Science.gov

Sample records for aid conservation planning

  1. Complete, accurate, mammalian phylogenies aid conservation planning, but not much.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana S L; Grenyer, Richard; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Gittlemann, John L; Hoffmann, Michael; Safi, Kamran; Schipper, Jan; Stuart, Simon N; Brooks, Thomas

    2011-09-27

    In the face of unprecedented global biodiversity loss, conservation planning must balance between refining and deepening knowledge versus acting on current information to preserve species and communities. Phylogenetic diversity (PD), a biodiversity measure that takes into account the evolutionary relationships between species, is arguably a more meaningful measure of biodiversity than species diversity, but cannot yet be applied to conservation planning for the majority of taxa for which phylogenetic trees have not yet been developed. Here, we investigate how the quality of data on the taxonomy and/or phylogeny of species affects the results of spatial conservation planning in terms of the representation of overall mammalian PD. The results show that the better the quality of the biodiversity data the better they can serve as a basis for conservation planning. However, decisions based on incomplete data are remarkably robust across different levels of degrading quality concerning the description of new species and the availability of phylogenetic information. Thus, given the level of urgency and the need for action, conservation planning can safely make use of the best available systematic data, limited as these data may be.

  2. Building robust conservation plans.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Piero; Joppa, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    Systematic conservation planning optimizes trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and human activities by accounting for socioeconomic costs while aiming to achieve prescribed conservation objectives. However, the most cost-efficient conservation plan can be very dissimilar to any other plan achieving the set of conservation objectives. This is problematic under conditions of implementation uncertainty (e.g., if all or part of the plan becomes unattainable). We determined through simulations of parallel implementation of conservation plans and habitat loss the conditions under which optimal plans have limited chances of implementation and where implementation attempts would fail to meet objectives. We then devised a new, flexible method for identifying conservation priorities and scheduling conservation actions. This method entails generating a number of alternative plans, calculating the similarity in site composition among all plans, and selecting the plan with the highest density of neighboring plans in similarity space. We compared our method with the classic method that maximizes cost efficiency with synthetic and real data sets. When implementation was uncertain--a common reality--our method provided higher likelihood of achieving conservation targets. We found that χ, a measure of the shortfall in objectives achieved by a conservation plan if the plan could not be implemented entirely, was the main factor determining the relative performance of a flexibility enhanced approach to conservation prioritization. Our findings should help planning authorities prioritize conservation efforts in the face of uncertainty about future condition and availability of sites.

  3. AIDS and family planning.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training.

  4. Scale in conservation planning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation planning has been widely embraced as a method to efficiently allocate limited resources to those aspects of biodiversity most in need of protection or management. However, in order to create successful strategies for long-term biodiversity protection and sustainability, explicit conside...

  5. Incorporating climate change into systematic conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groves, Craig R.; Game, Edward T.; Anderson, Mark G.; Cross, Molly; Enquist, Carolyn; Ferdana, Zach; Girvetz, Evan; Gondor, Anne; Hall, Kimberly R.; Higgins, Jonathan; Marshall, Rob; Popper, Ken; Schill, Steve; Shafer, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of systematic conservation planning are now widely used by governments and non-government organizations alike to develop biodiversity conservation plans for countries, states, regions, and ecoregions. Many of the species and ecosystems these plans were designed to conserve are now being affected by climate change, and there is a critical need to incorporate new and complementary approaches into these plans that will aid species and ecosystems in adjusting to potential climate change impacts. We propose five approaches to climate change adaptation that can be integrated into existing or new biodiversity conservation plans: (1) conserving the geophysical stage, (2) protecting climatic refugia, (3) enhancing regional connectivity, (4) sustaining ecosystem process and function, and (5) capitalizing on opportunities emerging in response to climate change. We discuss both key assumptions behind each approach and the trade-offs involved in using the approach for conservation planning. We also summarize additional data beyond those typically used in systematic conservation plans required to implement these approaches. A major strength of these approaches is that they are largely robust to the uncertainty in how climate impacts may manifest in any given region.

  6. Hospital mutual aid evacuation plan.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R

    1997-02-01

    Health care facilities need to be prepared for disasters such as floods, tornadoes and earthquakes. Rochester, NY, and its surrounding communities devised a hospital mutual aid evacuation plan in the event a disaster occurs and also to comply with the Joint Commission. This document discusses the plan's development process and also provides the end result.

  7. Biodiversity conservation in local planning.

    PubMed

    Miller, James R; Groom, Martha; Hess, George R; Steelman, Toddi; Stokes, David L; Thompson, Jan; Bowman, Troy; Fricke, Laura; King, Brandon; Marquardt, Ryan

    2009-02-01

    Local land-use policy is increasingly being recognized as fundamental to biodiversity conservation in the United States. Many planners and conservation scientists have called for broader use of planning and regulatory tools to support the conservation of biodiversity at local scales. Yet little is known about the pervasiveness of these practices. We conducted an on-line survey of county, municipal, and tribal planning directors (n =116) in 3 geographic regions of the United States: metropolitan Seattle, Washington; metropolitan Des Moines, Iowa; and the Research Triangle, North Carolina. Our objectives were to gauge the extent to which local planning departments address biodiversity conservation and to identify factors that facilitate or hinder conservation actions in local planning. We found that biodiversity conservation was seldom a major consideration in these departments. Staff time was mainly devoted to development mandates and little time was spent on biodiversity conservation. Regulations requiring conservation actions that might benefit biodiversity were uncommon, with the exception of rules governing water quality in all 3 regions and the protection of threatened and endangered species in the Seattle region. Planning tools that could enhance habitat conservation were used infrequently. Collaboration across jurisdictions was widespread, but rarely focused on conservation. Departments with a conservation specialist on staff tended to be associated with higher levels of conservation actions. Jurisdictions in the Seattle region also reported higher levels of conservation action, largely driven by state and federal mandates. Increased funding was most frequently cited as a factor that would facilitate greater consideration of biodiversity in local planning. There are numerous opportunities for conservation biologists to play a role in improving conservation planning at local scales.

  8. Planning Resource Aid, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, William A.

    Designed to assist persons charged with the preparation of planning proposals that meet the requirements of the program of federal assistance to vocational education, this booklet reviews several types of planning strategies. After introductory comments, the booklet lists several steps that all planners should incorporate into their strategy: (1)…

  9. 77 FR 74500 - Proposed Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan for Western Butte County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan for...) under the National Environmental Policy Act for the proposed Habitat Conservation Plan/ Natural Community Conservation Plan for Western Butte County, hereafter referred to as the Butte...

  10. Conservation Planning for Ecosystem Services

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kai M. A; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Cameron, David R; Underwood, Emma C; Daily, Gretchen C

    2006-01-01

    Despite increasing attention to the human dimension of conservation projects, a rigorous, systematic methodology for planning for ecosystem services has not been developed. This is in part because flows of ecosystem services remain poorly characterized at local-to-regional scales, and their protection has not generally been made a priority. We used a spatially explicit conservation planning framework to explore the trade-offs and opportunities for aligning conservation goals for biodiversity with six ecosystem services (carbon storage, flood control, forage production, outdoor recreation, crop pollination, and water provision) in the Central Coast ecoregion of California, United States. We found weak positive and some weak negative associations between the priority areas for biodiversity conservation and the flows of the six ecosystem services across the ecoregion. Excluding the two agriculture-focused services—crop pollination and forage production—eliminates all negative correlations. We compared the degree to which four contrasting conservation network designs protect biodiversity and the flow of the six services. We found that biodiversity conservation protects substantial collateral flows of services. Targeting ecosystem services directly can meet the multiple ecosystem services and biodiversity goals more efficiently but cannot substitute for targeted biodiversity protection (biodiversity losses of 44% relative to targeting biodiversity alone). Strategically targeting only biodiversity plus the four positively associated services offers much promise (relative biodiversity losses of 7%). Here we present an initial analytical framework for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in conservation planning and illustrate its application. We found that although there are important potential trade-offs between conservation for biodiversity and for ecosystem services, a systematic planning framework offers scope for identifying valuable synergies. PMID

  11. 76 FR 45606 - Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, Habitat Conservation Plan and Possible Land Use Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Fish and Wildlife Service Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, Habitat... Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, for the proposed Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP... proposed Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP). The EIS will be a joint Environmental...

  12. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Arrange for a revision of the conservation plan with NRCS, if changes are made in land use, crop rotation... any crop production will result in increased erosion, in no case will the required conservation plan... control alternatives, crop flexibility, or other conservation assistance options that may be available....

  13. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Arrange for a revision of the conservation plan with NRCS, if changes are made in land use, crop rotation... any crop production will result in increased erosion, in no case will the required conservation plan... control alternatives, crop flexibility, or other conservation assistance options that may be available....

  14. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Arrange for a revision of the conservation plan with NRCS, if changes are made in land use, crop rotation... any crop production will result in increased erosion, in no case will the required conservation plan... control alternatives, crop flexibility, or other conservation assistance options that may be available....

  15. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Arrange for a revision of the conservation plan with NRCS, if changes are made in land use, crop rotation... any crop production will result in increased erosion, in no case will the required conservation plan... control alternatives, crop flexibility, or other conservation assistance options that may be available....

  16. Family planning, AIDS, and FHI.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1991-09-01

    Family Health International's (FHI) research and development activities in improving and developing contraceptives and making them available to the public are presented. While FHI, along with other agencies, has been actively promoting and contributing to ongoing international family planning efforts since its creation in 1971, the period 1971-91 has, nonetheless, witness more births, maternal deaths, induced abortions, and infant deaths than over any 20-year span in history. While family sizes have decreased over the period due to greater contraceptive awareness and use, politicians, civil servants, and theologians are indicted as partly responsible for retarding further positive change. The number of women of reproductive ages in developing countries will increase by almost 30% in the 1990s, and the world's population will at least double over the next century. 95% of new births will stem from developing countries. Concerted efforts and global commitments of policymakers must be forthcoming in the battle against both high fertility and AIDS prevention. Specifically, at least 130 million new contraceptive users must be recruited in the 1990s. Surveys and field experiences indicate a large degree of unmet need for contraceptive services, with 50-80% of married women in developing countries expressing their desire to limit or space future births. Demand for contraception only increases once a program is in place; rapid reductions of total fertility are exemplified in the cases of Thailand, Colombia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia. Given the resources and commitment, the number of users could be doubled within 10 years.

  17. 7 CFR 1450.207 - Conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan. Such tree planting plan may allow... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or... plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan. (a) The producer must implement a conservation...

  18. 7 CFR 1450.207 - Conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan. Such tree planting plan may allow... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or... plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan. (a) The producer must implement a conservation...

  19. 7 CFR 1450.207 - Conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan. Such tree planting plan may allow... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or... plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan. (a) The producer must implement a conservation...

  20. 7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section 633.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The program...

  1. 7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section 633.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The program...

  2. 7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section 633.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The program...

  3. 7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section 633.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The program...

  4. 7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section 633.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The program...

  5. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action.

  6. 76 FR 65527 - Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan for Yolo County, CA: Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan for Yolo County... information necessary to prepare, in coordination with the Yolo County Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural... Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Yolo County Natural Heritage Program Habitat Conservation...

  7. 75 FR 23823 - Sixth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Sixth Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Plan AGENCY: Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council (Northwest Power and Conservation Council; the Council). ACTION: Notice of adoption of the Sixth Northwest Electric Power and...

  8. 75 FR 27708 - Stanford University Habitat Conservation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service RIN 0648-XV36 Stanford University Habitat Conservation Plan AGENCIES... University Habitat Conservation Plan (Plan), the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS)...

  9. Agricultural Conservation Planning Toolbox User's Manual

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural Conservation Planning Framework (ACPF) comprises an approach for applying concepts of precision conservation to watershed planning in agricultural landscapes. To enable application of this approach, USDA/ARS has developed a set of Geographic Information System (GIS) based software tools...

  10. 7 CFR 631.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation plan. 631.9 Section 631.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 631.9...

  11. 7 CFR 631.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plan. 631.9 Section 631.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 631.9...

  12. 7 CFR 631.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation plan. 631.9 Section 631.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 631.9...

  13. Multispecies genetic objectives in spatial conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Erica S; Beger, Maria; Henriques, Romina; Selkoe, Kimberly A; von der Heyden, Sophie

    2016-12-07

    Growing threats to biodiversity and global alteration of habitats and species distributions make it increasingly necessary to consider evolutionary patterns in conservation decision making. Yet, there is no clear-cut guidance on how genetic features can be incorporated into conservation-planning processes, despite multiple molecular markers and several genetic metrics for each marker type to choose from. Genetic patterns differ between species, but the potential tradeoffs among genetic objectives for multiple species in conservation planning are currently understudied. We compared spatial conservation prioritizations derived from 2 metrics of genetic diversity (nucleotide and haplotype diversity) and 2 metrics of genetic isolation (private haplotypes and local genetic differentiation) in mitochondrial DNA of 5 marine species. We compared outcomes of conservation plans based only on habitat representation with plans based on genetic data and habitat representation. Fewer priority areas were selected for conservation plans based solely on habitat representation than on plans that included habitat and genetic data. All 4 genetic metrics selected approximately similar conservation-priority areas, which is likely a result of prioritizing genetic patterns across a genetically diverse array of species. Largely, our results suggest that multispecies genetic conservation objectives are vital to creating protected-area networks that appropriately preserve community-level evolutionary patterns.

  14. Conservation planning as a transdisciplinary process.

    PubMed

    Reyers, Belinda; Roux, Dirk J; Cowling, Richard M; Ginsburg, Aimee E; Nel, Jeanne L; O' Farrell, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    Despite substantial growth in the field of conservation planning, the speed and success with which conservation plans are converted into conservation action remains limited. This gap between science and action extends beyond conservation planning into many other applied sciences and has been linked to complexity of current societal problems, compartmentalization of knowledge and management sectors, and limited collaboration between scientists and decision makers. Transdisciplinary approaches have been proposed as a possible way to address these challenges and to bridge the gap between science and action. These approaches move beyond the bridging of disciplines to an approach in which science becomes a social process resolving problems through the participation and mutual learning of stakeholders. We explored the principles of transdisciplinarity, in light of our experiences as conservation-planning researchers working in South Africa, to better understand what is required to make conservation planning transdisciplinary and therefore more effective. Using the transdisciplinary hierarchy of knowledge (empirical, pragmatic, normative, and purposive), we found that conservation planning has succeeded in integrating many empirical disciplines into the pragmatic stakeholder-engaged process of strategy development and implementation. Nevertheless, challenges remain in engagement of the social sciences and in understanding the social context of implementation. Farther up this knowledge hierarchy, at the normative and purposive levels, we found that a lack of integrated land-use planning and policies (normative) and the dominant effect of national values (purposive) that prioritize growth and development limit the effectiveness and relevance of conservation plans. The transdisciplinary hierarchy of knowledge highlighted that we need to move beyond bridging the empirical and pragmatic disciplines into the complex normative world of laws, policies, and planning and become

  15. 7 CFR 1450.207 - Conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... purposes as determined by CCC. (c) If applicable, a tree planting plan must be developed and included in the conservation plan, forest stewardship plan, or equivalent plan. Such tree planting plan may...

  16. 7 CFR 631.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conservation district, that protects the resource base in a manner acceptable to NRCS. This plan will be used... discharging its responsibilities for technical assistance. (d) Participants are responsible for...

  17. 7 CFR 631.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conservation district, that protects the resource base in a manner acceptable to NRCS. This plan will be used... discharging its responsibilities for technical assistance. (d) Participants are responsible for...

  18. Subjective risk assessment for planning conservation projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Game, Edward T.; Fitzsimons, James A.; Lipsett-Moore, Geoff; McDonald-Madden, Eve

    2013-12-01

    Conservation projects occur under many types of uncertainty. Where this uncertainty can affect achievement of a project’s objectives, there is risk. Understanding risks to project success should influence a range of strategic and tactical decisions in conservation, and yet, formal risk assessment rarely features in the guidance or practice of conservation planning. We describe how subjective risk analysis tools can be framed to facilitate the rapid identification and assessment of risks to conservation projects, and how this information should influence conservation planning. Our approach is illustrated with an assessment of risks to conservation success as part of a conservation plan for the work of The Nature Conservancy in northern Australia. Risks can be both internal and external to a project, and occur across environmental, social, economic and political systems. Based on the relative importance of a risk and the level of certainty in its assessment we propose a series of appropriate, project level responses including research, monitoring, and active amelioration. Explicit identification, prioritization, and where possible, management of risks are important elements of using conservation resources in an informed and accountable manner.

  19. Conservation planning with multiple organizations and objectives.

    PubMed

    Bode, Michael; Probert, Will; Turner, Will R; Wilson, Kerrie A; Venter, Oscar

    2011-04-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in the number of conservation organizations worldwide. It is now common for multiple organizations to operate in the same landscape in pursuit of different conservation goals. New objectives, such as maintenance of ecosystem services, will attract additional funding and new organizations to conservation. Systematic conservation planning helps in the design of spatially explicit management actions that optimally conserve multiple landscape features (e.g., species, ecosystems, or ecosystem services). But the methods used in its application implicitly assume that a single actor implements the optimal plan. We investigated how organizational behavior and conservation outcomes are affected by the presence of autonomous implementing organizations with different objectives. We used simulation models and game theory to explore how alternative behaviors (e.g., organizations acting independently or explicitly cooperating) affected an organization's ability to protect their feature of interest, and investigated how the distribution of features in the landscape influenced organizations' attitudes toward cooperation. Features with highly correlated spatial distributions, although typically considered an opportunity for mutually beneficial conservation planning, can lead to organizational interactions that result in lower levels of protection. These detrimental outcomes can be avoided by organizations that cooperate when acquiring land. Nevertheless, for cooperative purchases to benefit both organizations' objectives, each must forgo the protection of land parcels that they would consider to be of high conservation value. Transaction costs incurred during cooperation and the sources of conservation funding could facilitate or hinder cooperative behavior.

  20. Recreation Planning for Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Seymour M.

    1977-01-01

    To conserve energy consumed by cars and to improve the environment by reducing air pollution caused by them, communities should develop and expand already existing urban parks so they will be attractive to potential users who can reach them by walking or bicyling. (JD)

  1. 75 FR 74740 - Measure M2 Natural Community Conservation Plan/Habitat Conservation Plan/Master Streambed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Measure M2 Natural Community Conservation Plan/Habitat Conservation Plan... Environmental Impact Report (EIR)/EIS for the Measure M2 (M2) Natural Community Conservation Plan/Habitat Conservation Plan/Master Streambed Alteration Agreement (NCCP/HCP/ MSAA). We are furnishing this notice...

  2. Family planning and AIDS on Yokohama agenda.

    PubMed

    1994-10-01

    The 10th International Conference on AIDS/International Conference on STD in Yokohama August 7-12, 1994, attracted 12,000 people from 130 countries to consider the expanding AIDS pandemic. A satellite symposium was held the day before the opening of the conference, August 6, also in Yokohama, to bring participants together to focus upon the importance of providing access to oral contraceptives and the necessity of condoms. This symposium was organized by the Japan Family Planning Association. Speakers called for the authorization of the low-dose oral contraceptive pill for Japanese women; greater condom use against HIV and other STDs; expanding the concept of reproductive health to include maternal and child health, the prevention of STDs, and infertility; clinical approaches and care for HIV-infected individuals during pregnancy and labor; and counseling to pregnant HIV-infected women.

  3. Dynamic resource allocation in conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golovin, D.; Krause, A.; Gardner, B.; Converse, S.J.; Morey, S.

    2011-01-01

    Consider the problem of protecting endangered species by selecting patches of land to be used for conservation purposes. Typically, the availability of patches changes over time, and recommendations must be made dynamically. This is a challenging prototypical example of a sequential optimization problem under uncertainty in computational sustainability. Existing techniques do not scale to problems of realistic size. In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm for adaptively making recommendations for dynamic conservation planning, and prove that it obtains near-optimal performance. We further evaluate our approach on a detailed reserve design case study of conservation planning for three rare species in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Copyright ?? 2011, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. All rights reserved.

  4. Natural Disasters: Planning for Psychological First Aid.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Stephanie T

    Natural disasters leave survivors suffering physically, psychologically, and spiritually. An EF4 tornado on April 27, 2011, in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, known as April's Fury, raised the question of how mental health practitioners (MHPs) might respond to address psychological needs, rather than being exclusively assigned to offer physical support immediately following a disaster. This article proposes planning ahead for MHPs to provide psychological first aid (PFA) in the immediate aftermath of a catastrophe. Combating psychological issues early will hopefully help reduce the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in survivors.

  5. Conservation Action Planning: Lessons learned from the St. Marys River watershed biodiversity conservation planning process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Tamatha A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Conservation Action Planning (CAP) is an adaptive management planning process refined by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and embraced worldwide as the Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation. The CAP process facilitates open, multi-institutional collaboration on a common conservation agenda through organized actions and quantified results. While specifically designed for conservation efforts, the framework is adaptable and flexible to multiple scales and can be used for any collaborative planning effort. The CAP framework addresses inception; design and development of goals, measures, and strategies; and plan implementation and evaluation. The specific components of the CAP include defining the project scope and conservation targets; assessing the ecological viability; ascertaining threats and surrounding situation; identifying opportunities and designing strategies for action; and implementing actions and monitoring results. In 2007, TNC and a multidisciplinary graduate student team from the University of Michigan's School of Natural Resources and Environment initiated a CAP for the St. Marys River, the connecting channel between Lake Superior and Lake Huron, and its local watershed. The students not only gained experience in conservation planning, but also learned lessons that notably benefited the CAP process and were valuable for any successful collaborative effort—a dedicated core team improved product quality, accelerated the timeline, and provided necessary support for ongoing efforts; an academic approach in preparation for engagement in the planning process brought applicable scientific research to the forefront, enhanced workshop facilitation, and improved stakeholder participation; and early and continuous interactions with regional stakeholders improved cooperation and built a supportive network for collaboration.

  6. 7 CFR 1410.22 - CRP conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CRP conservation plan. 1410.22 Section 1410.22... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.22 CRP conservation plan. (a) The producer shall obtain a CRP conservation plan that complies with CCC guidelines...

  7. 7 CFR 1410.22 - CRP conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false CRP conservation plan. 1410.22 Section 1410.22... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.22 CRP conservation plan. (a) The producer shall obtain a CRP conservation plan that complies with CCC guidelines...

  8. 7 CFR 1468.9 - Conservation farm plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation farm plan. 1468.9 Section 1468.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.9 Conservation farm plan. (a) The conservation farm plan forms the basis of the CFO...

  9. 7 CFR 1468.9 - Conservation farm plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation farm plan. 1468.9 Section 1468.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.9 Conservation farm plan. (a) The conservation farm plan forms the basis of the CFO...

  10. 7 CFR 1468.9 - Conservation farm plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation farm plan. 1468.9 Section 1468.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.9 Conservation farm plan. (a) The conservation farm plan forms the basis of the CFO...

  11. 7 CFR 1468.9 - Conservation farm plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation farm plan. 1468.9 Section 1468.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.9 Conservation farm plan. (a) The conservation farm plan forms the basis of the CFO...

  12. 7 CFR 1468.9 - Conservation farm plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation farm plan. 1468.9 Section 1468.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.9 Conservation farm plan. (a) The conservation farm plan forms the basis of the CFO...

  13. 7 CFR 1410.22 - CRP conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false CRP conservation plan. 1410.22 Section 1410.22... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.22 CRP conservation plan. (a) The producer shall obtain a CRP conservation plan that complies with CCC guidelines...

  14. 7 CFR 1410.22 - CRP conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false CRP conservation plan. 1410.22 Section 1410.22... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.22 CRP conservation plan. (a) The producer shall obtain a CRP conservation plan that complies with CCC guidelines...

  15. 7 CFR 1410.22 - CRP conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false CRP conservation plan. 1410.22 Section 1410.22... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.22 CRP conservation plan. (a) The producer shall obtain a CRP conservation plan that complies with CCC guidelines...

  16. A Multispecies Framework for Landscape Conservation Planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwenk, W.S.; Donovan, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Rapidly changing landscapes have spurred the need for quantitative methods for conservation assessment and planning that encompass large spatial extents. We devised and tested a multispecies framework for conservation planning to complement single-species assessments and ecosystem-level approaches. Our framework consisted of 4 elements: sampling to effectively estimate population parameters, measuring how human activity affects landscapes at multiple scales, analyzing the relation between landscape characteristics and individual species occurrences, and evaluating and comparing the responses of multiple species to landscape modification. We applied the approach to a community of terrestrial birds across 25,000 km2 with a range of intensities of human development. Human modification of land cover, road density, and other elements of the landscape, measured at multiple spatial extents, had large effects on occupancy of the 67 species studied. Forest composition within 1 km of points had a strong effect on occupancy of many species and a range of negative, intermediate, and positive associations. Road density within 1 km of points, percent evergreen forest within 300 m, and distance from patch edge were also strongly associated with occupancy for many species. We used the occupancy results to group species into 11 guilds that shared patterns of association with landscape characteristics. Our multispecies approach to conservation planning allowed us to quantify the trade-offs of different scenarios of land-cover change in terms of species occupancy. ?? 2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. 25 CFR 166.312 - Is a conservation plan required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Is a conservation plan required? 166.312 Section 166.312... Operations Management Management Plans and Environmental Compliance § 166.312 Is a conservation plan required? A conservation plan must be developed for each permit with the permittee and approved by us prior...

  18. 25 CFR 166.312 - Is a conservation plan required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is a conservation plan required? 166.312 Section 166.312... Operations Management Management Plans and Environmental Compliance § 166.312 Is a conservation plan required? A conservation plan must be developed for each permit with the permittee and approved by us prior...

  19. 10 CFR 436.105 - Emergency conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency conservation plan. 436.105 Section 436.105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Guidelines for General Operations Plans § 436.105 Emergency conservation plan. (a) Each agency...

  20. 10 CFR 436.105 - Emergency conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Emergency conservation plan. 436.105 Section 436.105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Guidelines for General Operations Plans § 436.105 Emergency conservation plan. (a) Each agency...

  1. 25 CFR 166.312 - Is a conservation plan required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is a conservation plan required? 166.312 Section 166.312... Operations Management Management Plans and Environmental Compliance § 166.312 Is a conservation plan required? A conservation plan must be developed for each permit with the permittee and approved by us prior...

  2. 25 CFR 166.312 - Is a conservation plan required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is a conservation plan required? 166.312 Section 166.312... Operations Management Management Plans and Environmental Compliance § 166.312 Is a conservation plan required? A conservation plan must be developed for each permit with the permittee and approved by us prior...

  3. 25 CFR 166.312 - Is a conservation plan required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is a conservation plan required? 166.312 Section 166.312... Operations Management Management Plans and Environmental Compliance § 166.312 Is a conservation plan required? A conservation plan must be developed for each permit with the permittee and approved by us prior...

  4. 10 CFR 436.105 - Emergency conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency conservation plan. 436.105 Section 436.105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Guidelines for General Operations Plans § 436.105 Emergency conservation plan. (a) Each agency...

  5. 10 CFR 436.105 - Emergency conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency conservation plan. 436.105 Section 436.105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Guidelines for General Operations Plans § 436.105 Emergency conservation plan. (a) Each agency...

  6. 10 CFR 436.105 - Emergency conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency conservation plan. 436.105 Section 436.105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Guidelines for General Operations Plans § 436.105 Emergency conservation plan. (a) Each agency...

  7. Dynamic Resource Allocation in Conservation Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Dynamic Resource Allocation in Conservation Planning Daniel Golovin Caltech Pasadena, CA, USA Andreas Krause ETH Zürich Zurich, Switzerland Beth...to adaptive policies ( Golovin and Krause 2010). We omit details due to space limita- tions. 1335 using the independent cascade model of Goldenberg... Golovin and Krause [2010]. However, their approach is not known to provide competitiveness guarantees such as those of Theo- rem 2, where the set of

  8. Planning and programing in the soil conservation service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    The historical base is presented for the framework plan for soil conservation. Conservation effects, resource management systems, and accomplishments, activities, and costs of the Soil Conservation Service are discussed.

  9. 7 CFR 1470.22 - Conservation stewardship plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation stewardship plan. 1470.22 Section 1470..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM Contracts and Payments § 1470.22 Conservation stewardship plan. (a) NRCS will use the conservation...

  10. 7 CFR 1470.22 - Conservation stewardship plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation stewardship plan. 1470.22 Section 1470..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM Contracts and Payments § 1470.22 Conservation stewardship plan. (a) NRCS will use the conservation...

  11. 7 CFR 1470.22 - Conservation stewardship plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation stewardship plan. 1470.22 Section 1470..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM Contracts and Payments § 1470.22 Conservation stewardship plan. (a) NRCS will use the conservation...

  12. 7 CFR 1470.22 - Conservation stewardship plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation stewardship plan. 1470.22 Section 1470..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM Contracts and Payments § 1470.22 Conservation stewardship plan. (a) NRCS will use the conservation...

  13. 7 CFR 1470.22 - Conservation stewardship plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation stewardship plan. 1470.22 Section 1470..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM Contracts and Payments § 1470.22 Conservation stewardship plan. (a) NRCS will use the conservation...

  14. 76 FR 28060 - Regional Habitat Conservation Plan, Hays County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Regional Habitat Conservation Plan, Hays County, TX AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... statement, final Hays County regional habitat conservation plan, and draft record of decision. SUMMARY: We... (EIS), the final Hays County regional habitat conservation plan (RHCP) under the National...

  15. 75 FR 57059 - Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat Conservation Plan and Final Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... received from the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation (DNRC) a Final...

  16. Guide to Planning Health Promotion for AIDS Prevention and Control. WHO AIDS Series 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This guide is intended to provide planners, managers, and technical staff with guidelines for planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) health promotion program. As such, it can be used in the development of a detailed AIDS health promotion action plan. The guide reviews the steps, processes,…

  17. AIDS: Information/Education Plan to Prevent and Control AIDS in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This document presents a comprehensive Public Health Service plan for informing and educating the American public about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The plan specifies the audiences to be addressed by this effort, the basic elements of AIDS information and education, and the means by which this education will be accomplished. Mass…

  18. Conservation plan based on the concept of integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Y. N.; Cheng, C. F.

    2015-08-01

    Value based concept has been accepted as a universal principle for the conservation of Cultural Heritage. Authenticity and integrity are two main issues protecting those values. Authenticity is the major tool in the value assessment and integrity plays an important role in the procedure of conservation plan. From the perspective of integrity, this research explores the principle of conservation plan and discusses its relation with the restoration plan and urban plan. A conservation plan in Quing-Lin village, Kinmen, will be taken as an example for implementation. The research shows that a conservation plan with integrity in mind helps to clarify the conservation target areas and their buffer zones. It also serves as a tool for developing control and risk management. Cultural mapping is an efficient tool for the communication with stakeholders in the process of the conservation plan.

  19. Conservation Plan, Seaman Outdoor Laboratory for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Unified School District 345, KS.

    This guide focuses on the conservation plan for an outdoor laboratory. Although the plan focuses specifically on Seaman Outdoor Education Laboratory, the concepts could be applied to any natural area including parks, farms, and school grounds. Along with an introduction and justification, the guide includes the conservation plan that serves as the…

  20. A case study of assigning conservation value to dispersed habitat units for conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohweder, Jason J.; Sara C. Vacek,; Crimmins, Shawn M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers are increasingly tasked with developing habitat conservation plans in the face of numerous, sometimes competing, objectives. These plans must often be implemented across dispersed habitat conservation units that may contribute unequally to overall conservation objectives. Using U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service waterfowl production areas (WPA) in western Minnesota as our conservation landscape, we develop a landscape-scale approach for evaluating the conservation value of dispersed habitat conservation units with multiple conservation priorities. We evaluated conservation value based on a suite of variables directly applicable to conservation management practices, thus providing a direct link between conservation actions and outcomes. We developed spatial models specific to each of these conservation objectives and also developed two freely available prioritization tools to implement these analyses. We found that some WPAs provided high conservation value across a range of conservation objectives, suggesting that managing these specific areas would achieve multiple conservation goals. Conversely, other WPAs provided low conservation value for some objectives, suggesting they would be most effectively managed for a distinct set of specific conservation goals. Approaches such as ours provide a direct means of assessing the conservation value of dispersed habitat conservation units and could be useful in the development of habitat management plans, particularly when faced with multiple conservation objectives.

  1. Regional Urban Planning for Energy Conservation: Alternative Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohar, Shri

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the role of urban and regional planners in redesigning land use patterns which reinforce energy conservation while preserving satisfying living conditions. A model for evaluating energy conservation planning alternatives for Perth, Australia is described. (AM)

  2. Budget model can aid group practice planning.

    PubMed

    Bender, A D

    1991-12-01

    A medical practice can enhance its planning by developing a budgetary model to test effects of planning assumptions on its profitability and cash requirements. A model focusing on patient visits, payment mix, patient mix, and fee and payment schedules can help assess effects of proposed decisions. A planning model is not a substitute for planning but should complement a plan that includes mission, goals, values, strategic issues, and different outcomes.

  3. 11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS Drawing No. 103-07 - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  4. Influence of a threatened-species focus on conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Simon P; Wilson, Kerrie A; Meijaard, Erik; Watts, Matthew; Dennis, Rona; Christy, Lenny; Possingham, Hugh P

    2010-04-01

    Conservation efforts at local, regional, and global scales often focus on threatened species despite recent calls to adopt more equitable and potentially more economically rational approaches. Critics contend that conservation planning centered only on threatened species fails to deliver cost-efficient conservation outcomes. We explored how planning to preserve threatened mammal species would influence the efficiency and effectiveness of conservation investments in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. We found that the explicit protection of threatened species delivered cost-efficient outcomes in this situation, afforded adequate protection to over 90% of those species not yet considered endangered, and contributed to the partial protection of the remainder. We used Marxan, a conservation planning tool, to determine the frequency that planning units are selected in efficient reserve systems and assessed the relative risk of deforestation of each planning unit. Our methods allowed us to identify areas of the region that require the most urgent conservation action.

  5. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... available conservation technology; cost-effective; and shall not cause undue economic hardship on the person... authorized by section 1231 of the Food Security Act of 1985, as amended, shall have 2 years after...

  6. An Aid for Planning Programs in Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Vocational Education and Rehabilitation, Springfield. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    Offered as an aid for developing sequential occupational education programs, the publication presents a concept in career education planning beginning with kindergarten and continuing through adult years. Career education goals are defined, and steps in planning sequential programs are outlined as follows: (1) organization of the occupational…

  7. Mathematical modelling in the computer-aided process planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitin, S.; Bochkarev, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents new approaches to organization of manufacturing preparation and mathematical models related to development of the computer-aided multi product process planning (CAMPP) system. CAMPP system has some peculiarities compared to the existing computer-aided process planning (CAPP) systems: fully formalized developing of the machining operations; a capacity to create and to formalize the interrelationships among design, process planning and process implementation; procedures for consideration of the real manufacturing conditions. The paper describes the structure of the CAMPP system and shows the mathematical models and methods to formalize the design procedures.

  8. Waterbird Conservation for the Americas : The North American Waterbird Conservation Plan, Version 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, J.A.; Steinkamp, M.J.; Parsons, K.C.; Capp, J.; Cruz, M.A.; Coulter, M.; Davidson, I.J.; Dickson, L.; Edelson, N.; Elliot, R.; Erwin, R.M.; Hatch, S.; Kress, S.; Milko, R.; Miller, S.; Mills, K.; Paul, R.; Phillips, R.; Saliva, J.E.; Syderman, B.; Trapp, J.L.; Wheeler, J.; Wohl, Kenton D.

    2002-01-01

    This Plan provides an overarching framework and guide for conserving waterbirds. It sets forth goals and priorities for waterbirds in all habitats from the Canadian Arctic to the offshore islands of Venezuela, from Bermuda to the U.S. Pacific Islands, at nesting sites, during annual migrations and during nonbreeding periods. It advocates continent-wide monitoring; provides an impetus for regional conservation planning; proposes national, provincial, state, and other local conservation planning and action; and creates a larger context within which local habitat conservation can nest. Taken together, we hope that these activities will assure healthy populations and habitats for the waterbirds of the Americas.

  9. Setting Priorities for Regional Conservation Planning in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Levin, Noam; Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Abdulla, Ameer; Coll, Marta; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Kark, Salit; Koutsoubas, Drosos; Mackelworth, Peter; Maiorano, Luigi; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial prioritization in conservation is required to direct limited resources to where actions are most urgently needed and most likely to produce effective conservation outcomes. In an effort to advance the protection of a highly threatened hotspot of marine biodiversity, the Mediterranean Sea, multiple spatial conservation plans have been developed in recent years. Here, we review and integrate these different plans with the goal of identifying priority conservation areas that represent the current consensus among the different initiatives. A review of six existing and twelve proposed conservation initiatives highlights gaps in conservation and management planning, particularly within the southern and eastern regions of the Mediterranean and for offshore and deep sea habitats. The eighteen initiatives vary substantially in their extent (covering 0.1–58.5% of the Mediterranean Sea) and in the location of additional proposed conservation and management areas. Differences in the criteria, approaches and data used explain such variation. Despite the diversity among proposals, our analyses identified ten areas, encompassing 10% of the Mediterranean Sea, that are consistently identified among the existing proposals, with an additional 10% selected by at least five proposals. These areas represent top priorities for immediate conservation action. Despite the plethora of initiatives, major challenges face Mediterranean biodiversity and conservation. These include the need for spatial prioritization within a comprehensive framework for regional conservation planning, the acquisition of additional information from data-poor areas, species or habitats, and addressing the challenges of establishing transboundary governance and collaboration in socially, culturally and politically complex conditions. Collective prioritised action, not new conservation plans, is needed for the north, western, and high seas of the Mediterranean, while developing initial information

  10. Setting priorities for regional conservation planning in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Levin, Noam; Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Abdulla, Ameer; Coll, Marta; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Kark, Salit; Koutsoubas, Drosos; Mackelworth, Peter; Maiorano, Luigi; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-01-01

    Spatial prioritization in conservation is required to direct limited resources to where actions are most urgently needed and most likely to produce effective conservation outcomes. In an effort to advance the protection of a highly threatened hotspot of marine biodiversity, the Mediterranean Sea, multiple spatial conservation plans have been developed in recent years. Here, we review and integrate these different plans with the goal of identifying priority conservation areas that represent the current consensus among the different initiatives. A review of six existing and twelve proposed conservation initiatives highlights gaps in conservation and management planning, particularly within the southern and eastern regions of the Mediterranean and for offshore and deep sea habitats. The eighteen initiatives vary substantially in their extent (covering 0.1-58.5% of the Mediterranean Sea) and in the location of additional proposed conservation and management areas. Differences in the criteria, approaches and data used explain such variation. Despite the diversity among proposals, our analyses identified ten areas, encompassing 10% of the Mediterranean Sea, that are consistently identified among the existing proposals, with an additional 10% selected by at least five proposals. These areas represent top priorities for immediate conservation action. Despite the plethora of initiatives, major challenges face Mediterranean biodiversity and conservation. These include the need for spatial prioritization within a comprehensive framework for regional conservation planning, the acquisition of additional information from data-poor areas, species or habitats, and addressing the challenges of establishing transboundary governance and collaboration in socially, culturally and politically complex conditions. Collective prioritised action, not new conservation plans, is needed for the north, western, and high seas of the Mediterranean, while developing initial information-based plans

  11. Application of Particle Swarm Optimization in Computer Aided Setup Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafashi, Sajad; Shakeri, Mohsen; Abedini, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    New researches are trying to integrate computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) environments. The role of process planning is to convert the design specification into manufacturing instructions. Setup planning has a basic role in computer aided process planning (CAPP) and significantly affects the overall cost and quality of machined part. This research focuses on the development for automatic generation of setups and finding the best setup plan in feasible condition. In order to computerize the setup planning process, three major steps are performed in the proposed system: a) Extraction of machining data of the part. b) Analyzing and generation of all possible setups c) Optimization to reach the best setup plan based on cost functions. Considering workshop resources such as machine tool, cutter and fixture, all feasible setups could be generated. Then the problem is adopted with technological constraints such as TAD (tool approach direction), tolerance relationship and feature precedence relationship to have a completely real and practical approach. The optimal setup plan is the result of applying the PSO (particle swarm optimization) algorithm into the system using cost functions. A real sample part is illustrated to demonstrate the performance and productivity of the system.

  12. The Aid Debate: Beyond the Liberal/Conservative Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamat, Sangeeta

    2010-01-01

    Recent works that assess whether development has been well-served, or served at all, by international aid, are overwhelmingly pessimistic in their assessment and in favor of the market as the antidote to international aid (Klees, 2010). The author finds that Steve Klees' essay focuses on the neoliberal and liberal frameworks that represent the…

  13. Management Aids and Procedures for Strategic Planning. Staff Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Robert G.

    Management aids required in strategic planning are divided into three categories: (1) assessing the environment, (2) providing a process for reaching decisions, and (3) presenting criteria to evaluate strategic decisions. A model for scanning the environment has four dimensions that concern economic, social, knowledge-technology, and public policy…

  14. Maximizing species conservation in continental Ecuador: a case of systematic conservation planning for biodiverse regions

    PubMed Central

    Lessmann, Janeth; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Ecuador has the largest number of species by area worldwide, but also a low representation of species within its protected areas. Here, we applied systematic conservation planning to identify potential areas for conservation in continental Ecuador, with the aim of increasing the representation of terrestrial species diversity in the protected area network. We selected 809 terrestrial species (amphibians, birds, mammals, and plants), for which distributions were estimated via species distribution models (SDMs), using Maxent. For each species we established conservation goals based on conservation priorities, and estimated new potential protected areas using Marxan conservation planning software. For each selected area, we determined their conservation priority and feasibility of establishment, two important aspects in the decision-making processes. We found that according to our conservation goals, the current protected area network contains large conservation gaps. Potential areas for conservation almost double the surface area of currently protected areas. Most of the newly proposed areas are located in the Coast, a region with large conservation gaps and irreversible changes in land use. The most feasible areas for conservation were found in the Amazon and Andes regions, which encompass more undisturbed habitats, and already harbor most of the current reserves. Our study allows defining a viable strategy for preserving Ecuador's biodiversity, by combining SDMs, GIS-based decision-support software, and priority and feasibility assessments of the selected areas. This approach is useful for complementing protected area networks in countries with great biodiversity, insufficient biological information, and limited resources for conservation. PMID:25360277

  15. Maximizing species conservation in continental Ecuador: a case of systematic conservation planning for biodiverse regions.

    PubMed

    Lessmann, Janeth; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2014-06-01

    Ecuador has the largest number of species by area worldwide, but also a low representation of species within its protected areas. Here, we applied systematic conservation planning to identify potential areas for conservation in continental Ecuador, with the aim of increasing the representation of terrestrial species diversity in the protected area network. We selected 809 terrestrial species (amphibians, birds, mammals, and plants), for which distributions were estimated via species distribution models (SDMs), using Maxent. For each species we established conservation goals based on conservation priorities, and estimated new potential protected areas using Marxan conservation planning software. For each selected area, we determined their conservation priority and feasibility of establishment, two important aspects in the decision-making processes. We found that according to our conservation goals, the current protected area network contains large conservation gaps. Potential areas for conservation almost double the surface area of currently protected areas. Most of the newly proposed areas are located in the Coast, a region with large conservation gaps and irreversible changes in land use. The most feasible areas for conservation were found in the Amazon and Andes regions, which encompass more undisturbed habitats, and already harbor most of the current reserves. Our study allows defining a viable strategy for preserving Ecuador's biodiversity, by combining SDMs, GIS-based decision-support software, and priority and feasibility assessments of the selected areas. This approach is useful for complementing protected area networks in countries with great biodiversity, insufficient biological information, and limited resources for conservation.

  16. Energy Conservation Through Rational Architecture and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, C. William

    1976-01-01

    Buildings can be designed in harmony with the natural environment, and new techniques of "active" solar design exist to collect and use solar energy for space heating and cooling. Preservation and reuse of existing buildings and neighborhoods are other ways to conserve energy. (Author/MLF)

  17. Computer-Aided Experiment Planning toward Causal Discovery in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Matiasz, Nicholas J.; Wood, Justin; Wang, Wei; Silva, Alcino J.; Hsu, William

    2017-01-01

    Computers help neuroscientists to analyze experimental results by automating the application of statistics; however, computer-aided experiment planning is far less common, due to a lack of similar quantitative formalisms for systematically assessing evidence and uncertainty. While ontologies and other Semantic Web resources help neuroscientists to assimilate required domain knowledge, experiment planning requires not only ontological but also epistemological (e.g., methodological) information regarding how knowledge was obtained. Here, we outline how epistemological principles and graphical representations of causality can be used to formalize experiment planning toward causal discovery. We outline two complementary approaches to experiment planning: one that quantifies evidence per the principles of convergence and consistency, and another that quantifies uncertainty using logical representations of constraints on causal structure. These approaches operationalize experiment planning as the search for an experiment that either maximizes evidence or minimizes uncertainty. Despite work in laboratory automation, humans must still plan experiments and will likely continue to do so for some time. There is thus a great need for experiment-planning frameworks that are not only amenable to machine computation but also useful as aids in human reasoning. PMID:28243197

  18. Computer-Aided Experiment Planning toward Causal Discovery in Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Matiasz, Nicholas J; Wood, Justin; Wang, Wei; Silva, Alcino J; Hsu, William

    2017-01-01

    Computers help neuroscientists to analyze experimental results by automating the application of statistics; however, computer-aided experiment planning is far less common, due to a lack of similar quantitative formalisms for systematically assessing evidence and uncertainty. While ontologies and other Semantic Web resources help neuroscientists to assimilate required domain knowledge, experiment planning requires not only ontological but also epistemological (e.g., methodological) information regarding how knowledge was obtained. Here, we outline how epistemological principles and graphical representations of causality can be used to formalize experiment planning toward causal discovery. We outline two complementary approaches to experiment planning: one that quantifies evidence per the principles of convergence and consistency, and another that quantifies uncertainty using logical representations of constraints on causal structure. These approaches operationalize experiment planning as the search for an experiment that either maximizes evidence or minimizes uncertainty. Despite work in laboratory automation, humans must still plan experiments and will likely continue to do so for some time. There is thus a great need for experiment-planning frameworks that are not only amenable to machine computation but also useful as aids in human reasoning.

  19. 78 FR 67336 - Habitat Conservation Plan for the United Water Conservation District, Santa Clara River Watershed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ..., operations, and maintenance of water management facilities within the lower Santa Clara River watershed... water management activities. United intends to request a 50-year permit covering five species federally... 0648-XC961 Habitat Conservation Plan for the United Water Conservation District, Santa Clara...

  20. Conservation Plants for the Northeast. Program Aid No. 1154.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    Descriptions of plants suited to specific conservation uses under different site conditions in the Northeast United States are presented in this booklet. The plants are classified into categories based on conservation use. These include: (1) plants for disturbed areas; (2) ornamental ground covers; (3) plants for coastal dunes and sandy inland…

  1. Integrating Climate and Ocean Change Vulnerability into Conservation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcleod, E.; Green, A.; Game, E.; Anthony, K.; Cinner, J.; Heron, S. F.; Kleypas, J. A.; Lovelock, C.; Pandolfi, J.; Pressey, B.; Salm, R.; Schill, S.; Woodroffe, C. D.

