Science.gov

Sample records for aid conservation efforts

  1. Is international conservation aid enough?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-01

    Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.

  2. Use of Land Use Land Cover Change Mapping Products in Aiding Coastal Habitat Conservation and Restoration Efforts of the Mobile Bay NEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Swann, Roberta; Smooth, James

    2010-01-01

    The Mobile Bay region has undergone significant land use land cover change (LULC) over the last 35 years, much of which is associated with urbanization. These changes have impacted the region s water quality and wildlife habitat availability. In addition, much of the region is low-lying and close to the Gulf, which makes the region vulnerable to hurricanes, climate change (e.g., sea level rise), and sometimes man-made disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Land use land cover change information is needed to help coastal zone managers and planners to understand and mitigate the impacts of environmental change on the region. This presentation discusses selective results of a current NASA-funded project in which Landsat data over a 34-year period (1974-2008) is used to produce, validate, refine, and apply land use land cover change products to aid coastal habitat conservation and restoration needs of the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program (MB NEP). The project employed a user defined classification scheme to compute LULC change mapping products for the entire region, which includes the majority of Mobile and Baldwin counties. Additional LULC change products have been computed for select coastal HUC-12 sub-watersheds adjacent to either Mobile Bay or the Gulf of Mexico, as part of the MB NEP watershed profile assessments. This presentation will include results of additional analyses of LULC change for sub-watersheds that are currently high priority areas, as defined by MB NEP. Such priority sub-watersheds include those that are vulnerable to impacts from the DWH oil spill, as well as sub-watersheds undergoing urbanization. Results demonstrating the nature and permanence of LULC change trends for these higher priority sub-watersheds and results characterizing change for the entire 34-year period and at approximate 10-year intervals across this period will also be presented. Future work will include development of value-added coastal habitat quality

  3. Conservation Efforts May Increase Malaria Burden in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Denis; Clark, James

    2013-01-01

    Background Large-scale forest conservation projects are underway in the Brazilian Amazon but little is known regarding their public health impact. Current literature emphasizes how land clearing increases malaria incidence, leading to the conclusion that forest conservation decreases malaria burden. Yet, there is also evidence that proximity to forest fringes increases malaria incidence, which implies the opposite relationship between forest conservation and malaria. We compare the effect of these environmental factors on malaria and explore its implications. Methods and Findings Using a large malaria dataset (∼1,300,000 positive malaria tests collected over ∼4.5 million km2), satellite imagery, permutation tests, and hierarchical Bayesian regressions, we show that greater forest cover (as a proxy for proximity to forest fringes) tends to be associated with higher malaria incidence, and that forest cover effect was 25 times greater than the land clearing effect, the often cited culprit of malaria in the region. These findings have important implications for land use/land cover (LULC) policies in the region. We find that cities close to protected areas (PA’s) tend to have higher malaria incidence than cities far from PA’s. Using future LULC scenarios, we show that avoiding 10% of deforestation through better governance might result in an average 2-fold increase in malaria incidence by 2050 in urban health posts. Conclusions Our results suggest that cost analysis of reduced carbon emissions from conservation efforts in the region should account for increased malaria morbidity, and that conservation initiatives should consider adopting malaria mitigation strategies. Coordinated actions from disparate science fields, government ministries, and global initiatives (e.g., Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation; Millenium Development Goals; Roll Back Malaria; and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria), will be required to decrease

  4. Conservation efforts in Cannonsville: Are they working?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cannonsville Reservoir is a major component of the unfiltered New York City water supply system. This year, the voluntary, incentive-based Watershed Agricultural Program marks a 15-year history of collaboration among producers, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the Delaware Coun...

  5. Data acquisition for conservation assessments: is the effort worth it?

    PubMed

    Hermoso, Virgilio; Kennard, Mark J; Linke, Simon

    2013-01-01

    When identifying conservation priorities, the accuracy of conservation assessments is constrained by the quality of data available. Despite previous efforts exploring how to deal with imperfect datasets, little is known about how data uncertainty translates into errors in conservation planning outcomes. Here, we evaluate the magnitude of commission and omission error, effectiveness and efficiency of conservation planning outcomes derived from three datasets with increasing data quality. We demonstrate that investing in data acquisition might not always be the best strategy as the magnitude of errors introduced by new sites/species can exceed the benefits gained. There was a trade-off between effectiveness and efficiency due to poorly sampled rare species. Given that data acquisition is limited by the high cost and time required, we recommend focusing on improving the quality of data for those species with the highest level of uncertainty (rare species) when acquiring new data. PMID:23555738

  6. Salt river project's participation in Arizona's bald eagle conservation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobel, Teah A.

    1996-11-01

    Bald eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus) conservation in Arizona, USA, is a prime example of a successful, cooperative environmental management effort. The Salt River Project (SRP) is an active participant in the statewide bald eagle management activities. This paper summarizes the major components of the statewide program and highlights SRP's participation in these efforts. The Southwestern Bald Eagle Management Committee (SWBEMC) was formed as a means of coordinating interagency projects. Chaired by the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD), the SWBEMC is comprised of 15 state, federal, tribal, and private agencies. Together, these agencies sponsor the Nest Watch Program, a unique and effective program dedicated to the study, conservation, and recovery of bald eagles in the southwest. Other significant components of the bald eagle management program include nest monitoring, nest search activities, winter counts, and demography studies.

  7. Conservation and aid: designing more effective investments in natural resource governance reform.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Fred

    2009-10-01

    Biodiversity conservation outcomes are closely related to the rules and institutions governing resource use. Creating local incentives for conservation through more secure resource tenure is central to conservation outcomes on private and communal lands, where the preponderance of biodiversity occurs. Conservation efforts in sub-Saharan Africa are therefore centrally concerned with governance dynamics and institutional reform processes, such as the decentralization of property rights, and how best to achieve such reforms. Traditional mechanisms for financing conservation efforts in Africa rely heavily on funds channeled through multilateral and bilateral aid agencies. The history of development aid highlights a range of constraints these aid agencies face in terms of working toward more effective resource governance arrangements and promoting reforms. Government aid agencies possess incentives for promoting large-scale and short-term projects that maximize expenditure volumes and tend to define issues in technical rather than political terms. The history of development aid suggests that these and other characteristics of aid agencies impedes their ability to influence governance reform processes and that aid funding may discourage the adoption of reforms. Greater emphasis in African conservation financing needs to be placed on flexible, small-scale investments aligned to local interests and constituencies that prioritize innovation, learning, and experimentation. Additionally, more research is required that explores the linkages between conservation funding, donor decision-making processes, and governance reforms. PMID:19765032

  8. Environmental gap analysis to prioritize conservation efforts in eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    van Breugel, Paulo; Kindt, Roeland; Barnekow Lillesø, Jens-Peter; van Breugel, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Countries in eastern Africa have set aside significant proportions of their land for protection. But are these areas representative of the diverse range of species and habitats found in the region? And do conservation efforts include areas where the state of biodiversity is likely to deteriorate without further interventions? Various studies have addressed these questions at global and continental scales. However, meaningful conservation decisions are required at finer geographical scales. To operate more effectively at the national level, finer scale baseline data on species and on higher levels of biological organization such as the eco-regions are required, among other factors. Here we adopted a recently developed high-resolution potential natural vegetation (PNV) map for eastern Africa as a baseline to more effectively identify conservation priorities. We examined how well different potential natural vegetations (PNVs) are represented in the protected area (PA) network of eastern Africa and used a multivariate environmental similarity index to evaluate biases in PA versus PNV coverage. We additionally overlaid data of anthropogenic factors that potentially influence the natural vegetation to assess the level of threat to different PNVs. Our results indicate substantial differences in the conservation status of PNVs. In addition, particular PNVs in which biodiversity protection and ecological functions are at risk due to human influences are revealed. The data and approach presented here provide a step forward in developing more transparent and better informed translation from global priorities to regional or national implementation in eastern Africa, and are valid for other geographic regions. PMID:25855968

  9. Environmental Gap Analysis to Prioritize Conservation Efforts in Eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    van Breugel, Paulo; Kindt, Roeland; Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Countries in eastern Africa have set aside significant proportions of their land for protection. But are these areas representative of the diverse range of species and habitats found in the region? And do conservation efforts include areas where the state of biodiversity is likely to deteriorate without further interventions? Various studies have addressed these questions at global and continental scales. However, meaningful conservation decisions are required at finer geographical scales. To operate more effectively at the national level, finer scale baseline data on species and on higher levels of biological organization such as the eco-regions are required, among other factors. Here we adopted a recently developed high-resolution potential natural vegetation (PNV) map for eastern Africa as a baseline to more effectively identify conservation priorities. We examined how well different potential natural vegetations (PNVs) are represented in the protected area (PA) network of eastern Africa and used a multivariate environmental similarity index to evaluate biases in PA versus PNV coverage. We additionally overlaid data of anthropogenic factors that potentially influence the natural vegetation to assess the level of threat to different PNVs. Our results indicate substantial differences in the conservation status of PNVs. In addition, particular PNVs in which biodiversity protection and ecological functions are at risk due to human influences are revealed. The data and approach presented here provide a step forward in developing more transparent and better informed translation from global priorities to regional or national implementation in eastern Africa, and are valid for other geographic regions. PMID:25855968

  10. Fuel conservation capability and effort by commercial air carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Computer capability weather input data, performance data, and ATC interface are discussed in terms of their role in preflight and inflight planning for commercial flights. The effect of preflight and inflight planning on fuel efficient operation was evaluated along with the impact of avionics. It was found that there is a potential for saving fuel through use of avionics, especially in the area of vertical guidance in all phases of flight. Other results of the study indicate: (1) preflight planning as it now stands is adequate with the exception that more accurate and up-to-date weather information is desirable; (2) better inflight information about existing weather conditions is needed; and (3) ATC can aid in fuel conservation.

  11. How Effective Have Thirty Years of Internationally Driven Conservation and Development Efforts Been in Madagascar?

    PubMed Central

    Wilmé, Lucienne; Mercier, Jean-Roger; Camara, Christian; Lowry, Porter P.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation and development are intricately linked. The international donor community has long provided aid to tropical countries in an effort to alleviate poverty and conserve biodiversity. While hundreds of millions of $ have been invested in over 500 environmental-based projects in Madagascar during the period covered by a series of National Environmental Action Plans (1993–2008) and the protected areas network has expanded threefold, deforestation remains unchecked and none of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) established for 2000–2015 were likely be met. Efforts to achieve sustainable development had failed to reduce poverty or deliver progress toward any of the MDGs. Cross-sectorial policy adjustments are needed that (i) enable and catalyze Madagascar’s capacities rather than deepening dependency on external actors such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and donor countries, and that (ii) deliver improvements to the livelihoods and wellbeing of the country’s rural poor. PMID:27532499

  12. How Effective Have Thirty Years of Internationally Driven Conservation and Development Efforts Been in Madagascar?

    PubMed

    Waeber, Patrick O; Wilmé, Lucienne; Mercier, Jean-Roger; Camara, Christian; Lowry, Porter P

    2016-01-01

    Conservation and development are intricately linked. The international donor community has long provided aid to tropical countries in an effort to alleviate poverty and conserve biodiversity. While hundreds of millions of $ have been invested in over 500 environmental-based projects in Madagascar during the period covered by a series of National Environmental Action Plans (1993-2008) and the protected areas network has expanded threefold, deforestation remains unchecked and none of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) established for 2000-2015 were likely be met. Efforts to achieve sustainable development had failed to reduce poverty or deliver progress toward any of the MDGs. Cross-sectorial policy adjustments are needed that (i) enable and catalyze Madagascar's capacities rather than deepening dependency on external actors such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and donor countries, and that (ii) deliver improvements to the livelihoods and wellbeing of the country's rural poor. PMID:27532499

  13. Conservation Efforts and Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Micah B.; Olson, Sarah H.; Vittor, Amy Y.; Barcellos, Christovam; Patz, Jonathan A.; Pan, William

    2014-01-01

    We respond to Valle and Clark,1 who assert that “conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon,” because the relationship between forest cover and malaria incidence was stronger than the effect of the deforestation rate.1 We contend that their conclusion is flawed because of limitations in their methodology that we discuss in detail. Most important are the exclusion of one-half the original data without a discussion of selection bias, the lack of model adjustment for either population growth or migration, and the crude classifications of land cover and protected areas that lead to aggregation bias.1 Of greater significance, we stress the need for caution in the interpretation of data that could have profound effects on regional land use decisions. PMID:24277787

  14. Optimizing protection efforts for amphibian conservation in Mediterranean landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Muñoz, Enrique; Ceacero, Francisco; Carretero, Miguel A.; Pedrajas-Pulido, Luis; Parra, Gema; Guerrero, Francisco

    2013-05-01

    Amphibians epitomize the modern biodiversity crisis, and attract great attention from the scientific community since a complex puzzle of factors has influence on their disappearance. However, these factors are multiple and spatially variable, and declining in each locality is due to a particular combination of causes. This study shows a suitable statistical procedure to determine threats to amphibian species in medium size administrative areas. For our study case, ten biological and ecological variables feasible to affect the survival of 15 amphibian species were categorized and reduced through Principal Component Analysis. The principal components extracted were related to ecological plasticity, reproductive potential, and specificity of breeding habitats. Finally, the factor scores of species were joined in a presence-absence matrix that gives us information to identify where and why conservation management are requires. In summary, this methodology provides the necessary information to maximize benefits of conservation measures in small areas by identifying which ecological factors need management efforts and where should we focus them on.

  15. Integrating Multiple Distribution Models to Guide Conservation Efforts of an Endangered Toad

    PubMed Central

    Treglia, Michael L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitzgerald, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models are used for numerous purposes such as predicting changes in species’ ranges and identifying biodiversity hotspots. Although implications of distribution models for conservation are often implicit, few studies use these tools explicitly to inform conservation efforts. Herein, we illustrate how multiple distribution models developed using distinct sets of environmental variables can be integrated to aid in identification sites for use in conservation. We focus on the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus), which relies on open, sandy streams and surrounding floodplains in southern California, USA, and northern Baja California, Mexico. Declines of the species are largely attributed to habitat degradation associated with vegetation encroachment, invasive predators, and altered hydrologic regimes. We had three main goals: 1) develop a model of potential habitat for arroyo toads, based on long-term environmental variables and all available locality data; 2) develop a model of the species’ current habitat by incorporating recent remotely-sensed variables and only using recent locality data; and 3) integrate results of both models to identify sites that may be employed in conservation efforts. We used a machine learning technique, Random Forests, to develop the models, focused on riparian zones in southern California. We identified 14.37% and 10.50% of our study area as potential and current habitat for the arroyo toad, respectively. Generally, inclusion of remotely-sensed variables reduced modeled suitability of sites, thus many areas modeled as potential habitat were not modeled as current habitat. We propose such sites could be made suitable for arroyo toads through active management, increasing current habitat by up to 67.02%. Our general approach can be employed to guide conservation efforts of virtually any species with sufficient data necessary to develop appropriate distribution models. PMID:26125634

  16. Integrating Multiple Distribution Models to Guide Conservation Efforts of an Endangered Toad.

    PubMed

    Treglia, Michael L; Fisher, Robert N; Fitzgerald, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models are used for numerous purposes such as predicting changes in species' ranges and identifying biodiversity hotspots. Although implications of distribution models for conservation are often implicit, few studies use these tools explicitly to inform conservation efforts. Herein, we illustrate how multiple distribution models developed using distinct sets of environmental variables can be integrated to aid in identification sites for use in conservation. We focus on the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus), which relies on open, sandy streams and surrounding floodplains in southern California, USA, and northern Baja California, Mexico. Declines of the species are largely attributed to habitat degradation associated with vegetation encroachment, invasive predators, and altered hydrologic regimes. We had three main goals: 1) develop a model of potential habitat for arroyo toads, based on long-term environmental variables and all available locality data; 2) develop a model of the species' current habitat by incorporating recent remotely-sensed variables and only using recent locality data; and 3) integrate results of both models to identify sites that may be employed in conservation efforts. We used a machine learning technique, Random Forests, to develop the models, focused on riparian zones in southern California. We identified 14.37% and 10.50% of our study area as potential and current habitat for the arroyo toad, respectively. Generally, inclusion of remotely-sensed variables reduced modeled suitability of sites, thus many areas modeled as potential habitat were not modeled as current habitat. We propose such sites could be made suitable for arroyo toads through active management, increasing current habitat by up to 67.02%. Our general approach can be employed to guide conservation efforts of virtually any species with sufficient data necessary to develop appropriate distribution models. PMID:26125634

  17. Integrating multiple distribution models to guide conservation efforts of an endangered toad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Treglia, Michael L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitzgerald, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models are used for numerous purposes such as predicting changes in species’ ranges and identifying biodiversity hotspots. Although implications of distribution models for conservation are often implicit, few studies use these tools explicitly to inform conservation efforts. Herein, we illustrate how multiple distribution models developed using distinct sets of environmental variables can be integrated to aid in identification sites for use in conservation. We focus on the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus), which relies on open, sandy streams and surrounding floodplains in southern California, USA, and northern Baja California, Mexico. Declines of the species are largely attributed to habitat degradation associated with vegetation encroachment, invasive predators, and altered hydrologic regimes. We had three main goals: 1) develop a model of potential habitat for arroyo toads, based on long-term environmental variables and all available locality data; 2) develop a model of the species’ current habitat by incorporating recent remotely-sensed variables and only using recent locality data; and 3) integrate results of both models to identify sites that may be employed in conservation efforts. We used a machine learning technique, Random Forests, to develop the models, focused on riparian zones in southern California. We identified 14.37% and 10.50% of our study area as potential and current habitat for the arroyo toad, respectively. Generally, inclusion of remotely-sensed variables reduced modeled suitability of sites, thus many areas modeled as potential habitat were not modeled as current habitat. We propose such sites could be made suitable for arroyo toads through active management, increasing current habitat by up to 67.02%. Our general approach can be employed to guide conservation efforts of virtually any species with sufficient data necessary to develop appropriate distribution models.

  18. Mental Effort in Binary Categorization Aided by Binary Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael

    2013-01-01

    Binary cueing systems assist in many tasks, often alerting people about potential hazards (such as alarms and alerts). We investigate whether cues, besides possibly improving decision accuracy, also affect the effort users invest in tasks and whether the required effort in tasks affects the responses to cues. We developed a novel experimental tool…

  19. AIDS: Implications for Homosexual Self-Help and Support Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro-Alfonso, Jose

    The Colectivo de Concientizacion Gay, a homosexual and lesbian organization in Puerto Rico, developed a brief analysis of what has happened since symptoms associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were first reported by the Centers for Disease Control in 1981; the analysis also included implications for the gay community. Since…

  20. Recent Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Efforts and Their Implications for AIDS Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Mildred Zeldes; DeJong, William

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD (sexually transmitted diseases) initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) health education efforts. (Author/CT)

  1. Ways to aid hospitals' conservation eyed by feds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-05

    A Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and DOE effort to develop financial incentives for energy conservation at hospitals is focusing on changing Medicare-Medicaid reimbursement programs, which currently fail to reimburse for capital expenses. If the agencies determine that a disincentive exists, their recommendations will emphasize the use of market forces to accomplish conservation efforts. At $2.5 billion a year, energy costs are hospitals' fastest rising operating cost, and current reimbursement arrangements are counter-productive. The agencies are considering several schemes, such as shortening depreciation schedules, rewarding conservation, helping to attract private capital, and allowing hospitals and insurers to share the savings. (DCK)

  2. Effectiveness of Protected Areas in the Pan-Tropics and International Aid for Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Protected areas are crucial for tropical forest conservation efforts. Estimation of the effectiveness of protected areas is thus important for evaluating the efficacy of forest conservation policies and priorities. However, comprehensive evaluation of the long-term effects of Protected Areas and international aid is lacking. However, with the recent availability of long-term, large-scale forest cover change data at 30-m resolution, it has become possible to address some of the issues surrounding the effectiveness of protected areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of Protected Areas in the pan-tropics and international aid for conservation, we use the 30m resolution data along with econometrics 1) to estimate avoided deforestation by PAs in the tropics during the 2000s, 2) estimate effects of international aid on avoided deforestation by PAs and 3) analyze the relationships between the socio-economic variables and increases in deforestation, avoided deforestation by PAs and effects of international aid. Our results show that protected areas avoided 83,500 ± 21,200 km2 of deforestation during the 2000s. Brazil showed the highest estimates of effects of international aid on the avoided deforestation of 22 m2/USD, which is about 50 times higher compared to Indonesia (0.5 m2/USD). The regression analysis between avoided deforestation, effects of international aid and socio-economic factors demonstrates that PAs have been relatively more effective in the countries where the deforestation pressures were increasing and that governance and forest change monitoring capacity may be important factors enhancing the efficacy of international aid. Our study presents the first pan-tropical analysis of the long-term evaluation of the effectiveness of protected areas, international aid and their regulating factors using spatially explicit fine resolution data. Our findings allow us to pinpoint where conservation initiatives and resource management are effectively practiced and to

  3. Objective assessment of listening effort in the oscillatory EEG: comparison of different hearing aid configurations.

    PubMed

    Bernarding, Corinna; Strauss, Daniel J; Hannemann, Ronny; Seidler, Harald; Corona-Strauss, Farah I

    2014-01-01

    An objective estimate of listening effort could support the hearing aid fitting procedure. Most of the digital hearing aids have already hearing aid settings which are supposed to reduce the listening effort, but the effects of these settings on the individual's listening effort remain unclear. In this study, we propose an objective estimate of listening effort using electroencephalographic data. The new method is based on the phase distribution of the ongoing oscillatory EEG activity. We hypothesize that for a non-effortful listening environment the phase is rather uniformly distributed on the unit circle than for a demanding condition. To prove if the phase is uniformly distributed around the unit circle, the Rayleigh Test was applied to the phase of the EEG. This method was tested in 14 hearing impaired subjects (moderate hearing loss, 65.64 ±7.93 yrs, 7 female). The tested hearing aid settings were a directional microphone combined with a noise reduction algorithm in a medium and a strong setting, the noise reduction setting turned off as well as a setting using omnidirectional microphones. Noise embedded sentences (Oldenburg Sentence Test, OlSa) were used as test materials. The task of the subject was to repeat each sentence. The results indicate that the objective estimate of listening effort maps the subjectively rated effort and for a listening situation like the presented one, the strong setting of the directional microphone requires the smallest effort. PMID:25570536

  4. Resident Assistant Training Program for Increasing Alcohol, Other Drug, and Mental Health First-Aid Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Thombs, Dennis L.; Gonzalez, Jennifer M. Reingle; Osborn, Cynthia J.; Rossheim, Matthew E.; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2014-01-01

    In college and university residence halls, resident assistants (RAs) are expected to serve as first-aid providers to students who may have alcohol, other drug, mental health, and academic problems. Despite this responsibility, evidence-based, first-aid programs have not been developed and tested for the RA workforce. The current study examined effects of an investigational first-aid program designed specifically for RAs. The online Peer Hero Training program is a novel approach to RA training in its use of interactive video dramatizations of incidents involving substance-using or distressed residents. A 9-month randomized trial conducted on 8 U.S. campuses compared RAs who participated in the Peer Hero Training program to RAs who received training-as-usual. Participation in the Peer Hero Training program significantly increased RA first-aid efforts for residential students who may have had alcohol, other drug, mental health, or academic problems six months after baseline. Compared to those in the training-as-usual condition, RAs in the Peer Hero Training program made more than 10 times as many first-aid efforts for possible alcohol problems, almost 14 times the number of first-aid efforts for possible drug use, almost 3 times the number of first-aid efforts for possible mental health problems, and 3 times the number of first-aid efforts for academic problems. There was no evidence that measured RA attitudes mediated the effects of the intervention. Results of this preliminary evaluation trial suggest that online training using interactive video dramatizations is a viable approach to strengthening RAs’ ability to provide alcohol, other drug, and mental health first-aid to undergraduates. PMID:25322950

  5. Recent sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts and their implications for AIDS health education.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educational and social marketing efforts to reduce the transmission of Human T-lymphotropic type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) are currently our best hope for controlling the disease. Since 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has funded a series of research studies to determine whether education efforts can successfully motivate the adoption of key behaviors relevant to the control of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Analysis of the first two studies which are now completed, and preliminary data from a third study, have documented dramatic changes in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among clients in inner-city public health clinics. The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS health education efforts. PMID:3781857

  6. Opportunities for cost-sharing in conservation: variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas. PMID:23383176

  7. Opportunities for Cost-Sharing in Conservation: Variation in Volunteering Effort across Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E.; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas. PMID:23383176

  8. Production of imagery-derived maps to aid the Japanese earthquake/tsunami relief effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messinger, David W.; McKeown, Don; Raqueño, Nina; Cavilia, Steve; DeAngelis, Chris; Maitra, Sanjit; Sun, Weihua

    2011-10-01

    On March 11, 2011, the magnitude 9 Tohoku earthquake and resulting tsunami struck off the coast of Japan. An estimated over 400,000 persons were displaced from their homes and the damage to the coastline and nearby urban areas was extensive. Additionally, the combined effects of the earthquake and tsunami caused damage to the Fukushima Dai'ichi Nuclear Power Station. As part of the International Charter "Space and Major Disasters", the US Geological Survey coordinated a volunteer effort to aid in the response to the disaster. The goal of the project was to produce maps derived from civilian (NASA Landsat and ASTER) and commercially available (DigitalGlobe and GeoEye), high resolution satellite imagery to be delivered to the Japanese authorities. RIT, as part of our Information Products Laboratory for Emergency Response (IPLER) program, was one of the organizations involved in this effort. This paper describes the timeline of the response, the challenges faced in this effort, the workflow developed, and the products that were distributed. Lessons learned from the response will also be described to aid the remote sensing community in preparing for responses to future natural disasters.

  9. Salt River Project`s participation in Arizona`s bald eagle conservation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Nobel, T.A.

    1996-11-01

    Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) conservation in Arizona, USA, is a prime example of a successful, cooperative environmental management effort. The Salt River Project (SRP) is an active participant in the statewide bald eagle management activities. This paper summarizes the major components of the statewide program and highlights SRP`s participation in these efforts. The Southwestern Bald Eagle Management Committee (SWBEMC) was formed as a means of coordinating interagency projects. Chaired by the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD), the SWBEMC is comprised of 15 state, federal, tribal, and private agencies. Together, these agencies sponsor the Nest Watch Program, a unique and effective program dedicated to the study, conservation, and recovery of bald eagles in the southwest. Other significant components of the bald eagle management program include nest monitoring, nest search activities, winter counts, and demography studies. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  10. China's coastal wetlands: conservation history, implementation efforts, existing issues and strategies for future improvement.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhigao; Sun, Wenguang; Tong, Chuan; Zeng, Congsheng; Yu, Xiang; Mou, Xiaojie

    2015-06-01

    China has approximately 5.80×10(6)ha coastal wetlands by 2014, accounting for 10.82% of the total area of natural wetlands. Healthy coastal wetland ecosystems play an important role in guaranteeing the territory ecological security and the sustainable development of coastal zone in China. In this paper, the natural geography and the past and present status of China's coastal wetlands were introduced and the five stages (1950s-1970s, 1980s-1991, 1992-2002, 2003-2010 and 2011-present) of China's coastal wetlands conservation from the foundation of the People's Republic in 1949 to present were distinguished and reviewed. Over the past decades, China has made great efforts in coastal wetland conservation, as signified by the implementation of coastal wetland restoration projects, the construction of coastal wetland nature reserves, the practice of routine ecological monitoring and two national wetland surveys, the promulgation of local wetland conservation statutes and specific regulations, the coordination mechanism to enhance management capacity, the wide development of coastal wetland research and public participation, and the extensive communication to strengthen international cooperation. Nonetheless, six major issues recently emerged in China's coastal wetland conservation are evidently existed, including the increasing threats of pollution and human activities, the increasing adverse effects of threaten factors on ecosystem function, the increasing threats of coastal erosion and sea-level rising, the insufficient funding for coastal wetlands conservation, the imperfect legal and management system for coastal wetlands, and the insufficient education, research and international cooperation. Although the threats and pressures on coastal wetlands conservation are still apparent, the future of China's coastal wetlands looks promising since the Chinese government understands that the sustainable development in coastal zone requires new attitudes, sound policies and

  11. Efforts to secure universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment: a comparison of BRICS countries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Silveira, Marysabel P T; Bertoldi, Andréa D; Ziganshina, Liliya E; Khaziakhmetova, Veronica N; Khamidulina, Rashida M; Chokshi, Maulik R; McGee, Shelley; Suleman, Fatima

    2014-02-01

    This article illustrates how the BRICS countries have been building their focused leadership, making important high level commitment and national policy changes, and improving their health systems, in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemics in respective settings. Specific aspects are focused on efforts of creating public provisions to secure universal access to ARVs from the aspects of active responsive system and national program, health system strengthening, fostering local production of ARVs, supply chain management, and information system strengthening. Challenges in each BRICS country are analyzed respectively. The most important contributors to the success of response to HIV/AIDS include: creating legal basis for healthcare as a fundamental human right; political commitment to necessary funding for universal access and concrete actions to secure equal quality care; comprehensive system to secure demands that all people in need are capable of accessing prevention, treatment and care; active community involvement; decentralization of the management system considering the local settings; integration of treatment and prevention; taking horizontal approach to strengthen health systems; fully use of the TRIPS flexibility; and regular monitoring and evaluation to serve evidence based decision making. PMID:25155561

  12. Combining genetic and demographic information to prioritize conservation efforts for anadromous alewife and blueback herring

    PubMed Central

    Palkovacs, Eric P; Hasselman, Daniel J; Argo, Emily E; Gephard, Stephen R; Limburg, Karin E; Post, David M; Schultz, Thomas F; Willis, Theodore V

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in conservation biology is the need to broadly prioritize conservation efforts when demographic data are limited. One method to address this challenge is to use population genetic data to define groups of populations linked by migration and then use demographic information from monitored populations to draw inferences about the status of unmonitored populations within those groups. We applied this method to anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis), species for which long-term demographic data are limited. Recent decades have seen dramatic declines in these species, which are an important ecological component of coastal ecosystems and once represented an important fishery resource. Results show that most populations comprise genetically distinguishable units, which are nested geographically within genetically distinct clusters or stocks. We identified three distinct stocks in alewife and four stocks in blueback herring. Analysis of available time series data for spawning adult abundance and body size indicate declines across the US ranges of both species, with the most severe declines having occurred for populations belonging to the Southern New England and the Mid-Atlantic Stocks. While all alewife and blueback herring populations deserve conservation attention, those belonging to these genetic stocks warrant the highest conservation prioritization. PMID:24567743

  13. The Aid Debate: Beyond the Liberal/Conservative Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamat, Sangeeta

    2010-01-01

    Recent works that assess whether development has been well-served, or served at all, by international aid, are overwhelmingly pessimistic in their assessment and in favor of the market as the antidote to international aid (Klees, 2010). The author finds that Steve Klees' essay focuses on the neoliberal and liberal frameworks that represent the…

  14. Geospatial Information Informs Bonobo (pan Paniscus) Conservation Efforts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nackoney, J.; Hickey, J.; Williams, D.; Facheux, C.; Dupain, J.

