; Hong, S.; Mulcan, A.; Brisco, B.

    2013-05-01

    Coastal wetlands including mangrove forests and saltwater marshes are considered among the most valuable ecosystems on earth, yet their existence is presently being threatened by climate change (sea-level rise) and human interference (e.g. infrastructure development). These fragile ecosystems depend on a continuous water and nutrient replenishment by ocean tidal flow. While ocean tides are well known and forecasted, tidal flow movements through coastal wetlands are poorly known due to the fact that vegetation resists the flow and delays both inland and seaward flow at rising and subsiding tide conditions, respectively. Thus far, most observations on tide propagation through coastal wetlands have been obtained from stage (water level) measurements within the vegetated tidal zone. These stage measurements possess high temporal resolution observations, but acquired at a limited number of measurement points. Wetland InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) observations provide a new complementary source of information for detecting tidal flow in coastal wetlands, by supplying high spatial resolution maps of water level changes between two SAR acquisition times. In this study, we use InSAR observations to detect surface water level changes in response to ocean tide propagation through the coastal Everglades' mangrove forests. Interferometric processing of the data show that the highest rate of water level changes occurs near channels, as the Shark Valley River (Fig 1., center of image). These high water level gradients reflect rapid horizontal flow into and from the channel during low and high tide conditions, respectively. The high spatial resolution wetland InSAR observations provide important constraints for detailed coastal wetland flow models. RADARSAT-2 interferogram of western south Florida showing tide-induced water level changes along the transition between the saltwater mangrove marsh in the southwest and freshwater swamp in the northeast.

  15. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  16. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  17. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  18. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  19. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  20. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  1. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  2. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  3. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  4. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  5. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  6. Children with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessee, Peggy O; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the prevalence of pediatric Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases in the United States, the quality of life of children with AIDS, and concerns that parents and the community have about the disease. Suggests some responses for educational institutions and teachers to help confront AIDS and help children with the disease. (MDM)

  7. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  8. California coastal processes study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary findings are presented and applications derived from ERTS-1 satellite imagery of the nearshore coastal processes of the California coast. The objectives were to analyze nearshore currents, sediment transport, and estuarine and river discharges along the California coast through the use of synoptic and repetitive imagery from ERTS as well as aircraft underflights and surface data. The major conclusions are: (1) Distinct seasonal patterns for sediment transport as a function of the oceanic current systems and coastal morphology have been identified. (2) Large scale sediment plumes from intermittent streams and rivers extend offshore to previously unanticipated ranges. (3) Computer generated contouring of radiance levels from computer-compatible tapes result in charts that can be used for determination of surface and nearsurface suspended sediment distribution. (4) Flying spot scanner enhancements result in details of nearshore features. (5) Data is providing significant information for coastal planning and construction projects.

  9. Inland and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouw, Colleen; Greb, Steven

    2012-09-01

    Workshop for Remote Sensing of Coastal and Inland Waters;Madison, Wisconsin, 20-22 June 2012 Coastal and inland water bodies, which have great value for recreation, food supply, commerce, transportation, and human health, have been experiencing external pressure from direct human activities and climate change. Given their societal and economic value, understanding issues of water quality, water quantity, and the impact of environmental change on the ecological and biogeochemical functioning of these water bodies is of interest to a broad range of communities. Remote sensing offers one of the most spatially and temporally comprehensive tools for observing these waters. While there has been some success with remotely observing these water bodies, many challenges still remain, including algorithm performance, atmospheric correction, the relationships between optical properties and biogeochemical parameters, sufficient spatial and spectral resolution, and a lack of uncertainty estimates over the wide range of environmental conditions encountered across these coastal and inland water bodies.

  10. Coastal change analysis program implemented in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Nelson, G.A.; Sapkota, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper images from 1990 to 1996 and collateral data sources were used to classify the land cover of the Mermentau River Basin (MRB) within the Chenier Plain of coastal Louisiana. Landcover classes followed the definition of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coastal Change Analysis Program; however, classification methods had to be developed as part of this study for attainment of these national classification standards. Classification method developments were especially important when classes were spectrally inseparable, when classes were part of spatial and spectral continuums, when the spatial resolution of the sensor included more than one landcover type, and when human activities caused abnormal transitions in the landscape. Most classification problems were overcome by using one or a combination of techniques, such as separating the MRB into subregions of commonality, applying masks to specific land mixtures, and highlighting class transitions between years that were highly unlikely. Overall, 1990, 1993, and 1996 classification accuracy percentages (associated kappa statistics) were 80% (0.79), 78% (0.76), and 86% (0.84), respectively. Most classification errors were associated with confusion between managed (cultivated land) and unmanaged grassland classes; scrub shrub, grasslands and forest classes; water, unconsolidated shore and bare land classes; and especially in 1993, between water and floating vegetation classes. Combining cultivated land and grassland classes and water and floating vegetation classes into single classes accuracies for 1990, 1993, and 1996 increased to 82%, 83%, and 90%, respectively. To improve the interpretation of landcover change, three indicators of landcover class stability were formulated. Location stability was defined as the percentage of a landcover class that remained as the same class in the same location at the beginning and the end of the monitoring period. Residence stability was

  11. Arctic Coastal Erosion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravens, T. M.; Jones, B.; Zhang, J.; Tweedie, C. E.; Erikson, L. H.; Gibbs, A.; Richmond, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    A process-based coastal erosion/shoreline change model has been developed for Arctic coastal bluffs subject to niche erosion/block collapse. The model explicitly accounts for many environmental/geographic variables including: water temperature, water level, wave height, and bluff height. The model was originally developed for a small coastal segment near Drew Point, Beaufort Sea, Alaska. This coastal setting has experienced a dramatic increase in erosion since the early 2000's. The bluffs at this site are 3-4 m tall and consist of ice-wedge bounded blocks of fine-grained sediments cemented by ice-rich permafrost and capped with a thin organic layer. The bluffs are typically fronted by a narrow (~ 5 m wide) beach or none at all. During a storm surge, the sea contacts the base of the bluff and a niche is formed through thermal and mechanical erosion. The niche grows both vertically and laterally and eventually undermines the bluff, leading to block failure or collapse. The fallen block is then eroded both thermally and mechanically by waves and currents, which must occur before a new niche forming episode may begin. The model has been calibrated based on shoreline change data at Drew Point for two time periods: 1979-2002 and 2002-2007. Measured and modeled shoreline change rates were about 8 m/yr and 16 m/yr, for the earlier and later periods, respectively. In this paper, this work is extended to include modeling and measurement of coastal erosion at Drew Point on an annual basis for the period 2007-2010. In addition, the model is applied at three other Arctic coastal locations - Elson Lagoon, Cape Halkett, and Barter Island - where niche erosion/block collapse prevails.

  12. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  13. Geophysical surveys for monitoring coastal salt water intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Simoniello, T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lapenna, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geophysical surveys have been exploited in a coastal forest reserve, at the mouth of the river Bradano in South Italy (Basilicata, southern Italy, N 40°22', E 16°51'), to investigate the subsurface saltwater contamination. Forest Reserve of Metapontum is a wood of artificial formation planted to protect fruit and vegetable cultivations from salt sea-wind; in particular it is constituted by a back dune pine forest mainly composed of Aleppo Pine trees (Pinus halepensis) and domestic pine trees (Pinus pinea). Two separate geophysical field campaigns, one executed in 2006 and a second executed in 2008, were performed in the forest reserve; in particular, electrical resistivity tomographies, resistivity and ground penetrating radar maps were elaborated and analyzed. In addition, chemical and physical analyses on soil and waters samples were performed in order to confirm and integrate geophysical data. The analyses carried out allowed an accurate characterization of salt intrusion phenomenon: the spatial extension and depth of the saline wedge were estimated. Primary and secondary salinity of the Metapontum forest reserve soil occurred because of high water-table and the evapo-transpiration rate which was much higher than the rainfall rate; these, of course, are linked to natural factors such as climate, natural drainage patterns, topographic features, geological structure and distance to the sea. Naturally, since poor land management, like the construction of river dams, indiscriminate extraction of inert from riverbeds that subtract supplies sedimentary, the alteration of the natural water balance, plays an important role in this process. The obtained results highlighted that integrated geophysical surveys gave a precious contribute for better evaluating marine intrusion wedge in coastal aquifers and providing a rapid, non-invasive and low cost tool for coastal monitoring.

  14. A canopy-related stratification of a Southern pine forest using Landsat digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to determine if a consistent stratification of a Southern pine forest could be obtained by using Landsat multispectral scanner data to assess crown closure. Winter and summer Landsat scenes of the North Carolina coastal region were analyzed individually and then registered and merged to take advantage of temporal changes in the forest canopy. Three levels of pine crown closure were accurately delineated. The applicability of this stratification as supplemental input to a forest inventory system is also discussed.

  15. A canopy-related stratification of a southern pine forest using LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to determine if a consistent stratification of a Southern pine forest could be obtained by using LANDSAT multispectral scanner data to assess crown closure. Winter and summer LANDSAT scenes of the North Carolina coastal region were analyzed individually and then registered and merged to take advantage of temporal changes in the forest canopy. Three levels of pine crown closure were accurately delineated. The applicability of this stratification as supplemental input to a forest inventory system is also discussed.

  16. Coastal environmental profile of South Jahore, Malaysia. Technical pub. series 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Malaysia's South Johore region has undergone rapid development recently, seriously damaging its ecologically sensitive and important coastal resources. The report profiles the area's coastal environment and identies major environmental problems, as well as chief obstacles to sustainable development. Chapter 2 describes South Johore's physical environment, physiography, climate, and geology. Chapters 3-7 cover in detail the area's natural resource endowment; coastal ecosystems; population and socioeconomics; land use; and fisheries and aquaculture. Chapter 8 focuses on economic sectors other than aquaculture, including agriculture, forestry, livestock, shipping, industry, and transportation, while Chapter 9 covers tourism and its potential impact on South Johore's ecology. Chapter 10 reviews the major types of environmental degradation in the region, including various types of coastal pollution, forest destruction, and coastal erosion. The laws, regulations, and institutions that govern environmental management are covered in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 concludes the report with an overview of the chief constraints to effective environmental management.

  17. Coastal laws strike a balance

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, M.S.

    1993-04-01

    Although the coastal zone comprises less than 10% of the nation`s land mass, more than 75% of the population lives within 50 miles of coastal areas. Commercial enterprises, including manufacturing facilities, industrial plants, resort hotels and marinas, are built in coastal areas along with the usual beachfront homes condominiums. These enterprises can adversely impact coastal environment through pollution-generation activities. Government regulators have sought to curtail activities that give rise to pollution.

  18. Carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    Alongi, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are ecologically and economically important forests of the tropics. They are highly productive ecosystems with rates of primary production equal to those of tropical humid evergreen forests and coral reefs. Although mangroves occupy only 0.5% of the global coastal area, they contribute 10-15% (24 Tg C y(-1)) to coastal sediment carbon storage and export 10-11% of the particulate terrestrial carbon to the ocean. Their disproportionate contribution to carbon sequestration is now perceived as a means for conservation and restoration and a way to help ameliorate greenhouse gas emissions. Of immediate concern are potential carbon losses to deforestation (90-970 Tg C y(-1)) that are greater than these ecosystems' rates of carbon storage. Large reservoirs of dissolved inorganic carbon in deep soils, pumped via subsurface pathways to adjacent waterways, are a large loss of carbon, at a potential rate up to 40% of annual primary production. Patterns of carbon allocation and rates of carbon flux in mangrove forests are nearly identical to those of other tropical forests. PMID:24405426

  19. Green Mansions: The Evergreen Forests of the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philipek, Frances; Smith, Shelley; Brook, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Explores the ecosystem in Pacific Northwest Coastal America and investigates land management issues. Discusses the impact of canopy trees on temperature and the forest itself. Explains fungi's relationship with trees and presents activities on stream flow, wood, volcanoes, and plants for the classroom. (YDS)

  20. One Mann against AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stocker, C

    1990-11-30

    This article features Jonathan Mann, director of the International AIDS Center of the Harvard AIDS Institute and his efforts to combat AIDS in the global context. Mann built the largest program in the history of the World Health Organization specifically in fighting AIDS. He helped originate the World AIDS Day observed annually throughout the world. As the director of the International AIDS Center at Harvard, Mann is launching a new role for himself concerning with research and ideas related to AIDS issue. According to him, AIDS pandemic offers "opportunities" to speed up research and spur people around the globe to address longstanding social problems with new energy. Mann hopes to get involved with local AIDS efforts. He foresees AIDS as an escalating problem that will continue to persist in one or two generations, which could rise as high as tenfold in the 1990s. He believes a vaccine will be available in the middle to late 1990s but to purge the virus from those positive persons is impossible. If the World AIDS Day can bring about attitude change, Mann hopes it will able be to foster a feeling of unity among people and countries. PMID:12349354

  1. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  2. Herbivory and seedling performance in a fragmented temperate forest of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetti, Javier A.; Grez, Audrey A.; Celis-Diez, Juan L.; Bustamante, Ramiro O.

    2007-11-01

    Forest fragmentation alters plant-animal interactions, including herbivory. Relying manipulative experiments, we test if the reduction in insect herbivory associated with forest fragmentation translates into increased seedling growth and survival of three tree common species ( Aristotelia chilensis, Cryptocarya alba and Persea lingue) in forest fragments and continuous forests in coastal Maulino forest, central Chile. Furthermore, we test if after protecting seedlings from herbivorous insects, plant performance is increased regardless of forest fragmentation. Nursery grown seedlings were transplanted into four forest fragments and a continuous forest during 2002. Insects, important herbivores in this forest, were excluded from half the seedlings by repeated applications of insecticides. Compared to continuous forests, in forest fragments, herbivory was reduced in all three species, seedling growth was greater in A. chilensis and C. alba but not in P. lingue, and survivorship was unaffected by herbivory or fragmentation in all three species. Protecting seedlings from insects reduced herbivory in the continuous forest to similar levels attained in the forest fragments. No change in herbivory results from by protecting seedlings in forest fragments. These results confirm that insects are important herbivores in the Maulino forest and also support the hypothesis that fragmentation can have strong indirect effects on plant communities as mediated through trophic interactions.

  3. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  4. Mobile satellite communications in the Forest Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, John R.

    1988-01-01

    There are usually some places within a forest that do not have adequate communication coverage due to line-of-sight or other reasons. These areas are generally known by the foresters and radio technicians and allowances are made for that when working or traveling in those areas. However, when wildfire or other emergencies occur, communications are vital because wildfires can require hundreds of firefighters and cover thousands of acres. During these emergency operations, the existing communications are not adequate and complete radio systems are moved into the area for the conduct of fire communications. Incident command posts (ICPs) and fire camps are set up in remote locations and there is constant need for communications in the fire area and to agency headquarters and dispatch offices. Mobile satellite communications would be an ideal supplement to the Forest Service's current communications system in aiding forest fire control activities.

  5. Seasonal bird use of canopy gaps in a bottomland forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, Liessa, T,; Moorman, Christopher, E.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2007-04-01

    ABSTRACT.—Bird use of small canopy gaps within mature forests has not been well studied, particularly across multiple seasons. We investigated seasonal differences in bird use of gap and forest habitat within a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Gaps were 0.13- to 0.5-ha, 7- to 8-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings. Our study occurred during four bird-use periods (spring migration, breeding, postbreeding, and fall migration) in 2001 and 2002. We used plot counts and mist netting to estimate bird abundance in canopy gaps and surrounding mature forest habitats. Using both survey methods, we observed more birds, including forest-interior species, forest-edge species, field-edge species, and several individual species in canopy gap and gap-edge habitats than in surrounding mature forest during all periods. Interactions between period and habitat type often were significant in models, suggesting a seasonal shift in habitat use. Bird activity generally shifted between the interior of canopy gaps and the immediate gap edge, but many species increased their use of forested habitat during the breeding period. This suggests that many species of birds selectively choose gap and gap-edge habitat over surrounding mature forest during the non-breeding period. Creation of small canopy gaps within a mature forest may increase local bird species richness. The reasons for increased bird activity in gaps remain unclear.