    2013-05-01

    Tropical coastal and marine ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to ocean warming, ocean acidification, and sea-level rise. Yet these projected climate and ocean change impacts are rarely considered in conservation planning due to the lack of guidance on how existing climate and ocean change models, tools, and data can be applied. We address this gap by describing how conservation planning can use available tools and data for assessing the vulnerability of tropical marine ecosystems to key climate threats. Additionally, we identify limitations of existing tools and provide recommendations for future research to improve integration of climate and ocean change information and conservation planning. Such information is critical for developing a conservation response that adequately protects these ecosystems and dependent coastal communities in the face of climate and ocean change.

  2. Conservation planning with uncertain climate change projections.

    PubMed

    Kujala, Heini; Moilanen, Atte; Araújo, Miguel B; Cabeza, Mar

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is affecting biodiversity worldwide, but conservation responses are constrained by considerable uncertainty regarding the magnitude, rate and ecological consequences of expected climate change. Here we propose a framework to account for several sources of uncertainty in conservation prioritization. Within this framework we account for uncertainties arising from (i) species distributions that shift following climate change, (ii) basic connectivity requirements of species, (iii) alternative climate change scenarios and their impacts, (iv) in the modelling of species distributions, and (v) different levels of confidence about present and future. When future impacts of climate change are uncertain, robustness of decision-making can be improved by quantifying the risks and trade-offs associated with climate scenarios. Sensible prioritization that accounts simultaneously for the present and potential future distributions of species is achievable without overly jeopardising present-day conservation values. Doing so requires systematic treatment of uncertainties and testing of the sensitivity of results to assumptions about climate. We illustrate the proposed framework by identifying priority areas for amphibians and reptiles in Europe.

  3. Improving effectiveness of systematic conservation planning with density data.

    PubMed

    Veloz, Samuel; Salas, Leonardo; Altman, Bob; Alexander, John; Jongsomjit, Dennis; Elliott, Nathan; Ballard, Grant

    2015-08-01

    Systematic conservation planning aims to design networks of protected areas that meet conservation goals across large landscapes. The optimal design of these conservation networks is most frequently based on the modeled habitat suitability or probability of occurrence of species, despite evidence that model predictions may not be highly correlated with species density. We hypothesized that conservation networks designed using species density distributions more efficiently conserve populations of all species considered than networks designed using probability of occurrence models. To test this hypothesis, we used the Zonation conservation prioritization algorithm to evaluate conservation network designs based on probability of occurrence versus density models for 26 land bird species in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. We assessed the efficacy of each conservation network based on predicted species densities and predicted species diversity. High-density model Zonation rankings protected more individuals per species when networks protected the highest priority 10-40% of the landscape. Compared with density-based models, the occurrence-based models protected more individuals in the lowest 50% priority areas of the landscape. The 2 approaches conserved species diversity in similar ways: predicted diversity was higher in higher priority locations in both conservation networks. We conclude that both density and probability of occurrence models can be useful for setting conservation priorities but that density-based models are best suited for identifying the highest priority areas. Developing methods to aggregate species count data from unrelated monitoring efforts and making these data widely available through ecoinformatics portals such as the Avian Knowledge Network will enable species count data to be more widely incorporated into systematic conservation planning efforts.

  4. Computer Aided Setup Planning Using Tolerance Analysis for Prismatic Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahid, Abedini; Mohsen, Shakeri; Sajad, Kafashi

    2011-01-01

    Computer aided process planning (CAPP) is the bridge between CAD and CAM. Setup planning is the major key to transform design concept into manufacturing domain, which is mainly experience based activity in modern manufacturing industry. Setup planning is a complicated non-linear task constrained by many factors such as tool approach direction, geometric feature relationship, fixturing constrain, tolerance requirement and manufacturing practice. The objective of setup planning is to determine the number of setup needed, the orientation of the workpiece and the machining surfaces in each setup. This paper focuses on the development of a formalized procedure for automatic generation of setup plan. Tolerance relations are used as critical constraints for setup planning. The tasks that are performed are: (a) identifying groups of features that can be machined in a single setup, (b) determining a suitable work piece orientation, i.e. the suitable datum planes for each setup, (c) determining all the feasible setup plans to machine the given set of features of prismatic parts, and (d) evaluating the feasible setup plans on the basis of technological conditions. Trial runs with industrial parts indicate that the system is applicable for industrial use.

  5. Assessing the impact of international conservation aid on deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bare, Matthew; Kauffman, Craig; Miller, Daniel C.

    2015-12-01

    International conservation donors have spent at least 3.4 billion to protect biodiversity and stem tropical deforestation in Africa since the early 1990s. Despite more than two decades of experience, however, there is little research on the effect of this aid at a region-wide scale. Numerous case studies exist, but show mixed results. Existing research is usually based on community perception or focused on short-term donor objectives rather than specific conservation outcomes, like deforestation rates. Thus, the impact of billions of dollars of conservation aid on deforestation rates remains an open question. This article uses an original dataset to analyze the effect of international conservation aid on deforestation rates in 42 African countries between 2000 and 2013. We first describe patterns of conservation aid across the continent and then assess its impact (with one to five-year lags), controlling for other factors that may also affect deforestation, including rural population, protected areas (PAs), governance, and other economic and commodity production variables. We find that conservation aid is associated with higher rates of forest loss after one- or two-year lags. A similar result holds for PA extent, suggesting possible displacement of deforestation from PAs. However, governance quality in high forest cover countries moderates these effects such that deforestation rates are reduced. Rural population is the most consistent factor associated with forest loss, confirming previous studies of this driver. Our results suggest that in heavily forested countries, development projects designed to support conservation work initially in conditions of good governance, but that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate larger deforestation drivers.

  6. Implementation planning for industrial energy conservation: approach and methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Alston, T.G.; Falk, G.; Grogan, P.J.; Katz, D.; Tatar, J.

    1981-01-01

    Details of an industry-specific Conservation Technology Implementation Branch implementation plan is described in detail. CTIB has conducted implementation planning in the steel, pulp/paper, and agriculture/food processing industries, but in FY 1981, CTIB plans to conduct planning for the chemicals, petroleum refining, aluminum, glass, cement, and textile industries. Guidelines are presented for each contractor for each industry toward a common methodology in terms of approach, areas of analysis, assumptions, and reporting. The major parts of the CTIB plan are: an implementation study consisting of technology selection, market demand analysis, and policy analysis, and a plan consisting of a detailed description and schedule of future CTIB actions, followed by a recommended system for monitoring market results when the plan is implemented. (MCW)

  7. 76 FR 50490 - Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Arctic National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Draft Environmental Impact... conservation plan (CCP) and draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) for the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge... Refuge System, consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation,...

  8. 76 FR 4719 - Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment, Selawik National Wildlife...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment, Selawik... Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and Environmental Assessment (EA) for Selawik National Wildlife Refuge... fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our policies. The U.S. Fish...

  9. Beyond protection: Expanding "conservation opportunity" to redefine conservation planning in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Liberati, Marjorie R; Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Vokoun, Jason C

    2016-12-01

    The protected lands estate increased dramatically during the 20th century and forms the backbone of current fisheries and wildlife conservation in North America. However, there is increasing evidence that modern conservation goals cannot be achieved by only focusing on adding new acreage, particularly with opportunistic protection. In the 21st century, flexibility and adaptability of conservation options can be accomplished by expanding the vocabulary of conservation planning beyond protection. We suggest a conceptual framework that considers suites of objectives to translate the broad goal of "conservation" into multiple implementation-specific objectives. These objectives form the "PCRM-PI" approach: protect, connect, restore, manage, partner, and inform. We use a case study to illustrate the limitations of protection-centric planning and how expanding the definition of conservation opportunity can help planners do more on the landscape. We suggest that the PCRM-PI approach with implementation-specific objectives is an effective way to bridge planning-implementation gaps and translate broad, landscape-level conservation goals into implementable actions.

  10. Cost-effective conservation planning: lessons from economics.

    PubMed

    Duke, Joshua M; Dundas, Steven J; Messer, Kent D

    2013-08-15

    Economists advocate that the billions of public dollars spent on conservation be allocated to achieve the largest possible social benefit. This is "cost-effective conservation"-a process that incorporates both monetized benefits and costs. Though controversial, cost-effective conservation is poorly understood and rarely implemented by planners. Drawing from the largest publicly financed conservation programs in the United States, this paper seeks to improve the communication from economists to planners and to overcome resistance to cost-effective conservation. Fifteen practical lessons are distilled, including the negative implications of limiting selection with political constraints, using nonmonetized benefit measures or benefit indices, ignoring development risk, using incomplete cost measures, employing cost measures sequentially, and using benefit indices to capture costs. The paper highlights interrelationships between benefits and complications such as capitalization and intertemporal planning. The paper concludes by identifying the challenges at the research frontier, including incentive problems associated with adverse selection, additionality, and slippage.

  11. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  12. District Level Plan for Conservation. An Outline for a District-Level Plan for Energy Conservation. Energy Conservation Materials Package Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Interstate Energy Conservation Leadership.

    Features shared by successful school energy conservation programs include: (1) the formation of a district energy conservation committee that involves as many segments of the educational community as practical, (2) the assignment of specific responsibilities to specific individuals, (3) careful planning in the development of guidelines, (4)…

  13. User's manual for a fuel-conservative descent planning algorithm implemented on a small programmable calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Vicroy, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. An explanation and examples of how the algorithm is used, as well as a detailed flow chart and listing of the algorithm are contained.

  14. Systematic conservation planning for groundwater ecosystems using phylogenetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Asmyhr, Maria G; Linke, Simon; Hose, Grant; Nipperess, David A

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer ecosystems provide a range of important services including clean drinking water. These ecosystems, which are largely inaccessible to humans, comprise a distinct invertebrate fauna (stygofauna), which is characterized by narrow distributions, high levels of endemism and cryptic species. Although being under enormous anthropogenic pressure, aquifers have rarely been included in conservation planning because of the general lack of knowledge of species diversity and distribution. Here we use molecular sequence data and phylogenetic diversity as surrogates for stygofauna diversity in aquifers of New South Wales, Australia. We demonstrate how to incorporate these data as conservation features in the systematic conservation planning software Marxan. We designated each branch of the phylogenetic tree as a conservation feature, with the branch length as a surrogate for the number of distinct characters represented by each branch. Two molecular markers (nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I) were used to evaluate how marker variability and the resulting tree topology affected the site-selection process. We found that the sites containing the deepest phylogenetic branches were deemed the most irreplaceable by Marxan. By integrating phylogenetic data, we provide a method for including taxonomically undescribed groundwater fauna in systematic conservation planning.

  15. Systematic Conservation Planning for Groundwater Ecosystems Using Phylogenetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Asmyhr, Maria G.; Linke, Simon; Hose, Grant; Nipperess, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer ecosystems provide a range of important services including clean drinking water. These ecosystems, which are largely inaccessible to humans, comprise a distinct invertebrate fauna (stygofauna), which is characterized by narrow distributions, high levels of endemism and cryptic species. Although being under enormous anthropogenic pressure, aquifers have rarely been included in conservation planning because of the general lack of knowledge of species diversity and distribution. Here we use molecular sequence data and phylogenetic diversity as surrogates for stygofauna diversity in aquifers of New South Wales, Australia. We demonstrate how to incorporate these data as conservation features in the systematic conservation planning software Marxan. We designated each branch of the phylogenetic tree as a conservation feature, with the branch length as a surrogate for the number of distinct characters represented by each branch. Two molecular markers (nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I) were used to evaluate how marker variability and the resulting tree topology affected the site-selection process. We found that the sites containing the deepest phylogenetic branches were deemed the most irreplaceable by Marxan. By integrating phylogenetic data, we provide a method for including taxonomically undescribed groundwater fauna in systematic conservation planning. PMID:25514422

  16. Effectiveness of Protected Areas in the Pan-Tropics and International Aid for Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Protected areas are crucial for tropical forest conservation efforts. Estimation of the effectiveness of protected areas is thus important for evaluating the efficacy of forest conservation policies and priorities. However, comprehensive evaluation of the long-term effects of Protected Areas and international aid is lacking. However, with the recent availability of long-term, large-scale forest cover change data at 30-m resolution, it has become possible to address some of the issues surrounding the effectiveness of protected areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of Protected Areas in the pan-tropics and international aid for conservation, we use the 30m resolution data along with econometrics 1) to estimate avoided deforestation by PAs in the tropics during the 2000s, 2) estimate effects of international aid on avoided deforestation by PAs and 3) analyze the relationships between the socio-economic variables and increases in deforestation, avoided deforestation by PAs and effects of international aid. Our results show that protected areas avoided 83,500 ± 21,200 km2 of deforestation during the 2000s. Brazil showed the highest estimates of effects of international aid on the avoided deforestation of 22 m2/USD, which is about 50 times higher compared to Indonesia (0.5 m2/USD). The regression analysis between avoided deforestation, effects of international aid and socio-economic factors demonstrates that PAs have been relatively more effective in the countries where the deforestation pressures were increasing and that governance and forest change monitoring capacity may be important factors enhancing the efficacy of international aid. Our study presents the first pan-tropical analysis of the long-term evaluation of the effectiveness of protected areas, international aid and their regulating factors using spatially explicit fine resolution data. Our findings allow us to pinpoint where conservation initiatives and resource management are effectively practiced and to

  17. Energy Conservation in the Home. Performance Based Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Home Economics Service.

    These ten performance-based lesson plans concentrate on tasks related to energy conservation in the home. They are (1) caulk cracks, holes, and joints; (2) apply weatherstripping to doors and windows; (3) add plastic/solar screen window covering; (4) arrange furniture for saving energy; (5) set heating/cooling thermostat; (6) replace faucet…

  18. A planning approach for agricultural watersheds using precision conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This brief article, written for a non-technical audience, discusses a recently-developed approach for watershed planning and nutrient reduction. The approach can help local stakeholders identify conservation practices that are locally preferred and determine how those practices can be distributed ac...

  19. Core concepts of spatial prioritisation in systematic conservation planning

    PubMed Central

    Kukkala, Aija S; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-01-01

    Systematic conservation planning (SCP) is a field of conservation biology concerned with delivering on-the-ground actions that achieve conservation goals. It describes a set of operational models that cover both design and implementation of conservation, with a strong focus on mobilising the collective action typically required to implement conservation. SCP, as it was originally described, was composed of six different stages: collection of data, identification of conservation goals, evaluation of the existing protected area network, design of expansions, implementation of conservation action, and long-term maintenance of biodiversity in the network. Since then, the operational model has been expanded into several different variants. Conservation actions applied inside SCP include establishment and expansion of reserve networks and allocation of habitat restoration and management. Within the broader context of SCP, there is a fundamental biogeographic-economic analysis frequently called spatial conservation prioritisation or conservation assessment, which is used for identifying where important areas for biodiversity are and how conservation goals might be achieved efficiently. Here, we review the usage and meaning of the 12 biogeographic-economic core concepts of SCP: adequacy, complementarity, comprehensiveness, effectiveness, efficiency, flexibility, irreplaceability, replacement cost, representation, representativeness, threat, and vulnerability. Some of the concepts have clear definitions whereas others may have alternative and possibly conflicting definitions. With a comprehensive literature review literature, we elucidate the historical backgrounds of these concepts, the first definitions and usages, alternative later definitions, key applications, and prior reviews. This review reduces linguistic uncertainty in the application of SCP. Since SCP is a global activity with a multitude of different stakeholders involved, it is vital that those involved can

  20. Core concepts of spatial prioritisation in systematic conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Kukkala, Aija S; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-05-01

    Systematic conservation planning (SCP) is a field of conservation biology concerned with delivering on-the-ground actions that achieve conservation goals. It describes a set of operational models that cover both design and implementation of conservation, with a strong focus on mobilising the collective action typically required to implement conservation. SCP, as it was originally described, was composed of six different stages: collection of data, identification of conservation goals, evaluation of the existing protected area network, design of expansions, implementation of conservation action, and long-term maintenance of biodiversity in the network. Since then, the operational model has been expanded into several different variants. Conservation actions applied inside SCP include establishment and expansion of reserve networks and allocation of habitat restoration and management. Within the broader context of SCP, there is a fundamental biogeographic-economic analysis frequently called spatial conservation prioritisation or conservation assessment, which is used for identifying where important areas for biodiversity are and how conservation goals might be achieved efficiently. Here, we review the usage and meaning of the 12 biogeographic-economic core concepts of SCP: adequacy, complementarity, comprehensiveness, effectiveness, efficiency, flexibility, irreplaceability, replacement cost, representation, representativeness, threat, and vulnerability. Some of the concepts have clear definitions whereas others may have alternative and possibly conflicting definitions. With a comprehensive literature review literature, we elucidate the historical backgrounds of these concepts, the first definitions and usages, alternative later definitions, key applications, and prior reviews. This review reduces linguistic uncertainty in the application of SCP. Since SCP is a global activity with a multitude of different stakeholders involved, it is vital that those involved can

  1. Characterizing spatial uncertainty when integrating social data in conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Lechner, A M; Raymond, C M; Adams, V M; Polyakov, M; Gordon, A; Rhodes, J R; Mills, M; Stein, A; Ives, C D; Lefroy, E C

    2014-12-01

    Recent conservation planning studies have presented approaches for integrating spatially referenced social (SRS) data with a view to improving the feasibility of conservation action. We reviewed the growing conservation literature on SRS data, focusing on elicited or stated preferences derived through social survey methods such as choice experiments and public participation geographic information systems. Elicited SRS data includes the spatial distribution of willingness to sell, willingness to pay, willingness to act, and assessments of social and cultural values. We developed a typology for assessing elicited SRS data uncertainty which describes how social survey uncertainty propagates when projected spatially and the importance of accounting for spatial uncertainty such as scale effects and data quality. These uncertainties will propagate when elicited SRS data is integrated with biophysical data for conservation planning and may have important consequences for assessing the feasibility of conservation actions. To explore this issue further, we conducted a systematic review of the elicited SRS data literature. We found that social survey uncertainty was commonly tested for, but that these uncertainties were ignored when projected spatially. Based on these results we developed a framework which will help researchers and practitioners estimate social survey uncertainty and use these quantitative estimates to systematically address uncertainty within an analysis. This is important when using SRS data in conservation applications because decisions need to be made irrespective of data quality and well characterized uncertainty can be incorporated into decision theoretic approaches.

  2. 77 FR 53221 - Santa Clara Valley Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan, Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea), tricolored blackbird (Agelaius tricolor), Mount Hamilton... area for burrowing owl conservation, which includes the northern portion of Santa Clara County and a... in the expanded study area and permit area for burrowing owl conservation will be limited to...

  3. 75 FR 79013 - Santa Clara Valley Habitat Conservation Plan and Natural Community Conservation Plan, CA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... marmorata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea... is the 48,464-acre Expanded Permit Area for Burrowing Owl Conservation, which includes the northern... of the HCP/NCCP). Incidental take in the Expanded Permit Area for Burrowing Owl Conservation will...

  4. Waterbird conservation for the Americas: The North American waterbird conservation plan, version 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, James A.; Steinkamp, Melanie J.; Parsons, Katharine C.; Capp, Jack; Cruz, Martin Acosta; Coulter, Malcolm; Davidson, Ian; Dickson, Loney; Edelson, Naomi; Elliot, Richard; Erwin, R. Michael; Hatch, Scott A.; Kress, Stephen; Milko, Robert; Miller, Steve; Mills, Kyra L.; Paul, Richard; Phillips, Roberto; Saliva, Jorge E.; Syderman, Bill; Trapp, John; Wheeler, Jennifer; Wohl, Kenton D.

    2002-01-01

    The North American Waterbird Conservation Plan (the Plan) is the product of an independent partnership of individuals and institutions having interest and responsibility for conservation of waterbirds and their habitats in the Americas. This partnership - Waterbird Conservation for the Americas - was created to support a vision in which the distribution, diversity, and abundance of populations and habitats of breeding, migratory, and nonbreeding waterbirds are sustained or restored throughout the lands and waters of North America, Central America, and the Caribbean.The Plan provides a continental-scale framework for the conservation and management of 210 species of waterbirds, including seabirds, coastal waterbirds, wading birds, and marshbirds utilizing aquatic habitats in 29 nations throughout North America, Central America, the islands and pelagic waters of the Caribbean Sea and western Atlantic, the U.S.-associated Pacific Islands and pelagic inland and pelagic waters of the Pacific. Birds as familiar as herons, loons, pelicans, and gulls, as well as the lesser known albatrosses, petrels, auks, and rails are among the species considered in the Plan. These birds' dependence on aquatic habitats such as wooded swamps, stream corridors, salt marshes, barrier islands, continental shelf waters and open pelagic waters make them especially vulnerable to the myriad threats facing water and wetland resources globally. In addition, the congregatory behavior of many waterbirds increases population risks by concentrating populations in limited areas.

  5. Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, D. D.; Knox, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

  6. Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Vicroy, D.D.; Knox, C.E.

    1983-05-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

  7. [Landscape planning approaches for biodiversity conservation in agriculture].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun-hui; Li, Liang-tao; Yu, Zhen-rong

    2008-11-01

    Biodiversity conservation in agriculture not only relates to the sustainable development of agriculture, but also is an essential part of species conservation. In recent years, the landscape planning approach for biodiversity was highlighted instead of species-focused approach. In this paper, the landscape factors affecting the biodiversity in agriculture were reviewed, and the possible landscape approaches at three different scales for more efficient conservation of biodiversity in agro-landscape were suggested, including: (1) the increase of the proportion of natural or semi-natural habitats in agriculture, diversification of land use or crop pattern, and protection or construction of corridor at landscape level; (2) the establishment of non-cropping elements such as field margin at between-field level; and (3) the application of reasonable crop density, crop distribution pattern and rotation, and intercrop etc. at within-field level. It was suggested that the relevant policies for natural conservation, land use planning, and ecological compensation should be made to apply the landscape approaches for biodiversity conservation at larger scale.

  8. How Can You Teach Middle Grades Students about HIV/AIDS in a Conservative Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrand, Shirley; Wattenbarger, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes a program for educating middle school students about the AIDS epidemic and disease prevention while keeping with the values expressed by a conservative community. Considers the use of science, social studies, math, and language arts in the education process, and the cooperation of parents and the community. (JPB)

  9. Effects of a Memory Aid on Three Types of Conservation in Institutionalized Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodin, Paul A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Qualitative identity, qualitative identity and equivalence conservation were assessed in 60 retarded boys and girls in three groups (mental ages 5.4, 6.3, and 7.5). Half the subjects were provided a memory aid while the other half were not. (MS)

  10. Optimized spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation in China: a systematic conservation planning perspective.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruidong; Long, Yongcheng; Malanson, George P; Garber, Paul A; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Diqiang; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Longzhu; Duo, Hairui

    2014-01-01

    By addressing several key features overlooked in previous studies, i.e. human disturbance, integration of ecosystem- and species-level conservation features, and principles of complementarity and representativeness, we present the first national-scale systematic conservation planning for China to determine the optimized spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation. We compiled a spatial database on the distributions of ecosystem- and species-level conservation features, and modeled a human disturbance index (HDI) by aggregating information using several socioeconomic proxies. We ran Marxan with two scenarios (HDI-ignored and HDI-considered) to investigate the effects of human disturbance, and explored the geographic patterns of the optimized spatial conservation priorities. Compared to when HDI was ignored, the HDI-considered scenario resulted in (1) a marked reduction (∼9%) in the total HDI score and a slight increase (∼7%) in the total area of the portfolio of priority units, (2) a significant increase (∼43%) in the total irreplaceable area and (3) more irreplaceable units being identified in almost all environmental zones and highly-disturbed provinces. Thus the inclusion of human disturbance is essential for cost-effective priority-setting. Attention should be targeted to the areas that are characterized as moderately-disturbed, <2,000 m in altitude, and/or intermediately- to extremely-rugged in terrain to identify potentially important regions for implementing cost-effective conservation. We delineated 23 primary large-scale priority areas that are significant for conserving China's biodiversity, but those isolated priority units in disturbed regions are in more urgent need of conservation actions so as to prevent immediate and severe biodiversity loss. This study presents a spatially optimized national-scale portfolio of conservation priorities--effectively representing the overall biodiversity of China while minimizing conflicts with economic

  11. Optimized Spatial Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation in China: A Systematic Conservation Planning Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ruidong; Long, Yongcheng; Malanson, George P.; Garber, Paul A.; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Diqiang; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Longzhu; Duo, Hairui

    2014-01-01

    By addressing several key features overlooked in previous studies, i.e. human disturbance, integration of ecosystem- and species-level conservation features, and principles of complementarity and representativeness, we present the first national-scale systematic conservation planning for China to determine the optimized spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation. We compiled a spatial database on the distributions of ecosystem- and species-level conservation features, and modeled a human disturbance index (HDI) by aggregating information using several socioeconomic proxies. We ran Marxan with two scenarios (HDI-ignored and HDI-considered) to investigate the effects of human disturbance, and explored the geographic patterns of the optimized spatial conservation priorities. Compared to when HDI was ignored, the HDI-considered scenario resulted in (1) a marked reduction (∼9%) in the total HDI score and a slight increase (∼7%) in the total area of the portfolio of priority units, (2) a significant increase (∼43%) in the total irreplaceable area and (3) more irreplaceable units being identified in almost all environmental zones and highly-disturbed provinces. Thus the inclusion of human disturbance is essential for cost-effective priority-setting. Attention should be targeted to the areas that are characterized as moderately-disturbed, <2,000 m in altitude, and/or intermediately- to extremely-rugged in terrain to identify potentially important regions for implementing cost-effective conservation. We delineated 23 primary large-scale priority areas that are significant for conserving China's biodiversity, but those isolated priority units in disturbed regions are in more urgent need of conservation actions so as to prevent immediate and severe biodiversity loss. This study presents a spatially optimized national-scale portfolio of conservation priorities – effectively representing the overall biodiversity of China while minimizing conflicts with economic

  12. A multi-species framework for landscape conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwenk, W. Scott; Donovan, Therese

    2011-01-01

     Rapidly changing landscapes have spurred the need for quantitative methods for conservation assessment and planning that encompass large spatial extents. We devised and tested a multispecies framework for conservation planning to complement single-species assessments and ecosystem-level approaches. Our framework consisted of 4 elements: sampling to effectively estimate population parameters, measuring how human activity affects landscapes at multiple scales, analyzing the relation between landscape characteristics and individual species occurrences, and evaluating and comparing the responses of multiple species to landscape modification. We applied the approach to a community of terrestrial birds across 25,000 km2 with a range of intensities of human development. Human modification of land cover, road density, and other elements of the landscape, measured at multiple spatial extents, had large effects on occupancy of the 67 species studied. Forest composition within 1 km of points had a strong effect on occupancy of many species and a range of negative, intermediate, and positive associations. Road density within 1 km of points, percent evergreen forest within 300 m, and distance from patch edge were also strongly associated with occupancy for many species. We used the occupancy results to group species into 11 guilds that shared patterns of association with landscape characteristics. Our multispecies approach to conservation planning allowed us to quantify the trade-offs of different scenarios of land-cover change in terms of species occupancy.

  13. Planning fuel-conservative descents in an airline environmental using a small programmable calculator: algorithm development and flight test results

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, C.E.; Vicroy, D.D.; Simmon, D.A.

    1985-05-01

    A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.

  14. Planning fuel-conservative descents in an airline environmental using a small programmable calculator: Algorithm development and flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.; Vicroy, D. D.; Simmon, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple, airborne, flight-management descent algorithm was developed and programmed into a small programmable calculator. The algorithm may be operated in either a time mode or speed mode. The time mode was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The speed model was designed for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path for both modes was calculated for a constant with considerations given for the descent Mach/airspeed schedule, gross weight, wind, wind gradient, and nonstandard temperature effects. Flight tests, using the algorithm on the programmable calculator, showed that the open-loop guidance could be useful to airline flight crews for planning and executing fuel-conservative descents.

  15. 76 FR 36571 - Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Malta, MT; Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Malta, MT; Comprehensive Conservation Plan AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for... conservation plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge Complex...

  16. Planning tiger recovery: Understanding intraspecific variation for effective conservation

    PubMed Central

    Wilting, Andreas; Courtiol, Alexandre; Christiansen, Per; Niedballa, Jürgen; Scharf, Anne K.; Orlando, Ludovic; Balkenhol, Niko; Hofer, Heribert; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Fickel, Jörns; Kitchener, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Although significantly more money is spent on the conservation of tigers than on any other threatened species, today only 3200 to 3600 tigers roam the forests of Asia, occupying only 7% of their historical range. Despite the global significance of and interest in tiger conservation, global approaches to plan tiger recovery are partly impeded by the lack of a consensus on the number of tiger subspecies or management units, because a comprehensive analysis of tiger variation is lacking. We analyzed variation among all nine putative tiger subspecies, using extensive data sets of several traits [morphological (craniodental and pelage), ecological, molecular]. Our analyses revealed little variation and large overlaps in each trait among putative subspecies, and molecular data showed extremely low diversity because of a severe Late Pleistocene population decline. Our results support recognition of only two subspecies: the Sunda tiger, Panthera tigris sondaica, and the continental tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, which consists of two (northern and southern) management units. Conservation management programs, such as captive breeding, reintroduction initiatives, or trans-boundary projects, rely on a durable, consistent characterization of subspecies as taxonomic units, defined by robust multiple lines of scientific evidence rather than single traits or ad hoc descriptions of one or few specimens. Our multiple-trait data set supports a fundamental rethinking of the conventional tiger taxonomy paradigm, which will have profound implications for the management of in situ and ex situ tiger populations and boost conservation efforts by facilitating a pragmatic approach to tiger conservation management worldwide. PMID:26601191

  17. Land Conservation Plan from the New Hampshire’s Coastal Watersheds (Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The overarching goal of this land conservation plan is to focus conservation on those lands and waters that are most important for conserving living resources - native plants, animals and natural communities - and water quality in the coastal watersheds.

  18. 75 FR 3753 - Tishomingo National Wildlife Refuge, Comprehensive Conservation Plan, Johnston County, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Tishomingo National Wildlife Refuge, Comprehensive Conservation Plan.... Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of a draft comprehensive conservation... agreement between the Service, Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation (ODWC), and the Corps, are...

  19. Incorporating conservation zone effectiveness for protecting biodiversity in marine planning.

    PubMed

    Makino, Azusa; Klein, Carissa J; Beger, Maria; Jupiter, Stacy D; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-01-01

    Establishing different types of conservation zones is becoming commonplace. However, spatial prioritization methods that can accommodate multiple zones are poorly understood in theory and application. It is typically assumed that management regulations across zones have differential levels of effectiveness ("zone effectiveness") for biodiversity protection, but the influence of zone effectiveness on achieving conservation targets has not yet been explored. Here, we consider the zone effectiveness of three zones: permanent closure, partial protection, and open, for planning for the protection of five different marine habitats in the Vatu-i-Ra Seascape, Fiji. We explore the impact of differential zone effectiveness on the location and costs of conservation priorities. We assume that permanent closure zones are fully effective at protecting all habitats, open zones do not contribute towards the conservation targets and partial protection zones lie between these two extremes. We use four different estimates for zone effectiveness and three different estimates for zone cost of the partial protection zone. To enhance the practical utility of the approach, we also explore how much of each traditional fishing ground can remain open for fishing while still achieving conservation targets. Our results show that all of the high priority areas for permanent closure zones would not be a high priority when the zone effectiveness of the partial protection zone is equal to that of permanent closure zones. When differential zone effectiveness and costs are considered, the resulting marine protected area network consequently increases in size, with more area allocated to permanent closure zones to meet conservation targets. By distributing the loss of fishing opportunity equitably among local communities, we find that 84-88% of each traditional fishing ground can be left open while still meeting conservation targets. Finally, we summarize the steps for developing marine zoning that

  20. 75 FR 10305 - Environmental Impact Statement and Habitat Conservation Plan for the Incidental Take of Seven...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...-1112-0000-F2] Environmental Impact Statement and Habitat Conservation Plan for the Incidental Take of... draft habitat conservation plan; announcement of public scoping meetings; and request for comments... implementation of the supporting draft Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP). The Edwards Aquifer...

  1. 75 FR 31463 - Comal County Regional Habitat Conservation Plan, Comal County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Comal County Regional Habitat Conservation Plan, Comal County, TX AGENCY... statement, draft habitat conservation plan, and permit application; announcement of a public hearing... County has completed a draft Habitat Conservation Plan (dHCP) as part of the application package. We...

  2. Ten things to get right for marine conservation planning in the Coral Triangle

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Rebecca; Pressey, Robert L.; Wilson, Joanne R.; Knight, Maurice; Horigue, Vera; Abesamis, Rene A.; Acosta, Renerio; Jompa, Jamaluddin

    2015-01-01

    Systematic conservation planning increasingly underpins the conservation and management of marine and coastal ecosystems worldwide. Amongst other benefits, conservation planning provides transparency in decision-making, efficiency in the use of limited resources, the ability to minimise conflict between diverse objectives, and to guide strategic expansion of local actions to maximise their cumulative impact. The Coral Triangle has long been recognised as a global marine conservation priority, and has been the subject of huge investment in conservation during the last five years through the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security. Yet conservation planning has had relatively little influence in this region. To explore why this is the case, we identify and discuss 10 challenges that must be resolved if conservation planning is to effectively inform management actions in the Coral Triangle. These are: making conservation planning accessible; integrating with other planning processes; building local capacity for conservation planning; institutionalising conservation planning within governments; integrating plans across governance levels; planning across governance boundaries; planning for multiple tools and objectives; understanding limitations of data; developing better measures of progress and effectiveness; and making a long term commitment. Most important is a conceptual shift from conservation planning undertaken as a project, to planning undertaken as a process, with dedicated financial and human resources committed to long-term engagement. PMID:25110579

  3. Ten things to get right for marine conservation planning in the Coral Triangle.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Rebecca; Pressey, Robert L; Wilson, Joanne R; Knight, Maurice; Horigue, Vera; Abesamis, Rene A; Acosta, Renerio; Jompa, Jamaluddin

    2014-01-01

    Systematic conservation planning increasingly underpins the conservation and management of marine and coastal ecosystems worldwide. Amongst other benefits, conservation planning provides transparency in decision-making, efficiency in the use of limited resources, the ability to minimise conflict between diverse objectives, and to guide strategic expansion of local actions to maximise their cumulative impact. The Coral Triangle has long been recognised as a global marine conservation priority, and has been the subject of huge investment in conservation during the last five years through the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security. Yet conservation planning has had relatively little influence in this region. To explore why this is the case, we identify and discuss 10 challenges that must be resolved if conservation planning is to effectively inform management actions in the Coral Triangle. These are: making conservation planning accessible; integrating with other planning processes; building local capacity for conservation planning; institutionalising conservation planning within governments; integrating plans across governance levels; planning across governance boundaries; planning for multiple tools and objectives; understanding limitations of data; developing better measures of progress and effectiveness; and making a long term commitment. Most important is a conceptual shift from conservation planning undertaken as a project, to planning undertaken as a process, with dedicated financial and human resources committed to long-term engagement.

  4. Intelligent Pilot Aids for Flight Re-Planning in Emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental studies were conducted with pilots to investigate the attributes of automation that would be appropriate for aiding pilots in emergencies. The specific focus of this year was on methods of mitigating automation brittleness. Brittleness occurs when the automatic system is used in circumstances it was not designed for, causing it to choose an incorrect action or make an inaccurate decision for the situation. Brittleness is impossible to avoid since it is impossible to predict every potential situation the automatic system will be exposed to over its life. However, operators are always ultimately responsible for the actions and decisions of the automation they are monitoring or using, which means they must evaluate the automation's decisions and actions for accuracy. As has been pointed out, this is a difficult thing for human operators to do. There have been various suggestions as to how to aid operators with this evaluation. In the study described in this report we studied how presentation of contextual information about an automatic system's decision might impact the ability of the human operators to evaluate that decision. This study focused on the planning of emergency descents. Fortunately, emergencies (e.g., mechanical or electrical malfunction, on-board fire, and medical emergency) happen quite rarely. However, they can be catastrophic when they do. For all predictable or conceivable emergencies, pilots have emergency procedures that they are trained on, but those procedures often end with 'determine suitable airport and land as quickly as possible.' Planning an emergency descent to an unplanned airport is a difficult task, particularly under the time pressures of an emergency. Automatic decision aids could be very efficient at the task of determining an appropriate airport and calculating an optimal trajectory to that airport. This information could be conveyed to the pilot through an emergency descent procedure listing all of the actions

  5. Case studies of conservation plans that incorporate geodiversity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M G; Comer, P J; Beier, P; Lawler, J J; Schloss, C A; Buttrick, S; Albano, C M; Faith, D P

    2015-06-01

    Geodiversity has been used as a surrogate for biodiversity when species locations are unknown, and this utility can be extended to situations where species locations are in flux. Recently, scientists have designed conservation networks that aim to explicitly represent the range of geophysical environments, identifying a network of physical stages that could sustain biodiversity while allowing for change in species composition in response to climate change. Because there is no standard approach to designing such networks, we compiled 8 case studies illustrating a variety of ways scientists have approached the challenge. These studies show how geodiversity has been partitioned and used to develop site portfolios and connectivity designs; how geodiversity-based portfolios compare with those derived from species and communities; and how the selection and combination of variables influences the results. Collectively, they suggest 4 key steps when using geodiversity to augment traditional biodiversity-based conservation planning: create land units from species-relevant variables combined in an ecologically meaningful way; represent land units in a logical spatial configuration and integrate with species locations when possible; apply selection criteria to individual sites to ensure they are appropriate for conservation; and develop connectivity among sites to maintain movements and processes. With these considerations, conservationists can design more effective site portfolios to ensure the lasting conservation of biodiversity under a changing climate.

  6. Scientifically defensible fish conservation and recovery plans: Addressing diffuse threats and developing rigorous adaptive management plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maas-Hebner, Kathleen G.; Schreck, Carl B.; Hughes, Robert M.; Yeakley, Alan; Molina, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the importance of addressing diffuse threats to long-term species and habitat viability in fish conservation and recovery planning. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmonid management plans have typically focused on degraded freshwater habitat, dams, fish passage, harvest rates, and hatchery releases. However, such plans inadequately address threats related to human population and economic growth, intra- and interspecific competition, and changes in climate, ocean, and estuarine conditions. Based on reviews conducted on eight conservation and/or recovery plans, we found that though threats resulting from such changes are difficult to model and/or predict, they are especially important for wide-ranging diadromous species. Adaptive management is also a critical but often inadequately constructed component of those plans. Adaptive management should be designed to respond to evolving knowledge about the fish and their supporting ecosystems; if done properly, it should help improve conservation efforts by decreasing uncertainty regarding known and diffuse threats. We conclude with a general call for environmental managers and planners to reinvigorate the adaptive management process in future management plans, including more explicitly identifying critical uncertainties, implementing monitoring programs to reduce those uncertainties, and explicitly stating what management actions will occur when pre-identified trigger points are reached.

  7. Predicting occurrence of juvenile shark habitat to improve conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Oh, Beverly Z L; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Ruppert, Jonathan L W; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2016-11-30

    Fishing and habitat degradation have increased the extinction risk of sharks, and conservation strategies recognize that survival of juveniles is critical for the effective management of shark populations. Despite the rapid expansion of marine protected areas (MPAs) globally, the paucity of shark-monitoring data on large scales (100s-1000s km) means that the effectiveness of MPAs in halting shark declines remains unclear. Using data collected by baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS) in northwestern Australia, we developed generalized linear models to elucidate the ecological drivers of habitat suitability for juvenile sharks. We assessed occurrence patterns at the order and species levels. We included all juvenile sharks sampled and the 3 most abundant species sampled separately (grey reef [Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos], sandbar [Carcharhinus plumbeus], and whitetip reef sharks [Triaenodon obesus]). We predicted the occurrence of juvenile sharks across 490,515 km(2) of coastal waters and quantified the representation of highly suitable habitats within MPAs. Our species-level models had higher accuracy (ĸ ≥ 0.69) and deviance explained (≥48%) than our order-level model (ĸ = 0.36 and deviance explained of 10%). Maps of predicted occurrence revealed different species-specific patterns of highly suitable habitat. These differences likely reflect different physiological or resource requirements between individual species and validate concerns over the utility of conservation targets based on aggregate species groups as opposed to a species-focused approach. Highly suitable habitats were poorly represented in MPAs with the most restrictions on extractive activities. This spatial mismatch possibly indicates a lack of explicit conservation targets and information on species distribution during the planning process. Non-extractive BRUVS provided a useful platform for building the suitability models across large scales to assist conservation planning across

  8. AIDS education in the schools: a literature review as a guide for curriculum planning.

    PubMed

    Brown, L K; Fritz, G K

    1988-07-01

    As plans for massive public AIDS education grow, pediatricians will become increasingly involved with school systems as consultants and leaders. A review of relevant literature on students' current level of knowledge about AIDS and on educational efforts to date with high-risk groups (homosexuals and intravenous drug users) provides the rationale for school-based AIDS education. Literature describing the approaches used and the impact of programs for sex education, drug abuse prevention, and reduction of prejudice towards the disabled is reviewed to extrapolate that which applies to AIDS education. Important developmental characteristics of adolescents are discussed insofar as they have implications for the planning of AIDS curricula.

  9. Intelligent Pilot Aids for Flight Re-Planning in Emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Ockerman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Effective and safe control of an aircraft may be difficult or nearly impossible for a pilot following an unexpected system failure. Without prior training, the pilot must ascertain on the fly those changes in both manual control technique and procedures that will lead to a safe landing of the aircraft. Sophisticated techniques for determining the required control techniques are now available. Likewise, a body of literature on pilot decision making provides formalisms for examining how pilots approach discrete decisions framed as the selection between options. However, other aspects of behavior, such as the task of route planning and guidance, are not as well studied. Not only is the pilot faced with possible performance changes to the aircraft dynamics, but he or she is also tasked to create a plan of actions that will effectively take the aircraft down to a safe landing. In this plan, the many actions that the pilot can perform are closely intertwined with the trajectory of the aircraft, making it difficult to accurately predict the final outcome. Coupled with the vast number of potential actions to be taken, this problem may seem intractable. This is reflected in the lack of a pre-specified procedure capable of giving pilots the ability to find a resolution for this task. This report summarizes a multi-year effort to examine methods to aid pilots in planning an approach and arrival to an airport following an aircraft systems failure. Ultimately, we hypothesize that automatic assistance to pilots can be provided in real-time in the form of improving pilot control of a damaged aircraft and providing pilots with procedural directives suitable for critical flight conditions; such systems may also benefit pilot training and procedure design. To achieve this result, a systematic, comprehensive research program was followed, building on prior research. This approach included a pencil-and-paper study with airline pilots examining methods of representing a flight route in

  10. The scaup conservation action plan: working toward coherence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    The last in a series of three workshops to develop a decision framework for the scaup conservation action plan was conducted in September 2009. Fifteen waterfowl biologists and managers met in Memphis, Tennessee at the Ducks Unlimited Headquarters to review and refine the decision statement, objectives, and prototype model for the continental scaup population, with a special focus on vital rate parameters that are affected during migration and winter. In a significant step toward coherence, the participants also developed models for incorporating human dimensions – hunters – into the decision framework, and to link the population of diving duck hunters with the continental scaup population.

  11. Conservation planning for imperiled aquatic species in an urbanizing environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenger, Seth J.; Freeman, Mary C.; Fowler, Laurie A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Peterson, James T.

    2010-01-01

    As the global area devoted to urban uses grows, an increasing number of freshwater species will face imperilment due to urbanization effects. Management of these impacts on both private and public lands is necessary to ensure species persistence. Such management entails several hallenges: (1) development of a management policy appropriate to the stressors; (2) linking stressor levels to species population attributes; (3) forecasting the effects of alternative management policy decisions on the species, and (4) using adaptive management to adjust the policy in the future. We illustrate how these challenges were addressed under the Etowah Habitat Conservation Plan (Etowah HCP), a management plan for three federally protected fish species in Georgia, USA. The plan involved the creation of a management policy to address the impacts of the greatest stressor, stormwater runoff, as well as other stressors. Models were constructed to link population indices of the three species with a key indicator of stormwater runoff, effective impervious area (EIA). Then, models were applied to projected levels of EIA under full watershed buildout to fine-tune the parameters of the management policy. Forecasting indicated that the most sensitive species, the Etowah darter, was likely to decline by 84% in the absence of the Etowah HCP, but only 23% if the Etowah HCP were implemented. Although there was substantial uncertainty in model predictions, an adaptive management plan was established to incorporate new data and to adjust management policies as necessary.

  12. Geographic Information System Tools for Conservation Planning: User's Manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, Timothy J.; Rohweder, Jason J.; Kenow, K.P.; Korschgen, C.E.; DeHaan, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Public and private land managers desire better ways to incorporate landscape, species, and habitat relations into their conservation planning processes. We present three tools, developed for the Environmental Systems Research Institute?s ArcView 3.x platform, applicable to many types of wildlife conservation management and planning efforts. These tools provide managers and planners with the ability to rapidly assess landscape attributes and link these attributes with species-habitat information. To use the tools, the user provides a detailed land cover spatial database and develops a matrix to identify species-habitat relations for the landscape of interest. The tools are applicable to any taxa or suite of taxa for which the required data are available. The user also has the ability to interactively make polygon-specific changes to the landscape and re-examine species-habitat relations. The development of these tools has given resource managers the means to evaluate the merits of proposed landscape management scenarios and to choose the scenario that best fits the goals of the managed area.

  13. Orthodontics: computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  14. Conservation Planning for Coral Reefs Accounting for Climate Warming Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Magris, Rafael A.; Heron, Scott F.; Pressey, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating warming disturbances into the design of marine protected areas (MPAs) is fundamental to developing appropriate conservation actions that confer coral reef resilience. We propose an MPA design approach that includes spatially- and temporally-varying sea-surface temperature (SST) data, integrating both observed (1985–2009) and projected (2010–2099) time-series. We derived indices of acute (time under reduced ecosystem function following short-term events) and chronic thermal stress (rate of warming) and combined them to delineate thermal-stress regimes. Coral reefs located on the Brazilian coast were used as a case study because they are considered a conservation priority in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. We show that all coral reef areas in Brazil have experienced and are projected to continue to experience chronic warming, while acute events are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. We formulated quantitative conservation objectives for regimes of thermal stress. Based on these objectives, we then evaluated if/how they are achieved in existing Brazilian MPAs and identified priority areas where additional protection would reinforce resilience. Our results show that, although the current system of MPAs incorporates locations within some of our thermal-stress regimes, historical and future thermal refugia along the central coast are completely unprotected. Our approach is applicable to other marine ecosystems and adds to previous marine planning for climate change in two ways: (i) by demonstrating how to spatially configure MPAs that meet conservation objectives for warming disturbance using spatially- and temporally-explicit data; and (ii) by strategically allocating different forms of spatial management (MPA types) intended to mitigate warming impacts and also enhance future resistance to climate warming. PMID:26535586

  15. Soil and Water Conservation for a Better America. A Framework Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Through this framework plan, the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) takes a look ahead to its soil and water conservation mission, a look at its direction and thrust in helping create a desirable America in the decades ahead. The plan attempts to define the nature of soil and water conservation efforts, to put them in perspective, and to present a…

  16. 75 FR 57053 - Camas National Wildlife Refuge, Jefferson County, ID; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for Camas National Wildlife Refuge (refuge) in Hamer, ID... Refuge System, consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation,...