    2014-12-01

    The bonobo (Pan paniscus), a great ape that is endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), has been listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2007. Hunting and habitat loss are primary threats. Two recent wars and ongoing conflicts in the DRC have resulted in political and economic instability that hampers on-the-ground work, thereby accentuating the importance of spatial data and maps as tools for monitoring threats remotely and prioritizing locations for safeguarding bonobo habitat. Several regional and rangewide efforts have leveraged the utility of existing spatial data to help focus limited resources for effective broad-scale conservation of these great apes. At local scales, we developed spatial models to identify locations of highest hunting pressure, predict future human settlement and agricultural expansion, map areas of highest conservation value to bonobos, and identify the connective corridors linking them. We identified 42 least-disturbed wildland blocks meeting the minimum home range size needed for bonobos, and 32 potential corridors. At the range-wide scale, we developed a first range-wide spatial model of suitable conditions for the bonobo; this was a major contribution to the development of a Bonobo Conservation Strategy for 2012-2022, recently published by IUCN. The model used a forest edge density metric and other biotic and abiotic variables in conjunction with bonobo nest data collected during 2003-2010 by over 40 bonobo researchers. Approximately 28% of the range was predicted suitable; of that, about 27.5% was located in official protected areas. Highlighting these examples, this presentation will discuss the conservation status of bonobos and how spatial data and models are being utilized for the formation of strategic conservation plans.

  15. Attraction of Hawaiian seabirds to lights: conservation efforts and effects of moon phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Telfer, T.C.; Sincock, J.L.; Byrd, G.V.; Reed, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Increased urban lighting on Kauai Island, Hawaii, has resulted in new problems for threatened and endangered procellariiform birds. Between 1978 and 1985,11,767 Kewell's shearwaters, 38 dark-rumped petrels, and 8 band-rumped storm petrels were attracted to bright urban lights, struck unseen objects, and fell to the ground. A salvage effort involving public cooperation and government-run 'aid stations' has returned 90% of these birds to the wild. Nightly fallout of seabirds was significantly reduced during the full moon, but fallout increased as the new moon approached. The heaviest fallout occurred in urban coastal areas, particularly at river mouths. More than 97% of the fallout involved fledgling birds apparently leaving their mountain nesting grounds for the first time. Less than 1%of these birds were recovered again on subsequent nights.

  16. Conservation Plants for the Northeast. Program Aid No. 1154.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    Descriptions of plants suited to specific conservation uses under different site conditions in the Northeast United States are presented in this booklet. The plants are classified into categories based on conservation use. These include: (1) plants for disturbed areas; (2) ornamental ground covers; (3) plants for coastal dunes and sandy inland…

  17. Protecting Persistent Dynamic Oceanographic Features: Transboundary Conservation Efforts Are Needed for the Critically Endangered Balearic Shearwater

    PubMed Central

    Louzao, Maite; Delord, Karine; García, David; Boué, Amélie; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    The protection of key areas for biodiversity at sea is not as widespread as on land and research investment is necessary to identify biodiversity hotspots in the open ocean. Spatially explicit conservation measures such as the creation of representative networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) is a critical step towards the conservation and management of marine ecosystems, as well as to improve public awareness. Conservation efforts in ecologically rich and threatened ecosystems are specially needed. This is particularly urgent for the Mediterranean marine biodiversity, which includes highly mobile marine vertebrates. Here, we studied the at sea distribution of one of the most endangered Mediterranean seabird, the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus. Present knowledge, from vessel-based surveys, suggests that this species has a coastal distribution over the productive Iberian shelf in relation to the distribution of their main prey, small pelagic fish. We used miniaturised satellite transmitters to determine the key marine areas of the southern population of Balearic shearwaters breeding on Eivissa and spot the spatial connections between breeding and key marine areas. Our tracking study indicates that Balearic shearwaters do not only forage along the Iberian continental shelf but also in more distant marine areas along the North African coast, in particular W of Algeria, but also NE coast of Morocco. Birds recurrently visit these shelf areas at the end of the breeding season. Species distribution modelling identified chlorophyll a as the most important environmental variable in defining those oceanographic features characterizing their key habitats in the western Mediterranean. We identified persistent oceanographic features across time series available in the study area and discuss our results within the current conservation scenario in relation to the ecology of the species. PMID:22590510

  18. Evaluation of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) in cranes: applications to conservation efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, S.I.; Miller, M.M.; Goto, R.M.; Gee, G.F.; Briles, W.E.

    2001-01-01

    Although there have been heated discussions concerning the relative importance of using Mhc diversity as a basis for selecting breeders in conservation projects, most parties agree that the genetic variability residual in an endangered species should be maintained through genetic management, if at all possible. Substantial evidence exists (particularly in birds) documenting the influences of specific Mhc haplotypes on disease outcome and also that those individuals which are heterozygous for Mhc alleles appear to have an advantage for survival over those that are homozygous. Thus, conservation of genetic variability of the Mhc is likely important for the preservation of fitness, especially in small breeding populations. More than half of the world's crane species are listed as endangered. Members of all 15 known species are represented among breeding animals for captive propagation at the International Crane Foundation (Wisconsin) and the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Maryland). Collaborative multi-organization efforts and the availability of extensive pedigree records have allowed the study of Mhc variability in several species of cranes. We have found, for example, that Mhc diversity in the captive Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) population appears high, whereas in the captive whooping crane (Grus americana), which has undergone a severe 'genetic bottleneck,? both the number of alleles and the levels of heterozygosity appear to be substantially reduced.

  19. Watershed sediment losses to lakes accelerating despite agricultural soil conservation efforts.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Adam J; Filstrup, Christopher T; Downing, John A

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural soil loss and deposition in aquatic ecosystems is a problem that impairs water quality worldwide and is costly to agriculture and food supplies. In the US, for example, billions of dollars have subsidized soil and water conservation practices in agricultural landscapes over the past decades. We used paleolimnological methods to reconstruct trends in sedimentation related to human-induced landscape change in 32 lakes in the intensively agricultural region of the Midwestern United States. Despite erosion control efforts, we found accelerating increases in sediment deposition from erosion; median erosion loss since 1800 has been 15.4 tons ha(-1). Sediment deposition from erosion increased >6-fold, from 149 g m(-2) yr(-1) in 1850 to 986 g m(-2) yr(-1) by 2010. Average time to accumulate one mm of sediment decreased from 631 days before European settlement (ca. 1850) to 59 days mm(-1) at present. Most of this sediment was deposited in the last 50 years and is related to agricultural intensification rather than land clearance or predominance of agricultural lands. In the face of these intensive agricultural practices, traditional soil conservation programs have not decelerated downstream losses. Despite large erosion control subsidies, erosion and declining water quality continue, thus new approaches are needed to mitigate erosion and water degradation. PMID:23326454

  20. Complete, accurate, mammalian phylogenies aid conservation planning, but not much

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana S. L.; Grenyer, Richard; Baillie, Jonathan E. M.; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R. P.; Gittlemann, John L.; Hoffmann, Michael; Safi, Kamran; Schipper, Jan; Stuart, Simon N.; Brooks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In the face of unprecedented global biodiversity loss, conservation planning must balance between refining and deepening knowledge versus acting on current information to preserve species and communities. Phylogenetic diversity (PD), a biodiversity measure that takes into account the evolutionary relationships between species, is arguably a more meaningful measure of biodiversity than species diversity, but cannot yet be applied to conservation planning for the majority of taxa for which phylogenetic trees have not yet been developed. Here, we investigate how the quality of data on the taxonomy and/or phylogeny of species affects the results of spatial conservation planning in terms of the representation of overall mammalian PD. The results show that the better the quality of the biodiversity data the better they can serve as a basis for conservation planning. However, decisions based on incomplete data are remarkably robust across different levels of degrading quality concerning the description of new species and the availability of phylogenetic information. Thus, given the level of urgency and the need for action, conservation planning can safely make use of the best available systematic data, limited as these data may be. PMID:21844044

  1. Assessing the impact of international conservation aid on deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bare, Matthew; Kauffman, Craig; Miller, Daniel C.

    2015-12-01

    International conservation donors have spent at least 3.4 billion to protect biodiversity and stem tropical deforestation in Africa since the early 1990s. Despite more than two decades of experience, however, there is little research on the effect of this aid at a region-wide scale. Numerous case studies exist, but show mixed results. Existing research is usually based on community perception or focused on short-term donor objectives rather than specific conservation outcomes, like deforestation rates. Thus, the impact of billions of dollars of conservation aid on deforestation rates remains an open question. This article uses an original dataset to analyze the effect of international conservation aid on deforestation rates in 42 African countries between 2000 and 2013. We first describe patterns of conservation aid across the continent and then assess its impact (with one to five-year lags), controlling for other factors that may also affect deforestation, including rural population, protected areas (PAs), governance, and other economic and commodity production variables. We find that conservation aid is associated with higher rates of forest loss after one- or two-year lags. A similar result holds for PA extent, suggesting possible displacement of deforestation from PAs. However, governance quality in high forest cover countries moderates these effects such that deforestation rates are reduced. Rural population is the most consistent factor associated with forest loss, confirming previous studies of this driver. Our results suggest that in heavily forested countries, development projects designed to support conservation work initially in conditions of good governance, but that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate larger deforestation drivers.

  2. High-risk behaviors among adult men and women in Botswana: implications for HIV/AIDS prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Keetile, Mpho

    2014-01-01

    The government of Botswana has been spending a lot of money in the prevention, treatment, care and support for HIV/AIDS patient for decades. This paper uses data from the third Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS III) to explore high-risk behaviors of adults and how they affect government efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this paper is to fill in the gap on the assessment of high-risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS and their implications on HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. A nationally representative sample of 10,159 men and women aged 20-64 years who had successfully completed the BAIS III individual questionnaire were used in the study. Both descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used for analysis. Crude odds ratios were obtained from gross effects model while adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were obtained from the net effects model. Statistically significant association was observed between multiple current partners and alcohol consumption (AOR = 1.5), drug abuse (AOR = 1.7), transactional sex (AOR = 2.6) and intergenerational sex (AOR = 1.07). Furthermore, statistically significant association was seen for inconsistent condom use and having tested for HIV (AOR = 1.5). These results show a worrying tendency that despite government's efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, adults in Botswana continue to indulge in high-risk behaviors. Therefore, any programs and policies on HIV/AIDS should first target these high-risk behaviors. PMID:25293869

  3. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  4. COTRASIF: conservation-aided transcription-factor-binding site finder.

    PubMed

    Tokovenko, Bogdan; Golda, Rostyslav; Protas, Oleksiy; Obolenskaya, Maria; El'skaya, Anna

    2009-04-01

    COTRASIF is a web-based tool for the genome-wide search of evolutionary conserved regulatory regions (transcription factor-binding sites, TFBS) in eukaryotic gene promoters. Predictions are made using either a position-weight matrix search method, or a hidden Markov model search method, depending on the availability of the matrix and actual sequences of the target TFBS. COTRASIF is a fully integrated solution incorporating both a gene promoter database (based on the regular Ensembl genome annotation releases) and both JASPAR and TRANSFAC databases of TFBS matrices. To decrease the false-positives rate an integrated evolutionary conservation filter is available, which allows the selection of only those of the predicted TFBS that are present in the promoters of the related species' orthologous genes. COTRASIF is very easy to use, implements a regularly updated database of promoters and is a powerful solution for genome-wide TFBS searching. COTRASIF is freely available at http://biomed.org.ua/COTRASIF/. PMID:19264796

  5. Colleges Step Up Fund-Raising Efforts to Support Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    With the economy sputtering and Congress pressuring colleges to be more affordable, many institutions feel a heightened need to provide more financial aid--and they are turning to alumni and other private donors for help. While specifics vary from college to college, all types of institutions are feeling the pressure. Many smaller, private…

  6. Perspectives on Efforts to Address HIV/AIDS of Religious Clergy Serving African American and Hispanic Communities in Utah

    PubMed Central

    Alder, Stephen C; Simonsen, Sara Ellis; Duncan, Megan; Shaver, John; DeWitt, Jan; Crookston, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The HIV/AIDS epidemic in America is rapidly progressing in certain subpopulations, including African-American and Hispanic communities. Churches may provide a means for reaching high-risk minority populations with effective HIV/AIDS prevention. We report on a series of focus group interviews conducted with Utah clergy who primarily serve African American and Hispanic congregations. Methods A total of three focus groups (two with Catholic clergy serving Hispanic congregations and one with protestant clergy serving African American congregations) were conducted with eleven participants, lasting approximately two hours each. Each focus group was audio-recorded and transcribed for analysis. Analysis of the data was conducted using a modified grounded theory approach. Results There were remarkable similarities in the attitudes and beliefs among all clergy participating in this study regarding HIV/AIDS and church-based prevention programs. All groups expressed concern about the diseases as a global epidemic and reported that the disease is highly preventable. Also, participants indicated a sense of responsibility to address the issues surrounding HIV/AIDS-related prevention, testing and care within their theological framework. Conclusion HIV/AIDS prevention and care for the infected are seen as falling within the scope of religious organizations. Openness to expanding efforts in this regard was shared by clergy participating in this study. Approaching religious leaders with tailored approaches that respect the values and practices of their particular religions will be more effective than attempting to impose approaches that do not achieve this standard. PMID:18923690

  7. Effects of a Memory Aid on Three Types of Conservation in Institutionalized Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodin, Paul A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Qualitative identity, qualitative identity and equivalence conservation were assessed in 60 retarded boys and girls in three groups (mental ages 5.4, 6.3, and 7.5). Half the subjects were provided a memory aid while the other half were not. (MS)

  8. Cannonsville Reservoir and Town Brook Watersheds: Documenting conservation efforts to protect New York City’s drinking water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cannonsville Reservoir, a Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) benchmark watershed, is a major component of the unfiltered New York City water supply system. The voluntary, incentive-based Watershed Agricultural Program is a collaborative effort among producers, federal, state, and loc...

  9. Prioritizing conservation effort through the use of biological soil crusts as ecosystem function indicators in an arid region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Miller, M.E.; Belnap, J.; Sisk, T.D.; Johnson, N.C.

    2008-01-01

    Conservation prioritization usually focuses on conservation of rare species or biodiversity, rather than ecological processes. This is partially due to a lack of informative indicators of ecosystem function. Biological soil crusts (BSCs) trap and retain soil and water resources in arid ecosystems and function as major carbon and nitrogen fixers; thus, they may be informative indicators of ecosystem function. We created spatial models of multiple indicators of the diversity and function of BSCs (species richness, evenness, functional diversity, functional redundancy, number of rare species, number of habitat specialists, nitrogen and carbon fixation indices, soil stabilization, and surface roughening) for the 800,000-ha Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument (Utah, U.S.A.). We then combined the indicators into a single BSC function map and a single BSC biodiversity map (2 alternative types of conservation value) with an unweighted averaging procedure and a weighted procedure derived from validations performance. We also modeled potential degradation with data from a rangeland assessment survey. To determine which areas on the landscape were the highest conservation priorities, we overlaid the function- and diversity-based conservation-value layers on the potential degradation layer. Different methods for ascribing conservation-value and conservation-priority layers all yielded strikingly similar results (r = 0.89-0.99), which suggests that in this case biodiversity and function can be conserved simultaneously. We believe BSCs can be used as indicators of ecosystem function in concert with other indicators (such as plant-community properties) and that such information can be used to prioritize conservation effort in drylands. ?? 2008 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Mending the Gap, An Effort to Aid the Transfer of Formal Methods Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Formal methods can be applied to many of the development and verification activities required for civil avionics software. RTCA/DO-178B, Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification, gives a brief description of using formal methods as an alternate method of compliance with the objectives of that standard. Despite this, the avionics industry at large has been hesitant to adopt formal methods, with few developers have actually used formal methods for certification credit. Why is this so, given the volume of evidence of the benefits of formal methods? This presentation will explore some of the challenges to using formal methods in a certification context and describe the effort by the Formal Methods Subgroup of RTCA SC-205/EUROCAE WG-71 to develop guidance to make the use of formal methods a recognized approach.

  11. Conservation Priorities for Prunus africana Defined with the Aid of Spatial Analysis of Genetic Data and Climatic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Vinceti, Barbara; Loo, Judy; Gaisberger, Hannes; van Zonneveld, Maarten J.; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Kadu, Caroline A. C.; Geburek, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1) was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2) at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species’ range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania) were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts. PMID:23544118

  12. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicotra, Adrienne; Beever, Erik; Robertson, Amanda; Hofmann, Gretchen; O’Leary, John

    2015-01-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  13. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change.

    PubMed

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Beever, Erik A; Robertson, Amanda L; Hofmann, Gretchen E; O'Leary, John

    2015-10-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions. PMID:25926277

  14. A Road Map for Success: How Northwest Manufactured Housing Conservation Efforts Revolutionized an Industry.

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, William L.

    1993-04-01

    The evolution of an ongoing Bonneville Power Administration effort to improve the energy efficiency of manufactured homes is chronicled in this informal history. Over the past nine years, Bonneville`s manufactured housing project has undertaken many activities, including technical studies, cooperative ventures, design studies, and information dissemination. These activities are covered.

  15. The Potential for Double-Loop Learning to Enable Landscape Conservation Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Brian; Montambault, Jensen; Koopman, Marni

    2014-10-01

    As conservation increases its emphasis on implementing change at landscape-level scales, multi-agency, cross-boundary, and multi-stakeholder networks become more important. These elements complicate traditional notions of learning. To investigate this further, we examined structures of learning in the Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs), which include the entire US and its territories, as well as parts of Canada, Mexico, and Caribbean and Pacific island states. We used semi-structured interviews, transcribed and analyzed using NVivo, as well as a charrette-style workshop to understand the difference between the original stated goals of individual LCCs and the values and purposes expressed as the collaboration matured. We suggest double-loop learning as a theoretical framework appropriate to landscape-scale conservation, recognizing that concerns about accountability are among the valid points of view that must be considered in multi-stakeholder collaborations. Methods from the social sciences and public health sectors provide insights on how such learning might be actualized.

  16. Predator Bounties in Western Canada Cause Animal Suffering and Compromise Wildlife Conservation Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Gilbert; Rodtka, Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Although predation bounty programs (rewards offered for capturing or killing an animal) ended more than 40 years ago in Canada, they were reintroduced in Alberta in 2007 by hunting, trapping, and farming organizations, municipalities and counties, and in 2009 in Saskatchewan, by municipal and provincial governments and the Saskatchewan Cattlemen’s Association. Bounty hunters use inhumane and non-selective killing methods such as shooting animals in non-vital regions, and killing neck snares and strychnine poisoning, which cause suffering and delayed deaths. They are unselective, and kill many non-target species, some of them at risk. Predator bounty programs have been found to be ineffective by wildlife professionals, and they use killing methods that cause needless suffering and jeopardize wildlife conservation programs. Our analysis therefore indicates that government agencies should not permit the implementation of bounty programs. Accordingly, they must develop conservation programs that will minimize wildlife-human conflicts, prevent the unnecessary and inhumane killing of animals, and ensure the persistence of all wildlife species. PMID:26479482

  17. How Can You Teach Middle Grade Students about the Effects of AIDS and the HIV Virus in a Conservative Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrand, Shirley; Wattenbarger, Barbara

    This paper describes an interdisciplinary approach to conveying knowledge and promoting understanding of the disease of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) at the middle school level in a conservative community. Discussion of AIDS was included in a sixth grade unit on communicable diseases designed to teach how diseases are transmitted, how…

  18. AIDS Epidemic. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on Reviewing Federal Efforts Being Conducted toward Combating the AIDS Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The text of a Senate hearing called to review federal efforts combating acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is presented in this document. Opening statements reviewing the AIDS crisis are given by Senators Edward Kennedy and Lowell Weicker, Jr. Prepared statements are included by Senators Orrin Hatch and Ted Stevens. David Baltimore and…

  19. Patterns of morphological variation of extant sloth skulls and their implication for future conservation efforts.

    PubMed

    Hautier, Lionel; Billet, Guillaume; Eastwood, Bethany; Lane, Jemima

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have shown an increased morphological variability of sloths from mammalian norms, affecting varied phenotypic traits from skeletal parts to soft tissues. We present here the first descriptive comparison of the whole skull morphology within the two extant sloth genera, combining geometric morphometric approaches with comparative anatomy. We used these methods to explore the patterns of the intra- and interspecific morphological variation of the skull with regard to several factors such as phylogeny, geography, allometry, or sexual dimorphism. Our study first revealed strong phylogenetic and geographical imprints on the cranial and mandibular morphological traits. This result demonstrates the importance of accurate knowledge of species and their geographical distributions; here we show from an example pertaining to Bradypus variegatus populations the implications this has on conservation management. Moreover, in order to control the amount of this detected variation, we tentatively compared sloths to a wide range of mammalian species. Our analysis found no significant increase in the average deviation of skull shape within each investigated sloth species compared to other mammals. This suggests that the intraspecific cranial variation in sloths does not depart significantly from the variation observed in other mammals. This result has positive implications for the demarcation of anatomical regions that maintain high levels of morphological variation in sloths. PMID:24764236

  20. Focusing Conservation Efforts on Ecosystem Service Supply May Increase Vulnerability of Socio-Ecological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Barral, Paula; Carmona, Alejandra; Nahuelhual, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Growing concern about the loss of ecosystem services (ES) promotes their spatial representation as a key tool for the internalization of the ES framework into land use policies. Paradoxically, mapping approaches meant to inform policy decisions focus on the magnitude and spatial distribution of the biophysical supply of ES, largely ignoring the social mechanisms by which these services influence human wellbeing. If social mechanisms affecting ES demand, enhancing it or reducing it, are taken more into account, then policies are more effective. By developing and applying a new mapping routine to two distinct socio-ecological systems, we show a strong spatial uncoupling between ES supply and socio-ecological vulnerability to the loss of ES, under scenarios of land use and cover change. Public policies based on ES supply might not only fail at detecting priority conservation areas for the wellbeing of human societies, but may also increase their vulnerability by neglecting areas of currently low, but highly valued ES supply. PMID:27167737

  1. Focusing Conservation Efforts on Ecosystem Service Supply May Increase Vulnerability of Socio-Ecological Systems.

    PubMed

    Laterra, Pedro; Barral, Paula; Carmona, Alejandra; Nahuelhual, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Growing concern about the loss of ecosystem services (ES) promotes their spatial representation as a key tool for the internalization of the ES framework into land use policies. Paradoxically, mapping approaches meant to inform policy decisions focus on the magnitude and spatial distribution of the biophysical supply of ES, largely ignoring the social mechanisms by which these services influence human wellbeing. If social mechanisms affecting ES demand, enhancing it or reducing it, are taken more into account, then policies are more effective. By developing and applying a new mapping routine to two distinct socio-ecological systems, we show a strong spatial uncoupling between ES supply and socio-ecological vulnerability to the loss of ES, under scenarios of land use and cover change. Public policies based on ES supply might not only fail at detecting priority conservation areas for the wellbeing of human societies, but may also increase their vulnerability by neglecting areas of currently low, but highly valued ES supply. PMID:27167737

  2. Genetic diversity estimates point to immediate efforts for conserving the endangered Tibetan sheep of India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rekha; Kumar, Brijesh; Arora, Reena; Ahlawat, Sonika; Mishra, A.K.; Tantia, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan is a valuable Himalayan sheep breed classified as endangered. Knowledge of the level and distribution of genetic diversity in Tibetan sheep is important for designing conservation strategies for their sustainable survival and to preserve their evolutionary potential. Thus, for the first time, genetic variability in the Tibetan population was accessed with twenty five inter-simple sequence repeat markers. All the microsatellites were polymorphic and a total of 148 alleles were detected across these loci. The observed number of alleles across all the loci was more than the effective number of alleles and ranged from 3 (BM6506) to 11 (BM6526) with 5.920 ± 0.387 mean number of alleles per locus. The average observed heterozygosity was less than the expected heterozygosity. The observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.150 (BM1314) to 0.9 (OarCP20) with an overall mean of 0.473 ± 0.044 and from 0.329 (BM8125) to 0.885 (BM6526) with an overall mean 0.672 ± 0.030, respectively. The lower heterozygosity pointed towards diminished genetic diversity in the population. Thirteen microsatellite loci exhibited significant (P < 0.05) departures from the Hardy–Weinberg proportions in the population. The estimate of heterozygote deficiency varied from − 0.443 (OarCP20) to 0.668 (OarFCB128) with a mean positive value of 0.302 ± 0.057. A normal ‘L’ shaped distribution of mode-shift test and non-significant heterozygote excess on the basis of different models suggested absence of recent bottleneck in the existing Tibetan population. In view of the declining population of Tibetan sheep (less than 250) in the breeding tract, need of the hour is immediate scientific management of the population so as to increase the population hand in hand with retaining the founder alleles to the maximum possible extent. PMID:27014586

  3. Genetic diversity estimates point to immediate efforts for conserving the endangered Tibetan sheep of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rekha; Kumar, Brijesh; Arora, Reena; Ahlawat, Sonika; Mishra, A K; Tantia, M S

    2016-06-01

    Tibetan is a valuable Himalayan sheep breed classified as endangered. Knowledge of the level and distribution of genetic diversity in Tibetan sheep is important for designing conservation strategies for their sustainable survival and to preserve their evolutionary potential. Thus, for the first time, genetic variability in the Tibetan population was accessed with twenty five inter-simple sequence repeat markers. All the microsatellites were polymorphic and a total of 148 alleles were detected across these loci. The observed number of alleles across all the loci was more than the effective number of alleles and ranged from 3 (BM6506) to 11 (BM6526) with 5.920 ± 0.387 mean number of alleles per locus. The average observed heterozygosity was less than the expected heterozygosity. The observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.150 (BM1314) to 0.9 (OarCP20) with an overall mean of 0.473 ± 0.044 and from 0.329 (BM8125) to 0.885 (BM6526) with an overall mean 0.672 ± 0.030, respectively. The lower heterozygosity pointed towards diminished genetic diversity in the population. Thirteen microsatellite loci exhibited significant (P < 0.05) departures from the Hardy-Weinberg proportions in the population. The estimate of heterozygote deficiency varied from - 0.443 (OarCP20) to 0.668 (OarFCB128) with a mean positive value of 0.302 ± 0.057. A normal 'L' shaped distribution of mode-shift test and non-significant heterozygote excess on the basis of different models suggested absence of recent bottleneck in the existing Tibetan population. In view of the declining population of Tibetan sheep (less than 250) in the breeding tract, need of the hour is immediate scientific management of the population so as to increase the population hand in hand with retaining the founder alleles to the maximum possible extent. PMID:27014586

  4. Identifying effective actions to guide volunteer-based and nationwide conservation efforts for a ground-nesting farmland bird

    PubMed Central

    Santangeli, Andrea; Arroyo, Beatriz; Millon, Alexandre; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    1. Modern farming practices threaten wildlife in different ways, and failure to identify the complexity of multiple threats acting in synergy may result in ineffective management. To protect ground-nesting birds in farmland, monitoring and mitigating impacts of mechanical harvesting is crucial. 2. Here, we use 6 years of data from a nationwide volunteer-based monitoring scheme of the Montagu's harrier, a ground-nesting raptor, in French farmlands. We assess the effectiveness of alternative nest protection measures and map their potential benefit to the species. 3. We show that unprotected nests in cultivated land are strongly negatively affected by harvesting and thus require active management. Further, we show that protection from harvesting alone (e.g. by leaving a small unharvested buffer around the nest) is impaired by post-harvest predation at nests that become highly conspicuous after harvest. Measures that simultaneously protect from harvesting and predation (by adding a fence around the nest) significantly enhance nest productivity. 4. The map of expected gain from nest protection in relation to available volunteers' workforce pinpoints large areas of high expected gain from nest protection that are not matched by equally high workforce availability. This mismatch suggests that the impact of nest protection can be further improved by increasing volunteer efforts in key areas where they are low relative to the expected gain they could have. 5. Synthesis and applications. This study shows that synergistic interplay of multiple factors (e.g. mechanical harvesting and predation) may completely undermine the success of well-intentioned conservation efforts. However, identifying areas where the greatest expected gains can be achieved relative to effort expended can minimize the risk of wasted volunteer actions. Overall, this study underscores the importance of citizen science for collecting large-scale data useful for producing science and ultimately informs

  5. Recommendations for energy conservation standards for new residential buildings - volume 3: Introduction and Background to the Standard Development Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The Energy Conservation for New Buildings Act of 1976, as amended, 42 U.S.C Section 6831 et. seq. requires the US Department of Energy to issue energy conservation standards for the design of new residential and commercial buildings. The standards will be mandatory only for the design of new federal buildings, and will serve as voluntary guidelines for the design of new non-federal buildings. This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations, from the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Special Projects Committee No. 53, designed to provide the technical foundation for the Congressionally-mandated energy standard for new residential buildings. The recommendations have been developed over the past 25 months by a multidisciplinary project team, under the management of the US Department of Energy and its prime contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Volume III -- Introduction and Background to the Standard Development Effort is a description of the Standard development process and contains the rationale for the general approach and specific criteria contained within the recommendations.

  6. AIDS knowledge gaps: results from the first decade of the epidemic and implications for future public information efforts.

    PubMed

    Salmon, C T; Wooten, K; Gentry, E; Cole, G E; Kroger, F

    1996-01-01

    Throughout the first decade of AIDS, certain populations have been disproportionately affected by its spread, particularly men, blacks, Hispanics, and the young. Just as there are population differences in the spread of the disease, there are differences in knowledge about the disease as well. This article applies the knowledge gap framework to examine the nature and magnitude of gaps in knowledge among different populations. The analysis shows that persons of low education lag behind other groups in true-transmission knowledge (i.e., knowledge about ways in which HIV/AIDS actually is transmitted) and false-transmission knowledge (i.e., misconceptions about how the disease is spread). PMID:10947357

  7. Thirty Years Later: AIDS Experts Reflect on Efforts to Eradicate the Disease, Create Awareness about How It Is Transmitted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2011-01-01

    Even on paper three decades ago, HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, invoked fear and loathing. Despite increased public awareness and billions spent in search of a cure, the disease still generates fear today. As the disease has morphed into a global pandemic that is still without a cure, Black America battles the highest rate of new HIV infections…

  8. The importance of national political context to the impacts of international conservation aid: evidence from the W National Parks of Benin and Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Daniel C.; Minn, Michael; Sinsin, Brice

    2015-11-01

    National political context is widely understood to be an important factor shaping the ecological and socio-economic impacts of protected areas (PAs) and other conservation interventions. Despite broad recognition that national political context matters, however, there is little systematic understanding about how and why it matters, particularly in the context of PAs. This article seeks to advance empirical and theoretical understanding of the influence of national political context on the impacts of conservation interventions through study of an international aid project in a large transboundary PA in West Africa. It uses multilevel regression analysis to analyze the variable effects of changes in enforcement—a central mechanism through which the Protected Ecosystems in Sudano-Sahelian Africa project sought to achieve its objectives—in the W National Parks (WNP) of Benin and Niger. We find that differences in national political context relating to governance quality and extent of democratic decentralization moderated the social-ecological effects of enforcement. Increasing enforcement levels in Benin’s WNP were associated with significant increases in mammal species abundance while having little average effect on the incomes of households around the Park. By contrast, greater levels of enforcement in Niger’s WNP were associated with sharply decreasing income levels among Park neighbors but did not have a statistically significant effect on wildlife populations. These results highlight the importance of national political context to the outcomes of aid-funded conservation efforts. They suggest that state-led PA enforcement will have more positive social-ecological impacts in better-governed, more decentralized countries and that conservation policy centered on PAs should therefore devote greater attention to engagement with higher levels of governance.