  6. CHAPTER 7: COASTAL ZONES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic's coastal areas, especially the Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, and Albemarle/Pamlico Sounds (Figure 3), have important aesthetic and economic values. In Delaware, for example, Parsons and Powell (1998) estimated that $90,000 of the value of a $200,000 home along t...

  7. MANAGING COASTAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To answer broad-scale questions on environmental conditions, the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) and its partners have collected estuarine and coastal data from hundreds of stations along the coasts of the continental United States. Types of data include w...

  8. COASTAL EMAP PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several state and federal agencies are collecting monitoring data. One of the goals of the project is to assist the states in the implementation of their statewide coastal monitoring strategy by dealing with issues of statewide data comparability and information management. The ...

  9. Model for Coastal Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Judd, Chaeli

    2007-07-27

    Successful restoration of wetland habitats depends on both our understanding of our system and our ability to characterize it. By developing a conceptual model, looking at different spatial scales and integrating diverse data streams: GIS datasets and NASA products, we were able to develop a dynamic model for site prioritization based on both qualitative and quantitative relationships found in the coastal environment.

  10. Dispersal of forest insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  11. Coastal processes study at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA: summary of data collection 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Eshleman, Jodi; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, contains a persistent erosional section in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta and south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. Coastal managers have been discussing potential mediation measures for over a decade, with little scientific research available to aid in decision making. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study in April 2004 to provide the scientific knowledge necessary for coastal managers to make informed management decisions. This study integrates a wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling techniques to document nearshore sediment transport processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, with emphasis on how these processes relate to erosion at Ocean Beach. The Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study is the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay.

  12. Coastal hazards: hurricanes, tsunamis, coastal erosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Mersfelder, Lynne; Farrar, Frank, (artist); France, Rigoberto Guardado, (translator); Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Oceans are the largest geographic feature on the surface of the Earth, covering approximately 70% of the planet's surface. As a result, oceans have a tremendous impact on the Earth, its climate, and its inhabitants. The coast or shoreline is the boundary between ocean environments and land habitats. By the year 2025, it is estimated that approximately two-thirds of the world's population will be living within 200 kilometers of a coast. In many ways, we treat the coast just like any other type of land area, as a safe and stable place to live and play. However, coastal environments are dynamic, and they constantly change in response to natural processes and to human activities.

  13. Attributing the effects of climate on phenology change suggests high sensitivity in coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyednasrollah, B.; Clark, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of climate change on spring phenology depends on many variables that cannot be separated using current models. Phenology can influence carbon sequestration, plant nutrition, forest health, and species distributions. Leaf phenology is sensitive to changes of environmental factors, including climate, species composition, latitude, and solar radiation. The many variables and their interactions frustrate efforts to attribute variation to climate change. We developed a Bayesian framework to quantify the influence of environment on the speed of forest green-up. This study presents a state-space hierarchical model to infer and predict change in forest greenness over time using satellite observations and ground measurements. The framework accommodates both observation and process errors and it allows for main effects of variables and their interactions. We used daily spaceborne remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify temporal variability in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) along a habitat gradient in the Southeastern United States. The ground measurements of meteorological parameters are obtained from study sites located in the Appalachian Mountains, the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain between years 2000 and 2015. Results suggest that warming accelerates spring green-up in the Coastal Plain to a greater degree than in the Piedmont and Appalachian. In other words, regardless of variation in the timing of spring onset, the rate of greenness in non-coastal zones decreases with increasing temperature and hence with time over the spring transitional period. However, in coastal zones, as air temperature increases, leaf expansion becomes faster. This may indicate relative vulnerability to warming in non-coastal regions where moisture could be a limiting factor, whereas high temperatures in regions close to the coast enhance forest physiological activities. Model predictions agree with the remotely

  14. Forest fire simulation using PHOENICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeslund, Erik

    1991-02-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used as a tool to study the dispersion of the airborne pollutants that are originating from a forest fire. The set of relevant fluid dynamic equations is solved with the aid of the general equation solver (PHOENICS), whose graphical capability is used to display the results of the computation. The main objectives of the simulation are to show that such a dispersion model is possible to carry out, and that it gives physically reasonable results. CFD in general, and PHOENICS in particular, are shown to be a useful tool in this context.

  15. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  16. AIDS: the first decade.

    PubMed

    Turk, H N

    1989-01-01

    AIDS has had a profound effect on society and the workplace and has raised legal and social problems for which society was not prepared. This article will chronicle the evolution of federal, state and local law concerning AIDS and the workplace. Although there are some clear-cut answers and guidelines that address the relationship of employer and employee to the AIDS epidemic, current legislation and enforcement of those laws does not adequately address the AIDS victim as a handicapped individual. Emphasis is also placed on the problems peculiar to the health care industry, the constitutionality of present legislation, and the AIDS victim's right to privacy versus the employer's need to know. Finally, some practical solutions and guidelines will be presented that will help the employer deal with the AIDS victim and his or her co-worker. PMID:10295811

  17. Modeling coastal environmental changes by fuzzy logic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Zoran, Liviu Florin V.

    2004-10-01

    The coastal zone contains that unique environmental triple point where the water, land and atmospheric components of the terrestrial surface converge and interact. This paper is an application of remotely sensed images in marine coastal land cover classification for change detection assessment. The nature of the gradients in coastal region land cover composition among the map classes can therefore be identified.A supervised approach uses the prior knowledge about the area and thus it is very useful in getting better results than an unsupervised classification. The study test area was North-Western Black Sea coastal region, characterized by no so fast drastic changes,as it is a slow and continuous process. Satellite images (Landsat MSS, TM, ETM, SAR ERS, ASTER, MODIS) over a period of time between 1975 and 2003 were chosen for change detection analysis.In the fuzzy approach, it is possible to describe change as a degree, this being the main reason for fuzzy approach using for classification and change detection of major land cover classes in a marine coastal area.The results can be utilized as a temporal land-use change model for a region to quantify the extent and nature of change, and aid in future prediction studies, which helps in planning environmental agencies to develop sustainable land-use practices .

  18. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  19. HIV / AIDS Network.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  20. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  1. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  2. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  3. Modelling interactions of carbon dioxide, forests, and climate

    SciTech Connect

    Luxmoore, R.J.; Baldocchi, D.D.

    1994-09-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide is rising and forests and climate is changing! This combination of fact and premise may be evaluated at a range of temporal and spatial scales with the aid of computer simulators describing the interrelationships between forest vegetation, litter and soil characteristics, and appropriate meteorological variables. Some insights on the effects of climate on the transfers of carbon and the converse effect of carbon transfer on climate are discussed as a basis for assessing the significance of feedbacks between vegetation and climate under conditions of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Three main classes of forest models are reviewed. These are physiologically-based models, forest succession simulators based on the JABOWA model, and ecosystem-carbon budget models that use compartment transfer rates with empirically estimated coefficients. Some regression modeling approaches are also outlined. Energy budget models applied to forests and grasslands are also reviewed. This review presents examples of forest models; a comprehensive discussion of all available models is not undertaken.

  4. Use of NASA Satellite Data in Aiding Mississippi Barrier Island Restoration Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco; Spruce, Joseph; Kalcic, Maria; Fletcher, Rose

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discusses a NASA Stennis Space Center project in which NASA-supported satellite and aerial data is being used to aid state and federal agencies in restoring the Mississippi barrier islands. Led by the Applied Science and Technology Project Office (ASTPO), this project will produce geospatial information products from multiple NASA-supported data sources, including Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data as well as ATLAS multispectral, CAMS multispectral, AVIRIS hyperspectral, EAARL, and other aerial data. Project objectives include the development and testing of a regional sediment transport model and the monitoring of barrier island restoration efforts through remote sensing. Barrier islands provide invaluable benefits to the State of Mississippi, including buffering the mainland from storm surge impacts, providing habitats for valuable wildlife and fisheries habitat, offering accessible recreational opportunities, and preserving natural environments for educating the public about coastal ecosystems and cultural resources. Unfortunately, these highly valued natural areas are prone to damage from hurricanes. For example, Hurricane Camille in 1969 split Ship Island into East and West Ship Island. Hurricane Georges in 1998 caused additional land loss for the two Ship Islands. More recently, Hurricanes Ivan, Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike impacted the Mississippi barrier islands. In particular, Hurricane Katrina caused major damage to island vegetation and landforms, killing island forest overstories, overwashing entire islands, and causing widespread erosion. In response, multiple state and federal agencies are working to restore damaged components of these barrier islands. Much of this work is being implemented through federally funded Coastal Impact Assessment and Mississippi Coastal Improvement programs. One restoration component involves the reestablishment of the island footprints to that in 1969. Our project will employ NASA remote sensing

  5. Effect of habitat and foraging height on bat activity in the coastal plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer, M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Kilgo, John C.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; McCracken, Gary F.

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 habitat types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature pine plantations and pine savannas, using time expansion radio-microphones and integrated detectors to simultaneously monitor bat activity at three heights in each habitat type.

  6. MICROBIAL ACTIVITY: AN INDICATOR OF WATERSHED IMPACTS ON RIVERINE COASTAL WETLANDS OF LAKE MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The loss of watershed storage and/or forest cover due to land use, is expected to increase nutrient levels and sedimentation in the riverine coastal wetlands. Watershed indicators should be able to
    distinguish between degradation gradients separating reference, transitional, a...

  7. MICROBIAL ACTIVITY: AN INDICATOR OF WATERSHED IMPACTRS ON RIVERINE COASTAL WETLANDS OF LAKE MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The loss of watershed storage and/or forest cover due to land use, is expected to increase nutrient levels and sedimentation in the riverine coastal wetlands. Watershed indicators should be able to distinguish between degradation gradients, separating reference, transitional, and...

  8. Delineating Contaminants and Transport Pathways Within a Coastal Watershed in Southeast Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coastal water quality decline due to point and non-point source pollution from terrestrial sources is a serious concern throughout the Caribbean basin and worldwide. Toxic and noxious algal blooms, declines in mangrove forests and seagrass meadows, depletion of fishery stocks, coral reef die-off, pu...

  9. Simulating decadal coastal morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; French, Jon R.; van Maanen, Barend

    2016-03-01

    Coastal geomorphic systems provide many services of key importance to humankind, including protection from flood and erosion hazards, diverse habitats and amenity values (Agardy et al., 2005; Jones et al., 2011). However, these systems are widely undergoing degradation that can be substantially attributed to the cumulative direct and indirect effects of human interference. Declining sediment inputs and throughputs are frequently a factor driving a shift towards progressive coastal erosion (Valiela, 2006; Nicholls et al., 2007). Such sediment starved systems have reduced resilience and are further threatened by human-induced climate change, not only due to accelerated sea-level rise, but also through possible shifts in wave and surge climate (Wong et al., 2014).

  10. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.

  11. Oregon Coastal Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosro, M.; Allen, J. S.; Barth, J. A.; Egbert, G. D.; Huyer, A.; Smith, R. L.; Grantham, B. A.; Lubchenco, J.; Menge, B. A.

    2002-12-01

    Since 1997, a growing system of sustained coastal measurements, together with a high-resolution, data-assimilating coastal modeling program, have been used off Oregon to study the response of the coastal ocean to forcing at a range of space and time scales. The measurements include a large array of HF radars, which permit time-series mapping of the surface circulation over most of the Oregon coast; both long-term and short-term moored components, which provide time-series sampling through the water column; and repeat hydrographic, ADCP and surface drifter sampling, including the Newport Hydrographic Line (which has been sampled since the 1960s). At interannual frequencies, these measurements show changes in the alongshore circulation over the continental slope accompanying ENSO. At seasonal and storm frequencies, the strength and persistence of spatial patterns in wind-driven currents and the importance of bathymetry in steering the circulation are seen. Discovery of episodic phenomena, such as the recent finding of a hypoxic pool and associated die-off of fish and crabs on the continental shelf off Heceta Head, are made possible by repeated sampling.

  12. 76 FR 39857 - Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic...

  13. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  14. AIDS and student attitudes.

    PubMed

    Merrill, J M; Laux, L; Thornby, J I

    1989-04-01

    When recently polled, one half of 4,100 physicians believed they had the right not to treat patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 15% said they would actually refuse to care for them. To assure medical care for the 365,000 AIDS patients projected for the US by 1992, it is imperative to know whether there is something unique about AIDS patients that produces aversion among physicians. We hypothesized that the desire to avoid AIDS patients derived from three fears: fear of contagion, homophobia, and a desire to avoid dying patients. To identify the extent to which these three fears affect the attitudes that students hold toward AIDS patients, we conducted three studies. In our first study, we discovered that students' views about a patient with a terminal illness are the same whether the illness is leukemia or AIDS. In the second study, we found that the patient's sexual preference was not the major reason students would avoid an AIDS patients. In a third study, we confirmed that fear of contagion is the principal cause of students' desire to avoid an AIDS patient. In the course of these studies, we found important differences between the attitudes of male and female students. Female students scored lower on the homophobic scale than male students, and they had less antipathy toward AIDS patients. Helping health care professionals understand their fears toward patients with AIDS will in the long run improve medical care. Since the origins of these fears are for the most part well hidden in our unconscious, dissemination of facts alone will not do the job. Interventions are needed to help health care professionals acknowledge and overcome their negative feelings about AIDS. PMID:2705068

  15. Montana's forest resources. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, R.C.; O'Brien, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    The report includes highlights of the forest resource in Montana as of 1989. Also the study describes the extent, condition, and location of the State's forests with particular emphasis on timberland. Includes statistical tables, area by land classes, ownership, and forest type, growing stock and sawtimber volumes, growth, mortality, and removals for timberland.

  16. What was natural in the coastal oceans?

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jeremy B. C.

    2001-01-01

    Humans transformed Western Atlantic coastal marine ecosystems before modern ecological investigations began. Paleoecological, archeological, and historical reconstructions demonstrate incredible losses of large vertebrates and oysters from the entire Atlantic coast. Untold millions of large fishes, sharks, sea turtles, and manatees were removed from the Caribbean in the 17th to 19th centuries. Recent collapses of reef corals and seagrasses are due ultimately to losses of these large consumers as much as to more recent changes in climate, eutrophication, or outbreaks of disease. Overfishing in the 19th century reduced vast beds of oysters in Chesapeake Bay and other estuaries to a few percent of pristine abundances and promoted eutrophication. Mechanized harvesting of bottom fishes like cod set off a series of trophic cascades that eliminated kelp forests and then brought them back again as fishers fished their way down food webs to small invertebrates. Lastly, but most pervasively, mechanized harvesting of the entire continental shelf decimated large, long-lived fishes and destroyed three-dimensional habitats built up by sessile corals, bryozoans, and sponges. The universal pattern of losses demonstrates that no coastal ecosystem is pristine and few wild fisheries are sustainable along the entire Western Atlantic coast. Reconstructions of ecosystems lost only a century or two ago demonstrate attainable goals of establishing large and effective marine reserves if society is willing to pay the costs. Historical reconstructions provide a new scientific framework for manipulative experiments at the ecosystem scale to explore the feasibility and benefits of protection of our living coastal resources. PMID:11344287

  17. What was natural in the coastal oceans?

    PubMed

    Jackson, J B

    2001-05-01

    Humans transformed Western Atlantic coastal marine ecosystems before modern ecological investigations began. Paleoecological, archeological, and historical reconstructions demonstrate incredible losses of large vertebrates and oysters from the entire Atlantic coast. Untold millions of large fishes, sharks, sea turtles, and manatees were removed from the Caribbean in the 17th to 19th centuries. Recent collapses of reef corals and seagrasses are due ultimately to losses of these large consumers as much as to more recent changes in climate, eutrophication, or outbreaks of disease. Overfishing in the 19th century reduced vast beds of oysters in Chesapeake Bay and other estuaries to a few percent of pristine abundances and promoted eutrophication. Mechanized harvesting of bottom fishes like cod set off a series of trophic cascades that eliminated kelp forests and then brought them back again as fishers fished their way down food webs to small invertebrates. Lastly, but most pervasively, mechanized harvesting of the entire continental shelf decimated large, long-lived fishes and destroyed three-dimensional habitats built up by sessile corals, bryozoans, and sponges. The universal pattern of losses demonstrates that no coastal ecosystem is pristine and few wild fisheries are sustainable along the entire Western Atlantic coast. Reconstructions of ecosystems lost only a century or two ago demonstrate attainable goals of establishing large and effective marine reserves if society is willing to pay the costs. Historical reconstructions provide a new scientific framework for manipulative experiments at the ecosystem scale to explore the feasibility and benefits of protection of our living coastal resources. PMID:11344287

  18. MARINE AEROSOLS ALTER SOIL PROCESSES IN COASTAL FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most models of watershed biogeochemistry include the movement of materials from land to rivers and eventually the ocean. Few conceptual views, however, acknowledge the influence of materials derived from the ocean on terrestrial ecosystems processes. Based on spatial patterns o...