  17. [Priority areas for biodiversity conservation in Hainan Island: evaluation and systematic conservation planning].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Xiao, Yi; Wu, Wei-hua; Zheng, Hua; Jiang, Bo

    2011-08-01

    A total of 140 endangered species in Hainan Island were selected as indicator species, and their spatial distribution patterns were analyzed by using mechanism habitat model. Based on the iterative operation with systematic conservation planning tool MARXAN, the priority areas of these species were identified and evaluated. The priority areas had an area of 5383.7 km2, accounting for 15.6% of the total land area of the Island, and mainly distributed in some forest regions (Yinggeling, Jianfengling and Wuzhishan) and in northern part water source regions. In the priority areas, the conservation proportion of 11 1st grade indicator species habitats occupied at least 65% of all the habitats. Through the gap analysis of priority areas and current nature reserves, it was suggested that an expansion of Jianfengling, Yinggeling-Limushan, and Wuzhishan-Diaoluoshan nature reserves and the establishment of Baolonglinchang-Linbiling-Fuwanling protection system should be made, and the protection areas for water source conservation and endangered species should be established in the northern part of the Island.

  18. Spatial conservation planning framework for assessing conservation opportunities in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Ana Paula; Rovzar, Corey; Davis, Kelsey S; Fuller, Trevon; Buermann, Wolfgang; Saatchi, Sassan; Smith, Thomas B; Silveira, Luis Fabio; Gillespie, Thomas W

    2014-09-01

    Historic rates of habitat change and growing exploitation of natural resources threaten avian biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a global biodiversity hotspot. We implemented a twostage framework for conservation planning in the Atlantic Forest. First, we used ecological niche modeling to predict the distributions of 23 endemic bird species using 19 climatic metrics and 12 spectral and radar remote sensing metrics. Second, we utilized the principle of complementarity to prioritize new sites to augment the Atlantic Forest's existing reserves. The best predictors of bird distributions were precipitation metrics (the seasonality of rainfall) and radar remote sensing metrics (QSCAT). The existing protected areas do not include 10% of the habitat of each of the 23 endemic species. We propose a more economical set of protected areas by reducing the extent to which new sites duplicate the biodiversity content of existing protected areas. There is a high concordance between the proposed conservation areas that we designed using computerized algorithms and Important Bird Areas prioritized by BirdLife International. Insofar as deforestation in the Atlantic Forest is similar to land conversion in other biodiversity hotspots, our methodology is applicable to conservation efforts elsewhere in the world.

  19. Spatial conservation planning framework for assessing conservation opportunities in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Ana Paula; Rovzar, Corey; Davis, Kelsey S.; Fuller, Trevon; Buermann, Wolfgang; Saatchi, Sassan; Smith, Thomas B.; Silveira, Luis Fabio; Gillespie, Thomas W.

    2017-01-01

    Historic rates of habitat change and growing exploitation of natural resources threaten avian biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a global biodiversity hotspot. We implemented a twostage framework for conservation planning in the Atlantic Forest. First, we used ecological niche modeling to predict the distributions of 23 endemic bird species using 19 climatic metrics and 12 spectral and radar remote sensing metrics. Second, we utilized the principle of complementarity to prioritize new sites to augment the Atlantic Forest's existing reserves. The best predictors of bird distributions were precipitation metrics (the seasonality of rainfall) and radar remote sensing metrics (QSCAT). The existing protected areas do not include 10% of the habitat of each of the 23 endemic species. We propose a more economical set of protected areas by reducing the extent to which new sites duplicate the biodiversity content of existing protected areas. There is a high concordance between the proposed conservation areas that we designed using computerized algorithms and Important Bird Areas prioritized by BirdLife International. Insofar as deforestation in the Atlantic Forest is similar to land conversion in other biodiversity hotspots, our methodology is applicable to conservation efforts elsewhere in the world. PMID:28210009

  20. 75 FR 41157 - Stanford University Habitat Conservation Plan; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... 0648-XX52 Stanford University Habitat Conservation Plan; Extension of Comment Period AGENCIES: National... for our joint request for comments on the Stanford University Habitat Conservation Plan (Plan), the... INFORMATION: We are extending the comment period for our jointly issued Stanford University...

  1. Putting people on the map through an approach that integrates social data in conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Stephanson, Sheri L; Mascia, Michael B

    2014-10-01

    Conservation planning is integral to strategic and effective operations of conservation organizations. Drawing upon biological sciences, conservation planning has historically made limited use of social data. We offer an approach for integrating data on social well-being into conservation planning that captures and places into context the spatial patterns and trends in human needs and capacities. This hierarchical approach provides a nested framework for characterizing and mapping data on social well-being in 5 domains: economic well-being, health, political empowerment, education, and culture. These 5 domains each have multiple attributes; each attribute may be characterized by one or more indicators. Through existing or novel data that display spatial and temporal heterogeneity in social well-being, conservation scientists, planners, and decision makers may measure, benchmark, map, and integrate these data within conservation planning processes. Selecting indicators and integrating these data into conservation planning is an iterative, participatory process tailored to the local context and planning goals. Social well-being data complement biophysical and threat-oriented social data within conservation planning processes to inform decisions regarding where and how to conserve biodiversity, provide a structure for exploring socioecological relationships, and to foster adaptive management. Building upon existing conservation planning methods and insights from multiple disciplines, this approach to putting people on the map can readily merge with current planning practices to facilitate more rigorous decision making.

  2. Hierarchical Bayesian spatial models for multispecies conservation planning and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Carlos; Johnson, Devin S; Dunk, Jeffrey R; Zielinski, William J

    2010-12-01

    Biologists who develop and apply habitat models are often familiar with the statistical challenges posed by their data's spatial structure but are unsure of whether the use of complex spatial models will increase the utility of model results in planning. We compared the relative performance of nonspatial and hierarchical Bayesian spatial models for three vertebrate and invertebrate taxa of conservation concern (Church's sideband snails [Monadenia churchi], red tree voles [Arborimus longicaudus], and Pacific fishers [Martes pennanti pacifica]) that provide examples of a range of distributional extents and dispersal abilities. We used presence-absence data derived from regional monitoring programs to develop models with both landscape and site-level environmental covariates. We used Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms and a conditional autoregressive or intrinsic conditional autoregressive model framework to fit spatial models. The fit of Bayesian spatial models was between 35 and 55% better than the fit of nonspatial analogue models. Bayesian spatial models outperformed analogous models developed with maximum entropy (Maxent) methods. Although the best spatial and nonspatial models included similar environmental variables, spatial models provided estimates of residual spatial effects that suggested how ecological processes might structure distribution patterns. Spatial models built from presence-absence data improved fit most for localized endemic species with ranges constrained by poorly known biogeographic factors and for widely distributed species suspected to be strongly affected by unmeasured environmental variables or population processes. By treating spatial effects as a variable of interest rather than a nuisance, hierarchical Bayesian spatial models, especially when they are based on a common broad-scale spatial lattice (here the national Forest Inventory and Analysis grid of 24 km(2) hexagons), can increase the relevance of habitat models to multispecies

  3. Planning for ex situ conservation in the face of uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canessa, Stefano; Converse, Sarah J.; West, Matt; Clemann, Nick; Gillespie, Graeme; McFadden, Michael; Silla, Aimee J; Parris, Kirsten M; McCarthy, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Ex situ conservation strategies for threatened species often require long-term commitment and financial investment to achieve management objectives. We present a framework that considers the decision to adopt ex situ management for a target species as the end point of several linked decisions. We used a decision tree to intuitively represent the logical sequence of decision making. The first decision is to identify the specific management actions most likely to achieve the fundamental objectives of the recovery plan, with or without the use of ex-situ populations. Once this decision has been made, one decides whether to establish an ex situ population, accounting for the probability of success in the initial phase of the recovery plan, for example, the probability of successful breeding in captivity. Approaching these decisions in the reverse order (attempting to establish an ex situ population before its purpose is clearly defined) can lead to a poor allocation of resources, because it may restrict the range of available decisions in the second stage. We applied our decision framework to the recovery program for the threatened spotted tree frog (Litoria spenceri) of southeastern Australia. Across a range of possible management actions, only those including ex situ management were expected to provide >50% probability of the species’ persistence, but these actions cost more than use of in situ alternatives only. The expected benefits of ex situ actions were predicted to be offset by additional uncertainty and stochasticity associated with establishing and maintaining ex situ populations. Naïvely implementing ex situ conservation strategies can lead to inefficient management. Our framework may help managers explicitly evaluate objectives, management options, and the probability of success prior to establishing a captive colony of any given species.

  4. Planning for ex situ conservation in the face of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Canessa, Stefano; Converse, Sarah J; West, Matt; Clemann, Nick; Gillespie, Graeme; McFadden, Michael; Silla, Aimee J; Parris, Kirsten M; McCarthy, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    Ex situ conservation strategies for threatened species often require long-term commitment and financial investment to achieve management objectives. We present a framework that considers the decision to adopt ex situ management for a target species as the end point of several linked decisions. We used a decision tree to intuitively represent the logical sequence of decision making. The first decision is to identify the specific management actions most likely to achieve the fundamental objectives of the recovery plan, with or without the use of ex-situ populations. Once this decision has been made, one decides whether to establish an ex situ population, accounting for the probability of success in the initial phase of the recovery plan, for example, the probability of successful breeding in captivity. Approaching these decisions in the reverse order (attempting to establish an ex situ population before its purpose is clearly defined) can lead to a poor allocation of resources, because it may restrict the range of available decisions in the second stage. We applied our decision framework to the recovery program for the threatened spotted tree frog (Litoria spenceri) of southeastern Australia. Across a range of possible management actions, only those including ex situ management were expected to provide >50% probability of the species' persistence, but these actions cost more than use of in situ alternatives only. The expected benefits of ex situ actions were predicted to be offset by additional uncertainty and stochasticity associated with establishing and maintaining ex situ populations. Naïvely implementing ex situ conservation strategies can lead to inefficient management. Our framework may help managers explicitly evaluate objectives, management options, and the probability of success prior to establishing a captive colony of any given species.

  5. Landuse and agricultural management practice web-service (LAMPS) for agroecosystem modeling and conservation planning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agroecosystem models and conservation planning tools require spatially and temporally explicit input data about agricultural management operations. The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service is developing a Land Management and Operation Database (LMOD) which contains potential model input, howe...

  6. 76 FR 24511 - Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... Refuge System, consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation,...

  7. 77 FR 27792 - Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge, FL; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge, FL; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Refuge System, consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation,...

  8. 77 FR 61426 - Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, American Samoa; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, American Samoa; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and...

  9. 78 FR 20687 - Nantucket National Wildlife Refuge, Nantucket, MA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Nantucket National Wildlife Refuge, Nantucket, MA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... conservation concern using this habitat, providing wildlife-dependent priority public uses when...

  10. 78 FR 23778 - Quivira National Wildlife Refuge, Stafford, KS; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Quivira National Wildlife Refuge, Stafford, KS; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our policies. In addition to...

  11. The Aquatic Conservation Strategy of the Northwest Forest Plan.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gordon H; Williams, Jack E; Burnett, Kelly M; Gallo, Kirsten

    2006-04-01

    Implemented in 1994, the Aquatic Conservation Strategy of the Northwest Forest Plan was designed to restore and maintain ecological processes for aquatic and riparian area conservation on federal lands in the western portion of the Pacific Northwest. We used decision support models to quantitatively evaluate changes in the condition of selected watersheds. In the approximately 10 years since strategy implementation, watershed condition scores changed modestly, but conditions improved in 64% of 250 sampled watersheds, declined in 28%, and remained relatively the same in 7%. Watersheds that had the largest declines included some where wildfires burned 30-60% of their area. The overall statistical distribution of the condition scores did not change significantly, however Much of the increase in watershed condition was related to improved riparian conditions. The number of large trees (>51 cm diameter at breast height) increased 2-4%, and there were substantial reductions in tree harvest and other disturbances along streams. Whether such changes will translate into longer-term improvements in aquatic ecosystems across broader landscapes remains to be seen.

  12. 77 FR 60457 - Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within... period for receipt of comments pertaining to the development of the Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species..., intend to prepare the Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan (MSHCP) under...

  13. Selected Works in Water Supply, Water Conservation and Water Quality Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Reuse of water (unspecified) 3. Flushinb toilet with greywater 4. Reduce amount of water used per shower and/or bath 5. Reduce frequency of showers and/or...government, and has held training seminars on water supply and water conservation planning and on water reuse . A water supply and conservation...Planning 9 Water Reuse 9 Water Demand Forecast and Analysis 9 Drought Management 10 Water Conservation in Water Supply Planning 10 Urban Water Supply 11

  14. Local land-use planning to conserve biodiversity: planners' perspectives on what works.

    PubMed

    Stokes, David L; Hanson, Marian F; Oaks, Deborah D; Straub, Jaime E; Ponio, Aileen V

    2010-04-01

    Because habitat loss due to urbanization is a primary threat to biodiversity, and land-use decisions in urbanizing areas are mainly made at the local level, land-use planning by municipal planning departments has a potentially important--but largely unrealized--role in conserving biodiversity. To understand planners' perspectives on the factors that facilitate and impede biodiversity conservation in local planning, we interviewed directors of 17 municipal planning departments in the greater Seattle (Washington, U.S.A.) area and compared responses of planners from similar-sized jurisdictions that were "high" and "low performing" with respect to incorporation of biodiversity conservation in local planning. Planners from low-performing jurisdictions regarded mandates from higher governmental levels as the primary drivers of biodiversity conservation, whereas those from high-performing jurisdictions regarded community values as the main drivers, although they also indicated that mandates were important. Biodiversity conservation was associated with presence of local conservation flagship elements (e.g., salmonids) and human-centered benefits of biodiversity conservation (e.g., quality of life). Planners from high- and low-performing jurisdictions favored different planning mechanisms for biodiversity conservation, perhaps reflecting differences in funding and staffing. High performers reported more collaborations with other entities on biodiversity issues. Planners' comments indicated that the term biodiversity may be problematic in the context of local planning. The action most planners recommended to increase biodiversity conservation in local planning was public education. These results suggest that to advance biodiversity conservation in local land-use planning, conservation biologists should investigate and educate the public about local conservation flagships and human benefits of local biodiversity, work to raise ecological literacy and explain biodiversity more

  15. Saving the sagebrush sea: An ecosystem conservation plan for big sagebrush plant communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation change and anthropogenic development are altering ecosystems and decreasing biodiversity. Successful management of ecosystems threatened by multiple stressors requires development of ecosystem conservation plans rather than single species plans. We selected the big sagebrush (Artemisia ...

  16. Enhancing School HIV and AIDS Strategic Plan through Expanded Stakeholder Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mgomezulu, V. Y.; Kruger, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the need for expanded stakeholder involvement as a means of enhancing the Botswana Department of Secondary Education (DSE) HIV and AIDS strategic plan. Research has indicated that the effects of HIV and AIDS on the supply of and demand for education are considerable. Using a questionnaire and interviews, the research has…

  17. Multi-criteria decision analysis in conservation planning: Designing conservation area networks in San Diego County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Garrick Richard

    To limit biodiversity loss caused by human activity, conservation planning must protect biodiversity while considering socio-economic cost criteria. This research aimed to determine the effects of socio-economic criteria and spatial configurations on the development of CANs for three species with different distribution patterns, while simultaneously attempting to address the uncertainty and sensitivity of CANs produced by ConsNet. The socio-economic factors and spatial criteria included the cost of land, population density, agricultural output value, area, average cluster area, number of clusters, shape, and perimeter. Three sensitive mammal species with different distribution patterns were selected and included the Bobcat, Ringtail, and a custom created mammal distribution. Forty problems and the corresponding number of CANs were formulated and computed by running each predicted presence species model with and without the four different socioeconomic threshold groups at two different resolutions. Thirty-two percent less area was conserved after considering multiple socio-economic constraints and spatial configurations in comparison to CANs that did not consider multiple socio-economic constraints and spatial configurations. Without including socio-economic costs, ConsNet's ALL_CELLS heuristic solution was the highest ranking CAN. After considering multiple socio-economic costs, the number one ranking CAN was no longer the ALL_CELLS heuristic solution, but a spatially different meta-heuristic solution. The effects of multiple constraints and objectives on the design of CANs with different distribution patterns did not vary significantly across the criteria. The CANs produced by ConsNet appeared to demonstrate some uncertainty surrounding particular criteria, but did not demonstrate substantial uncertainty across all criteria used to rank the CANs. Similarly, the range of socio-economic criteria thresholds did not have a substantial impact. ConsNet was very

  18. Incorporating incorporating economic models into seasonal pool conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftin, Cyndy; Bell, Kathleen P.; Freeman, Robert C.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Massachusetts, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Maine have adopted regulatory zones around seasonal (vernal) pools to conserve terrestrial habitat for pool-breeding amphibians. Most amphibians require access to distinct seasonal habitats in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems because of their complex life histories. These habitat requirements make them particularly vulnerable to land uses that destroy habitat or limit connectivity (or permeability) among habitats. Regulatory efforts focusing on breeding pools without consideration of terrestrial habitat needs will not ensure the persistence of pool-breeding amphibians. We used GIS to combine a discrete-choice, parcel-scale economic model of land conversion with a landscape permeability model based on known habitat requirements of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in Maine (USA) to examine permeability among habitat elements for alternative future scenarios. The economic model predicts future landscapes under different subdivision open space and vernal pool regulatory requirements. Our model showed that even “no build” permit zones extending 76 m (250 ft) outward from the pool edge were insufficient to assure permeability among required habitat elements. Furthermore, effectiveness of permit zones may be inconsistent due to interactions with other growth management policies, highlighting the need for local and state planning for the long-term persistence of pool-breeding amphibians in developing landscapes.

  19. 76 FR 21001 - Presquile National Wildlife Refuge, Chesterfield County, VA; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Presquile National... consider in the environmental document and during development of the CCP. Background The CCP Process...

  20. 75 FR 21344 - Habitat Conservation Plan for City of Kent, Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... 0648-XU69 Habitat Conservation Plan for City of Kent, Washington AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Draft Habitat Conservation Plan, Including a Proposed...-issuance decisions by each agency. As required by the ESA, Kent has also prepared a Habitat...

  1. 76 FR 14042 - San Luis Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Alamosa, CO; Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ..., Alamosa, CO; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... Service (Service), intend to prepare a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and an Environmental Impact... public input in local news media throughout the CCP process. ADDRESSES: Send your comments or...

  2. 77 FR 47435 - Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... conservation plan and draft environmental impact statement (draft CCP/EIS) for Prime Hook National...

  3. 76 FR 30959 - Bogue Chitto National Wildlife Refuge, LA and MS; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our... resources. All management programs for conservation of wildlife and habitat, such as monitoring,...

  4. 77 FR 76510 - Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...-4311-K9-S3] Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Final Comprehensive Conservation... conservation plan (CCP) and environmental impact statement (EIS) for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge (NWR... should be consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal...

  5. 76 FR 41286 - Conboy Lake and Toppenish National Wildlife Refuges, WA; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our policies. In addition to... that will ensure the best possible approach to wildlife, plant, and habitat conservation,...

  6. 77 FR 55891 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... public. The meeting will be hosted by the Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, and led by Ambassador Eric Goosby, who leads implementation of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief...

  7. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  8. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  9. 76 FR 52731 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... open to the public. The meeting will be hosted by the Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, Ambassador Eric Goosby, who leads implementation of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief...

  10. 75 FR 60846 - Notice of Intent To Establish the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... of Intent To Establish the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board, hereinafter referred to as ``the Board.'' The Board serves the Global AIDS Coordinator (``the Coordinator'') in a solely...

  11. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  12. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  13. 75 FR 78338 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board will meet on January 6-7, 2011 at the St.... Global AIDS Coordinator, Ambassador Eric Goosby, who leads implementation of the President's...

  14. 47 CFR 87.395 - Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). 87.395 Section 87.395 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Communications § 87.395 Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (Short Title: SCATANA). (a) The Plan for the Security Control of Air Traffic and Air Navigation Aids (SCATANA)...

  15. Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation of AIDS Education Programs for Dentists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbert, Barbara; And Others

    1991-01-01

    An office-based continuing education program on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) for dentists is described, including needs assessment, model development, local piloting, national implementation with 119 dentists, and evaluation phases. Program evaluation indicated an improvement in risk perception, knowledge, and practice resulted, but…

  16. Application of computer-aided dispatch in law enforcement: An introductory planning guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.; Gurfield, R. M.; Garcia, E. A.; Fielding, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    A set of planning guidelines for the application of computer-aided dispatching (CAD) to law enforcement is presented. Some essential characteristics and applications of CAD are outlined; the results of a survey of systems in the operational or planning phases are summarized. Requirements analysis, system concept design, implementation planning, and performance and cost modeling are described and demonstrated with numerous examples. Detailed descriptions of typical law enforcement CAD systems, and a list of vendor sources, are given in appendixes.

  17. Learning from conservation planning for the U.S. National Wildlife Refuges.

    PubMed

    Meretsky, Vicky J; Fischman, Robert L

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System has nearly completed its first round of unit-level, comprehensive conservation plans (CCPs) and will soon begin required revisions. Laws and policies governing refuge planning emphasize ecological integrity, landscape-scale conservation, and adaptive management. We evaluated 185 CCPs completed during 2005-2011, which cover 324 of 555 national wildlife refuges. We reviewed CCP prescriptions addressing 5 common conservation issues (habitat and game, nongame, imperiled, and invasive species) and 3 specialized topics (landscape-scale conservation, climate change, and environmental quality). Common conservation issues received prescriptions in >90% of CCPs. Specialized topics received more variable treatment. Prescriptions for aquatic connectivity, water quantity, and climate-change impacts increased over the study period. Except for climate change, direct actions were the most common type of management prescription, followed by plans or studies. Most CCPs stated a commitment to adaptive management and prescribed monitoring for common conservation objectives; other aspects of planning for adaptive management were often lacking, despite strong support for adaptive management in the conservation planning literature. To better address refuge-specific threats, we recommend that revised plans explicitly match identified refuge issues with prescriptions, particularly for under-represented concerns such as novel pests and pathogens. We recommend incorporating triggers into monitoring frameworks and specifying actions that will occur when threshold values are reached to improve support for adaptive management. Revised CCPs should better reflect work that refuges already undertake to extend conservation objectives beyond their borders and better engage with regional conservation efforts to continue this work. More thorough landscape-scale threat assessments and explicit prioritization of planned actions would further improve conservation

  18. Balancing emotion and cognition: a case for decision aiding in conservation efforts.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robyn S

    2008-12-01

    Despite advances in the quality of participatory decision making for conservation, many current efforts still suffer from an inability to bridge the gap between science and policy. Judgment and decision-making research suggests this gap may result from a person's reliance on affect-based shortcuts in complex decision contexts. I examined the results from 3 experiments that demonstrate how affect (i.e., the instantaneous reaction one has to a stimulus) influences individual judgments in these contexts and identified techniques from the decision-aiding literature that help encourage a balance between affect-based emotion and cognition in complex decision processes. In the first study, subjects displayed a lack of focus on their stated conservation objectives and made decisions that reflected their initial affective impressions. Value-focused approaches may help individuals incorporate all the decision-relevant objectives by making the technical and value-based objectives more salient. In the second study, subjects displayed a lack of focus on statistical risk and again made affect-based decisions. Trade-off techniques may help individuals incorporate relevant technical data, even when it conflicts with their initial affective impressions or other value-based objectives. In the third study, subjects displayed a lack of trust in decision-making authorities when the decision involved a negatively affect-rich outcome (i.e., a loss). Identifying shared salient values and increasing procedural fairness may help build social trust in both decision-making authorities and the decision process.

  19. Planning for long, wide conservation corridors on private lands in the Oak Ridges Moraine, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, Graham S; Eagles, Paul F J

    2007-06-01

    We explored the role of conservation biology in the planning of a natural-heritage system that includes long, wide conservation corridors situated primarily on private lands, and established to connect natural core areas in the Oak Ridges Moraine of Ontario, Canada. We based our review on government documents, semi-structured interviews with participants involved in this land-use planning process, and our involvement with the issue from 1990 through 2002. Conservation biology had a major influence on the outcome of the land-use planning process for this moraine. The landform was identified as an area of value by the environmental movement within the context of a number of ongoing government studies that began in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Conservation biologists and planners in government, the environmental movement, and the private sector carried out work related to conservation biology, including inventories and the development and application of criteria for the delineation of core areas and conservation corridors. Once the political timing was favorable (2001-2002), decision makers linked the science of conservation biology to planning policies and law in Ontario. The Oak Ridges Moraine land-use planning process was precedent setting in Canada, and possibly internationally. To our knowledge this is the first time long, wide conservation corridors on private lands were regulated through land-use-planning legislation and led to restrictions on urban development and aggregate resource extraction.

  20. 75 FR 9924 - Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... elk, mule and white-tailed deer, badger, coyote, and red fox. In addition, wolves and grizzly bears... Fish and Wildlife Service Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the Red Rock Lakes National... Plan (Plan) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for the Red Rock Lakes National...

  1. AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  2. 76 FR 50183 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... ecosystem plans, must identify conservation and management objectives (including criteria for determining... MCP contains 10 conservation and management objectives under which planned projects and activities.... Objective 4. Management procedures through the development of management zones for the U.S....

  3. [AIDS Study Group/Spanish AIDS Consensus Plan Document on sexually transmitted infections in HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a major public health problem. Considering their high morbidity and potential short and long term after effects, physicians must have enough knowledge on the management of these infections for a correct prevention, diagnosis and treatment. HIV infection is associated with STI, not only because they share route of transmission, but also because they lead to an increased risk of HIV transmission. In this article, we summarise the updated clinical practice guidelines, for the evaluation, management and prevention of STI in HIV-infected patients, from a panel of experts in HIV, dermatologists, proctologic surgeons, and microbiologists on behalf of the Spanish AIDS Study Group (GESIDA) and the National AIDS Plan (PNS).

  4. Ants as a measure of effectiveness of habitat conservation planning in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitrovich, Milan J.; Matsuda, Tritia; Pease, Krista H.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    In the United States multispecies habitat conservation plans were meant to be the solution to conflicts between economic development and protection of biological diversity. Although now widely applied, questions exist concerning the scientific credibility of the conservation planning process and effectiveness of the plans. We used ants to assess performance of one of the first regional conservation plans developed in the United States, the Orange County Central-Coastal Natural Community Conservation Plan (NCCP), in meeting its broader conservation objectives of biodiversity and ecosystem-level protection. We collected pitfall data on ants for over 3 years on 172 sites established across a network of conservation lands in coastal southern California. Although recovered native ant diversity for the study area was high, site-occupancy models indicated the invasive and ecologically disruptive Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile) was present at 29% of sites, and sites located within 200 m of urban and agricultural areas were more likely to have been invaded. Within invaded sites, native ants were largely displaced, and their median species richness declined by more than 60% compared with uninvaded sites. At the time of planning, 24% of the 15,133-ha reserve system established by Orange County NCCP fell within 200 m of an urban or agricultural edge. With complete build out of lands surrounding the reserve, the proportion of the reserve system vulnerable to invasion will grow to 44%. Our data indicate that simply protecting designated areas from development is not enough. If habitat conservation plans are to fulfill their conservation promise of ecosystem-level protection, a more-integrated and systematic approach to the process of habitat conservation planning is needed.

  5. Perinatal AIDS: Permanency Planning for the African-American Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Brown, Susan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Conducted a retrospective chart review utilizing Norwood's model on the families of the 83 infants whose cord blood was positive for maternal HIV antibodies or who were congenitally infected with HIV. Discusses implications for permanency planning in the context of their impact on the African-American community. (KS)

  6. College Savings Plans, Financial Aid, and Tax Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Richard; Mentz, George S.

    2004-01-01

    A college degree is one of the most expensive purchases an American family can make. While today's costs are higher than ever before, parents have many more options whose sheer number and complexity have given rise to a whole new field-financial planning for college. This article, which is based on materials created for the enrollment management…

  7. 78 FR 54478 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits; Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Conservation Plan for the Utah Prairie Dog in Iron County, Utah AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... availability of a Draft Low-effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Utah prairie dog in Iron County, Utah, for... review and comment of the Draft Low-effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Utah prairie dog in...

  8. 78 FR 62646 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits; Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Conservation Plan for the Utah Prairie Dog in Garfield County, Utah AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... availability of a Draft Low-effect Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) for the Utah prairie dog in Garfield County... availability for review and comment of the Draft Low-effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Utah prairie...

  9. Characterization and Placement of Wetlands for Integrated Conservation Practice Planning

    EPA Science Inventory

    Constructed wetlands have been recognized as an efficient and cost-effective conservation practice to protect water quality through reducing the transport of sediments and nutrients from upstream croplands to downstream water bodies. The challenge resides in targeting the strateg...

  10. Fine-resolution conservation planning with limited climate-change information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Payal; Mallory, Mindy L.; Ando , Amy W.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change related uncertainty in future spatial patterns of conservation-related outcomes make it difficult to implement standard conservation and land-use planning paradigms. A recent study translates Markowitz’s risk diversification strategy from finance to conservation settings, enabling policy makers and conservation agents to use this diversification strategy for allocating conservation and restoration investments across space to overcome such uncertainty. However this method is information intensive and requires a large number of climate change scenarios for carrying out fine scale conservation planning. We develop an iterative portfolio 47 analysis technique that enables policy makers and conservation agents to allocate scarce conservation resources across a desired level of sub-regions in a planning landscape in the absence of sufficient number of climate scenarios. We use a case study of the Prairie Pothole Region to show that lack of sufficient information prevents a conservation agent from attaining the most efficient risk-return conservation outcomes. However, our iterative approach enables a decision maker to do fine-scale portfolio allocation with limited available climate change forecasts in a manner that obtains the best possible risk-return combinations, especially when targeting low risk opportunities.

  11. Evaluation of waterfowl conservation under the North American Waterfowl Management Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.; Koneff, M.D.; Stith, David A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1986, the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (Plan) was signed by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior and the Canadian Minister of the Environment, with a goal of restoring waterfowl populations to levels of the 1970s via habitat conservation. Central to the Plan is a set of ambitious continental population goals and habitat objectives to be met through broad-based public-private partnerships. Inadequate attention has been paid to evaluation of the Plan, despite the fact that Plan delivery can be enhanced via improved understanding of the effects of habitat conservation on waterfowl population dynamics. Several factors confound the effort to evaluate the Plan at regional and continental levels, including difficulties in accounting for national land-use policies. To date, evaluation has proceeded along 2 avenues of investigation: (1) the study of conservation actions at local-regional levels, and (2) statistical assessment of Plan assumptions. Among other things, results thus far indicate duck production from the U.S. Northern Great Plains has increased in recent years, and intensive treatments such as planted cover have had positive effects on local reproductive success. Many duck species currently exceed Plan population goals; however, population levels of some species, most notably northern pintail (Anas acuta), remain below expectations based on historic relationships with precipitation. Management implications include the need for ongoing and more carefully prioritized conservation efforts, broader partnerships, and improved understanding of the linkages between habitats and biological processes. Delivery of the Plan must involve collaboration among the Continental Evaluation Team, joint Venture partners, the Adaptive Management and Assessment Team of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and other conservation groups. Although the challenges and projected costs of Plan conservation efforts are considerable, the long-term potential benefits to waterfowl

  12. The Design and Development of an Intelligent Planning Aid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    distribution otbtr than to OTIC and will bt avaNabto only through OTIC er ettwr reftrtnet Mnrictt mich w tht National Tachnical Information tarvica (NTIt...Army offices and agencies, the National Defense University’s War Gaming and Simulation Center, and planners at the Army’s War College at... services as well as some foreign students. All of these students are expected to learn about the planning process generally and specifically with

  13. Assessing the shelf-life of cost-efficient conservation plans in Canada's farmland.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Cassandra M; Kerr, Jeremy T

    2016-12-19

    High conservation costs within agricultural regions warrant spatial prioritization approaches that explicitly consider land prices, to produce reserve sets that accomplish targets efficiently. However, land use changes within these regions, and delays between plan design and implementation, may render optimized plans obsolete before implementation occurs. An initiative to acquire and restore habitat for species at risk in Canada's farmland was simulated to measure the shelf-life of cost-efficient conservation plans, given observed changes in land acquisition costs and in agricultural intensity from Censuses of Agriculture from 1986 to 2011. For each year of data, these "costs" were mapped and conservation plans designed using Marxan. Plans were then compared to test for changes through time in the arrangement of high-priority sites, and in the total cost of the potential plans. For acquisition costs, the savings from accounting for prices during site selection were also measured. Results from the separate analyses converged in general trends. Land acquisition costs and land use intensity generally rose through time independent of inflation, albeit differently between regions. Accounting for land price variation in space lowered the cost of conservation solutions, decreased the variability of costs, and increased the number of unique solutions to choose between. Despite the costs of plans rising through time, the need to focus conservation efforts on particular areas remained consistent. Delaying conservation in these critical areas reduces what optimized conservation plans can achieve. Rapid conservation action is cost effective in this case, even with moderate levels of uncertainty in how to implement restoration goals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Design Principles for Personalized Decision Aiding: An Application to Tactical Air Force Route Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    contingency plans have not been in- corporated in an option, but significant information is likely to become available during its execution. 2.6.1.4...Technology Corporation , 16 September 1983. Riemenschneider, R.A., Rockmore, A.J., and Wikman, T.A.A. Route planning aid: System specification (PAR Report...83-135). New Hartford, NY: PAR Technology Corporation , 31 October 1983. Savage, L.J. The foundations of statistics. NY: Wiley, 1954. Schum, D

  15. 76 FR 16634 - Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge, Orange County, CA; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge, Orange County, CA; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan/Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our policies. In addition to...

  16. India's Action Plan for Wildlife Conservation and Role of Voluntary Bodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Samar

    1985-01-01

    Describes India's National Action Plan for wildlife conservation, itemizing and explaining the main components and strategies of this action program. Also presents a historical perspective of conservation practices, policies, and programs. A table of India's national parks and sanctuaries with data from 1970 to 1983 is included. (ML)

  17. 77 FR 31870 - Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge Complex AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) announce that our Final Comprehensive Conservation...

  18. Decision aids for advance care planning: an overview of the state of the science.

    PubMed

    Butler, Mary; Ratner, Edward; McCreedy, Ellen; Shippee, Nathan; Kane, Robert L

    2014-09-16

    Advance care planning honors patients' goals and preferences for future care by creating a plan for when illness or injury impedes the ability to think or communicate about health decisions. Fewer than 50% of severely or terminally ill patients have an advance directive in their medical record, and physicians are accurate only about 65% of the time when predicting patient preferences for intensive care. Decision aids can support the advance care planning process by providing a structured approach to informing patients about care options and prompting them to document and communicate their preferences. This review, commissioned as a technical brief by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Effective Health Care Program, provides a broad overview of current use of and research related to decision aids for adult advance care planning. Using interviews of key informants and a search of the gray and published literature from January 1990 to May 2014, the authors found that many decision aids are widely available but are not assessed in the empirical literature. The 16 published studies testing decision aids as interventions for adult advance care planning found that most are proprietary or not publicly available. Some are constructed for the general population, whereas others address disease-specific conditions that have more predictable end-of-life scenarios and, therefore, more discrete choices. New decision aids should be designed that are responsive to diverse philosophical perspectives and flexible enough to change as patients gain experience with their personal illness courses. Future efforts should include further research, training of advance care planning facilitators, dissemination and access, and tapping potential opportunities in social media or other technologies.

  19. Computer-aided preoperative planning in knee osteotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Chao, E. Y.; Sim, F. H.

    1995-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that osteoarthritis (OA) is activity related and may worsen when joint contact stress becomes excessive due to overloading. Hence, joint alignment and loading are considered to be the key biomechanical determinants for OA. The initiation of pathologic changes in the knee has been described by the mechanism termed, "vicious cycle" in which joint axial malalignment creates excessive stresses to the localized joint cartilage/subchondral bone regions and the surrounding soft tissue which in turn produces more laxity and joint deformity and thus repeats the cyclic degradation mechanism. If this degenerative cycle can be broken with joint alignment surgery such as osteotomy, a procedure to realign the knee joint and thus redistribute joint forces applied to each compartment, performed properly and at the appropriate time, the osteoarthritic disease process can be decelerated and even reversed. The main goals of this paper are to emphasize the importance of accurate preoperative planning for osteotomy in order to properly correct joint alignment, and to justify the application of an existing computer program, OASIS (Osteotomy Analysis and Simulation Software) using plain radiographs to perform appropriate surgical planning. Normal subjects and knee osteotomy patients were studied to establish a database for the purpose of establishing the utility and efficacy of the presently proposed concept. We wish to rationalize knee osteotomy as a preferred and cost-effective treatment for patients with early symptoms of OA in the knee. This paper presents a new concept of preoperative planning for knee osteotomy based on the underlying etiology of the disease and biomechanical viewpoint with strong emphasis on surgical treatment rationales. The established principles in this paper can be applied to other joints of the body and will help implement preventive measures and other non-surgical means to manage patients with axial malalignment or early degenerative

  20. 78 FR 31626 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board SUMMARY: In accordance with... the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, and led by Dr. Amy DuBois, who is the Acting Director of the Office... AIDS Coordinator in a solely advisory capacity concerning scientific, implementation, and policy...

  1. 77 FR 70874 - Notice of Charter Renewal of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... of Charter Renewal of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board SUMMARY: The Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator (S/GAC) announces the charter renewal of... Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, and led by Ambassador Eric Goosby, who leads...

  2. 78 FR 33144 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... will be hosted by the Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, and led by Dr. Amy DuBois, who is the.... The Board serves the Global AIDS Coordinator in a solely advisory capacity concerning...

  3. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS: A USELESS PAPER EXERCISE OR VALUABLE AID?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two perspectives on the fundamental question "Are quality assurance project plans (QAPPS) a useless paper exercise or a valuable aid?" will be explored. These perspectives include those of a Branch Chief (i.e., the supervisor/manager) and an active researcher. As a Branch Chief, ...

  4. U.S. Department of Education Federal Student Aid Five-Year Plan, 2006-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document reflects Federal Student Aid's solid progress in meeting strategic objectives since becoming a Performance-Based Organization. Specifically, the plan addresses continuing efforts to increase program integrity, improve customer service and achieve measurable results in the management and administration of the Title IV student…

  5. Multi-action planning for threat management: a novel approach for the spatial prioritization of conservation actions.

    PubMed

    Cattarino, Lorenzo; Hermoso, Virgilio; Carwardine, Josie; Kennard, Mark J; Linke, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Planning for the remediation of multiple threats is crucial to ensure the long term persistence of biodiversity. Limited conservation budgets require prioritizing which management actions to implement and where. Systematic conservation planning traditionally assumes that all the threats in priority sites are abated (fixed prioritization approach). However, abating only the threats affecting the species of conservation concerns may be more cost-effective. This requires prioritizing individual actions independently within the same site (independent prioritization approach), which has received limited attention so far. We developed an action prioritization algorithm that prioritizes multiple alternative actions within the same site. We used simulated annealing to find the combination of actions that remediate threats to species at the minimum cost. Our algorithm also accounts for the importance of selecting actions in sites connected through the river network (i.e., connectivity). We applied our algorithm to prioritize actions to address threats to freshwater fish species in the Mitchell River catchment, northern Australia. We compared how the efficiency of the independent and fixed prioritization approach varied as the importance of connectivity increased. Our independent prioritization approach delivered more efficient solutions than the fixed prioritization approach, particularly when the importance of achieving connectivity was high. By spatially prioritizing the specific actions necessary to remediate the threats affecting the target species, our approach can aid cost-effective habitat restoration and land-use planning. It is also particularly suited to solving resource allocation problems, where consideration of spatial design is important, such as prioritizing conservation efforts for highly mobile species, species facing climate change-driven range shifts, or minimizing the risk of threats spreading across different realms.

  6. Measuring the usefulness of family planning job aids following distribution at training workshops.

    PubMed

    Tumlinson, Katherine; Hubacher, David; Wesson, Jennifer; Lasway, Christine

    2010-09-01

    A job aid is a tool, such as a flowchart or checklist, that makes it easier for staff to carry out tasks by providing quick access to needed information. Many public health organizations are engaged in the production of job aids intended to improve adherence to important medical guidelines and protocols, particularly in resource-constrained countries. However, some evidence suggests that actual use of job aids remains low. One strategy for improving utilization is the introduction of job aids in training workshops. This paper summarizes the results of two separate evaluations conducted in Uganda and the Dominican Republic (DR) which measured the usefulness of a series of four family planning checklists 7-24 months after distribution in training workshops. While more than half of the health care providers used the checklists at least once, utilization rates were sub-optimal. However, the vast majority of those providers who utilized the checklists found them to be very useful in their work.

  7. 77 FR 37656 - Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ...; and monitoring activities and scientific work in the HCP Plan Area. The duration of the ITPs and HCP... Implementing Agreement (IA) which details how the Services and FGS will work together to implement the HCP....

  8. Climate change and national crop wild relative conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jade; Magos Brehm, Joana; van Oort, Bob; Asdal, Åsmund; Rasmussen, Morten; Maxted, Nigel

    2017-02-18

    Climate change is likely to be one of the most important factors affecting our future food security. To mitigate negative impacts, we will require our crops to be more genetically diverse. Such diversity is available in crop wild relatives (CWRs), the wild taxa relatively closely related to crops and from which diverse traits can be transferred to the crop. Conservation of such genetic resources resides within the nation where they are found; therefore, national-level conservation recommendations are fundamental to global food security. We investigate the potential impact of climate change on CWR richness in Norway. The consequences of a 1.5 and 3.0 °C temperature rise were studied for the years 2030, 2050, 2070, 2080 and then compared to the present climate. The results indicate a pattern of shifting CWR richness from the south to the north, with increases in taxa turnover and in the numbers of threatened taxa. Recommendations for in situ and ex situ conservation actions over the short and long term for the priority CWRs in Norway are presented. The methods and recommendations developed here can be applied within other nations and at regional and global levels to improve the effectiveness of conservation actions and help ensure global food security.

  9. Fine-resolution conservation planning with limited climate-change information.

    PubMed

    Shah, Payal; Mallory, Mindy L; Ando, Amy W; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2017-04-01

    Climate-change induced uncertainties in future spatial patterns of conservation-related outcomes make it difficult to implement standard conservation-planning paradigms. A recent study translates Markowitz's risk-diversification strategy from finance to conservation settings, enabling conservation agents to use this diversification strategy for allocating conservation and restoration investments across space to minimize the risk associated with such uncertainty. However, this method is information intensive and requires a large number of forecasts of ecological outcomes associated with possible climate-change scenarios for carrying out fine-resolution conservation planning. We developed a technique for iterative, spatial portfolio analysis that can be used to allocate scarce conservation resources across a desired level of subregions in a planning landscape in the absence of a sufficient number of ecological forecasts. We applied our technique to the Prairie Pothole Region in central North America. A lack of sufficient future climate information prevented attainment of the most efficient risk-return conservation outcomes in the Prairie Pothole Region. The difference in expected conservation returns between conservation planning with limited climate-change information and full climate-change information was as large as 30% for the Prairie Pothole Region even when the most efficient iterative approach was used. However, our iterative approach allowed finer resolution portfolio allocation with limited climate-change forecasts such that the best possible risk-return combinations were obtained. With our most efficient iterative approach, the expected loss in conservation outcomes owing to limited climate-change information could be reduced by 17% relative to other iterative approaches.

  10. Combining Landscape-Level Conservation Planning and Biodiversity Offset Programs: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Jared G.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat loss is major factor in the endangerment and extinction of species around the world. One promising strategy to balance continued habitat loss and biodiversity conservation is that of biodiversity offsets. However, a major concern with offset programs is their consistency with landscape-level conservation goals. While merging offset polices and landscape-level conservation planning is thought to provide advantages over a traditional disconnected approach, few such landscape-level conservation-offset plans have been designed and implemented, so the effectiveness of such a strategy remains uncertain. In this study, we quantitatively assess the conservation impact of combining landscape-level conservation planning and biodiversity offset programs by comparing regions of San Diego County, USA with the combined approach to regions with only an offset program. This comparison is generally very difficult due to a variety of complicating factors. We overcome these complications and quantify the benefits to rare and threatened species of implementing a combined approach by assessing the amount of each species' predicted distribution, and the number of documented locations, conserved in comparison to the same metric for areas with an offset policy alone. We found that adoption of the combined approach has increased conservation for many rare species, often 5-10 times more than in the comparison area, and that conservation has been focused in the areas most important for these species. The level of conservation achieved reduces uncertainty that these species will persist in the region into the future. This San Diego County example demonstrates the potential benefits of combining landscape-level conservation planning and biodiversity offset programs.

  11. Combining landscape-level conservation planning and biodiversity offset programs: a case study.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Jared G

    2011-01-01

    Habitat loss is a major factor in the endangerment and extinction of species around the world. One promising strategy to balance continued habitat loss and biodiversity conservation is that of biodiversity offsets. However, a major concern with offset programs is their consistency with landscape-level conservation goals. While merging offset policies and landscape-level conservation planning is thought to provide advantages over a traditional disconnected approach, few such landscape-level conservation-offset plans have been designed and implemented, so the effectiveness of such a strategy remains uncertain. In this study, we quantitatively assess the conservation impact of combining landscape-level conservation planning and biodiversity offset programs by comparing regions of San Diego County, USA with the combined approach to regions with only an offset program. This comparison is generally very difficult due to a variety of complicating factors. We overcome these complications and quantify the benefits to rare and threatened species of implementing a combined approach by assessing the amount of each species' predicted distribution, and the number of documented locations, conserved in comparison to the same metric for areas with an offset policy alone. We found that adoption of the combined approach has increased conservation for many rare species, often 5-10 times more than in the comparison area, and that conservation has been focused in the areas most important for these species. The level of conservation achieved reduces uncertainty that these species will persist in the region into the future. This San Diego County example demonstrates the potential benefits of combining landscape-level conservation planning and biodiversity offset programs.

  12. 78 FR 55326 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... is open to the public. The meeting will be hosted by the Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, and led by Ambassador Eric Goosby, who leads implementation of the President's Emergency Plan for...

  13. Spatial models of Northern Bobwhite populations for conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Wilson, R. Randy; Keister, Amy S.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1980, northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) range-wide populations declined 3.9% annually. Within the West Gulf Coastal Plain Bird Conservation Region in the south-central United States, populations of this quail species have declined 6.8% annually. These declines sparked calls for land use change and prompted implementation of various conservation practices. However, to effectively reverse these declines and restore northern bobwhite to their former population levels, habitat conservation and management efforts must target establishment and maintenance of sustainable populations. To provide guidance for conservation and restoration of habitat capable of supporting sustainable northern bobwhite populations in the West Gulf Coastal Plain, we modeled their spatial distribution using landscape characteristics derived from 1992 National Land Cover Data and bird detections, from 1990 to 1994, along 10-stop Breeding Bird Survey route segments. Four landscape metrics influenced detections of northern bobwhite: detections were greater in areas with more grassland and increased aggregation of agricultural lands, but detections were reduced in areas with increased density of land cover edge and grassland edge. Using these landscape metrics, we projected the abundance and spatial distribution of northern bobwhite populations across the entire West Gulf Coastal Plain. Predicted populations closely approximated abundance estimates from a different cadre of concurrently collected data but model predictions did not accurately reflect bobwhite detections along species-specific call-count routes in Arkansas and Louisiana. Using similar methods, we also projected northern bobwhite population distribution circa 1980 based on Land Use Land Cover data and bird survey data from 1976 to 1984. We compared our 1980 spatial projections with our spatial estimate of 1992 populations to identify areas of population change. Additionally, we used our projection of the spatial

  14. 75 FR 52549 - Environmental Impact Statement; Alabama Beach Mouse Draft General Conservation Plan; Fort Morgan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Environmental Impact Statement; Alabama Beach Mouse Draft General... Beach Mouse General Conservation Plan (ABM GCP) Project. We are preparing the ABM GCP under the... are included in the plan: Alabama beach mouse (ABM) (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates), Loggerhead...