  9. Development of an integrated multi-platform approach for assessing brush management conservation efforts in semiarid rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of dollars have been spent on brush management, or removal of unwanted woody vegetation, as a conservation practice to control the presence of woody species. Land managers need an inexpensive means of monitoring the effects of brush management conservation methods for decreasing degradatio...

  10. Effect of conservation efforts and ecological variables on waterbird population sizes in wetlands of the Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Qiang; Prins, Herbert H T; Cao, Lei; de Boer, Willem Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Forage quality and availability, climatic factors, and a wetland's conservation status are expected to affect the densities of wetland birds. However, the conservation effectiveness is often poorly studied. Here, using twelve years' census data collected from 78 wetlands in the Yangtze River floodplain, we aimed to understand the effect of these variables on five Anatidae species, and evaluate the effectiveness of the conservation measures by comparing population trends of these species among wetlands that differ in conservations status. We showed that the slope angle of a wetland and the variation thereof best explain the differences in densities of four species. We also found that the population abundances of the Anatidae species generally declined in wetlands along the Yangtze River floodplain over time, with a steeper decline in wetlands with a lower protection status, indicating that current conservation policies might deliver benefits for wintering Anatidae species in China, as population sizes of the species were buffered to some extent against decline in numbers in wetlands with a higher level protection status. We recommend several protection measures to stop the decline of these Anatidae species in wetlands along the Yangtze River floodplain, which are of great importance for the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. PMID:26601785

  11. Effect of conservation efforts and ecological variables on waterbird population sizes in wetlands of the Yangtze River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Qiang; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Cao, Lei; de Boer, Willem Frederik

    2015-11-01

    Forage quality and availability, climatic factors, and a wetland’s conservation status are expected to affect the densities of wetland birds. However, the conservation effectiveness is often poorly studied. Here, using twelve years’ census data collected from 78 wetlands in the Yangtze River floodplain, we aimed to understand the effect of these variables on five Anatidae species, and evaluate the effectiveness of the conservation measures by comparing population trends of these species among wetlands that differ in conservations status. We showed that the slope angle of a wetland and the variation thereof best explain the differences in densities of four species. We also found that the population abundances of the Anatidae species generally declined in wetlands along the Yangtze River floodplain over time, with a steeper decline in wetlands with a lower protection status, indicating that current conservation policies might deliver benefits for wintering Anatidae species in China, as population sizes of the species were buffered to some extent against decline in numbers in wetlands with a higher level protection status. We recommend several protection measures to stop the decline of these Anatidae species in wetlands along the Yangtze River floodplain, which are of great importance for the East Asian-Australasian Flyway.

  12. Effect of conservation efforts and ecological variables on waterbird population sizes in wetlands of the Yangtze River

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Qiang; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Cao, Lei; de Boer, Willem Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Forage quality and availability, climatic factors, and a wetland’s conservation status are expected to affect the densities of wetland birds. However, the conservation effectiveness is often poorly studied. Here, using twelve years’ census data collected from 78 wetlands in the Yangtze River floodplain, we aimed to understand the effect of these variables on five Anatidae species, and evaluate the effectiveness of the conservation measures by comparing population trends of these species among wetlands that differ in conservations status. We showed that the slope angle of a wetland and the variation thereof best explain the differences in densities of four species. We also found that the population abundances of the Anatidae species generally declined in wetlands along the Yangtze River floodplain over time, with a steeper decline in wetlands with a lower protection status, indicating that current conservation policies might deliver benefits for wintering Anatidae species in China, as population sizes of the species were buffered to some extent against decline in numbers in wetlands with a higher level protection status. We recommend several protection measures to stop the decline of these Anatidae species in wetlands along the Yangtze River floodplain, which are of great importance for the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. PMID:26601785

  13. Cannonsville Reservoir and Town Brook Watersheds: Documenting Conservation Efforts to Protect New York City’s Drinking Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cannonsville Reservoir, a Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) benchmark watershed, is a major component of the unfiltered New York City water supply system. This year, the voluntary, incentive-based Watershed Agricultural Program marks a 15-year history of collaboration among producer...

  14. A hidden view of wildlife conservation: How camera traps aid science, research and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, Allan F.

    2015-01-01

    Camera traps — remotely activated cameras with infrared sensors — first gained measurable popularity in wildlife conservation in the early 1990s. Today, they’re used for a variety of activities, from species-specific research to broad-scale inventory or monitoring programs that, in some cases, attempt to detect biodiversity across vast landscapes. As this modern tool continues to evolve, it’s worth examining its uses and benefits for wildlife management and conservation.

  15. Chimpanzee research and conservation in Bossou and the Nimba Mountains: a long-term international collaborative effort in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Granier, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The Nimba Mountains are a West African Natural World Heritage site located in the range of the Guineo-equatorial evergreen rainforest, renowned for its rich biodiversity with a high level of endemism. In 1976, Yukimaru Sugiyama from Kyoto University initiated the long-term study of chimpanzees at Bossou, a Guinean village situated 5 km from the northern foothills of Nimba. This Japanese initiative has provided key discoveries and insights on our closest living evolutionary relatives over the 40 past years, and has grown to become an international collaboration with a research focus extended to adjacent chimpanzee communities. The present paper describes a mid-term behavioral and ecological study on wild chimpanzees populating the southern slope of the Nimba Mountains, conducted in the framework of this collaborative project. It aimed to assess the status and ecological requirements of chimpanzees in order to formulate purpose-built actions for their conservation. We estimated a density of 0.46 chimpanzee per km(2) using nest count methods from line transects. We used logistic and Poisson regressions to investigate basic ecological characteristics of chimpanzees in relation to habitat composition and structure, topography and seasonality. We performed an in-depth analysis of their nesting and feeding behaviors, and identified important components of their diet; we also recorded their year-round ranging patterns. Our findings highlight the importance of old secondary forest and high-altitude habitats for these chimpanzees. We discuss the results in the light of other studies from the perspective of the conservation of the species and its natural habitat. PMID:26902853

  16. Milkweed: A resource for increasing stink bug parasitism and aiding insect pollinator and monarch butterfly conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flowers of milkweed species can produce a rich supply of nectar, and therefore, planting an insecticide-free milkweed habitat in agricultural farmscapes could possibly conserve monarch butterflies, bees and other insect pollinators, as well as enhance parasitism of insect pests. In peanut-cotton...

  17. Testing an ecophysiological mechanism of morphological plasticity in pupfish and its relevance to conservation efforts for endangered Devils Hole pupfish.

    PubMed

    Lema, Sean C; Nevitt, Gabrielle A

    2006-09-01

    mechanistic understanding of phenotypic plasticity into conservation strategies to preserve imperiled fishes. PMID:16943490

  18. Discoveries and Conservation Efforts of Extensive Deep-Sea Coral Habitat off the Southeastern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, J. K.; Messing, C. G.; Walker, B. K.; Farrington, S.; Brooke, S.; Correa, T.; Brouwer, M.

    2012-12-01

    Fishery Management Council (SAFMC), which led to the designation of some of these areas as HAPCs or marine protected areas, restricting bottom trawling, longlines and traps that could be destructive to the fragile coral and sponge habitat. In 2010, NOAA established five deep-water Coral HAPCs encompassing a total area of 62,714 km2 from North Carolina to south Florida; an estimated 69% of the total area of the CHAPCs is off Florida. However, we estimate that ~6,554 km2 (29.7%) of DSCE habitat remains unprotected and outside the boundaries of the CHAPCs in U.S. waters off Florida. Many activities may impact DCSEs, including bottom trawling, energy production, and even global warming. Cuba has recently opened its north slope for deep-sea oil/gas drilling, which could have serious impacts upon both deep and shallow water reefs and coastal areas of the U.S. upstream of these drilling sites. Baseline data is critical to understanding the effects of these anthropogenic activities son DSCEs. High-resolution sonar surveys combined with visual ground-truthing to create deep-water benthic habitat maps are necessary to further define the extent of DSCEs in order to protect and conserve these critical habitats.

  19. Predictive habitat suitability models to aid conservation of elasmobranch diversity in the central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauria, V.; Gristina, M.; Attrill, M. J.; Fiorentino, F.; Garofalo, G.

    2015-08-01

    Commercial fisheries have dramatically impacted elasmobranch populations worldwide. With high capture and bycatch rates, the abundance of many species is rapidly declining and around a quarter of the world’s sharks and rays are threatened with extinction. At a regional scale this negative trend has also been evidenced in the central Mediterranean Sea, where bottom-trawl fisheries have affected the biomass of certain rays (e.g. Raja clavata) and sharks (e.g. Mustelus spp.). Detailed knowledge of elasmobranch habitat requirements is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management, but this is often hampered by a poor understanding of their spatial ecology. Habitat suitability models were used to investigate the habitat preference of nine elasmobranch species and their overall diversity (number of species) in relation to five environmental predictors (i.e. depth, sea surface temperature, surface salinity, slope and rugosity) in the central Mediterranean Sea. Results showed that depth, seafloor morphology and sea surface temperature were the main drivers for elasmobranch habitat suitability. Predictive distribution maps revealed different species-specific patterns of suitable habitat while high assemblage diversity was predicted in deeper offshore waters (400-800 m depth). This study helps to identify priority conservation areas and diversity hot-spots for rare and endangered elasmobranchs in the Mediterranean Sea.

  20. Predictive habitat suitability models to aid conservation of elasmobranch diversity in the central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lauria, V; Gristina, M; Attrill, M J; Fiorentino, F; Garofalo, G

    2015-01-01

    Commercial fisheries have dramatically impacted elasmobranch populations worldwide. With high capture and bycatch rates, the abundance of many species is rapidly declining and around a quarter of the world's sharks and rays are threatened with extinction. At a regional scale this negative trend has also been evidenced in the central Mediterranean Sea, where bottom-trawl fisheries have affected the biomass of certain rays (e.g. Raja clavata) and sharks (e.g. Mustelus spp.). Detailed knowledge of elasmobranch habitat requirements is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management, but this is often hampered by a poor understanding of their spatial ecology. Habitat suitability models were used to investigate the habitat preference of nine elasmobranch species and their overall diversity (number of species) in relation to five environmental predictors (i.e. depth, sea surface temperature, surface salinity, slope and rugosity) in the central Mediterranean Sea. Results showed that depth, seafloor morphology and sea surface temperature were the main drivers for elasmobranch habitat suitability. Predictive distribution maps revealed different species-specific patterns of suitable habitat while high assemblage diversity was predicted in deeper offshore waters (400-800 m depth). This study helps to identify priority conservation areas and diversity hot-spots for rare and endangered elasmobranchs in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:26272502

  1. Predictive habitat suitability models to aid conservation of elasmobranch diversity in the central Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Lauria, V.; Gristina, M.; Attrill, M. J.; Fiorentino, F.; Garofalo, G.

    2015-01-01

    Commercial fisheries have dramatically impacted elasmobranch populations worldwide. With high capture and bycatch rates, the abundance of many species is rapidly declining and around a quarter of the world’s sharks and rays are threatened with extinction. At a regional scale this negative trend has also been evidenced in the central Mediterranean Sea, where bottom-trawl fisheries have affected the biomass of certain rays (e.g. Raja clavata) and sharks (e.g. Mustelus spp.). Detailed knowledge of elasmobranch habitat requirements is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management, but this is often hampered by a poor understanding of their spatial ecology. Habitat suitability models were used to investigate the habitat preference of nine elasmobranch species and their overall diversity (number of species) in relation to five environmental predictors (i.e. depth, sea surface temperature, surface salinity, slope and rugosity) in the central Mediterranean Sea. Results showed that depth, seafloor morphology and sea surface temperature were the main drivers for elasmobranch habitat suitability. Predictive distribution maps revealed different species-specific patterns of suitable habitat while high assemblage diversity was predicted in deeper offshore waters (400–800 m depth). This study helps to identify priority conservation areas and diversity hot-spots for rare and endangered elasmobranchs in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:26272502

  2. Conflicts between conservative Christian institutions and secular groups in sub-Saharan Africa: ideological discourses on sexualities, reproduction and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; Correale, Jacqueline; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Stein, Zena A

    2011-01-01

    Religious and secular institutions advocate strategies that represent all points on the continuum to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. Drawing on an extensive literature review of studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, we focus on those secular institutions that support all effective methods of reducing HIV/AIDS transmission and those conservative religious institutions that support a limited set of prevention methods. We conclude by identifying topics for dialogue between these viewpoints that should facilitate cooperation by expanding the generally acceptable HIV/AIDS prevention methods, especially the use of condoms. PMID:21834733

  3. Conflicts between conservative Christian institutions and secular groups in sub-Saharan Africa: Ideological discourses on sexualities, reproduction, and HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Mantell, Joanne E.; Correale, Jacqueline; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Stein, Zena A.

    2011-01-01

    Religious and secular institutions advocate strategies that represent all points on the continuum to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. Drawing on an extensive literature review of studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, we focus on those secular institutions that support all effective methods of reducing HIV/AIDS transmission and those conservative religious institutions that support a limited set of prevention methods. We conclude by identifying topics for dialogue between these viewpoints that should facilitate cooperation by expanding the generally acceptable HIV/AIDS prevention methods, and especially the use of condoms. PMID:21834733

  4. Structure-aided prediction of mammalian transcription factor complexes in conserved non-coding elements.

    PubMed

    Guturu, Harendra; Doxey, Andrew C; Wenger, Aaron M; Bejerano, Gill

    2013-12-19

    Mapping the DNA-binding preferences of transcription factor (TF) complexes is critical for deciphering the functions of cis-regulatory elements. Here, we developed a computational method that compares co-occurring motif spacings in conserved versus unconserved regions of the human genome to detect evolutionarily constrained binding sites of rigid TF complexes. Structural data were used to estimate TF complex physical plausibility, explore overlapping motif arrangements seldom tackled by non-structure-aware methods, and generate and analyse three-dimensional models of the predicted complexes bound to DNA. Using this approach, we predicted 422 physically realistic TF complex motifs at 18% false discovery rate, the majority of which (326, 77%) contain some sequence overlap between binding sites. The set of mostly novel complexes is enriched in known composite motifs, predictive of binding site configurations in TF-TF-DNA crystal structures, and supported by ChIP-seq datasets. Structural modelling revealed three cooperativity mechanisms: direct protein-protein interactions, potentially indirect interactions and 'through-DNA' interactions. Indeed, 38% of the predicted complexes were found to contain four or more bases in which TF pairs appear to synergize through overlapping binding to the same DNA base pairs in opposite grooves or strands. Our TF complex and associated binding site predictions are available as a web resource at http://bejerano.stanford.edu/complex. PMID:24218641

  5. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determination of fish species composition, distribution, and life history (YIN and USGS), and a determination of existing kinds, distribution, and severity of fish diseases (YIN and USGS). The overall objective is to utilize the above information to prioritize restoration efforts in Rattlesnake Creek.

  6. H. J. RES. 431: A Joint Resolution to establish that it is the policy of the United States to encourage and support conservation efforts initiated by Brazil to protect the Amazon forest, and that the United States should redouble its efforts to reduce its pollution of the global environment. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, November 2, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.J.RES.431: A Joint Resolution to establish that it is the policy of the United States to encourage and support conservation efforts initiated by Brazil to protect the Amazon forest, and that the United States should redouble its efforts to reduce its pollution of the global environment.

  7. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfli, Steve

    2004-02-01

    The White Salmon River Watershed Enhancement Project (WSRWEP) began in 1993 through efforts of the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), local stakeholders and various agencies. Early accomplishments of the project included the formation of a multi-stakeholder watershed management committee (WMC) and technical advisory committee (TAC), completion of several baseline assessments, drafting of a watershed management plan, and beginning implementation of the plan. Since inception, the effort has utilized the support of various government/private grants, and local in-kind contributions to accomplish project goals. The WMC and its partners utilize a four-pronged approach for achieving watershed enhancement: on-ground restoration, extension of technical and financial assistance to cooperators, community and environmental education, and assessment/monitoring to develop strategies and track the success of ongoing work. Project activities are generally targeted to sub-basins and stream reaches within the White Salmon watershed that exhibit important water quality and fish/wildlife habitat problems. Such project prioritization is being conducted with the active input of both the White Salmon WMC and TAC. An important current phase of the WSRWEP targets detailed monitoring and assessment of the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin, and is the focus of this report. The 'Assessment of Rattlesnake Creek in Relation to Restoration Efforts' project (BPA Project ID Number 21009) was identified and prioritized for accomplishment by the White Salmon River TAC in January of 2000. Rationale for the project stemmed from the group's realization that Condit Dam on the lower White Salmon is scheduled for removal, or fish passage retrofitting, within the near future. Given this eventuality, the TAC identified the current lack of understanding regarding both potential anadromous habitat and existing native fish and habitat conditions above Condit Dam (RM 3.2) as an important need. In response to the

  8. Changes in historical Iowa land cover as context for assessing the environmental benefits of current and future conservation efforts on agricultural lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallant, Alisa L.; Sadinski, Walt; Roth, Mark F.; Rewa, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Conservationists and agriculturists face unprecedented challenges trying to minimize tradeoffs between increasing demands for food, fiber, feed, and biofuels and the resulting loss or reduced values of other ecosystem services, such as those derived from wetlands and biodiversity (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005a, 2005c; Maresch et al. 2008). The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-234, Stat. 923, HR 2419, also known as the 2008 Farm Bill) reauthorized the USDA to provide financial incentives for agricultural producers to reduce environmental impacts via multiple conservation programs. Two prominent programs, the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) and the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), provide incentives for producers to retire environmentally sensitive croplands, minimize erosion, improve water quality, restore wetlands, and provide wildlife habitat (USDA FSA 2008a, 2008b; USDA NRCS 2002). Other conservation programs (e.g., Environmental Quality Incentives Program, Conservation Stewardship Program) provide incentives to implement structural and cultural conservation practices to improve the environmental performance of working agricultural lands. Through its Conservation Effects Assessment Project, USDA is supporting evaluation of the environmental benefits obtained from the public investment in conservation programs and practices to inform decisions on where further investments are warranted (Duriancik et al. 2008; Zinn 1997).

  9. Transforming Australia's HIV prevention and treatment efforts to achieve an AIDS-free generation: the United Nations Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS and the Melbourne Declaration 'Action on HIV'.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Bill

    2014-07-01

    This paper discusses Australia's response to the 2011 United Nations Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS in the context of recent ground-breaking advances in HIV prevention and treatment. Australia's progress in responding to these developments is examined and compared with that of eight other countries in Asia and the Pacific. The implications of the 2012 Melbourne Declaration 'Action on HIV' is also discussed as a vehicle for generating advocacy to revolutionise Australia's HIV response and to urge Australia's leadership in achieving an 'AIDS-free generation'. PMID:24438763

  10. LESSONS LEARNED FROM MORE THAN Two DECADES OF HIV/AIDS PREVENTION EFFORTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE DEAF OR HARD OF HEARING

    PubMed Central

    Winningham, April; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Galletly, Carol; Seal, David; Thornton, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    In Contrast with the nearly 30 years of HIV/AIDS research with the hearing community, data on HIV infection among persons who are deaf and hard of hearing is primarily anecdotal. Although the few available estimates suggest that deaf and hard of hearing persons are disproportionately affected by HIV infection, no surveillance systems are in place to Identify either frequency or mode of HIV infection within this population. Moreover, to date, all empirically validated HIV prevention interventions have relied on communication strategies developed for persons who hear. Therefore, understanding and developing-effective prevention methods is crucial for persons who are deaf or hard of hearing. The authors explore (a) factors among this population that may contribute to HIV-related behaviors, (b) four key concepts consistently included in successful interventions, and (c) practical ways in which to use this information to tailor effective intervention strategies for this population. PMID:18619068

  11. Using formative research to lay the foundation for community level HIV prevention efforts: an example from the AIDS Community Demonstration Projects.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, D L; O'Reilly, K; Tashima, N; Crain, C; Beeker, C; Goldbaum, G; Elifson, C S; Galavotti, C; Guenther-Grey, C

    1996-01-01

    The AIDS Community Demonstration Projects provided community-level HIV prevention interventions to historically hard-to-reach groups at high risk for HIV infection. The projects operated under a common research protocol which encompassed formative research, intervention delivery, process evaluation, and outcome evaluation. A formative research process specifically focusing on intervention development was devised to assist project staff in identifying, prioritizing, accessing, and understanding the intervention target groups. This process was central to the creation of interventions that were acceptable and unique to the target populations. Intended to be rapid, the process took 6 months to complete. Drawn from the disciplines of anthropology, community psychology, sociology, and public health, the formative research process followed distinct steps which included (a) defining the populations at high-risk for HIV; (b) gathering information about these populations through interviews with persons who were outside of, but who had contact with, the target groups (such as staff from the health department and alcohol and drug treatment facilities, as well as persons who interacted in an informal manner with the target groups, such as clerks in neighborhood grocery stores and bartenders); (c) interviewing people with access to the target populations (gatekeepers), and conducting observations in areas where these high-risk groups were reported to gather (from previous interviews); (d) interviewing members of these groups at high risk for HIV infection or transmission; and (e) systematically integrating information throughout the process. Semistructured interview schedules were used for all data collection in this process. This standardized systematic method yielded valuable information about the focal groups in each demonstration project site. The method, if adopted by others, would assist community intervention specialists in developing interventions that are culturally

  12. Fish Assemblage Patterns as a Tool to Aid Conservation in the Olifants River Catchment (East), South Africa

    EPA Science Inventory

    South Africa has committed to address freshwater conservation at the catchment scale, using a combination of landscape-level and species-level features as surrogates of freshwater biodiversity. Here we examined fishes in the Olifants catchment, where multiple anthropogenic pressu...

  13. Conflicting patterns of genetic structure produced by nuclear and mitochondrial markers in the Oregon Slender Salamander (Batrachoseps wrighti): implications for conservation efforts and species management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark; Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Endemic to Oregon in the northwestern US, the Oregon slender salamander (Batrachoseps wrighti) is a terrestrial plethodontid found associated with late successional mesic forests. Consequently, forest management practices such as timber harvesting may impact their persistence. Therefore, to infer possible future effects of these practices on population structure and differentiation, we used mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b) and RAPD markers to analyze 22 populations across their range. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence data (774 bp) revealed two historical lineages corresponding to northern and southern-distributed populations. Relationships among haplotypes and haplotype diversity within lineages suggested that the northern region may have more recently been colonized compared to the southern region. In contrast to the mitochondrial data, analyses of 46 RAPD loci suggested an overall pattern of isolation-by-distance in the set of populations examined and no particularly strong clustering of populations based on genetic distances. We propose two non-exclusive hypotheses to account for discrepancies between mitochondrial and nuclear data sets. First, our data may reflect an overall ancestral pattern of isolation-by-distance that has subsequently been influenced by vicariance. Alternately, our analyses may suggest that male-mediated gene flow and female philopatry are important contributors to the pattern of genetic diversity. We discuss the importance of distinguishing between these two hypotheses for the purposes of identifying conservation units and note that, regardless of the relative contribution of each mechanism towards the observed pattern of diversity, protection of habitat will likely prove critical for the long-term persistence of this species.

  14. Immigration Proposals Could Aid School Hiring Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    Educators have several reasons to follow the volatile debate over immigration in Congress--a debate that ground to a halt last week before lawmakers' spring recess. In the long term some of the plans would allow more teachers from other countries to work in schools or change the enforcement of rules governing other school related jobs. More…

  15. The Use of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles for Deep-Reef Discovery and Benthic Characterization To Aid Conservation and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissolo, D.; Reed, J. K.; Auster, P. J.; Sherrell, A.; Dessner, M.; Purcell, M.; Packard, G.

    2012-12-01

    Recent exploratory research along the Atlantic coast of the US has demonstrated the utility of dual autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) systems for side-scan surveys, multibeam mapping, and photo-imaging of deep-water habitat and octocoral gardens. The potential of the REMUS 6000 AUVs was demonstrated by mapping high-relief coral mounds in the Straits of Florida in the strong currents of the Gulf Stream, and the submarine canyons and seamounts off the Northeastern US coast. The key to protecting these slow-growing deep coral reefs and critical hard-bottom habitat is the ability to efficiently discover and map their locations, characterize their structure, and assess their condition. Data from these deepwater AUV surveys were used to inform the regional fishery management councils and NOAA NMFS for the management and potential protection of these vulnerable habitats. These projects were realized though the collaborative efforts of the Waitt Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, the Natural Resource Defense Council, and the University of Connecticut.

  16. Collegium on aviation fuel conservation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    Reduction in the consumption levels of fuel by Soviet civil aviation is addressed. Methods proposed to economize aircraft fuel include: the introduction of towing to the runup area, keeping aircraft surfaces in good condition by washing, ensuring the stability of engine operating characteristics by flushing out gas and air lines, using ground-based conditioners and equipment of ramps with ground-based sources of electricity to reduce the operation of auxiliary power plants, replacement of heat engines for clearing runways of snow and ice by the introduction of snowplows with blowers, introduction of machinery with infrared lighting, and broader application of chemical reagents.

  17. AIDS and racism in America.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Institutionalized racism affects general health care as well as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health intervention and services in minority communities. The overrepresentation of minorities in various disease categories, including AIDS, is partially related to racism. The national response to the AIDS epidemic in minority communities has been slow, showing an insensitivity to ethnic diversity in prevention efforts and AIDS health services. PMID:1602509

  18. Molecular contributions to conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular technology have opened a new chapter in species conservation efforts, as well as population biology. DNA sequencing, MHC (major histocompatibility complex), minisatellite, microsatellite, and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) procedures allow for identification of parentage, more distant relatives, founders to new populations, unidentified individuals, population structure, effective population size, population-specific markers, etc. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification of mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, ribosomal DNA, chloroplast DNA, and other systems provide for more sophisticated analyses of metapopulation structure, hybridization events, and delineation of species, subspecies, and races, all of which aid in setting species recovery priorities. Each technique can be powerful in its own right but is most credible when used in conjunction with other molecular techniques and, most importantly, with ecological and demographic data collected from the field. Surprisingly few taxa of concern have been assayed with any molecular technique. Thus, rather than showcasing exhaustive details from a few well-known examples, this paper attempts to present a broad range of cases in which molecular techniques have been used to provide insight into conservation efforts.

  19. One Mann against AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stocker, C

    1990-11-30

    This article features Jonathan Mann, director of the International AIDS Center of the Harvard AIDS Institute and his efforts to combat AIDS in the global context. Mann built the largest program in the history of the World Health Organization specifically in fighting AIDS. He helped originate the World AIDS Day observed annually throughout the world. As the director of the International AIDS Center at Harvard, Mann is launching a new role for himself concerning with research and ideas related to AIDS issue. According to him, AIDS pandemic offers "opportunities" to speed up research and spur people around the globe to address longstanding social problems with new energy. Mann hopes to get involved with local AIDS efforts. He foresees AIDS as an escalating problem that will continue to persist in one or two generations, which could rise as high as tenfold in the 1990s. He believes a vaccine will be available in the middle to late 1990s but to purge the virus from those positive persons is impossible. If the World AIDS Day can bring about attitude change, Mann hopes it will able be to foster a feeling of unity among people and countries. PMID:12349354

  20. Federal Student Aid: Recent Changes to Eligibility Requirements and Additional Efforts to Promote Awareness Could Increase Academic Competitiveness and SMART Grant Participation. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-09-343

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Academic Competitiveness (AC) and National Science and Mathematics Access to Retain Talent (SMART) Grants were established by the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. The grants provide merit-based financial aid to certain low-income college students eligible for Federal Pell Grants and are administered by the Department of Education (Education).…

  1. Financial Aid Administrators' Views on Simplifying Financial Aid: NASFAA's 2008 Financial Aid Simplification Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Despite a decade of simplification efforts, students and families are often still baffled by the student aid process and cringe at the sight of financial aid application forms. Contrary to its purpose of helping students to access college, the student aid application process causes families frustration and confusion that has been cited as an…

  2. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  3. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  4. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  5. Saving the rainforest through health care: medicine as conservation in Borneo.

    PubMed

    Ali, Robbie; Jacobs, Sonja M

    2007-01-01

    This article gives an overview of rainforest conservation as it relates to human health and describes the context, design, and implementation of the Kelay Conservation Health Program (KCHP). The KCHP is a health program for indigenous people living in a critical area of orangutan rainforest habitat in Indonesian Borneo also developed to aid conservation efforts there. Program design included consideration of both health and conservation goals, participatory planning in collaboration with the government health system, a focus on community managed health, capacity building, and adaptive management. After two years the program had, at relatively low cost, already had positive impacts on both human health (e.g., child immunization rates) and conservation (e.g., local forest protection measures, attitudes of villagers and government officials towards the implementing conservation agency). PMID:17915544

  6. NASA Efforts on Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the field of nanotechnology within the theme of "New efforts in Nanotechnology Research," will be presented. NASA's interest, requirements and current efforts in this emerging field will be discussed. In particular, NASA efforts to develop nanoelectronic devices, fuel cells, and other applications of interest using this novel technology by collaborating with academia will be addressed. Progress on current collaborations in this area with the University of Puerto Rico will be highlighted.

  7. AIDS: The Second Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heather G., Ed.; And Others

    This report reviews the course of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its current status, examining changing patterns of sexual behavior and intravenous drug use, the distribution of cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and the results of intervention efforts under way. It also discusses prevention…

  8. The War against AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, L. Thompson

    1987-01-01

    Efforts of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to combat AIDS are reported. Health implications of the viral disease are summarized, along with economic costs, research achievements, the importance of education, and appropriate and workable solutions. (LB)

  9. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  10. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  11. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  12. World AIDS Day 1998.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts of speeches given at a public rally on World AIDS Day 1998 underscore the need to energize support for those living with HIV/AIDS, emphasize the importance of increasing public education efforts, and memorialize those lost to the disease. Reverend Pat Bumgardner stressed the need to educate children about practicing safe sex and the dangers of drug use. He also focused attention on AIDS as a worldwide crisis, with the 30 million people who have HIV or AIDS. Councilwoman Margarita Lopez spoke about achieving objectives and securing resources through activism. She also condemned New York City's Mayor for trying to hinder the rally. Anne Chelimsky, who did not speak at the rally but attended it, reflected on her new role as an activist, and on how the rally affected her. PMID:11367196

  13. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall require fuel and energy conservation practices in the operation...

  14. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall require fuel and energy conservation practices in the operation...

  15. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall require fuel and energy conservation practices in the operation...

  16. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall require fuel and energy conservation practices in the operation...

  17. 14 CFR 152.609 - Energy conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy conservation practices. 152.609... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Energy Conservation in Airport Aid Program § 152.609 Energy conservation practices. Each sponsor shall require fuel and energy conservation practices in the operation...