  19. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  20. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  1. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  2. Health Aides Serve...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huscher, John

    1976-01-01

    The student health aide program of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln is a paid, auxiliary, trained health position in dorms, co-ops, and Greek houses, with personnel evaluated on the assistance provided for any physical, personal, social, or environmental health concerns students may have in accordance with the aide's training. (MB)

  3. [Oral hygiene aids].

    PubMed

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  4. A New AIDS Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Thousands of young people are affected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). An effective AIDS education program must address functional knowledge, relevant skills, and motivation. The program must be comprehensive and taught by trained teachers. Lists a source of an annotated…

  5. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  6. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  7. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  8. What about AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Katharine R.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Suggests ways in which camp directors can establish procedures for making appropriate decisions about accepting campers/staff workers with AIDS. Reviews aspects of environmental sanitation, physical health, confidentiality, camper/staff drug use and sexual behavior, medical…

  9. Cutaneous acanthamoebiasis in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Torno, M S; Babapour, R; Gurevitch, A; Witt, M D

    2000-02-01

    Acanthamoeba is a recognized pathogen in the immunocompromised patient, commonly presenting as chronic or subacute encephalitis. However, cutaneous disease in the absence of CNS involvement is increasingly recognized, especially in the setting of chronic, nonhealing skin lesions in the patient with AIDS. We describe a patient with AIDS and cutaneous acanthamoebiasis and review our experience with treatment and diagnosis. PMID:10640931

  10. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  11. AIDS PUBLIC INFORMATION DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AIDS Public Information Data Set is computer software designed to run on a Microsoft Windows microcomputer, and contains information abstracted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases reported in the United States. The data set is created by the Division of HIV/A...

  12. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  13. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  14. Games and Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    This document is filled with suggestions for inexpensive teacher-made classroom aids that can be used for concept reinforcement with the total class, a small group, or individual students. The games and teaching aids provided, allow instructors to provide the motivational drill to develop speed and accuracy for basic computational skills. The…

  15. Teaching Children about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koop, C. Everett

    1987-01-01

    Calls for more education as the immediate preventative measure against acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Discusses the known ways that AIDS is transmitted and cautions that many innocent people may also contract the disease. Promotes the presentation of accurate and personally sensitive information to children. (TW)

  16. AIDS: Children Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…

  17. Trends in Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

    This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance available to postsecondary students in the form of grants, loans, and work-study. The data cover virtually all federal aid and most state and institutional assistance; not included in the study is financial aid in the form of indirect subsidies, students' wages, employer-paid…

  18. Regulations of the Forest Law, 29 June 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    These Regulations set forth the administration and duties of various government departments under the Mexican Forest Law. They provide that the National Forest Administration is, among other things, to promote operations designed for the conservation, protection, and restoration of forest resources, especially with respect to disasters of any kind that affect forests, such as pestilence, fires, disease, floods, and acid rain, as well as other destructive and contaminating elements. Further provisions of the Regulations describe efforts to aid reforestation and silviculture to be undertaken by the Secretariat and activities with respect to use permits and forest management. In its efforts to aid reforestation, the Secretariat is to establish nurseries, give assistance to local bodies to establish nurseries, and support reforestation programs financially. Regulations of the General Law on Ecological Equilibrium and Environmental Protection with Respect to Environmental Impact of 6 June 1988 contain provisions requiring the Secretariat of Urban Development and Ecology to formulate general rules on the environmental impact involved in the use of forests. These rules are to set forth measures on prevention, improvement, preservation, restoration, and control. The Secretariat is also to issue ecological protection restrictions on the use of forest resources, which are to be relied on in the evaluation of proposed forest use projects. The Regulations also set forth procedures to be followed in examining use permit applications and information that must be included in such applications. See Diario Oficial, Vol. 417, No. 5, 7 June 1988, p. 28. PMID:12289485

  19. An introduction to coastal geomorphology

    SciTech Connect

    Pethick, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book is an introduction to wave and tidally dominated coastal forms, including beaches, cliffs, dunes, estuaries, mudflats and marshlands. The book emphasises the physical mechanisms by which this variety of landforms is produced and maintained. It introduces the energy outputs - waves, currents, tides - into the coastal 'machine', examines the way in which this energy is converted into water and sediment movement, and leads to an account of coastal landform development.

  20. Forest Health Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  1. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia. PMID:27594800

  2. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia. PMID:27594800

  3. Assessing deforestation in the coastal zone of the Campeche State, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mas, J.F.; Vega, A.P.; Aponte, G.P.; Lomeli, D.Z.

    1997-06-01

    In order to determine rates of deforestation in the State of Campeche, Mexico, forest maps of 1978/80 and 1992 were compared within a geographic information system (GIS). Results indicate that more than 25 per cent of the tropical forest and mangroves were deforested and other 29 per cent were fragmented during this period. The rate of deforestation in the whole state is about 4.4 per cent per year, but the analysis showed that rates of deforestation are much higher in the coastal zone. For this reason an attempt was made to study deforestation patterns in the coastal zone. Data such as distance from roads and from settlements images were incorporated in the GIS data base and a model which represents influence of population on its environment was developed in order to establish the influence of socioeconomic factors on forest clearing. Results indicate that deforestation presents a higher correlation with levels of poverty and social abandonment than with demographic aspects.

  4. Application of China's National Forest Continuous Inventory Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaokui; Wang, Qingli; Dai, Limin; Su, Dongkai; Wang, Xinchuang; Qi, Guang; Ye, Yujing

    2011-12-01

    The maintenance of a timely, reliable and accurate spatial database on current forest ecosystem conditions and changes is essential to characterize and assess forest resources and support sustainable forest management. Information for such a database can be obtained only through a continuous forest inventory. The National Forest Continuous Inventory (NFCI) is the first level of China's three-tiered inventory system. The NFCI is administered by the State Forestry Administration; data are acquired by five inventory institutions around the country. Several important components of the database include land type, forest classification and ageclass/ age-group. The NFCI database in China is constructed based on 5-year inventory periods, resulting in some of the data not being timely when reports are issued. To address this problem, a forest growth simulation model has been developed to update the database for years between the periodic inventories. In order to aid in forest plan design and management, a three-dimensional virtual reality system of forest landscapes for selected units in the database (compartment or sub-compartment) has also been developed based on Virtual Reality Modeling Language. In addition, a transparent internet publishing system for a spatial database based on open source WebGIS (UMN Map Server) has been designed and utilized to enhance public understanding and encourage free participation of interested parties in the development, implementation, and planning of sustainable forest management.

  5. Application of China's National Forest Continuous Inventory database.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaokui; Wang, Qingli; Dai, Limin; Su, Dongkai; Wang, Xinchuang; Qi, Guang; Ye, Yujing

    2011-12-01

    The maintenance of a timely, reliable and accurate spatial database on current forest ecosystem conditions and changes is essential to characterize and assess forest resources and support sustainable forest management. Information for such a database can be obtained only through a continuous forest inventory. The National Forest Continuous Inventory (NFCI) is the first level of China's three-tiered inventory system. The NFCI is administered by the State Forestry Administration; data are acquired by five inventory institutions around the country. Several important components of the database include land type, forest classification and ageclass/ age-group. The NFCI database in China is constructed based on 5-year inventory periods, resulting in some of the data not being timely when reports are issued. To address this problem, a forest growth simulation model has been developed to update the database for years between the periodic inventories. In order to aid in forest plan design and management, a three-dimensional virtual reality system of forest landscapes for selected units in the database (compartment or sub-compartment) has also been developed based on Virtual Reality Modeling Language. In addition, a transparent internet publishing system for a spatial database based on open source WebGIS (UMN Map Server) has been designed and utilized to enhance public understanding and encourage free participation of interested parties in the development, implementation, and planning of sustainable forest management. PMID:21761247

  6. Alerts of forest disturbance from MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Dan; Kraft, Robin; Wheeler, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the methodology and computational strategy for a forest cover disturbance alerting system. Analytical techniques from time series econometrics are applied to imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to detect temporal instability in vegetation indices. The characteristics from each MODIS pixel's spectral history are extracted and compared against historical data on forest cover loss to develop a geographically localized classification rule that can be applied across the humid tropical biome. The final output is a probability of forest disturbance for each 500 m pixel that is updated every 16 days. The primary objective is to provide high-confidence alerts of forest disturbance, while minimizing false positives. We find that the alerts serve this purpose exceedingly well in Pará, Brazil, with high probability alerts garnering a user accuracy of 98 percent over the training period and 93 percent after the training period (2000-2005) when compared against the PRODES deforestation data set, which is used to assess spatial accuracy. Implemented in Clojure and Java on the Hadoop distributed data processing platform, the algorithm is a fast, automated, and open source system for detecting forest disturbance. It is intended to be used in conjunction with higher-resolution imagery and data products that cannot be updated as quickly as MODIS-based data products. By highlighting hotspots of change, the algorithm and associated output can focus high-resolution data acquisition and aid in efforts to enforce local forest conservation efforts.

  7. A NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT OF COASTAL SEDIMENT CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    One element of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's National Coastal Assessment is to estimate the current status, extent, changes and trends in the condition of the Nation's coastal sediments on a national basis. Based on NCA monitoring activities from 1999-2001...

  8. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  9. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  10. USEPA'S APPROACH FOR ESTABLISHING NATIONAL NUTRIENT CRITERIA FOR ESTUARIES AND COASTAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEP A is developing procedures for establishing nutrient criteria to aid states and tribes in setting nutrient standards for the nation's water bodies and coastal waters. Criteria are being developed separately by water body type (e.g. lakes and reservoirs, rivers and stream...

  11. Portable coastal observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frye, Daniel; Butman, Bradford; Johnson, Mark; von der Heydt, Keith; Lerner, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Ocean observational science is in the midst of a paradigm shift from an expeditionary science centered on short research cruises and deployments of internally recording instruments to a sustained observational science where the ocean is monitored on a regular basis, much the way the atmosphere is monitored. While satellite remote sensing is one key way of meeting the challenge of real-time monitoring of large ocean regions, new technologies are required for in situ observations to measure conditions below the ocean surface and to measure ocean characteristics not observable from space. One method of making sustained observations in the coastal ocean is to install a fiber optic cable from shore to the area of interest. This approach has the advantage of providing power to offshore instruments and essentially unlimited bandwidth for data. The LEO-15 observatory offshore of New Jersey (yon Alt et al., 1997) and the planned Katama observatory offshore of Martha's Vineyard (Edson et al., 2000) use this approach. These sites, along with other cabled sites, will play an important role in coastal ocean science in the next decade. Cabled observatories, however, have two drawbacks that limit the number of sites that are likely to be installed. First, the cable and the cable installation are expensive and the shore station needed at the cable terminus is often in an environmentally sensitive area where competing interests must be resolved. Second, cabled sites are inherently limited geographically to sites within reach of the cable, so it is difficult to cover large areas of the coastal ocean.

  12. A global standard for monitoring coastal wetland vulnerability to accelerated sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Edward L.; Friess, Daniel A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Phelps, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise threatens coastal salt-marshes and mangrove forests around the world, and a key determinant of coastal wetland vulnerability is whether its surface elevation can keep pace with rising sea level. Globally, a large data gap exists because wetland surface and shallow subsurface processes remain unaccounted for by traditional vulnerability assessments using tide gauges. Moreover, those processes vary substantially across wetlands, so modelling platforms require relevant local data. The low-cost, simple, high-precision rod surface-elevation table–marker horizon (RSET-MH) method fills this critical data gap, can be paired with spatial data sets and modelling and is financially and technically accessible to every country with coastal wetlands. Yet, RSET deployment has been limited to a few regions and purposes. A coordinated expansion of monitoring efforts, including development of regional networks that could support data sharing and collaboration, is crucial to adequately inform coastal climate change adaptation policy at several scales.

  13. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  14. American Foundation for AIDS Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Press Corporate Support amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research Research Overview Research Grants Research Accomplishments Scientific ... Archive TREAT Asia TREAT Asia About TREAT Asia AIDS in Asia Research and Treatment Education and AIDS ...

  15. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  16. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  17. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  18. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  19. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  20. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent

  1. The ERTS-1 investigation (ER-600). Volume 3: ERTS-1 forest analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The Forest Analysis Team of the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Earth Observations Division conducted a year's investigation of LANDSAT 1 multispectral data to determine the size of forest features that could be detected and to determine the suitability for making forest classification maps. The Sam Houston National Forest of Texas was used as the test site. Using conventional interpretation and computer aided techniques, the team was able to differentiate up to 14 classes of forest features to an accuracy ranging between 55 and 84 percent.

  2. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  3. [Implantable hearing aids].

    PubMed

    Luers, J C; Beutner, D; Hüttenbrink, K-B

    2011-10-01

    Strictly speaking, implantable hearing aids are technical systems that process audiological signals and convey these by direct mechanical stimulation of the ossicular chain or cochlea. They have certain benefits over conventional hearing aids in terms of wearing comfort and general acceptance. As current studies lack convincing audiological results, the indications for implantable hearing aids are primarily of medical or cosmetic nature. To date, three systems are available in Germany: Vibrant Soundbridge®, Carina®, and Esteem®. Because the performance of the different implantable and nonimplantable hearing systems together with various surgical procedures are currently undergoing major changes, audiological indications may also develop in the future. PMID:21956678

  4. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  5. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, M.; Desprats, J. F.; Fontaine, M.; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C. H. E. R.; de Silva, U.; Poisson, B.