  15. The Crowded Sea: Incorporating Multiple Marine Activities in Conservation Plans Can Significantly Alter Spatial Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Mazor, Tessa; Possingham, Hugh P.; Edelist, Dori; Brokovich, Eran; Kark, Salit

    2014-01-01

    Successful implementation of marine conservation plans is largely inhibited by inadequate consideration of the broader social and economic context within which conservation operates. Marine waters and their biodiversity are shared by a host of stakeholders, such as commercial fishers, recreational users and offshore developers. Hence, to improve implementation success of conservation plans, we must incorporate other marine activities while explicitly examining trade-offs that may be required. In this study, we test how the inclusion of multiple marine activities can shape conservation plans. We used the entire Mediterranean territorial waters of Israel as a case study to compare four planning scenarios with increasing levels of complexity, where additional zones, threats and activities were added (e.g., commercial fisheries, hydrocarbon exploration interests, aquaculture, and shipping lanes). We applied the marine zoning decision support tool Marxan to each planning scenario and tested a) the ability of each scenario to reach biodiversity targets, b) the change in opportunity cost and c) the alteration of spatial conservation priorities. We found that by including increasing numbers of marine activities and zones in the planning process, greater compromises are required to reach conservation objectives. Complex plans with more activities incurred greater opportunity cost and did not reach biodiversity targets as easily as simplified plans with less marine activities. We discovered that including hydrocarbon data in the planning process significantly alters spatial priorities. For the territorial waters of Israel we found that in order to protect at least 10% of the range of 166 marine biodiversity features there would be a loss of ∼15% of annual commercial fishery revenue and ∼5% of prospective hydrocarbon revenue. This case study follows an illustrated framework for adopting a transparent systematic process to balance biodiversity goals and economic

  16. Computer aided production planning - SWZ system of order verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenczyk, D.; Skolud, B.

    2015-11-01

    SWZ (System of order verification) is a computer implementation of the methodology that support fast decision making on the acceptability of a production order, which allows to determine not the best possible solution, but admissible solution that is possible to find in an acceptable time (feasible solution) and acceptable due to the existing constraints. The methodology uses the propagation of constraints techniques and reduced to test a sequence of arbitrarily selected conditions. Fulfilment of all the conditions (the conjunction) provides the ability to perform production orders. In the paper examples of the application of SWZ system comprising the steps of planning and control is presented. The obtained results allowing the determination of acceptable production flow in the system - determination of the manufacturing system parameters those that ensure execution of orders in time under the resource constraints. SWZ also allows to generate the dispatching rules as a sequence of processing operations for each production resource, performed periodically during the production flow in the system. Furthermore the example of SWZ and simulation system integration is shown. SWZ has been enhanced with a module generating files containing the script code of the system model using the internal language of simulation and visualization system.

  17. Exploring Effectiveness of Computer-Aided Planning in Implant Positioning for a Single Immediate Implant Placement.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Alexander R; Hosseini, Bashir; Byrd, Warren C; Preisser, John S; Tyndall, Donald A; Nguyen, Tung; Bencharit, Sompop

    2016-06-01

    The value of computer-aided implant planning using cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) for single immediate implants was explored. Eighteen patients requiring extraction of a tooth followed by a single immediate implant were enrolled. Small volume preoperative CBCT scans were used to plan the position of the implant. A taper screwed-type implant was immediately placed into a fresh socket using only the final 1 or 2 drills for osteotomy. Postoperative CBCTs were used for the analysis of actual implant placement positioning. Measurements of the planned and the actual implant position were made with respect to their position relative to the adjacent teeth. Mesio-distal displacements and the facial-lingual deviation of the implant from the planned position were determined. Changes in the angulation of the planned and actual implant position in relation to the clinical crown were also measured. To statistically summarize the results, box plots and 95% CIs for means of paired differences were used. The analysis showed no statistical difference between the planned position and final implant placement position in any measurement. The CBCT scans coupled with the computer-aided implant planning program along with a final 1-to-2 drill protocol may improve the accuracy of single immediate implant placement for taper screwed-type implants.

  18. Minimizing species extinctions through strategic planning for conservation fencing.

    PubMed

    Ringma, Jeremy L; Wintle, Brendan; Fuller, Richard A; Fisher, Diana; Bode, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Conservation fences are an increasingly common management action, particularly for species threatened by invasive predators. However, unlike many conservation actions, fence networks are expanding in an unsystematic manner, generally as a reaction to local funding opportunities or threats. In a gap analysis of Australia's substantial predator exclusion fence network, we found highly uneven protection, with 67% of predator-sensitive species remaining unrepresented. Predator exclusion fences all contain small populations of threatened species, therefore a novel systematic prioritization method for expanding fence networks that explicitly incorporates population viability analysis and minimises expected species' extinctions was developed. The approach was applied to New South Wales, Australia, where the state government intends to expand the existing conservation fence network. A systematic prioritisation yields substantial efficiencies, reducing the expected number of species extinctions as much as 17 times more effectively than ad hoc approaches. This dramatically superior outcome emphasises the importance of governance when management action is applied in multiple instances with similar objectives and using systematic methods rather than expanding networks opportunistically. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Landscaping for energy conservation: plan an energy-saving yard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This illustrated brochure covers the following aspects of landscaping: summer cooling, winter warming with emphasis on windbreaks, earth shettering, and materials for do-it-yourself planning. Lists of useful deciduous, and evergreen trees, vines, and shrubs are included with a chart of their characteristics. (MHR)

  20. Modification of planned postoperative occlusion in orthognathic surgery, based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-engineered preoperative surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Moon-Key; You, Tae-Kwon; Lee, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    In orthognathic surgery, it is important to have a planned postoperative occlusion. A 3-dimensional preoperative simulation, based on 3-dimensional optically scanned occlusion data, can predict how the planned postoperative occlusion will affect the maxilla-mandibular relationship that results from orthognathic surgery. In this study we modified the planned postoperative occlusion, based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-engineered preoperative surgical simulations. This modification made it possible to resolve the facial asymmetry of the patient successfully with a simple bilateral intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy and no additional maxillary or mandibular surgery.

  1. Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Planning: Goals and Strategies of Local Governments.

    PubMed

    LOEW

    2000-07-01

    Drawing from experiences gained from the development and implementation of four approved habitat conservation plans (HCPs), I describe the goals and strategies used by the nine local government members of the Riverside County Habitat Conservation Agency (RCHCA) to reconcile conflicts among a rapidly growing population and the need to conserve the habitat of a number of declining wildlife species in western Riverside County, California. Several important goals have been pursued by RCHCA member governments in their sponsorship of multiple-species habitat conservation plans (MSHCPs), including (1) establishing certainty and control over future uses of land; (2) eliminating project-by-project negotiations with federal and state wildlife agencies; (3) coordinating mitigation obligations under the Endangered Species Act, Clean Water Act, California Environmental Quality Act, and other federal and state laws; (4) reducing conflict and litigation resulting from land development activities; and (5) ensuring that wildlife conservation activities are conducted in a manner that permits local governments to perform those functions necessary to maintain public health, safety, and welfare. I also describe the emergence of strategies by local governments to achieve MSHCP goals, including (1) use of an inclusive planning process that seeks to build consensus among affected interests; (2) extensive involvement of federal and state wildlife agencies in the preparation of MSHCP documents; (3) management of public lands to support MSHCP conservation objectives; (4) encouragement of voluntary conservation by private property owners through incentive programs; and (5) active solicitation of federal and state funding for MSHCP implementation activities.

  2. Large-scale conservation planning in a multinational marine environment: cost matters.

    PubMed

    Mazor, Tessa; Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Kark, Salit; Possingham, Hugh P

    2014-07-01

    Explicitly including cost in marine conservation planning is essential for achieving feasible and efficient conservation outcomes. Yet, spatial priorities for marine conservation are still often based solely on biodiversity hotspots, species richness, and/or cumulative threat maps. This study aims to provide an approach for including cost when planning large-scale Marine Protected Area (MPA) networks that span multiple countries. Here, we explore the incorporation of cost in the complex setting of the Mediterranean Sea. In order to include cost in conservation prioritization, we developed surrogates that account for revenue from multiple marine sectors: commercial fishing, noncommercial fishing, and aquaculture. Such revenue can translate into an opportunity cost for the implementation of an MPA network. Using the software Marxan, we set conservation targets to protect 10% of the distribution of 77 threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. We compared nine scenarios of opportunity cost by calculating the area and cost required to meet our targets. We further compared our spatial priorities with those that are considered consensus areas by several proposed prioritization schemes in the Mediterranean Sea, none of which explicitly considers cost. We found that for less than 10% of the Sea's area, our conservation targets can be achieved while incurring opportunity costs of less than 1%. In marine systems, we reveal that area is a poor cost surrogate and that the most effective surrogates are those that account for multiple sectors or stakeholders. Furthermore, our results indicate that including cost can greatly influence the selection of spatial priorities for marine conservation of threatened species. Although there are known limitations in multinational large-scale planning, attempting to devise more systematic and rigorous planning methods is especially critical given that collaborative conservation action is on the rise and global financial crisis

  3. The value of using feasibility models in systematic conservation planning to predict landholder management uptake.

    PubMed

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Tulloch, Vivitskaia J D; Evans, Megan C; Mills, Morena

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the social dimensions of conservation opportunity is crucial for conservation planning in multiple-use landscapes. However, factors that influence the feasibility of implementing conservation actions, such as the history of landscape management, and landholders' willingness to engage are often difficult or time consuming to quantify and rarely incorporated into planning. We examined how conservation agencies could reduce costs of acquiring such data by developing predictive models of management feasibility parameterized with social and biophysical factors likely to influence landholders' decisions to engage in management. To test the utility of our best-supported model, we developed 4 alternative investment scenarios based on different input data for conservation planning: social data only; biological data only; potential conservation opportunity derived from modeled feasibility that incurs no social data collection costs; and existing conservation opportunity derived from feasibility data that incurred collection costs. Using spatially explicit information on biodiversity values, feasibility, and management costs, we prioritized locations in southwest Australia to control an invasive predator that is detrimental to both agriculture and natural ecosystems: the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). When social data collection costs were moderate to high, the most cost-effective investment scenario resulted from a predictive model of feasibility. Combining empirical feasibility data with biological data was more cost-effective for prioritizing management when social data collection costs were low (<4% of the total budget). Calls for more data to inform conservation planning should take into account the costs and benefits of collecting and using social data to ensure that limited funding for conservation is spent in the most cost-efficient and effective manner.

  4. Conservation planning in agricultural landscapes: hotspots of conflict between agriculture and nature

    PubMed Central

    Shackelford, Gorm E; Steward, Peter R; German, Richard N; Sait, Steven M; Benton, Tim G

    2015-01-01

    Aim Conservation conflict takes place where food production imposes a cost on wildlife conservation and vice versa. Where does conservation impose the maximum cost on production, by opposing the intensification and expansion of farmland? Where does conservation confer the maximum benefit on wildlife, by buffering and connecting protected areas with a habitable and permeable matrix of crop and non-crop habitat? Our aim was to map the costs and benefits of conservation versus production and thus to propose a conceptual framework for systematic conservation planning in agricultural landscapes. Location World-wide. Methods To quantify these costs and benefits, we used a geographic information system to sample the cropland of the world and map the proportion of non-crop habitat surrounding the cropland, the number of threatened vertebrates with potential to live in or move through the matrix and the yield gap of the cropland. We defined the potential for different types of conservation conflict in terms of interactions between habitat and yield (potential for expansion, intensification, both or neither). We used spatial scan statistics to find ‘hotspots’ of conservation conflict. Results All of the ‘hottest’ hotspots of conservation conflict were in sub-Saharan Africa, which could have impacts on sustainable intensification in this region. Main conclusions Systematic conservation planning could and should be used to identify hotspots of conservation conflict in agricultural landscapes, at multiple scales. The debate between ‘land sharing’ (extensive agriculture that is wildlife friendly) and ‘land sparing’ (intensive agriculture that is less wildlife friendly but also less extensive) could be resolved if sharing and sparing were used as different types of tool for resolving different types of conservation conflict (buffering and connecting protected areas by maintaining matrix quality, in different types of matrix). Therefore, both sharing and sparing

  5. Integrating ecosystem services in terrestrial conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mei-Hua; Lo, Shang-Lien; Yang, Chih-Kai

    2017-03-28

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the benefits of ecosystem services for prioritization of land use conservation and to highlight the importance of ecosystem services by comparison between ecosystem service value and green GDP accounting. Based on land use pattern and benefit transfer method, this research estimated value of ecosystem services in Taiwan. Scientific information of land use and land cover change is accessed through multi-year satellite imagery moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), and geographic information system (GIS) technology. Combined with benefit transfer method, this research estimated the ecosystem service valuation of forest, grassland, cropland, wetland, water, and urban for the period of 2000 to 2015 in Taiwan. It is found that forest made the greatest contribution and the significant increasing area of wetland has huge potential benefit for environmental conservation in Taiwan. We recommend placing maintaining wetland ecosystem in Taiwan with higher priority. This research also compared ecosystem service value with natural capital consumption which would essentially facilitate policy makers to understand the relationship between benefits gained from natural capital and the loss from human-made capital.

  6. The Coachella Valley Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan: a decade of delays.

    PubMed

    Alagona, Peter S; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the history of the Coachella Valley Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan (CVMSHCP), in the Riverside County region of Southern California. When this collaborative biodiversity conservation planning process began, in 1994, local participants and supporters had numerous factors working in their favor. Yet, as of April 2007, nearly 13 years had passed without an approved plan. This is a common problem. Many multiple species habitat conservation plans now take more than a decade to complete, and the long duration of these processes often results in negative consequences. The CVMSHCP process became bogged down-despite strong scientific input and many political advantages-due to problematic relationships between the Plan's local supporters, its municipal signatory parties, and officials from the state and federal wildlife agencies, particularly the regional office of the US Fish and Wildlife Service. This case study demonstrates the crucial importance of institutional structures and relationships, process management, and timeliness in habitat conservation planning. We conclude by offering several related recommendations for future HCP processes.

  7. 76 FR 25307 - Incidental Take Permit and Habitat Conservation Plan for PacifiCorp Klamath Hydroelectric Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA410 Incidental Take Permit and Habitat... of availability of draft environmental assessment, habitat conservation plan, implementing agreement...-year period. As required by the ESA, PacifiCorp has also prepared a Habitat Conservation Plan (Plan)...

  8. Knowledge co-production and boundary work to promote implementation of conservation plans.

    PubMed

    Nel, Jeanne L; Roux, Dirk J; Driver, Amanda; Hill, Liesl; Maherry, Ashton C; Snaddon, Kate; Petersen, Chantel R; Smith-Adao, Lindie B; Van Deventer, Heidi; Reyers, Belinda

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge co-production and boundary work offer planners a new frame for critically designing a social process that fosters collaborative implementation of resulting plans. Knowledge co-production involves stakeholders from diverse knowledge systems working iteratively toward common vision and action. Boundary work is a means of creating permeable knowledge boundaries that satisfy the needs of multiple social groups while guarding the functional integrity of contributing knowledge systems. Resulting products are boundary objects of mutual interest that maintain coherence across all knowledge boundaries. We examined how knowledge co-production and boundary work can bridge the gap between planning and implementation and promote cross-sectoral cooperation. We applied these concepts to well-established stages in regional conservation planning within a national scale conservation planning project aimed at identifying areas for conserving rivers and wetlands of South Africa and developing an institutional environment for promoting their conservation. Knowledge co-production occurred iteratively over 4 years in interactive stake-holder workshops that included co-development of national freshwater conservation goals and spatial data on freshwater biodiversity and local conservation feasibility; translation of goals into quantitative inputs that were used in Marxan to select draft priority conservation areas; review of draft priority areas; and packaging of resulting map products into an atlas and implementation manual to promote application of the priority area maps in 37 different decision-making contexts. Knowledge co-production stimulated dialogue and negotiation and built capacity for multi-scale implementation beyond the project. The resulting maps and information integrated diverse knowledge types of over 450 stakeholders and represented >1000 years of collective experience. The maps provided a consistent national source of information on priority conservation areas

  9. Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, with Index (Public Law 96-501).

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act was enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America. It was enacted to assist the electrical consumers of the Pacific Northwest through use of the Federal columbia River Power System to achieve cost-effective energy conservation, to encourage the development of renewable energy resources, to establish a representative regional power planning process, to assure the region of an efficient and adequate power supply, and for other purposes. Contents of the Act are: short title and table of contents; purposes; definitions; regional planning and participation; sale of power; conservation and resource acquisition; rates; amendments to existing law; administrative provisions; savings provisions; effective date; and severability.

  10. A systematic conservation planning approach to fire risk management in Natura 2000 sites.

    PubMed

    Foresta, Massimiliano; Carranza, Maria Laura; Garfì, Vittorio; Di Febbraro, Mirko; Marchetti, Marco; Loy, Anna

    2016-10-01

    A primary challenge in conservation biology is to preserve the most representative biodiversity while simultaneously optimizing the efforts associated with conservation. In Europe, the implementation of the Natura 2000 network requires protocols to recognize and map threats to biodiversity and to identify specific mitigation actions. We propose a systematic conservation planning approach to optimize management actions against specific threats based on two fundamental parameters: biodiversity values and threat pressure. We used the conservation planning software Marxan to optimize a fire management plan in a Natura 2000 coastal network in southern Italy. We address three primary questions: i) Which areas are at high fire risk? ii) Which areas are the most valuable for threatened biodiversity? iii) Which areas should receive priority risk-mitigation actions for the optimal effect?, iv) which fire-prevention actions are feasible in the management areas?. The biodiversity values for the Natura 2000 spatial units were derived from the distribution maps of 18 habitats and 89 vertebrate species of concern in Europe (Habitat Directive 92/43/EEC). The threat pressure map, defined as fire probability, was obtained from digital layers of fire risk and of fire frequency. Marxan settings were defined as follows: a) planning units of 40 × 40 m, b) conservation features defined as all habitats and vertebrate species of European concern occurring in the study area, c) conservation targets defined according with fire sensitivity and extinction risk of conservation features, and d) costs determined as the complement of fire probabilities. We identified 23 management areas in which to concentrate efforts for the optimal reduction of fire-induced effects. Because traditional fire prevention is not feasible for most of policy habitats included in the management areas, alternative prevention practices were identified that allows the conservation of the vegetation structure. The

  11. Integrating climate change into habitat conservation plans under the U.S. endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Bernazzani, Paola; Bradley, Bethany A; Opperman, Jeffrey J

    2012-06-01

    Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) are an important mechanism for the acquisition of land and the management of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. HCPs have become a vital means of protecting endangered and threatened species and their habitats throughout the United States, particularly on private land. The scientific consensus that climate is changing and that these changes will impact the viability of species has not been incorporated into the conservation strategies of recent HCPs, rendering plans vulnerable biologically. In this paper we review the regulatory context for incorporating climate change into HCPs and analyze the extent to which climate change is linked to management actions in a subset of large HCPs. We conclude that most current plans do not incorporate climate change into conservation actions, and so we provide recommendations for integrating climate change into the process of HCP development and implementation. These recommendations are distilled from the published literature as well as the practice of conservation planning and are structured to the specific needs of HCP development and implementation. We offer nine recommendations for integrating climate change into the HCP process: (1) identify species at-risk from climate change, (2) explore new strategies for reserve design, (3) increase emphasis on corridors, linkages, and connectivity, (4) develop anticipatory adaptation measures, (5) manage for diversity, (6) consider assisted migration, (7) include climate change in scenarios of water management, (8) develop future-oriented management actions, and (9) increase linkages between the conservation strategy and adaptive management/monitoring programs.

  12. Soil conservation planning in the People's Republic of China: An alternative approach

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, L.

    1991-01-01

    The severe environmental, social, and economic consequences of soil erosion have lead to the development of many soil erosion and conservation planning models. This study presents an alternative approach to soil conservation planning, one based explicitly on the types of data available and the social and economic conditions that apply in the People's Republic of China. The method has three major parts: (1) identification of available land characteristic and socio-economic goals, the potential soil conservation measures, and the production rules which link the two; (2) building of a computer model based on series of decision trees that express the above relationships; and (3) evaluation of the output of the above model using linear programming. This approach is applied to the Dingxi Region of Gansu province in the northwestern China, and its results are compared to those of the planning methods currently used in that region. The method is found to potentially enable conservation planners to easily generate a number of different soil conservation plans and gain insight into the challenges and possible solutions to rural development problems.

  13. Integrating Climate Change into Habitat Conservation Plans Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernazzani, Paola; Bradley, Bethany A.; Opperman, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-01

    Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) are an important mechanism for the acquisition of land and the management of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. HCPs have become a vital means of protecting endangered and threatened species and their habitats throughout the United States, particularly on private land. The scientific consensus that climate is changing and that these changes will impact the viability of species has not been incorporated into the conservation strategies of recent HCPs, rendering plans vulnerable biologically. In this paper we review the regulatory context for incorporating climate change into HCPs and analyze the extent to which climate change is linked to management actions in a subset of large HCPs. We conclude that most current plans do not incorporate climate change into conservation actions, and so we provide recommendations for integrating climate change into the process of HCP development and implementation. These recommendations are distilled from the published literature as well as the practice of conservation planning and are structured to the specific needs of HCP development and implementation. We offer nine recommendations for integrating climate change into the HCP process: (1) identify species at-risk from climate change, (2) explore new strategies for reserve design, (3) increase emphasis on corridors, linkages, and connectivity, (4) develop anticipatory adaptation measures, (5) manage for diversity, (6) consider assisted migration, (7) include climate change in scenarios of water management, (8) develop future-oriented management actions, and (9) increase linkages between the conservation strategy and adaptive management/monitoring programs.

  14. Between-country collaboration and consideration of costs increase conservation planning efficiency in the Mediterranean Basin.

    PubMed

    Kark, Salit; Levin, Noam; Grantham, Hedley S; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-09-08

    The importance of global and regional coordination in conservation is growing, although currently, the majority of conservation programs are applied at national and subnational scales. Nevertheless, multinational programs incur transaction costs and resources beyond what is required in national programs. Given the need to maximize returns on investment within limited conservation budgets, it is crucial to quantify how much more biodiversity can be protected by coordinating multinational conservation efforts when resources are fungible. Previous studies that compared different scales of conservation decision-making mostly ignored spatial variability in biodiversity threats and the cost of actions. Here, we developed a simple integrating metric, taking into account both the cost of conservation and threats to biodiversity. We examined the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot, which encompasses over 20 countries. We discovered that for vertebrates to achieve similar conservation benefits, one would need substantially more money and area if each country were to act independently as compared to fully coordinated action across the Basin. A fully coordinated conservation plan is expected to save approximately US$67 billion, 45% of total cost, compared with the uncoordinated plan; and if implemented over a 10-year period, the plan would cost approximately 0.1% of the gross national income of all European Union (EU) countries annually. The initiative declared in the recent Paris Summit for the Mediterranean provides a political basis for such complex coordination. Surprisingly, because many conservation priority areas selected are located in EU countries, a partly coordinated solution incorporating only EU-Mediterranean countries is almost as efficient as the fully coordinated scenario.

  15. Inclusion of costs in conservation planning depends on limited datasets and hopeful assumptions.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R

    2014-08-01

    Many conservation organizations use spatial prioritization to help identify locations in which to work. Increasingly, prioritizations seek to account for spatial heterogeneity in the costs of conservation, motivated in part by claims of large efficiency savings when these costs are included. I critically review the cost estimates on which such claims are based, focusing on acquisition and management costs associated with terrestrial protected areas. If researchers are to evaluate how including costs affects conservation planning outcomes, estimation methods need to preserve the covariation between and relative variation within costs and benefits of conservation activities. However, widely used methods for estimating costs and incorporating them into prioritizations may not meet these standards. For example, among relevant studies, there is surprisingly little attention given to the costs that conservation organizations actually face. Instead, there is a heavy reliance on untested proxies for conservation costs. Analytical shortcuts are also common. Now that debate is moving beyond whether to account for costs in conservation planning, it is time to evaluate just how we can include them to greatest effect.

  16. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    Recent rapid changes in the Earth's climate have altered ecological systems around the globe. Global warming has been linked to changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, interspecific interactions, and disturbance regimes. Projected future climate change will undoubtedly result in even more dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. These shifts will provide one of the largest challenges to natural resource managers and conservation planners. Managing natural resources and ecosystems in the face of uncertain climate requires new approaches. Here, the many adaptation strategies that have been proposed for managing natural systems in a changing climate are reviewed. Most of the recommended approaches are general principles and many are tools that managers are already using. What is new is a turning toward a more agile management perspective. To address climate change, managers will need to act over different spatial and temporal scales. The focus of restoration will need to shift from historic species assemblages to potential future ecosystem services. Active adaptive management based on potential future climate impact scenarios will need to be a part of everyday operations. And triage will likely become a critical option. Although many concepts and tools for addressing climate change have been proposed, key pieces of information are still missing. To successfully manage for climate change, a better understanding will be needed of which species and systems will likely be most affected by climate change, how to preserve and enhance the evolutionary capacity of species, how to implement effective adaptive management in new systems, and perhaps most importantly, in which situations and systems will the general adaptation strategies that have been proposed work and how can they be effectively applied.

  17. Methods for calculating Protection Equality for conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Chauvenet, Alienor L M; Kuempel, Caitlin D; McGowan, Jennifer; Beger, Maria; Possingham, Hugh P

    2017-01-01

    Protected Areas (PAs) are a central part of biodiversity conservation strategies around the world. Today, PAs cover c15% of the Earth's land mass and c3% of the global oceans. These numbers are expected to grow rapidly to meet the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Biodiversity target 11, which aims to see 17% and 10% of terrestrial and marine biomes protected, respectively, by 2020. This target also requires countries to ensure that PAs protect an "ecologically representative" sample of their biodiversity. At present, there is no clear definition of what desirable ecological representation looks like, or guidelines of how to standardize its assessment as the PA estate grows. We propose a systematic approach to measure ecological representation in PA networks using the Protection Equality (PE) metric, which measures how equally ecological features, such as habitats, within a country's borders are protected. We present an R package and two Protection Equality (PE) measures; proportional to area PE, and fixed area PE, which measure the representativeness of a country's PA network. We illustrate the PE metrics with two case studies: coral reef protection across countries and ecoregions in the Coral Triangle, and representation of ecoregions of six of the largest countries in the world. Our results provide repeatable transparency to the issue of representation in PA networks and provide a starting point for further discussion, evaluation and testing of representation metrics. They also highlight clear shortcomings in current PA networks, particularly where they are biased towards certain assemblage types or habitats. Our proposed metrics should be used to report on measuring progress towards the representation component of Aichi Target 11. The PE metrics can be used to measure the representation of any kind of ecological feature including: species, ecoregions, processes or habitats.

  18. Methods for calculating Protection Equality for conservation planning

    PubMed Central

    Kuempel, Caitlin D.; McGowan, Jennifer; Beger, Maria; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2017-01-01

    Protected Areas (PAs) are a central part of biodiversity conservation strategies around the world. Today, PAs cover c15% of the Earth’s land mass and c3% of the global oceans. These numbers are expected to grow rapidly to meet the Convention on Biological Diversity’s Aichi Biodiversity target 11, which aims to see 17% and 10% of terrestrial and marine biomes protected, respectively, by 2020. This target also requires countries to ensure that PAs protect an “ecologically representative” sample of their biodiversity. At present, there is no clear definition of what desirable ecological representation looks like, or guidelines of how to standardize its assessment as the PA estate grows. We propose a systematic approach to measure ecological representation in PA networks using the Protection Equality (PE) metric, which measures how equally ecological features, such as habitats, within a country’s borders are protected. We present an R package and two Protection Equality (PE) measures; proportional to area PE, and fixed area PE, which measure the representativeness of a country’s PA network. We illustrate the PE metrics with two case studies: coral reef protection across countries and ecoregions in the Coral Triangle, and representation of ecoregions of six of the largest countries in the world. Our results provide repeatable transparency to the issue of representation in PA networks and provide a starting point for further discussion, evaluation and testing of representation metrics. They also highlight clear shortcomings in current PA networks, particularly where they are biased towards certain assemblage types or habitats. Our proposed metrics should be used to report on measuring progress towards the representation component of Aichi Target 11. The PE metrics can be used to measure the representation of any kind of ecological feature including: species, ecoregions, processes or habitats. PMID:28199341

  19. [Musculoskeletal disorders in HIV-infected patients.National AIDS Plan (PNS) and the AIDS Study Group (GESIDA)].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the most relevant musculoskeletal disorders, their diagnosis and treatment to the scientific community and the professionals in charge of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. These recommendations have been agreed by a panel of experts from the National AIDS Plan (PNS) and the AIDS Study Group (GESIDA). The group have reviewed the efficacy and safety results of clinical trials, cohort studies and pharmacokinetic studies published in biomedical journals (PubMed and Embase), or presented at conferences. Three levels of evidence have been defined according to the sources of data: level A, randomized controlled trials; level B, cohort or case-control; and level C, descriptive studies and expert opinion. Based on this evidence, the authors have decided to recommend, consider or not recommend for each situation. The decrease in bone mineral density is common in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment, especially during the first year (from 2 to 4%), with a subsequent partial recovery. A dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan is recommended in patients over 50 years old with HIV infection, history of bone fractures and/or risk factors. Treatment with bisphosphonates has been shown to be effective. Osteoarticular infections are more frequent than in the non-infected population. The level of immunosuppression, risk practice, and antiretroviral treatment should be considered for a proper diagnosis and therapeutic approach. Laboratory and imaging procedures recommended for the study of musculoskeletal processes in HIV infected subjects are the same as in the general population. Osteonecrosis and decreased bone mineral density are the most frequent alterations in children. An early diagnosis of bone disorders is needed. The influence of modifiable risk factors must be avoided and initiate treatment when necessary. Bisphosphonates have been effective in osteoporosis.

  20. Overview of energy-conserving development planning and design techniques based on five case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Findings and recommendations are presented of a review of five case studies of ways to conserve energy through development planning and site design in communities. Two approaches were used. In the first approach, a conventional, pre-existing plan was analyzed to determine potential energy use. Once energy-conservation options were identified and evaluated, the conventional plan was modified by employing those options. This approach was used in The Woodlands, Burke Center, and Radisson studies. In the second approach, energy-conservation options are independently identified and evaluated. Those options that passed specific criteria screening were then utilized in developing one or more totally new plans based on energy objectives. This approach was used in Greenbrier and Shenandoah. Radisson is a new town on the outskirts of Syracuse, New York. Greenbrier is a 3000 acre planned community adjacent to Norfolk and Virginia Beach. Shenandoah is a proposed new town in the Atlanta urbanized area. The Woodlands is a new community under development north of Houston. Burke Center is a residential planned unit development in Fairfax County, Virgnia. (MCW)

  1. Systematic conservation planning for California avifauna in a climate change context (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stralberg, D.; Veloz, S.; Jongsomjit, D.; Gardali, T.; Howell, C.; Alexander, J.; Snyder, M. A.; Nur, N.; Ballard, G.; Wiens, J.

    2010-12-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) based on climate variables are often used to quantify and describe the spatial distributions of species under current and projected future climate conditions. While such models are generally developed at the continental level for the purpose of projecting broad-scale range shifts, there is an increasing demand for projections at scales fine enough to inform land-management decisions and conservation priorities. In a state as topographically complex as California, significant downscaling is required to adapt general circulation model (GCM) projections to conservation planning applications. We used 30-km regional climate model projections for 2038-2070 with boundary conditions taken from two GCMs under the SRES A2 (high CO2 emissions) scenario and downscaled them to an 800-m resolution based on PRISM climate normals for 1970-2000. Bioclimatic variables derived from temperature and precipitation normals were used to model the distributions of 203 California landbird taxa and to identify the species whose distributions are most likely to be affected by climate change. To synthesize the geographic implications of these individual SDM projections, we used the systematic conservation planning software Zonation to identify priority areas for avian conservation based on current and projected future distributions of all taxa. We used the California Bird Species of Special Concern framework to weight species according to conservation status, compared two prioritization algorithms, and incorporated SDM and climate model uncertainty into the prioritization exercise. The resulting areas of high conservation value were intersected with current protected areas to identify conservation gaps. Portions of the north and central coast were identified as consistent yet largely unprotected “hotspots” for current and future bird distributions. This approach illustrates how species distribution modeling, coupled with planning tools such as Zonation

  2. Planning fuel-conservative descents with or without time constraints using a small programmable calculator: Algorithm development and flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    A simplified flight-management descent algorithm, programmed on a small programmable calculator, was developed and flight tested. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight-management descent algorithm is described. The results of flight tests flown with a T-39A (Sabreliner) airplane are presented.

  3. Planning fuel-conservative descents with or without time constraints using a small programmable calculator: algorithm development and flight test results

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, C.E.

    1983-03-01

    A simplified flight-management descent algorithm, programmed on a small programmable calculator, was developed and flight tested. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel-conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel-conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight-management descent algorithm is described. The results of flight tests flown with a T-39A (Sabreliner) airplane are presented.

  4. Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Custom-Made Titanium Prosthesis: A Case Report on the Use of Virtual Surgical Planning and Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ow, Andrew; Tan, Winston; Pienkowski, Lukasz

    2016-09-01

    The use of virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing has been reported to enhance the planning for the reconstruction of mandibular continuity defects. This case report illustrates the use of this technology in the fabrication of a custom-made titanium prosthesis to restore a segmental mandibular defect. The design specifications and sequence of the custom-made titanium prosthesis are discussed. Although successful in this case, there are limitations in its application and case selection is of vital importance.

  5. Family Planning Counseling in Your Pocket: A Mobile Job Aid for Community Health Workers in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L’Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by

  6. Health Care Assisting Lesson Planning Guide for Long-Term Care Aide Certification. South Carolina Health Occupations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Occupational Education.

    This document consists of 13 competency outlines/lesson plans that have been developed for use in preparing students for certification as long-term care aides through South Carolina's health occupations education program. The following competencies are covered in the individual lessons: identify the function and responsibilities of nurses aides;…

  7. Computer Aided Process Planning -- A Path to Just-in-Time Manufacturing for Shipyards (The National Shipbuilding Research Program)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Just - In - Time Manufacturing for Shipyards U.S. DEPARTMENT OF...Shipbuilding Research Program 1987 Ship Production Symposium Paper No.14: Computer Aided Process Planning -- A Path to Just - In - Time Manufacturing for...SECTION OF THE SOCIETY OF NAVAL ARCHITECTS AND MARINE ENGINEERS Computer Aided Process Planning—A Path to Just - in - Time Manufacturing for

  8. Accommodating Dynamic Oceanographic Processes and Pelagic Biodiversity in Marine Conservation Planning

    PubMed Central

    Grantham, Hedley S.; Game, Edward T.; Lombard, Amanda T.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Pressey, Robert L.; Huggett, Jenny A.; Coetzee, Janet C.; van der Lingen, Carl D.; Petersen, Samantha L.; Merkle, Dagmar; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2011-01-01

    Pelagic ecosystems support a significant and vital component of the ocean's productivity and biodiversity. They are also heavily exploited and, as a result, are the focus of numerous spatial planning initiatives. Over the past decade, there has been increasing enthusiasm for protected areas as a tool for pelagic conservation, however, few have been implemented. Here we demonstrate an approach to plan protected areas that address the physical and biological dynamics typical of the pelagic realm. Specifically, we provide an example of an approach to planning protected areas that integrates pelagic and benthic conservation in the southern Benguela and Agulhas Bank ecosystems off South Africa. Our aim was to represent species of importance to fisheries and species of conservation concern within protected areas. In addition to representation, we ensured that protected areas were designed to consider pelagic dynamics, characterized from time-series data on key oceanographic processes, together with data on the abundance of small pelagic fishes. We found that, to have the highest likelihood of reaching conservation targets, protected area selection should be based on time-specific data rather than data averaged across time. More generally, we argue that innovative methods are needed to conserve ephemeral and dynamic pelagic biodiversity. PMID:21311757

  9. 76 FR 65744 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Draft Habitat Conservation Plan for Lower Colorado River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of documents and announcement of public hearings... Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 1306, Room 6034, Albuquerque, NM 87103. Public... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Environmental Assessment and Draft Habitat Conservation Plan for...

  10. 76 FR 41808 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Draft Habitat Conservation Plan for Oncor Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Draft Habitat Conservation Plan for Oncor Electric Delivery Facilities in 100 Texas Counties AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of documents and announcement of public hearings. SUMMARY: We, the...

  11. Designing monitoring programs in an adaptive management context for regional multiple species conservation plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, A.J.; Trenham, P.C.; Fisher, R.N.; Hathaway, S.A.; Johnson, B.S.; Torres, S.G.; Moore, Y.C.

    2004-01-01

    critical management uncertainties; and 3) implementing long-term monitoring and adaptive management. Ultimately, the success of regional conservation planning depends on the ability of monitoring programs to confront the challenges of adaptively managing and monitoring complex ecosystems and diverse arrays of sensitive species.

  12. 76 FR 62087 - Draft Conservation Plan and Draft Environmental Assessment; Dunes Sagebrush Lizard, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... future, the draft TCP will also serve as a Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) in support of future... provisions to implement the TCP as an HCP in support of a potential section 10(a)(1)(B) incidental take... through the HCP provisions of the TCP for participants who are fully implementing the HCP provisions...

  13. 75 FR 62850 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit; Habitat Conservation Plan for Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... as the ``Covered Species''). The permit application includes a draft Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP... application, which includes the draft HCP, draft IA, and EA, by contacting the Service's Pacific Islands Fish... in the draft EA. We are also soliciting information regarding the adequacy of the HCP to...

  14. 76 FR 58249 - Notice of Availability of Proposed Low Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for Tumalo Irrigation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... application and on Tumalo Irrigation District's low effect Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP). The application and HCP are available for public review. DATES: Written comments must be received no later than 5 p.m... incidental take permit and the HCP should be addressed to: Scott Carlon, National Marine Fisheries...

  15. 76 FR 59732 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Draft Habitat Conservation Plan for Oncor Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... draft Oncor Electric Delivery Company, LLC, habitat conservation plan (HCP). Due to an inadvertent error... the HCP, but only in our previous notice. DATES: Comments: We must receive written comments on the...://www.fws.gov/southwest/es/AustinTexas/ ), and on Oncor's Web site ( http://www.oncor-eis-hcp.com )...

  16. 75 FR 10309 - Wisconsin Statewide Habitat Conservation Plan for Karner Blue Butterfly

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...-1122-0000-F2] Wisconsin Statewide Habitat Conservation Plan for Karner Blue Butterfly AGENCY: Fish and...-year period and would authorize incidental take of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides... butterfly to the maximum extent practicable, under section 10(a)(1)(B) of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et...

  17. 75 FR 6870 - Washita and Optima National Wildlife Refuges, Comprehensive Conservation Plan, Custer and Texas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-12

    ...: Final comprehensive conservation plan and finding of no significant impact for environment assessment... this final CCP, we describe how we will guide the development and management of the Washita and Optima... of impacts on the human environment, which we included in the EA that accompanied the draft CCP....

  18. 77 FR 8890 - Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge, KY; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... availability of a draft comprehensive conservation plan and environmental assessment (Draft CCP/EA) for Clarks... review and comment. In this Draft CCP/EA, we describe the alternative we propose to use to manage this... receive your written comments by March 16, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may obtain a copy of the Draft CCP/EA...

  19. Some Problems for the Teacher Useful as a Basis for Planning Lessons in Science-Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    This manual was prepared for elementary school teachers as part of The Science Project Related to Upgrading Conservation Education (Project S.P.R.U.C.E.). The introduction emphasizes the importance of an integrated approach to environmental education, and lists some research findings important in planning instruction. A chart shows related…

  20. 76 FR 65525 - Huron, Madison, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District; Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Huron, Madison, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District; Comprehensive... conservation plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for the Huron, Madison, and Sand Lake Wetland... (district), Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District are part of...

  1. 77 FR 31379 - Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge, Lake County, OR; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge, Lake County, OR; Draft Comprehensive... to revise the comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge... regulations. Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge The Refuge's approved boundary encompasses 277,893...

  2. 77 FR 1498 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Proposed Single-Species Habitat Conservation Plan for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... Conservation Plan for the Proposed Shiloh IV Wind Plant Project, Solano County, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... include constructing and installing the wind turbines and associated electrical facilities and access... new 230- kilovolt substation (to be built on an existing pad), maintaining the new wind turbines...

  3. 78 FR 16286 - Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge, Jasper County, IA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge, Jasper County, IA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact for Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and...

  4. 78 FR 66058 - Habitat Conservation Plan for South Sacramento County, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service ; Habitat Conservation Plan for South Sacramento County, California AGENCY... Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act for the proposed South Sacramento Habitat... Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act for the proposed South Sacramento...

  5. Environmental and Management Goal Setting for the Long Island Sound Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past 3 years the Long Island Sound Study (LISS) has been developing a revised Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (CCMP), the blueprint for the protection and restoration of the Sound for the next generation. Long Island Sound is located within the most densel...

  6. 77 FR 18853 - Trinity River National Wildlife Refuge, Liberty County, TX; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity River National Wildlife Refuge, Liberty County, TX; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce...

  7. 77 FR 18852 - Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge, Stevensville, MT; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge, Stevensville, MT; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments; announcement of public meeting SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and...

  8. 76 FR 50247 - Willapa National Wildlife Refuge, Pacific County, WA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Willapa National Wildlife Refuge, Pacific County, WA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce...

  9. 77 FR 71011 - Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge, Clallam County, WA; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Dungeness National Wildlife Refuge, Clallam County, WA; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce...

  10. 78 FR 5830 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Proposed Habitat Conservation Plan for the Interim Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... gates, and fish ladder, and regulate the water level upstream of Keno Dam in accordance with the... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Environmental Assessment and Proposed Habitat Conservation Plan for the..., and Siskiyou County, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  11. Mapping spatial pattern in biodiversity for regional conservation planning: where to from here?

    PubMed

    Ferrier, Simon

    2002-04-01

    Vast gaps in available information on the spatial distribution of biodiversity pose a major challenge for regional conservation planning in many parts of the world. This problem is often addressed by basing such planning on various biodiversity surrogates. In some situations, distributional data for selected taxa may be used as surrogates for biodiversity as a whole. However, this approach is less effective in data-poor regions, where there may be little choice but to base conservation planning on some form of remote environmental mapping, derived, for example, from interpretation of satellite imagery or from numerical classification of abiotic environmental layers. Although this alternative approach confers obvious benefits in terms of cost-effectiveness and rapidity of application, problems may arise if congruence is poor between mapped land-classes and actual biological distributions. I propose three strategies for making more effective use of available biological data and knowledge to alleviate such problems by (1) more closely integrating biological and environmental data through predictive modeling, with increased emphasis on modeling collective properties of biodiversity rather than individual entities; (2) making more rigorous use of remotely mapped surrogates in conservation planning by incorporating knowledge of heterogeneity within land-classes, and of varying levels of distinctiveness between classes, into measures of conservation priority and achievement; and (3) using relatively data-rich regions as test-beds for evaluating the performance of surrogates that can be readily applied across data-poor regions.

  12. Integrating human responses to climate change into conservation vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sean L; Venter, Oscar; Jones, Kendall R; Watson, James E M

    2015-10-01

    The impact of climate change on biodiversity is now evident, with the direct impacts of changing temperature and rainfall patterns and increases in the magnitude and frequency of extreme events on species distribution, populations, and overall ecosystem function being increasingly publicized. Changes in the climate system are also affecting human communities, and a range of human responses across terrestrial and marine realms have been witnessed, including altered agricultural activities, shifting fishing efforts, and human migration. Failing to account for the human responses to climate change is likely to compromise climate-smart conservation efforts. Here, we use a well-established conservation planning framework to show how integrating human responses to climate change into both species- and site-based vulnerability assessments and adaptation plans is possible. By explicitly taking into account human responses, conservation practitioners will improve their evaluation of species and ecosystem vulnerability, and will be better able to deliver win-wins for human- and biodiversity-focused climate adaptation.

  13. Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

  14. Comparison of statistical and theoretical habitat models for conservation planning: the benefit of ensemble prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Fearer, Todd M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Thompson, Frank R.; Nelson, Mark D.; Tirpak, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Selection of a modeling approach is an important step in the conservation planning process, but little guidance is available. We compared two statistical and three theoretical habitat modeling approaches representing those currently being used for avian conservation planning at landscape and regional scales: hierarchical spatial count (HSC), classification and regression tree (CRT), habitat suitability index (HSI), forest structure database (FS), and habitat association database (HA). We focused our comparison on models for five priority forest-breeding species in the Central Hardwoods Bird Conservation Region: Acadian Flycatcher, Cerulean Warbler, Prairie Warbler, Red-headed Woodpecker, and Worm-eating Warbler. Lacking complete knowledge on the distribution and abundance of each species with which we could illuminate differences between approaches and provide strong grounds for recommending one approach over another, we used two approaches to compare models: rank correlations among model outputs and comparison of spatial correspondence. In general, rank correlations were significantly positive among models for each species, indicating general agreement among the models. Worm-eating Warblers had the highest pairwise correlations, all of which were significant (P , 0.05). Red-headed Woodpeckers had the lowest agreement among models, suggesting greater uncertainty in the relative conservation value of areas within the region. We assessed model uncertainty by mapping the spatial congruence in priorities (i.e., top ranks) resulting from each model for each species and calculating the coefficient of variation across model ranks for each location. This allowed identification of areas more likely to be good targets of conservation effort for a species, those areas that were least likely, and those in between where uncertainty is higher and thus conservation action incorporates more risk. Based on our results, models developed independently for the same purpose

  15. Comparison of statistical and theoretical habitat models for conservation planning: the benefit of ensemble prediction.