  18. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  19. Revolutionising the AIDS response.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jessica; Gupta, Geeta Rao; Warner, Ann; Fisher, William F

    2011-01-01

    Individual behaviour change interventions and technological approaches to HIV prevention can only be effective over time if the broader social environment in which health-related decisions are made facilitate their uptake. People need to be not only willing but also able to take up and maintain preventive behaviours, seek testing, treatment and care for HIV. This paper presents findings and recommendations of the Social Drivers Working Group of the aids2031 initiative, which focus on how to ensure that efforts to address the root causes of HIV vulnerability are integrated into AIDS responses at the national level. Specific guidance is given on how to operationalise a structural approach. PMID:21970296

  20. Using a distribution and conservation status weighted hotspot approach to identify areas in need of conservation action to benefit Idaho bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

  1. Estimating Conservation Thresholds on Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multi-agency effort designed to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of land conservation practices. One of USDA’s goals is to identify Conservation Thresholds, the point at which accelerated erosion occurs, and to examine the usefu...

  2. Confronting AIDS: international consensus?

    PubMed

    1998-08-01

    A coordinated effort by the World Bank, the European Commission, and UNAIDS, and drawing from a number of academic disciplines, including epidemiology, public health, and public economics, the recently published book "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" argues that the global HIV/AIDS epidemic can be overcome and that national governments have a major role in preventing the spread of AIDS and tempering its impact. Considerable evidence is presented in support of the argument. The original idea for the book came out of collaboration between individuals in the European Commission and the World Bank. The World Bank's recognition of the importance of AIDS is a milestone in the course of the pandemic. Confronting AIDS highlights the potential and actual impact of AIDS upon households, communities, and countries; argues the case for interventions in both HIV prevention and care; and generally considers some of the difficult choices which need to be made about how scarce resources will be allocated, especially in developing countries. PMID:12294024

  3. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  4. AIDS: the hidden enemy.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread. PMID:12314457

  5. Measuring Cycling Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the basic mechanics of cycling with a simple reckoning of how much effort is needed from the cyclist. The work done by the cyclist is quantified when the ride is on the flat and also when pedaling uphill. Proves that by making use of the available gears on a mountain bike, cycling uphill can be accomplished without pain. (Author/ASK)

  6. International aerospaceplane efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    Although the U.S. began the first reusable space booster effort in the late 1950's, it is no longer an exclusive field. All of the technologically advanced nations, and several groups of nations, have one or more reusable booster efforts in progress. A listing of the entries in the field is presented. The list is somewhat misleading, because it includes both fully reusable and partially reusable boosters, both manned and unmanned, and both flight test and operational proposals. Additionally, not all of the projects are funded, and only a few of the projects will survive. The most likely candidates are the following: France/ESA, Germany/ESA, Great Britain/ESA/(USSR), USSR(past), and Japan. A discussion of the preceding projects is provided.

  7. Patterns of Research Effort in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Between species differences in research effort can lead to biases in our global view of evolution, ecology and conservation. The increase in meta-taxonomic comparative analyses on birds underlines the need to better address how research effort is distributed in this class. Methods have been developed to choose which species should be studied to obtain unbiased comparative data sets, but a precise and global knowledge of research effort is required to be able to properly apply them. We address this issue by providing a data set of research effort (number of papers from 1978 to 2008 in the Zoological Record database) estimates for the 10 064 species of birds. We then test whether research effort is associated with phylogeny, geography and eleven different life history and ecological traits. We show that phylogeny accounts for a large proportion of the variance, while geographic range and all the tested traits are also significant contributors to research effort variance. We identify avian taxa that are under- and overstudied and address the importance of research effort biases in evaluating vulnerability to extinction, with non-threatened species studied twice as much as threatened ones. Our research effort data set covering the entire class Aves provides a tool for researchers to incorporate this potential confounding variable in comparative analyses. PMID:24587149

  8. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  9. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  10. Saker falcon research and conservation efforts in Mongolia, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Tsengeg, P.; Whitlock, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    This past summer. our small field team followed a 4000 km route through central and eastern Mongolia. Even though there was a population crash underway for picas (Ochotona sp.) and voles (Microtus sp.). we found 38 new saker nests and visited 60 eyries found in previous years. Many of the former eyries were unoccupied. Others were occupied but without young. Productivity was good at eyries with large young. and southeastern Mongolia seemed unaffected by food shortages. The main goal for 1997 was to create new eyries and enlarge. stabilise. or otherwise alter marginal eyries. \\Ve created 65 eyries as follows: 8 on wooden powerlines or telephone supports, 8 on metal power line towers, 3 in trees, 3 on boulders, 11 on cliffs, 17 on abandoned buildings, 9 on metal geological survey towers, and 6 on miscellaneous structures. \\Ve also enlarged or repaired three establishedeyries and did minor repairs on several others. Lesser accomplishments include what may be the first observation of siblicide for the saker falcon (please contact us immediately if you have other records of sakerchicks attacking or killing their nest mates) and the description of a new saker flight display. We also documented an unusual golden eagle eyrie containing the remains of nearly 30 foxes, several predatory birds, and a number of gazelle. In 1998. we plan to return to Mongolia to see how many of our 'fake eyries' attracted falcons. Our work in 1997 was supported by Mr. Howell. another philanthropist (anonymous) and the Institute of Raptor Studies.

  11. Navy superconductivity efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  12. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

    2003-09-01

    Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots.

  13. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  14. Energy Conservation for Public Office Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Larry F.

    1973-01-01

    The energy conservation policy for public office buildings includes experimental designs of new federal office buildings in Manchester, New Hampshire and Saginaw, Michigan, as well as immediate energy conservation efforts. (Author/MF)

  15. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  16. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  17. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic planning efforts. 622.31 Section 622.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts....

  18. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  19. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  20. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  1. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    2014-06-15

    Isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. This effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  2. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N. E.

    2014-06-01

    We found that isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. Our effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  3. Collections Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert

    Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

  4. Adolescents, AIDS and HIV. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resources for Educators, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This compilation of educational resources is designed for communities which have been either overlooked in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education efforts or disproportionately affected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The materials listed target Blacks, Latinos, Asians and Pacific Islanders, Native Americans, young…

  5. An Ecological Approach to Conservation Education. Instructor Reference Manual. A Supplement to Conservation Education Programs of the Missouri Department of Conservation Education Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Conservation, Jefferson City. Conservation Education Unit.

    This reference manual is designed to help teachers integrate conservation education into their curriculum. It includes: (1) a topic outline; (2) background information (including discussions of the meaning of conservation, levels of conservation effort, scope of environmental conservation, the need for conservation, basic ecological…

  6. Is Effort Praise Motivational? The Role of Beliefs in the Effort-Ability Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Yim, Pui-shan; Ng, Yee-lam

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how beliefs in the effort-ability relationship moderated the effects of effort praise on student motivation. Study 1 showed that the more the participants believed that effort and ability were related positively (the positive rule) versus related negatively (the inverse rule), the more they would have positive…

  7. Attitude toward Homosexuality and Attention to News about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennamer, J. David; Honnold, Julie A.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that lower attention to news about AIDS was predicted by negative attitudes toward homosexuality, conservative AIDS policy attitudes, lower perceived risk of getting AIDS, in addition to being male, older, white, and better educated. Finds that the model predicted media attention better for men than for women. (SR)

  8. Conservation by design.

    PubMed

    Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Ladle, Richard J

    2010-10-01

    Conservation researchers are increasingly aware of the need to conduct interdisciplinary research and to engage nonscientists in practical applications of conservation biology. But so far, industrial designers have been left out of such collaboration and outreach efforts. Conservation of wildlife often depends on products such as nest boxes, feeders, barriers, and corridors, all of which have a designed component that is frequently overlooked. Furthermore, many products are adopted without testing on short or long time scales. We argue that the design of products for conservation, and hence their functionality, effectiveness, and value, can be improved through collaboration with industrial designers. We see four key benefits that can arise from interactions with industrial designers: improvement of product quality and value, innovation and improvement in functionality of products, harmonization of conservation products with local values, and development of a psychological biomimesis approach to design. The role of industrial designers in conservation projects would be to improve factors such as product durability, affordability, functionality, and aesthetic appeal to local people. Designers can also help to create multiple product options whose success can be tested in the field. We propose that collaborations with industrial designers can contribute to the development of improvements to existing products and innovations in the practice of animal conservation. PMID:20408866

  9. Thailand's fear of AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, S

    1995-07-01

    Because of a terrorist incident against Bangkok's Relief Center for HIV/AIDS Carriers, it is feared that a rising intolerance is occurring in Thailand. Such fears are damaging efforts to help those with HIV/AIDS. Misconceptions about the nature of HIV/AIDS continue to dominate Thai society. The Thai government is particularly worried that an overemphasis on HIV/AIDS will hurt tourism. According to the Population and Community Development Association, Thai people are infected with HIV at the rate of 500 per day and treatment costs may exceed $170 million a year by the year 2000. Unfortunately, the lack of nongovernmental institutions (other than Buddhist monasteries) and the lack of positive response from other Thai social institutions is driving relatives and friends to take care of the afflicted, and the terrorist attack shows that many Thai people are still unprepared for the challenge. PMID:11362731

  10. Hadronic atoms and leptonic conservations

    SciTech Connect

    Kunselman, R.

    1989-01-01

    The major 1989 efforts have been mainly on two experiments at TRIUMF. One was a search for events where the leptonic flavor number conservation law would be violated. The second was an attempt to produce muonic hydrogen and muonic deuterium into a vacuum, and if there are found a adequate number of muons in the 2s state to measure precision energies. The minor efforts have been on the LAMPF experiment on lepton conservations which has consumed effort only in fabricating equipment, and on the completion of analyses from the experiments with hadronic atoms at LAMPF (pionic atoms) and BNL (kaonic and sigmonic atoms).

  11. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  12. Conservation of tidal marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Daiber, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the first attempt to examine collectively the various uses and the consequences of marsh conservation efforts. Author Franklin Daiber emphasizes tidal marsh conservation from a holistic perspective rather than from the perspective of a single purpose or special economic interest. He addresses a topic receiving increasing attention, namely the concept of open marsh management as a means of controlling mosquito production without harmful effects on other marsh organisms. Topics considered include: water management; dikes, impoundments, ponds and ditches; reclaimed land and impoundments; ditching and ponding for mosquito control; sewage disposal and waste treatment; dredge material for wetland restoration; insecticides; oil pollution; and petroleum hydrocarbon interactions.

  13. From Effort to Value: Preschool Children's Alternative to Effort Justification.

    PubMed

    Benozio, Avi; Diesendruck, Gil

    2015-09-01

    In the current studies, we addressed the development of effort-based object valuation. Four- and 6-year-olds invested either great or little effort in order to obtain attractive or unattractive rewards. Children were allowed to allocate these rewards to an unfamiliar recipient (dictator game). Investing great effort to obtain attractive rewards (a consonant situation) led 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, to enhance the value of the rewards and thus distribute fewer of them to others. After investing effort to attain unattractive rewards (a dissonant situation), 6-year-olds cognitively reduced the dissonance between effort and reward quality by reappraising the value of the rewards and thus distributing fewer of them. In contrast, 4-year-olds reduced the dissonance behaviorally by discarding the rewards. These findings provide evidence for the emergence of an effort-value link and underline possible mechanisms underlying the primacy of cognitive versus behavioral solutions to dissonance reduction. PMID:26209529

  14. AIDS and family planning.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training. PMID:12159262

  15. Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

  16. A Systematic Review of HIV/AIDS Knowledge Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Anne K.; Admiraal, Kristen R.

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS knowledge measures are widely used to determine the efficacy of HIV/AIDS prevention and education efforts. While much research has looked at the interventions, less attention has been paid to the quality of the measures themselves. Objectives: (a) To identify HIV/AIDS knowledge measures created for use with adults; (b) to determine the…

  17. Species distribution modelling for conservation of an endangered endemic orchid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wonkka, Carissa L.; Treglia, Michael L.; Grant, William E.; Smeins, Fred E.; Rogers, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns regarding the long-term viability of threatened and endangered plant species are increasingly warranted given the potential impacts of climate change and habitat fragmentation on unstable and isolated populations. Orchidaceae is the largest and most diverse family of flowering plants, but it is currently facing unprecedented risks of extinction. Despite substantial conservation emphasis on rare orchids, populations continue to decline. Spiranthes parksii (Navasota ladies' tresses) is a federally and state-listed endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to central Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor and determine suitable habitat for future surveys and targeted conservation efforts. We analysed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions and landscape features to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of occurrence of S. parksii using boosted regression trees. Our model classified 97 % of the cells correctly with regard to species presence and absence, and indicated that probability of existence was correlated with climatic conditions and landscape features. The most influential variables were mean annual precipitation, mean elevation, mean annual minimum temperature and mean annual maximum temperature. The most likely suitable range for S. parksii was the eastern portions of Leon and Madison Counties, the southern portion of Brazos County, a portion of northern Grimes County and along the borders between Burleson and Washington Counties. Our model can assist in the development of an integrated conservation strategy through: (i) focussing future survey and research efforts on areas with a high likelihood of occurrence, (ii) aiding in selection of areas for conservation and restoration and (iii) framing future research questions including those necessary for predicting responses to climate change. Our model could also

  18. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  19. "Repellent and Shameful": The Portrayal of AIDS in "America Responds to AIDS" Broadcast Public Service Announcements, 1987-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Douglas J.

    To address a need for increased discussion of the dangers of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and an increased educative effort to prevent people from acquiring HIV infection, a study investigated one element of an AIDS campaign of the past: the "America Responds to AIDS" television and radio public service announcements (PSAs). Taking…

  20. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  1. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    PubMed

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs. PMID:24766840

  2. Freshman Year Financial Aid Nudges: An Experiment to Increase Financial Aid Renewal and Sophomore Year Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleman, Benjamin L.; Page, Lindsay C.

    2013-01-01

    While considerable effort has been invested to increase FAFSA completion among high school seniors, there has been much less investment to ensure that college freshmen re-apply for financial aid. Text messaging is a promising approach to inform students of important stages in the financial aid re-application process and to connect them to…

  3. Unmet Need and Unclaimed Aid: Increasing Access to Financial Aid for Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Julia I.

    2013-01-01

    In California, public financial aid aimed at low-income students is not reaching some of the poorest students enrolled in community colleges. Outreach efforts to students are important, but high schools and community colleges must also make financial aid receipt a priority.

  4. Top Aide to Gore is Named To Revamp the Delivery of Federal Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    A top aide to Vice President Gore has been chosen to lead the U.S. Department of Education's effort to modernize delivery of financial aid to students and colleges. His office is the first federal government entity to be run as a "performance-based organization." Some fear he may politicize the office that lawmakers specified be led by a…

  5. We are all people living with AIDS: myths and realities of AIDS in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Daniel, H

    1991-01-01

    Although AIDS was expected in Brazil, no serious efforts were undertaken to prevent AIDS from taking root. Irresponsible press and media coverage highlighted the spread of AIDS within the gay community of the United States, creating an aura of immunity in Brazil to what was characterized as a "foreign" disorder. When AIDS did surface in 1983, the official response was to adopt an abstract, inappropriate, and ideological "Western" model, in which only stigmatized "others" and "minorities" were at risk of HIV infection. Brazilian health authorities subsequently downplayed the significance of the sale of contaminated blood in HIV transmission, and likewise ignored the rising rates of AIDS among Brazil's one unarguable majority group: the poor. An analysis of efforts to force the "facts" of AIDS to fit a false model's predictions leads to a clearer definition of the broader context of the Brazilian epidemic: we all are people living with AIDS, precisely because we live in this age of AIDS; it is sheer folly to discriminate against persons infected by HIV and to obstruct their participation in efforts to curtail the epidemic's spread; and the necessary response to AIDS is solidarity, not because it is poetic, but because no other response will suffice. PMID:1917212

  6. Techniques of Assessing Mental Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cennamo, Katherine S.

    The search for techniques to increase the effort that learners invest in video-based instruction has been hindered by the limitations of the instruments used to assess the construct of mental effort. Several researchers have noted the confusion of terms in the field that refer to the cognitive resources devoted to processing the stimulus. In this…

  7. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  8. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  9. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

    2003-01-01

    Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots. PMID:12930898

  10. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  11. Leadership: a new frontier in conservation science.

    PubMed

    Manolis, Jim C; Chan, Kai M; Finkelstein, Myra E; Stephens, Scott; Nelson, Cara R; Grant, Jacqualine B; Dombeck, Michael P

    2009-08-01

    Leadership is a critical tool for expanding the influence of conservation science, but recent advances in leadership concepts and practice remain underutilized by conservation scientists. Furthermore, an explicit conceptual foundation and definition of leadership in conservation science are not available in the literature. Here we drew on our diverse leadership experiences, our reading of leadership literature, and discussions with selected conservation science leaders to define conservation-science leadership, summarize an exploratory set of leadership principles that are applicable to conservation science, and recommend actions to expand leadership capacity among conservation scientists and practitioners. We define 2 types of conservation-science leadership: shaping conservation science through path-breaking research, and advancing the integration of conservation science into policy, management, and society at large. We focused on the second, integrative type of leadership because we believe it presents the greatest opportunity for improving conservation effectiveness. We identified 8 leadership principles derived mainly from the "adaptive leadership" literature: recognize the social dimension of the problem; cycle frequently through action and reflection; get and maintain attention; combine strengths of multiple leaders; extend your reach through networks of relationships; strategically time your effort; nurture productive conflict; and cultivate diversity. Conservation scientists and practitioners should strive to develop themselves as leaders, and the Society for Conservation Biology, conservation organizations, and academia should support this effort through professional development, mentoring, teaching, and research. PMID:19183215

  12. Physiology in conservation translocations

    PubMed Central

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R.; Munn, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining ‘success’ as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall

  13. Energy Conservation vs. Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaram, Sriram

    2010-09-30

    Energy conservation is considered by some as synonymous with energy efficiency, but to others, it has a meaning of getting fewer or lower quality energy services. The degree of confusion between these meanings varies widely by individual, culture, historic period and language spoken. In the context of this document, energy conservation means to keep from being lost or wasted; saved, and energy efficiency means the ability to produce a desired effect or product with a minimum of effort, expense or waste.

  14. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  15. The range scheduling aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbfinger, Eliezer M.; Smith, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    The Air Force Space Command schedules telemetry, tracking and control activities across the Air Force Satellite Control network. The Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is a rapid prototype combining a user-friendly, portable, graphical interface with a sophisticated object-oriented database. The RSA has been a rapid prototyping effort whose purpose is to elucidate and define suitable technology for enhancing the performance of the range schedulers. Designing a system to assist schedulers in their task and using their current techniques as well as enhancements enabled by an electronic environment, has created a continuously developing model that will serve as a standard for future range scheduling systems. The RSA system is easy to use, easily ported between platforms, fast, and provides a set of tools for the scheduler that substantially increases his productivity.

  16. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  17. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  18. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  19. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  20. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... has a change in mental status, follow these first aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . ...

  1. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  2. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  3. Going public as an AIDS family caregiver.

    PubMed

    Powell-Cope, G M; Brown, M A

    1992-03-01

    Images of AIDS invoke fears of contagion, disability and formidable death, and moral overtones directed toward drug use, sexuality and sexual identity and freedom. Responses to these images are both private and public, and have profound consequences for individuals whose lives have been touched by the disease, both the person with AIDS and the family caregiver. The purpose of this paper is to analyze in detail 'going public,' one category of a substantive theory of AIDS family caregiving. This category was developed from a grounded theory study of 53 AIDS family members who were asked to describe their experiences as an AIDS family caregiver during an indepth interview. Data were content analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Going public referred to how AIDS family caregivers let others known that they were caring for a PWA. Specifically, going public entailed selecting appropriate persons and audiences to tell, formulating approaches to communicating information, and considering the risks and benefits of the possible choices. The description of going public as an AIDS family caregiver details the assertiveness involved in political action and social change, contrasted with the isolation and secrecy involved in maintaining relationships with others under the condition of a stigmatizing illness. Data revealed a particular emphasis on the phenomenon of 'guilt by association'. Because of their close relationship to a person with AIDS, caregivers were obligated to share the stigma of AIDS and were likewise discredited. Findings from our study emphasize the tremendous personal suffering experienced by caregivers which was associated with AIDS stigma in the form of rejection, loss of friends and harassment. Data also revealed the strong commitment of many caregivers to social activism which ranged from participating in educational efforts to marching in demonstrations. The rationale for the apparent increased activism among AIDS family caregivers compared to

  4. Lyme disease and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  5. A review of the key genetic tools to assist imperiled species conservation: analyzing West Indian manatee populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M.; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Managers faced with decisions on threatened and endangered wildlife populations often are lacking detailed information about the species of concern. Integration of genetic applications will provide management teams with a better ability to assess and monitor recovery efforts on imperiled species. The field of molecular biology continues to progress rapidly and many tools are currently available. Presently, little guidance is available to assist researchers and managers with the appropriate selection of genetic tools to study the status of wild manatee populations. We discuss several genetic tools currently employed in the application of conservation genetics, and address the utility of using these tools to determine population status to aid in conservation efforts. As an example, special emphasis is focused on the endangered West Indian manatee (Order Sirenia). All four extant species of sirenians are imperiled throughout their range, predominately due to anthropogenic sources; therefore, the need for genetic information on their population status is direly needed.

  6. Financial Aid's Role in Meeting State College Completion Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This brief utilizes the most recent and rigorous financial aid research to inform state higher education leaders about innovative and effective financial aid practices. By simplifying aid eligibility requirements, improving the aid application process, and engaging in early awareness efforts, states could improve the effectiveness of existing aid…

  7. PRODUCER PERSPECTIVES ON THE CONSERVATION SECURITY PROGRAM IN ALABAMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Security Program (CSP), the latest U.S. conservation program introduced by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) in 2004, provides an innovative mechanism for rewarding farmers for conservation efforts and environmental stewardship on their lands. The program was implemen...

  8. Handbook to the Conservation Section of the International Biological Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, E. M.

    Dealing with the organization and activities of one section of the International Biological Programme (IBP), the Conservation Section (CT - Conservation of Terrestrial Communities), this handbook provides an overview of one scientific effort within the worldwide conservation movement. Requirements for a World Conservation Program are described to…

  9. Two groups challenge US acid rain efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    In its report, Acid Rain Invades Our National Parks, the National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA) says acid rain is being detected at all 27 national park monitoring sites. In 1980, 87 national parks expressed concern in a NPCA survey over acid rain. Repolled in 1986, more than half of the respondents reported that no research on acid rain was under way. The NPCA report concludes that the alarm that was sounded in 1980 fell largely on deaf ears, and calls for the structural and scientific reorganization of the National Park Service. The National Audubon Society shares NPCA's dissatisfaction with federal efforts to tackle the problem of acid rain and has taken testing into its own hands. Through its Citizens Acid Rain Monitoring Network, Audubon volunteers have collected readings of acidity at 64 monitoring stations in 31 states since July.

  10. Conservation reaches new heights.

    PubMed

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation. PMID

  11. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  12. Marketing Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, William B.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, Northeast Utilities began helping shool administrators combat school building energy wastage through a program called Energy Alliance. The typical school can reduce its energy bill by 30 percent by adopting a wide range of conservation measures, including cogeneration, relamping, and energy audits. (MLH)

  13. Colorful Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  14. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  15. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  16. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  17. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  18. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  19. Global efforts in structural genomics.

    PubMed

    Stevens, R C; Yokoyama, S; Wilson, I A

    2001-10-01

    A worldwide initiative in structural genomics aims to capitalize on the recent successes of the genome projects. Substantial new investments in structural genomics in the past 2 years indicate the high level of support for these international efforts. Already, enormous progress has been made on high-throughput methodologies and technologies that will speed up macromolecular structure determinations. Recent international meetings have resulted in the formation of an International Structural Genomics Organization to formulate policy and foster cooperation between the public and private efforts. PMID:11588249

  20. Social, cultural and demographic aspects of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sabatier, R C

    1987-12-01

    Both on national and international levels, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) represents a formidable challenge to social institutions and to cultural assumptions. Its effect thus far, in what must be considered the very early stages of a protracted and unprecedented epidemic, has been to exacerbate existing social tensions and divisions over a surprisingly wide field. Though international leadership by the World Health Organization has been met with an unusually high degree of multinational cooperation, AIDS has also stimulated a degree of xenophobia and racial friction that, if allowed to grow, could handicap global AIDS control and prevention efforts. PMID:3433754

  1. AIDS: Education's New Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, D. Kay; Faber, Charles F.

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an incurable, fatal disease that is caused by a virus that eventually destroys the body's immune system. While AIDS is contagious, the risk of contracting AIDS through casual contact is said to be negligible. A review of the court cases involving students with AIDS reveals that the precedent has…

  2. The master hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

    2013-06-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  3. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  4. Energy conservation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Courtright, H.A.

    1993-12-31

    The conservation of energy through the efficiency improvement of existing end-uses and the development of new technologies to replace less efficient systems is an important component of the overall effort to reduce greenhouse gases which may contribute to global climate change. Even though uncertainties exist on the degree and causes of global warming, efficiency improvements in end-use applications remain in the best interest of utilities, their customers and society because efficiency improvements not only reduce environmental exposures but also contribute to industrial productivity, business cost reductions and consumer savings in energy costs.

  5. Increasing Expectations for Student Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Karen Maitland; Schilling, Karl L.

    1999-01-01

    States that few higher education institutions have publicly articulated clear expectations of the knowledge and skills students are to attain. Describes gap between student and faculty expectations for academic effort. Reports that what is required in students' first semester appears to play a strong role in shaping the time investments made in…

  6. Energy Conservation--Hero or Villian?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, William J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Energy conservation efforts have often hermetically sealed buildings without concern for air quality. The Waterloo County Board of Education, Ontario, has installed indicators to test air quality and has installed a "clean room" for children with allergies. (MLF)

  7. Conservation physiology

    PubMed Central

    Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2014-01-01

    Global change presents a huge and exciting challenge to the study of thermal physiology. The implication of thermoregulatory strategies and abilities for the survival of individuals and species, are of high importance for predicting species response to global change challenges and ways to mitigate them, and for conservation acts. A good example of such a study is the paper by Cooper and Withers in this issue.1

  8. Heron conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2000-01-01

    Herons are large, popular and, in many cases, spectacular birds found in wetlands world-wide, both tropical and temperate, natural and man-made. Some populations are very small and localized, some have decreased, some have expanded their ranges, and a few are pests of human activities. In the fifteen years since the publication of the latest monographic treatment of the family, The Herons Handbook, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of heron status and conservation requirements, set against a backdrop of increasing concern about the future of the world?s wetland habitats. This book provides a comprehensive update following two distinct threads. The status and conservation needs of herons are first presented on a regional basis, in a series of chapters set at a continental or subcontinental scale. Over 200 biologists and heron conservationists have contributed to the data summarized here, and the very latest census and survey results provide the most up-to-date and detailed picture of heron populations currently available. Chapters discussing several critical issues in heron conservation follow, tending to focus on the international nature of the problems.

  9. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  10. The AstroHDF Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, J.; Alexov, A.; Folk, M.; Hanisch, R.; Heber, G.; Wise, M.

    2012-09-01

    Here we update the astronomy community on our effort to deal with the demands of ever-increasing astronomical data size and complexity, using the Hierarchical Data Format, version 5 (HDF5) format (Wise et al. 2011). NRAO, LOFAR and VAO have joined forces with The HDF Group to write an NSF grant, requesting funding to assist in the effort. This paper briefly summarizes our motivation for the proposed project, an outline of the project itself, and some of the material discussed at the ADASS Birds of a Feather (BoF) discussion. Topics of discussion included: community experiences with HDF5 and other file formats; toolsets which exist and/or can be adapted for HDF5; a call for development towards visualizing large (> 1 TB) image cubes; and, general lessons learned from working with large and complex data.

  11. Teaching for a World Conservation Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, John J.

    1982-01-01

    The World Conservation Strategy calls upon international, national, and regional efforts to balance development with conservation of the world's living resources (e.g., forests, water, farmland, coastal resources). Environmental educators must inform themselves, establish adequate teacher training programs, and develop curriculum materials to…

  12. Communicating Conservation Effects Assessment Project Results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a unique effort to quantify the environmental benefits of conservation practices at watershed scales and nationally. Such a large-scale project cannot be accomplished without the cooperation and communication of a wide range of experts and stakeh...

  13. Opportunities for energy conservation through biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Griffin, E.A.; Russell, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify potential energy savings available through the development and application of biotechnologies. This information is required in support of ECUT research planning efforts as an aid in identifying promising areas needing further consideration and development. It is also intended as background information for a companion ECUT study being conducted by the National Academy of Science to evaluate the use of bioprocessing methods to conserve energy. Several studies have been conducted recently to assess the status and implications of the development of biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) considered institutional, economic, and scientific problems and barriers. The National Science Foundation sponsored a study to examine regulatory needs for this new and expanding technology. Somewhat in contrast to these studies, this report covers principally the technical issues. It should be emphasized that the practicality of many developments in biotechnology is not evaluated solely on the basis of energy considerations. Bioprocesses must often compete with well-established coal, petroleum, and natural gas technologies. A complete evaluation of the technical, economical, and ecological impacts of the large-scale applications discussed in this report is not possible within the scope of this study. Instead, this report assesses the potential of biotechnology to save energy so that research into all aspects of implementation will be stimulated for those industries with significant energy savings potential. 92 references, 6 figures, 24 tables.

  14. Unidata's International Efforts and Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, Mohan

    2010-05-01

    Increasingly, the conduct of science requires strong international scientific partnerships and the sharing of data, information, knowledge and other assets. This is particularly true in the geosciences where the highly coupled nature of the Earth system and the need to understand global environmental processes and their regional linkages have heightened the importance of international collaborations. As geoscience studies become a team effort involving networked scientists and data providers, it is crucial that there is full, open, reliable and timely access to and sharing of earth system science data. Unidata, which is funded by the United States National Science Foundation, recognizes the benefits of international scientific partnerships and the value of networked communities, as institutions and people exchange data, knowledge and other resources. Unidata's international data sharing activities began modestly as the MeteoForum project in Latin America in 2001, but have since grown to include several projects and collaborations in many countries. Unidata's growing portfolio of international activities are conducted in close collaboration with academic, research, and operational institutions worldwide. Specific emphasis of those efforts is on sharing data, and provision of software, support, and training. Real-time atmospheric science data delivered have helped to initiate teaching innovations in universities, advanced research, and facilitated operational forecasting. In this talk, an overview of Unidata's approach to gradual but organic international broadening will be presented, along with examples of specific collaborations and activities via myriad internationally-linked efforts and projects. In addition to describing these efforts, the talk will summarize some of the lessons learned in developing, implementing, and supporting those activities.