    2008-06-01

    The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka. The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka. This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks. The coastal

  6. Forest dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Frelich, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Forest dynamics encompass changes in stand structure, species composition, and species interactions with disturbance and environment over a range of spatial and temporal scales. For convenience, spatial scale is defined as individual tree, neighborhood, stand, and landscape. Whether a given canopy-leveling disturbance will initiate a sequence of development in structure with little change in composition or initiate an episode of succession depends on a match or mismatch, respectively, with traits of the dominant tree species that allow the species to survive disturbance. When these match, certain species-disturbance type combinations lock in a pattern of stand and landscape dynamics that can persist for several generations of trees; thus, dominant tree species regulate, as well as respond to, disturbance. A complex interaction among tree species, neighborhood effects, disturbance type and severity, landform, and soils determines how stands of differing composition form and the mosaic of stands that compose the landscape. Neighborhood effects (e.g., serotinous seed rain, sprouting, shading, leaf-litter chemistry, and leaf-litter physical properties) operate at small spatial extents of the individual tree and its neighbors but play a central role in forest dynamics by contributing to patch formation at stand scales and dynamics of the entire landscape. Dominance by tree species with neutral to negative neighborhood effects leads to unstable landscape dynamics in disturbance-prone regions, wherein most stands are undergoing succession; stability can only occur under very low-severity disturbance regimes. Dominance by species with positive effects leads to stable landscape dynamics wherein only a small proportion of stands undergo succession at any one time. Positive neighborhood effects are common in temperate and boreal zones, whereas negative effects are more common in tropical climates. Landscapes with positive dynamics have alternate categories of dynamics

  7. Forest dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frelich, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Forest dynamics encompass changes in stand structure, species composition, and species interactions with disturbance and environment over a range of spatial and temporal scales. For convenience, spatial scale is defined as individual tree, neighborhood, stand, and landscape. Whether a given canopy-leveling disturbance will initiate a sequence of development in structure with little change in composition or initiate an episode of succession depends on a match or mismatch, respectively, with traits of the dominant tree species that allow the species to survive disturbance. When these match, certain species-disturbance type combinations lock in a pattern of stand and landscape dynamics that can persist for several generations of trees; thus, dominant tree species regulate, as well as respond to, disturbance. A complex interaction among tree species, neighborhood effects, disturbance type and severity, landform, and soils determines how stands of differing composition form and the mosaic of stands that compose the landscape. Neighborhood effects (e.g., serotinous seed rain, sprouting, shading, leaf-litter chemistry, and leaf-litter physical properties) operate at small spatial extents of the individual tree and its neighbors but play a central role in forest dynamics by contributing to patch formation at stand scales and dynamics of the entire landscape. Dominance by tree species with neutral to negative neighborhood effects leads to unstable landscape dynamics in disturbance-prone regions, wherein most stands are undergoing succession; stability can only occur under very low-severity disturbance regimes. Dominance by species with positive effects leads to stable landscape dynamics wherein only a small proportion of stands undergo succession at any one time. Positive neighborhood effects are common in temperate and boreal zones, whereas negative effects are more common in tropical climates. Landscapes with positive dynamics have alternate categories of dynamics

  8. Forest Fire Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Conditions on the perimeter of a forest fire can be obtained by use of airborne remote sensing techniques demonstrated by Ames Research Center. An Ames U-2 high-altitude survey aircraft served as an aerial fire observation system. Equipped with two types of sensors, the U-2 produces real-time infrared images of fireground scenes. Information acquired by the U-2's scanners defines the fire boundary and aids fire management decisions by showing the size, shape and direction of burn and the locations of hot spots in the fire zone. U-2 sends sensor date in digital form to an antenna at Ames Research Center. There the data is computer processed into images which are overlaid on U.S. Geological Survey topographical maps of the fire area. Maps are then transmitted by telecopy machine directly to fire control center. Whole process takes less than 10 minutes and the U-2 can provide information for up to five hours. Ames antenna can pick up signals from the U-2 anywhere within a 300 mile radius from Ames.

  9. Effect of coarse woody debris manipulation on soricid and herpetofaunal communities in upland pine stands of the southeastern coastal plain.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Justin, Charles

    2009-04-01

    Abstract -The majority of studies investigating the importance of coarse woody debris (CWD) to forest- floor vertebrates have taken place in the Pacific Northwest and southern Appalachian Mountains, while comparative studies in the southeastern Coastal Plain are lacking. My study was a continuation of a long-term project investigating the importance of CWD as a habitat component for shrew and herpetofaunal communities within managed pine stands in the southeastern Coastal Plain. Results suggest that addition of CWD can increase abundance of southeastern and southern short-tailed shrews. However, downed wood does not appear to be a critical habitat component for amphibians and reptiles. Rising petroleum costs and advances in wood utilization technology have resulted in an emerging biofuels market with potential to decrease CWD volumes left in forests following timber harvests. Therefore, forest managers must understand the value of CWD as an ecosystem component to maintain economically productive forests while conserving biological diversity.

  10. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of EPA's National Coastal Assessment (NCA) program is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's coastal resources on state, regional and national scales. During 1999-2003, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters were representatively sampled at ...

  11. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, ...

  12. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most ...

  13. World AIDS Day 1998.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts of speeches given at a public rally on World AIDS Day 1998 underscore the need to energize support for those living with HIV/AIDS, emphasize the importance of increasing public education efforts, and memorialize those lost to the disease. Reverend Pat Bumgardner stressed the need to educate children about practicing safe sex and the dangers of drug use. He also focused attention on AIDS as a worldwide crisis, with the 30 million people who have HIV or AIDS. Councilwoman Margarita Lopez spoke about achieving objectives and securing resources through activism. She also condemned New York City's Mayor for trying to hinder the rally. Anne Chelimsky, who did not speak at the rally but attended it, reflected on her new role as an activist, and on how the rally affected her. PMID:11367196

  14. Implantable digital hearing aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

  15. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  16. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... They also have greater flexibility in hearing aid programming so that the sound they transmit can be ... 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) Contact ...

  17. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  18. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  19. First aid kit

    MedlinePlus

    ... shield, pads, and bandages Latex or non-latex gloves to reduce contamination risk Sterile gauze pads, non- ... aid manual Hand sanitizer Latex or non-latex gloves to reduce contamination risk Save-A-Tooth storage ...

  20. Computer Aided Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)

  1. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  2. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  3. Coastal energy sitting dilemmas

    SciTech Connect

    Randle, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The construction of energy facilities in any port seems to assure a bitterly contested political decision, and paralysis or delay in the siting of necessary energy facilities. Analysis of this confrontation and delay is important in evaluating the Federal government's present approach to coastal energy siting. Part I examines the rural and urban patterns of opposition which have brought siting to a near standstill. Part II explores the possibility of using a tradeoff principle as a means to compromise these disputes and expedite siting. Disputes over the siting of a liquid propane gas (LPG) terminal and an oil refinery in coastal North Carolina are examined in order to understand the obstacles to using a tradeoff approach. The three major obstacles to a successful tradeoff policy for siting are preemption of important regulatory matters by the Federal government; fragmentation of permit processes and appeals; and failure of these state and Federal regulatory programs adequately to address liability and insurance aspects of these facilities. An institutional arrangement is suggested that could site these facilities at an acceptable speed in an acceptable manner through the use of the tradeoff principle, consolidated permit and appellate proceedings, and appropriate substantive protections. 165 references.

  4. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  5. Climate-induced changes in forest disturbance and vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Rind, David; Goldberg, Richard

    1990-01-01

    New and published climate-model results are discussed which indicate that global warming favors increased rates of forest disturbance as a result of weather more likely to cause forest fires, convective wind storms, coastal flooding, and hurricanes. New sensitivity tests carried out with a vegetation model indicate that climate-induced increases in disturbance could, in turn, significantly alter the total biomass and compositional response of forests to future warming. An increase in disturbance frequency is also likely to increase the rate at which natural vegetation responses to future climate change. The results reinforce the hypothesis that forests could be significantly altered by the first part of the next century. The modeling also confirms the potential utility of selected time series of fossil pollen data for investigating the poorly understood natural patterns of century-scale climate variability.

  6. Forest mapping with multi-temporal dual polarization ALOS PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Feilong; Li, Zengyuan; Chen, Erxue; Wang, Qinmin

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study is to exploit the new features of ALOS PALSAR dual polarization mode data and to develop novel classification method for forest mapping in heterogeneous areas. A test site was selected in Fujian province in southeast of China. Traditionally, forest is detected by its low coherence, low temporal variability of the backscattering intensity and mediate backscattering intensity. However, the analyses in this paper indicate that it is not possible to discriminate forest from nonforest by any single PALSAR feature in this test site. After examination the dependences of the multitemporal backscatter intensity, the polarimetric parameters and the interferometric coherence on different land cover types, a hierarchical classification method is proposed for coastal forest and hilly forest mapping. The forest maps are validated by forest inventory data and SPOPT-5 images. The results show that multitemporal PALSAR dual polarization data can accurate maps for coastal forest in flat areas using the proposed method. The capability to map forest in hilly regions is still limited.

  7. Old-growth definition for evergreen bay forests and related seral communities. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    McKevlin, M.R.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes old-growth conditions in an evergreen bay forest stand. Bay forests occur throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. However, they are considered rare and are present across the landscape in a patchwork mosaic with other forest types in various stages of succession. Bay forests can be found associated with pocosins. Carolina bays and sandhill seeps, stream heads, and stream margins. The dominant species include loblolly-bay, sweetbay, and redbay, hence the name evergreen bay forest. However, several other swamp species associates are common, as well as many highly flammable shrub species. This forest type is subject to infrequent, high intensity, widespread disturbances such as fire. Fire is necessary to the nutrient cycling of this forest type and in conjunction with hydrology, controls succession. These stands are frequently inundated by surface water, resulting in the development of histic soils low in fertility. Alteration of the hydrology by man and catastrophic wildfire are considered to be the greatest threats to the existence of bay forests.

  8. AIDS and economic disruption.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G S

    1996-10-01

    Child and adult mortality increases in Cameroon due to AIDS will cause life expectancy to fall by as many as 8 years, from just over 50 to just over 40 years. The social consequences of AIDS include grieving, stigmatizing, and the large-scale disruption of family and community structures. Widows and widowers due to AIDS mortality are affected differently from each other, with the widows of men who have died from AIDS facing potential sociocultural and economic hardship. The economic consequences of AIDS in Bamenda and elsewhere in Cameroon will occur mainly through the epidemic's impact upon the size and quality of the labor force. By killing a significant number of male and female workers aged 15-60 years, AIDS will reduce the size and growth rate of the labor force. Despite, rapid population growth, labor is a relatively scarce factor of agricultural production in Cameroon. The spread of HIV in rural areas, combined with the intensity and scarcity of agricultural labor, suggests that AIDS will have an impact upon production and per capita incomes, and increase the already high rates of hunger and absolute poverty. In the context of HIV/AIDS, young people must be empowered to make informed decisions about sex. Adolescents are most at risk because they tend to experiment more than married couples and have many sex partners. Sexual activity begins as early as age 8 years and penetrative sex at age 13 or earlier. The author considers the factors which encourage adolescents to engage in sexual activities. PMID:12293251

  9. Plasma-aided manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohet, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    Plasma-aided manufacturing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Plasma-aided manufacturing has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both the high-technology and the more traditional industries in the United States.

  10. [The liver and AIDS].

    PubMed

    Rull, S; Sanchís, M J; Palacios, A; Anguiz, A; Colomina, J

    1992-02-01

    Hepatic disorders in AIDS are very common, although the injuries observed are usually non-specific. This is the reason why the real usefulness of hepatic biopsy in this patients is being currently discussed. In this work, such aspect and the hepatic injuries observed in patients with AIDS are discussed. Current indications for hepatic biopsy are summarized, as well as its later manipulation in order to obtain maximum profitability of it. PMID:1576316

  11. AIDS: the hidden enemy.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread. PMID:12314457

  12. Database Overlap vs. Complementary Coverage in Forestry and Forest Products: Factors in Database Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Ryan E.

    This study examines (1) subject content, (2) file size, (3) types of documents indexed, (4) range of years spanned, and (5) level of indexing and abstracting in five databases which collectively provide extensive coverage of the forestry and forest products industries: AGRICOLA, CAB ABSTRACTS, FOREST PRODUCTS (AIDS), PAPERCHEM, and PIRA. The…

  13. Regional Risk Assessment for climate change impacts on coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, F; Rizzi, J; Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2015-12-15

    Coastal aquifers have been identified as particularly vulnerable to impacts on water quantity and quality due to the high density of socio-economic activities and human assets in coastal regions and to the projected rising sea levels, contributing to the process of saltwater intrusion. This paper proposes a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrated with a chain of numerical models to evaluate potential climate change-related impacts on coastal aquifers and linked natural and human systems (i.e., wells, river, agricultural areas, lakes, forests and semi-natural environments). The RRA methodology employs Multi Criteria Decision Analysis methods and Geographic Information Systems functionalities to integrate heterogeneous spatial data on hazard, susceptibility and risk for saltwater intrusion and groundwater level variation. The proposed approach was applied on the Esino River basin (Italy) using future climate hazard scenarios based on a chain of climate, hydrological, hydraulic and groundwater system models running at different spatial scales. Models were forced with the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario for the period 2071-2100 over four seasons (i.e., winter, spring, summer and autumn). Results indicate that in future seasons, climate change will cause few impacts on the lower Esino River valley. Groundwater level decrease will have limited effects: agricultural areas, forests and semi-natural environments will be at risk only in a region close to the coastline which covers less than 5% of the total surface of the considered receptors; less than 3.5% of the wells will be exposed in the worst scenario. Saltwater intrusion impact in future scenarios will be restricted to a narrow region close to the coastline (only few hundred meters), and thus it is expected to have very limited effects on the Esino coastal aquifer with no consequences on the considered natural and human systems. PMID:26282744

  14. Confronting AIDS: international consensus?

    PubMed

    1998-08-01

    A coordinated effort by the World Bank, the European Commission, and UNAIDS, and drawing from a number of academic disciplines, including epidemiology, public health, and public economics, the recently published book "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" argues that the global HIV/AIDS epidemic can be overcome and that national governments have a major role in preventing the spread of AIDS and tempering its impact. Considerable evidence is presented in support of the argument. The original idea for the book came out of collaboration between individuals in the European Commission and the World Bank. The World Bank's recognition of the importance of AIDS is a milestone in the course of the pandemic. Confronting AIDS highlights the potential and actual impact of AIDS upon households, communities, and countries; argues the case for interventions in both HIV prevention and care; and generally considers some of the difficult choices which need to be made about how scarce resources will be allocated, especially in developing countries. PMID:12294024

  15. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S

    1991-01-01

    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival. PMID:1786270

  16. Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

  17. Dietary flexibility aids Asian earthworm invasion in North American forests.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weixin; Hendrix, Paul F; Snyder, Bruce A; Molina, Marirosa; Li, Jianxiong; Rao, Xingquan; Siemann, Evan; Fu, Shenglei

    2010-07-01

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, such as comparing the differences in traits and/or impacts of species between native and/or invaded ranges, do not determine the extent to which the performance of invaders is due to either the effects of species traits or habitat characteristics. Here we explore the interaction between two of the most widespread earthworm invaders in the world (Asian Amynthas agrestis and European Lumbricus rubellus) and study the effects of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately through an alternative approach of "third habitat" in Tennessee, USA. We propose that feeding behaviors of earthworms will be critical to invasion success because trophic ecology of invasive animals plays a key role in the invasion process. We found that (1) the biomass and isotopic abundances (delta13C and delta15N) of A. agrestis were not impacted by either direct effects of L. rubellus competition or indirect effects of L. rubellus-preconditioned habitat; (2) A. agrestis disrupted the relationship between L. rubellus and soil microorganisms and consequently hindered litter consumption by L. rubellus; and (3) compared to L. rubellus, A. agrestis shifted its diet more readily to consume more litter, more soil gram-positive (G+) bacteria (which may be important for litter digestion), and more non-microbial soil fauna when soil microorganisms were depleted. In conclusion, A. agrestis showed strong invasiveness through its dietary flexibility through diet shifting and superior feeding behavior and its indirectly negative effect of habitat invasibility on L. rubellus via changes in the soil microorganism community. In such context, our results expand on the resource fluctuation hypothesis and support the superior competitor hypothesis. This work presents additional approaches in invasion ecology, provides some new dimensions for further research, and contributes to a greater understanding of the importance of interactions between multiple invading species. PMID:20715629

  18. Attenuation of cosmic ray flux in temperate forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plug, L. J.; Gosse, J. C.; McIntosh, J. J.; Bigley, R.