    PubMed

    Jones-Farrand, D Todd; Fearer, Todd M; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Thompson, Frank R; Nelson, Mark D; Tirpak, John M

    2011-09-01

    Selection of a modeling approach is an important step in the conservation planning process, but little guidance is available. We compared two statistical and three theoretical habitat modeling approaches representing those currently being used for avian conservation planning at landscape and regional scales: hierarchical spatial count (HSC), classification and regression tree (CRT), habitat suitability index (HSI), forest structure database (FS), and habitat association database (HA). We focused our comparison on models for five priority forest-breeding species in the Central Hardwoods Bird Conservation Region: Acadian Flycatcher, Cerulean Warbler, Prairie Warbler, Red-headed Woodpecker, and Worm-eating Warbler. Lacking complete knowledge on the distribution and abundance of each species with which we could illuminate differences between approaches and provide strong grounds for recommending one approach over another, we used two approaches to compare models: rank correlations among model outputs and comparison of spatial correspondence. In general, rank correlations were significantly positive among models for each species, indicating general agreement among the models. Worm-eating Warblers had the highest pairwise correlations, all of which were significant (P < 0.05). Red-headed Woodpeckers had the lowest agreement among models, suggesting greater uncertainty in the relative conservation value of areas within the region. We assessed model uncertainty by mapping the spatial congruence in priorities (i.e., top ranks) resulting from each model for each species and calculating the coefficient of variation across model ranks for each location. This allowed identification of areas more likely to be good targets of conservation effort for a species, those areas that were least likely, and those in between where uncertainty is higher and thus conservation action incorporates more risk. Based on our results, models developed independently for the same purpose

  16. Ecoregion-Based Conservation Planning in the Mediterranean: Dealing with Large-Scale Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Sini, Maria; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Mazor, Tessa; Beher, Jutta; Possingham, Hugh P.; Abdulla, Ameer; Çinar, Melih Ertan; Dendrinos, Panagiotis; Gucu, Ali Cemal; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A.; Rodic, Petra; Panayotidis, Panayotis; Taskin, Ergun; Jaklin, Andrej; Voultsiadou, Eleni; Webster, Chloë; Zenetos, Argyro; Katsanevakis, Stelios

    2013-01-01

    Spatial priorities for the conservation of three key Mediterranean habitats, i.e. seagrass Posidonia oceanica meadows, coralligenous formations, and marine caves, were determined through a systematic planning approach. Available information on the distribution of these habitats across the entire Mediterranean Sea was compiled to produce basin-scale distribution maps. Conservation targets for each habitat type were set according to European Union guidelines. Surrogates were used to estimate the spatial variation of opportunity cost for commercial, non-commercial fishing, and aquaculture. Marxan conservation planning software was used to evaluate the comparative utility of two planning scenarios: (a) a whole-basin scenario, referring to selection of priority areas across the whole Mediterranean Sea, and (b) an ecoregional scenario, in which priority areas were selected within eight predefined ecoregions. Although both scenarios required approximately the same total area to be protected in order to achieve conservation targets, the opportunity cost differed between them. The whole-basin scenario yielded a lower opportunity cost, but the Alboran Sea ecoregion was not represented and priority areas were predominantly located in the Ionian, Aegean, and Adriatic Seas. In comparison, the ecoregional scenario resulted in a higher representation of ecoregions and a more even distribution of priority areas, albeit with a higher opportunity cost. We suggest that planning at the ecoregional level ensures better representativeness of the selected conservation features and adequate protection of species, functional, and genetic diversity across the basin. While there are several initiatives that identify priority areas in the Mediterranean Sea, our approach is novel as it combines three issues: (a) it is based on the distribution of habitats and not species, which was rarely the case in previous efforts, (b) it considers spatial variability of cost throughout this

  17. A hidden view of wildlife conservation: How camera traps aid science, research and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, Allan F.

    2015-01-01

    Camera traps — remotely activated cameras with infrared sensors — first gained measurable popularity in wildlife conservation in the early 1990s. Today, they’re used for a variety of activities, from species-specific research to broad-scale inventory or monitoring programs that, in some cases, attempt to detect biodiversity across vast landscapes. As this modern tool continues to evolve, it’s worth examining its uses and benefits for wildlife management and conservation.

  18. Algorithm for planning a double-jaw orthognathic surgery using a computer-aided surgical simulation (CASS) protocol. Part 1: planning sequence.

    PubMed

    Xia, J J; Gateno, J; Teichgraeber, J F; Yuan, P; Chen, K-C; Li, J; Zhang, X; Tang, Z; Alfi, D M

    2015-12-01

    The success of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) surgery depends not only on the surgical techniques, but also on an accurate surgical plan. The adoption of computer-aided surgical simulation (CASS) has created a paradigm shift in surgical planning. However, planning an orthognathic operation using CASS differs fundamentally from planning using traditional methods. With this in mind, the Surgical Planning Laboratory of Houston Methodist Research Institute has developed a CASS protocol designed specifically for orthognathic surgery. The purpose of this article is to present an algorithm using virtual tools for planning a double-jaw orthognathic operation. This paper will serve as an operation manual for surgeons wanting to incorporate CASS into their clinical practice.

  19. Systematic planning of disconnection to enhance conservation success in a modified world.

    PubMed

    Hermoso, Virgilio; Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R; Linke, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining spatial-temporal connectivity for conservation is necessary to allow the persistence of ecological processes and the biodiversity they sustain. However, conservation practice in human-modified environments can also benefit from prescribed disconnection through the implementation of barriers. Barriers, such as fences or dams, and buffer zones can be a cost-effective way of addressing threats caused by a globally connected world, such as the propagation of invasive species and diseases, creating refuge areas for native biodiversity and helping reduce economic losses caused by native wildlife or invasive species. Despite the global attention that disconnection has received, no clear framework exists to guide the allocation of barriers for conservation management. Here we propose that the implementation of barriers for conservation should be systematically planned, considering ecological trade-offs for multiple species (easing threats vs. interruption of ecosystem processes) and socio-economic cost-benefits (implementation cost vs. reduced human-wildlife conflicts), rather than using ad-hoc opportunistic criteria or accommodating conservation needs for individual species. Such a systematic approach is necessary to ensure both socially acceptable and ecologically effective use of disconnections as a conservation tool and ideally planned across different realms so co-benefits or trade-offs can be accounted for. However, any implementation of disconnection for conservation should be cautiously considered if uncertainty in effectiveness of the barrier and ecological impacts to other species are high. We also suggest the need for improved approaches to monitoring to learn from previous successes and failures. Our recommendations should guide the systematic evaluation and allocation of barriers to help enhance the value of this conservation tool in the face of increasing propagation of threats worldwide. However, new tools and collaborative frameworks across

  20. Targeting climate diversity in conservation planning to build resilience to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heller, Nicole E.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Ackerly, David; Weiss, Stuart; Recinos, Amanda; Branciforte, Ryan; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.; Micheli, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is raising challenging concerns for systematic conservation planning. Are methods based on the current spatial patterns of biodiversity effective given long-term climate change? Some conservation scientists argue that planning should focus on protecting the abiotic diversity in the landscape, which drives patterns of biological diversity, rather than focusing on the distribution of focal species, which shift in response to climate change. Climate is one important abiotic driver of biodiversity patterns, as different climates host different biological communities and genetic pools. We propose conservation networks that capture the full range of climatic diversity in a region will improve the resilience of biotic communities to climate change compared to networks that do not. In this study we used historical and future hydro-climate projections from the high resolution Basin Characterization Model to explore the utility of directly targeting climatic diversity in planning. Using the spatial planning tool, Marxan, we designed conservation networks to capture the diversity of climate types, at the regional and sub-regional scale, and compared them to networks we designed to capture the diversity of vegetation types. By focusing on the Conservation Lands Network (CLN) of the San Francisco Bay Area as a real-world case study, we compared the potential resilience of networks by examining two factors: the range of climate space captured, and climatic stability to 18 future climates, reflecting different emission scenarios and global climate models. We found that the climate-based network planned at the sub-regional scale captured a greater range of climate space and showed higher climatic stability than the vegetation and regional based-networks. At the same time, differences among network scenarios are small relative to the variance in climate stability across global climate models. Across different projected futures, topographically heterogeneous areas

  1. Men who have sex with men inadequately addressed in African Aids National Strategic Plans

    PubMed Central

    Makofane, K.; Gueboguo, C.; Lyons, D.; Sandfort, T.

    2013-01-01

    Through an analysis of Aids National Strategic Plans (NSPs), this study investigated the responses of African governments to the HIV epidemics faced by men who have sex with men (MSM). NSPs from 46 African countries were systematically analysed, paying attention to (1) the representation of MSM and their HIV risk, (2) inclusion of epidemiologic information on the HIV epidemic amongst MSM and (3) government-led interventions addressing MSM. 34 out of 46 NSPs mentioned MSM. While two-thirds of these NSPs acknowledged vulnerability of MSM to HIV infection, fewer than half acknowledged the role of stigma or criminalisation. Four NSPs showed estimated HIV prevalence amongst MSM, and one included incidence. Two-thirds of the NSPs proposed government-led HIV interventions that address MSM. Those that did plan to intervene planned to do so through policy interventions, social interventions, HIV prevention interventions, HIV treatment interventions, and monitoring activities. Overall, the governments of the countries included in the study exhibited little knowledge of HIV disease dynamics amongst MSM and little knowledge of the social dynamics behind MSM’s HIV risk. Concerted action is needed to integrate MSM in NSPs and governmental health policies in a way that acknowledges this population and its specific HIV/AIDS related needs. PMID:23252398

  2. 78 FR 40764 - Notice of Intent To Amend the California Desert Conservation Area Plan for the Needles Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Amend the California Desert Conservation Area Plan for the... amendment to the 1980 California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan with an associated...

  3. Creating a strategic plan for configuration management using computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.; Sarfaty, R.

    1993-05-01

    This paper provides guidance in the definition, documentation, measurement, enhancement of processes, and validation of a strategic plan for configuration management (CM). The approach and methodology used in establishing a strategic plan is the same for any enterprise, including the Department of Energy (DOE), commercial nuclear plants, the Department of Defense (DOD), or large industrial complexes. The principles and techniques presented are used world wide by some of the largest corporations. The authors used industry knowledge and the areas of their current employment to illustrate and provide examples. Developing a strategic configuration and information management plan for DOE Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID) facilities is discussed in this paper. A good knowledge of CM principles is the key to successful strategic planning. This paper will describe and define CM elements, and discuss how CM integrates the facility`s physical configuration, design basis, and documentation. The strategic plan does not need the support of a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. However, the use of the CASE tool provides a methodology for consistency in approach, graphics, and database capability combined to form an encyclopedia and a method of presentation that is easily understood and aids the process of reengineering. CASE tools have much more capability than those stated above. Some examples are supporting a joint application development group (JAD) to prepare a software functional specification document and, if necessary, provide the capability to automatically generate software application code. This paper briefly discusses characteristics and capabilities of two CASE tools that use different methodologies to generate similar deliverables.

  4. Science in the Public Sphere: Greater Sage-grouse Conservation Planning from a Transdisciplinary Perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Casazza, Michael L.; Caldwell, Margaret R.; Mathiasmeier, Teresa A.; Morgan, Peter M.; Overton, Cory T.

    2010-01-01

    Integration of scientific data and adaptive management techniques is critical to the success of species conservation, however, there are uncertainties about effective methods of knowledge exchange between scientists and decisionmakers. The conservation planning and implementation process for Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; ) in the Mono Basin, Calif. region, was used as a case study to observe the exchange of scientific information among stakeholders with differing perspectives; resource manager, scientist, public official, rancher, and others. The collaborative development of a risk-simulation model was explored as a tool to transfer knowledge between stakeholders and inform conservation planning and management decisions. Observations compiled using a transdisciplinary approach were used to compare the exchange of information during the collaborative model development and more traditional interactions such as scientist-led presentations at stakeholder meetings. Lack of congruence around knowledge needs and prioritization led to insufficient commitment to completely implement the risk-simulation model. Ethnographic analysis of the case study suggests that further application of epistemic community theory, which posits a strong boundary condition on knowledge transfer, could help support application of risk simulation models in conservation-planning efforts within similarly complex social and bureaucratic landscapes.

  5. [GIS and scenario analysis aid to water pollution control planning of river basin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-ping; Cheng, Sheng-tong; Jia, Hai-feng; Ou, Zhi-dan; Tan, Bin

    2004-07-01

    The forward and backward algorithms for watershed water pollution control planning were summarized in this paper as well as their advantages and shortages. The spatial databases of water environmental function region, pollution sources, monitoring sections and sewer outlets were built with ARCGIS8.1 as the platform in the case study of Ganjiang valley, Jiangxi province. Based on the principles of the forward algorithm, four scenarios were designed for the watershed pollution control. Under these scenarios, ten sets of planning schemes were generated to implement cascade pollution source control. The investment costs of sewage treatment for these schemes were estimated by means of a series of cost-effective functions; with pollution source prediction, the water quality was modeled with CSTR model for each planning scheme. The modeled results of different planning schemes were visualized through GIS to aid decision-making. With the results of investment cost and water quality attainment as decision-making accords and based on the analysis of the economic endurable capacity for water pollution control in Ganjiang river basin, two optimized schemes were proposed. The research shows that GIS technology and scenario analysis can provide a good guidance to the synthesis, integrity and sustainability aspects for river basin water quality planning.

  6. Quality of governance and effectiveness of protected areas: crucial concepts for conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Johanna; Cabeza, Mar

    2016-12-05

    Protected areas (PAs) are a key tool for biodiversity conservation and play a central role in the Convention on Biological Diversity. Recently, the effectiveness of PAs has been questioned, and assessing how effective they are in enabling the future persistence of biodiversity is not trivial. Here, we focus on terrestrial PAs and clarify the terminology related to PA effectiveness, distinguishing between management and ecological aspects. We suggest that the quality of governance affects both aspects of effectiveness but recognize a lack of synthetic understanding of the topic. We present a conceptual framework linking the underlying mechanisms by which the quality of governance affects conservation outcomes in PAs and how this relates to conservation planning. We show that it is crucial to separate pressure and response and how these together will lead to the observed conservation outcomes. We urge for more focused attention on governance factors and in particular more empirical research on how to address causality and how to account for the quality of governance when prioritizing actions. Our framework is linked to the classic concepts of systematic conservation planning and clarifies the strategies available to achieve a comprehensive and effective network of PAs.

  7. Partners in flight bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Butcher, G.; Fitzgerald, J.; Shieldcastle, J.

    2001-01-01

    1 November 2001. Conservation of bird habitats is a major focus of effort by Partners in Flight, an international coalition of agencies, citizens, and other groups dedicated to 'keeping common birds common'. USGS worked on a planning team to publish a bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain ecoregion (PIF 16), which includes large portions of southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan and parts of Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The conservation plan outlines specific habitat restoration and bird population objectives for the ecoregion over the next decade. The plan provides a context for on-the-ground conservation implementation by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the US Forest Service, states, and conservation groups. Citation: Knutson, M. G., G. Butcher, J. Fitzgerald, and J. Shieldcastle. 2001. Partners in Flight Bird Conservation Plan for The Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16). USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center in cooperation with Partners in Flight, La Crosse, Wisconsin. Download from website: http://www.blm.gov/wildlife/pifplans.htm. The Upper Great Lakes Plain covers the southern half of Michigan, northwest Ohio, northern Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, and small portions of southwest Minnesota and northwest Iowa. Glacial moraines and dissected plateaus are characteristic of the topography. Broadleaf forests, oak savannahs, and a variety of prairie communities are the natural vegetation types. A oDriftless Areao was not glaciated during the late Pleistocene and emerged as a unique area of great biological diversity. Priority bird species for the area include the Henslow's Sparrow, Sedge Wren, Bobolink, Golden-winged Warbler, Cerulean Warbler, Black-billed Cuckoo, and Red-headed Woodpecker. There are many large urban centers in this area whose growth and sprawl will continue to consume land. The vast majority of the presettlement forest and

  8. Using a social-ecological framework to inform the implementation of conservation plans.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Angela M; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2017-04-01

    One of the key determinants of success in biodiversity conservation is how well conservation planning decisions account for the social system in which actions are to be implemented. Understanding elements of how the social and ecological systems interact can help identify opportunities for implementation. Utilizing data from a large-scale conservation initiative in southwestern of Australia, we explored how a social-ecological system framework can be applied to identify how social and ecological factors interact to influence the opportunities for conservation. Using data from semistructured interviews, an online survey, and publicly available data, we developed a conceptual model of the social-ecological system associated with the conservation of the Fitz-Stirling region. We used this model to identify the relevant variables (remnants of vegetation, stakeholder presence, collaboration between stakeholders, and their scale of management) that affect the implementation of conservation actions in the region. We combined measures for these variables to ascertain how areas associated with different levels of ecological importance coincided with areas associated with different levels of stakeholder presence, stakeholder collaboration, and scales of management. We identified areas that could benefit from different implementation strategies, from those suitable for immediate conservation action to areas requiring implementation over the long term to increase on-the-ground capacity and identify mechanisms to incentivize implementation. The application of a social-ecological framework can help conservation planners and practitioners facilitate the integration of ecological and social data to inform the translation of priorities for action into implementation strategies that account for the complexities of conservation problems in a focused way.

  9. Computer aided process planning and die design in simulation environment in sheet metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisza, Miklós; Lukács, Zsolt

    2013-12-01

    During the recent 10-15 years, Computer Aided Process Planning and Die Design evolved as one of the most important engineering tools in sheet metal forming, particularly in the automotive industry. This emerging role is strongly emphasized by the rapid development of Finite Element Modeling, as well. The purpose of this paper is to give a general overview about the recent achievements in this very important field of sheet metal forming and to introduce some special results in this development activity. Therefore, in this paper, an integrated process simulation and die design system developed at the University of Miskolc, Department of Mechanical Engineering will be analyzed. The proposed integrated solutions have great practical importance to improve the global competitiveness of sheet metal forming in the very important segment of industry. The concept described in this paper may have specific value both for process planning and die design engineers.

  10. Milkweed: A resource for increasing stink bug parasitism and aiding insect pollinator and monarch butterfly conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flowers of milkweed species can produce a rich supply of nectar, and therefore, planting an insecticide-free milkweed habitat in agricultural farmscapes could possibly conserve monarch butterflies, bees and other insect pollinators, as well as enhance parasitism of insect pests. In peanut-cotton...

  11. Standby Energy Conservation Plan No. 2: Building Temperature Restrictions Plan. Environmental report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-02-01

    This report analyzes the environmental impacts of the proposed Building Temperature Restrictions Plan. The Plan would result in fuel and energy savings which could be diverted to other areas. Environmental impacts, with emphasis on air quality, were analyzed and found to result in a very minor improvement in air quality. Public health impacts are also minimal, and although some individuals may experience discomfort, it can be minimized by adjustments in clothing. The change in temperature is insufficient to have any significant impact on persons suffering from most diseases.

  12. High Resolution Mapping of Soils and Landforms for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christopher S.; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    The Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP), a major component of California's renewable energy planning efforts, is intended to provide effective protection and conservation of desert ecosystems, while allowing for the sensible development of renewable energy projects. This NASA mapping report was developed to support the DRECP and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We outline in this document remote sensing image processing methods to deliver new maps of biological soils crusts, sand dune movements, desert pavements, and sub-surface water sources across the DRECP area. We focused data processing first on the largely unmapped areas most likely to be used for energy developments, such as those within Renewable Energy Study Areas (RESA) and Solar Energy Zones (SEZs). We used imagery (multispectral and radar) mainly from the years 2009-2011.

  13. Protected Areas' Impacts on Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: Examining Conservation-Development Interactions to Inform Planning.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Herrera, Diego; Sandoval, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are the leading forest conservation policy for species and ecoservices goals and they may feature in climate policy if countries with tropical forest rely on familiar tools. For Brazil's Legal Amazon, we estimate the average impact of protection upon deforestation and show how protected areas' forest impacts vary significantly with development pressure. We use matching, i.e., comparisons that are apples-to-apples in observed land characteristics, to address the fact that protected areas (PAs) tend to be located on lands facing less pressure. Correcting for that location bias lowers our estimates of PAs' forest impacts by roughly half. Further, it reveals significant variation in PA impacts along development-related dimensions: for example, the PAs that are closer to roads and the PAs closer to cities have higher impact. Planners have multiple conservation and development goals, and are constrained by cost, yet still conservation planning should reflect what our results imply about future impacts of PAs.

  14. Protected Areas’ Impacts on Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: Examining Conservation – Development Interactions to Inform Planning

    PubMed Central

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Herrera, Diego; Sandoval, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are the leading forest conservation policy for species and ecoservices goals and they may feature in climate policy if countries with tropical forest rely on familiar tools. For Brazil's Legal Amazon, we estimate the average impact of protection upon deforestation and show how protected areas’ forest impacts vary significantly with development pressure. We use matching, i.e., comparisons that are apples-to-apples in observed land characteristics, to address the fact that protected areas (PAs) tend to be located on lands facing less pressure. Correcting for that location bias lowers our estimates of PAs’ forest impacts by roughly half. Further, it reveals significant variation in PA impacts along development-related dimensions: for example, the PAs that are closer to roads and the PAs closer to cities have higher impact. Planners have multiple conservation and development goals, and are constrained by cost, yet still conservation planning should reflect what our results imply about future impacts of PAs. PMID:26225922

  15. When Biologists and Engineers Collide: Habitat Conservation Planning in the Middle of Urbanized Development

    PubMed

    MCKINNEY; MURPHY

    1996-11-01

    / The City of Austin, Texas, is one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States. It is also in one of the most biologically diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the world: the Balcones Canyonlands. Five cave invertebrates and two species of birds that inhabit the area are listed as threatened or endangered, two species of plants are candidates for listing, several others are considered rare and of concern, and a species of the salamander has also been proposed for listing. A habitat conservation plan, of "national significance . . ." according to Secretary of Interior Bruce Babbit (Haurwitz 1996), has been under development for the last several years to conserve those endangered species through a 2400-ha system of preserves and to allow development to continue in more than 162,000 ha of surrounding area. The preserve system, comprising several units ranging in size from less than a hundred to several thousand hectares, would be bordered in many instances by developed areas. Development and maintenance of the infrastructure necessary for new and existing development, both commercial and residential, could have negated the biological value of the preserves (e.g., power-line corridors, water-treatment pipelines and facilities). The challenge of bringing this plan to fruition illustrates the complex biological, technical, and sociological context within which habitat conservation planning may occur. Resolving resource use conflicts of this nature have several commonalities that overarch these contexts. If recognized and addressed, one may move easily and foster positive results. These commonalities can be expressed as principles such as: relying on scientists to recognize, but not solve problems; acting before a scientific consensus is achieved; including human motivation and responses as part of the system to be studied and managed; and confronting uncertainty.KEY WORDS: Endangered species; Habitat conservation plan; Resource conflicts; Biologists

  16. Salmon habitat assessment for conservation planning in the lower White Salmon River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardiman, Jill M.; Allen, M. Brady

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, Condit Dam was removed from the White Salmon River, Washington. Since dam removal, there has been interest among scientists (State and Federal), Tribes, non-profit organizations, and the general public in assessing Pacific salmon habitat and use in the White Salmon River for conservation planning and potential fishery management actions. The study area extended from the lower 6 miles of the White Salmon River to the confluence with the Columbia River, including the former reservoir area. The Mid-Columbia Fisheries Enhancement Group received a grant to initiate efforts to plan for salmon habitat protection in the lower 6 river miles of the White Salmon River. As part of efforts by the Mid-Columbia Fisheries Enhancement Group to conduct conservation planning, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used current and historical habitat information to assist in the planning process. The USGS compiled existing georeferenced habitat data into a Geographic Information System to identify areas of high quality habitat for salmon, potential areas for restoration/improvement, and areas that could be threatened. The primary sources of georeferenced data for this project include a lidar flight contracted by PacifiCorp, bathymetry from USGS, and fall Chinook salmon redd surveys from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Redd observations provided support that the study area is a migratory corridor for salmon and steelhead and that the lowest 2–3 miles had the highest concentration of documented fall Chinook salmon redds. The study area has potential for restoration/conservation areas to improve/conserve salmon habitat.

  17. Using occupancy models of forest breeding birds to prioritize conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Wan, A. A.; Sullivan, P.J.; Lembo, A.J.; Smith, C.R.; Maerz, J.C.; Lassoie, J.P.; Richmond, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    As urban development continues to encroach on the natural and rural landscape, land-use planners struggle to identify high priority conservation areas for protection. Although knowing where urban-sensitive species may be occurring on the landscape would facilitate conservation planning, research efforts are often not sufficiently designed to make quality predictions at unknown locations. Recent advances in occupancy modeling allow for more precise estimates of occupancy by accounting for differences in detectability. We applied these techniques to produce robust estimates of habitat occupancy for a subset of forest breeding birds, a group that has been shown to be sensitive to urbanization, in a rapidly urbanizing yet biological diverse region of New York State. We found that detection probability ranged widely across species, from 0.05 to 0.8. Our models suggest that detection probability declined with increasing forest fragmentation. We also found that the probability of occupancy of forest breeding birds is negatively influenced by increasing perimeter-area ratio of forest fragments and urbanization in the surrounding habitat matrix. We capitalized on our random sampling design to produce spatially explicit models that predict high priority conservation areas across the entire region, where interior-species were most likely to occur. Finally, we use our predictive maps to demonstrate how a strict sampling design coupled with occupancy modeling can be a valuable tool for prioritizing biodiversity conservation in land-use planning. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Exploring spatial patterns of vulnerability for diverse biodiversity descriptors in regional conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Vimal, Ruppert; Pluvinet, Pascal; Sacca, Céline; Mazagol, Pierre-Olivier; Etlicher, Bernard; Thompson, John D

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we developed a multi-criteria assessment of spatial variability of the vulnerability of three different biodiversity descriptors: sites of high conservation interest by virtue of the presence of rare or remarkable species, extensive areas of high ecological integrity, and landscape diversity in grid cells across an entire region. We assessed vulnerability in relation to (a) direct threats in and around sites to a distance of 2 km associated with intensive agriculture, building and road infrastructure and (b) indirect effects of human population density on a wider scale (50 km). The different combinations of biodiversity and threat indicators allowed us to set differential priorities for biodiversity conservation and assess their spatial variation. For example, with this method we identified sites and grid cells which combined high biodiversity with either high threat values or low threat values for the three different biodiversity indicators. In these two classes the priorities for conservation planning will be different, reduce threat values in the former and restrain any increase in the latter. We also identified low priority sites (low biodiversity with either high or low threats). This procedure thus allows for the integration of a spatial ranking of vulnerability into priority setting for regional conservation planning.

  19. Integrating human impacts and ecological integrity into a risk-based protocol for conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, K.M.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation planning aims to protect biodiversity by sustainng the natural physical, chemical, and biological processes within representative ecosystems. Often data to measure these components are inadequate or unavailable. The impact of human activities on ecosystem processes complicates integrity assessments and might alter ecosystem organization at multiple spatial scales. Freshwater conservation targets, such as populations and communities, are influenced by both intrinsic aquatic properties and the surrounding landscape, and locally collected data might not accurately reflect potential impacts. We suggest that changes in five major biotic drivers-energy sources, physical habitat, flow regime, water quality, and biotic interactions-might be used as surrogates to inform conservation planners of the ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems. Threats to freshwater systems might be evaluated based on their impact to these drivers to provide an overview of potential risk to conservation targets. We developed a risk-based protocol, the Ecological Risk Index (ERI), to identify watersheds with least/most risk to conservation targets. Our protocol combines risk-based components, specifically the frequency and severity of human-induced stressors, with biotic drivers and mappable land- and water-use data to provide a summary of relative risk to watersheds. We illustrate application of our protocol with a case study of the upper Tennessee River basin, USA. Differences in risk patterns among the major drainages in the basin reflect dominant land uses, such as mining and agriculture. A principal components analysis showed that localized, moderately severe threats accounted for most of the threat composition differences among our watersheds. We also found that the relative importance of threats is sensitive to the spatial grain of the analysis. Our case study demonstrates that the ERI is useful for evaluating the frequency and severity of ecosystemwide risk, which can

  20. Making evolutionary history count: biodiversity planning for coral reef fishes and the conservation of evolutionary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Heyden, Sophie

    2017-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities are having devastating impacts on marine systems with numerous knock-on effects on trophic functioning, species interactions and an accelerated loss of biodiversity. Establishing conservation areas can not only protect biodiversity, but also confer resilience against changes to coral reefs and their inhabitants. Planning for protection and conservation in marine systems is complex, but usually focuses on maintaining levels of biodiversity and protecting special and unique landscape features while avoiding negative impacts to socio-economic benefits. Conversely, the integration of evolutionary processes that have shaped extant species assemblages is rarely taken into account. However, it is as important to protect processes as it is to protect patterns for maintaining the evolutionary trajectories of populations and species. This review focuses on different approaches for integrating genetic analyses, such as phylogenetic diversity, phylogeography and the delineation of management units, temporal and spatial monitoring of genetic diversity and quantification of adaptive variation for protecting evolutionary resilience, into marine spatial planning, specifically for coral reef fishes. Many of these concepts are not yet readily applied to coral reef fish studies, but this synthesis highlights their potential and the importance of including historical processes into systematic biodiversity planning for conserving not only extant, but also future, biodiversity and its evolutionary potential.

  1. From principles to practice: a spatial approach to systematic conservation planning in the deep sea

    PubMed Central

    Wedding, L. M.; Friedlander, A. M.; Kittinger, J. N.; Watling, L.; Gaines, S. D.; Bennett, M.; Hardy, S. M.; Smith, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    Increases in the demand and price for industrial metals, combined with advances in technological capabilities have now made deep-sea mining more feasible and economically viable. In order to balance economic interests with the conservation of abyssal plain ecosystems, it is becoming increasingly important to develop a systematic approach to spatial management and zoning of the deep sea. Here, we describe an expert-driven systematic conservation planning process applied to inform science-based recommendations to the International Seabed Authority for a system of deep-sea marine protected areas (MPAs) to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem function in an abyssal Pacific region targeted for nodule mining (e.g. the Clarion–Clipperton fracture zone, CCZ). Our use of geospatial analysis and expert opinion in forming the recommendations allowed us to stratify the proposed network by biophysical gradients, maximize the number of biologically unique seamounts within each subregion, and minimize socioeconomic impacts. The resulting proposal for an MPA network (nine replicate 400 × 400 km MPAs) covers 24% (1 440 000 km2) of the total CCZ planning region and serves as example of swift and pre-emptive conservation planning across an unprecedented area in the deep sea. As pressure from resource extraction increases in the future, the scientific guiding principles outlined in this research can serve as a basis for collaborative international approaches to ocean management. PMID:24197407

  2. From principles to practice: a spatial approach to systematic conservation planning in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Wedding, L M; Friedlander, A M; Kittinger, J N; Watling, L; Gaines, S D; Bennett, M; Hardy, S M; Smith, C R

    2013-12-22

    Increases in the demand and price for industrial metals, combined with advances in technological capabilities have now made deep-sea mining more feasible and economically viable. In order to balance economic interests with the conservation of abyssal plain ecosystems, it is becoming increasingly important to develop a systematic approach to spatial management and zoning of the deep sea. Here, we describe an expert-driven systematic conservation planning process applied to inform science-based recommendations to the International Seabed Authority for a system of deep-sea marine protected areas (MPAs) to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem function in an abyssal Pacific region targeted for nodule mining (e.g. the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone, CCZ). Our use of geospatial analysis and expert opinion in forming the recommendations allowed us to stratify the proposed network by biophysical gradients, maximize the number of biologically unique seamounts within each subregion, and minimize socioeconomic impacts. The resulting proposal for an MPA network (nine replicate 400 × 400 km MPAs) covers 24% (1 440 000 km(2)) of the total CCZ planning region and serves as example of swift and pre-emptive conservation planning across an unprecedented area in the deep sea. As pressure from resource extraction increases in the future, the scientific guiding principles outlined in this research can serve as a basis for collaborative international approaches to ocean management.

  3. Predictive habitat suitability models to aid conservation of elasmobranch diversity in the central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lauria, V; Gristina, M; Attrill, M J; Fiorentino, F; Garofalo, G

    2015-08-14

    Commercial fisheries have dramatically impacted elasmobranch populations worldwide. With high capture and bycatch rates, the abundance of many species is rapidly declining and around a quarter of the world's sharks and rays are threatened with extinction. At a regional scale this negative trend has also been evidenced in the central Mediterranean Sea, where bottom-trawl fisheries have affected the biomass of certain rays (e.g. Raja clavata) and sharks (e.g. Mustelus spp.). Detailed knowledge of elasmobranch habitat requirements is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management, but this is often hampered by a poor understanding of their spatial ecology. Habitat suitability models were used to investigate the habitat preference of nine elasmobranch species and their overall diversity (number of species) in relation to five environmental predictors (i.e. depth, sea surface temperature, surface salinity, slope and rugosity) in the central Mediterranean Sea. Results showed that depth, seafloor morphology and sea surface temperature were the main drivers for elasmobranch habitat suitability. Predictive distribution maps revealed different species-specific patterns of suitable habitat while high assemblage diversity was predicted in deeper offshore waters (400-800 m depth). This study helps to identify priority conservation areas and diversity hot-spots for rare and endangered elasmobranchs in the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. Predictive habitat suitability models to aid conservation of elasmobranch diversity in the central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauria, V.; Gristina, M.; Attrill, M. J.; Fiorentino, F.; Garofalo, G.

    2015-08-01

    Commercial fisheries have dramatically impacted elasmobranch populations worldwide. With high capture and bycatch rates, the abundance of many species is rapidly declining and around a quarter of the world’s sharks and rays are threatened with extinction. At a regional scale this negative trend has also been evidenced in the central Mediterranean Sea, where bottom-trawl fisheries have affected the biomass of certain rays (e.g. Raja clavata) and sharks (e.g. Mustelus spp.). Detailed knowledge of elasmobranch habitat requirements is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management, but this is often hampered by a poor understanding of their spatial ecology. Habitat suitability models were used to investigate the habitat preference of nine elasmobranch species and their overall diversity (number of species) in relation to five environmental predictors (i.e. depth, sea surface temperature, surface salinity, slope and rugosity) in the central Mediterranean Sea. Results showed that depth, seafloor morphology and sea surface temperature were the main drivers for elasmobranch habitat suitability. Predictive distribution maps revealed different species-specific patterns of suitable habitat while high assemblage diversity was predicted in deeper offshore waters (400-800 m depth). This study helps to identify priority conservation areas and diversity hot-spots for rare and endangered elasmobranchs in the Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Predictive habitat suitability models to aid conservation of elasmobranch diversity in the central Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Lauria, V.; Gristina, M.; Attrill, M. J.; Fiorentino, F.; Garofalo, G.

    2015-01-01

    Commercial fisheries have dramatically impacted elasmobranch populations worldwide. With high capture and bycatch rates, the abundance of many species is rapidly declining and around a quarter of the world’s sharks and rays are threatened with extinction. At a regional scale this negative trend has also been evidenced in the central Mediterranean Sea, where bottom-trawl fisheries have affected the biomass of certain rays (e.g. Raja clavata) and sharks (e.g. Mustelus spp.). Detailed knowledge of elasmobranch habitat requirements is essential for biodiversity conservation and fisheries management, but this is often hampered by a poor understanding of their spatial ecology. Habitat suitability models were used to investigate the habitat preference of nine elasmobranch species and their overall diversity (number of species) in relation to five environmental predictors (i.e. depth, sea surface temperature, surface salinity, slope and rugosity) in the central Mediterranean Sea. Results showed that depth, seafloor morphology and sea surface temperature were the main drivers for elasmobranch habitat suitability. Predictive distribution maps revealed different species-specific patterns of suitable habitat while high assemblage diversity was predicted in deeper offshore waters (400–800 m depth). This study helps to identify priority conservation areas and diversity hot-spots for rare and endangered elasmobranchs in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:26272502

  6. Garrett County Aids AID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Garrett County, Maryland volunteered to act as a pre-overseas learning laboratory for AID (Agency for International Development) interns who practiced data collection and planning techniques with the help of local citizenry. (JC)

  7. Computer aided diagnosis and treatment planning for developmental dysplasia of the hip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Lu, Hongbing; Cai, Wenli; Li, Xiang; Meng, Jie; Liang, Zhengrong

    2005-04-01

    The developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a congenital malformation affecting the proximal femurs and acetabulum that are subluxatable, dislocatable, and dislocated. Early diagnosis and treatment is important because failure to diagnose and improper treatment can result in significant morbidity. In this paper, we designed and implemented a computer aided system for the diagnosis and treatment planning of this disease. With the design, the patient received CT (computed tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan first. A mixture-based PV partial-volume algorithm was applied to perform bone segmentation on CT image, followed by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and display of the segmented image, demonstrating the special relationship between the acetabulum and femurs for visual judgment. Several standard procedures, such as Salter procedure, Pemberton procedure and Femoral Shortening osteotomy, were simulated on the screen to rehearse a virtual treatment plan. Quantitative measurement of Acetabular Index (AI) and Femoral Neck Anteversion (FNA) were performed on the 3D image for evaluation of DDH and treatment plans. PC graphics-card GPU architecture was exploited to accelerate the 3D rendering and geometric manipulation. The prototype system was implemented on PC/Windows environment and is currently under clinical trial on patient datasets.

  8. Computer-aided planning and reconstruction of cranial 3D implants.

    PubMed

    Gall, Markus; Xing Li; Xiaojun Chen; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Egger, Jan

    2016-08-01

    In this contribution, a prototype for semiautomatic computer-aided planning and reconstruction of cranial 3D Implants is presented. The software prototype guides the user through the workflow, beginning with loading and mirroring the patient's head to obtain an initial curvature of the cranial implant. However, naïve mirroring is not sufficient for an implant, because human heads are in general too asymmetric. Thus, the user can perform Laplacian smoothing, followed by Delaunay triangulation, for generating an aesthetic looking and well-fitting implant. Finally, our software prototype allows to save the designed 3D model of the implant as a STL-file for 3D printing. The 3D printed implant can be used for further pre-interventional planning or even as the final implant for the patient. In summary, our findings show that a customized MeVisLab prototype can be an alternative to complex commercial planning software, which may not be available in a clinic.

  9. Conservation plan for protected species on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Otten, M.R.M.; Cypher, B.L.

    1997-07-01

    Habitats in and around Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) support populations of various vertebrates and plants, including a number of threatened and endangered species. Adequate conservation of habitats and species, particularly protected species, can be facilitated through development and implementation of management plans. This document provides a comprehensive plan for the conservation of protected species on NPR-1, through compliance with terms and conditions expressed in Biological Opinions rendered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for NPR-1 activities. Six conservation strategies by which threatened and endangered species have been, and will be, protected are described: population monitoring, mitigation strategies, special studies, operating guidelines and policies, information transfer and outreach, and the endangered species conservation area. Population monitoring programs are essential for determining population densities and for assessing the effects of oil field developments and environmental factors on protected species. Mitigation strategies (preactivity surveys and habitat reclamation) are employed to minimize the loss of important habitats components and to restore previously disturbed lands to conditions more suitable for species` use. A number of special studies were undertaken between 1985 and 1995 to investigate the effectiveness of a variety of population and habitat management techniques with the goal of increasing the density of protected species. Operating guidelines and policies governing routine oil field activities continue to be implemented to minimize the potential for the incidental take of protected species and minimize damage to wildlife habitats. Information transfer and outreach activities are important means by which technical and nontechnical information concerning protected species conservation on NPR-1 is shared with both the scientific and non-scientific public.

  10. Conflicts between conservative Christian institutions and secular groups in sub-Saharan Africa: ideological discourses on sexualities, reproduction and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; Correale, Jacqueline; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Stein, Zena A

    2011-01-01

    Religious and secular institutions advocate strategies that represent all points on the continuum to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. Drawing on an extensive literature review of studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, we focus on those secular institutions that support all effective methods of reducing HIV/AIDS transmission and those conservative religious institutions that support a limited set of prevention methods. We conclude by identifying topics for dialogue between these viewpoints that should facilitate cooperation by expanding the generally acceptable HIV/AIDS prevention methods, especially the use of condoms.

  11. Conflicts between conservative Christian institutions and secular groups in sub-Saharan Africa: Ideological discourses on sexualities, reproduction, and HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Mantell, Joanne E.; Correale, Jacqueline; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Stein, Zena A.

    2011-01-01

    Religious and secular institutions advocate strategies that represent all points on the continuum to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. Drawing on an extensive literature review of studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, we focus on those secular institutions that support all effective methods of reducing HIV/AIDS transmission and those conservative religious institutions that support a limited set of prevention methods. We conclude by identifying topics for dialogue between these viewpoints that should facilitate cooperation by expanding the generally acceptable HIV/AIDS prevention methods, and especially the use of condoms. PMID:21834733

  12. Rank aggregation of local expert knowledge for conservation planning of the critically endangered saola.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Nicholas M; Van Duc, Luong

    2016-10-08

    There has been much recent interest in using local knowledge and expert opinion for conservation planning, particularly for hard-to-detect species. Although it is possible to ask for direct estimation of quantities such as population size, relative abundance is easier to estimate. However, an expert's knowledge is often geographically restricted relative to the area of interest. Combining (or aggregating) experts' assessments of relative abundance is difficult when each expert only knows a part of the area of interest. We used Google's PageRank algorithm to aggregate ranked abundance scores elicited from local experts through a rapid rural-appraisal method. We applied this technique to conservation planning for the saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), a poorly known bovid. Near a priority landscape for the species, composed of 3 contiguous protected areas, we asked groups of local people to indicate relative abundances of saola and other species by placing beans on community maps. For each village, we used this information to rank areas within the knowledge area of that village for saola abundance. We used simulations to compare alternative methods to aggregate the rankings from the different villages. The best-performing method was then used to produce a single map of relative abundance across the entire landscape, an area larger than that known to any one village. This map has informed prioritization of surveys and conservation action in the continued absence of direct information about the saola.

  13. Hillary Clinton takes up defense of U.S. aid for family planning overseas.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S A

    1996-12-20

    In November 1996 during her address to the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas in La Paz, Colombia, and in her weekly newspaper column, US first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton pledged her own and the Clinton administration's complete support for reversing the severe reduction in funds for the international family planning program imposed by the 104th Congress. This revelation reflected the administration's preparation for a strong and vocal defense of the international family planning program, which will be facing its greatest political test in February 1997. Bolivia has the highest maternal mortality rate in South America, and half the deaths are due to illegal, unsafe abortions. Mrs. Clinton presented a $2.25 million USAID award to a $5 million Pan American Health Organization program that aims to reduce maternal mortality. In her December 3, 1996, column, she used family planning campaigns in Bolivia as an illustration of sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategies for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing the abortion rate. Such programs educate people about the benefits of birth spacing, breast feeding, good nutrition, prenatal and postpartum visits, and safe deliveries. Mrs. Clinton has also visited other poor countries to learn about the special needs and conditions of women's lives. UN Ambassador Madeleine Albright has recently been nominated to be the first female Secretary of State. Many people see her commitment to improving the status of women through development efforts and her recognition of the close relationship between development and diplomacy as encouraging. The concern and commitment of these two powerful women could prove valuable in the upcoming test for international family planning aid. Congress must vote on a resolution to approve Clinton's report that the reduced funding is having a negative impact no later than February 28. If both the House and the Senate pass the

  14. The San Marcos River Habitat Conservation Plan: Using HCP's as a Tool for Ecological Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, J. M.; Howard, M. S.; Arsuffi, T. L.

    2005-05-01

    The San Marcos River in San Marcos, Hays County, Texas is a biologically unique system with several listed species found in the headwaters. Flowing from the Edwards Aquifer and the second largest spring system in Texas, the water is clear and thermally constant. The physical and biological character of the habitat within and surrounding the river has been severely degraded by human activity. As a means of dealing with the continued disturbance and finding a balance between human needs and conservation, the San Marcos River Habitat Conservation Plan was written as provided by Section 10(a) of the Endangered Species Act. The plan provides habitat mitigation for the fountain darter (Etheostoma fonticola), Comal Springs riffle beetle, (Heterelmis comalensis), and San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana), while allowing for incidental take resulting from specific restoration and management projects. We used a science-based ecological/experimental approach to address some of the problems and optimize solutions, including restoration of stream banks damaged from overuse, planning for permanent access points and trails, removal of silt deposits caused by extensive flood control structures, wet-pond construction, managing flow, and the control of submerged and emergent non-native vegetation to improve habitat and enhance recreation.

  15. A conservation planning approach to mitigate the impacts of leakage from protected area networks.

    PubMed

    Bode, Michael; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Mills, Morena; Venter, Oscar; Ando, Amy W

    2015-06-01

    Protected area networks are designed to restrict anthropogenic pressures in areas of high biodiversity. Resource users respond by seeking to replace some or all of the lost resources from locations elsewhere in the landscape. Protected area networks thereby perturb the pattern of human pressures by displacing extractive effort from within protected areas into the broader landscape, a process known as leakage. The negative effects of leakage on conservation outcomes have been empirically documented and modeled using homogeneous descriptions of conservation landscapes. Human resource use and biodiversity vary greatly in space, however, and a theory of leakage must describe how this heterogeneity affects the magnitude, pattern, and biodiversity impacts of leakage. We combined models of household utility, adaptive human foraging, and biodiversity conservation to provide a bioeconomic model of leakage that accounts for spatial heterogeneity. Leakage had strong and divergent impacts on the performance of protected area networks, undermining biodiversity benefits but mitigating the negative impacts on local resource users. When leakage was present, our model showed that poorly designed protected area networks resulted in a substantial net loss of biodiversity. However, the effects of leakage can be mitigated if they are incorporated ex-ante into the conservation planning process. If protected areas are coupled with nonreserve policy instruments such as market subsidies, our model shows that the trade-offs between biodiversity and human well-being can be further and more directly reduced.

  16. Multi-objective optimization in systematic conservation planning and the representation of genetic variability among populations.

    PubMed

    Schlottfeldt, S; Walter, M E M T; Carvalho, A C P L F; Soares, T N; Telles, M P C; Loyola, R D; Diniz-Filho, J A F

    2015-06-18

    Biodiversity crises have led scientists to develop strategies for achieving conservation goals. The underlying principle of these strategies lies in systematic conservation planning (SCP), in which there are at least 2 conflicting objectives, making it a good candidate for multi-objective optimization. Although SCP is typically applied at the species level (or hierarchically higher), it can be used at lower hierarchical levels, such as using alleles as basic units for analysis, for conservation genetics. Here, we propose a method of SCP using a multi-objective approach. We used non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II in order to identify the smallest set of local populations of Dipteryx alata (baru) (a Brazilian Cerrado species) for conservation, representing the known genetic diversity and using allele frequency information associated with heterozygosity and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We worked in 3 variations for the problem. First, we reproduced a previous experiment, but using a multi-objective approach. We found that the smallest set of populations needed to represent all alleles under study was 7, corroborating the results of the previous study, but with more distinct solutions. In the 2nd and 3rd variations, we performed simultaneous optimization of 4 and 5 objectives, respectively. We found similar but refined results for 7 populations, and a larger portfolio considering intra-specific diversity and persistence with populations ranging from 8-22. This is the first study to apply multi-objective algorithms to an SCP problem using alleles at the population level as basic units for analysis.

  17. Model development for the assessment of terrestrial and aquatic habitat quality in conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Terrado, Marta; Sabater, Sergi; Chaplin-Kramer, Becky; Mandle, Lisa; Ziv, Guy; Acuña, Vicenç

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing pressure of human activities on natural habitats, which leads to biodiversity losses. To mitigate the impact of human activities, environmental policies are developed and implemented, but their effects are commonly not well understood because of the lack of tools to predict the effects of conservation policies on habitat quality and/or diversity. We present a straightforward model for the simultaneous assessment of terrestrial and aquatic habitat quality in river basins as a function of land use and anthropogenic threats to habitat that could be applied under different management scenarios to help understand the trade-offs of conservation actions. We modify the InVEST model for the assessment of terrestrial habitat quality and extend it to freshwater habitats. We assess the reliability of the model in a severely impaired basin by comparing modeled results to observed terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity data. Estimated habitat quality is significantly correlated with observed terrestrial vascular plant richness (R(2)=0.76) and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates (R(2)=0.34), as well as with ecosystem functions such as in-stream phosphorus retention (R(2)=0.45). After that, we analyze different scenarios to assess the suitability of the model to inform changes in habitat quality under different conservation strategies. We believe that the developed model can be useful to assess potential levels of biodiversity, and to support conservation planning given its capacity to forecast the effects of management actions in river basins.