  15. Comparative genomics for biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    Grueber, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic approaches are gathering momentum in biology and emerging opportunities lie in the creative use of comparative molecular methods for revealing the processes that influence diversity of wildlife. However, few comparative genomic studies are performed with explicit and specific objectives to aid conservation of wild populations. Here I provide a brief overview of comparative genomic approaches that offer specific benefits to biodiversity conservation. Because conservation examples are few, I draw on research from other areas to demonstrate how comparing genomic data across taxa may be used to inform the characterisation of conservation units and studies of hybridisation, as well as studies that provide conservation outcomes from a better understanding of the drivers of divergence. A comparative approach can also provide valuable insight into the threatening processes that impact rare species, such as emerging diseases and their management in conservation. In addition to these opportunities, I note areas where additional research is warranted. Overall, comparing and contrasting the genomic composition of threatened and other species provide several useful tools for helping to preserve the molecular biodiversity of the global ecosystem. PMID:26106461

  16. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  17. Conservative Remapper

    2006-03-31

    Conservative Remapper (CORE) is a C++ language software library for remapping cell masses and cell-averaged densities on unstructured two dimensional grids, maintaining conservation of total mass in the process. CORE contains implementation of two remapping algorithms: a new, efficient "swept region" algorithm, and a more traditional algorithm basedon the computation of cell intersections. Grids may be Cartesian or cylindrical, and cells may have three or more vertices, with no upper limit. CORE can run inmore » serial and in parallel, but in order to achieve wide applicability, CORE used no particular parallel communication library. Instead it achieves parallel communication through strategically placed, user defined callbacks. Users can also provide callbacks to redefine different parts or subcomponents of the remapping process. CORE allows the use of different data types, e.g. single-, double-, and quadruple- precision floating-point numbers, through the use of C++ templates. Using CORE is simple, and requires no configuration scripts or makefiles.« less

  18. AIDS and journalism. Infinitely tougher job.

    PubMed

    Karkaria, B

    1994-12-01

    Balanced, purely informative stories about HIV/AIDS in India rarely see the light of day. Denied access to information from the medical and administrative establishments which want coverage exclusively on their terms, reporters are unable to understand the complexities of the AIDS pandemic and report in an informed, responsible manner. Editors find AIDS stories too depressing or offensive to conservative readers, and therefore relegate the stories to less important slots or encourage only sensational articles which, for example, have freely exposed people infected with HIV. The public will lose their fears about HIV/AIDS only when they learn that AIDS is an issue of public health, not of public morality. To that end, the press in India has, however, made some positive contributions. In particular, the press exposed the contamination of the blood supply, the plight of prostitutes, the existence of bogus social workers profiting from the pandemic, and how HIV-positive patients are kicked out of private hospitals once their HIV status has been determined. Now that funds are being made available for AIDS research and prevention, journalists are urgently called upon to not simply count the number of infected individuals, but to play the socially responsible role of watchdog, ensuring that funds against AIDS are being correctly spent. PMID:12319129

  19. Optimal Conservation of Migratory Species

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Tara G.; Chadès, Iadine; Arcese, Peter; Marra, Peter P.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Background Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea–regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity) bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of migratory

  20. Conservation assessment for the Siskiyou Mountains salamander and Scott Bar salamander in northern California.

    SciTech Connect

    Vinikour, W. S.; LaGory, K. E.; Adduci, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-10-20

    The purpose of this conservation assessment is to summarize existing knowledge regarding the biology and ecology of the Siskiyou Mountains salamander and Scott Bar salamander, identify threats to the two species, and identify conservation considerations to aid federal management for persistence of the species. The conservation assessment will serve as the basis for a conservation strategy for the species.

  1. Preventing AIDS Tomorrow through Education Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eller, Vercie M.; And Others

    In an effort to prevent the further spread of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections, and to minimize unwarranted fear about HIV transmission, as well as the subtle and overt limitation of people's rights resulting from this fear, the North Carolina Department of Community Colleges developed a course entitled "Preventing AIDS (Acquired…

  2. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  3. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  4. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  5. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ... cancers. When that happens, the illness is called AIDS. Once a person has the virus, it stays ...

  6. Frostbite, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  7. Poisoning first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  8. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  9. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  10. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  11. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  12. Bruises, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  13. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  14. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  15. MICROFICHE AIDS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death.

  16. An Interview with AIDS Vaccine Researcher Chris Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2010-01-01

    The search for an AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) vaccine is truly a global effort, with university laboratories, biotech firms, pharmaceutical companies, nonprofit research organizations, hospitals, and clinics all working together to develop an effective vaccine as quickly as possible. The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI)…

  17. Mobilizing Against HIV/AIDS: The Race To Save Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    With federal officials leading high profile efforts to encourage HIV/AIDS prevention and new funding, blacks in academia are hopeful that more colleagues will join the fight. Notes some well-established models of community education, the emerging HIV/AIDS research agenda, the critical role of historically black medical schools in the HIV…

  18. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    H.Zhang, P. Titus, P. Rogoff, A.Zolfaghari, D. Mangra, M. Smith

    2010-11-29

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  19. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  20. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  1. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  2. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  3. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  4. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  5. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  6. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  7. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  8. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  9. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  10. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  11. Children with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessee, Peggy O; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the prevalence of pediatric Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases in the United States, the quality of life of children with AIDS, and concerns that parents and the community have about the disease. Suggests some responses for educational institutions and teachers to help confront AIDS and help children with the disease. (MDM)

  12. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  13. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  14. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  15. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  16. AIDS costs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Henry, R; Newton, E

    1994-01-01

    In 1983, there were only eight registered cases of AIDS in Trinidad and Tobago, all among male homosexuals and bisexuals. By the beginning of 1992, however, Trinidad and Tobago was ranked 17th worldwide among 164 countries for which AIDS-case data had been collected in terms of the number of reported cases of AIDS per 100,000 population. Moreover, by 1992, of the 175 new cases reported for which risk factors could be established, 77.1% were from among the heterosexual population, with 10.3% of cases with known risk factors being in the pediatric category. 143 people had died of AIDS in the country by the end of November 1993. IV drug use has not been much of a problem in Trinidad and Tobago. The prospective costs of HIV and AIDS depend upon the course taken by the epidemic over the next few years, but it has already, in terms of the human capital approach, made an impact upon national GDP. The authors developed projections of AIDS incidence for Trinidad and Tobago through the year 2020 based upon assumptions of plausible patterns of HIV prevalence. The AIDS Projection Model and DemProj, a demographic projection model used mainly to generate estimates of the age distribution of AIDS incidence, were employed. Even the most conservative of projections suggests that the number of cases will rise by a factor of 4-5 by the year 2000. It is hoped that a better appreciation of the full costs of AIDS will help in the development of policies designed to contain the spread of the disease and ensure that the level of societal investment necessary is undertaken to save upon prospective private and social costs. Sections describe unfolding scenarios, estimates of social monetary costs, hospitalization costs, foregone earnings, and prevention programs. PMID:12346421

  17. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  18. 18 CFR 1311.10 - How does TVA make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental viewpoints?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does TVA make efforts to accommodate intergovernmental viewpoints? 1311.10 Section 1311.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND DIRECT...

  19. Relative contributions of sampling effort, measuring, and weighing to precision of larval sea lamprey biomass estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, J.W.; Adams, J.V.; Cuddy, D.W.; Neave, F.B.; Sullivan, W.P.; Young, R.J.; Fodale, M.F.; Jones, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    We developed two weight-length models from 231 populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected from tributaries of the Great Lakes: Lake Ontario (21), Lake Erie (6), Lake Huron (67), Lake Michigan (76), and Lake Superior (61). Both models were mixed models, which used population as a random effect and additional environmental factors as fixed effects. We resampled weights and lengths 1,000 times from data collected In each of 14 other populations not used to develop the models, obtaining a weight and length distribution from reach resampling. To test model performance, we applied the two weight-length models to the resampled length distributions and calculated the predicted mean weights. We also calculated the observed mean weight for each resampling and for each of the original 14 data sets. When the average of predicted means was compared to means from the original data in each stream, inclusion of environmental factors did not consistently improve the performance of the weight-length model. We estimated the variance associated with measures of abundance and mean weight for each of the 14 selected populations and determined that a conservative estimate of the proportional contribution to variance associated with estimating abundance accounted for 32% to 95% of the variance (mean = 66%). Variability in the biomass estimate appears more affected by variability in estimating abundance than in converting length to weight. Hence, efforts to improve the precision of biomass estimates would be aided most by reducing the variability associated with estimating abundance.

  20. Relative contributions of sampling effort, measuring, and weighing to precision of larval sea lamprey biomass estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, Jeffrey W.; Adams, Jean V.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Neave, Fraser B.; Sullivan, W. Paul; Young, Robert J.; Fodale, Michael F.; Jones, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    We developed two weight-length models from 231 populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected from tributaries of the Great Lakes: Lake Ontario (21), Lake Erie (6), Lake Huron (67), Lake Michigan (76), and Lake Superior (61). Both models were mixed models, which used population as a random effect and additional environmental factors as fixed effects. We resampled weights and lengths 1,000 times from data collected in each of 14 other populations not used to develop the models, obtaining a weight and length distribution from reach resampling. To test model performance, we applied the two weight-length models to the resampled length distributions and calculated the predicted mean weights. We also calculated the observed mean weight for each resampling and for each of the original 14 data sets. When the average of predicted means was compared to means from the original data in each stream, inclusion of environmental factors did not consistently improve the performance of the weight-length model. We estimated the variance associated with measures of abundance and mean weight for each of the 14 selected populations and determined that a conservative estimate of the proportional contribution to variance associated with estimating abundance accounted for 32% to 95% of the variance (mean = 66%). Variability in the biomass estimate appears more affected by variability in estimating abundance than in converting length to weight. Hence, efforts to improve the precision of biomass estimates would be aided most by reducing the variability associated with estimating abundance.

  1. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  2. School District Energy Conservation Activities. R-96-J-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    To help New York's State Department of Education assess public school districts' energy conservation activities, the results of an audit of school districts' energy conservation activities are presented. The audit shows that most school districts have made some efforts toward energy conservation and that the Department does provide some assistance…

  3. ANNAGNPS APPLICATION FOR BEASLEY WATERSHED CONSERVATION PRACTICES ASSESSMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The principal focus of the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Project-Watershed Assessment Study effort is to produce an assessment of environmental benefits derived from implementing USDA conservation programs. When determining the priority for conservation measures within a watershed for non-po...

  4. Rethinking Ginkgo biloba L.: Medicinal uses and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Isah, Tasiu

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba (G. biloba) is an ancient medicinal tree species that has been in existence for millennia without undergoing modifications due to its resistance to environmental stresses. Palaeobotanical history showed a wide distribution of the species across the globe but declined over geological time, becoming restricted to narrow geographical range with few surviving individuals in the modern day. The tree is slow growing, adapted to many ecological conditions and shows numerous adaptation in developmental patterns. Medicinal use of the species is attracting research interest, especially the various parts of the tree that are used in orthodox or traditional medicine to treat diseases due to the many bioactive compounds. The primary compounds receiving increasing research interest are the triterpene lactones and flavonoids; these are the target of biotechnological strategies being employed to enhance production. Many genetic and environmental factors have contributed to the endangered status of the species; conservation measures are required to protect it from extinction. In many countries, the cultivation of plantations for the supply of ginkgo leaf-based pharmaceutical formulations is in progress, and efforts to standardize ginkgo leaf extract as herbal medication for human use are being made. Microcuttings and cuttings, cryopreservation, and plant tissue culture have all aided to conserve G. biloba. PMID:26392712

  5. Information Management System for Site Remediation Efforts.

    PubMed

    Laha; Mukherjee; Nebhrajani

    2000-05-01

    / Environmental regulatory agencies are responsible for protecting human health and the environment in their constituencies. Their responsibilities include the identification, evaluation, and cleanup of contaminated sites. Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) constitute a major source of subsurface and groundwater contamination. A significant portion of a regulatory body's efforts may be directed toward the management of UST-contaminated sites. In order to manage remedial sites effectively, vast quantities of information must be maintained, including analytical dataon chemical contaminants, remedial design features, and performance details. Currently, most regulatory agencies maintain such information manually. This makes it difficult to manage the data effectively. Some agencies have introduced automated record-keeping systems. However, the ad hoc approach in these endeavors makes it difficult to efficiently analyze, disseminate, and utilize the data. This paper identifies the information requirements for UST-contaminated site management at the Waste Cleanup Section of the Department of Environmental Resources Management in Dade County, Florida. It presents a viable design for an information management system to meet these requirements. The proposed solution is based on a back-end relational database management system with relevant tools for sophisticated data analysis and data mining. The database is designed with all tables in the third normal form to ensure data integrity, flexible access, and efficient query processing. In addition to all standard reports required by the agency, the system provides answers to ad hoc queries that are typically difficult to answer under the existing system. The database also serves as a repository of information for a decision support system to aid engineering design and risk analysis. The system may be integrated with a geographic information system for effective presentation and dissemination of spatial data. PMID:10742478

  6. Energy Conservation Management for School Administrators: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukco, Bernard J.

    Information concerning energy conservation management is presented to aid school administrators in improving the energy efficiency of their buildings and programs. Three general topics are discussed: (1) the general nature and unique characteristics of school energy management; (2) initial steps in developing a conservation program, including…

  7. AIDS in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Karel, S G; Robey, B

    1988-09-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been an African and Western concern due to its epidemic nature. Although nearly 99% of all reported cases occurred in these regions, Asia has reported cases, and the potential for devastation of Asia's already strained health care reserves are undeniable. This review compiled by analysis of 1986-88 articles on AIDS research, demographics, official statements from government and health organizations, news reports, and public statements describe how AIDS has spread in well documented regions like America, Europe, and Africa, and how the Asian regions have attempted to handle the AIDS epidemic before it becomes as serious as in the West. The topics covered include a clinical overview of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS, how it is transmitted, and what are the primary forms of transmission in well documented regions. The report briefly documents what policies China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Australia, and New Zealand have individually instituted to stem the flow of AIDS into their country, and/or stop the spread of AIDS already found there. The efforts to combat AIDS globally by the World Health Organization/United Nations Development Program alliance (WHO-UNDP) along with the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and UNICEF are highlighted. The available research and aid programs are contrasted with how the Asian nations are preparing to deal with the AIDS epidemic. 1) AIDS has an incubation time wherein an infected individual is not AIDS symptomatic, but is capable of infecting others, and this hidden infected population makes it essential that containment policies are also enforced in countries with few reported cases. 2) A committee should be established in all Asian countries to coordinate education on safe sexual behaviors with specific programs for prostitutes

  8. Rain Hampers Tsunami Relief Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The cleanup and relief efforts from the recent tsunamis continue in coastal communities that were ravaged by the waves all across the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains have further complicated the matter and added to the misery in parts of eastern Sri Lanka. Between December 28, 2004, and January 5, 2005, up to 10 to 15 inches of rain may have fallen along the southeast coast of the island, and as much as 20 inches (red areas) fell just offshore. This rainfall map was created by the TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which monitors rainfall over the global tropics. The map shows that many other regions around the Indian Ocean were also affected by the rains, including Malaysia and parts of Sumatra. The heaviest rains fell on December 31 and January 4. The rains were likely the result of a combination of the northeast monsoon interacting with the topography and an active phase of what is known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (or 30-60 day oscillation). The MJO is a large-scale disturbance that propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean into the West Pacific Ocean, bringing extended periods of unsettled weather with it. Individual convective complexes within the MJO can last on the order of a day. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. NASA image produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) and caption by Steve Lang (SSAI/NASA GSFC).

  9. AIDS Education: Does It Change Attitudes toward Gay Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusher, Morgan P.; Anderson, Craig A.

    Two studies were conducted to examine how attitudes toward homosexual men might affect reactions to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education efforts, or how those attitudes might be changed by those efforts. The first study involved 69 male and 75 female subjects, randomly assigned to four conditions receiving different information…

  10. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  11. AIDS: the first decade.

    PubMed

    Turk, H N

    1989-01-01

    AIDS has had a profound effect on society and the workplace and has raised legal and social problems for which society was not prepared. This article will chronicle the evolution of federal, state and local law concerning AIDS and the workplace. Although there are some clear-cut answers and guidelines that address the relationship of employer and employee to the AIDS epidemic, current legislation and enforcement of those laws does not adequately address the AIDS victim as a handicapped individual. Emphasis is also placed on the problems peculiar to the health care industry, the constitutionality of present legislation, and the AIDS victim's right to privacy versus the employer's need to know. Finally, some practical solutions and guidelines will be presented that will help the employer deal with the AIDS victim and his or her co-worker. PMID:10295811

  12. A New Partnership: Reshaping the Federal and State Commitment to Need-Based Aid. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.

    2013-01-01

    This brief provides five recommendations for reforming the college financial aid system. Five principles for reform are presented: (1) The purpose of federal financial aid is to ensure that individuals who can benefit from college and would not otherwise attend are able to enroll. (2) Efforts to reform financial aid must limit the unsustainable…

  13. Low-Cost Aids for Elementary Science Teaching in Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    Regional workshops sponsored by the National Institute for Educational Research (Japan) were held to strengthen national efforts in the development of elementary science aids/materials. This document provides: (1) guidelines for the development of appropriate and low-cost aids for science instruction; (2) inventory of aids; (3) synthesis of…

  14. Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Model Application for Mississippi Delta Beasley Lake Watershed Conservation Practices Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The principal focus of the USDA Conservation Effect Assessment Project (CEAP) Watershed Assessment Study effort is to provide an assessment of environmental benefits derived from implementing USDA conservation programs. When determining the priority for conservation measures within a watershed for ...

  15. HIV/AIDS Outreach and Substance Abuse Treatment for Hard-To-Reach Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Lena, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The six articles of this special section focus on HIV/AIDS outreach efforts with: (1) African-American drug users; (2) homeless substance abusers; (3) women at high risk; (4) Latinos at high risk; and (5) African Americans at high risk. All the programs were part of a federally funded outreach effort aimed at HIV/AIDS prevention. (SLD)

  16. HIV / AIDS Network.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  17. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  18. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  19. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  20. Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2008-09-01

    Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives. PMID:18458999

  1. Regulation of Aicda expression and AID activity.

    PubMed

    Zan, Hong; Casali, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is expressed in a B cell differentiation stage-specific fashion and is essential for immunoglobulin (Ig) gene class switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM). CSR and SHM play a central role in the maturation of antibody and autoantibody responses. AID displays a mutagenic activity by catalyzing targeted deamination of deoxycytidine (dC) residues in DNA resulting in dU:dG mismatches, which are processed into point-mutations in SHM or double-strand breaks (DSBs) in CSR. Although AID specifically targets the Ig gene loci (IgH, Igκ and Igλ), it can also home into a wide array of non-Ig genes in B-and non-B-cell backgrounds. Aberrant expression of AID is associated with multiple diseases such as allergy, inflammation, autoimmunity and cancer. In autoimmune systemic lupus erythematosus, dysregulated AID expression underpins increased CSR, SHM and autoantibody production. As a potent mutator, AID is under stringent transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation. AID is also regulated in its targeting and enzymatic function. In resting naïve or memory B cells, AID transcripts and protein are undetectable. These, however, are readily and significantly up-regulated in B cells induced to undergo CSR and/or SHM. Transcription factors, such as HoxC4 and NF-κB, which are up-regulated in a B cell lineage-and/or differentiation stage-specific manner, regulate the induction of AID. HoxC4 induces AID expression by directly binding to the AID gene promoter through an evolutionarily conserved 5'-ATTT-3' motif. HoxC4 is induced by the same stimuli that induce AID and CSR. It is further up-regulated by estrogen through three estrogen responsive elements in its promoter region. The targeting of AID to switch (S) regions is mediated by 14-3-3 adaptor proteins, which specifically bind to 5'-AGCT-3' repeats that are exist at high frequency in S region cores. Like HoxC4, 14-3-3 adaptors are induced

  2. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  3. AIDS and student attitudes.

    PubMed

    Merrill, J M; Laux, L; Thornby, J I

    1989-04-01

    When recently polled, one half of 4,100 physicians believed they had the right not to treat patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 15% said they would actually refuse to care for them. To assure medical care for the 365,000 AIDS patients projected for the US by 1992, it is imperative to know whether there is something unique about AIDS patients that produces aversion among physicians. We hypothesized that the desire to avoid AIDS patients derived from three fears: fear of contagion, homophobia, and a desire to avoid dying patients. To identify the extent to which these three fears affect the attitudes that students hold toward AIDS patients, we conducted three studies. In our first study, we discovered that students' views about a patient with a terminal illness are the same whether the illness is leukemia or AIDS. In the second study, we found that the patient's sexual preference was not the major reason students would avoid an AIDS patients. In a third study, we confirmed that fear of contagion is the principal cause of students' desire to avoid an AIDS patient. In the course of these studies, we found important differences between the attitudes of male and female students. Female students scored lower on the homophobic scale than male students, and they had less antipathy toward AIDS patients. Helping health care professionals understand their fears toward patients with AIDS will in the long run improve medical care. Since the origins of these fears are for the most part well hidden in our unconscious, dissemination of facts alone will not do the job. Interventions are needed to help health care professionals acknowledge and overcome their negative feelings about AIDS. PMID:2705068

  4. Computer aided solar house design made of ``Guadua`` in Bogota, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano, M.C.; Chalfoun, N.V.

    1995-11-01

    Bogota, Colombia, is the third highest capital in South America, its location near the equator assures high altitudes over the horizon and almost 5 hours of daily mean sunshine. Since 1981, efforts for using natural energy instead of nonrenewable fuel have been targeted to Colombia`s residential construction industry. This paper focuses on a computer aided design process for passive solar low-income row housing in Bogota. Thermal comfort for this tropical climate has been achieved through employing ``Guadua,`` a strong bamboo specie,as an alternative wall system to the traditional brick, adobe, or concrete structures. Through computer analysis, several energy conservation and passive solar strategies have been optimized for a case study row housing type common to the region. The load savings compared to a 6 inch CMU house totaled 72%, while the operating cost has been reduced by 71%. Furthermore, this lightweight and inexpensive ``Guadua`` material has reduced the construction cost by 30%.

  5. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  6. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  7. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  8. Health Aides Serve...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huscher, John

    1976-01-01

    The student health aide program of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln is a paid, auxiliary, trained health position in dorms, co-ops, and Greek houses, with personnel evaluated on the assistance provided for any physical, personal, social, or environmental health concerns students may have in accordance with the aide's training. (MB)

  9. [Oral hygiene aids].

    PubMed

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  10. A New AIDS Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Thousands of young people are affected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). An effective AIDS education program must address functional knowledge, relevant skills, and motivation. The program must be comprehensive and taught by trained teachers. Lists a source of an annotated…

  11. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  12. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  13. What about AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Katharine R.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Suggests ways in which camp directors can establish procedures for making appropriate decisions about accepting campers/staff workers with AIDS. Reviews aspects of environmental sanitation, physical health, confidentiality, camper/staff drug use and sexual behavior, medical…

  14. Cutaneous acanthamoebiasis in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Torno, M S; Babapour, R; Gurevitch, A; Witt, M D

    2000-02-01

    Acanthamoeba is a recognized pathogen in the immunocompromised patient, commonly presenting as chronic or subacute encephalitis. However, cutaneous disease in the absence of CNS involvement is increasingly recognized, especially in the setting of chronic, nonhealing skin lesions in the patient with AIDS. We describe a patient with AIDS and cutaneous acanthamoebiasis and review our experience with treatment and diagnosis. PMID:10640931

  15. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  16. AIDS PUBLIC INFORMATION DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AIDS Public Information Data Set is computer software designed to run on a Microsoft Windows microcomputer, and contains information abstracted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases reported in the United States. The data set is created by the Division of HIV/A...

  17. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  18. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  19. Games and Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    This document is filled with suggestions for inexpensive teacher-made classroom aids that can be used for concept reinforcement with the total class, a small group, or individual students. The games and teaching aids provided, allow instructors to provide the motivational drill to develop speed and accuracy for basic computational skills. The…

  20. Teaching Children about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koop, C. Everett

    1987-01-01

    Calls for more education as the immediate preventative measure against acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Discusses the known ways that AIDS is transmitted and cautions that many innocent people may also contract the disease. Promotes the presentation of accurate and personally sensitive information to children. (TW)

  1. AIDS: Children Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…

  2. Trends in Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

    This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance available to postsecondary students in the form of grants, loans, and work-study. The data cover virtually all federal aid and most state and institutional assistance; not included in the study is financial aid in the form of indirect subsidies, students' wages, employer-paid…

  3. Nothing prepared me to manage AIDS.

    PubMed

    Banas, G E

    1992-01-01

    Articles and seminars about AIDS in the workplace are not adequate preparation for the genuine problems faced by actual managers in real organizations. There are no easy, win-win solutions to the impossible dilemmas AIDS presents, only various forms of damage control and, at best, more or less humane compromises. Gary Banas knows. Over a period of four years, two of his direct reports developed AIDS, and he watched them suffer through debility, slowly deteriorating performance, and eventual death. He also watched the gradual decline of their subordinates' productivity and morale. He found that, to different degrees, both men refused to acknowledge their illness and their decreasing organizational effectiveness. One of them resisted the author's efforts to give him an easier job at no loss in salary. Both insisted on confidentiality long after the rumor mill had identified their problem. In the course of these two consecutive ordeals, Banas discovered that AIDS patients fall into no single, neat category. AIDS is not an issue but a disease, and the people who get it are human beings first and victims second. He also learned that AIDS affects everyone around the sick individual and that almost every choice a manager makes will injure someone. Finally, he came to understand that while managers have an unequivocal obligation to treat AIDS-afflicted employees with compassion and respect, they have an equally unequivocal obligation to keep their organizations functioning. "Don't let anyone kid you," Banas warns. "When you confront AIDS in the workplace, you will face untenable choices that seem to pit your obligation to humanity against your obligation to your organization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10119719

  4. World AIDS Day focuses on children.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The focus of the 1997 World AIDS Day was children. An estimated 1600 children become infected with HIV each day and, by the end of 1997, 1 million children--95% of them in developing countries--are expected to be HIV-infected. Another 8 million children have lost their mothers to AIDS. Although most HIV-positive children become infected as a result of maternal-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, and breast feeding, other risk factors such as child sex abuse, exploitation in the commercial sex trade, blood transfusions, and intravenous drug use are also significant in later years. Because of its devastating impact on social and economic life, the fight against AIDS is one of the most important challenges in the world today. The UNAIDS program, a joint venture of 6 UN agencies with expertise ranging from reproductive health care to economic development, is at the center of this effort. PMID:12321305

  5. Forward to AIDS 2014: Now is the Time to Unite for the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    As AIDS activists, advocates, researchers, practitioners, scientists, and policy makers from around the world prepare for the forthcoming 20th International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2014) which takes place from 20-25 July in Melbourne, Australia, Gregory Pappas, MD, PhD, former Executive Director of the Washington DC’s local Host Committee, International AIDS Society (IAS) organizing committee member, and Director, HIV/AIDS Program in the District of Columbia, Washington, DC, USA, reflects, for the first time, on his experiences hosting the world conference and bringing AIDS conference to United States after 22 years. He shares some of the key challenges and opportunities confronting program planners, policy makers and advocates in the efforts to address the global epidemic.

  6. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    PubMed

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success. PMID:19743655

  7. Prediction of fishing effort distributions using boosted regression trees.

    PubMed

    Soykan, Candan U; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Kohin, Suzanne; Dewar, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about bycatch of protected species have become a dominant factor shaping fisheries management. However, efforts to mitigate bycatch are often hindered by a lack of data on the distributions of fishing effort and protected species. One approach to overcoming this problem has been to overlay the distribution of past fishing effort with known locations of protected species, often obtained through satellite telemetry and occurrence data, to identify potential bycatch hotspots. This approach, however, generates static bycatch risk maps, calling into question their ability to forecast into the future, particularly when dealing with spatiotemporally dynamic fisheries and highly migratory bycatch species. In this study, we use boosted regression trees to model the spatiotemporal distribution of fishing effort for two distinct fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean, the albacore (Thunnus alalunga) troll fishery and the California drift gillnet fishery that targets swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Our results suggest that it is possible to accurately predict fishing effort using < 10 readily available predictor variables (cross-validated correlations between model predictions and observed data -0.6). Although the two fisheries are quite different in their gears and fishing areas, their respective models had high predictive ability, even when input data sets were restricted to a fraction of the full time series. The implications for conservation and management are encouraging: Across a range of target species, fishing methods, and spatial scales, even a relatively short time series of fisheries data may suffice to accurately predict the location of fishing effort into the future. In combination with species distribution modeling of bycatch species, this approach holds promise as a mitigation tool when observer data are limited. Even in data-rich regions, modeling fishing effort and bycatch may provide more accurate estimates of bycatch risk than partial observer coverage

  8. Mass media entertainment for AIDS communication in Zaire.

    PubMed

    Convisser, J

    1992-01-01

    Health communicators use entertainment and mass media to prevent HIV transmission. Population Services International operates an AIDS Mass Media Project as an adjunct to its Condom Social Marketing Project. It collaborates with the Government of Zaire's National AIDS Program. Its 1st target is urban youth because most AIDS cases in Zaire were infected as teenagers, urban youth have access to television (TV), and they take part in high risk sexual behavior. The project uses various AIDS songs to reach this group. A 6-month posttest shows that the 1st song was so effective that 65% heard it and that 93% of them recalled the major AIDS messages and 85% said that they changed their behavior. The project distributes a video of the 1990 World AIDS Day concert. Research in Zaire and other African countries shows that the threat AIDS poses to children's health strongly motivates parents' behavior. Thus the 2nd target is the 20-30 year old group--young and prospective parents. The project boasts a 4-part TV series about a groom who does not reveal his AIDS status to his young bride until after their wedding night. 2 scenes stress the benefits of condoms. After its 1st airing, 66% of the 20-30 year old group in Kinshasa watched all 4 parts of the series. Of these, about 75% said they would change their behavior. Most people in Zaire change behavior by using condoms. Indeed, during the mass media campaign, condom sales grew 1000% which saved almost 7200 lives. The project also features comic strips informing working men and women and teenagers about AIDS and distributes an inexpensive notebook listening AIDS facts and myths for school children. The project uses regional radio stations to broadcast 28 AIDS feature programs, 22 radio spots, 8 AIDS radio dramas, and 2 songs to high priority rural areas. These AIDS radio efforts have indeed influenced AIDS knowledge and attitudes. PMID:12285440

  9. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  10. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  11. 10 CFR 430.32 - Energy and water conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... affecting § 430.32, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... effective dates. 430.32 Section 430.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION... conservation standards and their effective dates. The energy and water (in the case of faucets,...

  12. American Foundation for AIDS Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Press Corporate Support amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research Research Overview Research Grants Research Accomplishments Scientific ... Archive TREAT Asia TREAT Asia About TREAT Asia AIDS in Asia Research and Treatment Education and AIDS ...

  13. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  14. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  15. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  16. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  17. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  18. Conservation: can we live better on less

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, R.

    1981-02-01

    Americans are looking for more-efficient ways to live and conduct their business without lowering their living standard. New building designs, intensive gardening, new energy sources, and vanpooling are among the pioneering efforts. Conservation also requires innovative ways to raise capital to handle nontraditional projects. A new industry of house doctors audits the energy efficiency of buildings and creates more-conserving designs and materials. Other industries will develop renewable and synthetic energy sources. Reports of changing attitudes and a growing interest in decentralized energy management are signs that conservation can become a way of life. (DCK)

  19. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  20. [Implantable hearing aids].