    2007-06-01

    Forests alter secondary cosmic radiation (CR) to the ground by (1) diminishing it owing to absorption by trees, (2) inducing spatial and temporal variability because biomass distribution is heterogeneous, and (3) lengthening the apparent mean attenuation length at ground level because nucleons are shielded over muons. We model CR flux through three-dimensional simulated forests with properties drawn from old-growth plots in Nova Scotia, Canada (Acadian forest) and the Olympic Peninsula, Washington state (coastal rain forest). For exposure durations of ≥105, conservative mean shielding in rain forest is 7.3 ± 2.3%, canopy and floor biomass included. Acadian/boreal forest has mean shielding 2.3 ± 0.6%. These long-timescale mean values are similar to previous estimates from treating forest biomass as a layer of constant thickness. Ground flux varies significantly between sites within a forest, ranging from 1 to 100% of nonforested flux for short timescales if some trees are large (diameters ≥1.5 m) because the position of the sample site relative to individual large trees is important. Temperate rain forests have large trees and disturbance/regeneration intervals approaching 103 y; hence, CR flux and resultant terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) concentrations vary by 1.5% after 8000 y but only 0.2% after 80,000 y. These results are for a forest that is statistically uniform through time; changes in biomass heterogeneity through time and/or space, owing to climate, wind-throw, or localized recruitment, would increase the inherent variability of TCN production. TCN dating experiments on timescales much shorter than 80 secondary successions of the forest will have significant uncertainty in effective production rates but catchment-wide average erosion experiments will not.

  19. Transmission of Phytophthora ramorum in Mixed-Evergreen Forest in California.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Jennifer M; Wickland, Allison C; Patterson, Heather A; Falk, Kristen R; Rizzo, David M

    2005-05-01

    ABSTRACT During 2001 to 2003, the transmission biology of Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of sudden oak death, was studied in mixedevergreen forest, a common forest type in northern, coastal California. Investigation of the sources of spore production focused on coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), dominant hosts that comprised 39.7 and 46.2% of the individuals at the study site, respectively. All tests for inoculum production from the surface of infected coast live oak bark or exudates from cankers were negative. In contrast, sporangia and chlamydospores were produced on the surface of infected bay laurel leaves. Mean number of zoospores produced from infected bay laurel leaves under natural field conditions during rainstorms was 1,173.0 +/- SE 301.48, and ranged as high as 5,200 spores/leaf. P. ramorum was recovered from rainwater, soil, litter, and streamwater during the mid- to late rainy season in all 3 years of the study. P. ramorum was not recovered from sporadic summer rains or soil and litter during the hot, dry summer months. Concentrations of inoculum in rainwater varied significantly from year to year and increased as the rainy season progressed for the two complete seasons that were studied. Potential dispersal distances were investigated for rainwater, soil, and streamwater. In rainwater, inoculum moved 5 and 10 m from the inoculum source. For soil, transmission of inoculum was demonstrated from infested soil to bay laurel green leaf litter, and from bay laurel green leaf litter to aerial leaves of bay laurel seedlings. One-third to one-half of the hikers tested at the study site during the rainy season also were carrying infested soil on their shoes. In streamwater, P. ramorum was recovered from an unforested site in pasture 1 km downstream of forest with inoculum sources. In total, these studies provide details on the production and spread of P. ramorum inoculum in mixed-evergreen forest to aid

  20. Sinking Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  1. Soil characteristics of sediment-amended baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps of coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Ming; Middleton, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Amendments of sediment from dredging activities have played an important role in raising the elevation of sinking coastal wetlands. This study compared the soil characteristics of sediment- amended coastal swamps in the Barataria Preserve unit of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve with natural swamps along Bayou des Familles. The sandy sediment amendments used in the coastal forests had different soil texture and characteristics than the more organic soils of the natural swamps. Three years after the application of these sediments on the sediment-amended swamps, dewatering and compaction of the sediment had occurred but the sediment still had high salinity and bulk density, and low organic matter content. The two sediment-amended swamps differed from each other in that Site 1 had a higher elevation (mean = 25 cm higher) and drier soil than Site 2. The effects of sediment in coastal forested wetlands require separate consideration from studies of salt marshes, e.g., the weight of the sediment might damage tree roots, or the amendments might influence soil stability during storms in a different way. Generally, this study suggests that shallower depths of sediment are more likely to yield environments beneficial to these sinking baldcypress swamps in coastal Louisiana.

  2. Mommy, Daddy--What's AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.

    This brochure is designed to help parents answer the questions that their children may ask them about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It provides basic information about AIDS and HIV, as well as sources for further information, such as the National AIDS Hotline. It…

  3. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  4. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  5. The First Aid Training Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

  6. AIDS and racism in America.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Institutionalized racism affects general health care as well as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health intervention and services in minority communities. The overrepresentation of minorities in various disease categories, including AIDS, is partially related to racism. The national response to the AIDS epidemic in minority communities has been slow, showing an insensitivity to ethnic diversity in prevention efforts and AIDS health services. PMID:1602509

  7. Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

  8. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in "pushbroom" mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in acrosstrack linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15. Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft-position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas shown.

  9. [AIDS: "We will win"].

    PubMed

    Chabrier, H

    1989-11-13

    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood. PMID:12342689

  10. 24 CFR 574.645 - Coastal barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coastal barriers. 574.645 Section....645 Coastal barriers. In accordance with the Coastal Barrier Resources Act, 16 U.S.C. 3501, no financial assistance under this part may be made available within the Coastal Barrier Resources System....

  11. COASTAL 2000 MONITORING IN THE NORTHEAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal 2000 is a partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and coastal states to develop a national coastal monitoring program. This joint effort will permit for the first time regional comparisons of coastal resource conditions. It will also provide a nationw...

  12. Simulation of wave mitigation by coastal vegetation using smoothed particle hydrodynamics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iryanto; Gunawan, P. H.

    2016-02-01

    Vegetation in coastal area lead to wave mitigation has been studied by some researchers recently. The effect of vegetation forest in coastal area is minimizing the negative impact of wave propagation. In order to describe the effect of vegetation resistance into the water flow, the modified model of framework smoothed hydrodynamics particle has been constructed. In the Lagrangian framework, the Darcy, Manning, and laminar viscosity resistances are added. The effect of each resistances is given in some results of numerical simulations. Simulation of wave mitigation on sloping beach is also given.

  13. Understanding Coastal Carbon Cycling by Linking Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Jordan G.; Troxler, Tiffany G.; Najjar, Raymond G.

    2014-09-01

    The coastal zone, despite occupying a small fraction of the Earth's surface area, is an important component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Coastal wetlands, including mangrove forests, tidal marshes, and seagrass meadows, compose a domain of large reservoirs of biomass and soil C [Fourqurean et al., 2012; Donato et al., 2011; Pendleton et al., 2012; Regnier et al., 2013; Bauer et al., 2013]. These wetlands and their associated C reservoirs (2 to 25 petagrams C; best estimate of 7 petagrams C [Pendleton et al., 2012]) provide numerous ecosystem services and serve as key links between land and ocean.

  14. AID AND SOMATIC HYPERMUTATION

    PubMed Central

    Maul, Robert W.; Gearhart, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    In response to an assault by foreign organisms, peripheral B cells can change their antibody affinity and isotype by somatically mutating their genomic DNA. The ability of a cell to modify its DNA is exceptional in light of the potential consequences of genetic alterations to cause human disease and cancer. Thus, as expected, this mechanism of antibody diversity is tightly regulated and coordinated through one protein, activation induced deaminase (AID). AID produces diversity by converting cytosine to uracil within the immunoglobulin loci. The deoxyuracil residue is mutagenic when paired with deoxyguanosine, since it mimics thymidine during DNA replication. Additionally, B cells can manipulate the DNA repair pathways so that deoxyuracils are not faithfully repaired. Therefore, an intricate balance exists which is regulated at multiple stages to promote mutation of immunoglobulin genes, while retaining integrity of the rest of the genome. Here we discuss and summarize the current understanding of how AID functions to cause somatic hypermutation. PMID:20510733

  15. Correction: AIDS commission.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    A recent article by William Booth on the President's AIDS commission (News & Comment, 16 Oct., p. 262) incorrectly states that commission member Cory SerVaas, publisher of the Saturday Evening Post, drives her AIDS Mobile around the country. SerVaas does not drive the traveling van that offers free AIDS testing. Rather, she often flies to meet it as it travels around the country, stopping at shopping malls and churches by prearrangement with local civic and religious groups. SerVaas denies saying that homosexuals are "deviants." "We have helped homosexuals for many years," she says, pointing out that although her group primarily tests people who have a low risk of being infected, such as recipients of blood transfusions and women who may become pregnant, members of high-risk groups such as homosexuals and drug addicts are not excluded. PMID:17814691

  16. Holocene coastal paleoenvironmental record, Bay of Brest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernane, Assia; Gandouin, Emmanuel; Goslin, Jérôme; Penaud, Aurélie; Van Vliet lanoë, Brigitte

    2013-04-01

    Coastal areas are sensitive environments regarding the risk of submersion and the impact on biodiversity induced by salinity changes. These areas thus provide good palaeocecological archives to monitor palaeo sea level changes and the associated adaptation of different biological communities. The north-western coast of France has poorly been investigated regarding its Holocene palaeoecological signatures (Morzadec-Kerfourn, 1974; Naughton et al., 2007). Chironomids have been recognized to be an efficient tool for palaeoclimate and palaeosalinity reconstructions in lakes (Brooks, 2006), and more recently in river floodplains (Gandouin et al, 2006). In this study, environmental changes related to both climate processes and human disturbances, were reconstructed over the last 5000 years, based on pollen and chironomid assemblages from two coastal cores retrieved at Pors Milin (Brittany, NW France). The sedimentary sequences consist of terrestrial peaty layers interdigited with marine clastic deposits. The study area is composed by a sandy beach, truncating the peat, limited by a high sandy bar, and a back marsh developed at + 4 m NGF. Pollen and chironomid results reveal that anthropogenic factors would mainly control environmental changes that occurred in this sector. The disappearance of many chironomid taxa (inhabitants of main river channel) and the dramatic fall in diversity may have been induced by the development of the Merovingian forest clearance at Pors Milin. Indeed, we suggest that the development of agriculture, the river embankment and the draining of wetlands may explain the chironomid habitat loss and the subsequent fall of biodiversity. This change in faunal assemblages occurred synchronously with a decrease in the "arborean / non arborean" pollen ratio reflecting the land opening of the watershed. Several nitrophilous and anthropogenic pollen taxa reinforce our hypothesis concerning the development of agricultural and livestock farming activities at

  17. Mangrove forest recovery in the Everglades following Hurricane Wilma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarmiento, Daniel; Barr, Jordan; Engel, Vic; Fuentes, Jose D.; Smith, Thomas J., III; Zieman, Jay C.

    2009-01-01

    On October 24th, 2005, Hurricane Wilma made landfall on the south western shore of the Florida peninsula. This major disturbance destroyed approximately 30 percent of the mangrove forests in the area. However, the damage to the ecosystem following the hurricane provided researchers at the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE) LTER site with the rare opportunity to track the recovery process of the mangroves as determined by carbon dioxide (CO2) and energy exchanges, measured along daily and seasonal time scales.

  18. Precipitation chemistry in the Mayombe forest of equatorial Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaux, J. P.; Delmas, R.; Kouadio, G.; Cros, B.; Andreae, M. O.

    1992-04-01

    Results of long-term (November 1986 to September 1987) precipitation measurements in the coastal forest of equatorial Congo conducted within the framework of the DECAFE program are reported. The chemical characteristics of the precipitation formed over this region are identified, and changes due to emissions of gases and particles emitted by the surrounding ecosystems are determined. A comparison is made between the precipitation characteristics of equatorial Africa and those of the equatorial regions of South America.

  19. The Children's Rain Forest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Carol A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a unit on rain forests in which first graders studied about rain forests, built a classroom rain forest, and created a bulletin board. They also graphed rainfall, estimated body water, and estimated the number of newspapers that could be produced from one canopy tree. (MKR)

  20. Women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Edemikpong, N B

    1990-01-01

    While the origin of the AIDS virus remains controversial, it is indisputable that AIDS is spreading worldwide. By June 1987, the World Health Organization estimated that 50 million Africans were infected with HIV and that the disease was epidemic in many parts of the continent. However, African governments chose to deny the threat of the disease. The AIDS crisis has diverted resources from other vital areas of disease prevention, health promotion, and research. Whereas AIDS is spread in developed nations by sexual promiscuity, by drug addicts sharing unclean hypodermic needles, and by homosexual behavior, in Africa cultural factors contribute to the transmission of AIDS. Female genital mutilation leads to extensive laceration of the female genitals upon initiation of sexual intercourse and/or to substitution of anal sex during the weeks and months before vaginal penetration can be achieved. In addition, the reuse of the same knives during the mutilation can spread HIV infection. Other factors that contribute to the spread of HIV in Africa include the patriarchal practice of polygamy, the subordinate position of women that makes them unable to insist on protection during intercourse, and a failure to screen blood used in transfusions. With all of these risk factors at play, women at the grassroots level must be equipped with the health education that is the only available tool to fight AIDS. Women's organizations can provide information and education to people at risk of acquiring HIV, counsel infected persons, ensure the safety of the blood supply, and work to overcome harmful traditional practices. PMID:12317073

  1. A constitution for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  2. AIDS--legal issues.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M

    1988-01-01

    Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs. PMID:3147672

  3. Intertidal resource use over millennia enhances forest productivity.

    PubMed

    Trant, Andrew J; Nijland, Wiebe; Hoffman, Kira M; Mathews, Darcy L; McLaren, Duncan; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Starzomski, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    Human occupation is usually associated with degraded landscapes but 13,000 years of repeated occupation by British Columbia's coastal First Nations has had the opposite effect, enhancing temperate rainforest productivity. This is particularly the case over the last 6,000 years when intensified intertidal shellfish usage resulted in the accumulation of substantial shell middens. We show that soils at habitation sites are higher in calcium and phosphorous. Both of these are limiting factors in coastal temperate rainforests. Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) trees growing on the middens were found to be taller, have higher wood calcium, greater radial growth and exhibit less top die-back. Coastal British Columbia is the first known example of long-term intertidal resource use enhancing forest productivity and we expect this pattern to occur at archaeological sites along coastlines globally. PMID:27572157

  4. Coastal biodiversity and bioresources: variation and sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Liu, Zhengyi; Yu, Roger Ziye

    2016-03-01

    The 1st International Coastal Biology Congress (1st ICBC) was held in Yantai, China, in Sep. 26-30, 2014. Eighteen manuscripts of the meeting presentations were selected in this special issue. According to the four themes set in the ICBC meeting, this special issue include four sections, i.e., Coastal Biodiversity under Global Change, Adaptation and Evolution to Special Environment of Coastal Zone, Sustainable Utilization of Coastal Bioresources, and Coastal Biotechnology. Recent advances in these filed are presented.

  5. Software aids plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Winiger, T. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that for most utilities, computer aided engineering (CAE) systems are currently used for operating plant support rather than new plant design particularly for nuclear plant maintenance. For nuclear power generating utilities, switching to a modern, integrated CAE information system can offer significant benefits. During the last decade, however, most engineering automation in the power generation industry focused on computer-aided drafting and stand-alone engineering applications. An integrated CAE system can be a useful too, assisting engineers with many engineering and operational activities. It also can be used to manage the massive amount of information created throughout the life of a plant.

  6. Revolutionising the AIDS response.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jessica; Gupta, Geeta Rao; Warner, Ann; Fisher, William F

    2011-01-01

    Individual behaviour change interventions and technological approaches to HIV prevention can only be effective over time if the broader social environment in which health-related decisions are made facilitate their uptake. People need to be not only willing but also able to take up and maintain preventive behaviours, seek testing, treatment and care for HIV. This paper presents findings and recommendations of the Social Drivers Working Group of the aids2031 initiative, which focus on how to ensure that efforts to address the root causes of HIV vulnerability are integrated into AIDS responses at the national level. Specific guidance is given on how to operationalise a structural approach. PMID:21970296

  7. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Classification Framework for Coastal Systems. EPA/600/R-04/061. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Bree...

