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Sample records for aid decision making

  1. Collaborative Platforms Aid Emergency Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Terra. Aqua. Cloudsat. Landsat. NASA runs and partners in many missions dedicated to monitoring the Earth, and the tools used in these missions continuously return data on everything from shifts in temperature to cloud formation to pollution levels over highways. The data are of great scientific value, but they also provide information that can play a critical role in decision making during times of crisis. Real-time developments in weather, wind, ocean currents, and numerous other conditions can have a significant impact on the way disasters, both natural and human-caused, unfold. "NASA has long recognized the need to make its data from real-time sources compatible and accessible for the purposes of decision making," says Michael Goodman, who was Disasters Program manager at NASA Headquarters from 2009-2012. "There are practical applications of NASA Earth science data, and we d like to accelerate the use of those applications." One of the main obstacles standing in the way of eminently practical data is the fact that the data from different missions are collected, formatted, and stored in different ways. Combining data sets in a way that makes them useful for decision makers has proven to be a difficult task. And while the need for a collaborative platform is widely recognized, very few have successfully made it work. Dave Jones, founder and CEO of StormCenter Communications Inc., which consults with decision makers to prepare for emergencies, says that "when I talk to public authorities, they say, If I had a nickel for every time someone told me they had a common operating platform, I d be rich. But one thing we ve seen over the years is that no one has been able to give end users the ability to ingest NASA data sets and merge them with their own."

  2. Video May Aid End-of-Life Decision-Making

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159659.html Video May Aid End-of-Life Decision-Making Brief film helped heart failure patients ... HealthDay News) -- Watching a video about end-of-life care options may help patients with advanced heart ...

  3. Practical Aspects of a Visual Aid to Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Z.; Bailey, R.; Willner, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous research has demonstrated that people with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) have difficulty in "weighing up" information, defined as integrating disparate items of information in order to reach a decision. However, this problem could be overcome by the use of a visual aid to decision making. In an earlier study,…

  4. Operational hydrological projections to aid decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnetler, Thomas; Davis, Richard; Waddingham, John; James, Karen

    2014-05-01

    The Environment Agency of England has wide ranging responsibility for environmental regulation that includes both water resources management and flood management. In order to best fulfil its role decisions need to be taken using the best available evidence in the time available. The manipulation of large amounts of hydrological data in a way that best meets the needs of decision makers is a complex challenge. Not only should any analysis be technically robust but it should also be presented in a way that communicates key messages clearly and quickly. The Environment Agency and its predecessor organisations has a long history of working with hydrological data but in recent years there has been a need to better incorporate risk and uncertainty into hydrological analysis so that subsequent decisions can take this into account. In the face of recent extreme weather events, there has been an increasing demand for forward look projections from water resource and flood risk practitioners, decision makers and contingency planners. These assessments are required to give appropriate lead in time to allow risk mitigation measures to be implemented to minimise impact upon people, the environment and infrastructure. This presentation will outline the methodologies developed by the Environment Agency to produce and publish monthly routine forward look projections using both a scenario and climate ensemble approach. It will cover how information is disseminated, providing a good example of communicating science to decision makers and to the public. Examples of practical applications of these methodologies include: • Risk based planning and forecasting of water availability for inter basin water transfers into water stressed catchments. • Assessment of water resources prospects during droughts for people and the environment • The likelihood and medium term risk of high groundwater levels impacting upon people and infrastructure. There are also a number of future challenges

  5. Aiding Lay Decision Making Using a Cognitive Competencies Approach

    PubMed Central

    Maule, A. J.; Maule, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Two prescriptive approaches have evolved to aid human decision making: just in time interventions that provide support as a decision is being made; and just in case interventions that educate people about future events that they may encounter so that they are better prepared to make an informed decision when these events occur. We review research on these two approaches developed in the context of supporting everyday decisions such as choosing an apartment, a financial product or a medical procedure. We argue that the lack of an underlying prescriptive theory has limited the development and evaluation of these interventions. We draw on recent descriptive research on the cognitive competencies that underpin human decision making to suggest new ways of interpreting how and why existing decision aids may be effective and suggest a different way of evaluating their effectiveness. We also briefly outline how our approach has the potential to develop new interventions to support everyday decision making and highlight the benefits of drawing on descriptive research when developing and evaluating interventions. PMID:26779052