    PubMed

    Luers, J C; Beutner, D; Hüttenbrink, K-B

    2011-10-01

    Strictly speaking, implantable hearing aids are technical systems that process audiological signals and convey these by direct mechanical stimulation of the ossicular chain or cochlea. They have certain benefits over conventional hearing aids in terms of wearing comfort and general acceptance. As current studies lack convincing audiological results, the indications for implantable hearing aids are primarily of medical or cosmetic nature. To date, three systems are available in Germany: Vibrant Soundbridge®, Carina®, and Esteem®. Because the performance of the different implantable and nonimplantable hearing systems together with various surgical procedures are currently undergoing major changes, audiological indications may also develop in the future. PMID:21956678

  1. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  2. A state-based national network for effective wildlife conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meretsky, Vicky J.; Maguire, Lynn A.; Davis, Frank W.; Stoms, David M.; Scott, J. Michael; Figg, Dennis; Goble, Dale D.; Griffith, Brad; Henke, Scott E.; Vaughn, Jacqueline; Yaffee, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    State wildlife conservation programs provide a strong foundation for biodiversity conservation in the United States, building on state wildlife action plans. However, states may miss the species that are at the most risk at rangewide scales, and threats such as novel diseases and climate change increasingly act at regional and national levels. Regional collaborations among states and their partners have had impressive successes, and several federal programs now incorporate state priorities. However, regional collaborations are uneven across the country, and no national counterpart exists to support efforts at that scale. A national conservation-support program could fill this gap and could work across the conservation community to identify large-scale conservation needs and support efforts to meet them. By providing important information-sharing and capacity-building services, such a program would advance collaborative conservation among the states and their partners, thus increasing both the effectiveness and the efficiency of conservation in the United States.

  3. Brainstem Encoding of Aided Speech in Hearing Aid Users with Cochlear Dead Region(s)

    PubMed Central

    Hassaan, Mohammad Ramadan; Ibraheem, Ola Abdallah; Galhom, Dalia Helal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Neural encoding of speech begins with the analysis of the signal as a whole broken down into its sinusoidal components in the cochlea, which has to be conserved up to the higher auditory centers. Some of these components target the dead regions of the cochlea causing little or no excitation. Measuring aided speech-evoked auditory brainstem response elicited by speech stimuli with different spectral maxima can give insight into the brainstem encoding of aided speech with spectral maxima at these dead regions. Objective  This research aims to study the impact of dead regions of the cochlea on speech processing at the brainstem level after a long period of hearing aid use. Methods  This study comprised 30 ears without dead regions and 46 ears with dead regions at low, mid, or high frequencies. For all ears, we measured the aided speech-evoked auditory brainstem response using speech stimuli of low, mid, and high spectral maxima. Results  Aided speech-evoked auditory brainstem response was producible in all subjects. Responses evoked by stimuli with spectral maxima at dead regions had longer latencies and smaller amplitudes when compared with the control group or the responses of other stimuli. Conclusion  The presence of cochlear dead regions affects brainstem encoding of speech with spectral maxima perpendicular to these regions. Brainstem neuroplasticity and the extrinsic redundancy of speech can minimize the impact of dead regions in chronic hearing aid users. PMID:27413404

  4. Plant conservation genetics in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Andrea T; Havens, Kayri

    2009-11-01

    Plant conservation genetics provides tools to guide conservation and restoration efforts, measure and monitor success, and ultimately minimize extinction risk by conserving species as dynamic entities capable of evolving in the face of changing conditions. We consider the application of these tools to rare and common species alike, as ongoing threats that increasingly limit their resilience, evolutionary potential and survival. Whereas neutral marker studies have contributed much to conservation genetics, we argue for a renewed focus on quantitative genetic studies to determine how, or if, species will adapt to changing conditions. Because restoration plays an increasingly vital role in conservation, we discuss additional genetic considerations and research questions that must be actively studied now to effectively inform future actions. PMID:19748300

  5. [The AIDS epidemic in the Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Babenko, L

    1996-01-01

    According to laboratory statistics, 32 new cases of HIV infection were diagnosed in Kiev, and 1986 cases were counted in Odessa in the first 4 months of 1996. The central location of Ukraine and permanent international population mobility are probable factors in the spread of HIV infection. Several factors may have contributed to the eruption of the HIV epidemic in the city of Nikolayev in 1995. The city was long closed to foreigners because of its military activity. After the fall of the Soviet Union, most military factories were closed, plunging numerous workers into unemployment. Drug use thrived, facilitated by the cultivation of marijuana in the region. The HIV epidemic appears to have been brought to the Ukraine by addicts returning from military service in Poland. In 1996, the National Committee to Combat AIDS will collaborate with the Ministry of Internal Affairs to develop a plan to prevent AIDS in drug users. The National Committee was established in 1992 to coordinate AIDS prevention activities in Ukraine. The first program, undertaken in 1987, consisted of large scale screening, beginning with foreigners and especially African students. The first case was diagnosed in 1987. Over 300 new cases were diagnosed annually during 1992-94, all sexually transmitted. The national program is funded solely by the government, which has very limited resources. There is no possibility of access to private funds, and few efforts are underway to provide information on AIDS through media programs. The UN AIDS program recently allocated US $50,000 for AIDS prevention in Odessa, the city with the largest number of seropositive individuals. The funds will be used for a seminar on AIDS prevention for Ukrainian political authorities and construction of a drug treatment facility. Other projects have been planned, but remain unfunded. PMID:12179245

  6. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most ...

  7. Implantable digital hearing aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

  8. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  9. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... They also have greater flexibility in hearing aid programming so that the sound they transmit can be ... 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) Contact ...

  10. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  11. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...

  12. First aid kit

    MedlinePlus

    ... shield, pads, and bandages Latex or non-latex gloves to reduce contamination risk Sterile gauze pads, non- ... aid manual Hand sanitizer Latex or non-latex gloves to reduce contamination risk Save-A-Tooth storage ...

  13. Computer Aided Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)

  14. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  15. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    PubMed

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed. PMID:24404807

  16. AIDS and economic disruption.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G S

    1996-10-01

    Child and adult mortality increases in Cameroon due to AIDS will cause life expectancy to fall by as many as 8 years, from just over 50 to just over 40 years. The social consequences of AIDS include grieving, stigmatizing, and the large-scale disruption of family and community structures. Widows and widowers due to AIDS mortality are affected differently from each other, with the widows of men who have died from AIDS facing potential sociocultural and economic hardship. The economic consequences of AIDS in Bamenda and elsewhere in Cameroon will occur mainly through the epidemic's impact upon the size and quality of the labor force. By killing a significant number of male and female workers aged 15-60 years, AIDS will reduce the size and growth rate of the labor force. Despite, rapid population growth, labor is a relatively scarce factor of agricultural production in Cameroon. The spread of HIV in rural areas, combined with the intensity and scarcity of agricultural labor, suggests that AIDS will have an impact upon production and per capita incomes, and increase the already high rates of hunger and absolute poverty. In the context of HIV/AIDS, young people must be empowered to make informed decisions about sex. Adolescents are most at risk because they tend to experiment more than married couples and have many sex partners. Sexual activity begins as early as age 8 years and penetrative sex at age 13 or earlier. The author considers the factors which encourage adolescents to engage in sexual activities. PMID:12293251

  17. Plasma-aided manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohet, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    Plasma-aided manufacturing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Plasma-aided manufacturing has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both the high-technology and the more traditional industries in the United States.

  18. [The liver and AIDS].

    PubMed

    Rull, S; Sanchís, M J; Palacios, A; Anguiz, A; Colomina, J

    1992-02-01

    Hepatic disorders in AIDS are very common, although the injuries observed are usually non-specific. This is the reason why the real usefulness of hepatic biopsy in this patients is being currently discussed. In this work, such aspect and the hepatic injuries observed in patients with AIDS are discussed. Current indications for hepatic biopsy are summarized, as well as its later manipulation in order to obtain maximum profitability of it. PMID:1576316

  19. Conservation Action Planning: Lessons learned from the St. Marys River watershed biodiversity conservation planning process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Tamatha A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Conservation Action Planning (CAP) is an adaptive management planning process refined by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and embraced worldwide as the Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation. The CAP process facilitates open, multi-institutional collaboration on a common conservation agenda through organized actions and quantified results. While specifically designed for conservation efforts, the framework is adaptable and flexible to multiple scales and can be used for any collaborative planning effort. The CAP framework addresses inception; design and development of goals, measures, and strategies; and plan implementation and evaluation. The specific components of the CAP include defining the project scope and conservation targets; assessing the ecological viability; ascertaining threats and surrounding situation; identifying opportunities and designing strategies for action; and implementing actions and monitoring results. In 2007, TNC and a multidisciplinary graduate student team from the University of Michigan's School of Natural Resources and Environment initiated a CAP for the St. Marys River, the connecting channel between Lake Superior and Lake Huron, and its local watershed. The students not only gained experience in conservation planning, but also learned lessons that notably benefited the CAP process and were valuable for any successful collaborative effort—a dedicated core team improved product quality, accelerated the timeline, and provided necessary support for ongoing efforts; an academic approach in preparation for engagement in the planning process brought applicable scientific research to the forefront, enhanced workshop facilitation, and improved stakeholder participation; and early and continuous interactions with regional stakeholders improved cooperation and built a supportive network for collaboration.

  20. INTEGRATING REPRESENTATION AND VULNERABILITY: TWO APPROACHES FOR PRIORITIZING AREAS FOR CONSERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    One fundamental step in conservation planning involves determining where to concentrate efforts to protect conservation targets. Here we demonstrate two approaches to prioritizing areas based on both species composition and potential threats facing the species. The first approa...

  1. Incorporating climate change into systematic conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groves, Craig R.; Game, Edward T.; Anderson, Mark G.; Cross, Molly; Enquist, Carolyn; Ferdana, Zach; Girvetz, Evan; Gondor, Anne; Hall, Kimberly R.; Higgins, Jonathan; Marshall, Rob; Popper, Ken; Schill, Steve; Shafer, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of systematic conservation planning are now widely used by governments and non-government organizations alike to develop biodiversity conservation plans for countries, states, regions, and ecoregions. Many of the species and ecosystems these plans were designed to conserve are now being affected by climate change, and there is a critical need to incorporate new and complementary approaches into these plans that will aid species and ecosystems in adjusting to potential climate change impacts. We propose five approaches to climate change adaptation that can be integrated into existing or new biodiversity conservation plans: (1) conserving the geophysical stage, (2) protecting climatic refugia, (3) enhancing regional connectivity, (4) sustaining ecosystem process and function, and (5) capitalizing on opportunities emerging in response to climate change. We discuss both key assumptions behind each approach and the trade-offs involved in using the approach for conservation planning. We also summarize additional data beyond those typically used in systematic conservation plans required to implement these approaches. A major strength of these approaches is that they are largely robust to the uncertainty in how climate impacts may manifest in any given region.

  2. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S

    1991-01-01

    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival. PMID:1786270

  3. Conservative's program for the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, M.F.

    1981-04-01

    Environmental issues transcend ideology and assume a nonpartisan global view of the world that should include conservatives. Neglect of the conservative roots of environmentalism is partly due to the environmental movement's seeking quick action through the regulatory and policymaking approach. Political changes that came with the 1980 election could undo the progress made unless efforts are made to emphasize the underlying relationships between conservatism and environmentalism. The author explores these ties in light of current environmental issues and suggests four basic policies to pursue that would (1) integrate environmental goals with the marketplace, (2) stop or reduce federal resource use subsidies, (3) provide technical assistance and resource information to state and local governments and to the private sector, and (4) provide for broad public participation in analyzing and deciding upon federal proposals. 18 references. (DCK)

  4. Text Mining and Data Modeling of Karyotypes to aid in Drug Repurposing Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Zachary B.; Peabody, Andrea L.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Payne, Philip R. O.

    2016-01-01

    Karyotyping, or visually examining and recording chromosomal abnormalities, is commonly used to diagnose and treat disease. Karyotypes are written in the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN), a computationally non-readable language that precludes full analysis of these genomic data. In response, we developed a cytogenetic platform that transfers the ISCN karyotypes to a machine-readable model available for computational analysis. Here we use cytogenetic data from the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-curated Mitelman database1 to create a structured karyotype language. Then, drug-gene-disease triplets are generated via a computational pipeline connecting public drug-gene interaction data sources to identify potential drug repurposing opportunities. PMID:26262336

  5. Relapse from safer sex: the next challenge for AIDS prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Stall, R; Ekstrand, M; Pollack, L; McKusick, L; Coates, T J

    1990-01-01

    Prevention campaigns to reduce sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) typically emphasize the initial adoption of safer sex techniques. We present data from a 5-year prospective study to show that the vast majority of resident gay men in San Francisco have made these initial risk reductions. Rather, relapse from safer sex techniques is now the predominant predominant kind of high-risk sex, accounting for approximately two thirds of all prevalent high-risk sex in the 1988 wave of data collection. Predictors of relapse from safer sex are identified, and these are discussed in terms of their implications for preventing relapse from the exclusive practice of safe sex. In communities that have already manifested widespread behavioral risk reductions and in which HIV infection is highly prevalent, finding ways to prevent relapse of behavioral risk reductions will be the next important challenge in the fight against acquired immune deficiency syndrome. PMID:2243318

  6. Building Assets with Community Effort: Computerized Mapping Aids Long-Term Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyman, Wynne; Mael, Stan; Kunkel, Mary

    1999-01-01

    To facilitate an integrated 10-year development plan, a Colorado Girl Scouts council collaborated with an architecture firm to create computer-generated maps of its camp properties, with links to relevant information. Maps and software provided unprecedented accuracy and access, were easily updated, and facilitated funding presentations. Sidebars…

  7. Conservation focus on Europe: major conservation policy issues that need to be informed by conservation science.

    PubMed

    Pullin, Andrew S; Báldi, András; Can, Ozgun Emre; Dieterich, Martin; Kati, Vassiliki; Livoreil, Barbara; Lövei, Gabor; Mihók, Barbara; Nevin, Owen; Selva, Nuria; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2009-08-01

    Europe is one of the world's most densely populated continents and has a long history of human-dominated land- and seascapes. Europe is also at the forefront of developing and implementing multinational conservation efforts. In this contribution, we describe some top policy issues in Europe that need to be informed by high-quality conservation science. These include evaluation of the effectiveness of the Natura 2000 network of protected sites, implications of rapid economic and subsequent land-use change in Central and Eastern Europe, conservation of marine biodiversity and sustainability of fisheries, the effect of climate change on movement of species in highly fragmented landscapes, and attempts to assess the economic value of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Broad policy issues such as those identified are not easily amenable to scientific experiment. A key challenge at the science-policy interface is to identify the research questions underlying these problem areas so that conservation science can provide evidence to underpin future policy development. PMID:19627313

  8. Biomedical and development paradigms in AIDS prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Wolffers, I.

    2000-01-01

    In the fight against the HIV/AIDS pandemic different approaches can be distinguished, reflecting professional backgrounds, world views and political interests. One important distinction is between the biomedical and the development paradigms. The biomedical paradigm is characterized by individualization and the concept of "risk". This again is related to the concept of the market where health is a product of services and progress a series of new discoveries that can be marketed. The development paradigm is characterized by participation of the different stakeholders and by community work. The concept "vulnerability" is important in the development paradigm and emphasis is placed on efforts to decrease this vulnerability in a variety of sustainable ways. Biomedical technology is definitely one of the tools in these efforts. In the beginning of the pandemic the biomedical approach was important for the discovery of the virus and understanding its epidemiology. Later, stakeholders became involved. In the light of absence of treatment or vaccines, the development paradigm became more important and the two approaches were more in balance. However, since the reports about effective treatment of AIDS and hope of development of vaccines, the biomedical paradigm has become a leading principle in many HIV/AIDS prevention programmes. There is a need for a better balance between the two paradigms. Especially in developing countries, where it is not realistic to think that sustainable biomedical interventions can be organized on a short-term basis, it would be counterproductive to base our efforts to deal with HIV/AIDS exclusively on the biomedical approach. PMID:10743300

  9. Conservation biology: beyond marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Kareiva, Peter

    2006-07-25

    Socioeconomic and ecological analyses of eleven coral reef conservation efforts make clear that marine protected areas are not the answer, and that in fact support of local communities is far more important than some government mandated 'fishing closure'. Apparently there are marine 'paper parks' just as there are terrestrial 'paper parks'. PMID:16860727

  10. Energy Conservation: Implementing an Effective Campus Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsee, Jeff

    After reviewing the physical plant environment and temperature control equipment at Eastfield College (Texas), this paper explains how redirected efforts toward energy conservation can result in important cost/usage savings. Electricity billing rates are explained to provide a stronger usage strategy for cost effectiveness. Two methods of reducing…

  11. Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

  12. Mommy, Daddy--What's AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.

    This brochure is designed to help parents answer the questions that their children may ask them about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It provides basic information about AIDS and HIV, as well as sources for further information, such as the National AIDS Hotline. It…

  13. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  14. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  15. The First Aid Training Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

  16. Native fish conservation areas: A vision for large-scale conservation of native fish communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jack E.; Williams, Richard N.; Thurow, Russell F.; Elwell, Leah; Philipp, David P.; Harris, Fred A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Martinez, Patrick J.; Miller, Dirk; Reeves, Gordon H.; Frissell, Christopher A.; Sedell, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The status of freshwater fishes continues to decline despite substantial conservation efforts to reverse this trend and recover threatened and endangered aquatic species. Lack of success is partially due to working at smaller spatial scales and focusing on habitats and species that are already degraded. Protecting entire watersheds and aquatic communities, which we term "native fish conservation areas" (NFCAs), would complement existing conservation efforts by protecting intact aquatic communities while allowing compatible uses. Four critical elements need to be met within a NFCA: (1) maintain processes that create habitat complexity, diversity, and connectivity; (2) nurture all of the life history stages of the fishes being protected; (3) include a long-term enough watershed to provide long-term persistence of native fish populations; and (4) provide management that is sustainable over time. We describe how a network of protected watersheds could be created that would anchor aquatic conservation needs in river basins across the country.

  17. Aids in the Black Community: Public Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Stephen C.

    1988-01-01

    As of the end of September 1988, 16,600 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been reported in New York City, including 5,248 cases among blacks, 32 percent of the total. Of these, 4,220 (80 percent of adults) are men, 1,028 (19 percent of adults) are women, and 195 are children. The major source of the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection within the black community is the intravenous (IV) drug user. Half of New York City's 200,000 IV drug users are estimated to be black; almost half of the women infected with AIDS through sexual contact with IV drug users are black. Every option for breaking the AIDS-IV drug abuser connection must be explored. AIDS among blacks is especially charged with the potential for discrimination or widespread backlash. AIDS education efforts must be increased, and legislation to protect against unauthorized disclosures of confidential health records must be supported. Comprehensive education programs must destigmatize AIDS among health care workers. To keep up with the epidemic, a national prevention strategy must consist of a massive national public health education program; voluntary, confidential counseling and HIV antibody testing expanded into every public and private clinical facility; and major efforts to curtail AIDS transmission by the IV drug user. PMID:3249321

  18. Geography of conservation spending, biodiversity, and culture.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, T R; Rankin, P S

    2016-10-01

    We used linear and multivariate models to examine the associations between geography, biodiversity, per capita economic output, national spending on conservation, governance, and cultural traits in 55 countries. Cultural traits and social metrics of modernization correlated positively with national spending on conservation. The global distribution of this spending culture was poorly aligned with the distribution of biodiversity. Specifically, biodiversity was greater in the tropics where cultures tended to spend relatively less on conservation and tended to have higher collectivism, formalized and hierarchical leadership, and weaker governance. Consequently, nations lacking social traits frequently associated with modernization, environmentalism, and conservation spending have the largest component of Earth's biodiversity. This has significant implications for setting policies and priorities for resource management given that biological diversity is rapidly disappearing and cultural traits change slowly. Therefore, we suggest natural resource management adapt to and use characteristics of existing social organization rather than wait for or promote social values associated with conservation spending. Supporting biocultural traditions, engaging leaders to increase conservation commitments, cross-national efforts that complement attributes of cultures, and avoiding interference with nature may work best to conserve nature in collective and hierarchical societies. Spending in modernized nations may be a symbolic response to a symptom of economic development and environmental degradation, and here conservation actions need to ensure that biodiversity is not being lost. PMID:26991737

  19. [AIDS: "We will win"].

    PubMed

    Chabrier, H

    1989-11-13

    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood. PMID:12342689

  20. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  1. Mental Effort and Elaboration: A Developmental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Daniel W.; Davies, Leslie

    1988-01-01

    Dual task procedures (finger tapping and associative memory) were used to examine developmental differences in the amount of mental effort required to deploy rehearsal and elaboration. Sixth-grade and college students participated. Some evidence for a developmental difference in mental effort was found. (TJH)

  2. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  3. How Sixth Graders Perceive Effort and Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, Mary Lou; Compagnone, Nick

    1995-01-01

    The study described here examined whether using formative assessment would affect middle school physical education students' self-perceptions of effort and skill. Students completed questionnaires about effort and skill following assessment in various activities. Formative assessment did not affect students' self-perceptions. Students believed…

  4. Parental Effort, School Resources, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtenville, Andrew J.; Conway, Karen Smith

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates an important factor in student achievement--parental involvement. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), we estimate a value-added education production function that includes parental effort as an input. Parental effort equations are also estimated as a function of child, parent, household, and…

  5. Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

  6. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  7. Overview of NASA's Propulsion 21 Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long-Davis, Mary Jo

    2006-01-01

    Propulsion 21 technologies contribute to reducing CO2 and NO(x) emissions and noise. Integrated Government/Industry/University research efforts have produced promising initial technical results. Graduate students from 5 partnering universities will benefit from this collaborative research--> educating the future engineering workforce. Phase 2 Efforts scheduled to be completed 3QFY06.

  8. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Ray J.

    2011-01-01

    Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) toward overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal's motivation toward effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action. PMID:21734862

  9. Personal effort in social relationships across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lang, Frieder R; Wagner, Jenny; Wrzus, Cornelia; Neyer, Franz J

    2013-06-01

    We explored age differences in the amount of personal effort that people put forth to maintain relationships across adulthood in diverse family-life contexts. More specifically, we examined how personal effort in social relationships is age-differently related to emotional closeness and perceptions of reciprocity. A total of 658 early-midlife (37 years) and old-age adults (73 years) from three life contexts (biological parents, parents from blended families with at least one stepchild, childless individuals) completed a questionnaire assessing ego-centered social networks, relationship quality, perceived conflict, and personal characteristics. As expected, perceived relationship effort was more pronounced and more strongly associated with emotional closeness in old age than in early midlife. In both age groups, perceived effort was comparably associated with reciprocity and conflict. Such associations were similar across the different life contexts. The findings suggest that perceived personal effort in social relationships contributes to the proactive shaping of social worlds across adulthood. PMID:23586359

  10. The Impact of Financial Aid on Learning, Career Decisions, and Employment: Evidence from Recent Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Po

    2011-01-01

    China established a large-scale financial aid system in the late 1980s. This multilayered aid system aimed at enhancing educational and employment opportunities. However, very few studies have examined the impact of student aid on learning effort and outcome, career decisions, and early labor market performance. Using two recent Chinese college…

  11. The Untapped Potential of School Directors to Strengthen School-Based Responses to HIV/AIDS. Discussion Paper No. III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijngaarden, Jan; Mallik, Arun; Shaeffer, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    An evaluation is presented on the impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector in the Asia Pacific region. The spread of HIV/AIDS not only brings illness and death, it also threatens the efforts already made to achieve the goal of Education for All (EFA). Education can combat the negative consequences wrought by HIV/AIDS. Tactics include (1)…

  12. Preferred conservation policies of shark researchers.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, David S; Hammerschlag, Neil

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing concern about the conservation status of sharks. However, the presence of numerous different (and potentially mutually exclusive) policies complicates management implementation and public understanding of the process. We distributed an online survey to members of the largest professional shark and ray research societies to assess member knowledge of and attitudes toward different conservation policies. Questions covered society member opinions on conservation and management policies, personal histories of involvement in advocacy and management, and perceptions of the approach of conservation nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to shark conservation. One hundred and two surveys were completed (overall response rate 21%). Respondents considered themselves knowledgeable about and actively involved in conservation and management policy; a majority believed scientists have a responsibility to advocate for conservation (75%), and majorities have sent formal public comments to policymakers (54%) and included policy suggestions in their papers (53%). They believe sustainable shark fisheries are possible, are currently happening today (in a few places), and should be the goal instead of banning fisheries. Respondents were generally less supportive of newer limit-based (i.e., policies that ban exploitation entirely without a species-specific focus) conservation policy tools, such as shark sanctuaries and bans on the sale of shark fins, than of target-based fisheries management tools (i.e., policies that allow for sustainable harvest of species whose populations can withstand it), such as fishing quotas. Respondents were generally supportive of environmental NGO efforts to conserve sharks but raised concerns about some NGOs that they perceived as using incorrect information and focusing on the wrong problems. Our results show there is an ongoing debate in shark conservation and management circles relative to environmental policy on target-based natural

  13. Incorporating geodiversity into conservation decisions.

    PubMed

    Comer, Patrick J; Pressey, Robert L; Hunter, Malcolm L; Schloss, Carrie A; Buttrick, Steven C; Heller, Nicole E; Tirpak, John M; Faith, Daniel P; Cross, Molly S; Shaffer, Mark L

    2015-06-01

    adaptation will be required to ensure that conservation efforts fully consider the value of geodiversity for supporting biodiversity in the face of a changing climate. PMID:25923052

  14. AID AND SOMATIC HYPERMUTATION

    PubMed Central

    Maul, Robert W.; Gearhart, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    In response to an assault by foreign organisms, peripheral B cells can change their antibody affinity and isotype by somatically mutating their genomic DNA. The ability of a cell to modify its DNA is exceptional in light of the potential consequences of genetic alterations to cause human disease and cancer. Thus, as expected, this mechanism of antibody diversity is tightly regulated and coordinated through one protein, activation induced deaminase (AID). AID produces diversity by converting cytosine to uracil within the immunoglobulin loci. The deoxyuracil residue is mutagenic when paired with deoxyguanosine, since it mimics thymidine during DNA replication. Additionally, B cells can manipulate the DNA repair pathways so that deoxyuracils are not faithfully repaired. Therefore, an intricate balance exists which is regulated at multiple stages to promote mutation of immunoglobulin genes, while retaining integrity of the rest of the genome. Here we discuss and summarize the current understanding of how AID functions to cause somatic hypermutation. PMID:20510733

  15. Correction: AIDS commission.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    A recent article by William Booth on the President's AIDS commission (News & Comment, 16 Oct., p. 262) incorrectly states that commission member Cory SerVaas, publisher of the Saturday Evening Post, drives her AIDS Mobile around the country. SerVaas does not drive the traveling van that offers free AIDS testing. Rather, she often flies to meet it as it travels around the country, stopping at shopping malls and churches by prearrangement with local civic and religious groups. SerVaas denies saying that homosexuals are "deviants." "We have helped homosexuals for many years," she says, pointing out that although her group primarily tests people who have a low risk of being infected, such as recipients of blood transfusions and women who may become pregnant, members of high-risk groups such as homosexuals and drug addicts are not excluded. PMID:17814691

  16. AIDS and the cycle of poverty.

    PubMed

    Evian, C

    1993-01-01

    The comments presented are a summary from a presentation on poverty and AIDS made at the CHASA conference in Johannesburg, South Africa. AIDS is a complex and malignant disease in epidemic proportions; poverty and AIDS are linked with biological features such as a long, silent, latent period as HIV infection, the paralysis of the bodies immune system. The prevention of natural or herd immunity, the vertical perinatal transmission, and the links with sexually transmitted diseases. South Africa has been one of the last to be affected by AIDS/HIV. The impact is expected to be devastating because of the history of apartheid and its destructive impact on people and traditions of family life, and the contribution to poverty. The industrial base promotes migration, mobility, and exploitation. Leaving home breaks down the communities of departure and places the migrant in a vulnerable position as a nobody. The consequence of this status is multipartner sexual practices and prostitution as a means of economic support. Gender inequalities are further exacerbated by family disruption and instability. Women become less able to take control over their own sexual lives. The elite control scarce resources and wealth and have ample opportunity to exploit the poor. The poor also have less access to health care and condoms, and thus treatment of sexually transmitted diseases or prevention of HIV infections. Poor educational experiences can prevent their understanding of the issues, if they reach a health clinic. The silent nature of AIDS transmission is a difficult concept to grasp. Leisure and entertainment opportunities are limited, which leaves alcohol and sex as the preferred means of attaining pleasure, comfort, and intimacy. Urban violence and crime breed fatalism and despondency, which hurts prevention effort. AIDS also increases poverty through job loss, rejection, and discrimination. PMID:8487851

  17. A moment in time: AIDS and business.

    PubMed

    Bloom, D E; Rosenfield, A

    2000-09-01

    Business has transformed the planet. But this gives it new responsibilities. People now expect business leaders to lead--and not just respond when things go wrong. HIV/AIDS is a global problem, with over 16.3 million people now thought to have died of the disease (Global Summary of HIV/AIDS Epidemic, UNAIDS, December 1999). Without action now, the pandemic will worsen, health services will come under relentless pressure and the number of people dying will increase exponentially. So why should business sit up and take notice? First: money. AIDS is slowly strangling many businesses and economies--and in a global market, everyone eventually suffers. Without profit, there is no business--so the business community needs to act to protect its bottom line. Second: people. Over 80% of those dying are in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. Businesses are losing workers and customers, and human networks that have taken decades to build. Third: imagination. Business is inventive, creative and fast-moving. It has the opportunity to use these strengths for the benefit of the wider community. It's time to pit business ideas (and some money, too) against the threat of AIDS. The course of the AIDS epidemic is not inevitable. The world's businesses have the skills and intensity to make a measurable difference, especially if they find public sector and NGO partners with whom they share a vision. A focused, coordinated, results-driven effort will hit AIDS hard. The HIV virus moves fast (and is mutating all the time). Business has the opportunity to make a difference. It must grasp this opportunity. And grasp if fast. PMID:11051635

  18. Developing and Implementing Monitoring and Evaluation Methods in the New Era of Expanded Care and Treatment of HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, R. Cameron; Bicego, George; Marconi, Katherine; Bessinger, Ruth; van Praag, Eric; Noriega-Minichiello, Shanti; Pappas, Gregory; Fronczak, Nancy; Peersman, Greet; Fiorentino, Renee K.; Rugg, Deborah; Novak, John

    2004-01-01

    The sharp rise in the HIV/AIDS burden worldwide has elicited calls for increased efforts to combat the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS. Efforts must continue with the aim to decrease new infections. At the same time, care and treatment services for those already infected can lead to longer, productive lives, thereby minimizing negative effects on…

  19. Culture and conservation

    SciTech Connect

    McNeely, J.A.; Pitt, D.

    1985-01-01

    The threat posed by human activity in the natural environment is one of the major global problems of the present time. Much has been done throughout the world to promote conservation, but one theme that has generally been neglected is the contribution that local culture can make to conservation. Many people pass on from one generation to the next traditional lore and customs which amount to effective conservation policies. This book identifies such traditional conservation measures, examines their extent, and judges their effectiveness.