  8. North Atlantic Coastal Tidal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North Atlantic coastal wetlands. The book c...

  9. Forest Plant and Bird Communities in the Lau Group, Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Janet; Steadman, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Background We examined species composition of forest and bird communities in relation to environmental and human disturbance gradients on Lakeba (55.9 km2), Nayau (18.4 km2), and Aiwa Levu (1.2 km2), islands in the Lau Group of Fiji, West Polynesia. The unique avifauna of West Polynesia (Fiji, Tonga, Samoa) has been subjected to prehistoric human-caused extinctions but little was previously known about this topic in the Lau Group. We expected that the degree of human disturbance would be a strong determinant of tree species composition and habitat quality for surviving landbirds, while island area would be unrelated to bird diversity. Methodology/Principal Findings All trees >5 cm diameter were measured and identified in 23 forest plots of 500 m2 each. We recognized four forest species assemblages differentiated by composition and structure: coastal forest, dominated by widely distributed species, and three forest types with differences related more to disturbance history (stages of secondary succession following clearing or selective logging) than to environmental gradients (elevation, slope, rockiness). Our point counts (73 locations in 1 or 2 seasons) recorded 18 of the 24 species of landbirds that exist on the three islands. The relative abundance and species richness of birds were greatest in the forested habitats least disturbed by people. These differences were due mostly to increased numbers of columbid frugivores and passerine insectivores in forests on Lakeba and Aiwa Levu. Considering only forested habitats, the relative abundance and species richness of birds were greater on the small but completely forested (and uninhabited) island of Aiwa Levu than on the much larger island of Lakeba. Conclusions/Significance Forest disturbance history is more important than island area in structuring both tree and landbird communities on remote Pacific islands. Even very small islands may be suitable for conservation reserves if they are protected from human

  10. Mapping coastal vegetation, land use and environmental impact from ERTS-1. [Delaware coastal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Digital analysis of ERTS-1 imagery was used in an attempt to map and inventory the significant ecological communities of Delaware's coastal zone. Eight vegetation and land use discrimination classes were selected: (1) Phragmites communis (giant reed grass); (2) Spartina alterniflora (salt marsh cord grass); (3) Spartina patens (salt marsh hay); (4) shallow water and exposed mud; (5) deep water (greater than 2 m); (6) forest; (7) agriculture; and (8) exposed sand and concrete. Canonical analysis showed the following classification accuracies: Spartina alterniflora, exposed sand, concrete, and forested land - 94% to 100%; shallow water - mud and deep water - 88% and 93% respectively; Phragmites communis 83%; Spartina patens - 52%. Classification accuracy for agriculture was very poor (51%). Limitations of time and available class-memory space resulted in limiting the analysis of agriculture to very gross identification of a class which actually consists of many varied signature classes. Abundant ground truth was available in the form of vegetation maps compiled from color and color infrared photographs. It is believed that with further refinement of training set selection, sufficiently accurate results can be obtained for all categories.

  11. Endemic and exotic tropical forests of Réunion Island observed by airborne lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiaoxia; Chazette, Patrick; Totems, Julien; Dieudonné, Elsa; Hamonou, Eric; Duflot, Valentin; Strasberg, Dominique; Flores, Olivier; Fournel, Jacques; Tulet, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Tropical forests are vital ecosystems widely threatened across the globe and yet remain the most difficult forest type to document. They are strongly perturbed by anthropogenic activities, which lead to coexistence of endemic and exotic tree species. We present an experiment performed over Réunion Island in May 2014, on sites ranging from coastal to rain forest, including tropical montane cloud forest as found on the Bélouve plateau. Réunion Island is home to the last remnants of primary tropical forest in the Mascarene archipelago, and still shelters significant biodiversity. Three key ecological parameters have been extracted from the lidar measurements: the canopy height (CH), the forest leaf area index (LAI) and the apparent foliage profile. The mean values of estimated LAI are between ~5 and 8 m2/m2 and the mean CH values are ~15 m for both tropical montane cloud and rain forests. Good agreement is found between Lidar- and MODIS-derived LAI for moderate LAI, but the LAI retrieved from lidar is larger than MODIS on rain forest sites (~8 against ~6 m2/m2 from MODIS). Regarding the characterization of tropical biomes, we show that the rain and montane tropical forests can be well distinguished from the planted forests by the use of the three ecological parameters retrieved, as the endemic and exotic forests can also be well distinguished.

  12. Geohydrologic framework of the coastal plain aquifers of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aucott, Walter R.; Davis, Marvin E.; Speiran, Gary K.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of investigations of aquifers throughout the United States as a part of the RASA (Regional Aquifer System Analysis) program. These investigations provide a comprehensive regional understanding of groundwater resources throughout the Nation. The Coastal Plain aquifers in South Carolina are being studied as a part of this program. An important part of a description of the groundwater resources is the development of a geohydrologic framework. Such a framework delineates the aquifers through which groundwater flows and the confining units which retard the flow of groundwater between aquifers. The Coastal Plain of South Carolina is underlain by a wedge of sediments that thickens from its inner margin, the Fall Line, to the coast and consists of sand, silt, clay, and limestone of Late Cretaceous to Holocene age. These sediments are underlain by pre-Cretaceous rocks consisting of consolidated sedimentary rocks of Triassic age and a complex of metamorphic and igneous rocks similar to those found near the surface in the Piedmont province of the State. The geohydrologic framework that divides the sediments of the South Carolina Coastal Plain into the Coastal Plain aquifer system is delineated by eleven geohydrologic sections and four maps showing the configuration of the top or base of individual aquifers. Although flow within the Coastal Plain aquifer system is three dimensional, simplifying the system by dividing it into a framework of discrete hydrologic units can aid significantly in understanding the hydrology of the system. This framework is the basis for the aquifers used in potentiometric mapping, transmissivity mapping, geochemical analysis, and groundwater flow modeling for the South Carolina RASA program. (Lantz-PTT)

  13. AIDS: the frightening facts.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M

    1986-01-01

    Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has succeeded in creating an unprecedented wave of panic among the Western public and some sections of the medical profession. Research clearly shows that the AIDS virus is transmissible in a number of ways: from man to woman and vice versa during sexual intercourse, through semen and possibly vaginal fluids; from mothers to their children through breast milk; through exchange of saliva (but not through just a casual kiss); and through blood and blood products. Far from being exclusive to homosexuals, studies in Europe have shown that female virus carriers can transmit AIDS to healthy men through sexual intercourse--the predominant means by which transmission appears to occur in Central Africa. Although cases of AIDS began being diagnosed in a few Central African countries at the beginning of the 1980s, at the same time as they were first being observed in Europe and North America, many commentators assumed that the virus originated in Africa. Yet, it is safe to say that the nature of the virus, let alone its origins, remains controversial among scientists and virologists. 1 supporter of the theory that the AIDS virus has African origins is Robert Gall of the US National Institute of Health (NIH). He is one of the co-discoverers of the virus, which he named HTLV3 (Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus 3). The virus also was discovered at France's Pasteur Institute by Luc Montaigner, who called it LAV (Lymphadenpathy Associated Virus). Gallo named the virus as he did because he believes it to be related to a pair of other viruses, HTLV1 and HTLV2, which like the AIDS virus attack the body's immunity system. Unlike AIDS, these 2 viruses, do not destroy the T-cells but cause them to replicate into cancer tumors. In Gallo's view, HTLV1 has long been endemic to some parts of Africa, from where he believes it spread via the slave trade to other parts of the world. Montaigner does not agree. He denies that the AIDS virus is related to

  14. Characterizing stand-level forest canopy cover and height using Landsat time series, samples of airborne LiDAR, and the Random Forest algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Oumer S.; Franklin, Steven E.; Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.

    2015-03-01

    Many forest management activities, including the development of forest inventories, require spatially detailed forest canopy cover and height data. Among the various remote sensing technologies, LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) offers the most accurate and consistent means for obtaining reliable canopy structure measurements. A potential solution to reduce the cost of LiDAR data, is to integrate transects (samples) of LiDAR data with frequently acquired and spatially comprehensive optical remotely sensed data. Although multiple regression is commonly used for such modeling, often it does not fully capture the complex relationships between forest structure variables. This study investigates the potential of Random Forest (RF), a machine learning technique, to estimate LiDAR measured canopy structure using a time series of Landsat imagery. The study is implemented over a 2600 ha area of industrially managed coastal temperate forests on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. We implemented a trajectory-based approach to time series analysis that generates time since disturbance (TSD) and disturbance intensity information for each pixel and we used this information to stratify the forest land base into two strata: mature forests and young forests. Canopy cover and height for three forest classes (i.e. mature, young and mature and young (combined)) were modeled separately using multiple regression and Random Forest (RF) techniques. For all forest classes, the RF models provided improved estimates relative to the multiple regression models. The lowest validation error was obtained for the mature forest strata in a RF model (R2 = 0.88, RMSE = 2.39 m and bias = -0.16 for canopy height; R2 = 0.72, RMSE = 0.068% and bias = -0.0049 for canopy cover). This study demonstrates the value of using disturbance and successional history to inform estimates of canopy structure and obtain improved estimates of forest canopy cover and height using the RF algorithm.

  15. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single

  16. Megacities in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Jickells, T.; Baklanov, A.; Carmichael, G. R.; Church, T. M.; Gallardo, L.; Hughes, C.; Kanakidou, M.; Liss, P. S.; Mee, L.; Raine, R.; Ramachandran, P.; Ramesh, R.; Sundseth, K.; Tsunogai, U.; Uematsu, M.; Zhu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Megacities have long been recognised as important drivers for socioeconomic development but also as sources of environmental challenges. A large number of megacities are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere and ocean meet, posing additional challenges for our understanding of the interactions. The atmospheric flow is complicated not only by urban heat island effects but also topographic flows and sea breezes which also lead to profound changes in clouds and precipitation. Inflow of oceanic air (rich in sea salt) into the polluted city's atmosphere and outflow of polluted air onto a much cleaner ocean lead to very specific interactions, the net effects of which are not well understood. The addition of contaminants to the coastal waters both by atmospheric deposition and fluvial inputs can affect the coastal ecosystems dramatically, limiting their ability to function and provide ecosystem services, e.g. fisheries and aquaculture. Changes to coastal ecosystems also affect fluxes of gases and particles to the atmosphere and can lead to harmful algal blooms. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is at least hundreds if not thousands of kilometres in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometres in the ocean, the latter strongly dependent on the hydrographic setting. Coastal megacities are at risk by sea level rise, floods and storms; they are at the forefront of change and scientifically well informed planning can improve livelihoods and ecosystem health but only if we take a holistic approach to study and monitor these regions.

  17. Hyperspectral sensing of forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, David G.; Dyk, Andrew; Chen, Hao; Hobart, Geordie; Niemann, K. Olaf; Richardson, Ash

    2007-11-01

    Canada contains 10% of the world's forests covering an area of 418 million hectares. The sustainable management of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of new and improved information products to resource managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory, forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon than are currently available. This paper surveys recent methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and describes space initiatives for hyperspectral sensing.

  18. The kelp highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Graham, Michael H.; Bourque, Bruce J.; Corbett, Debra; Estes, James A.; Steneck, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a collaborative effort between archaeologists and marine ecologists, we discuss the role kelp forest ecosystems may have played in facilitating the movement of maritime peoples from Asia to the Americas near the end of the Pleistocene. Growing in cool nearshore waters along rocky coastlines, kelp forests offer some of the most productive habitats on earth, with high primary productivity, magnified secondary productivity, and three-dimensional habitat supporting a diverse array of marine organisms. Today, extensive kelp forests are found around the North Pacific from Japan to Baja California. After a break in the tropicswhere nearshore mangrove forests and coral reefs are highly productivekelp forests are also found along the Andean Coast of South America. These Pacific Rim kelp forests support or shelter a wealth of shellfish, fish, marine mammals, seabirds, and seaweeds, resources heavily used historically by coastal peoples. By about 16,000 years ago, the North Pacific Coast offered a linear migration route, essentially unobstructed and entirely at sea level, from northeast Asia into the Americas. Recent reconstructions suggest that rising sea levels early in the postglacial created a highly convoluted and island-rich coast along Beringia's southern shore, conditions highly favorable to maritime hunter-gatherers. Along with the terrestrial resources available in adjacent landscapes, kelp forests and other nearshore habitats sheltered similar suites of food resources that required minimal adaptive adjustments for migrating coastal peoples. With reduced wave energy, holdfasts for boats, and productive fishing, these linear kelp forest ecosystems may have provided a kind of kelp highway for early maritime peoples colonizing the New World.

  19. Characterization of Canopy Layering in Forested Ecosystems Using Full Waveform Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehurst, Amanda S.; Swatantran, Anu; Blair, J. Bryan; Hofton, Michelle A.; Dubayah, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Canopy structure, the vertical distribution of canopy material, is an important element of forest ecosystem dynamics and habitat preference. Although vertical stratification, or "canopy layering," is a basic characterization of canopy structure for research and forest management, it is difficult to quantify at landscape scales. In this paper we describe canopy structure and develop methodologies to map forest vertical stratification in a mixed temperate forest using full-waveform lidar. Two definitions-one categorical and one continuous-are used to map canopy layering over Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire with lidar data collected in 2009 by NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). The two resulting canopy layering datasets describe variation of canopy layering throughout the forest and show that layering varies with terrain elevation and canopy height. This information should provide increased understanding of vertical structure variability and aid habitat characterization and other forest management activities.

  20. Modeling the forest transition: forest scarcity and ecosystem service hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Satake, Akiko; Rudel, Thomas K

    2007-10-01

    An historical generalization about forest cover change in which rapid deforestation gives way over time to forest restoration is called "the forest transition." Prior research on the forest transition leaves three important questions unanswered: (1) How does forest loss influence an individual landowner's incentives to reforest? (2) How does the forest recovery rate affect the likelihood of forest transition? (3) What happens after the forest transition occurs? The purpose of this paper is to develop a minimum model of the forest transition to answer these questions. We assume that deforestation caused by landowners' decisions and forest regeneration initiated by agricultural abandonment have aggregated effects that characterize entire landscapes. These effects include feedback mechanisms called the "forest scarcity" and "ecosystem service" hypotheses. In the forest scarcity hypothesis, forest losses make forest products scarcer, which increases the economic value of forests. In the ecosystem service hypothesis, the environmental degradation that accompanies the loss of forests causes the value of ecosystem services provided by forests to decline. We examined the impact of each mechanism on the likelihood of forest transition through an investigation of the equilibrium and stability of landscape dynamics. We found that the forest transition occurs only when landowners employ a low rate of future discounting. After the forest transition, regenerated forests are protected in a sustainable way if forests regenerate slowly. When forests regenerate rapidly, the forest scarcity hypothesis expects instability in which cycles of large-scale deforestation followed by forest regeneration repeatedly characterize the landscape. In contrast, the ecosystem service hypothesis predicts a catastrophic shift from a forested to an abandoned landscape when the amount of deforestation exceeds the critical level, which can lead to a resource degrading poverty trap. These findings imply

  1. Apartheid and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, A T

    1989-11-25

    To persuade South Africa to abolish its apartheid policy several measures have been taken by the international community, including economic sanctions. The harm done by sanctions to the South African economy is obvious. As economic activity has slowed down, unemployment, especially in the black community, has risen. For the unemployed poverty and hunger are harsh realities while for those lucky enough to have jobs income remains quite high. Prostitution has become a way of redistributing income and for many families it is the only way to avoid starvation. With prostitution, however, has come AIDS: it is estimated that HIV infection is doubling every 5-8 months. On 1 calculation 85% of sexually active blacks could be infected with HIV by 1996; most would proceed to AIDS and die, leaving millions of children without parents. Although economic sanctions have speeded up some measure of reform in South Africa they are now harming the very people they were intended to help. Furthermore insidious voices are already being heard saying the government should stop all reform processes and anti-AIDS campaigns and just "sit it out" for the next few years. A further consequence of an ailing economy is the unavailability of funding for those who wish to curb the spread of AIDS via educational and other programs. [Full text] PMID:2573792

  2. Good Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins with these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, How to Lead a Field Trip, Natural Resources in the City, Mysteries of Bird Migration, Rock Stories and How to Read Them, The Ground Water Table, The Terrarium, Some Adventures With Wild Plants Outdoors and Indoors, Plant Propagation in the…

  3. Management of Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, Jeanne, Ed.

    The principles, practices, responsibilities, and controls in student financial aid are described in this manual. It traces the flow of funds, management activities, and legal issues as they occur in the process. The emphasis is on sound management principles of a general and permanent nature rather than on specific government requirements that may…

  4. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  5. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  6. Kool-Aid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Christie L.