  18. Applications of Rapid Evaluation of Metapopulation Persistence (REMP) in Conservation Planning for Vulnerable Fauna Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Subhashni; Drielsma, Michael; Taylor, Robert; Kumar, Lalit

    2016-06-01

    In many regions species are declining due to fragmentation and loss of habitat. If species persistence is to be achieved, ecologically informed, effective conservation action is required. Yet it remains a challenge to identify optimal places in a landscape to direct habitat reconstruction and management. Rather than relying on individual landscape metrics, process-based regional scale assessment methodology is needed that focuses primarily on species persistence. This means integrating, according to species' ecology, habitat extent, suitability, quality and spatial configuration. The rapid evaluation of metapopulation persistence (REMP) methodology has been developed for this purpose. However, till now no practical conservation planning application of REMP has been described. By integration of expert ecological knowledge, we extended REMP's capabilities to prioritize conservation action for a highly modified agricultural region of central NSW, Australia based on the metapopulation ecology of 34 fauna species. The region's current capacity to support the species was evaluated in relation to the pre-European state for which there was known viability. Six of the species were found to currently have insufficient habitat to support viable populations. Seeking locations to maximize overall improvement in viability for these species, we prioritized conservation action to locations near the threshold of metapopulation persistence.

  19. 77 FR 60718 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Amendment to the California Desert Conservation Area Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare an Amendment to the California Desert Conservation... prepare an amendment to the 1980 California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan with an...

  20. 76 FR 39072 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement and Final Habitat Conservation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... 0648-XA439 Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement and Final Habitat... Statement and Habitat Conservation Plan. SUMMARY: The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the U.S... also announce the availability of Kent's Clark Springs Water Supply System Habitat Conservation...

  1. Dugong dugon feeding in tropical Australian seagrass meadows: implications for conservation planning

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Rob G.; Congdon, Bradley C.

    2016-01-01

    Dugongs (Dugong dugon) are listed as vulnerable to extinction due to rapid population reductions caused in part by loss of seagrass feeding meadows. Understanding dugong feeding behaviour in tropical Australia, where the majority of dugongs live, will assist conservation strategies. We examined whether feeding patterns in intertidal seagrass meadows in tropical north-eastern Australia were related to seagrass biomass, species composition and/or nitrogen content. The total biomass of each seagrass species removed by feeding dugongs was measured and compared to its relative availability. Nitrogen concentrations were also determined for each seagrass species present at the sites. Dugongs consumed seagrass species in proportion to their availability, with biomass being the primary determining factor. Species composition and/or nitrogen content influenced consumption to a lesser degree. Conservation plans focused on protecting high biomass intertidal seagrass meadows are likely to be most effective at ensuring the survival of dugong in tropical north-eastern Australia. PMID:27441123

  2. Dugong dugon feeding in tropical Australian seagrass meadows: implications for conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Tol, Samantha J; Coles, Rob G; Congdon, Bradley C

    2016-01-01

    Dugongs (Dugong dugon) are listed as vulnerable to extinction due to rapid population reductions caused in part by loss of seagrass feeding meadows. Understanding dugong feeding behaviour in tropical Australia, where the majority of dugongs live, will assist conservation strategies. We examined whether feeding patterns in intertidal seagrass meadows in tropical north-eastern Australia were related to seagrass biomass, species composition and/or nitrogen content. The total biomass of each seagrass species removed by feeding dugongs was measured and compared to its relative availability. Nitrogen concentrations were also determined for each seagrass species present at the sites. Dugongs consumed seagrass species in proportion to their availability, with biomass being the primary determining factor. Species composition and/or nitrogen content influenced consumption to a lesser degree. Conservation plans focused on protecting high biomass intertidal seagrass meadows are likely to be most effective at ensuring the survival of dugong in tropical north-eastern Australia.

  3. When biologists and engineers collide: Habitat conservation planning in the middle of urbanized development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, Larry D.; Murphy, Robert

    1996-11-01

    The City of Austin, Texas, is one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States. It is also in one of the most biologically diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the world: the Balcones Canyonlands. Five cave invertebrates and two species of birds that inhabit the area are listed as threatened or endangered, two species of plants are candidates for listing, several others are considered rare and of concern, and a species of the salamander has also been proposed for listing. A habitat conservation plan, of “national significance⋯” according to Secretary of Interior Bruce Babbit (Haurwitz 1996), has been under development for the last several years to conserve those endangered species through a 2400-ha system of preserves and to allow development to continue in more than 162,000 ha of surrounding area. The preserve system, comprising several units ranging in size from less than a hundred to several thousand hectares, would be bordered in many instances by developed areas. Development and maintenance of the infrastructure necessary for new and existing development, both commercial and residential, could have negated the biological value of the preserves (e.g., power-line corridors, water-treatment pipelines and facilities). The challenge of bringing this plan to fruition illustrates the complex biological, technical, and sociological context within which habitat conservation planning may occur. Resolving resource use conflicts of this nature have several commonalities that overarch these contexts. If recognized and addressed, one may move easily and foster positive results. These commonalities can be expressed as principles such as: relying on scientists to recognize, but not solve problems; acting before a scientific consensus is achieved; including human motivation and responses as part of the system to be studied and managed; and confronting uncertainty.

  4. Optimization in the utility maximization framework for conservation planning: a comparison of solution procedures in a study of multifunctional agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kreitler, Jason; Stoms, David M; Davis, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative methods of spatial conservation prioritization have traditionally been applied to issues in conservation biology and reserve design, though their use in other types of natural resource management is growing. The utility maximization problem is one form of a covering problem where multiple criteria can represent the expected social benefits of conservation action. This approach allows flexibility with a problem formulation that is more general than typical reserve design problems, though the solution methods are very similar. However, few studies have addressed optimization in utility maximization problems for conservation planning, and the effect of solution procedure is largely unquantified. Therefore, this study mapped five criteria describing elements of multifunctional agriculture to determine a hypothetical conservation resource allocation plan for agricultural land conservation in the Central Valley of CA, USA. We compared solution procedures within the utility maximization framework to determine the difference between an open source integer programming approach and a greedy heuristic, and find gains from optimization of up to 12%. We also model land availability for conservation action as a stochastic process and determine the decline in total utility compared to the globally optimal set using both solution algorithms. Our results are comparable to other studies illustrating the benefits of optimization for different conservation planning problems, and highlight the importance of maximizing the effectiveness of limited funding for conservation and natural resource management.

  5. Optimization in the utility maximization framework for conservation planning: a comparison of solution procedures in a study of multifunctional agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreitler, Jason R.; Stoms, David M.; Davis, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative methods of spatial conservation prioritization have traditionally been applied to issues in conservation biology and reserve design, though their use in other types of natural resource management is growing. The utility maximization problem is one form of a covering problem where multiple criteria can represent the expected social benefits of conservation action. This approach allows flexibility with a problem formulation that is more general than typical reserve design problems, though the solution methods are very similar. However, few studies have addressed optimization in utility maximization problems for conservation planning, and the effect of solution procedure is largely unquantified. Therefore, this study mapped five criteria describing elements of multifunctional agriculture to determine a hypothetical conservation resource allocation plan for agricultural land conservation in the Central Valley of CA, USA. We compared solution procedures within the utility maximization framework to determine the difference between an open source integer programming approach and a greedy heuristic, and find gains from optimization of up to 12%. We also model land availability for conservation action as a stochastic process and determine the decline in total utility compared to the globally optimal set using both solution algorithms. Our results are comparable to other studies illustrating the benefits of optimization for different conservation planning problems, and highlight the importance of maximizing the effectiveness of limited funding for conservation and natural resource management.

  6. Algorithm for planning a double-jaw orthognathic surgery using a computer-aided surgical simulation (CASS) protocol. Part 1: planning sequence

    PubMed Central

    Xia, J. J.; Gateno, J.; Teichgraeber, J. F.; Yuan, P.; Chen, K.-C.; Li, J.; Zhang, X.; Tang, Z.; Alfi, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The success of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) surgery depends not only on the surgical techniques, but also on an accurate surgical plan. The adoption of computer-aided surgical simulation (CASS) has created a paradigm shift in surgical planning. However, planning an orthognathic operation using CASS differs fundamentally from planning using traditional methods. With this in mind, the Surgical Planning Laboratory of Houston Methodist Research Institute has developed a CASS protocol designed specifically for orthognathic surgery. The purpose of this article is to present an algorithm using virtual tools for planning a double-jaw orthognathic operation. This paper will serve as an operation manual for surgeons wanting to incorporate CASS into their clinical practice. PMID:26573562

  7. Siting multiple conservation practices in a tile-drained watershed using LiDAR topographic data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving the effectiveness of conservation practices for achieving water quality goals will require a conservation planning with a watershed context. Conservation planning has traditionally been field or farm specific, and is usually aided by site specific information that includes topographic data...

  8. Science. Predrafted Individual Short-Term Plan/Records (Secondary Level): Directions for Resource Teachers, Teachers and Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Merced, Comp.

    Developed by experienced migrant education teachers incorporating Sight and Sound Program concepts, this volume presents predrafted individual short-term Plan/Records for secondary level chemistry, biology, and physics, plus step-by-step directions for their use by Oregon resource teachers, classroom teachers, and aides. The approach assumes that…

  9. Family Planning and AIDS/HIV Intervention from a Cross-Cultural Perspective: Enhancing the Pharmacist's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Randal D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study compared perceptions of pharmacy students in three different cultures (Malaysia, Thailand, United States) concerning pharmacist counseling about contraceptive use for family planning and AIDS prevention. Results indicate students in each culture, by gender, had different comfort levels with such counseling, implying need for different…

  10. Accommodating species climate-forced dispersal and uncertainties in spatial conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Lemes, Priscila; Loyola, Rafael Dias

    2013-01-01

    Spatial conservation prioritization should seek to anticipate climate change impacts on biodiversity and to mitigate these impacts through the development of dynamic conservation plans. Here, we defined spatial priorities for the conservation of amphibians inhabiting the Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Hotspot that overcome the likely impacts of climate change on the distribution of this imperiled fauna. First, we built ecological niche models (ENMs) for 431 amphibian species both for current time and for the mid-point of a 30-year period spanning 2071-2099 (i.e. 2080). For modeling species' niches, we combined six modeling methods and three different climate models. We also quantified and mapped model uncertainties. Our consensus models forecasted range shifts that culminate with high species richness in central and eastern Atlantic Forest, both for current time and for 2080. Most species had a significant range contraction (up to 72%) and 12% of species were projected to be regionally extinct. Most species would need to disperse because suitable climatic sites will change. Therefore, we identified a network of priority sites for conservation that minimizes the distance a given species would need to disperse because of changes in future habitat suitability (i.e. climate-forced dispersal) as well as uncertainties associated to ENMs. This network also maximized complementary species representation across currently established protected areas. Priority sites already include possible dispersal corridors linking current and future suitable habitats for amphibians. Although we used the a top-ranked Biodiversity Hotspot and amphibians as a case study for illustrating our approach, our study may help developing more effective conservation strategies under climate change, especially when applied at different spatial scales, geographic regions, and taxonomic groups.

  11. Combined use of systematic conservation planning, species distribution modelling, and connectivity analysis reveals severe conservation gaps in a megadiverse country (Peru).

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Javier; Lessmann, Janeth; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Devenish, Christian; Muñoz, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Conservation planning is crucial for megadiverse countries where biodiversity is coupled with incomplete reserve systems and limited resources to invest in conservation. Using Peru as an example of a megadiverse country, we asked whether the national system of protected areas satisfies biodiversity conservation needs. Further, to complement the existing reserve system, we identified and prioritized potential conservation areas using a combination of species distribution modeling, conservation planning and connectivity analysis. Based on a set of 2,869 species, including mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, butterflies, and plants, we used species distribution models to represent species' geographic ranges to reduce the effect of biased sampling and partial knowledge about species' distributions. A site-selection algorithm then searched for efficient and complementary proposals, based on the above distributions, for a more representative system of protection. Finally, we incorporated connectivity among areas in an innovative post-hoc analysis to prioritize those areas maximizing connectivity within the system. Our results highlight severe conservation gaps in the Coastal and Andean regions, and we propose several areas, which are not currently covered by the existing network of protected areas. Our approach helps to find areas that contribute to creating a more representative, connected and efficient network.

  12. Combined Use of Systematic Conservation Planning, Species Distribution Modelling, and Connectivity Analysis Reveals Severe Conservation Gaps in a Megadiverse Country (Peru)

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo, Javier; Lessmann, Janeth; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Devenish, Christian; Muñoz, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Conservation planning is crucial for megadiverse countries where biodiversity is coupled with incomplete reserve systems and limited resources to invest in conservation. Using Peru as an example of a megadiverse country, we asked whether the national system of protected areas satisfies biodiversity conservation needs. Further, to complement the existing reserve system, we identified and prioritized potential conservation areas using a combination of species distribution modeling, conservation planning and connectivity analysis. Based on a set of 2,869 species, including mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, butterflies, and plants, we used species distribution models to represent species' geographic ranges to reduce the effect of biased sampling and partial knowledge about species' distributions. A site-selection algorithm then searched for efficient and complementary proposals, based on the above distributions, for a more representative system of protection. Finally, we incorporated connectivity among areas in an innovative post-hoc analysis to prioritize those areas maximizing connectivity within the system. Our results highlight severe conservation gaps in the Coastal and Andean regions, and we propose several areas, which are not currently covered by the existing network of protected areas. Our approach helps to find areas that contribute to creating a more representative, connected and efficient network. PMID:25479411

  13. Systematic Conservation Planning in the Face of Climate Change: Bet-Hedging on the Columbia Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Schloss, Carrie A.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Larson, Eric R.; Papendick, Hilary L.; Case, Michael J.; Evans, Daniel M.; DeLap, Jack H.; Langdon, Jesse G. R.; Hall, Sonia A.; McRae, Brad H.

    2011-01-01

    Systematic conservation planning efforts typically focus on protecting current patterns of biodiversity. Climate change is poised to shift species distributions, reshuffle communities, and alter ecosystem functioning. In such a dynamic environment, lands selected to protect today's biodiversity may fail to do so in the future. One proposed approach to designing reserve networks that are robust to climate change involves protecting the diversity of abiotic conditions that in part determine species distributions and ecological processes. A set of abiotically diverse areas will likely support a diversity of ecological systems both today and into the future, although those two sets of systems might be dramatically different. Here, we demonstrate a conservation planning approach based on representing unique combinations of abiotic factors. We prioritize sites that represent the diversity of soils, topographies, and current climates of the Columbia Plateau. We then compare these sites to sites prioritized to protect current biodiversity. This comparison highlights places that are important for protecting both today's biodiversity and the diversity of abiotic factors that will likely determine biodiversity patterns in the future. It also highlights places where a reserve network designed solely to protect today's biodiversity would fail to capture the diversity of abiotic conditions and where such a network could be augmented to be more robust to climate-change impacts. PMID:22174897

  14. Spatiotemporal dynamics of prairie wetland networks: power-law scaling and implications for conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Wright, Christopher K

    2010-07-01

    Although habitat networks show promise for conservation planning at regional scales, their spatiotemporal dynamics have not been well studied, especially in climate-sensitive landscapes. Here I use satellite remote sensing to compile wetland habitat networks from the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America. An ensemble of networks assembled across a hydrologic gradient from deluge to drought and a range of representative dispersal distances exhibits power-law scaling of important topological parameters. Prairie wetland networks are "meso-worlds" with mean topological distance increasing faster with network size than small-world networks, but slower than a regular lattice (or "large world"). This scaling implies rapid dispersal through wetland networks without some of the risks associated with "small worlds" (e.g., extremely rapid propagation of disease or disturbance). Retrospective analysis of wetland networks establishes a climatic envelope for landscape connectivity in the PPR, where I show that a changing climate might severely impact metapopulation viability and restrict long-distance dispersal and range shifts. More generally, this study demonstrates an efficient approach to conservation planning at a level of abstraction addressing key drivers of the global biodiversity crisis: habitat fragmentation and climatic change.

  15. Identification of soil erosion risk areas for conservation planning in different states of India.

    PubMed

    Sharda, V N; Mandal, Debashis; Ojasvi, P R

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of soil erosion risks, especially in the developing countries, is a challenging task mainly due to non-availability or insufficiency of relevant data. In this paper, the soil erosion risks have been estimated by integrating the spatial data on potential erosion rates and soil loss tolerance limits for conservation planning at state level in India. The erosion risk classes have been prioritized based upon the difference between the prevailing erosion rates and the permissible erosion limits. The analysis revealed that about 50% of total geographical area (TGA) of India, falling in five priority erosion risk classes, requires different intensity of conservation measures though about 91% area suffers from potential erosion rates varying from < 5 to > 40 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Statewise analysis indicated that Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan share about 75% of total area under priority Class 1 (6.4 M ha) though they account for only 19.4% of the total area (36.2 M ha) under very severe potential erosion rate category (> 40 t ha(-1)yr(-1)). It was observed that about 75% of total geographical area (TGA) in the states of Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala and Punjab does not require any specific soil conservation measure as the potential erosion rates are well within the tolerance limits. The developed methodology can be successfully employed for prioritization of erosion risk areas at watershed, region or country level.

  16. Climate Change and Conservation Planning in California: The San Francisco Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branciforte, R.; Weiss, S. B.; Schaefer, N.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change threatens California's vast and unique biodiversity. The Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals is a comprehensive regional biodiversity assessment of the 9 counties surrounding San Francisco Bay, and is designing conservation land networks that will serve to protect, manage, and restore that biodiversity. Conservation goals for vegetation, rare plants, mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates are set, and those goals are met using the optimization algorithm MARXAN. Climate change issues are being considered in the assessment and network design in several ways. The high spatial variability at mesoclimatic and topoclimatic scales in California creates high local biodiversity, and provides some degree of local resiliency to macroclimatic change. Mesoclimatic variability from 800 m scale PRISM climatic norms is used to assess "mesoclimate spaces" in distinct mountain ranges, so that high mesoclimatic variability, especially local extremes that likely support range limits of species and potential climatic refugia, can be captured in the network. Quantitative measures of network resiliency to climate change include the spatial range of key temperature and precipitation variables within planning units. Topoclimatic variability provides a finer-grained spatial patterning. Downscaling to the topoclimatic scale (10-50 m scale) includes modeling solar radiation across DEMs for predicting maximum temperature differentials, and topographic position indices for modeling minimum temperature differentials. PRISM data are also used to differentiate grasslands into distinct warm and cool types. The overall conservation strategy includes local and regional connectivity so that range shifts can be accommodated.

  17. Habitat Conservation Plans Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act: The Legal Perspective.

    PubMed

    MOSER

    2000-07-01

    Habitat Conservation Plans under the federal Endangered Species Act have become an increasingly popular tool for resolving conflicts between land development and species conservation. Their primary purpose, however, is legal and regulatory rather than biological. They are what landowners must prepare in order to obtain a permit to "take" animals listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Unfortunately, many professionals involved in the HCP process aren't sufficiently cognizant of the legal and regulatory functions and the purposes and limitations of HCPs. I provide an overview of the regulatory structure of the ESA, the role HCPs play in that structure, and the specific legal requirements associated with HCPs. I then discuss the practice of crafting an HCP and the most common issues that arise in the process. Finally, I assess several very fundamental current problems with the HCP program, problems that threaten to undermine the HCP program to such a degree as to end its utility to landowners and thereby end the tremendous conservation opportunities the HCP program represents.

  18. Toward a Conceptual Framework for Blending Social and Biophysical Attributes in Conservation Planning: A Case-Study of Privately-Conserved Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquini, Lorena; Twyman, Chasca; Wainwright, John

    2010-11-01

    There has been increasing recognition within systematic conservation planning of the need to include social data alongside biophysical assessments. However, in the approaches to identify potential conservation sites, there remains much room for improvement in the treatment of social data. In particular, few rigorous methods to account for the diversity of less-easily quantifiable social attributes that influence the implementation success of conservation sites (such as willingness to conserve) have been developed. We use a case-study analysis of private conservation areas within the Little Karoo, South Africa, as a practical example of the importance of incorporating social data into the process of selecting potential conservation sites to improve their implementation likelihood. We draw on extensive data on the social attributes of our case study obtained from a combination of survey questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. We discuss the need to determine the social attributes that are important for achieving the chosen implementation strategy by offering four tested examples of important social attributes in the Little Karoo: the willingness of landowners to take part in a stewardship arrangement, their willingness to conserve, their capacity to conserve, and the social capital among private conservation area owners. We then discuss the process of using an implementation likelihood ratio (derived from a combined measure of the social attributes) to assist the choice of potential conservation sites. We conclude by summarizing our discussion into a simple conceptual framework for identifying biophysically-valuable sites which possess a high likelihood that the desired implementation strategy will be realized on them.

  19. The United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: a story of partnerships and smart investments to turn the tide of the global AIDS pandemic.

    PubMed

    Goosby, Eric; Dybul, Mark; Fauci, Anthony S; Fauci, Anthony A; Fu, Joe; Walsh, Thomas; Needle, Richard; Bouey, Paul

    2012-08-15

    The United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has played a key leadership role in the global response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. PEPFAR was inspired by the principles of the historic Monterrey Consensus (United Nations. Monterrey Consensus on Financing for Development, Monterrey, Mexico, March 18-22, 2002. New York: United Nations; 2002. Available at: http://www.un.org/esa/ffd/monterrey/MonterreyConsensus.pdf. Accessed April 21, 2012), which changed the underlying conceptual framework for international development, and therefore global health--a shift from paternalism to partnership that begins with country ownership and requires good governance, a results-based approach, and engagement of all sectors of society. PEPFAR began with a focus on the growing emergency of the HIV/AIDS pandemic by rapidly expanding HIV services, building clinical capacity, implementing strategic information systems, and building a coalition of partners to lead the response. Within the first years of implementation, there was a shift to sustainability, including the advent of Partnership Frameworks. The PEPFAR reauthorization in 2008 codified into law, the evolution in policies and programs for the next phase of implementation. In 2011 alone, PEPFAR supported nearly 4 million people on treatment, supported programs that provided more than 1.5 million HIV-positive pregnant women with antiretroviral drugs to prevent HIV transmission to their children, and supported HIV testing for more than 40 million people. This article provides an overview of how smart investments and partnerships across sectors and US agencies have helped achieve unprecedented results in increasing HIV/AIDS services and engaging partner countries and organizations in sharing the responsibility for an AIDS-free generation.

  20. Effects of ship traffic on seabirds in offshore waters: implications for marine conservation and spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Schwemmer, Philipp; Mendel, Bettina; Sonntag, Nicole; Dierschke, Volker; Garthe, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    Most anthropogenic influences on marine ecosystems, except for river- or terrestrial-borne pollution, involve some sort of vessel activity. Increasing anthropogenic activities mean that many countries are being forced to develop spatial planning schemes, while at the same time implementing conservation sites for sensitive species at sea. The effects of ship traffic on seabirds sensitive to human disturbance are currently too poorly understood to allow for the development of proper planning and conservation guidelines. We therefore used aerial surveys and experimental disturbance to elucidate the effects of passing ships on the distribution patterns, habitat loss, and species-specific flight reactions of birds, as well as the potential for habituation. Loons (Gavia spp.) showed clear avoidance of areas with high shipping intensity. Flush distances of four sea duck species differed significantly, with the longest distances recorded for Common Scoters (Melanitta nigra) and the shortest for Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima). Flush distance was positively related to flock size. Among all the sea duck species studied, the duration of temporary habitat loss was longest for Common Scoters. We found indications of habituation in sea ducks within areas of channeled traffic. However, it is questionable if habituation to free-ranging ships is likely to occur, because of their unpredictable nature. We therefore recommend that spatial planning should aim to channel ship traffic wherever possible to avoid further habitat fragmentation and to allow for habituation, at least in some species. Information on the effects of shipping on other seabird species and during different periods of the year is urgently needed, together with information on the effects of different types of boats, including recreational and fishing vessels.

  1. Big biology meets microclimatology: defining thermal niches of ectotherms at landscape scales for conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Isaak, Daniel J; Wenger, Seth J; Young, Michael K

    2017-04-01

    Temperature profoundly affects ecology, a fact ever more evident as the ability to measure thermal environments increases and global changes alter these environments. The spatial structure of thermalscapes is especially relevant to the distribution and abundance of ectothermic organisms, but the ability to describe biothermal relationships at extents and grains relevant to conservation planning has been limited by small or sparse data sets. Here, we combine a large occurrence database of >23 000 aquatic species surveys with stream microclimate scenarios supported by an equally large temperature database for a 149 000-km mountain stream network to describe thermal relationships for 14 fish and amphibian species. Species occurrence probabilities peaked across a wide range of temperatures (7.0-18.8°C) but distinct warm- or cold-edge distribution boundaries were apparent for all species and represented environments where populations may be most sensitive to thermal changes. Warm-edge boundary temperatures for a native species of conservation concern were used with geospatial data sets and a habitat occupancy model to highlight subsets of the network where conservation measures could benefit local populations by maintaining cool temperatures. Linking that strategic approach to local estimates of habitat impairment remains a key challenge but is also an opportunity to build relationships and develop synergies between the research, management, and regulatory communities. As with any data mining or species distribution modeling exercise, care is required in analysis and interpretation of results, but the use of large biological data sets with accurate microclimate scenarios can provide valuable information about the thermal ecology of many ectotherms and a spatially explicit way of guiding conservation investments.

  2. Computer Aided Process Planning for Non-Axisymmetric Deep Drawing Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dong Hwan; Yarlagadda, Prasad K. D. V.

    2004-06-01

    In general, deep drawing products have various cross-section shapes such as cylindrical, rectangular and non-axisymmetric shapes. The application of the surface area calculation to non-axisymmetric deep drawing process has not been published yet. In this research, a surface area calculation for non-axisymmetric deep drawing products with elliptical shape was constructed for a design of blank shape of deep drawing products by using an AutoLISP function of AutoCAD software. A computer-aided process planning (CAPP) system for rotationally symmetric deep drawing products has been developed. However, the application of the system to non-axisymmetric components has not been reported yet. Thus, the CAPP system for non-axisymmetric deep drawing products with elliptical shape was constructed by using process sequence design. The system developed in this work consists of four modules. The first is recognition of shape module to recognize non-axisymmetric products. The second is a three-dimensional (3-D) modeling module to calculate the surface area for non-axisymmetric products. The third is a blank design module to create an oval-shaped blank with the identical surface area. The forth is a process planning module based on the production rules that play the best important role in an expert system for manufacturing. The production rules are generated and upgraded by interviewing field engineers. Especially, the drawing coefficient, the punch and die radii for elliptical shape products are considered as main design parameters. The suitability of this system was verified by applying to a real deep drawing product. This CAPP system constructed would be very useful to reduce lead-time for manufacturing and improve an accuracy of products.

  3. Status assessment and conservation plan for the yellow-billed loon (Gavia adamsii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earnst, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Because of its restricted range, small population size, specific habitat requirements, and perceived threats to its breeding habitat, the Yellow-billed Loon (Gavia adamsii) is a species of conservation concern to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the subject of a petition for listing under the Endangered Species Act. This Status Assessment synthesizes current information on population size, trends, and potential threats to Yellow-billed Loons, and the Conservation Plan identifies research and monitoring activities that would contribute to the conservation of this species. The preparation of this report was requested and funded by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nongame Bird Office, Region 7.The Status Assessment and Conservation Plan for the Yellow-billed Loon can be summarized as follows:? Northern Alaska breeding grounds support an average of 3,369 individuals, including <1,000 nesting pairs in most years. The Yellow-billed Loon ranks as one of the 10 rarest birds that breeds regularly within the main land U.S. and one of only 20 with a North American population <16,000 individuals (Section 6-E).? There is no evidence of a long-term trend in the Yellow-billed Loon population index since 1986 (-0.9% annual change), but interpretation of surveys is complicated by changes in observers and high annual variation, and the 95% confidence interval is large (-3.6% to +1.8% annual change). The low reproductive potential of Yellow-billed Loons suggests that recovery from a substantial decline would not occur rapidly. There are no systematic surveys of Canadian and Russian breeding populations (Section 6-F).? The expansion of the oil industry into prime Yellow-billed Loon breeding habitat is a recent occurrence and we lack the necessary information to accurately predict its effect on the population. Most of northern Alaska?s Yellow-billed Loons (91%) occur on the National Petroleum Reserve?Alaska, virtually all of which is open or proposed to be opened to

  4. Synergies and Tradeoffs Among Environmental Impacts Under Conservation Planning of Shale Gas Surface Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Milt, Austin W; Gagnolet, Tamara; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing and related ground water issues are growing features in public discourse. Few have given much attention to surface impacts from shale gas development, which result from building necessary surface infrastructure. One way to reduce future impacts from gas surface development without radically changing industry practice is by formulating simple, conservation-oriented planning guidelines. We explore how four such guidelines affect the locations of well pads, access roads, and gathering pipelines on state lands in Pennsylvania. Our four guidelines aim to (1) reduce impacts on water, reduce impacts from (2) gathering pipelines and (3) access roads, and (4) reduce impacts on forests. We assessed whether the use of such guidelines accompanies tradeoffs among impacts, and if any guidelines perform better than others at avoiding impacts. We find that impacts are mostly synergistic, such that avoiding one impact will result in avoiding others. However, we found that avoiding forest fragmentation may result in increased impacts on other environmental features. We also found that single simple planning guidelines can be effective in targeted situations, but no one guideline was universally optimal in avoiding all impacts. As such, we suggest that when multiple environmental features are important in an area, more comprehensive planning strategies and tools should be used.

  5. The Woodlands Metro Center energy study. Case studies of project planning and design for energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Woodlands is a HUD Title VII New Town located near Houston, including 22,000 acres; the plan for the new town consists of 6 residential villages, a town center (Metro), and a Trade Center for larger-scale industrial use. Included within the program for each village are schools and commercial activities, as well as employment activities. The Woodlands is planned to be developed over a 26-year period (commenced in 1972) with an ultimate population of 150,000. Following a summary chapter, Chapter II presents background material on The Woodlands and results of the study are summarized. Chapter III describes the project team and its organizational structure. Chapter IV outlines and documents the methodology that was employed in developing, analyzing, and evaluating the case study. The next chapter describes and analyzes the conventional plan, documents the process by which energy-conserving methods were selected, and evaluates the application of these methods to the Metro Center Study area. Chapter VI discusses constraints to implementation and is followed by a final chapter that presents the general conclusions from the case study and suggests directions for further investigation.

  6. Synergies and Tradeoffs Among Environmental Impacts Under Conservation Planning of Shale Gas Surface Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milt, Austin W.; Gagnolet, Tamara; Armsworth, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing and related ground water issues are growing features in public discourse. Few have given much attention to surface impacts from shale gas development, which result from building necessary surface infrastructure. One way to reduce future impacts from gas surface development without radically changing industry practice is by formulating simple, conservation-oriented planning guidelines. We explore how four such guidelines affect the locations of well pads, access roads, and gathering pipelines on state lands in Pennsylvania. Our four guidelines aim to (1) reduce impacts on water, reduce impacts from (2) gathering pipelines and (3) access roads, and (4) reduce impacts on forests. We assessed whether the use of such guidelines accompanies tradeoffs among impacts, and if any guidelines perform better than others at avoiding impacts. We find that impacts are mostly synergistic, such that avoiding one impact will result in avoiding others. However, we found that avoiding forest fragmentation may result in increased impacts on other environmental features. We also found that single simple planning guidelines can be effective in targeted situations, but no one guideline was universally optimal in avoiding all impacts. As such, we suggest that when multiple environmental features are important in an area, more comprehensive planning strategies and tools should be used.

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Sites quality assurance project plan: Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) describes the measures that shall be taken to ensure that the environmental data collected during characterization and closure activities of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are meaningful, valid, defensible, and can be used to achieve project objectives. These activities are conducted by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Nevada Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The Nevada ER Project consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The RCRA Industrial Sites subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada ER Project. Currently, this QAPjP is limited to the seven RCRA Industrial Sites identified within this document that are to be closed under an interim status and pertains to all field-investigation, analytical-laboratory, and data-review activities in support of these closures. The information presented here supplements the RCRA Industrial Sites Project Management Plan and is to be used in conjunction with the site-specific subproject sampling and analysis plans.

  8. Status assessment and conservation plan for the Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruth, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    The Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) breeds in grassland habitats throughout much of the U.S., southern and southeastern Canada, and northern Mexico. Additional subspecies are resident in Central America, northern South America, and the Caribbean. It winters primarily in the coastal states of the southeastern U.S., southern portions of the southwestern states, and in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. The species prefers relatively open grassland with intermediate grass height and density and patchy bare ground; because it is widely distributed across different grassland types in North America, it selects different vegetation structure and species composition depending on what is available. In the winter, they use a broader range of grassland habitats including open grasslands, as well as weedy fields and grasslands with woody vegetation. Analyses show significant range-wide population declines from the late 1960s through the present, primarily caused by habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation. Grasshopper Sparrow is still a relatively common and broadly distributed species, but because of significant population declines and stakeholder concerns, the species is considered of conservation concern nationally and at the state level for numerous states. Many factors, often related to different grassland management practices (e.g., grazing, burning, mowing, management of shrub encroachment, etc.) throughout the species’ range, have impacts on Grasshopper Sparrow distribution, abundance, and reproduction and may represent limiting factors or threats given steep declines in this species’ population. Because of the concerns for this species, Grasshopper Sparrow has been identified as a focal species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and this Status Assessment and Conservation Plan for Grasshopper Sparrow has been developed. Through literature searches and input from stakeholders across its range, this plan presents information about

  9. AIDS-protective HLA-B*27/B*57 and chimpanzee MHC class I molecules target analogous conserved areas of HIV-1/SIVcpz.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Natasja G; Heijmans, Corrine M C; Zoet, Yvonne M; de Ru, Arnoud H; Verreck, Frank A; van Veelen, Peter A; Drijfhout, Jan W; Doxiadis, Gaby G M; Remarque, Edmond J; Doxiadis, Ilias I N; van Rood, Jon J; Koning, Frits; Bontrop, Ronald E

    2010-08-24

    In the absence of treatment, most HIV-1-infected humans develop AIDS. However, a minority are long-term nonprogressors, and resistance is associated with the presence of particular HLA-B*27/B*57 molecules. In contrast, most HIV-1-infected chimpanzees do not contract AIDS. In comparison with humans, chimpanzees experienced an ancient selective sweep affecting the MHC class I repertoire. We have determined the peptide-binding properties of frequent chimpanzee MHC class I molecules, and show that, like HLA-B*27/B*57, they target similar conserved areas of HIV-1/SIV(cpz). In addition, many animals appear to possess multiple molecules targeting various conserved areas of the HIV-1/SIV(cpz) Gag protein, a quantitative aspect of the immune response that may further minimize the chance of viral escape. The functional characteristics of the contemporary chimpanzee MHC repertoire suggest that the selective sweep was caused by a lentiviral pandemic.

  10. A framework for modeling anthropogenic impacts on waterbird habitats: addressing future uncertainty in conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matchett, Elliott L.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Young, Charles A.; Purkey, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The amount and quality of natural resources available for terrestrial and aquatic wildlife habitats are expected to decrease throughout the world in areas that are intensively managed for urban and agricultural uses. Changes in climate and management of increasingly limited water supplies may further impact water resources essential for sustaining habitats. In this report, we document adapting a Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system model for the Central Valley of California. We demonstrate using this adapted model (WEAP-CVwh) to evaluate impacts produced from plausible future scenarios on agricultural and wetland habitats used by waterbirds and other wildlife. Processed output from WEAP-CVwh indicated varying levels of impact caused by projected climate, urbanization, and water supply management in scenarios used to exemplify this approach. Among scenarios, the NCAR-CCSM3 A2 climate projection had a greater impact than the CNRM-CM3 B1 climate projection, whereas expansive urbanization had a greater impact than strategic urbanization, on annual availability of waterbird habitat. Scenarios including extensive rice-idling or substantial instream flow requirements on important water supply sources produced large impacts on annual availability of waterbird habitat. In the year corresponding with the greatest habitat reduction for each scenario, the scenario including instream flow requirements resulted in the greatest decrease in habitats throughout all months of the wintering period relative to other scenarios. This approach provides a new and useful tool for habitat conservation planning in the Central Valley and a model to guide similar research investigations aiming to inform conservation, management, and restoration of important wildlife habitats.

  11. Conservation of the northern spotted owl under the Northwest Forest Plan.

    PubMed

    Noon, Barry R; Blakesley, Jennifer A

    2006-04-01

    Development of the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) was motivated by concerns about the over-harvest of late-seral forests and the effects of intensive forest management on the long-term viability of the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). Following several years of intense political and legal debates, the final NWFP was approved in 1994. Even though the plan evolved with a broad ecosystem perspective, it remained anchored in the Spotted Owl reserve design proposed in 1990. Based on a criterion of stable or increasing populations, a decade later it remains unclear whether the enactment of the NWFP has improved the conservation status of Spotted Owls. The results of intensive monitoring of several Spotted Owl populations for over a decade suggest a continuing range-wide decline even though rates of timber harvest have declined dramatically on federal lands. The cause of the decline is difficult to determine because the research needed to establish cause and effect relations has not been done. One plausible hypothesis is that the owl's life history greatly constrains its rate of population growth even when habitat is no longer limiting. Since enactment of the NWFP, new threats have arisen, including the movement of Barred Owls (S. varia) into the range of the Spotted Owl, political pressure to increase levels of timber harvest, and recent changes to forest laws that eliminate the requirement to assess the viability of wildlife populations on U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service lands. At this time is appears that Spotted Owl conservation rests critically on continued implementation of the protections afforded by the NWFP and the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

  12. Limitations of habitats as biodiversity surrogates for conservation planning in estuaries.

    PubMed

    Shokri, Mohammad Reza; Gladstone, William

    2013-04-01

    Increasing pressures on global biodiversity and lack of data on the number and abundance of species have motivated conservation planners and researchers to use more readily available information as proxies or surrogates for biodiversity. "Habitat" is one of the most frequently used surrogates but its assumed value in marine conservation planning is not often tested. The present study developed and tested three alternative habitat classification schemes of increasing complexity for a large estuary in south-east Australia and tested their effectiveness in predicting spatial variation in macroinvertebrate biodiversity and selecting estuarine protected areas to represent species. The three habitat classification schemes were: (1) broad-scale habitats (e.g., mangroves and seagrass), (2) subdivision of each broad-scale habitat by a suite of environmental variables that varied significantly throughout the estuary, and (3) subdivision of each broad-scale habitat by the subset of environmental variables that best explained spatial variation in macroinvertebrate biodiversity. Macroinvertebrate assemblages differed significantly among the habitats in each classification scheme. For each classification scheme, habitat richness was significantly correlated with species richness, total density of macroinvertebrates, assemblage dissimilarity, and summed irreplaceability. However, in a reserve selection process designed to represent examples of each habitat, no habitat classification scheme represented species significantly better than a random selection of sites. Habitat classification schemes may represent variation in estuarine biodiversity; however, the results of this study suggest they are inefficient in designing representative networks of estuarine protected areas.

  13. Improving the use of species distribution models in conservation planning and management under climate change.

    PubMed

    Porfirio, Luciana L; Harris, Rebecca M B; Lefroy, Edward C; Hugh, Sonia; Gould, Susan F; Lee, Greg; Bindoff, Nathaniel L; Mackey, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Choice of variables, climate models and emissions scenarios all influence the results of species distribution models under future climatic conditions. However, an overview of applied studies suggests that the uncertainty associated with these factors is not always appropriately incorporated or even considered. We examine the effects of choice of variables, climate models and emissions scenarios can have on future species distribution models using two endangered species: one a short-lived invertebrate species (Ptunarra Brown Butterfly), and the other a long-lived paleo-endemic tree species (King Billy Pine). We show the range in projected distributions that result from different variable selection, climate models and emissions scenarios. The extent to which results are affected by these choices depends on the characteristics of the species modelled, but they all have the potential to substantially alter conclusions about the impacts of climate change. We discuss implications for conservation planning and management, and provide recommendations to conservation practitioners on variable selection and accommodating uncertainty when using future climate projections in species distribution models.

  14. Improving the Use of Species Distribution Models in Conservation Planning and Management under Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Porfirio, Luciana L.; Harris, Rebecca M. B.; Lefroy, Edward C.; Hugh, Sonia; Gould, Susan F.; Lee, Greg; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Mackey, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Choice of variables, climate models and emissions scenarios all influence the results of species distribution models under future climatic conditions. However, an overview of applied studies suggests that the uncertainty associated with these factors is not always appropriately incorporated or even considered. We examine the effects of choice of variables, climate models and emissions scenarios can have on future species distribution models using two endangered species: one a short-lived invertebrate species (Ptunarra Brown Butterfly), and the other a long-lived paleo-endemic tree species (King Billy Pine). We show the range in projected distributions that result from different variable selection, climate models and emissions scenarios. The extent to which results are affected by these choices depends on the characteristics of the species modelled, but they all have the potential to substantially alter conclusions about the impacts of climate change. We discuss implications for conservation planning and management, and provide recommendations to conservation practitioners on variable selection and accommodating uncertainty when using future climate projections in species distribution models. PMID:25420020

  15. Conservation planning for biodiversity and wilderness: a real-world example.

    PubMed

    Ceauşu, Silvia; Gomes, Inês; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2015-05-01

    Several of the most important conservation prioritization approaches select markedly different areas at global and regional scales. They are designed to maximize a certain biodiversity dimension such as coverage of species in the case of hotspots and complementarity, or composite properties of ecosystems in the case of wilderness. Most comparisons between approaches have ignored the multidimensionality of biodiversity. We analyze here the results of two species-based methodologies-hotspots and complementarity-and an ecosystem-based methodology-wilderness-at local scale. As zoning of protected areas can increase the effectiveness of conservation, we use the data employed for the management plan of the Peneda-Gerês National Park in Portugal. We compare the approaches against four criteria: species representativeness, wilderness coverage, coverage of important areas for megafauna, and for regulating ecosystem services. Our results suggest that species- and ecosystem-based approaches select significantly different areas at local scale. Our results also show that no approach covers well all biodiversity dimensions. Species-based approaches cover species distribution better, while the ecosystem-based approach favors wilderness, areas important for megafauna, and for ecosystem services. Management actions addressing different dimensions of biodiversity have a potential for contradictory effects, social conflict, and ecosystem services trade-offs, especially in the context of current European biodiversity policies. However, biodiversity is multidimensional, and management and zoning at local level should reflect this aspect. The consideration of both species- and ecosystem-based approaches at local scale is necessary to achieve a wider range of conservation goals.

  16. Use of Land Use Land Cover Change Mapping Products in Aiding Coastal Habitat Conservation and Restoration Efforts of the Mobile Bay NEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Swann, Roberta; Smooth, James

    2010-01-01

    The Mobile Bay region has undergone significant land use land cover change (LULC) over the last 35 years, much of which is associated with urbanization. These changes have impacted the region s water quality and wildlife habitat availability. In addition, much of the region is low-lying and close to the Gulf, which makes the region vulnerable to hurricanes, climate change (e.g., sea level rise), and sometimes man-made disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Land use land cover change information is needed to help coastal zone managers and planners to understand and mitigate the impacts of environmental change on the region. This presentation discusses selective results of a current NASA-funded project in which Landsat data over a 34-year period (1974-2008) is used to produce, validate, refine, and apply land use land cover change products to aid coastal habitat conservation and restoration needs of the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program (MB NEP). The project employed a user defined classification scheme to compute LULC change mapping products for the entire region, which includes the majority of Mobile and Baldwin counties. Additional LULC change products have been computed for select coastal HUC-12 sub-watersheds adjacent to either Mobile Bay or the Gulf of Mexico, as part of the MB NEP watershed profile assessments. This presentation will include results of additional analyses of LULC change for sub-watersheds that are currently high priority areas, as defined by MB NEP. Such priority sub-watersheds include those that are vulnerable to impacts from the DWH oil spill, as well as sub-watersheds undergoing urbanization. Results demonstrating the nature and permanence of LULC change trends for these higher priority sub-watersheds and results characterizing change for the entire 34-year period and at approximate 10-year intervals across this period will also be presented. Future work will include development of value-added coastal habitat quality

  17. Biodiversity conservation in a changing climate: a review of threats and implications for conservation planning in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Rao, Madhu; Saw Htun; Platt, Steven G; Tizard, Robert; Poole, Colin; Than Myint; Watson, James E M

    2013-11-01

    High levels of species richness and endemism make Myanmar a regional priority for conservation. However, decades of economic and political sanctions have resulted in low conservation investment to effectively tackle threats to biodiversity. Recent sweeping political reforms have placed Myanmar on the fast track to economic development-the expectation is increased economic investments focused on the exploitation of the country's rich, and relatively intact, natural resources. Within a context of weak regulatory capacity and inadequate environmental safeguards, rapid economic development is likely to have far-reaching negative implications for already threatened biodiversity and natural-resource-dependent human communities. Climate change will further exacerbate prevailing threats given Myanmar's high exposure and vulnerability. The aim of this review is to examine the implications of increased economic growth and a changing climate within the larger context of biodiversity conservation in Myanmar. We summarize conservation challenges, assess direct climatological impacts on biodiversity and conclude with recommendations for long-term adaptation approaches for biodiversity conservation.

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan Summary for Interim reasctive Waste Treatment Area (IRWTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.T.

    1997-07-01

    This closure plan has been prepared for the interim Reactive Waste Treatment Area (IRWT'A) located at the Y-12 Pkmt in oak Ridge, Tennessee (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Identification TN 389-009-0001). The actions required to achieve closure of the IRWTA are outlined in this plan, which is being submitted in accordance with Tennessee Ruie 1200- 1-1 1-.0S(7) and Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 265, Subpart G. The IRWTA was used to treat waste sodium and potassium (NaK) that are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The location of the IRWT'A is shown in Figures 1 and 2, and a diagram is shown in Figure 3. This pkm details all steps that wdi be petiormed to close the IRWTA. Note that this is a fmai ciosure.and a diagram is shown in Figure 3. This pkm details all steps that wdi be petiormed to close the IRWTA. Note that this is a fmai ciosure.