  20. Women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Edemikpong, N B

    1990-01-01

    While the origin of the AIDS virus remains controversial, it is indisputable that AIDS is spreading worldwide. By June 1987, the World Health Organization estimated that 50 million Africans were infected with HIV and that the disease was epidemic in many parts of the continent. However, African governments chose to deny the threat of the disease. The AIDS crisis has diverted resources from other vital areas of disease prevention, health promotion, and research. Whereas AIDS is spread in developed nations by sexual promiscuity, by drug addicts sharing unclean hypodermic needles, and by homosexual behavior, in Africa cultural factors contribute to the transmission of AIDS. Female genital mutilation leads to extensive laceration of the female genitals upon initiation of sexual intercourse and/or to substitution of anal sex during the weeks and months before vaginal penetration can be achieved. In addition, the reuse of the same knives during the mutilation can spread HIV infection. Other factors that contribute to the spread of HIV in Africa include the patriarchal practice of polygamy, the subordinate position of women that makes them unable to insist on protection during intercourse, and a failure to screen blood used in transfusions. With all of these risk factors at play, women at the grassroots level must be equipped with the health education that is the only available tool to fight AIDS. Women's organizations can provide information and education to people at risk of acquiring HIV, counsel infected persons, ensure the safety of the blood supply, and work to overcome harmful traditional practices. PMID:12317073

  1. A constitution for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  2. AIDS--legal issues.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M

    1988-01-01

    Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs. PMID:3147672

  3. Cognitive Spare Capacity as an Index of Listening Effort.

    PubMed

    Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Everyday listening may be experienced as effortful, especially by individuals with hearing loss. This may be due to internal factors, such as cognitive load, and external factors, such as noise. Even when speech is audible, internal and external factors may combine to reduce cognitive spare capacity, or the ability to engage in cognitive processing of spoken information. A better understanding of cognitive spare capacity and how it can be optimally allocated may guide new approaches to rehabilitation and ultimately improve outcomes. This article presents results of three tests of cognitive spare capacity:1. Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall (SWIR) test2. Cognitive Spare Capacity Test (CSCT)3. Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST)Results show that noise reduces cognitive spare capacity even when speech intelligibility is retained. In addition, SWIR results show that hearing aid signal processing can increase cognitive spare capacity, and CSCT and AIST results show that increasing load reduces cognitive spare capacity. Correlational evidence suggests that while the effect of noise on cognitive spare capacity is related to working memory capacity, the effect of load is related to executive function. Future studies should continue to investigate how hearing aid signal processing can mitigate the effect of load on cognitive spare capacity, and whether such effects can be enhanced by developing executive skills through training. The mechanisms modulating cognitive spare capacity should be investigated by studying their neural correlates, and tests of cognitive spare capacity should be developed for clinical use in conjunction with developing new approaches to rehabilitation. PMID:27355773

  4. Contending with uncertainty in conservation management decisions

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Efficient conservation management is particularly important because current spending is estimated to be insufficient to conserve the world's biodiversity. However, efficient management is confounded by uncertainty that pervades conservation management decisions. Uncertainties exist in objectives, dynamics of systems, the set of management options available, the influence of these management options, and the constraints on these options. Probabilistic and nonprobabilistic quantitative methods can help contend with these uncertainties. The vast majority of these account for known epistemic uncertainties, with methods optimizing the expected performance or finding solutions that achieve minimum performance requirements. Ignorance and indeterminacy continue to confound environmental management problems. While quantitative methods to account for uncertainty must aid decisions if the underlying models are sufficient approximations of reality, whether such models are sufficiently accurate has not yet been examined. PMID:25138920

  5. Measuring listening effort: driving simulator vs. simple dual-task paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Aksan, Nazan; Rizzo, Matthew; Stangl, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xuyang; Bentler, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The dual-task paradigm has been widely used to measure listening effort. The primary objectives of the study were to (1) investigate the effect of hearing aid amplification and a hearing aid directional technology on listening effort measured by a complicated, more real world dual-task paradigm, and (2) compare the results obtained with this paradigm to a simpler laboratory-style dual-task paradigm. Design The listening effort of adults with hearing impairment was measured using two dual-task paradigms, wherein participants performed a speech recognition task simultaneously with either a driving task in a simulator or a visual reaction-time task in a sound-treated booth. The speech materials and road noises for the speech recognition task were recorded in a van traveling on the highway in three hearing aid conditions: unaided, aided with omni directional processing (OMNI), and aided with directional processing (DIR). The change in the driving task or the visual reaction-time task performance across the conditions quantified the change in listening effort. Results Compared to the driving-only condition, driving performance declined significantly with the addition of the speech recognition task. Although the speech recognition score was higher in the OMNI and DIR conditions than in the unaided condition, driving performance was similar across these three conditions, suggesting that listening effort was not affected by amplification and directional processing. Results from the simple dual-task paradigm showed a similar trend: hearing aid technologies improved speech recognition performance, but did not affect performance in the visual reaction-time task (i.e., reduce listening effort). The correlation between listening effort measured using the driving paradigm and the visual reaction-time task paradigm was significant. The finding showing that our older (56 to 85 years old) participants’ better speech recognition performance did not result in reduced

  6. Multi-Union Efforts in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfield, Marcia

    2008-01-01

    The Professional Staff Congress (PSC), the union for twenty-two thousand faculty and staff members at the City University of New York (CUNY), has been successful at gaining New York State aid for tuition remission for doctoral students and health insurance for graduate student employees, increasing budget allotments to CUNY, and obtaining transit…

  7. Electronic Mentoring: Quantifying the Programmatic Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Single, Peg Boyle; Muller, Carol B.

    This paper reports on experiences conducting and evaluating MentorNet, a nationwide structured electronic mentoring (ementoring) program that pairs women engineering students, related science students, and math students with industry professionals and provides support to aid the development of year-long ementoring relationships. MentorNet's goal…

  8. Measuring the Mental Effort of Blind Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shingledecker, Clark A.

    1983-01-01

    The article describes studies of effectiveness of a secondary task as a measure of the blind mobility information processing workload. Secondary task performance is shown to be a useful index of effects of preview and route difficulty, as well as perceptual and cognitive demands of different mobility aids. (Author/CL)

  9. Achieving effective landscape conservation: evolving demands adaptive metrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid changes in demographics and on- and off-farm land use limit the impacts of U.S. conservation programs and present particular challenges to future conservation efforts. The fragmentation of landscape through urban, suburban, and peri-urban development, coincident with demographic shifts, has s...

  10. Conservation in the Education Program. Bulletin, 1937, No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristow, William H.; Cook, Katherine M.

    1937-01-01

    A number of voluntary organizations such as the Wildlife Institute, Educational Conservation Society, American Forestry Association, American Nature Association, etc., are devoting their efforts to stimulation of a more nearly adequate appreciation of the place conservation holds in our national life. It is more and more generally realized that we…

  11. Conservation Effects Assessment Project – CEAP – National Research Cooperation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CEAP is a multi-agency effort to quantify the environmental benefits of conservation practices used by private landowners participating in selected USDA conservation programs. Within CEAP are a national assessment, focusing on regional and national-scale modeling, and a watershed assessment of cropl...

  12. Botanic garden genetics: comparison of two cyacad conservation collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic data can guide the management of plant conservation collections. Direct assay of an ex situ collection’s genetic diversity, measured against wild plant populations, offers insight for conservation efforts. Here we present a carefully chosen case study, Zamia lucayana, selected for its contra...

  13. Software aids plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Winiger, T. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that for most utilities, computer aided engineering (CAE) systems are currently used for operating plant support rather than new plant design particularly for nuclear plant maintenance. For nuclear power generating utilities, switching to a modern, integrated CAE information system can offer significant benefits. During the last decade, however, most engineering automation in the power generation industry focused on computer-aided drafting and stand-alone engineering applications. An integrated CAE system can be a useful too, assisting engineers with many engineering and operational activities. It also can be used to manage the massive amount of information created throughout the life of a plant.

  14. Conservation in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Edward

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the physical concept of conservation as it is framed within the laws of conservation of mass, of momentum, and of energy. The derivation of Ohm's Law as a generalization of the relationship between the observed measurements of voltage and current serves as the exemplar of how conservation theories are formed. (JJK)

  15. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  16. Hispanic AIDS education in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J

    1988-04-01

    The Hispanic AIDS Committee for Education and Resources (HACER) was established in 1987 as an AIDS education program targeted at the Mexicano population of South Texas. The word "Mexicano" is used because "Hispanic" refers to a larger, more diversified group. "Mexicano" refers specifically to people of South Texas who are either Mexican-Americans (people of Mexican descent, born and educated in the US) or Mexicans (people born and educated in Mexico). Mexicanos constitute 56% of the population of South Texas and 54% of the population of San Antonio. Mexican-Americans, in general, speak and read English and listen to English-language television and radio. Mexicans are poorer and less educated, Spanish-speaking, and often illiterate. The Mexicanos do not constitute a high risk group for AIDS; at present there are only 64 Mexicano AIDS patients in San Antonio. AIDS education campaigns on television which are directed at the whole Hispanic community may be counter-productive when directed at the Mexicano population because they know that AIDS is not yet a serious problem among them, and scare tactics only cause hysteria. AIDS education is essential, but it must be specifically geared to the Mexicano community, which, in general, is a very conservative community, in which subjects like sex, homosexuality, condoms, or anal intercourse are not discussed in public. But it is also a community of young (median age 23) sexually active people. An AIDS education program directed at them must use simple, elementary language in standard Mexican Spanish for the Mexicans and in English for the young Mexican-Americans. The single most effective way to reach the Mexicano population would be public service announcements aired on television during the time when the telenovelas (soap operas) are on. Not only are the telenovelas widely watched, but their actors are popular heros, who will be listened to by their audience. The use of radio for public service announcements would be useful

  17. AIDS: the frightening facts.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M

    1986-01-01

    Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has succeeded in creating an unprecedented wave of panic among the Western public and some sections of the medical profession. Research clearly shows that the AIDS virus is transmissible in a number of ways: from man to woman and vice versa during sexual intercourse, through semen and possibly vaginal fluids; from mothers to their children through breast milk; through exchange of saliva (but not through just a casual kiss); and through blood and blood products. Far from being exclusive to homosexuals, studies in Europe have shown that female virus carriers can transmit AIDS to healthy men through sexual intercourse--the predominant means by which transmission appears to occur in Central Africa. Although cases of AIDS began being diagnosed in a few Central African countries at the beginning of the 1980s, at the same time as they were first being observed in Europe and North America, many commentators assumed that the virus originated in Africa. Yet, it is safe to say that the nature of the virus, let alone its origins, remains controversial among scientists and virologists. 1 supporter of the theory that the AIDS virus has African origins is Robert Gall of the US National Institute of Health (NIH). He is one of the co-discoverers of the virus, which he named HTLV3 (Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus 3). The virus also was discovered at France's Pasteur Institute by Luc Montaigner, who called it LAV (Lymphadenpathy Associated Virus). Gallo named the virus as he did because he believes it to be related to a pair of other viruses, HTLV1 and HTLV2, which like the AIDS virus attack the body's immunity system. Unlike AIDS, these 2 viruses, do not destroy the T-cells but cause them to replicate into cancer tumors. In Gallo's view, HTLV1 has long been endemic to some parts of Africa, from where he believes it spread via the slave trade to other parts of the world. Montaigner does not agree. He denies that the AIDS virus is related to

  18. Global conservation status of sponges.

    PubMed

    Bell, James J; McGrath, Emily; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Bates, Tracey; Cárdenas, César A; Bennett, Holly

    2015-02-01

    Sponges are important for maintaining ecosystem function and integrity of marine and freshwater benthic communities worldwide. Despite this, there has been no assessment of their current global conservation status. We assessed their status, accounting for the distribution of research effort; patterns of temporal variation in sponge populations and assemblages; the number of sponges on threatened species lists; and the impact of environmental pressures. Sponge research effort has been variable; marine sponges in the northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean and freshwater sponges in Europe and North America have received the most attention. Although sponge abundance has increased in some locations since 1990, these were typically on coral reefs, in response to declines in other benthic organisms, and restricted to a few species. Few data were available on temporal trends in freshwater sponge abundance. Despite over 8500 described sponge species, only 20 are on threatened species lists, and all are marine species from the northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. Of the 202 studies identified, the effects of temperature, suspended sediment, substratum loss, and microbial pathogens have been studied the most intensively for marine sponges, although responses appear to be variable. There were 20 studies examining environmental impacts on freshwater sponges, and most of these were on temperature and heavy metal contamination. We found that most sponges do not appear to be threatened globally. However, little information is available for most species and more data are needed on the impacts of anthropogenic-related pressures. This is a critical information gap in understanding sponge conservation status. PMID:25599574

  19. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  20. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance – control of corruption and democratic accountability – on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001–2010 datasets. Results Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below −2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention. PMID:27189199

  1. Conservation of North American rallids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.; Manley, Brooke; Reid, Frederic A.; Zembal, Richard

    1988-01-01

    taxa in western coastal marshes. This report updates and summarizes information on North American rallids since the ARP report and identifies the major conservation problems of this group with the intent of focusing future efforts on these priority issues. Consideration of island forms occurring within U.S. possessions is beyond the scope of this report, mainly because of the special conservation problems associated with their insular distribution. The major topics include habitat requirements, effects of habitat and hunting management techniques currently practiced on wetland areas, and conservation of endangered and threatened populations. Research needs are identified. Habitats of the American Coot are similar to those of several waterfowl species, and the biology of coots is considered only as it is typical of rails in general.

  2. Exactly conservative integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J.

    1995-07-19

    Traditional numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically yield an artificial secular drift of any nonlinear invariants. In this work we present an explicit nontraditional algorithm that exactly conserves invariants. We illustrate the general method by applying it to the Three-Wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Volterra-Lotka predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. We discuss our method in the context of symplectic (phase space conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. We comment on the application of our method to general conservative systems.

  3. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  4. Apartheid and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, A T

    1989-11-25

    To persuade South Africa to abolish its apartheid policy several measures have been taken by the international community, including economic sanctions. The harm done by sanctions to the South African economy is obvious. As economic activity has slowed down, unemployment, especially in the black community, has risen. For the unemployed poverty and hunger are harsh realities while for those lucky enough to have jobs income remains quite high. Prostitution has become a way of redistributing income and for many families it is the only way to avoid starvation. With prostitution, however, has come AIDS: it is estimated that HIV infection is doubling every 5-8 months. On 1 calculation 85% of sexually active blacks could be infected with HIV by 1996; most would proceed to AIDS and die, leaving millions of children without parents. Although economic sanctions have speeded up some measure of reform in South Africa they are now harming the very people they were intended to help. Furthermore insidious voices are already being heard saying the government should stop all reform processes and anti-AIDS campaigns and just "sit it out" for the next few years. A further consequence of an ailing economy is the unavailability of funding for those who wish to curb the spread of AIDS via educational and other programs. [Full text] PMID:2573792

  5. Good Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins with these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, How to Lead a Field Trip, Natural Resources in the City, Mysteries of Bird Migration, Rock Stories and How to Read Them, The Ground Water Table, The Terrarium, Some Adventures With Wild Plants Outdoors and Indoors, Plant Propagation in the…

  6. Management of Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, Jeanne, Ed.

    The principles, practices, responsibilities, and controls in student financial aid are described in this manual. It traces the flow of funds, management activities, and legal issues as they occur in the process. The emphasis is on sound management principles of a general and permanent nature rather than on specific government requirements that may…

  7. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  8. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  9. Kool-Aid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Christie L.

    1986-01-01

    Offers guidelines and suggests activities that can introduce middle school students to the process and principles of chromatography in an inexpensive and safe manner. Proposes that experiences with Kool-aid and food coloring chromatography can provide insights into how scientists think, work, and communicate. (ML)

  10. Coil Welding Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  11. AIDS.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sites Podcasts QR Codes RSS Feeds Social Bookmarking Social Network Sites Text Messaging Twitter Video Games Video Sharing ... here Read related blog here Get updates via Facebook Live interviews Join the conversation: #RyanWhite2016​ International AIDS ...

  12. AIDS: Implications for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Eleanor D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and its epidemiology. Discusses implications for families (social stigma and isolation, fears of contagion, infection and abandonment, guilt, anger, grief, and economic hardship) and for human service professionals (public education, voluntary, anonymous testing with counseling, and…

  13. Newspaper Lesson Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET), 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides photocopy-ready lesson aids on story ideas, interviewing, inverted pyramid writing style, newswriting, sports/scavenger hunt, finding feature material, identifying feature leads, feature lead selection, evaluating feature leads, compiling survey material, cutlines, headlines, paste-up rules, advertising, final semester project, newspaper…

  14. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  15. AIDS Researcher Gives Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, renowned immunologist James E.K. Hildreth, M.D., Ph.D., was compelled to start researching the virus that causes AIDS. He marveled at its enigma and was pressed into action by its ability to cut lives short and devastate communities. The disease set him on a course of medical inquiry that has included biomedical breakthroughs…

  16. More than First Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  17. First Aid Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  18. AIDS and Native Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, G. Cajetan

    Native Americans throughout North America suffer from a greater prevalence of health problems than the population as a whole. One might believe that the problem of AIDS is insignificant for Native youth, but such a belief is inaccurate and shortsighted. As of March 1989, the Centers for Disease Control reported 1,792 cases of childhood and…

  19. Street Youth & AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Joyce L.; And Others

    Interviews were conducted with 712 Canadian street youth (ages 15-20 years) to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Youth were interviewed in 10 cities across Canada on the basis of 5 street culture lifestyles: prostitution, drug…

  20. First aid advisor

    SciTech Connect

    Saffer, S.I.; Weng, Wen-Chang

    1996-12-31

    A knowledge-based system (KBS), First Aid Advisor (FAA), is developed to provide a guidance for either a trained or untrained person to take some emergent actions to rescue the victim from life-threatening hazard or to prevent from causing serious problem before the Emergency Medical Service System (EMS) personnels arrive the scene. The First Aid Advisor will collect victim`s information by interacting with the user through a sequence of questions, analyze the victim`s problem, and give instructions step by step before offering a final advice. Since all the possible conditions are taken into consideration, it will guide the user to perform first aid from the most to the least urgent step for the victim. Furthermore, it will offer a suitable first aid advice for victim and eliminate the possibility of wrong actions done by trained person due to carelessness or nervousness. Offering advice to handle problems involving life-threatening conditions is the main objective of this system. In this paper, we will describe six major components of FAA and their respective tasks. Decision tables and dependency diagrams used in FAA implementation will also be described. System performance issues will conclude the paper.

  1. Circulation Aide Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Alan O.

    This training manual provides instruction on shelving and other duties for student assistants in the learning resources center at the College of Dupage, located in Illinois. It is noted that prospective student circulation aides are required to read the manual and pass a written test on policies and procedures before they are allowed to shelve…

  2. Living with AIDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Because events move swiftly in the contemporary world, it is easy to forget that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a phenomenon of the 1980s. It is generally agreed that this is only the very beginning of a scientific investigation that will go on well into the 21st century. This issue attempts to provide some of the basic information…

  3. First Aid: Chickenpox

    MedlinePlus

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Chickenpox ... Chickenpox (varicella) is an illness that has become much less common in the U.S. due to the chickenpox vaccine . The infection and rash will go away without ...

  4. Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard

    This document contains course outlines in computer-aided manufacturing developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The four units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM); (2) CAM…

  5. Computer-Aided Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Graham

    This report discusses the impact of and presents guidelines for developing a computer-aided instructional (CAI) system. The first section discusses CAI in terms of the need for the countries of Asia to increase their economic self-sufficiency. The second section examines various theories on the nature of learning with special attention to the role…

  6. Climate change, wine, and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A.; Hijmans, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

  7. Climate change, wine, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V; Shaw, M Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A; Hijmans, Robert J

    2013-04-23

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

  8. Elasticity analyses of size-based red and white abalone matrix models: management and conservation.

    PubMed

    Rogers-Bennett, Laura; Leaf, Robert T

    2006-02-01

    Prospective elasticity analyses have been used to aid in the management of fished species and the conservation of endangered species. Elasticities were examined for deterministic size-based matrix models of red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, and white abalone, H. sorenseni, to evaluate which size classes influenced population growth (lambda) the most. In the red abalone matrix, growth transitions were determined from a tag recapture study and grouped into nine size classes. In the white abalone matrix, abalone growth was determined from a laboratory study and grouped into five size classes. Survivorship was estimated from tag recapture data for red abalone using a Jolly-Seber model with size as a covariate and used for both red and white abalone. Reproduction estimates for both models used averages of the number of mature eggs produced by female red and white abalone in each size class from four-year reproduction studies. Population growth rate (lambda) was set to 1.0, and the first-year survival (larval survival through to the first size class) was estimated by iteration. Survival elasticities were higher than fecundity elasticities in both the red and white matrix models. The sizes classes with the greatest survival elasticities, and therefore the most influence on population growth in the model, were the sublegal red abalone (150-178 mm) and the largest white abalone size class (140-175 mm). For red abalone, the existing minimum legal size (178 mm) protects the size class the model suggests is critical to population growth. Implementation of education programs for novice divers coupled with renewed enforcement may serve to minimize incidental mortality of the critical size class. For white abalone, conservation efforts directed at restoring adults may have more of an impact on population growth than efforts focusing on juveniles. Our work is an example of how prospective elasticity analyses of size-structured matrix models can be used to quantitatively evaluate

  9. Cataloging Practices in India: Efforts for Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikku, Upinder Kumar

    1984-01-01

    Surveys current cataloging practices in Indian libraries and discusses standardization in cataloging, types of catalogs, cataloging codes (Anglo-American and Ranganathan), subject headings, descriptive cataloging, and standardization efforts (international, United States, USSR, Great Britain, India). Footnotes are included. (EJS)

  10. Measuring Evolutionary Isolation for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Redding, David W; Mazel, Florent; Mooers, Arne Ø

    2014-01-01

    Conservation planning needs to account for limited resources when choosing those species on which to focus attention and resources. Currently, funding is biased to small sections of the tree of life, such as raptors and carnivores. One new approach for increasing the diversity of species under consideration considers how many close relatives a species has in its evolutionary tree. At least eleven different ways to measure this characteristic on phylogenies for the purposes of setting species-specific priorities for conservation have been proposed. We find that there is much redundancy within the current set, with three pairs of metrics being essentially identical. Non-redundant metrics represent different trade-offs between the unique evolutionary history represented by a species verses its average distance to all other species. Depending on which metric is used, species priority lists can differ as much as 85% for the top 100 species. We call for some consensus on the theory behind these metrics and suggest that all future developments are compared to the current published set, and offer scripts to aid such comparisons. PMID:25493934

  11. [AIDS in Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Barstad, S

    1993-04-20

    The World Health Organization has announced that within 3 years 10% of Tanzania's population of 26 million will be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). But there is some faint hope in the research of Tanzanian traditional medicine. An almost 90-year-man, Waziri Mrisho, is credited with having treated AIDS patients successfully with herbs that strengthen the immune system. Margaret Nakamya was stricken by the symptoms of AIDs in March 1990. She was referred to Waziri and started using his herbs. 3 years later she weighs 49 kg compared to 40 kg before. The old man's son set up a little factory where he pulverizes herbs and sells them at the price he can command The 3 types of trees that the herbal medicine is taken from grow in the wild, but some have also been planted around the factory. Even if these herbs are effective, it will take years before the AIDS epidemic is over, when people have changed their lifestyles. The means of communication (TV, cinema, radio, telephone) are missing or inadequate. In the Kagera region, with 1.2 million inhabitants, 25% of pregnant women are HIV-infected and 65,000 children lost their parents to AIDS. There are 2000 children in Dar Es Salaam living in the streets. The Anglican St. Albans Church runs a center for street kids where they get meals 3 times a week. The nurse Ruth Nesje enlisted a Norwegian physician and homeopath in a research project involving 30 AIDS patients in Norway. The University in Bergen will do in vitro testing. One group of patients will receive both AZT and the herbs, another group will get only AZT, and the 3rd group will obtain only the herbs. The Norwegian Nursing Association, NORAD, and DANIDA also plan various projects in the Tanga region. PMID:8499187

  12. [Will AIDS overtake them?].

    PubMed

    Boukhari, S

    UNICEF estimates that the streets are now the home of some 5 million African children aged 7-15 who are victims of rapid population growth and urbanization as well as the disintegration of traditional family structure. These children, deprived of a home and of all parental control, are potentially very vulnerable to the threat of AIDS. Prostitution, which is almost institutionalized in the most impoverished urban areas, represents for young girls the most immediate means of survival and occasionally even of helping their families. Male prostitution is highly tabu and marginal in sub-Saharan Africa, and is only slightly developed around the tourist hotels. Homeless children are somewhat protected against contamination through the blood by their lack of access to health care. Intravenous drugs are rare in Africa, and drug use is at most an indirect risk factor for AIDS to the extent that in increases the need for money and weakens the immune system. The frequency of sexually transmitted diseases, deplorable hygienic conditions, and poor general health of homeless children increase their risk of contracting the virus. Many homeless children do not even know of the existence of condoms and in any event condoms are usually inaccessible or too costly for them. Homeless children, like the general population, have false ideas about AIDS that discourage self-protective behaviors. In addition they are cut off from the activities of existing prevention programs. In a context of permanent daily insecurity, AIDS appears as just 1 more menace among others. According to an anthropologist working with the UNESCO program to help homeless children, the only way of making such children aware of the threat of AIDS in the large African cities will be to increase the number of prevention programs targeted at them. At the same time, the children need to be educated and taught an income-generating skill; in short, they need to be given a reason to believe in the future. PMID:12316939

  13. AIDS: there's hope.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices. PMID:12179231

  14. Mating system, feeding type and ex situ conservation effort determine life expectancy in captive ruminants.

    PubMed

    Müller, Dennis W H; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Streich, W Jürgen; Fickel, Jörns; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

    2011-07-01

    Zoo animal husbandry aims at constantly improving husbandry, reproductive success and ultimately animal welfare. Nevertheless, analyses to determine factors influencing husbandry of different species are rare. The relative life expectancy (rLE; life expectancy (LE) as proportion of longevity) describes husbandry success of captive populations. Correlating rLE with biological characteristics of different species, reasons for variation in rLE can be detected. We analysed data of 166 901 animals representing 78 ruminant species kept in 850 facilities. The rLE of females correlated with the percentage of grass in a species' natural diet, suggesting that needs of species adapted to grass can be more easily accommodated than the needs of those adapted to browse. Males of monogamous species demonstrate higher rLE than polygamous males, which matches observed differences of sexual bias in LE in free-living populations and thus supports the ecological theory that the mating system influences LE. The third interesting finding was that rLE was higher in species managed by international studbooks when compared with species not managed in this way. Our method facilitates the identification of biological characteristics of species that are relevant for their husbandry success, and they also support ecological theory. Translating these findings into feeding recommendations, our approach can help to improve animal husbandry. PMID:21147792

  15. Living on the edge: disease, population decline and conservation efforts of the Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia)"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida torreya, Torreya taxifolia, has experienced a dramatic and precipitous population decline in its native habitat in ravines along the Apalachicola River over the past century. Recent studies have demonstrated that a novel fungal pathogen,Fusarium torreyae, is causing a severe canker and dieba...

  16. Facets of job effort in bus driver health: deconstructing "effort" in the effort-reward imbalance model.

    PubMed

    Tse, John L M; Flin, Rhona; Mearns, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This research aimed to test the relative value of developing and using job-specific facets of effort and testing them using J. Siegrist's (1996) effort-reward imbalance (ERI) theory to extend understanding of how one might determine job strain in urban bus driving. In addition, the interactive effects of the ERI model are further investigated to address the lack of research into the relationships of the model's constructs. Using focus groups and published papers, a measure of bus driver effort was created, which was subsequently completed by 186 male U.K. bus drivers as part of a questionnaire study. The results were factor analyzed to create 4 facets of effort, which demonstrated additional variance in predicting strain, above and beyond J. Siegrist's original effort construct. One facet, workload and fatigue, was observed to be a particularly important contributor to strain. The analyses further indicated that the ERI model's assumptions that ERI creates job strain could not be completely upheld, although poorer levels of reward and higher levels of overcommitment were strong main predictors of job strain. Research and applied implications are considered. PMID:17257066

  17. 50 CFR 648.82 - Effort-control program for NE multispecies limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effort-control program for NE multispecies limited access vessels. 648.82 Section 648.82 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures...

  18. Interplay between Target Sequences and Repair Pathways Determines Distinct Outcomes of AID-Initiated Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhangguo; Eder, Maxwell D.; Elos, Mihret T.; Viboolsittiseri, Sawanee S.; Chen, Xiaomi

    2016-01-01

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) functions by deaminating cytosines and causing U:G mismatches, a rate-limiting step of Ab gene diversification. However, precise mechanisms regulating AID deamination frequency remain incompletely understood. Moreover, it is not known whether different sequence contexts influence the preferential access of mismatch repair or uracil glycosylase (UNG) to AID-initiated U:G mismatches. In this study, we employed two knock-in models to directly compare the mutability of core Sμ and VDJ exon sequences and their ability to regulate AID deamination and subsequent repair process. We find that the switch (S) region is a much more efficient AID deamination target than the V region. Igh locus AID-initiated lesions are processed by error-free and error-prone repair. S region U:G mismatches are preferentially accessed by UNG, leading to more UNG-dependent deletions, enhanced by mismatch repair deficiency. V region mutation hotspots are largely determined by AID deamination. Recurrent and conserved S region motifs potentially function as spacers between AID deamination hotspots. We conclude that the pattern of mutation hotspots and DNA break generation is influenced by sequence-intrinsic properties, which regulate AID deamination and affect the preferential access of downstream repair. Our studies reveal an evolutionarily conserved role for substrate sequences in regulating Ab gene diversity and AID targeting specificity. PMID:26810227

  19. Interplay between Target Sequences and Repair Pathways Determines Distinct Outcomes of AID-Initiated Lesions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangguo; Eder, Maxwell D; Elos, Mihret T; Viboolsittiseri, Sawanee S; Chen, Xiaomi; Wang, Jing H

    2016-03-01

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) functions by deaminating cytosines and causing U:G mismatches, a rate-limiting step of Ab gene diversification. However, precise mechanisms regulating AID deamination frequency remain incompletely understood. Moreover, it is not known whether different sequence contexts influence the preferential access of mismatch repair or uracil glycosylase (UNG) to AID-initiated U:G mismatches. In this study, we employed two knock-in models to directly compare the mutability of core Sμ and VDJ exon sequences and their ability to regulate AID deamination and subsequent repair process. We find that the switch (S) region is a much more efficient AID deamination target than the V region. Igh locus AID-initiated lesions are processed by error-free and error-prone repair. S region U:G mismatches are preferentially accessed by UNG, leading to more UNG-dependent deletions, enhanced by mismatch repair deficiency. V region mutation hotspots are largely determined by AID deamination. Recurrent and conserved S region motifs potentially function as spacers between AID deamination hotspots. We conclude that the pattern of mutation hotspots and DNA break generation is influenced by sequence-intrinsic properties, which regulate AID deamination and affect the preferential access of downstream repair. Our studies reveal an evolutionarily conserved role for substrate sequences in regulating Ab gene diversity and AID targeting specificity. PMID:26810227

  20. Expanding the partnership. The private sector's role in HIV / AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Lamptey, P

    1996-07-01

    The public sector supports most HIV/AIDS prevention and care activities in developing countries, with significant funding provided by the US Agency for International Development, the Overseas Development Authority, the European Community, and international banking institutions such as the World Bank. Local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and international private voluntary organizations (PVOs) implement many of the grassroots prevention and care efforts in developing countries, but often require support from donor agencies. While the private commercial sector has played a minor role in supporting HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts, a number of local and multinational companies are beginning to recognize the importance of protecting their workers from HIV infection. These companies are motivated by a sense of moral obligation and/or view HIV/AIDS prevention as a cost-effective investment. Mainly affecting the most economically productive age groups, the HIV/AIDS epidemic will have a significant impact upon private industry. Workplace-based prevention programs and policies, private sector resources for HIV/AIDS prevention and care, how HIV/AIDS programs can benefit from the private sector's experience in commercial service delivery, research and development, and corporate direct cash and in-kind contributions to government and NGO HIV/AIDS prevention activities are discussed. The AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's Businesses Managing AIDS Project helps owners and managers understand the potential impact of HIV/AIDS upon their businesses and the benefits of HIV/AIDS prevention. PMID:12347592

  1. HIV/AIDS and Pediatric AIDS. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Jo Anne T.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and pediatric AIDS and applies this information to children in school settings. Questions and answers address the following topics: what the AIDS disease and HIV infection are; estimates…

  2. Colombia: crusading efforts bring signs of progress.

    PubMed

    Kendall, S

    1989-01-01

    Colombia, like many developing countries, has not committed resources to fight the AIDS problem. They have used the media for condom promotion and other sexually transmitted diseases. There have been 151 deaths caused by AIDS by the end of 1988; 344 cases are known, and 130 additional have tested positive to the virus. Health officials were reluctant to recognize the problem, thinking it was outside their country and that they would not be affected by it. Since then, they have tried to target high risk groups and educate them and assist with testing and counseling. There is a move to make the new drug zidovudine available, but few could afford its high price. The authorities have put transvestite prostitutes in jail and kept them for AIDS testing, but few woman prostitutes have been tested. Up until 1986, only 30% of the Red Cross blood bank supplies were being tested; now 80% are, although it comprises only about 40% of the total supply. Drugs are used heavily, but mostly smoked, in Colombia, yet there is some concern about increased use of needles. The majority of cases in Columbia have been homosexual and bisexual men, but prostitution among men and women is prevalent in large cities such as Bogota. Health officials state that education is the best deterrent, but must be perpetuated so people will be constantly reminded. PMID:12282910

  3. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.23 Conservation plans and conservation systems. (a) Use of field office technical guide. A...