    1986-01-01

    Offers guidelines and suggests activities that can introduce middle school students to the process and principles of chromatography in an inexpensive and safe manner. Proposes that experiences with Kool-aid and food coloring chromatography can provide insights into how scientists think, work, and communicate. (ML)

  7. Coil Welding Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  8. AIDS: The Second Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heather G., Ed.; And Others

    This report reviews the course of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its current status, examining changing patterns of sexual behavior and intravenous drug use, the distribution of cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and the results of intervention efforts under way. It also discusses prevention…

  9. AIDS.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sites Podcasts QR Codes RSS Feeds Social Bookmarking Social Network Sites Text Messaging Twitter Video Games Video Sharing ... here Read related blog here Get updates via Facebook Live interviews Join the conversation: #RyanWhite2016​ International AIDS ...

  10. AIDS: Implications for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Eleanor D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and its epidemiology. Discusses implications for families (social stigma and isolation, fears of contagion, infection and abandonment, guilt, anger, grief, and economic hardship) and for human service professionals (public education, voluntary, anonymous testing with counseling, and…

  11. Newspaper Lesson Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET), 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides photocopy-ready lesson aids on story ideas, interviewing, inverted pyramid writing style, newswriting, sports/scavenger hunt, finding feature material, identifying feature leads, feature lead selection, evaluating feature leads, compiling survey material, cutlines, headlines, paste-up rules, advertising, final semester project, newspaper…

  12. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  13. AIDS Researcher Gives Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, renowned immunologist James E.K. Hildreth, M.D., Ph.D., was compelled to start researching the virus that causes AIDS. He marveled at its enigma and was pressed into action by its ability to cut lives short and devastate communities. The disease set him on a course of medical inquiry that has included biomedical breakthroughs…

  14. More than First Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  15. First Aid Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  16. AIDS and Native Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, G. Cajetan

    Native Americans throughout North America suffer from a greater prevalence of health problems than the population as a whole. One might believe that the problem of AIDS is insignificant for Native youth, but such a belief is inaccurate and shortsighted. As of March 1989, the Centers for Disease Control reported 1,792 cases of childhood and…

  17. Street Youth & AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Joyce L.; And Others

    Interviews were conducted with 712 Canadian street youth (ages 15-20 years) to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Youth were interviewed in 10 cities across Canada on the basis of 5 street culture lifestyles: prostitution, drug…

  18. First aid advisor

    SciTech Connect

    Saffer, S.I.; Weng, Wen-Chang

    1996-12-31

    A knowledge-based system (KBS), First Aid Advisor (FAA), is developed to provide a guidance for either a trained or untrained person to take some emergent actions to rescue the victim from life-threatening hazard or to prevent from causing serious problem before the Emergency Medical Service System (EMS) personnels arrive the scene. The First Aid Advisor will collect victim`s information by interacting with the user through a sequence of questions, analyze the victim`s problem, and give instructions step by step before offering a final advice. Since all the possible conditions are taken into consideration, it will guide the user to perform first aid from the most to the least urgent step for the victim. Furthermore, it will offer a suitable first aid advice for victim and eliminate the possibility of wrong actions done by trained person due to carelessness or nervousness. Offering advice to handle problems involving life-threatening conditions is the main objective of this system. In this paper, we will describe six major components of FAA and their respective tasks. Decision tables and dependency diagrams used in FAA implementation will also be described. System performance issues will conclude the paper.

  19. Circulation Aide Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Alan O.

    This training manual provides instruction on shelving and other duties for student assistants in the learning resources center at the College of Dupage, located in Illinois. It is noted that prospective student circulation aides are required to read the manual and pass a written test on policies and procedures before they are allowed to shelve…

  20. Living with AIDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Because events move swiftly in the contemporary world, it is easy to forget that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a phenomenon of the 1980s. It is generally agreed that this is only the very beginning of a scientific investigation that will go on well into the 21st century. This issue attempts to provide some of the basic information…

  1. First Aid: Chickenpox

    MedlinePlus

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Chickenpox ... Chickenpox (varicella) is an illness that has become much less common in the U.S. due to the chickenpox vaccine . The infection and rash will go away without ...

  2. The War against AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, L. Thompson

    1987-01-01

    Efforts of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to combat AIDS are reported. Health implications of the viral disease are summarized, along with economic costs, research achievements, the importance of education, and appropriate and workable solutions. (LB)

  3. Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard

    This document contains course outlines in computer-aided manufacturing developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The four units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM); (2) CAM…

  4. Computer-Aided Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Graham

    This report discusses the impact of and presents guidelines for developing a computer-aided instructional (CAI) system. The first section discusses CAI in terms of the need for the countries of Asia to increase their economic self-sufficiency. The second section examines various theories on the nature of learning with special attention to the role…

  5. Conceptualizing Forest Degradation.

    PubMed

    Ghazoul, Jaboury; Burivalova, Zuzana; Garcia-Ulloa, John; King, Lisa A

    2015-10-01

    Forest degradation is a global environmental issue, but its definition is problematic. Difficulties include choosing appropriate reference states, timescales, thresholds, and forest values. We dispense with many such ambiguities by interpreting forest degradation through the frame of ecological resilience, and with reference to forest dynamics. Specifically, we define forest degradation as a state of anthropogenically induced arrested succession, where ecological processes that underlie forest dynamics are diminished or severely constrained. Metrics of degradation might include those that reflect ecological processes shaping community dynamics, notably the regeneration of plant species. Arrested succession implies that management intervention is necessary to recover successional trajectories. Such a definition can be applied to any forest ecosystem, and can also be extended to other ecosystems. PMID:26411619

  6. The empty forest revisited.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, David S; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Peres, Carlos A; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2011-03-01

    Tropical forests are among the most species-rich ecosystems on the planet. Some authors argue that predictions of a tropical forest extinction crisis based on analyses of deforestation rates are overly pessimistic since they do not take account of future agricultural abandonment as a result of rural-urban migration and subsequent secondary regrowth. Even if such regrowth occurs, it is crucial to consider threats to species that are not directly correlated with area of forest cover. Hunting is an insidious but significant driver of tropical forest defaunation, risking cascading changes in forest plant and animal composition. Ineffective legislation and enforcement along with a failure of decision makers to address the threats of hunting is fanning the fire of a tropical forest extinction crisis. If tropical forest ecosystems are to survive, the threat of unsustainable hunting must be adequately addressed now. PMID:21449969

  7. [AIDS in Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Barstad, S

    1993-04-20

    The World Health Organization has announced that within 3 years 10% of Tanzania's population of 26 million will be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). But there is some faint hope in the research of Tanzanian traditional medicine. An almost 90-year-man, Waziri Mrisho, is credited with having treated AIDS patients successfully with herbs that strengthen the immune system. Margaret Nakamya was stricken by the symptoms of AIDs in March 1990. She was referred to Waziri and started using his herbs. 3 years later she weighs 49 kg compared to 40 kg before. The old man's son set up a little factory where he pulverizes herbs and sells them at the price he can command The 3 types of trees that the herbal medicine is taken from grow in the wild, but some have also been planted around the factory. Even if these herbs are effective, it will take years before the AIDS epidemic is over, when people have changed their lifestyles. The means of communication (TV, cinema, radio, telephone) are missing or inadequate. In the Kagera region, with 1.2 million inhabitants, 25% of pregnant women are HIV-infected and 65,000 children lost their parents to AIDS. There are 2000 children in Dar Es Salaam living in the streets. The Anglican St. Albans Church runs a center for street kids where they get meals 3 times a week. The nurse Ruth Nesje enlisted a Norwegian physician and homeopath in a research project involving 30 AIDS patients in Norway. The University in Bergen will do in vitro testing. One group of patients will receive both AZT and the herbs, another group will get only AZT, and the 3rd group will obtain only the herbs. The Norwegian Nursing Association, NORAD, and DANIDA also plan various projects in the Tanga region. PMID:8499187

  8. [Will AIDS overtake them?].

    PubMed

    Boukhari, S

    UNICEF estimates that the streets are now the home of some 5 million African children aged 7-15 who are victims of rapid population growth and urbanization as well as the disintegration of traditional family structure. These children, deprived of a home and of all parental control, are potentially very vulnerable to the threat of AIDS. Prostitution, which is almost institutionalized in the most impoverished urban areas, represents for young girls the most immediate means of survival and occasionally even of helping their families. Male prostitution is highly tabu and marginal in sub-Saharan Africa, and is only slightly developed around the tourist hotels. Homeless children are somewhat protected against contamination through the blood by their lack of access to health care. Intravenous drugs are rare in Africa, and drug use is at most an indirect risk factor for AIDS to the extent that in increases the need for money and weakens the immune system. The frequency of sexually transmitted diseases, deplorable hygienic conditions, and poor general health of homeless children increase their risk of contracting the virus. Many homeless children do not even know of the existence of condoms and in any event condoms are usually inaccessible or too costly for them. Homeless children, like the general population, have false ideas about AIDS that discourage self-protective behaviors. In addition they are cut off from the activities of existing prevention programs. In a context of permanent daily insecurity, AIDS appears as just 1 more menace among others. According to an anthropologist working with the UNESCO program to help homeless children, the only way of making such children aware of the threat of AIDS in the large African cities will be to increase the number of prevention programs targeted at them. At the same time, the children need to be educated and taught an income-generating skill; in short, they need to be given a reason to believe in the future. PMID:12316939

  9. AIDS: there's hope.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices. PMID:12179231

  10. Coastal sediment dynamics in Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Baltzer, A.; Marlin, C.; Delangle, E.; Dethleff, D.; Petit, F.

    2010-12-01

    In arctic knowledge on coastal sediment dynamics and sedimentary processes is limited. The studied area is located in the microtidal Kongsfjorden glacial fjord on the North-western coast of Spitsbergen in the Artic Ocean (79°N). In this area sediment contributions to the coastal zone is provided by small temporary rivers that flows into the fjord. The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the origin and fate of fine-grained particles (<63µm) from the piedmont glacier to the coastal zone (0-30m depth), (ii) establish the role of this coastal zone in sediment transfer and (iii) identify the impact of sea ice cover on sediment dynamics. The sampling strategy is based on characterization of sediment and SPM (grain-size, X-rays diffraction, SEM images, carbonates and organic matter contents) from the glacier to the coastal zone completed by a bottom-sediment map on the nearshore using side-scan sonar validated with Ekman binge sampling. River inputs (i.e. river plumes) to the coastal zone were punctually followed using CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity) profiles. OBS (water level, temperature and turbidity) operating at high-frequency and during at least 1 years (including under sea ice cover) was settled at the mouth of rivers at 10m depth. In the coastal zone the fine-grained sediment deposit is limited to mud patches located at river mouths that originate the piedmont glacier. However a significant amount of sediment originates the coastal glacier located in the eastern part of the fjord via two processes: direct transfer and ice-drop. Results from turbidity measurements show that the sediment dynamics is controlled by river inputs in particular during melting period. During winter sediment resuspension can occurs directly linked to significant wind-events. When the sea ice cover is present (January to April) no sediment dynamics is observed. Sediment processes in the coastal zone of arctic fjords is significant however only a small amount of

  11. Coastal environment: historical and continuous monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivaldi, Roberta; Surace, Luciano

    2010-05-01

    the existing one. The constant monitoring activities of I.I.M. are the production of nautical paper charts and electronic navigational charts (ENC) together other specialised nautical charts and publications to aid safe navigation, the processing of the oldest data from analogical to digital and the care preservation in the archives of all hydrographic survey information. This process is occurred according to an international recognized standard, such as to allow a continuous improvement of all acquired data, even if with more advanced tools and technologies for the development of cartography in constant update both in content and in restitution. In this research the archives infrastructure is used to conduct hydrographic data collection and processing to follow the secular variation and its evolution of the shoreline and coastal seafloor. A key element in monitoring these changes, both of the sub-aerial and submarine beach, is the determination of the shoreline and restitution as the coastline, which already includes the definition of its complexity, in a time period that must be long enough. We present some examples of the Italian littoral evolution with evident changes of coastal morphology in support of present monitoring.

  12. Terrestrial forest management plan for Palmyra Atoll

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; McEachern, Kathryn; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    This 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. It is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' focuses on ecosystem integrity and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to assessing the status and distribution of resources, as well as the pressures acting upon them, most specifically nonnative and potentially invasive species. The plan, which presents strategies for increasing ecosystem integrity, provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to terrestrial resources on Palmyra Atoll. The report in its present form is intended to be an overview of what is known about historical and current forest resources; it is not an exhaustive review of all available literature relevant to forest management but an attempt to assemble as much information specific to Palmyra Atoll as possible. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. The terrestrial ecosystem consists of three primary native vegetation types: Pisonia grandis forest, coastal strand forest, and grassland. Among these vegetation types, the health and extent of Pisonia grandis forest is of particular concern. Overall, the three vegetation types support 25 native plant species (two of which may be extirpated), 14 species of sea birds, six shore birds, at least one native reptile, at least seven native insects, and six native land crabs. Green and hawksbill turtles forage at Palmyra Atoll

  13. Geospatial Habitat Analysis in Pacific Northwest Coastal Estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Borde, Amy B. ); Thom, Ronald M. ); Rumrill, Steven; Miller, L M.

    2003-08-01

    We assessed historical changes in the location and amount of estuarine habitat in three of the four largest coastal estuaries in the Pacific Northwest (Grays Harbor, Willapa Bay, and Coos Bay) as part of the Pacific Northwest Coastal Ecosystem Regional Study (PNCERS). To accomplish this, navigation charts, hydrographic survey data, maps, and published descriptions were used to gain information on the location of the shoreline, bathymetry, and vegetated habitats, which was then digitized and subjected to geospatial analysis using a geographic information system. In addition, we used present-day elevational boundaries for marshes, flats, and eelgrass meadows to help define habitat areas where they were not indicated on historical maps. The analysis showed that tidal flats have decreased in all study areas; potential eelgrass habitat has increased in Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay and decreased slightly in Coos Bay; tidal wetland area has declined in all three coastal estuaries, with increases in localized areas due to filling and sedimentation; and dramatic changes have occurred at the mouths of Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay. As has been shown before, these data illustrate that direct physical alteration (filling and diking) has resulted in large changes to habitats. However, indirect impacts from forest practices in the watershed, as well as variation in climatic factors and oceanographic processes, may also have contributed to changes. The information provides more evidence for managing estuarine habitats in the region and a employing a historical template to plan habitat restoration in the future.