  19. Structured decision making as a conservation tool for recovery planning of two endangered salamanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, Katherine; Messerman, Arianne F; Barichivich, William J.; Semlitsch, Raymond D.; Gorman, Thomas A.; Mitchell, Harold G; Allan, Nathan; Fenolio, Dante B.; Green, Adam; Johnson, Fred A.; Keever, Allison; Mandica, Mark; Martin, Julien; Mott, Jana; Peacock, Terry; Reinman, Joseph; Romanach, Stephanie; Titus, Greg; McGowan, Conor; Walls, Susan

    2017-01-01

    At least one-third of all amphibian species face the threat of extinction, and current amphibian extinction rates are four orders of magnitude greater than background rates. Preventing extirpation often requires both ex situ (i.e., conservation breeding programs) and in situ strategies (i.e., protecting natural habitats). Flatwoods salamanders (Ambystoma bishopi and A. cingulatum) are protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The two species have decreased from 476 historical locations to 63 recently extant locations (86.8% loss). We suggest that recovery efforts are needed to increase populations and prevent extinction, but uncertainty regarding optimal actions in both ex situ and in situ realms hinders recovery planning. We used structured decision making (SDM) to address key uncertainties regarding both captive breeding and habitat restoration, and we developed short-, medium-, and long-term goals to achieve recovery objectives. By promoting a transparent, logical approach, SDM has proven vital to recovery plan development for flatwoods salamanders. The SDM approach has clear advantages over other previous approaches to recovery efforts, and we suggest that it should be considered for other complex decisions regarding endangered species.

  20. A review of the population estimation approach of the North American landbird conservation plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Howe, Frank P.; James, Frances C.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Reed, Eric T.; Sauer, John R.; Thompson, Frank R.

    2006-01-01

    As part of their development of a continental plan for monitoring landbirds (Rich et al. 2004), Partners in Flight (PIF) applied a new method to make preliminary estimates of population size for all 448 species of landbirds present in the continental United States and Canada (Table 1). Estimation of the global population size of North American landbirds was intended to (1) identify the degree of vulnerability of each species, (2) provide estimates of the current population size for each species, and (3) provide a starting point for estimating population sizes in states, provinces, territories, and Bird Conservation Regions (Rich et al. 2004). A method proposed by Rosenberg and Blancher (2005) was used to derive population estimates from available survey data. To enhance the credibility of these estimates, PIF organized a review of the methodology used to estimate North American landbird population sizes. A planning commi ee selected members from the ornithological and biometrical communities (herea er “the panel”), with the aim of selecting individuals from academia, state natural-resource agencies, and the U.S. and Canadian federal governments, including the Canadian Wildlife Service, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. The panel addressed three questions: (1) Were the methods of population estimation proposed by PIF reasonable? (2) What actions could be taken to improve the data or analyses on which the PIF population estimates were based? and (3) How should the PIF population estimates be interpreted?

  1. 20 CFR 416.121 - Receipt of aid or assistance for December 1973 under an approved State plan under title I, X, XIV...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1973 under an approved State plan under title I, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social Security Act. 416.121... assistance for December 1973 under an approved State plan under title I, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social... was a recipient of aid or assistance for December 1973 under a State plan approved under title I,...

  2. 20 CFR 416.121 - Receipt of aid or assistance for December 1973 under an approved State plan under title I, X, XIV...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 1973 under an approved State plan under title I, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social Security Act. 416.121... assistance for December 1973 under an approved State plan under title I, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social... was a recipient of aid or assistance for December 1973 under a State plan approved under title I,...

  3. 20 CFR 416.121 - Receipt of aid or assistance for December 1973 under an approved State plan under title I, X, XIV...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 1973 under an approved State plan under title I, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social Security Act. 416.121... assistance for December 1973 under an approved State plan under title I, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social... was a recipient of aid or assistance for December 1973 under a State plan approved under title I,...

  4. 20 CFR 416.121 - Receipt of aid or assistance for December 1973 under an approved State plan under title I, X, XIV...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 1973 under an approved State plan under title I, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social Security Act. 416.121... assistance for December 1973 under an approved State plan under title I, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social... was a recipient of aid or assistance for December 1973 under a State plan approved under title I,...

  5. 20 CFR 416.121 - Receipt of aid or assistance for December 1973 under an approved State plan under title I, X, XIV...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 1973 under an approved State plan under title I, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social Security Act. 416.121... assistance for December 1973 under an approved State plan under title I, X, XIV, or XVI of the Social... was a recipient of aid or assistance for December 1973 under a State plan approved under title I,...

  6. High-energy laser tactical decision aid (HELTDA) for mission planning and predictive avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, Jarred L.; Fiorino, Steven T.; Randall, Robb M.; Bartell, Richard J.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.

    2012-06-01

    This study demonstrates the development of a high energy laser tactical decision aid (HELTDA) by the AFIT/CDE for mission planning High Energy Laser (HEL) weapon system engagements as well as centralized, decentralized, or hybrid predictive avoidance (CPA/DPA/HPA) assessments. Analyses of example HEL mission engagements are described as well as how mission planners are expected to employ the software. Example HEL engagement simulations are based on geographic location and recent/current atmospheric weather conditions. The atmospheric effects are defined through the AFIT/CDE Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model or the High Energy Laser End-to-End Operational Simulation (HELEEOS) model upon which the HELTDA is based. These models enable the creation of vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, water vapor content, optical turbulence, and atmospheric particulates and hydrometeors as they relate to line-by-line layer extinction coefficient magnitude at wavelengths from the UV to the RF. Seasonal and boundary layer variations (summer/winter) and time of day variations for a range of relative humidity percentile conditions are considered to determine optimum efficiency in a specific environment. Each atmospheric particulate/hydrometeor is evaluated based on its wavelength-dependent forward and off-axis scattering characteristics and absorption effects on the propagating environment to and beyond the target. In addition to realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, correlated optical turbulence profiles in probabilistic (percentile) format are included. Numerical weather model forecasts are incorporated in the model to develop comprehensive understanding of HEL weapon system performance.

  7. Intention to use hearing aids: a survey based on the theory of planned behavior

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Hartmut; Grugel, Linda; Meis, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the intention to use hearing aids (HAs) by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Design The TPB is a widely used decision-making model based on three constructs hypothesized to influence the intention to perform a specific behavior; namely, “attitude toward the behavior”, “subjective norm”, and “behavioral control”. The survey was based on a TPB-specific questionnaire addressing factors relevant to HA provision. Study sample Data from 204 individuals reporting hearing problems were analyzed. Different subgroups were established according to the stage of their hearing help-seeking. Results The TPB models’ outcome depended on the subgroup. The intention of those participants who had recognized their hearing problems but had not yet consulted an ear, nose, and throat specialist was largely dominated by the “subjective norm” construct, whereas those who had already consulted an ear, nose, and throat specialist or had already tried out HAs were significantly influenced by all constructs. The intention of participants who already owned HAs was clearly less affected by the “subjective norm” construct but was largely dominated by their “attitude toward HAs”. Conclusion The intention to use HAs can be modeled on the basis of the constructs “attitude toward the behavior”, “subjective norm”, and “behavioral control”. Individual contribution of the constructs to the model depends on the patient’s stage of hearing help-seeking. The results speak well for counseling strategies that explicitly consider the individual trajectory of hearing help-seeking. PMID:25258520

  8. The Politics of Planning Culturally Relevant AIDS Prevention Education for African American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archie-Booker, D. Elaine; Cervero, Ronald M.; Langone, Christine A.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews and observations of three AIDS-prevention programs revealed that in this agency, AIDS education overall was not culturally relevant for African-American women for several reasons: (1) organization image and financing were geared toward White gay males; (2) interpretation of the mission did not include African-American women; and (3)…

  9. AIDS. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Curriculum Planning Guidelines: Elementary, Junior High, High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Helena.

    The support materials in this guide provide background and content materials for school personnel and others to modify and use in their education programming on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) for K-12 students. The following support materials are included: (1) the U.S. Surgeon General's report on AIDS; (2) digest and reference guide to…

  10. HIV / AIDS in the workplace: principles, planning, policy, programmes and project participation.

    PubMed

    Smart, R

    1999-01-01

    15 years ago, most business, labor, government, and nongovernment representatives would have had only a small idea of what AIDS was, and let alone why it should concern them. However, companies have since lost top managers, workers have lost colleagues, and considerable time, energy, and emotion have been spent upon issues of illness and loss. Entire families have collapsed, as companies struggle against a background of chronic poverty. The HIV/AIDS pandemic has forced a reconsideration of whether disease prevention and health promotion are business concerns. AIDS causes illness, disability, and death to workers, as well as severe economic and emotional disruptions to their families. It also increases the cost of doing business. As South Africa faces a large epidemic, business must take prompt and incisive action against AIDS. A list of 10 workplace principles is presented and a 3-stage process recommended to ensure optimal workplace HIV/AIDS/STD and tuberculosis policies and programs.

  11. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis defines a conserved energetic hotspot in the CaVα1 AID-CaVβ interaction site that is critical for channel modulation

    PubMed Central

    Van Petegem, Filip; Duderstadt, Karl E.; Clark, Kimberly A.; Wang, Michelle; Minor, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (CaVs) are large, multisubunit complexes that control cellular calcium entry. CaV pore-forming (CaVα1) and cytoplasmic (CaVβ) subunits associate through a high-affinity interaction between the CaVα1 α-interaction domain (AID) and CaVβ α-binding pocket (ABP). Here, we analyze AID-ABP interaction thermodynamics using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). We find that commensurate with their strong sequence similarity, all CaV1 and CaV2 AID peptides bind CaVβ with similar nanomolar affinities. Although the AID-ABP interface encompasses twenty-four sidechains, alanine-scanning mutagenesis reveals that the binding energy is focused in two complementary hotspots comprising four deeply-conserved residues. Electrophysiological experiments show that hotspot interaction disruption prevents trafficking and functional modulation of CaV1.2 by CaVβ. Together, the data support the primacy of the AID-ABP interface for CaVα1-CaVβ association, underscore the idea that hotspots dominate protein-protein interaction affinities, and uncover a target for strategies to control cellular excitability by blocking CaVα1-CaVβ complex formation. PMID:18275819

  12. 78 FR 25758 - Migratory Birds; Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1-Land-Based Wind Energy, Version 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ...-- Land-Based Wind Energy, Version 2 AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Guidance: Module 1--Land-based Wind Energy, Version 2 is available. The guidance provides recommendations... issued a draft of The Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1-- Land-based Wind Energy for...

  13. 77 FR 23745 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Bay Checkerspot Butterfly and Serpentine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Butterfly and Serpentine Grasslands, City of San Jose, Santa Clara County, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... ] addresses the potential for ``take'' of one listed animal, the Bay checkerspot butterfly; one listed plant... Conservation Plan for Bay checkerspot butterfly and serpentine grasslands, Santa Clara County California:...

  14. 78 FR 4868 - Notice of Intent To Amend the California Desert Conservation Area Plan and Prepare an Associated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Amend the California Desert Conservation Area Plan and...) Needles Field Office, Needles, California intends to prepare an amendment to the California...

  15. HABITAT DISTRIBUTION MODELS FOR 37 VERTEBRATE SPECIES ADDRESSED BY THE MULTI-SPECIES HABITAT CONSERVATION PLAN OF CLARK COUNTY, NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-seven species identified in the Clark County Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan were

    previously modeled through the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project. Existing SWReGAP habitat

    models and modeling databases were used to facilitate the revision of mo...

  16. 76 FR 41811 - Kellaway Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro Shoulderband Snail, San Luis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Shoulderband Snail, San Luis Obispo County, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... ``take'' of the Federally endangered Morro shoulderband snail (Helminthoglypta walkeriana) incidental to..., which includes the Kellaway Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro Shoulderband Snail...

  17. 76 FR 41810 - Francis Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro Shoulderband Snail, Los Osos...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Shoulderband Snail, Los Osos, San Luis Obispo County, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... the potential for ``take'' of the Federally endangered Morro shoulderband snail (Helminthoglypta... includes the Francis Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro Shoulderband Snail (HCP) that...

  18. 76 FR 44036 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the California Tiger Salamander, AT&T Portable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the California Tiger... potential for ``take'' of one Federally listed animal, the California tiger salamander. The applicant would... for the California tiger salamander into a new storage facility for portable generators within...

  19. Importance of regional variation in conservation planning: A rangewide example of the Greater Sage-Grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, Kevin E; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Coates, Peter S.; Juliusson, Lara; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2016-01-01

    We developed rangewide population and habitat models for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that account for regional variation in habitat selection and relative densities of birds for use in conservation planning and risk assessments. We developed a probabilistic model of occupied breeding habitat by statistically linking habitat characteristics within 4 miles of an occupied lek using a nonlinear machine learning technique (Random Forests). Habitat characteristics used were quantified in GIS and represent standard abiotic and biotic variables related to sage-grouse biology. Statistical model fit was high (mean correctly classified = 82.0%, range = 75.4–88.0%) as were cross-validation statistics (mean = 80.9%, range = 75.1–85.8%). We also developed a spatially explicit model to quantify the relative density of breeding birds across each Greater Sage-Grouse management zone. The models demonstrate distinct clustering of relative abundance of sage-grouse populations across all management zones. On average, approximately half of the breeding population is predicted to be within 10% of the occupied range. We also found that 80% of sage-grouse populations were contained in 25–34% of the occupied range within each management zone. Our rangewide population and habitat models account for regional variation in habitat selection and the relative densities of birds, and thus, they can serve as a consistent and common currency to assess how sage-grouse habitat and populations overlap with conservation actions or threats over the entire sage-grouse range. We also quantified differences in functional habitat responses and disturbance thresholds across the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) management zones using statistical relationships identified during habitat modeling. Even for a species as specialized as Greater Sage-Grouse, our results show that ecological context matters in both the strength of habitat selection (i

  20. The importance of incorporating functional habitats into conservation planning for highly mobile species in dynamic systems.

    PubMed

    Webb, Matthew H; Terauds, Aleks; Tulloch, Ayesha; Bell, Phil; Stojanovic, Dejan; Heinsohn, Robert

    2017-01-28

    The distribution of mobile species in dynamic systems can vary greatly over time and space. Estimating their population size and geographic range can be problematic, with serious implications for conservation assessments. Scarce data on mobile species and the resources they need can also limit the type of analytical approaches available to derive such estimates. Here we quantify dynamic change in availability and use of key ecological resources required for breeding (i.e. food and nesting sites) for a critically endangered nomadic habitat specialist, the swift parrot (Lathamus discolor). We compare estimates of occupied habitat (km(2) ) derived from dynamic presence-background data climatic models to those derived from dynamic occupancy models that include a direct measure of food availability. We also compare estimates that incorporate fine resolution information on key ecological resources (i.e functional habitats) into distribution maps with more common approaches that typically focus on broader climatic suitability. For all models, both the extent and spatial location of occupied areas varied dramatically over the study period. The occupancy models produced significantly smaller (up to an order of magnitude) and more spatially discrete estimates of occupied habitat than climate-based models. Estimates accounting for the area of functional habitats were also significantly smaller than estimates based only on occupied habitat. Importantly, an increase (or decrease) in one functional habitat did not necessarily correspond to changes in the other, with consequences for overall habitat functionality. We argue that these patterns are typical for mobile resource specialists, but currently go unnoticed due to limited data on (1) species' presence/absence and (2) availability of key resources. Understanding changes in the relative availability of functional habitats is crucial to informing conservation planning and accurately assessing extinction risk for mobile

  1. [Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of renal diseases in HIV infected patients. Recommendations of the Spanish AIDS Study Group/National AIDS Plan].

    PubMed

    2010-10-01

    The incidence of opportunistic infections and tumours in HIV-infected patients has sharply declined in the HAART era. At the same time there has been a growing increase of other diseases not directly linked to immunodeficiency. Renal diseases are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients. In the general population, chronic renal failure has considerable multiorgan repercussions that have particular implications in patients with HIV infection. The detection of occult or subclinical chronic kidney disease is crucial since effective measures for delaying progression exist. Furthermore, the deterioration in glomerular filtration should prompt clinicians to adjust doses of some antiretroviral agents and other drugs used for treating associated comorbidities. Suppression of viral replication, strict control of blood pressure, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus, and avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs in certain patients are fundamental components of programs aimed to prevent renal damage and delaying progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with HIV. Renal transplantation and dialysis have also special implications in HIV-infected patients. In this article, we summarise the updated clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation, management and prevention of renal diseases in HIV-infected patients from a panel of experts in HIV and nephrologists on behalf of the Spanish AIDS Study Group (GESIDA) and the National AIDS Plan.

  2. Early, computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Modeling Planned, Le Fort I Advancement With Internal Distractors to Treat Severe Maxillary Hypoplasia in Cleft Lip and Palate.

    PubMed

    Chang, Catherine S; Swanson, Jordan; Yu, Jason; Taylor, Jesse A

    2017-04-11

    Traditionally, maxillary hypoplasia in the setting of cleft lip and palate is treated via orthognathic surgery at skeletal maturity, which condemns these patients to abnormal facial proportions during adolescence. The authors sought to determine the safety profile of computer-aided design/computer-aided modeling (CAD/CAM) planned, Le Fort I distraction osteogenesis with internal distractors in select patients presenting at a young age with severe maxillary retrusion. The authors retrospectively reviewed our "early" Le Fort I distraction osteogenesis experience-patients performed for severe maxillary retrusion (≥12 mm underjet), after canine eruption but prior to skeletal maturity-at a single institution. Patient demographics, cleft characteristics, CAD/CAM operative plans, surgical complications, postoperative imaging, and outcomes were analyzed. Four patients were reviewed, with a median age of 12.8 years at surgery (range 8.6-16.1 years). Overall mean advancement was 17.95 + 2.9 mm (range 13.7-19.9 mm) with mean SNA improved 18.4° to 87.4 ± 5.7°. Similarly, ANB improved 17.7° to a postoperative mean of 2.4 ± 3.1°. Mean follow-up was 100.7 weeks, with 3 of 4 patients in a Class I occlusion with moderate-term follow-up; 1 of 4 will need an additional maxillary advancement due to pseudo-relapse. In conclusion, Le Fort I distraction osteogenesis with internal distractors is a safe procedure to treat severe maxillary hypoplasia after canine eruption but before skeletal maturity. Short-term follow-up demonstrates safety of the procedure and relative stability of the advancement. Pseudo-relapse is a risk of the procedure that must be discussed at length with patients and families.

  3. Computer-aided beam arrangement based on similar cases in radiation treatment-planning databases for stereotactic lung radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Magome, Taiki; Arimura, Hidetaka; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Mizoguchi, Asumi; Tokunaga, Chiaki; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Honda, Hiroshi; Ohki, Masafumi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Hirata, Hideki

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided method for determination of beam arrangements based on similar cases in a radiotherapy treatment-planning database for stereotactic lung radiation therapy. Similar-case-based beam arrangements were automatically determined based on the following two steps. First, the five most similar cases were searched, based on geometrical features related to the location, size and shape of the planning target volume, lung and spinal cord. Second, five beam arrangements of an objective case were automatically determined by registering five similar cases with the objective case, with respect to lung regions, by means of a linear registration technique. For evaluation of the beam arrangements five treatment plans were manually created by applying the beam arrangements determined in the second step to the objective case. The most usable beam arrangement was selected by sorting the five treatment plans based on eight plan evaluation indices, including the D95, mean lung dose and spinal cord maximum dose. We applied the proposed method to 10 test cases, by using an RTP database of 81 cases with lung cancer, and compared the eight plan evaluation indices between the original treatment plan and the corresponding most usable similar-case-based treatment plan. As a result, the proposed method may provide usable beam arrangements, which have no statistically significant differences from the original beam arrangements (P > 0.05) in terms of the eight plan evaluation indices. Therefore, the proposed method could be employed as an educational tool for less experienced treatment planners.

  4. Reserve network planning for fishes in the middle and lower Yangtze River basin by systematic conservation approaches.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinyi; Li, Fan; Chen, Jiakuan

    2016-03-01

    Although China has established more than 600 wetland nature reserves, conservation gaps still exist for many species, especially for freshwater fishes. Underlying this problem is the fact that top-level planning is missing in the construction of nature reserves. To promote the development of nature reserves for fishes, this study took the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin (MLYRB) as an example to carry out top-level reserve network planning for fishes using approaches of systematic conservation planning. Typical fish species living in freshwater habitats were defined and considered in the planning. Based on sample data collected from large quantities of literatures, continuous distribution patterns of 142 fishes were obtained with species distribution modeling and subsequent processing, and the distributions of another eleven species were artificially designated. With the distribution pattern of species, Marxan was used to carry out conservation planning. To obtain ideal solutions with representativeness, persistence, and efficiency, parameters were set with careful consideration regarding existing wetland reserves, human disturbances, hydrological connectivity, and representation targets of species. Marxan produced the selection frequency of planning units (PUs) and a best solution. Selection frequency indicates the relative protection importance of a PU. The best solution is a representative of ideal fish reserve networks. Both of the PUs with high selection frequency and those in the best solution have low proportions included in existing wetland nature reserves, suggesting that there are significant conservation gaps for fish species in MLYRB. The best solution could serve as a reference for establishing a fish reserve network in the MLYRB. There is great flexibility for replacing selected PUs in the solution, and such flexibility facilitates the implementation of the solution in reality in case of unexpected obstacles. Further, we suggested

  5. Starting a local conservation and passive solar retrofit program: an energy planning sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, V; Mathews, R

    1982-02-01

    A city planner or a neighborhood activist may wish to initiate a local conservation and passive solar retrofit program but may not have previous experience in doing so. This sourcebook is designed to assist interested individuals with their energy planning efforts, from determining retrofit potential, to financing and implementing the program. An approach or methodology is provided which can be applied to determine retrofit potential in single-family residences, mobile homes, multifamily residences, and nonresidential buildings. Case studies in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are given as examples. Guidelines are provided for evaluating the economic benefits of a retrofit program through benefit-cost analysis and economic base studies at the city and neighborhood levels. Also included are approaches to community outreach, detailing how to get started, how to gain local support, and examples of successful programs throughout the US. The need for financing, the development of a local strategy, public and private financing techniques, and community energy service organizations are examined. In addition to the Albuquerque case studies, a brief technology characterization, heat-loss calculations, economic tools, and a list of resources are appended.

  6. Sensitivity analyses of spatial population viability analysis models for species at risk and habitat conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Naujokaitis-Lewis, Ilona R; Curtis, Janelle M R; Arcese, Peter; Rosenfeld, Jordan

    2009-02-01

    Population viability analysis (PVA) is an effective framework for modeling species- and habitat-recovery efforts, but uncertainty in parameter estimates and model structure can lead to unreliable predictions. Integrating complex and often uncertain information into spatial PVA models requires that comprehensive sensitivity analyses be applied to explore the influence of spatial and nonspatial parameters on model predictions. We reviewed 87 analyses of spatial demographic PVA models of plants and animals to identify common approaches to sensitivity analysis in recent publications. In contrast to best practices recommended in the broader modeling community, sensitivity analyses of spatial PVAs were typically ad hoc, inconsistent, and difficult to compare. Most studies applied local approaches to sensitivity analyses, but few varied multiple parameters simultaneously. A lack of standards for sensitivity analysis and reporting in spatial PVAs has the potential to compromise the ability to learn collectively from PVA results, accurately interpret results in cases where model relationships include nonlinearities and interactions, prioritize monitoring and management actions, and ensure conservation-planning decisions are robust to uncertainties in spatial and nonspatial parameters. Our review underscores the need to develop tools for global sensitivity analysis and apply these to spatial PVA.

  7. Resilience and risk: a demographic model to inform conservation planning for polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Regehr, Eric V.; Wilson, Ryan R.; Rode, Karyn D.; Runge, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Our modeling results suggest that harvest of polar bears is unlikely to accelerate population declines that result from declining carrying capacity caused by sea-ice loss, provided that several conditions are met: (1) the sustainable harvest rate reflects the population’s intrinsic growth rate, and the corresponding harvest level is obtained by applying this rate to an estimate of population size; (2) the sustainable harvest rate reflects the quality of population data (e.g., lower harvest when data are poor); and (3) the level of human-caused removals can be adjusted. Finally, our results suggest that stopgap measures (e.g., further reduction or cessation of harvest when the population size is less than a critical threshold) may be necessary to minimize the incremental risk associated with harvest, if environmental conditions are deteriorating rapidly. We suggest that the demographic model and approaches presented here can serve as a template for conservation planning for polar bears and other species facing similar challenges.

  8. International response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic: planning for success.

    PubMed Central

    Piot, P.; Coll Seck, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    More assertive political leadership in the global response to AIDS in both poor and rich countries culminated in June 2001 at the UN General Assembly Special Session on AIDS. Delegates made important commitments there, and endorsed a global strategy framework for shifting the dynamics of the epidemic by simultaneously reducing risk, vulnerability and impact. This points the way to achievable progress in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Evidence of success in tackling the spread of AIDS comes from diverse programme areas, including work with sex workers and clients, injecting drug users, and young people. It also comes from diverse countries, including India, the Russian Federation, Senegal, Thailand, the United Republic of Tanzania, and Zambia. Their common feature is the combination of focused approaches with attention to the societywide context within which risk occurs. Similarly, building synergies between prevention and care has underpinned success in Brazil and holds great potential for sub-Saharan Africa, where 90% reductions have been achieved in the prices at which antiretroviral drugs are available. Success also involves overcoming stigma, which undermines community action and blocks access to services. Work against stigma and discrimination has been effectively carried out in both health sector and occupational settings. Accompanying attention to the conditions for success against HIV/AIDS is global consensus on the need for additional resources. The detailed estimate of required AIDS spending in low- and middle-income countries is US$ 9.2 billion annually, compared to the $ 2 billion currently spent. Additional spending should be mobilized by the new global fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, but needs to be joined by additional government and private efforts within countries, including from debt relief. Commitment and capacity to scale up HIV prevention and care have never been stronger. The moment must be seized to prevent a global catastrophe

  9. International response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic: planning for success.

    PubMed

    Piot, P; Coll Seck, A M

    2001-01-01

    More assertive political leadership in the global response to AIDS in both poor and rich countries culminated in June 2001 at the UN General Assembly Special Session on AIDS. Delegates made important commitments there, and endorsed a global strategy framework for shifting the dynamics of the epidemic by simultaneously reducing risk, vulnerability and impact. This points the way to achievable progress in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Evidence of success in tackling the spread of AIDS comes from diverse programme areas, including work with sex workers and clients, injecting drug users, and young people. It also comes from diverse countries, including India, the Russian Federation, Senegal, Thailand, the United Republic of Tanzania, and Zambia. Their common feature is the combination of focused approaches with attention to the societywide context within which risk occurs. Similarly, building synergies between prevention and care has underpinned success in Brazil and holds great potential for sub-Saharan Africa, where 90% reductions have been achieved in the prices at which antiretroviral drugs are available. Success also involves overcoming stigma, which undermines community action and blocks access to services. Work against stigma and discrimination has been effectively carried out in both health sector and occupational settings. Accompanying attention to the conditions for success against HIV/AIDS is global consensus on the need for additional resources. The detailed estimate of required AIDS spending in low- and middle-income countries is US$ 9.2 billion annually, compared to the $ 2 billion currently spent. Additional spending should be mobilized by the new global fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, but needs to be joined by additional government and private efforts within countries, including from debt relief. Commitment and capacity to scale up HIV prevention and care have never been stronger. The moment must be seized to prevent a global catastrophe.

  10. 7 CFR 1469.7 - Benchmark condition inventory and conservation stewardship plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Benchmark condition inventory and conservation...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION SECURITY PROGRAM General Provisions § 1469.7 Benchmark condition inventory and conservation...

  11. 7 CFR 1469.7 - Benchmark condition inventory and conservation stewardship plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Benchmark condition inventory and conservation...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION SECURITY PROGRAM General Provisions § 1469.7 Benchmark condition inventory and conservation...

  12. 7 CFR 1469.7 - Benchmark condition inventory and conservation stewardship plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Benchmark condition inventory and conservation...) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION SECURITY PROGRAM General Provisions § 1469.7 Benchmark condition inventory and conservation...

  13. 77 FR 59412 - Great Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Rockingham County, NH; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Karner blue butterfly conservation easement in Concord, New Hampshire. Great Bay NWR is administered by... refuge and Karner blue butterfly conservation easement for the next 15 years. ADDRESSES: You may view or... the Karner blue butterfly conservation easement in Concord, New Hampshire. The 29-acre...

  14. How broad-scale studies of patterns and processes can serve to guide conservation planning in Africa.

    PubMed

    Fjeldså, Jon

    2007-06-01

    Analysis of large-scale biodiversity patterns can uncover general relationships and problems that need to be taken into account when conservation strategies are developed. Nevertheless, these large-scale patterns need to be supplemented with information from local studies that can identify specific problems and determine how the land can be divided between conservation and development interests. I analyzed biodiversity patterns at three different scales to show how various scales of research contributed to conservation planning. A gap analysis for all of sub-Saharan Africa revealed that the network of wildlife reserves provides insufficient protection of narrowly endemic and threatened species, mainly because such species are aggregated in certain areas with dense human populations. A more fine-grained analysis of the distribution of forest birds of eastern Africa generally confirmed the results obtained with coarse-scale data and added precision by identifying forest tracts where conservation actions should be concentrated. Detailed local distribution data for one of the prioritized areas, the Uluguru Mountains in Tanzania, suggest that the actions to halt the loss of biodiversity should be concentrated in the submontane zone, immediately adjacent to densely populated areas. To achieve conservation on the ground, these general planning tools must be supplemented with other kinds of research concerning land-use and local knowledge and with approaches that promote more sustainable development. Different types of institutions will be needed for these different tasks, but it is essential that researchers maintain a dialogue with planners in this area.

  15. Model-based conservation planning of the genetic diversity of Phellodendron amurense Rupr due to climate change.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jizhong; Wang, Chunjing; Yu, Jinghua; Nie, Siming; Han, Shijie; Zu, Yuangang; Chen, Changmei; Yuan, Shusheng; Wang, Qinggui

    2014-07-01

    Climate change affects both habitat suitability and the genetic diversity of wild plants. Therefore, predicting and establishing the most effective and coherent conservation areas is essential for the conservation of genetic diversity in response to climate change. This is because genetic variance is a product not only of habitat suitability in conservation areas but also of efficient protection and management. Phellodendron amurense Rupr. is a tree species (family Rutaceae) that is endangered due to excessive and illegal harvesting for use in Chinese medicine. Here, we test a general computational method for the prediction of priority conservation areas (PCAs) by measuring the genetic diversity of P. amurense across the entirety of northeast China using a single strand repeat analysis of twenty microsatellite markers. Using computational modeling, we evaluated the geographical distribution of the species, both now and in different future climate change scenarios. Different populations were analyzed according to genetic diversity, and PCAs were identified using a spatial conservation prioritization framework. These conservation areas were optimized to account for the geographical distribution of P. amurense both now and in the future, to effectively promote gene flow, and to have a long period of validity. In situ and ex situ conservation, strategies for vulnerable populations were proposed. Three populations with low genetic diversity are predicted to be negatively affected by climate change, making conservation of genetic diversity challenging due to decreasing habitat suitability. Habitat suitability was important for the assessment of genetic variability in existing nature reserves, which were found to be much smaller than the proposed PCAs. Finally, a simple set of conservation measures was established through modeling. This combined molecular and computational ecology approach provides a framework for planning the protection of species endangered by climate

  16. Model-based conservation planning of the genetic diversity of Phellodendron amurense Rupr due to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jizhong; Wang, Chunjing; Yu, Jinghua; Nie, Siming; Han, Shijie; Zu, Yuangang; Chen, Changmei; Yuan, Shusheng; Wang, Qinggui

    2014-01-01

    Climate change affects both habitat suitability and the genetic diversity of wild plants. Therefore, predicting and establishing the most effective and coherent conservation areas is essential for the conservation of genetic diversity in response to climate change. This is because genetic variance is a product not only of habitat suitability in conservation areas but also of efficient protection and management. Phellodendron amurense Rupr. is a tree species (family Rutaceae) that is endangered due to excessive and illegal harvesting for use in Chinese medicine. Here, we test a general computational method for the prediction of priority conservation areas (PCAs) by measuring the genetic diversity of P. amurense across the entirety of northeast China using a single strand repeat analysis of twenty microsatellite markers. Using computational modeling, we evaluated the geographical distribution of the species, both now and in different future climate change scenarios. Different populations were analyzed according to genetic diversity, and PCAs were identified using a spatial conservation prioritization framework. These conservation areas were optimized to account for the geographical distribution of P. amurense both now and in the future, to effectively promote gene flow, and to have a long period of validity. In situ and ex situ conservation, strategies for vulnerable populations were proposed. Three populations with low genetic diversity are predicted to be negatively affected by climate change, making conservation of genetic diversity challenging due to decreasing habitat suitability. Habitat suitability was important for the assessment of genetic variability in existing nature reserves, which were found to be much smaller than the proposed PCAs. Finally, a simple set of conservation measures was established through modeling. This combined molecular and computational ecology approach provides a framework for planning the protection of species endangered by climate

  17. "In the driver's seat": the Health Sector Strategic Master Plan as an instrument for aid coordination in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Ulikpan, Anar; Narula, Indermohan; Malik, Asmat; Hill, Peter

    2014-04-03

    In 2005, the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Mongolia initiated the process of developing its Health Sector Strategic Master Plan (HSSMP), using a wide-ranging consultative process, driven by the MoH, and requiring participation from all levels of health facilities, other ministries, donor agencies and NGOs. Among other objectives, the MoH sought to coordinate the disparate inputs from key donors through the HSSMP, aligning them with the Plan's structure. This research explores the extent to which the HSSMP process served as a mechanism for effective aid coordination while promoting ownership and capacity building and the lessons learned for the wider international development community. The study is based on document review, key-informant interviews and authors' experience and participation in the MoH planning processes. The HSSMP process improved alignment and harmonisation. It enabled a better local understanding of the benefits of aid coordination, and the recognition that aid coordination as not only a mere administrative task, but a strategic step towards comprehensive management of both domestic and external resources. The process was not challenge free; the fractious political environment, the frequent turnover of key MoH staff, the resistance of some donors towards MoH scrutiny over their programmes and the dismantling of the central coordination and return of seconded staff following completion of the HSSMP, has slowed the pace of reform. Despite the challenges, the approach resulted in positive outcomes in the areas of ownership and better aid coordination, with HSSMP development emphasising ownership and capacity building. This contrasted with the usual outcomes focus, and neglect of the capacity building learning processes and structural and policy changes needed to ensure sustainable change. The largest and most influential programmes in the health sector are now largely aligned with HSSMP strategies, enabling the MoH to utilize these opportunities to

  18. An Inventory of International Clearing House Services in Population/Family Planning With Special Reference to Audio-Visual Aids and Educational Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radel, David

    This paper provides an inventory and summary of current and planned international information clearing house services in the field of population/family planning, worldwide. Special emphasis is placed on services relating to audio-visual aids, educational materials, and information/education/communication support, as these items and activities have…

  19. [The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].

    PubMed

    Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés

    2013-12-01

    This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group.

  20. The importance of national political context to the impacts of international conservation aid: evidence from the W National Parks of Benin and Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Daniel C.; Minn, Michael; Sinsin, Brice

    2015-11-01

    National political context is widely understood to be an important factor shaping the ecological and socio-economic impacts of protected areas (PAs) and other conservation interventions. Despite broad recognition that national political context matters, however, there is little systematic understanding about how and why it matters, particularly in the context of PAs. This article seeks to advance empirical and theoretical understanding of the influence of national political context on the impacts of conservation interventions through study of an international aid project in a large transboundary PA in West Africa. It uses multilevel regression analysis to analyze the variable effects of changes in enforcement—a central mechanism through which the Protected Ecosystems in Sudano-Sahelian Africa project sought to achieve its objectives—in the W National Parks (WNP) of Benin and Niger. We find that differences in national political context relating to governance quality and extent of democratic decentralization moderated the social-ecological effects of enforcement. Increasing enforcement levels in Benin’s WNP were associated with significant increases in mammal species abundance while having little average effect on the incomes of households around the Park. By contrast, greater levels of enforcement in Niger’s WNP were associated with sharply decreasing income levels among Park neighbors but did not have a statistically significant effect on wildlife populations. These results highlight the importance of national political context to the outcomes of aid-funded conservation efforts. They suggest that state-led PA enforcement will have more positive social-ecological impacts in better-governed, more decentralized countries and that conservation policy centered on PAs should therefore devote greater attention to engagement with higher levels of governance.

  1. Assessing Pricing and Aid Strategies: Rethinking Planning and Evaluation Practices. AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.

    This paper explores the need for a better understanding of the influences of prices and student aid on student enrollment and college budgets. The theory of net price has not been found to adequately explain changes in enrollment. Based on a critical review of recent research on student price response, this paper develops an alternative approach…

  2. Assessment of Discharge Planning Referral to Nursing Homes for People with AIDS and HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsk, Nathan L.; Marder, Reggi E.

    This study was conducted to identify efforts by hospital discharge planners to refer clients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) to nursing homes; to determine the responses of the facilities contacted; and to identify gaps in services, discharge planner practices, and relationships between…

  3. Stimulus Plan Aids Education: House Bill Could Provide $100 Billion to K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    Cash-strapped school districts could see an unprecedented $100 billion infusion of federal aid under a massive economic-stimulus package unveiled by House Democrats this week. The overall measure, put forth January 15 by the House Appropriations Committee, is aimed at providing a $825 billion jolt to the stumbling U.S. economy, and to help avert…

  4. Behavioral and Managerial Models That Can Help Improve AIDS Campaign Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; And Others

    This paper focuses on the challenge raised by the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic regarding the need to improve the effectiveness of health communication or education campaigns. The paper discusses the behaviors underlying health information processing and particularly what is called the "knowledge but not behavior-change…

  5. Federal Student Aid (FSA) Five-Year Strategic Plan. FY 2004-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The FSA Five-Year Strategic Plan is a roadmap for FY 2004-2008 that identifies five long-range strategic objectives, tactical short-term goals, and performance management initiatives. In working toward the goals outlined in the plan, FSA will address a number of key challenges, including legacy system migration, business process re-engineering,…

  6. A reconfigurable digital filterbank for hearing-aid systems with a variety of sound wave decomposition plans.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ying; Liu, Debao

    2013-06-01

    Current hearing-aid systems have fixed sound wave decomposition plans due to the use of fixed filterbanks, thus cannot provide enough flexibility for the compensation of different hearing impairment cases. In this paper, a reconfigurable filterbank that consists of a multiband-generation block and a subband-selection block is proposed. Different subbands can be produced according to the control parameters without changing the structure of the filterbank system. The use of interpolation, decimation, and frequency-response masking enables us to reduce the computational complexity by realizing the entire system with only three prototype filters. Reconfigurability of the proposed filterbank enables hearing-impaired people to customize hearing aids based on their own specific conditions to improve their hearing ability. We show, by means of examples, that the proposed filterbank can achieve a better matching to the audiogram and has smaller complexity compared with the fixed filterbank. The drawback of the proposed method is that the throughput delay is relatively long (>20 ms), which needs to be further reduced before it can be used in a real hearing-aid application.

  7. An empirical evaulation of computerized tools to aid in enroute flight planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, C. Elaine; Layton, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes an experiment using the Flight Planning Testbed (FPT) in which 27 airline dispatchers were studied. Five general questions was addresses in the study: Under what circumstances does the introduction of computer-generated suggestions (flight plans) influence the planning behavior of dispatchers; what is the nature of such influences; How beneficial are the general design concepts underlying FPT; How effective are the specific implementation decisions made in realizing these general design concepts; How effectively do dispatchers evaluate situations requiring replanning and how effectively do they identify appropriate solutions to these situations. The study leaves little doubt that the introduction of computer-generated suggestions for solving a flight planning problem can have a marked impact on the cognitive processes of the user and on the ultimate plan selected.

  8. 76 FR 36143 - Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Kent County, DE; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...), consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal ] mandates, and our... climate change, associated with increasing global temperatures, is affecting water, land, and...

  9. 76 FR 26751 - Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ...), consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our... climate change, associated with increasing global temperatures, is affecting water, land, and...

  10. Building the foundation for international conservation planning for breeding ducks across the U.S. and Canadian border.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Kevin E; Evans, Jeffrey S; Walker, Johann; Devries, James H; Howerter, David W

    2015-01-01

    We used publically available data on duck breeding distribution and recently compiled geospatial data on upland habitat and environmental conditions to develop a spatially explicit model of breeding duck populations across the entire Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). Our spatial population models were able to identify key areas for duck conservation across the PPR and predict between 62.1-79.1% (68.4% avg.) of the variation in duck counts by year from 2002-2010. The median difference in observed vs. predicted duck counts at a transect segment level was 4.6 ducks. Our models are the first seamless spatially explicit models of waterfowl abundance across the entire PPR and represent an initial step toward joint conservation planning between Prairie Pothole and Prairie Habitat Joint Ventures. Our work demonstrates that when spatial and temporal variation for highly mobile birds is incorporated into conservation planning it will likely increase the habitat area required to support defined population goals. A major goal of the current North American Waterfowl Management Plan and subsequent action plan is the linking of harvest and habitat management. We contend incorporation of spatial aspects will increase the likelihood of coherent joint harvest and habitat management decisions. Our results show at a minimum, it is possible to produce spatially explicit waterfowl abundance models that when summed across survey strata will produce similar strata level population estimates as the design-based Waterfowl Breeding Pair and Habitat Survey (r2 = 0.977). This is important because these design-based population estimates are currently used to set duck harvest regulations and to set duck population and habitat goals for the North American Waterfowl Management Plan. We hope this effort generates discussion on the important linkages between spatial and temporal variation in population size, and distribution relative to habitat quantity and quality when linking habitat and population

  11. 78 FR 13692 - Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge, KY; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan/Land Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Plan/Land Protection Plan, and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment AGENCY... protection plan (LPP), and finding of no significant impact for the environmental assessment for Clarks River... National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (40 CFR 1506.6(b)) requirements. We completed a thorough...

  12. Agricultural conservation planning framework: 1. Developing multi-practice watershed planning scenarios and assessing nutrient reduction potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We show that spatial data on soils, land use, and high-resolution topography, combined with knowledge of conservation practice effectiveness, can be leveraged to identify and assess alternatives to reduce nutrient discharge from small (HUC12) agricultural watersheds. Databases comprising soil attrib...

  13. Seed plant phylogenetic diversity and species richness in conservation planning within a global biodiversity hotspot in eastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Kraft, Nathan J B; Yu, Haiying; Li, Heng

    2015-12-01

    One of the main goals of conservation biology is to understand the factors shaping variation in biodiversity across the planet. This understanding is critical for conservation planners to be able to develop effective conservation strategies. Although many studies have focused on species richness and the protection of rare and endemic species, less attention has been paid to the protection of the phylogenetic dimension of biodiversity. We explored how phylogenetic diversity, species richness, and phylogenetic community structure vary in seed plant communities along an elevational gradient in a relatively understudied high mountain region, the Dulong Valley, in southeastern Tibet, China. As expected, phylogenetic diversity was well correlated with species richness among the elevational bands and among communities. At the community level, evergreen broad-leaved forests had the highest levels of species richness and phylogenetic diversity. Using null model analyses, we found evidence of nonrandom phylogenetic structure across the region. Evergreen broad-leaved forests were phylogenetically overdispersed, whereas other vegetation types tended to be phylogenetically clustered. We suggest that communities with high species richness or overdispersed phylogenetic structure should be a focus for biodiversity conservation within the Dulong Valley because these areas may help maximize the potential of this flora to respond to future global change. In biodiversity hotspots worldwide, we suggest that the phylogenetic structure of a community may serve as a useful measure of phylogenetic diversity in the context of conservation planning.

  14. Third Program Plan for DOE's participation in the IEA Working Party on Energy-Conservation Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The Plan documents the projects currently being conducted by the working party in which DOE is participating and the projects proposed by DOE for consideration by other IEA member nations. Chapter 1 reviews current and planned DOE commitments to existing implementing agreements: buildings and community systems; energy conservation in building complexes; energy cascading; heat pumps with thermal storage; advanced heat pumps; combustion; heat transfer and heat exchangers; energy storage; cement manufacturer; and high-temperature materials for automotive propulsion systems. Chapter 2 reviews planned DOE commitments to new implementing agreements: combustion; pulp and paper; iron and steel; food processing; urban waste; and alcohol additives to fuel. Appendix A discusses the mechanisms for establishing implementing agreements and annexes. Appendix B lists working party members and Appendix C describes the evaluation methodology.

  15. Fish Assemblage Patterns as a Tool to Aid Conservation in the Olifants River Catchment (East), South Africa

    EPA Science Inventory

    South Africa has committed to address freshwater conservation at the catchment scale, using a combination of landscape-level and species-level features as surrogates of freshwater biodiversity. Here we examined fishes in the Olifants catchment, where multiple anthropogenic pressu...

  16. Creating a bridge between data collection and program planning: a technical assistance model to maximize the use of HIV/AIDS surveillance and service utilization data for planning purposes.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jennifer A; Beatty, Maile; Woliver, Renee; Rubinstein, Eric P; Averbach, Abigail R

    2005-12-01

    Over time, improvements in HIV/AIDS surveillance and service utilization data have increased their usefulness for planning programs, targeting resources, and otherwise informing HIV/AIDS policy. However, community planning groups, service providers, and health department staff often have difficulty in interpreting and applying the wide array of data now available. We describe the development of the Bridging Model, a technical assistance model for overcoming barriers to the use of data for program planning. Through the use of an iterative feedback loop in the model, HIV/AIDS data products constantly are evolving to better inform the decision-making tasks of their multiple users. Implementation of this model has led to improved data quality and data products and to a greater willingness and ability among stakeholders to use the data for planning purposes.

  17. Engineering Strategies and Methods for Avoiding Air-Quality Externalities: Dispersion Modeling, Home Energy Conservation, and Scenario Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Andrew James

    Energy conservation can improve air quality by reducing emissions from fuel combustion. The human health value retained through better air quality can then offset the cost of energy conservation. Through this thesis' innovative yet widely-accessible combination of air pollution dispersion modeling and atmospheric chemistry, it is estimated that the health value retained by avoiding emissions from Ontario's former coal-fired generating stations is 5.74/MWh (using an upper-bound value of 265,000 per year of life lost). This value is combined with energy modeling of homes in the first-ever assessment of the air-quality health benefits of low-energy buildings. It is shown that avoided health damages can equal 7% of additional construction costs of energy efficient buildings in Ontario. At 7%, health savings are a significant item in the cost analysis of efficient buildings. Looking to energy efficiency in the context of likely future low-resource natural gas scenarios, building efficient buildings today is shown to be more economically efficient than any building retrofit option. Considering future natural gas scarcity in the context of Ontario's Long-Term Energy Plan reveals that Ontario may be forced to return to coal-fired electricity. Projected coal use would result in externalities greater than $600 million/year; 80% more than air-quality externalities from Ontario's electricity in 1985. Radically aggressive investment in electricity conservation (75% reduction per capita by 2075) is one promising path forward that keeps air-quality externalities below 1985 levels. Non-health externalities are an additional concern, the quantification, and ultimately monetization, of which could be practical using emerging air pollution monitoring technologies. Energy, conservation, energy planning, and energy's externalities form a complex situation in which today's decisions are critical to a successful future. It is clear that reducing the demand for energy is essential and

  18. USE OF POPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS AND RESERVE SELECTION ALGORITHMS IN REGIONAL CONSERVATION PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current reserve selection algorithms have difficulty evaluating connectivity and other factors
    necessary to conserve wide-ranging species in developing landscapes. Conversely, population viability analyses may incorporate detailed demographic data but often lack sufficient spa...

  19. Combining scales in habitat models to improve conservation planning in an endangered vulture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P.