  4. Psychological Interventions with AIDS and HIV: Prevention and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Debra A.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that research to date has yielded important findings for primary prevention efforts for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and has identified psychological dimensions relevant to mental health interventions for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sees pressing need for more systematic intervention outcome research in…

  5. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: Report on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of State, 2006

    2006-01-01

    For too many children, education has been a casualty of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Yet schooling remains an essential element of a robust individual and societal future, and partnerships with the education sector provide important opportunities to fight back against the pandemic. The United States Government (USG) supports efforts to address the…

  6. Constructing Identities through Literacy Events in HIV/AIDS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the literacy events in HIV/AIDS education in Tanzania to investigate how they construct social identities for participants and to what extent they provide opportunities for critical health literacies. The projects took place as collaborative research partnerships with local Tanzanian NGOs in an effort to analyse and improve…

  7. Specification and Development of Computer Aids to ISD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, A. Fred

    This paper first notes the evolution of instructional development which has led to a need for the specification and development of computer aids to ISD activities, then notes several current efforts to meet this need, and finally describes the development of an Authoring Management System (AMS) designed to help manage the development phase of ISD.…

  8. Recruiting Public Aid Recipients into Adult Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, William B.

    This program description provides a detailed summary of the efforts employed at the North Chicago Community High School in North Chicago, Illinois, to recruit public aid recipients into adult education programs. Outlined first are the educational needs of the North Chicago community. Then various agencies cooperating with the high school's…

  9. The Facts About Ergogenic Aids and Sports Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William M., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    In an address before the Ninth National American Medical Association Conference on the Medical Aspects of Sports, November 1967, in Houston, the author assessed the ability of several agents to increase the capacity of bodily and mental effort by eliminating fatigue symptoms. Of the nutritional and physical aids, only carbohydrates have any…

  10. Cooperation Support in Computer-Aided Authoring and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlhauser, Max; Rudebusch, Tom

    This paper discusses the use of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) techniques for computer-aided learning (CAL); the work was started in the context of project Nestor, a joint effort of German universities about cooperative multimedia authoring/learning environments. There are four major categories of cooperation for CAL: author/author,…

  11. Nutrition Aide. Curriculum. Competency-Based Vocational Education Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Margaret; Dillon, Nancy

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a course to prepare students for the occupation of nutrition aide. Fifteen modules are provided. They are self-contained and require little effort on the instructor's part aside from scoring posttests and providing equipment. Each module consists of a cover sheet that details job skills, performance…

  12. Indiana AIDS Prevention Plan, 1986. Version 1.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Board of Health, Indianapolis.

    The Indiana statewide Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention plan focuses on community education efforts targeted for specific high risk groups as well as health care and other professionals. Plans are summarized for dissemination of information to the following groups: risk groups, physicians, dental health, nursing, ancillary…

  13. Productive and ineffective efforts: how student effort in high school mathematics relates to college calculus success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, M. D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P. M.

    2014-10-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the commonly expected benefits, the latter is associated with negative consequences. Time spent reading the course text in US high schools was negatively related to college calculus performance. Daily study time, however, was found to be either a productive or an ineffective effort, depending on the level of high school mathematics course and the student's performance in it.

  14. Effort and Displeasure in People Who Are Hard of Hearing.

    PubMed

    Matthen, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Listening effort helps explain why people who are hard of hearing are prone to fatigue and social withdrawal. However, a one-factor model that cites only effort due to hardness of hearing is insufficient as there are many who lead happy lives despite their disability. This article explores other contributory factors, in particular motivational arousal and pleasure. The theory of rational motivational arousal predicts that some people forego listening comprehension because they believe it to be impossible and hence worth no effort at all. This is problematic. Why should the listening task be rated this way, given the availability of aids that reduce its difficulty? Two additional factors narrow the explanatory gap. First, we separate the listening task from the benefit derived as a consequence. The latter is temporally more distant, and is discounted as a result. The second factor is displeasure attributed to the listening task, which increases listening cost. Many who are hard of hearing enjoy social interaction. In such cases, the actual activity of listening is a benefit, not a cost. These people also reap the benefits of listening, but do not have to balance these against the displeasure of the task. It is suggested that if motivational harmony can be induced by training in somebody who is hard of hearing, then the obstacle to motivational arousal would be removed. This suggests a modified goal for health care professionals. Do not just teach those who are hard of hearing how to use hearing assistance devices. Teach them how to do so with pleasure and enjoyment. PMID:27355767

  15. Integrating Data from Geological Investigations into Urban Watershed Restoration Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, M.; Rogers, D.; Murray, K.

    2012-04-01

    To improve urban watershed restoration efforts, a framework for integrating the outputs from subsurface geological investigations into land use planning is developed. This framework synthesizes the data generated at the individual parcel scale, including a full inventory of water flows on the surface and within the subsurface, and the synergy between contaminant properties and the geological environment. Using a case study approach, over 3000 sites of environmental contamination were investigated in the heavily urbanized Rouge River watershed of southeastern Michigan, USA. Analysis of the remediation costs at these contaminated sites and the patterns of groundwater contamination strongly suggest that land use planning in this region has not incorporated the basic sciences of geology and geomorphology. At a broad geographical scale, the siting of cities near flowing water and their industries above vulnerable geology resulted in large extents of contamination that are costly to remediate. This historical process was complicated by the unplanned nature of urban sprawl, as industrial sites were located in areas of high groundwater vulnerability, and their spatial juxtaposition created unintended consequences by expanding the pathways for contamination transport. To help remedy this situation, it is recommended that urban watershed restoration efforts include groundwater vulnerability studies, and these studies should become a basic component of the land use planning process, much as environmental site assessments are for the real estate industry. Moreover, through source control, the parcel scale is where science-based landscape planning can most effectively aid in urban watershed restoration efforts and prevent further environmental damage to land being considered for new development or redevelopment.

  16. AIDS Education for the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Jeffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    Sun Life in Wellesley, Massachusetts, has an ongoing education program about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) that provides employees with facts and works to change attitudes about the implications of AIDS for the workplace. (SK)

  17. Different Styles of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... aids available and offer some cosmetic and listening advantages. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image ... in place. These aids offer cosmetic and listening advantages and are used typically for adults. Photo courtesy ...

  18. Women and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... action on HIV/AIDS National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day – March 10 Programs Share your story Anonymous from Illinois says... Although I am HIV negative, I would like to share my story. ...

  19. Preventing the sexual transmission of AIDS during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Remafedi, G J

    1988-03-01

    In order to be effective, the national effort to contain the spread of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) must include a youth focus. Knowledge of adolescent sexual behavior, drug use, and sexually transmitted diseases suggests that many adolescents are in jeopardy of acquiring Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections; and they are among those most likely to benefit from preventative efforts as they explore adult roles and lifestyles. Preventative education should particularly target gay and other homosexually active young men. Effective teaching uses a variety of approaches and media, both inside and outside the classroom. Learning about AIDS is most likely to effect behavioral change when accompanied by other programs to build social supports, self-esteem, and positive identity. The ethical and rational use of HIV antibody testing may be a helpful adjunct to education for certain adolescents. Ultimately, our society's ability to address complex, associated social issues will determine our ability to control AIDS. PMID:3283090

  20. Alaska Native Participation in the Civilian Conservation Corps. Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History No. 206.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Connor; And Others

    The report is a finding aid to the sources which document the 1937 federal policy decision mandating that 50% of the enrollees in the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) in Alaska must be Alaska Natives and provides a list of the Native CCC projects in Alaska. The finding aid section is organized according to the location of the collections and…

  1. Anticipated effort in imagined self-rotation.

    PubMed

    Macramalla, Steven; Bridgeman, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Chronometric studies provide strong support that mental imagery recruits perceptual processes [Shepard and Cooper, 1982 Mental Images and Their Transformations (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press)]. Recent studies suggest that anticipated effort influences perception (Proffitt et al, 2003 Psychological Science 14 106-112). If anticipated effort influences perception and perception supports imagery, then anticipated effort may influence imagery. To examine the role of effort in mental imagery, participants in experiment 1 imagined self-rotation across two conditions of distance. Simulated rotation took 156 ms longer in larger settings, even though the amount of imagined angular rotation was the same in both settings. This finding suggests the start-to-goal arc is incorporated when imagining rotation through a given angle. Experiment 2 replicated the distance effect (232 ms) and added a variable for load. Simulated rotation took 167 ms longer with imaginary heavy loads. The results suggest that both spatial metrics and anticipated effort may play a role in the coding of mental imagery. PMID:19323138

  2. Species distributions, land values, and efficient conservation

    PubMed

    Ando; Camm; Polasky; Solow

    1998-03-27

    Efforts at species conservation in the United States have tended to be opportunistic and uncoordinated. Recently, however, ecologists and economists have begun to develop more systematic approaches. Here, the problem of efficiently allocating scarce conservation resources in the selection of sites for biological reserves is addressed. With the use of county-level data on land prices and the incidence of endangered species, it is shown that accounting for heterogeneity in land prices results in a substantial increase in efficiency in terms of either the cost of achieving a fixed coverage of species or the coverage attained from a fixed budget. PMID:9516117

  3. Impending conservation crisis for Southeast Asian amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Jodi; Brown, Rafe; Bain, Raoul; Kusrini, Mirza; Inger, Robert; Stuart, Bryan; Wogan, Guin; Thy, Neang; Chan-ard, Tanya; Trung, Cao Tien; Diesmos, Arvin; Iskandar, Djoko T.; Lau, Michael; Ming, Leong Tzi; Makchai, Sunchai; Truong, Nguyen Quang; Phimmachak, Somphouthone

    2010-01-01

    With an understudied amphibian fauna, the highest deforestation rate on the planet and high harvesting pressures, Southeast Asian amphibians are facing a conservation crisis. Owing to the overriding threat of habitat loss, the most critical conservation action required is the identification and strict protection of habitat assessed as having high amphibian species diversity and/or representing distinctive regional amphibian faunas. Long-term population monitoring, enhanced survey efforts, collection of basic biological and ecological information, continued taxonomic research and evaluation of the impact of commercial trade for food, medicine and pets are also needed. Strong involvement of regional stakeholders, students and professionals is essential to accomplish these actions. PMID:20007165

  4. Here Today, Gone Tomorrow? Investigating Rates and Patterns of Financial Aid Renewal among College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Kelli; Castleman, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    College affordability continues to be a top concern among prospective students, their families, and policy makers. Prior work has demonstrated that a significant share of prospective students forgo financial aid because they did not complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA); recent federal policy efforts have focused on…

  5. An Author Management System and Other Computer-Based Aids to ISD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, A. F.

    A brief review of some of the more important needs imposed by current and projected Department of Defense training problems is followed by descriptions of such automated aids as the LAMPS MARK III Weapons System and the Air Force's F-16 Instructional System Development (ISD) effort. These aids have been designed and developed in response to the…

  6. Rural/Urban Residence, Migration, HIV/AIDS, and Safe Sex Practices among Men in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambisa, William; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2006-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic was initially thought to be primarily an urban phenomenon. However, migration between rural and urban areas has resulted in the spread of the virus to all segments of the population. Prevention efforts continue to focus on the ABCs of AIDS, namely, abstinence among young adults, being faithful within a monogamous relationship,…

  7. Teens for AIDS Prevention. Washington, D.C. Demonstration Project: Program Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The nation's attention must be focused on the growing risk to its teenagers of contracting AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). As part of this effort, the Center for Population Options (CPO) organized a teen AIDS prevention project in Washington, D.C., based on information obtained from four focus groups comprised of 8-12 teens each. The…

  8. Risk and Protective Factors for HIV/AIDS in Native Americans: Implications for Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Mary Kate

    2009-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has steadily increased in Native American and Alaska Native populations, and despite efforts at control many challenges remain. This article examines historical, biological, social, and behavioral cofactors related to the spread of HIV/AIDS within the context of Native American culture. Special attention is given to vulnerable subgroups…

  9. 25 CFR 170.912 - Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (See 23 U.S.C. 101(a)(12) and 140(d), and 23 CFR 635.117(d).) (b) Tribes may target recruiting efforts... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid... Indian Preference § 170.912 Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects?...

  10. 25 CFR 170.912 - Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (See 23 U.S.C. 101(a)(12) and 140(d), and 23 CFR 635.117(d).) (b) Tribes may target recruiting efforts... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid... Indian Preference § 170.912 Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects?...

  11. 25 CFR 170.912 - Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (See 23 U.S.C. 101(a)(12) and 140(d), and 23 CFR 635.117(d).) (b) Tribes may target recruiting efforts... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid... Indian Preference § 170.912 Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects?...

  12. 25 CFR 170.912 - Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (See 23 U.S.C. 101(a)(12) and 140(d), and 23 CFR 635.117(d).) (b) Tribes may target recruiting efforts... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid... Indian Preference § 170.912 Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects?...

  13. 25 CFR 170.912 - Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (See 23 U.S.C. 101(a)(12) and 140(d), and 23 CFR 635.117(d).) (b) Tribes may target recruiting efforts... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid... Indian Preference § 170.912 Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects?...

  14. Does Zambia need a national AIDS council, Uganda-style or is that "tunnel vision"?

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    The Ministry of Health and WHO recommend establishment of a National AIDS Advisory Council in Zambia with that country's president or vice president leading it to strengthen AIDS prevention efforts. They conclude that HIV/AIDS is a major health problem in Zambia. Other advice includes more resources for caring for AIDS cases, improvement of AIDS reporting, and creation of a national board or committee on blood transfusion. The National Council would unify policies and activities of the National AIDS Prevention and Control Programme (NAPCP) and guarantee more government funding for NAPCP. Yet the Deputy Minister of Health does not support its creation because the country's new government, which came into power in late 1991, wants to create a National Health Council with various committees centering on different health issues including AIDS. Yet the new government has not paid any more attention to AIDS than the prior government. Instead it puts most of its efforts into reconstructing the bankrupt economy and paying off the country's debt. The new Minister of Health claims health workers are putting too much emphasis on AIDS while malaria kills more people than does HIV. The new government has tried to distribute more drugs in the health care system, however. AIDS health workers always face shortages in medical supplies, drugs, transportation, and accommodation. 75% of patients at urban hospitals are at least HIV infected, up from 13% in 1986. This is evidence of how HIV/AIDS is already burdening the system. By December 1991, the number of recorded AIDS and AIDS Related Complex cases was 24,519 but the actual number is probably much higher. The new government hopes to engage private companies in the fight against AIDS. It also intends to mainstream AIDS into the health care and education system particularly in rural areas. PMID:12317823

  15. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  16. Energy Conservation: Guidelines for Action. Suggested Guidelines for Local School District Development of Energy Conservation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Association of School Administrators, East Lansing.

    Curriculum guidelines for the local development of energy conservation programs in public schools reflect an interdisciplinary educational approach--the result of a coordinated effort by industry, commerce, education, and government agencies concerned with the energy crisis. The scope and nature of the problem, with its implications for education…

  17. The AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Conant, M A

    1994-09-01

    The nature of the clinical presentation of HIV infection continues to evolve over time. New cutaneous (e.g., seborrheic dermatitis, onychomycosis, and tinea pedis) and systemic (e.g., Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium marneffei) opportunistic fungal infections can now be added to the classic clinical markers for progressive HIV infection, such as Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium intercellulare infections, and cryptococcal meningitis. The fact that the appearance of many of these fungal diseases is directly correlated with the patient's CD4 cell count is a valuable tool for ongoing clinical evaluation. Although systemic manifestations characterize a progression from asymptomatic HIV infection to AIDS, many of the signs of disease progression are cutaneous. Prophylaxis against many of the potentially life-threatening systemic opportunistic infections associated with HIV positivity has had a positive impact on the life expectancy of patients with AIDS. PMID:7915731

  18. Living with AIDS: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…

  19. Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Kenneth H.

    1991-01-01

    Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…

  20. Educational Aids for Visually Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY.

    Listings specifying source and cost are provided of tactile aids and materials designed for the visually handicapped. Items are presented in the following categories: supply sources and catalogs for aids; braille devices, including duplicators, reading and writing aids, reading readiness materials, and writing machines, slates, and styluses; deaf…

  1. How Do People Get AIDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  2. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  3. In Support of Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devitt, James

    1995-01-01

    Concerns about cuts in federal student loan and grant programs are outlined, and ways in which institutions can act to influence policy are examined. Basic facts about potential cuts, their effects, federal spending on student aid, aid recipients, public opinion, and aid policy's effects on tuition are discussed. (MSE)

  4. AIDS Awareness in Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Lyndall L.

    1994-01-01

    Survey responses from 88 of 293 industrial technology education department heads found that 68% could not identify courses in which acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is covered; 52% were not aware of AIDS-related activities on their campuses; and 48% had AIDS education programs at their institutions. (SK)

  5. Niche Specialization and Conservation Biology of Cicindela Nevadica Lincolniana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosius, Tierney R.

    2010-01-01

    As with many organisms across the globe, "Cicindela nevadica lincolniana" is threatened with extinction. Understanding ecological factors that contribute to extinction vulnerability and what methods aid in the recovery of those species is essential in developing successful conservation programs. Here we examine behavioral mechanisms for niche…

  6. Directional Hearing Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing-aid device indicates visually whether sound is coming from left, right, back, or front. Device intended to assist individuals who are deaf in at least one ear and unable to discern naturally directions to sources of sound. Device promotes safety in street traffic, on loading docks, and in presence of sirens, alarms, and other warning sounds. Quadraphonic version of device built into pair of eyeglasses and binaural version built into visor.

  7. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes. PMID:1867668

  8. Computer aided manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  9. Computer aided inspection qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, D.; McNab, A.; Potts, A.; Toft, M.; McDonald, J.

    2002-05-01

    Inspection Qualification under the ENIQ methodology uses a Technical Justification as a key element in assuring the performance of the inspection. It combines a mixture of physical reasoning and modeling linked to limited experimental trial data from identified worst-case defects, but the qualification process is costly and time-consuming. This paper describes an investigation into providing an integrated set of intelligent software tools to aid the process of inspection qualification.

  10. [AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Bolin, H

    1987-12-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is believed to have begun in Rwanda with the transmission of green monkey virus to humans; the virus spread among prostitutes and truck drivers along the highways and then to the cities. In the most threatened areas, for example, Kinshasa in Zaire, 20% of the inhabitants are infected. 8% of pregnant women are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. Social conditions are important. In Kenya prostitutes who work along the highways are carriers of socially transmitted diseases and genital sores. They are 60-80% HIV-positive. The better-off prostitutes at bars and hotels enjoy better health and fewer contacts and are 30% HIV-positive. It should be possible to develop a vaccine against the AIDS virus, but only a few virologists believe that this can be done within 10 years. Because HIV virus mutates rapidly, many different vaccines would have to be prepared. About 80 countries are cooperating with the World Health Organization to combat HIV and AIDS in Africa. Traveling and working abroad is beginning to be a problem. 15 countries have introduced restrictions on foreign visitors. Swedish midwives have an important role to play in fighting HIV. Their youth counseling activities can spread information about HIV and AIDS. Children who are in early stages of sexuality are probably the most important group to be influenced. It is already too late to begin informing 15-17 year olds about the disease. Midwives should probably be starting much sooner, perhaps even with 10-year olds. PMID:3692943

  11. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  12. Tube-welder aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Simple tools assist in setting up and welding tubes. Welder aids can be easily made to fit given tube diameter. Finished set can be used repeatedly to fix electrode-to-weld gap and mark sleeve and joint positions. Tools are readily made in tube-manufacturing plants and pay for themselves in short time in reduced labor costs and quality control: Conventional measurements are too slow for mass production and are prone to errors.

  13. Quantifying ecosystem services from pastureland in the United States: The conservation effects assessment project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multiagency scientific effort to quantify environmental outcomes of conservation practices applied to private agricultural lands of the United States. Society for Range Management members are familiar with the rangeland CEAP effort but may know...

  14. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP): a national scale natural resources and conservation needs assessment and decision support tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M.-V. V.; Norfleet, M. L.; Atwood, J. D.; Behrman, K. D.; Kiniry, J. R.; Arnold, J. G.; White, M. J.; Williams, J.

    2015-07-01

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was initiated to quantify the impacts of agricultural conservation practices at the watershed, regional, and national scales across the United States. Representative cropland acres in all major U.S. watersheds were surveyed in 2003-2006 as part of the seminal CEAP Cropland National Assessment. Two process-based models, the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender(APEX) and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), were applied to the survey data to provide a quantitative assessment of current conservation practice impacts, establish a benchmark against which future conservation trends and efforts could be measured, and identify outstanding conservation concerns. The flexibility of these models and the unprecedented amount of data on current conservation practices across the country enabled Cropland CEAP to meet its Congressional mandate of quantifying the value of current conservation practices. It also enabled scientifically grounded exploration of a variety of conservation scenarios, empowering CEAP to not only inform on past successes and additional needs, but to also provide a decision support tool to help guide future policy development and conservation practice decision making. The CEAP effort will repeat the national survey in 2015-2016, enabling CEAP to provide analyses of emergent conservation trends, outstanding needs, and potential costs and benefits of pursuing various treatment scenarios for all agricultural watersheds across the United States.

  15. AIDS and Africa. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Loretta M; van Niekerk, Anton A

    2002-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and in this issue of the Journal, seven authors discuss the moral, social and medical implications of having 70% of those stricken living in this area. Anton A. van Niekerk considers complexities of plague in this region (poverty, denial, poor leadership, illiteracy, women's vulnerability, and disenchantment of intimacy) and the importance of finding responses that empower its people. Solomon Benatar reinforces these issues, but also discusses the role of global politics in sub-Saharan Africa, especially discrimination, imperialism and its exploitation by first world countries. Given the public health crisis, Udo Schüklenk and Richard E. Ashcroft defend compulsory licensing of essential HIV/AIDS medications on consequentialist grounds. Keymanthri Moodley discusses the importance of conducting research and the need to understand a moderate form of communitarianism, also referred to as "ubuntu" or "communalism", to help some Africans understand research as an altruistic endeavour. Godfrey B. Tangwa also defends traditional African values of empathy and ubuntu, discussing how they should be enlisted to fight this pandemic. Loretta M. Kopelman criticizes the tendency among those outside Africa to dismiss the HIV/AIDS pandemic, attributing one source to the ubiquitous and misguided punishment theory of disease. The authors conclude that good solutions must be cooperative ventures among countries within and outside of sub-Saharan Africa with far more support from wealthy countries. PMID:11961693

  16. Diffusion of innovations theory and work-site AIDS programs.

    PubMed

    Backer, T E; Rogers, E M

    1998-01-01

    Four case studies of the adoption of work-site AIDS programs are investigated, two of which were modifications of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Business Responds to AIDS (BRTA) program. AIDS work-site programs were mainly initiated by the four study companies as a result of the efforts of a champion (defined as an individual who gains attention and resources for an issue in a system) or the occurrence of a tragic event, such as a company employee contracting AIDS. The BRTA program is an innovation that has not yet reached critical mass, which is the point after which further rates of adoption occur rapidly in a self-sustaining process. PMID:10947372

  17. HIV/AIDS, peacekeeping and conflict crises in Africa.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, Paolo; Patel, Preeti

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of the spread of HIV/AIDS on the African military and its ability to act as an effective instrument of conflict resolution in the continent. The capacity of African militaries is particularly important at a time when major powers are reluctant to engage in greater peacekeeping operations in the region. The widespread prevalence of HIV among military personnel threatens political and social stability more generally, and this study focuses on the link between peacekeeping and the disease. It considers how HIV-positive soldiers act as a vector in communities where they are deployed, and how soldiers deployed in locations with a high prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS may spread the disease in their home communities upon return. Possible recommendations on how to tackle HIV/AIDS prevention efforts with the aid of peacekeepers are offered. PMID:15508885

  18. Global conservation priorities for marine turtles.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Bryan P; DiMatteo, Andrew D; Bolten, Alan B; Chaloupka, Milani Y; Hutchinson, Brian J; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Mortimer, Jeanne A; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A; Bourjea, Jérôme; Bowen, Brian W; Briseño Dueñas, Raquel; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B C; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Finkbeiner, Elena M; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Hamann, Mark; Hurley, Brendan J; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Musick, John A; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B

    2011-01-01

    Where conservation resources are limited and conservation targets are diverse, robust yet flexible priority-setting frameworks are vital. Priority-setting is especially important for geographically widespread species with distinct populations subject to multiple threats that operate on different spatial and temporal scales. Marine turtles are widely distributed and exhibit intra-specific variations in population sizes and trends, as well as reproduction and morphology. However, current global extinction risk assessment frameworks do not assess conservation status of spatially and biologically distinct marine turtle Regional Management Units (RMUs), and thus do not capture variations in population trends, impacts of threats, or necessary conservation actions across individual populations. To address this issue, we developed a new assessment framework that allowed us to evaluate, compare and organize marine turtle RMUs according to status and threats criteria. Because conservation priorities can vary widely (i.e. from avoiding imminent extinction to maintaining long-term monitoring efforts) we developed a "conservation priorities portfolio" system using categories of paired risk and threats scores for all RMUs (n = 58). We performed these assessments and rankings globally, by species, by ocean basin, and by recognized geopolitical bodies to identify patterns in risk, threats, and data gaps at different scales. This process resulted in characterization of risk and threats to all marine turtle RMUs, including identification of the world's 11 most endangered marine turtle RMUs based on highest risk and threats scores. This system also highlighted important gaps in available information that is crucial for accurate conservation assessments. Overall, this priority-setting framework can provide guidance for research and conservation priorities at multiple relevant scales, and should serve as a model for conservation status assessments and priority-setting for

  19. Global Conservation Priorities for Marine Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Bryan P.; DiMatteo, Andrew D.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani Y.; Hutchinson, Brian J.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bourjea, Jérôme; Bowen, Brian W.; Briseño Dueñas, Raquel; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B. C.; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H.; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Hamann, Mark; Hurley, Brendan J.; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Musick, John A.; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J.; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B.

    2011-01-01

    Where conservation resources are limited and conservation targets are diverse, robust yet flexible priority-setting frameworks are vital. Priority-setting is especially important for geographically widespread species with distinct populations subject to multiple threats that operate on different spatial and temporal scales. Marine turtles are widely distributed and exhibit intra-specific variations in population sizes and trends, as well as reproduction and morphology. However, current global extinction risk assessment frameworks do not assess conservation status of spatially and biologically distinct marine turtle Regional Management Units (RMUs), and thus do not capture variations in population trends, impacts of threats, or necessary conservation actions across individual populations. To address this issue, we developed a new assessment framework that allowed us to evaluate, compare and organize marine turtle RMUs according to status and threats criteria. Because conservation priorities can vary widely (i.e. from avoiding imminent extinction to maintaining long-term monitoring efforts) we developed a “conservation priorities portfolio” system using categories of paired risk and threats scores for all RMUs (n = 58). We performed these assessments and rankings globally, by species, by ocean basin, and by recognized geopolitical bodies to identify patterns in risk, threats, and data gaps at different scales. This process resulted in characterization of risk and threats to all marine turtle RMUs, including identification of the world's 11 most endangered marine turtle RMUs based on highest risk and threats scores. This system also highlighted important gaps in available information that is crucial for accurate conservation assessments. Overall, this priority-setting framework can provide guidance for research and conservation priorities at multiple relevant scales, and should serve as a model for conservation status assessments and priority-setting for

  20. Facilitation shifts paradigms and can amplify coastal restoration efforts

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, Brian R.; Schrack, Elizabeth; He, Qiang; Cope, Rebecca; Santoni, Amanda; van der Heide, Tjisse; Jacobi, Ralph; Jacobi, Mike; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Restoration has been elevated as an important strategy to reverse the decline of coastal wetlands worldwide. Current practice in restoration science emphasizes minimizing competition between out-planted propagules to maximize planting success. This paradigm persists despite the fact that foundational theory in ecology demonstrates that positive species interactions are key to organism success under high physical stress, such as recolonization of bare substrate. As evidence of how entrenched this restoration paradigm is, our survey of 25 restoration organizations in 14 states in the United States revealed that >95% of these agencies assume minimizing negative interactions (i.e., competition) between outplants will maximize propagule growth. Restoration experiments in both Western and Eastern Atlantic salt marshes demonstrate, however, that a simple change in planting configuration (placing propagules next to, rather than at a distance from, each other) results in harnessing facilitation and increased yields by 107% on average. Thus, small adjustments in restoration design may catalyze untapped positive species interactions, resulting in significantly higher restoration success with no added cost. As positive interactions between organisms commonly occur in coastal ecosystems (especially in more physically stressful areas like uncolonized substrate) and conservation resources are limited, transformation of the coastal restoration paradigm to incorporate facilitation theory may enhance conservation efforts, shoreline defense, and provisioning of ecosystem services such as fisheries production. PMID:26578775