  14. Recent Advances in Studies of Coastal Marsh Sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Leonard, L. A.

    2001-05-01

    Limited understanding of sedimentation processes in coastal marshes is a key constraint on the management of environmental impacts associated with sea level rise, degrading quality and quantity of aquatic habitats, and downstream impacts of watershed land use. The problem is exacerbated by complex interactions among physical, ecological, and chemical variables that impact sedimentation over a large range of spatio-temporal scales. These challenges are being met by increasingly sophisticated approaches which cross-fertilize from other disciplines or go even further to integrate multidisciplinary perspectives. One example of the former has been improved precision of fine scale measurements of fluid mechanics and sediment transport over marsh plains and application of those measurements in geomorphologic and coastal engineering models. This advancement has improved our understanding of marsh dynamics at a mechanistic level, which is key for improving the predictive capabilities of wetland models. An example of a multidisciplinary approach that has become very common is the combined usage of multiple monitoring, isotopic, and palynological methods for estimating sedimentation and erosion at a site over a range of time scales. By applying such combinations, it has been possible to piece apart the relative roles of natural processes such as sea level rise and storms from human impacts such as flow constrictions, channel dredging, and sediment supply changes. Beyond improving approaches used to study marshes, past work has led to new questions about marsh morphodynamics and how coastal marshes interact with upland watersheds. With the aid of chaos theory, some recent studies have asserted that coastal marsh channels are fractal and thus must follow universal laws in common with watershed drainages and other dendritic systems. Also, where marshes exist among a mosaic of habitats on a delta, research has revealed the relative roles of watershed versus coastal processes in

  15. Effectiveness of Protected Areas in the Pan-Tropics and International Aid for Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Protected areas are crucial for tropical forest conservation efforts. Estimation of the effectiveness of protected areas is thus important for evaluating the efficacy of forest conservation policies and priorities. However, comprehensive evaluation of the long-term effects of Protected Areas and international aid is lacking. However, with the recent availability of long-term, large-scale forest cover change data at 30-m resolution, it has become possible to address some of the issues surrounding the effectiveness of protected areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of Protected Areas in the pan-tropics and international aid for conservation, we use the 30m resolution data along with econometrics 1) to estimate avoided deforestation by PAs in the tropics during the 2000s, 2) estimate effects of international aid on avoided deforestation by PAs and 3) analyze the relationships between the socio-economic variables and increases in deforestation, avoided deforestation by PAs and effects of international aid. Our results show that protected areas avoided 83,500 ± 21,200 km2 of deforestation during the 2000s. Brazil showed the highest estimates of effects of international aid on the avoided deforestation of 22 m2/USD, which is about 50 times higher compared to Indonesia (0.5 m2/USD). The regression analysis between avoided deforestation, effects of international aid and socio-economic factors demonstrates that PAs have been relatively more effective in the countries where the deforestation pressures were increasing and that governance and forest change monitoring capacity may be important factors enhancing the efficacy of international aid. Our study presents the first pan-tropical analysis of the long-term evaluation of the effectiveness of protected areas, international aid and their regulating factors using spatially explicit fine resolution data. Our findings allow us to pinpoint where conservation initiatives and resource management are effectively practiced and to

  16. HIV/AIDS and Pediatric AIDS. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Jo Anne T.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and pediatric AIDS and applies this information to children in school settings. Questions and answers address the following topics: what the AIDS disease and HIV infection are; estimates…

  17. Nitrogen Gas Fluxes in Northeastern Temperate Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafave, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Venterea, R. T.; Lovett, G. M.

    2002-12-01

    Nitrogen gas fluxes are a poorly quantified component of the nitrogen (N) cycle of forest ecosystems and are important to water quality, atmospheric chemistry and forest health. We measured fluxes of nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O) and dinitrogen (N2) in oak and maple stands in the Catskill mountains of New York State. Fluxes of NO and N2O were measured using in situ chambers and N2 flux was measured in intact cores incubated in a helium-oxygen atmosphere closed recirculation system in the laboratory. Fluxes of NO and N2O were higher in maple than in oak stands, which is consistent with previous work showing higher rates of N cycling under maple than oak. NO fluxes averaged 1.7 mg N m-2 d-1 in maple and 0.2 in oak. N2O fluxes averaged 0.10 mg N m-2 d-1 in maple and 0.004 in oak. However, N2 fluxes were higher in oak (2.3 mg N m-2 d-1) than maple (0.15), a surprising result that was supported by independent measurements of denitrification potential. There was marked variability in fluxes between replicate plots that was linked to the presence of understory vegetation and physical characteristics of the forest floor. Results suggest that N gas fluxes in northeastern temperate forests may be more important than previously thought and may be an important regulator of export of N to coastal waters, N-related atmospheric chemistry and forest N saturation.

  18. AIDS Education for the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Jeffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    Sun Life in Wellesley, Massachusetts, has an ongoing education program about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) that provides employees with facts and works to change attitudes about the implications of AIDS for the workplace. (SK)

  19. Different Styles of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... aids available and offer some cosmetic and listening advantages. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image ... in place. These aids offer cosmetic and listening advantages and are used typically for adults. Photo courtesy ...

  20. Women and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... action on HIV/AIDS National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day – March 10 Programs Share your story Anonymous from Illinois says... Although I am HIV negative, I would like to share my story. ...

  1. Utilization of ERTS-1 data in North Carolina. [forested wetlands, water management, and land use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Lammi, J. O.; Carson, R. J., III

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery has been used to study forested wetlands, dynamic processes off Coastal North Carolina, and land use patterns in the Wilmington, North Carolina area. The thrust of the investigation is still involvement of state and regional agencies in the use of ERTS-1 imagery in solving some of their day-to-day problems.

  2. An integrated approach to assess broad-scale condition of coastal wetlands - The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Wetlands pilot survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestlerode, J.A.; Engle, V.D.; Bourgeois, P.; Heitmuller, P.T.; Macauley, J.M.; Allen, Y.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a two-year regional pilot survey in 2007 to develop, test, and validate tools and approaches to assess the condition of northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coastal wetlands. Sampling sites were selected from estuarine and palustrine wetland areas with herbaceous, forested, and shrub/scrub habitats delineated by the US Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory Status and Trends (NWI S&T) program and contained within northern GOM coastal watersheds. A multi-level, stepwise, iterative survey approach is being applied to multiple wetland classes at 100 probabilistically-selected coastal wetlands sites. Tier 1 provides information at the landscape scale about habitat inventory, land use, and environmental stressors associated with the watershed in which each wetland site is located. Tier 2, a rapid assessment conducted through a combination of office and field work, is based on best professional judgment and on-site evidence. Tier 3, an intensive site assessment, involves on-site collection of vegetation, water, and sediment samples to establish an integrated understanding of current wetland condition and validate methods and findings from Tiers 1 and 2. The results from this survey, along with other similar regional pilots from the Mid-Atlantic, West Coast, and Great Lakes Regions will contribute to a design and implementation approach for the National Wetlands Condition Assessment to be conducted by EPA's Office of Water in 2011. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  3. Effects of salinity and flooding on post-hurricane regeneration potential in coastal wetland vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Seed germination and subsequent seedling growth in coastal wetlands may in some cases be affected by salinity intrusion events even at low salinity levels (1 and 5 ppt). These results indicate that the potential is great for hurricanes to shift vegetation type in sensitive wetland types (e.g., maritime forest) if post-hurricane environments do not support the regeneration of extent vegetation.

  4. The AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Conant, M A

    1994-09-01

    The nature of the clinical presentation of HIV infection continues to evolve over time. New cutaneous (e.g., seborrheic dermatitis, onychomycosis, and tinea pedis) and systemic (e.g., Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium marneffei) opportunistic fungal infections can now be added to the classic clinical markers for progressive HIV infection, such as Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium intercellulare infections, and cryptococcal meningitis. The fact that the appearance of many of these fungal diseases is directly correlated with the patient's CD4 cell count is a valuable tool for ongoing clinical evaluation. Although systemic manifestations characterize a progression from asymptomatic HIV infection to AIDS, many of the signs of disease progression are cutaneous. Prophylaxis against many of the potentially life-threatening systemic opportunistic infections associated with HIV positivity has had a positive impact on the life expectancy of patients with AIDS. PMID:7915731

  5. Assessing Canada's Forest Carbon Sinks from 1901 TO 2008 BY Combining Inventory with Climate Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. M.; Wu, C.; Gonsamo, A.; Kurz, W.; Hember, R.; Price, D. T.; Boisvenue, C.; Zhang, F.; Chang, K.

    2013-12-01

    The forest carbon cycle is not only controlled by climate, tree species and site conditions, but also by disturbance affecting the biomass and age of forest stands. The Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian forest sector (CBM-CFS3) calculates the complete forest carbon cycle by combining forest inventory data on forest species, biomass and stand age with empirical yield information and statistics on forest disturbances, management and land-use change. It is used for national reporting and climate policy purposes. The Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon model (InTEC) is driven by remotely-sensed vegetation parameters (forest type, leaf area index, clumping index) and fire scar, soil and climate data and simulates forest growth and the carbon cycle as a function of stand age using a process-based approach. Gridded forest biomass, stand age and disturbance data based on forest inventory are also used as inputs to InTEC. Efforts are being made to enhance the CBM-CFS3's capacity to assess the impacts of global change on the forest carbon budget by utilizing InTEC process modeling methodology. For this purpose, InTEC is first implemented on 3432 permanent sampling plots in coastal and interior BC, and it is found that climate warming explained 70% and 75% of forest growth enhancement over the period from 1956 to 2001 in coastal and interior BC, respectively, and the remainder is attributed to CO2 and nitrogen fertilization effects. The growth enhancement, in terms of the increase in the stemwood accumulation rate after adjusting for the stand age effect, is about 24% for both areas over the same period. To assess the impact of climate change on the forest carbon cycle across Canada, polygon-based CBM and gridded InTEC results are aggregated to 60 reconciliation units (RU), and their interannual variabilities over the period from 1990 to 2008 are compared in each RU. CBM results show interannual variability in response to forest disturbance, while InTEC results show

  6. The importance of mangrove forest in tsunami disaster mitigation.

    PubMed

    Osti, Rabindra; Tanaka, Shigenobu; Tokioka, Toshikazu

    2009-04-01

    Tsunamis and storm surges have killed more than one million people and some three billion people currently live with a high risk of these disasters, which are becoming more frequent and devastating worldwide. Effective mitigation of such disasters is possible via healthy coastal forests, which can reduce the energy of tsunamis. In recent years, these natural barriers have declined due to adverse human and natural activities. In the past 20 years, the world has lost almost 50 per cent of its mangrove forests, making them one of the most endangered landscapes. It is essential to recover them and to use them as a shield against a tsunami and as a resource to secure optimal socio-economic, ecological and environmental benefits. This paper examines the emerging scenario facing mangrove forests, discusses protection from tsunamis, and proposes a way to improve the current situation. We hope that practical tips will help communities and agencies to work collectively to achieve a common goal. PMID:18699857

  7. Characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Vetrita, Y.; Winarso, G.; Wikantika, K.; Sari, D. K.

    2014-06-01

    Indonesia has largest mangrove forest in the world, total area around 3.5 million ha or 17% - 23% from mangrove forest in the world. Mangrove forest provides products and services, such as carbon balance of the coastal zone. Mapping and monitoring biomass of mangrove is very important but field survey of mangrove biomass and productivity in overall Indonesia is very difficult. Global-scale mosaics with HH and HV backscatter of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) which is 50-m spatial resolution has been generated. This image available for identification and monitoring mangrove forest. The Objective of this research to investigate characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago. Methodology consists of collecting ALOS-PALSAR image for overall Indonesian archipelago, preprocessing and mosaicking, collecting region of interest of mangrove forest, plotting, ground survey, characterization and classification. The result of this research has showed characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR. Indonesian mangrove forest types has HH value around -10 dB until -7 dB and HV value around -17 dB until -13 dB. Higher of HH and HV backscatters value indicated higher of level biomass. Based on scatter plot of HH and HV, Indonesian mangrove forest can be classified in three level biomass. Generally level biomass of mangrove forest in Indonesia archipelago is moderate.

  8. Modelling the global coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jason; Harle, James; Proctor, Roger; Michel, Sylvain; Ashworth, Mike; Batstone, Crispian; Allen, Icarus; Holmes, Robert; Smyth, Tim; Haines, Keith; Bretherton, Dan; Smith, Gregory

    2009-03-13

    Shelf and coastal seas are regions of exceptionally high biological productivity, high rates of biogeochemical cycling and immense socio-economic importance. They are, however, poorly represented by the present generation of Earth system models, both in terms of resolution and process representation. Hence, these models cannot be used to elucidate the role of the coastal ocean in global biogeochemical cycles and the effects global change (both direct anthropogenic and climatic) are having on them. Here, we present a system for simulating all the coastal regions around the world (the Global Coastal Ocean Modelling System) in a systematic and practical fashion. It is based on automatically generating multiple nested model domains, using the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modelling System coupled to the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model. Preliminary results from the system are presented. These demonstrate the viability of the concept, and we discuss the prospects for using the system to explore key areas of global change in shelf seas, such as their role in the carbon cycle and climate change effects on fisheries. PMID:19087928

  9. Nitrous oxide in coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bange, H.W.; Rapsomanikis, S.; Andreae, M.O.

    1996-03-01

    Measurements of dissolved and atmospheric nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) are presented for three coastal environments: (1) the central North Sea, (2) the German Bight, and (3) the Gironde estuary. The contribution of coastal regions to the oceanic emissions of atmospheric N{sub 2}O were also determined. N{sub 2}O was measured with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector and analyzed. The surface waters of the central North Sea and the German bight were found to be near equilibrium with the overlying atmosphere, while the mean saturation in the Gironde estuary was 132%. Mean saturations in coastal regions without estuaries or upwelling phenomena were only slightly higher than in the open ocean. When estuaries and regions with upwelling are included, however, approximately 60% of the oceanic N{sub 2}O flux is attributable to coastal regions. A review of published data indicated that previous studies have seriously underestimated N{sub 2}O sea-to-air flux from coastal regions. 69 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Living with AIDS: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…

  11. Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Kenneth H.

    1991-01-01

    Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…

  12. Educational Aids for Visually Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY.

    Listings specifying source and cost are provided of tactile aids and materials designed for the visually handicapped. Items are presented in the following categories: supply sources and catalogs for aids; braille devices, including duplicators, reading and writing aids, reading readiness materials, and writing machines, slates, and styluses; deaf…

  13. How Do People Get AIDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  14. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  15. In Support of Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devitt, James

    1995-01-01

    Concerns about cuts in federal student loan and grant programs are outlined, and ways in which institutions can act to influence policy are examined. Basic facts about potential cuts, their effects, federal spending on student aid, aid recipients, public opinion, and aid policy's effects on tuition are discussed. (MSE)

  16. AIDS Awareness in Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Lyndall L.

    1994-01-01

    Survey responses from 88 of 293 industrial technology education department heads found that 68% could not identify courses in which acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is covered; 52% were not aware of AIDS-related activities on their campuses; and 48% had AIDS education programs at their institutions. (SK)

  17. Directional Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing-aid device indicates visually whether sound is coming from left, right, back, or front. Device intended to assist individuals who are deaf in at least one ear and unable to discern naturally directions to sources of sound. Device promotes safety in street traffic, on loading docks, and in presence of sirens, alarms, and other warning sounds. Quadraphonic version of device built into pair of eyeglasses and binaural version built into visor.

  18. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes. PMID:1867668

  19. Computer aided manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  20. Computer aided inspection qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, D.; McNab, A.; Potts, A.; Toft, M.; McDonald, J.

    2002-05-01

    Inspection Qualification under the ENIQ methodology uses a Technical Justification as a key element in assuring the performance of the inspection. It combines a mixture of physical reasoning and modeling linked to limited experimental trial data from identified worst-case defects, but the qualification process is costly and time-consuming. This paper describes an investigation into providing an integrated set of intelligent software tools to aid the process of inspection qualification.