    2009-07-01

    Predictive modelling of species' distributions has been successfully applied in conservation ecology, but effective conservation requires predictive and accurate models. The combination of different scales to build habitat models might improve their predictive ability and hence their usefulness for conservation, but this approach has rarely been evaluated. We developed habitat-occupancy models combining scales from nest-site to landscape for a key population at the northwestern edge of the distribution of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture ( Neophron percnopterus). We used generalised linear models (GLM) and an information-theoretic approach to identify the best combination of scales and resolutions for explaining occurrence. Those models that combined nest-site and landscape scales improved the predictive ability compared with the scale-specific ones. The best combined model had a very high predictive ability when used against an independent dataset (92% correct classifications). Egyptian vultures preferred to nest in caves with vegetation at the entrance that were situated at the base of long cliffs, provided that these cliffs are embedded within low-lying, heterogeneous areas with little topographic irregularity and with little human disturbance. The density of sheep around the nest positively influenced Egyptian vulture presence. Conservation of the studied population should focus on minimising human disturbance and on promoting sustainable development through conservation of traditional pastoralism. Our findings highlight the importance of developing region-specific multiscale models in order to design effective conservation strategies. The approach described here may be applied similarly in other populations and species.

  20. Politics and poker--two game plans shape up in AIDS-control strategy.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    A line from the song 'Politics and Poker,' from the Broadway musical Fiorello, goes: 'Neither game's for children, either game is rough. Decisions, decisions, like who to pick, how to bet, how to play, how to call a bluff.' Events in recent months, leading up to and following the release of CCD's recommendations for preventing transmission of HIV to patients by health care workers, can be characterized as a nation playing both games in trying to deal with undefinable or unexplainable risks of AIDS transmission. The nation seems split between those who favor politically astute (though not necessarily logically or ethically sound) solutions, and those who believe that HIV-infected practitioners must make decisions on testing, disclosure, and changes in practice based on a rational assessment of each individual case--factoring in the odds of viral transmission, the chance of losing a career, the interpretation of risk, adherence to stringent infection control technique, timing, patient confidence, and peer support. Ether one is a gamble. This special issue of Hospital Ethics takes a look at the politics and poker of AIDS testing and disclosure, with special attention to the kinds of advice being offered to hospitals as they develop policies on infected health care workers.

  1. 7 CFR 1469.7 - Benchmark condition inventory and conservation stewardship plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... activities, such as, grazing management, nutrient management, pest management, and irrigation water management plans; (5) A description of the significant resource concerns and other resource concerns that...

  2. InformedTogether: Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Decision Aid to Facilitate Shared Advance Care Planning for Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Uhler, Lauren M; Pérez Figueroa, Rafael E; Dickson, Mark; McCullagh, Lauren; Kushniruk, Andre; Monkman, Helen; Witteman, Holly O

    2015-01-01

    Background Advance care planning may help patients receive treatments that better align with their goals for care. We developed a Web-based decision aid called InformedTogether to facilitate shared advance care planning between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and their doctors. Objective Our objective was to assess the usability of the InformedTogether decision aid, including whether users could interact with the decision aid to engage in tasks required for shared decision making, whether users found the decision aid acceptable, and implications for redesign. Methods We conducted an observational study with 15 patients and 8 doctors at two ethnically and socioeconomically diverse outpatient clinics. Data included quantitative and qualitative observations of patients and doctors using the decision aid on tablet or laptop computers and data from semistructured interviews. Patients were shown the decision aid by a researcher acting as the doctor. Pulmonary doctors were observed using the decision aid independently and asked to think aloud (ie, verbalize their thoughts). A thematic analysis was implemented to explore key issues related to decision aid usability. Results Although patients and doctors found InformedTogether acceptable and would recommend that doctors use the decision aid with COPD patients, many patients had difficulty understanding the icon arrays that were used to communicate estimated prognoses and could not articulate the definitions of the two treatment choices—Full Code and Do Not Resuscitate (DNR). Minor usability problems regarding content, links, layout, and consistency were also identified and corresponding recommendations were outlined. In particular, participants suggested including more information about potential changes in quality of life resulting from the alternative advance directives. Some doctor participants thought the decision aid was too long and some thought it may cause nervousness among patients due to

  3. 77 FR 52754 - Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... include new and existing small-scale wind energy facilities, such as single-turbine demonstration projects, as well as large, multi-turbine commercial wind facilities. Covered Species The planning partners are... consortium of companies is known as the Wind Energy Bat Action Team (WEBAT). Member companies at this...

  4. Planning for an energy-efficient future: The experience with implementing energy conservation programs for new residential and commercial buildings: Volume 2, Program descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Harris, J.

    1988-09-01

    This volume contains the descriptions of programs contained in Volume 1 of our main report: Planning for an Energy-Efficient Future: The Experience With Implementing Energy Conservation Programs For New Residential and Commercial Buildings (LBL-25525).

  5. Developing a Program Budgeting System as an Aid in Planning Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggart, S. A.

    In planning for higher education, budgets should be developed that reflect not merely the status quo but rather provide a realistic picture of what occurs relative to what should occur in current programs. This requires setting up an informational framework to provide a mechanism for generating and evaluating alternate ways to achieve…

  6. Human Capital: DOD Should Fully Develop Its Civilian Strategic Workforce Plan to Aid Decision Makers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    DOD’s 2013-2018 Workforce Plan 22 functional communities 32 mission-critical occupations (series) Medical Psychology Series (0180) Social Work...Updates. Listen to our Podcasts . Visit GAO on the web at www.gao.gov. Contact: Website: http://www.gao.gov/fraudnet/fraudnet.htm E-mail: fraudnet

  7. Building Assets with Community Effort: Computerized Mapping Aids Long-Term Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyman, Wynne; Mael, Stan; Kunkel, Mary

    1999-01-01

    To facilitate an integrated 10-year development plan, a Colorado Girl Scouts council collaborated with an architecture firm to create computer-generated maps of its camp properties, with links to relevant information. Maps and software provided unprecedented accuracy and access, were easily updated, and facilitated funding presentations. Sidebars…

  8. A Plan for Research Toward Computer-Aided Instruction With Natural English. Technical Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert S.; Silberman, Harry F.

    A research program was planned to develop a first, experimental computer-assisted instruction system that would permit interaction with students in a subset natural English. At the base of this system was a model of cognition that would represent the knowledge content of the material to be taught and the student's current knowledge of it. A…

  9. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY I QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...

  10. EPA Brownfields Grant Will Aid City of St. Helens with Plans to Revitalize Waterfront Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - March 17, 2015) The City of St. Helens, Oregon has been selected to receive a $200,000 Brownfields Area-Wide Planning (AWP) grant from EPA to help move towards the goal of revitalizing a former industrial property along the Columbia River waterf

  11. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY II QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...

  12. EPA Brownfields Grant Will Aid City of Spokane with Plans to Revitalize Hillyard Industrial Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle - March 17, 2015) The City of Spokane, Washington has been selected to receive a $200,000 Brownfields Area-Wide Planning (AWP) grant from EPA to help move towards the goal of revitalizing a former industrial property in their city.

  13. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY III QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into four categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that projec...

  14. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY IV QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into four categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that projec...

  15. Methods to model and predict the ViewRay treatment deliveries to aid patient scheduling and treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Wu, Yu; Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Archer, Brent; Li, Harold; Yang, Deshan

    2016-03-01

    A software tool is developed, given a new treatment plan, to predict treatment delivery time for radiation therapy (RT) treatments of patients on ViewRay magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) delivery system. This tool is necessary for managing patient treatment scheduling in our clinic. The predicted treatment delivery time and the assessment of plan complexities could also be useful to aid treatment planning. A patient's total treatment delivery time, not including time required for localization, is modeled as the sum of four components: 1) the treatment initialization time; 2) the total beam-on time; 3) the gantry rotation time; and 4) the multileaf collimator (MLC) motion time. Each of the four components is predicted separately. The total beam-on time can be calculated using both the planned beam-on time and the decay-corrected dose rate. To predict the remain-ing components, we retrospectively analyzed the patient treatment delivery record files. The initialization time is demonstrated to be random since it depends on the final gantry angle of the previous treatment. Based on modeling the relationships between the gantry rotation angles and the corresponding rotation time, linear regression is applied to predict the gantry rotation time. The MLC motion time is calculated using the leaves delay modeling method and the leaf motion speed. A quantitative analysis was performed to understand the correlation between the total treatment time and the plan complexity. The proposed algorithm is able to predict the ViewRay treatment delivery time with the average prediction error 0.22 min or 1.82%, and the maximal prediction error 0.89 min or 7.88%. The analysis has shown the correlation between the plan modulation (PM) factor and the total treatment delivery time, as well as the treatment delivery duty cycle. A possibility has been identified to significantly reduce MLC motion time by optimizing the positions of closed MLC pairs. The accuracy of

  16. Methods to model and predict the ViewRay treatment deliveries to aid patient scheduling and treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Wu, Yu; Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Archer, Brent; Li, Harold; Yang, Deshan

    2016-03-08

    A software tool is developed, given a new treatment plan, to predict treatment delivery time for radiation therapy (RT) treatments of patients on ViewRay magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) delivery system. This tool is necessary for managing patient treatment scheduling in our clinic. The predicted treatment delivery time and the assessment of plan complexities could also be useful to aid treatment planning. A patient's total treatment delivery time, not including time required for localization, is modeled as the sum of four components: 1) the treatment initialization time; 2) the total beam-on time; 3) the gantry rotation time; and 4) the multileaf collimator (MLC) motion time. Each of the four components is predicted separately. The total beam-on time can be calculated using both the planned beam-on time and the decay-corrected dose rate. To predict the remain-ing components, we retrospectively analyzed the patient treatment delivery record files. The initialization time is demonstrated to be random since it depends on the final gantry angle of the previous treatment. Based on modeling the relationships between the gantry rotation angles and the corresponding rotation time, linear regression is applied to predict the gantry rotation time. The MLC motion time is calculated using the leaves delay modeling method and the leaf motion speed. A quantitative analysis was performed to understand the correlation between the total treatment time and the plan complexity. The proposed algorithm is able to predict the ViewRay treatment delivery time with the average prediction error 0.22min or 1.82%, and the maximal prediction error 0.89 min or 7.88%. The analysis has shown the correlation between the plan modulation (PM) factor and the total treatment delivery time, as well as the treatment delivery duty cycle. A possibility has been identified to significantly reduce MLC motion time by optimizing the positions of closed MLC pairs. The accuracy of

  17. Ethics, social forces, and politics in AIDS-related research: experience in planning and implementing a household HIV seroprevalence survey.

    PubMed

    Hurley, P; Pinder, G

    1992-01-01

    A controversial proposal for a survey of HIV infection in a probability sample of U.S. household residents as part of the government's surveillance of the AIDS epidemic provided a number of challenges to survey science. These were compounded by ethical concerns and social sensitivities surrounding the topic. Questions about the ability of a voluntary survey to produce an accurate national estimate of infection demanded rigorous study. In 1987, the Centers for Disease Control began planning field tests of a survey to obtain blood samples and information about respondents' sexual behavior and drug use. The authors were part of the team deployed by the National Center for Health Statistics that, with the contractor staff from Research Triangle Institute, conducted studies in Pittsburgh and Dallas, but only after much was learned about developing processes and procedures for dealing both with broad community concerns and with the interests of those gravely touched by the epidemic.

  18. Affordable Care Act Qualified Health Plan Enrollment for AIDS Drug Assistance Program Clients: Virginia's Experience and Best Practices

    PubMed Central

    Rodney, Robert C.; Rhodes, Anne; Bailey, Steven; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2014, many safety net resources, including state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs), incorporated ACA Qualified Health Plans (QHPs) into their healthcare delivery model. This article highlights the benefits of the ACA for persons living with HIV. It also describes the range of strategies employed by state ADAPs to enroll patients in QHPs. The Virginia ADAP ACA implementation experience is described to illustrate one ADAP's shift to purchasing QHPs in addition to providing direct medications. Virginia ADAP is in a Medicaid nonexpansion state and funds the full costs of the QHP premiums, deductibles, and medication copayments. Virginia's experience is applicable to other Medicaid nonexpansion states and to state ADAPs in Medicaid expansion states, who are looking for options for their Medicaid ineligible clients. This article provides practical details of Virginia ADAP's ACA implementation as well as insights and best practices at both the state and clinic level. PMID:27346694

  19. Affordable Care Act Qualified Health Plan Enrollment for AIDS Drug Assistance Program Clients: Virginia's Experience and Best Practices.

    PubMed

    McManus, Kathleen A; Rodney, Robert C; Rhodes, Anne; Bailey, Steven; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    With the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2014, many safety net resources, including state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs), incorporated ACA Qualified Health Plans (QHPs) into their healthcare delivery model. This article highlights the benefits of the ACA for persons living with HIV. It also describes the range of strategies employed by state ADAPs to enroll patients in QHPs. The Virginia ADAP ACA implementation experience is described to illustrate one ADAP's shift to purchasing QHPs in addition to providing direct medications. Virginia ADAP is in a Medicaid nonexpansion state and funds the full costs of the QHP premiums, deductibles, and medication copayments. Virginia's experience is applicable to other Medicaid nonexpansion states and to state ADAPs in Medicaid expansion states, who are looking for options for their Medicaid ineligible clients. This article provides practical details of Virginia ADAP's ACA implementation as well as insights and best practices at both the state and clinic level.

  20. Generation Of Manufacturing Routing And Operations Using Structured Knowledge As Basis To Application Of Computer Aided In Process Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswaldo, Luiz Agostinho

    2011-01-01

    The development of computer aided resources in automation of generation of manufacturing routings and operations is being mainly accomplished through the search of similarities between existent ones, resulting standard process routings that are grouped by analysis of similarities between parts or routings. This article proposes the development of manufacturing routings and operations detailment using a methodology which steps will define the initial, intermediate and final operations, starting from the rough piece and going up to the final specifications, that must have binunivocal relationship with the part design specifications. Each step will use the so called rules of precedence to link and chain the routing operations. The rules of precedence order and prioritize the knowledge of various manufacturing processes, taking in account the theories of machining, forging, assembly, and heat treatments; also, utilizes the theories of accumulation of tolerances and process capabilities, between others. It is also reinforced the availability of manufacturing databases related to process tolerances, deviations of machine tool- cutting tool- fixturing devices—workpiece, and process capabilities. The statement and application of rules of precedence, linking and joining manufacturing concepts in a logical and structured way, and their application in the methodology steps will make viable the utilization of structured knowledge instead of tacit one currently available in the manufacturing engineering departments, in the generation of manufacturing routing and operations. Consequently, the development of Computer Aided in Process Planning will be facilitated, due to the structured knowledge applied with this methodology.

  1. Plant diversity and conservation in China: planning a strategic bioresource for a sustainable future.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongwen

    2011-01-01

    China is one of the richest countries for plant diversity with approximately 33 000 vascular plant species, ranking second in the world. However, the plant diversity in China is increasingly threatened, with an estimated 4000–5000 plant species being threatened or on the verge of extinction, making China, proportionally, one of the highest priorities for global plant biodiversity conservation. Coming in the face of the current ecological crisis, it is timely that China has launched China's Strategy for Plant Conservation (CSPC). China has increasingly recognized the importance of plant diversity in efforts to conserve and sustainably use its plant diversity. More than 3000 nature reserves have been established, covering approximately 16% of the land surface of China. These natural reserves play important roles in plant conservation, covering more than 85% of types of terrestrial natural ecosystems, 40% of types of natural wetlands, 20% of native forests and 65% of natural communities of vascular plants. Meanwhile, the flora conserved in botanical gardens is also extensive. A recent survey shows that the 10 largest botanical gardens have living collections of 43 502 taxa, with a total of 24 667 species in ex situ conservation. These provide an important reserve of plant resources for sustainable economic and social development in China. Plant diversity is the basis for bioresources and sustainable utilization. The 21st century is predicted to be an era of bio-economy driven by advances of bioscience and biotechnology. Bio-economy may become the fourth economy form after agricultural, industrial, and information and information technology economies, having far-reaching impacts on sustainable development in agriculture, forestry, environmental protection, light industry, food supply and health care and other micro-economy aspects. Thus, a strategic and forward vision for conservation of plant diversity and sustainable use of plant resources in the 21st century is of

  2. The behavioral impacts of firm-level energy-conservation goals in China's 11th five-year plan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Xu, Yuan; Leung, Yee; Yung, Chor Wing

    2015-01-06

    Energy efficiency is one of the most effective means of curbing energy consumption and associated pollutant emissions. However, energy-saving opportunities at negative net costs, or an energy-efficiency gap, widely exist and they defy an entirely rational explanation. This paper examines the significant overperformance of energy-intensive firms against their assigned energy-conservation goals in a national program in China's 11th Five-Year plan (2006-2010). Higher energy prices can be only partially responsible for more active energy saving. Behavioral constraints are explained to cause the bounded rationality of firms on energy-efficiency investment. As our theoretical and empirical studies show, energy-conservation goals could overcome such behavioral constraints to accelerate the commercialization of energy-efficiency technologies, reduce uncertainty and hesitancy of relevant investment, facilitate the enrichment of information, and concentrate the attention of firms on energy conservation. We conclude that goal-setting could provide an effective complementary policy instrument in dealing with energy conservation in China and possibly in other parts of the world.

  3. A web-based computer aided system for liver surgery planning: initial implementation on RayPlus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming; Yuan, Rong; Sun, Zhi; Li, Tianhong; Xie, Qingguo

    2016-03-01

    At present, computer aided systems for liver surgery design and risk evaluation are widely used in clinical all over the world. However, most systems are local applications that run on high-performance workstations, and the images have to processed offline. Compared with local applications, a web-based system is accessible anywhere and for a range of regardless of relative processing power or operating system. RayPlus (http://rayplus.life.hust.edu.cn), a B/S platform for medical image processing, was developed to give a jump start on web-based medical image processing. In this paper, we implement a computer aided system for liver surgery planning on the architecture of RayPlus. The system consists of a series of processing to CT images including filtering, segmentation, visualization and analyzing. Each processing is packaged into an executable program and runs on the server side. CT images in DICOM format are processed step by to interactive modeling on browser with zero-installation and server-side computing. The system supports users to semi-automatically segment the liver, intrahepatic vessel and tumor from the pre-processed images. Then, surface and volume models are built to analyze the vessel structure and the relative position between adjacent organs. The results show that the initial implementation meets satisfactorily its first-order objectives and provide an accurate 3D delineation of the liver anatomy. Vessel labeling and resection simulation are planned to add in the future. The system is available on Internet at the link mentioned above and an open username for testing is offered.

  4. Computer-Aided Mission Planning System (CAMPS) Test 1-82.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-23

    biective6 To assess the marginal value off addin4-g Eb-erimenta. ?enetration and Analysis Support Sys-tem SPASS) tyrpe canabi !lities to the :A,,!S. .3.7...Objective To assess t-he user’s overall omnion off the .ZA.’S/:?PASS system as a mission planning tool. 1 .3.8 Objecti-,e 3 To com- oile a list off

  5. A Fighter Pilot’s Intelligent Aide for Tactical Mission Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    airfields and to project the effects of implementing the plan" ( Callero et al, 1984:v). This system can project the effects of implementing a...The rules were developed, based on information provided by experienced air targeteers ( Callero et al, 1981:3). They represent the domain ex- perts...resources and enemy target elements" ( Callero et al, 1984:4). The preparation of the Air Tasking Order (ATO) is the final phase. The transmission of

  6. The impact of the US president’s emergency plan for AIDS relief (PEPFAR) HIV and AIDS program on the Nigerian health system

    PubMed Central

    Odekunle, Florence Femi; Odekunle, Raphael Oluseun

    2016-01-01

    The PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program has had noticeable impacts on the Nigerian health system. The impacts are presented using the World Health Organization (WHO) health system six building blocks. These include service delivery, health workforce, health information, medical products, vaccines and technologies, financing and governance. PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program has improved the delivery of prevention and care services for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The most important measure of PEPFAR’s success is the availability of free ART in Nigeria for PLWHA who need this. The PEPFAR program has brought about increased political awareness of and raised the priority given to public health by governments and civil society through its scaling up response to HIV/AIDS. The scaled-up program has direct benefits on the health workforce by preserving HIV-infected health personnel’s lives so that they can live longer enjoy a better quality of life and return to their jobs; all of which invariably enhances the country’s health workforce. Moreover, the training and retraining in PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program have boosted both the morale and the skills of the health workforce. Considerable resources have been brought into Nigeria for scaled-up HIV/AIDS treatment by PEPFAR. However, this has contributed to the development of donor dependency syndrome by Nigerian government. There is a non-alignment between PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program and the recipient country’s health system. Attention to maternal mortality and other reproductive health services has suffered as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) pursue AIDS money and local governments receive signals from the political center to prioritize HIV/AIDS over other problems that are just as serious. A functional health system is important in prevention of the HIV epidemic. Hence efforts should be made to strengthen health systems. The PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program should be harmonized with the country’s health system for maximum impact. PMID

  7. The impact of the US president's emergency plan for AIDS relief (PEPFAR) HIV and AIDS program on the Nigerian health system.

    PubMed

    Odekunle, Florence Femi; Odekunle, Raphael Oluseun

    2016-01-01

    The PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program has had noticeable impacts on the Nigerian health system. The impacts are presented using the World Health Organization (WHO) health system six building blocks. These include service delivery, health workforce, health information, medical products, vaccines and technologies, financing and governance. PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program has improved the delivery of prevention and care services for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The most important measure of PEPFAR's success is the availability of free ART in Nigeria for PLWHA who need this. The PEPFAR program has brought about increased political awareness of and raised the priority given to public health by governments and civil society through its scaling up response to HIV/AIDS. The scaled-up program has direct benefits on the health workforce by preserving HIV-infected health personnel's lives so that they can live longer enjoy a better quality of life and return to their jobs; all of which invariably enhances the country's health workforce. Moreover, the training and retraining in PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program have boosted both the morale and the skills of the health workforce. Considerable resources have been brought into Nigeria for scaled-up HIV/AIDS treatment by PEPFAR. However, this has contributed to the development of donor dependency syndrome by Nigerian government. There is a non-alignment between PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program and the recipient country's health system. Attention to maternal mortality and other reproductive health services has suffered as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) pursue AIDS money and local governments receive signals from the political center to prioritize HIV/AIDS over other problems that are just as serious. A functional health system is important in prevention of the HIV epidemic. Hence efforts should be made to strengthen health systems. The PEPFAR HIV/AIDS program should be harmonized with the country's health system for maximum impact.

  8. Conservative Management and Planned Surgery for Periviable Advanced Extrauterine Abdominal Pregnancy with Favorable Outcome: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Harirah, Hassan M.; Smith, J. Michael; Dixon, C. Luke; Hankins, Gary D. V.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare condition that poses diagnostic and management challenges. A high index of suspicion and careful assessment of the patient's symptoms, supplemented with obstetric ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging, are crucial for timely diagnosis and management to prevent life-threatening complications. The presence of periviable fetuses in advanced abdominal pregnancies increases the challenge to achieve a balance between maternal and fetal benefits and risks. Early diagnosis and management decisions via a multidisciplinary approach and planned delivery are of paramount importance to minimize complications and achieve favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Even in the setting of oligohydramnios and suspected preterm premature rupture of membranes, in-patient conservative management and an individualized planned surgical approach that includes removing or leaving the placenta in place are appropriate for managing the periviable abdominal pregnancy. PMID:27595049

  9. Conservation planning for offsetting the impacts of development: a case study of biodiversity and renewable energy in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreitler, Jason R.; Schloss, Carrie A.; Soong, Oliver; Lee Hannah,; Davis, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    Balancing society’s competing needs of development and conservation requires careful consideration of tradeoffs. Renewable energy development and biodiversity conservation are often considered beneficial environmental goals. The direct footprint and disturbance of renewable energy, however, can displace species’ habitat and negatively impact populations and natural communities if sited without ecological consideration. Offsets have emerged as a potentially useful tool to mitigate residual impacts after trying to avoid, minimize, or restore affected sites. Yet the problem of efficiently designing a set of offset sites becomes increasingly complex where many species or many sites are involved. Spatial conservation prioritization tools are designed to handle this problem, but have seen little application to offset siting and analysis. To address this need we designed an offset siting support tool for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) of California, and present a case study of hypothetical impacts from solar development in the Western Mojave subsection. We compare two offset scenarios designed to mitigate a hypothetical 15,331 ha derived from proposed utility-scale solar energy development (USSED) projects. The first scenario prioritizes offsets based precisely on impacted features, while the second scenario offsets impacts to maximize biodiversity conservation gains in the region. The two methods only agree on 28% of their prioritized sites and differ in meeting species-specific offset goals. Differences between the two scenarios highlight the importance of clearly specifying choices and priorities for offset siting and mitigation in general. Similarly, the effects of background climate and land use change may lessen the durability or effectiveness of offsets if not considered. Our offset siting support tool was designed specifically for the DRECP area, but with minor code modification could work well in other offset analyses, and could provide

  10. Conservation Planning for Offsetting the Impacts of Development: A Case Study of Biodiversity and Renewable Energy in the Mojave Desert.

    PubMed

    Kreitler, Jason; Schloss, Carrie A; Soong, Oliver; Hannah, Lee; Davis, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    Balancing society's competing needs of development and conservation requires careful consideration of tradeoffs. Renewable energy development and biodiversity conservation are often considered beneficial environmental goals. The direct footprint and disturbance of renewable energy, however, can displace species' habitat and negatively impact populations and natural communities if sited without ecological consideration. Offsets have emerged as a potentially useful tool to mitigate residual impacts after trying to avoid, minimize, or restore affected sites. Yet the problem of efficiently designing a set of offset sites becomes increasingly complex where many species or many sites are involved. Spatial conservation prioritization tools are designed to handle this problem, but have seen little application to offset siting and analysis. To address this need we designed an offset siting support tool for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) of California, and present a case study of hypothetical impacts from solar development in the Western Mojave subsection. We compare two offset scenarios designed to mitigate a hypothetical 15,331 ha derived from proposed utility-scale solar energy development (USSED) projects. The first scenario prioritizes offsets based precisely on impacted features, while the second scenario offsets impacts to maximize biodiversity conservation gains in the region. The two methods only agree on 28% of their prioritized sites and differ in meeting species-specific offset goals. Differences between the two scenarios highlight the importance of clearly specifying choices and priorities for offset siting and mitigation in general. Similarly, the effects of background climate and land use change may lessen the durability or effectiveness of offsets if not considered. Our offset siting support tool was designed specifically for the DRECP area, but with minor code modification could work well in other offset analyses, and could provide

  11. Conservation Planning for Offsetting the Impacts of Development: A Case Study of Biodiversity and Renewable Energy in the Mojave Desert

    PubMed Central

    Kreitler, Jason; Schloss, Carrie A.; Soong, Oliver; Hannah, Lee; Davis, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    Balancing society’s competing needs of development and conservation requires careful consideration of tradeoffs. Renewable energy development and biodiversity conservation are often considered beneficial environmental goals. The direct footprint and disturbance of renewable energy, however, can displace species’ habitat and negatively impact populations and natural communities if sited without ecological consideration. Offsets have emerged as a potentially useful tool to mitigate residual impacts after trying to avoid, minimize, or restore affected sites. Yet the problem of efficiently designing a set of offset sites becomes increasingly complex where many species or many sites are involved. Spatial conservation prioritization tools are designed to handle this problem, but have seen little application to offset siting and analysis. To address this need we designed an offset siting support tool for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) of California, and present a case study of hypothetical impacts from solar development in the Western Mojave subsection. We compare two offset scenarios designed to mitigate a hypothetical 15,331 ha derived from proposed utility-scale solar energy development (USSED) projects. The first scenario prioritizes offsets based precisely on impacted features, while the second scenario offsets impacts to maximize biodiversity conservation gains in the region. The two methods only agree on 28% of their prioritized sites and differ in meeting species-specific offset goals. Differences between the two scenarios highlight the importance of clearly specifying choices and priorities for offset siting and mitigation in general. Similarly, the effects of background climate and land use change may lessen the durability or effectiveness of offsets if not considered. Our offset siting support tool was designed specifically for the DRECP area, but with minor code modification could work well in other offset analyses, and could provide

  12. Characterization and placement of wetlands for integrated watershed conservation practice planning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constructed wetlands have been recognized as an efficient and cost-effective conservation practice to protect water quality through reducing the transport of sediments and nutrients from upstream croplands to downstream water bodies. The challenge resides in targeting the strategic location of wetla...

  13. The Colorado Plateau V: research, environmental planning, and management for collaborative conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villarreal, Miguel L.; van Riper, Carena J.; Johnson, Matthew J.; van Riper, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers some 130,000 square miles of sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, canyons, arches, and cliffs in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. With elevations ranging from 3,000 to 14,000 feet, the natural systems found within the plateau are dramatically varied, from desert to alpine conditions. This volume, the fifth from the University of Arizona Press and the tenth overall, focuses on adaptation of resource management and conservation to climate change and water scarcity, protecting biodiversity through restructured energy policies, ensuring wildlife habitat connectivity across barriers, building effective conservation networks, and exploring new opportunities for education and leadership in conservation science. An informative read for people interested in the conservation and natural history of the region, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for those people engaged in the management of cultural and biological resources of the Colorado Plateau, as well as scientists interested in methods and tools for land and resource management throughout the West.

  14. Ecoregion prioritization suggests an armoury not a silver bullet for conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Funk, Stephan M; Fa, John E

    2010-01-27

    In the face of accelerating species extinctions, map-based prioritization systems are increasingly useful to decide where to pursue conservation action most effectively. However, a number of seemingly inconsistent schemes have emerged, mostly focussing on endemism. Here we use global vertebrate distributions in terrestrial ecoregions to evaluate how continuous and categorical ranking schemes target and accumulate endangered taxa within the IUCN Red List, Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE), and EDGE of Existence programme. We employed total, endemic and threatened species richness and an estimator for richness-adjusted endemism as metrics in continuous prioritization, and WWF's Global200 and Conservation International's (CI) Hotspots in categorical prioritization. Our results demonstrate that all metrics target endangerment more efficiently than by chance, but each selects unique sets of top-ranking ecoregions, which overlap only partially, and include different sets of threatened species. Using the top 100 ecoregions as defined by continuous prioritization metrics, we develop an inclusive map for global vertebrate conservation that incorporates important areas for endemism, richness, and threat. Finally, we assess human footprint and protection levels within these areas to reveal that endemism sites are more impacted but have more protection, in contrast to high richness and threat ones. Given such contrasts, major efforts to protect global biodiversity must involve complementary conservation approaches in areas of unique species as well as those with highest diversity and threat.

  15. 76 FR 38370 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... could revisit the project ranking to adapt to changing management needs. This notice announces that NMFS... available from http://www.regulations.gov , or the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council... INFORMATION: Section 204(e) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act...

  16. 78 FR 48861 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Council's Executive ] Committee could revisit the project ranking to adapt to changing management needs... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council), 1164 Bishop St., Suite 1400, Honolulu, HI 96813, tel 808-522... Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act) authorizes the Secretary of State, with the...

  17. 77 FR 45368 - Draft Environmental Assessment, Habitat Conservation Plan, and Application for an Incidental Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ...-turbine wind farm. Pursuant to the ESA and the National Environmental Policy Act, we announce the... CPP's 28-turbine wind farm. A conservation program to minimize and mitigate for the impacts of the incidental take would be implemented by CPP as described in the draft Criterion Wind Indiana Bat...

  18. Conservation Education: Strategic Plan To Advance Environmental Literacy. 2007-2012. FS-879

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1905, the Forest Service has recognized a role and responsibility to educate people about management and conservation of American forests and grasslands. The Forest Service provides expertise in science, land management, and outdoor experiences as the foundation for environmental literacy efforts. Many conservation…

  19. 77 FR 16556 - Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge, Boundary County, ID; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Westside Road, Bonners Ferry, ID 83805. In-Person Viewing or Pickup: Call (208) 267-3888 to make an... established under the Migratory Bird Conservation Act ``for use as an inviolate sanctuary, or for any other management purpose, for migratory birds.'' The refuge provides important habitat for waterbirds,...

  20. Integrating species distributional, conservation planning, and individual based population models: A case study in critical habitat evaluation for the Northern Spotted Owl

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background / Question / Methods As part of the ongoing northern spotted owl recovery planning effort, we evaluated a series of alternative potential critical habitat scenarios using a species-distribution model (MaxEnt), a conservation-planning model (Zonation), and an individua...

  1. How well have China's recent five-year plans been implemented for energy conservation and air pollution control?

    PubMed

    Mao, XianQiang; Zhou, Ji; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2014-09-02

    This study evaluates how well China's 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans have been implemented in terms of energy conservation and air pollution control and deconstructs the effects of the economic, energy, and environmental policies included in the Plans. A "counterfactual" comparative-scenario method is deployed, which assumes a business as usual scenario in which the changes in economic, energy, and environmental parameters are "frozen", and then reactivates them one by one, with the help of LEAP modeling. It is found that during the 11th Five-Year Plan period, the binding targets were basically achieved. Economic growth put a great strain upon the energy demand and the environment, but energy policy made a decisive contribution by promoting energy efficiency and structure. Environmental policy promoted the deployment of end-of-pipe treatment which led to the control of certain air pollutants but at the expense of an increase in energy use and in the emission of other pollutants. During the ongoing 12th Five-Year Plan period, energy policy's potential for efficiency improvement is shrinking, but economic policy is restraining economic growth thus making a positive contribution. Environmental policy attempts to enforce multipollutant reduction, but there is still insufficient focus on the cocontrol of different pollutants and CO2.

  2. An Examination of the Predictive Relationships of Self-Evaluation Capacity and Staff Competency on Strategic Planning in Hong Kong Aided Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Eric C. K.

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to examine the predictive relationships of self-evaluation capacity and staff competency on the effect of strategic planning in aided secondary schools in Hong Kong. A quantitative questionnaire survey was compiled to collect data from principals of the participating schools. Confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests…

  3. A Gap in the Literature: The Influence of the Design, Operations, and Marketing of Student Aid Programs on College-Going Plans and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes what is known from prior research about the impact of student financial aid program design, operations, and marketing on the formation of family (including parents' and children's) college-going aspirations, expectations, and plans, and the resulting college-going behaviors of potential students. The review focuses on the…

  4. Landscape ecological planning: Integrating land use and wildlife conservation for biomass crops

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, A.

    1995-12-31

    What do a mussel shoat, a zoo, and a biomass plantation have in common? Each can benefit from ecology-based landscape planning. This paper provides examples of landscape ecological planning from some diverse projects the author has worked on, and discusses how processes employed and lessons learned from these projects are being used to help answer questions about the effects of biomass plantings (hardwood tree crops and native grasses) on wildlife habitat. Biomass environmental research is being designed to assess how plantings of different acreage, composition and landscape context affect wildlife habitat value, and is addressing the cumulative effect on wildlife habitat of establishing multiple biomass plantations across the landscape. Through landscape ecological planning, answers gleaned from research can also help guide biomass planting site selection and harvest strategies to improve habitat for native wildlife species within the context of economically viable plantation management - thereby integrating the needs of people with those of the environment.

  5. Industrial sector energy conservation programs in the People`s Republic of China during the seventh five-year plan (1986--1990)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhiping; Sinton, J.E.; Yang Fuqiang; Levine, M.D.; Ting, M.K.

    1994-09-01

    The impetus at the national level to invest in energy conservation is quite strong and has long been reflected not only in official pronouncements, but also in the investments and organizational activities of the Chinese government. In the early 1980s the central government began a program of direct investments in industrial energy conservation that continues to the present. In addition, concurrently established governmental and quasi-governmental agencies have pursued conservation through administrative and educational measures. In Section 2 of this paper the authors outline the policies and institutions that supported China`s program of energy conservation investments in the Sixth and Seventh Five-Year Plans (FYPs) (1981--1985 and 1986--1990). In Section 3 they describe examples of the types of conservation projects pursued in four industrial subsectors: ferrous metals manufacturing; non-ferrous metals mining and manufacturing; chemicals manufacturing; and building materials manufacturing. Section 4 presents a simple methodology for comparing the costs of energy conservation to those of energy supply. Further discussion points out the applicability and limitations of this methodology to State Planning Commission published statistical material on the overall results of energy conservation investments. Though problematic, such analysis indicates that energy conservation investments were probably substantially cheaper than investments in equivalent energy supply would have been. They end with a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered in carrying out the conservation investment programs.

  6. 77 FR 5564 - Tehachapi Uplands Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan; Kern County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... EIS, and considers a 2010 analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey on occurrence of California condor in... the following federally listed animal species: California condor (Gymnogyps californianus--federally... acre Tunis and Winters ridge area, which is designated as the Condor Study Area under the plan and...

  7. Management Strategies for Sustainability Education, Planning, Design, Energy Conservation in California Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petratos, Panagiotis; Damaskou, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the effects of campus sustainability planning to annual campus energy inflows and outflows in California higher education. The paper also offers a preliminary statistical analysis for the evaluation of impact factors on energy outflows and a link between energy outflows and building…

  8. 78 FR 4430 - Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge, FL; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge, 1502 SE. Kings Bay Drive, Crystal River, FL 34429. Alternatively, you....'' Chassahowitzka NWR is managed as a part of the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Complex). The...; Southwest Florida Water Management District; Citrus County Planning; City of Crystal River; National...

  9. Promoting Engagement: Using Species Action Plans to Bring Together Students and Conservation Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Graham W.; Turnbull, Shona; Spencer, James

    2008-01-01

    We describe an exercise, the production of a species action plan, which utilises components of both transmission mode and experiential learning. This exercise brings together students and a professional role model to promote a stronger engagement with aspects of local biodiversity management. We outline perceived benefits and outcomes of the…

  10. 76 FR 71598 - Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Final... http://www.fws.gov/pacific/planning/main/docs/HI-PI/docsjcpearl.htm . Email: Laura_Beauregard@fws.gov... Kamehameha Highway, Room 2C, Hale`iwa, HI 96712. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Ellis, Project...

  11. 76 FR 46317 - Nantucket National Wildlife Refuge, Nantucket, MA; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan, Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... for public input in local news media, our project mailing list, and on our regional planning Web site... photography, and environmental education and interpretation. We will review and update the CCP at least every...; February 24, 1999) announcing we were preparing a CCP and environmental impact statement (EIS) for...

  12. 76 FR 48877 - Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge, Boundary County, ID; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    .../kootenai/refuge_planning.html ; select ``Contact Us.'' In-Person Drop-off, Viewing, or Pickup: Call (208... sanctuary, or for any other management purpose, for migratory birds.'' The refuge provides important habitat... walking (on leash only), cross-country skiing, and snowshoeing as weather and road conditions...

  13. 78 FR 68858 - Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge, Orange County, CA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge, Orange County, CA; Final Comprehensive...) for the Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge). In the CCP, we describe how we will manage the....fws.gov/refuge/Seal_Beach/what_we_do/planning.html . Email: Victoria_Touchstone@fws.gov ....

  14. A software tool to aid budget planning for long-term care at local authority level.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haifeng; Chaussalet, Thierry; Toffa, Sam; Crowther, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a software tool that implements a novel modelling framework developed by the authors to provide useful information to budget planners for long-term care at local authority level. By combining unit costs of care with an underlying survival model for publicly funded residents in long-term care, the software tool is able to provide forecasts on the cost of maintaining the group of elderly who are currently in long-term care (referred to as known commitments) for a period of time. User interacts with the tool via a friendly graphical interface that guides them through a set of screens of options in a familiar wizard fashion. This tool was created and tested in collaboration with an English borough. Feedbacks from the care planner and manager show that the tool helps them gain better understanding on the behaviour of length-of-stay of residents under their care, and provides quantitative inputs into their decision making on budget planning for long-term care.

  15. Progress, challenges, and new opportunities for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV under the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.

    PubMed

    Chi, Benjamin H; Adler, Michelle R; Bolu, Omotayo; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Ekouevi, Didier K; Gieselman, Anna; Chipato, Tsungai; Luo, Chewe; Phelps, B Ryan; McClure, Craig; Mofenson, Lynne M; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

    2012-08-15

    In June 2011, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and other collaborators outlined a transformative plan to virtually eliminate pediatric AIDS worldwide. The ambitious targets of this initiative included a 90% reduction in new pediatric HIV infections and a 50% reduction in HIV-related maternal mortality--all by 2015. PEPFAR has made an unprecedented commitment to the expansion and improvement of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services globally and is expected to play a critical role in reaching the virtual elimination target. To date, PEPFAR has been instrumental in the success of many national programs, including expanded coverage of PMTCT services, an enhanced continuum of care between PMTCT and HIV care and treatment, provision of more efficacious regimens for antiretroviral prophylaxis, design of innovative but simplified PMTCT approaches, and development of new strategies to evaluate program effectiveness. These accomplishments have been made through collaborative efforts with host governments, United Nations agencies, other donors (eg, the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria), nongovernmental organizations, and private sector partners. To successfully meet the ambitious global targets to prevent new infant HIV infections, PEPFAR must continue to leverage the existing PMTCT platform, while developing innovative approaches to rapidly expand quality HIV services. PEPFAR must also carefully integrate PMTCT into the broader combination prevention agenda for HIV, so that real progress can be made toward an "AIDS-free generation" worldwide.

  16. How do national strategic plans for HIV and AIDS in southern and eastern Africa address gender-based violence? A women's rights perspective.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Andrew; Mushinga, Mildred; Crone, E Tyler; Willan, Samantha; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2012-12-15

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is a significant human rights violation and a key driver of the HIV epidemic in southern and eastern Africa. We frame GBV from a broad human rights approach that includes intimate partner violence and structural violence. We use this broader definition to review how National Strategic Plans for HIV and AIDS (NSPs) in southern and eastern Africa address GBV. NSPs for HIV and AIDS provide the national-level framework that shapes government, business, donor, and non-governmental responses to HIV within a country. Our review of these plans for HIV and AIDS suggests that attention to GBV is poorly integrated; few recognize GBV and program around GBV. The programming, policies, and interventions that do exist privilege responses that support survivors of violence, rather than seeking to prevent it. Furthermore, the subject who is targeted is narrowly constructed as a heterosexual woman in a monogamous relationship. There is little consideration of GBV targeting women who have non-conforming sexual or gender identities, or of the need to tackle structural violence in the response to HIV and AIDS. We suggest that NSPs are not sufficiently addressing the human rights challenge of tackling GBV in the response to HIV and AIDS in southern and eastern Africa. It is critical that they do so.

  17. An extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict willingness to pay for the conservation of an urban park.

    PubMed

    López-Mosquera, Natalia; García, Teresa; Barrena, Ramo

    2014-03-15

    This paper relates the concept of moral obligation and the components of the Theory of Planned Behavior to determine their influence on the willingness to pay of visitors for park conservation. The sample consists of 190 visitors to an urban Spanish park. The mean willingness to pay estimated was 12.67€ per year. The results also indicated that moral norm was the major factor in predicting behavioral intention, followed by attitudes. The new relations established between the components of the Theory of Planned Behavior show that social norms significantly determine the attitudes, moral norms and perceived behavioral control of individuals. The proportion of explained variance shows that the inclusion of moral norms improves the explanatory power of the original model of the Theory of Planned Behavior (32-40%). Community-based social marketing and local campaigns are the main strategies that should be followed by land managers with the objective of promoting responsible, pro-environmental attitudes as well as a greater willingness to pay for this type of goods.

  18. Efficient and equitable design of marine protected areas in Fiji through inclusion of stakeholder-specific objectives in conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Jupiter, Stacy; Adams, Vanessa M

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of protected areas varies, partly because socioeconomic factors are not sufficiently considered in planning and management. Although integrating socioeconomic factors into systematic conservation planning is increasingly advocated, research is needed to progress from recognition of these factors to incorporating them effectively in spatial prioritization of protected areas. We evaluated 2 key aspects of incorporating socioeconomic factors into spatial prioritization: treatment of socioeconomic factors as costs or objectives and treatment of stakeholders as a single group or multiple groups. Using as a case study the design of a system of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) in Kubulau, Fiji, we assessed how these aspects affected the configuration of no-take MPAs in terms of trade-offs between biodiversity objectives, fisheries objectives, and equity in catch losses among fisher stakeholder groups. The achievement of fisheries objectives and equity tended to trade-off concavely with increasing biodiversity objectives, indicating that it is possible to achieve low to mid-range biodiversity objectives with relatively small losses to fisheries and equity. Importantly, the extent of trade-offs depended on the method used to incorporate socioeconomic data and was least severe when objectives were set for each fisher stakeholder group explicitly. We found that using different methods to incorporate socioeconomic factors that require similar data and expertise can result in plans with very different impacts on local stakeholders.

  19. Computer-aided patch planning for treatment of complex coarctation of the aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietdorf, Urte; Riesenkampff, Eugénie; Kuehne, Titus; Huebler, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo

    2009-02-01

    Between five and eight percent of all children born with congenitally malformed hearts suffer from coarctations of the aorta. Some severe coarctations can only be treated by surgical repair. Untreated, this defect can cause serious damage to organ development or even lead to death. Patch repair requires open surgery. It can affect patients of any age: newborns with severe coarctation and/or hypoplastic aortic arch as well as older patients with late diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta. Another patient group are patients of varying age with re-coarctation of the aorta or hypoplastic aortic arch after surgical and/or interventional repair. If anatomy is complex and interventional treatment by catheterization, balloon angioplasty or stent placement is not possible, surgery is indicated. The choice of type of surgery depends not only on the given anatomy but also on the experience the surgical team has with each method. One surgical approach is patch repair. A patch of a suitable shape and size is sewed into the aorta to expand the aortic lumen at the site of coarctation. At present, the shape and size of the patch are estimated intra-operatively by the surgeon. We have developed a software application that allows planning of the patch pre-operatively on the basis of magnetic resonance angiographic data. The application determines the diameter of the coarctation and/or hypoplastic segment and constructs a patch proposal by calculating the difference to the normal vessel diameter pre-operatively. Evaluation of MR angiographic datasets from 12 test patients with different kinds of aortic arch stenosis shows a divergence of only (1.5+/-1.2) mm in coarctation diameters between manual segmentations and our approach, with comparable time expenditure. Following this proposal the patch can be prepared and adapted to the patient's anatomy pre-operatively. Ideally, this leads to shorter operation times and a better long-term outcome with a reduced rate of residual stenosis and

  20. Diversity distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their implications for conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jihong; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Xinghui; Ma, Keping

    2016-09-23

    Endemism is an important concept in biogeography and biodiversity conservation. China is one of the richest countries in biodiversity, with very high levels of plant endemism. In this study, we analysed the distribution patterns of diversity, the degree of differentiation, and the endemicity of Chinese endemic seed plants using the floristic unit as a basic spatial analysis unit and 11 indices. The analysis was based on distribution data of 24,951 native seed plant species (excluding subspecies and varieties) and 12,980 Chinese endemic seed plant species, which were sourced from both specimen records and published references. The distribution patterns of Chinese endemic flora were generally consistent but disproportionate across China for diversity, degree of differentiation and endemicity. The South Hengduan Mountains Subregion had the highest values for all indices. At the regional level, both the Hengduan Mountains and the Central China regions were highest in diversity and degrees of differentiation. However, both the rate of local endemic to native species and the rate of local to Chinese endemic species were highest in the Taiwan Region and the South Taiwan Region. The Hengduan Mountains Region and the Central China Region are two key conservation priority areas for Chinese endemic seed plants.