  6. Accuracy of a Decision Aid for Advance Care Planning: Simulated End-of-Life Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Benjamin H.; Heverley, Steven R.; Green, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Advance directives have been criticized for failing to help physicians make decisions consistent with patients’ wishes. This pilot study sought to determine if an interactive, computer-based decision aid that generates an advance directive can help physicians accurately translate patients’ wishes into treatment decisions. Methods We recruited 19 patient-participants who had each previously created an advance directive using a computer-based decision aid, and 14 physicians who had no prior knowledge of the patient-participants. For each advance directive, three physicians were randomly assigned to review the advance directive and make five to six treatment decisions for each of six (potentially) end-of-life clinical scenarios. From the three individual physicians’ responses, a “consensus physician response” was generated for each treatment decision (total decisions = 32). This consensus response was shared with the patient whose advance directive had been reviewed, and she/he was then asked to indicate how well the physician translated his/her wishes into clinical decisions. Results Patient-participants agreed with the consensus physician responses 84 percent (508/608) of the time, including 82 percent agreement on whether to provide mechanical ventilation, and 75 percent on decisions about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Across the six vignettes, patient-participants’ rating of how well physicians translated their advance directive into medical decisions was 8.4 (range = 6.5–10, where 1 = extremely poorly, and 10 = extremely well). Physicians’ overall rating of their confidence at accurately translating patients’ wishes into clinical decisions was 7.8 (range = 6.1–9.3, 1 = not at all confident, 10 = extremely confident). Conclusion For simulated cases, a computer-based decision aid for advance care planning can help physicians more confidently make end-of-life decisions that patients will endorse. PMID:22167985

  7. Decision Aid to Technologically Enhance Shared decision making (DATES): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinicians face challenges in promoting colorectal cancer screening due to multiple competing demands. A decision aid that clarifies patient preferences and improves decision quality can aid shared decision making and be effective at increasing colorectal cancer screening rates. However, exactly how such an intervention improves shared decision making is unclear. This study, funded by the National Cancer Institute, seeks to provide detailed understanding of how an interactive decision aid that elicits patient’s risks and preferences impacts patient-clinician communication and shared decision making, and ultimately colorectal cancer screening adherence. Methods/Design This is a two-armed single-blinded randomized controlled trial with the target of 300 patients per arm. The setting is eleven community and three academic primary care practices in Metro Detroit. Patients are men and women aged between 50 and 75 years who are not up to date on colorectal cancer screening. ColoDATES Web (intervention arm), a decision aid that incorporates interactive personal risk assessment and preference clarification tools, is compared to a non-interactive website that matches ColoDATES Web in content but does not contain interactive tools (control arm). Primary outcomes are patient uptake of colorectal cancer screening; patient decision quality (knowledge, preference clarification, intent); clinician’s degree of shared decision making; and patient-clinician concordance in the screening test chosen. Secondary outcome incorporates a Structural Equation Modeling approach to understand the mechanism of the causal pathway and test the validity of the proposed conceptual model based on Theory of Planned Behavior. Clinicians and those performing the analysis are blinded to arms. Discussion The central hypothesis is that ColoDATES Web will improve colorectal cancer screening adherence through improvement in patient behavioral factors, shared decision making between the

  8. Shared Decision Making and Patient Decision Aids: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Hawai‘i Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Friend, John; Chun, Maria BJ

    2013-01-01

    Background: As the health care field moves toward patient-centered care (PCC), increasing emphasis has been placed on the benefits of patient decision aids for promoting shared decision making (SDM). This study provides a baseline measure of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among Hawai‘i's physicians with respect to patient decision aids (DAs). Physicians throughout the State of Hawai‘i were invited to complete a survey assessing their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to the clinical use of DAs. One hundred and seventy four valid surveys were analyzed. Reported awareness and use of DAs were low, but recognition of the benefits of SDM and openness to the use of DAs were very high. The leading perceived barriers to the implementation of DAs were lack of awareness, lack of resources, and limited physician time to learn about DA technology. However, a significant majority of the respondents reported that DAs could empower patients by improving knowledge (88%), increasing satisfaction with the consultation process (81%), and increasing compliance (74%). Among physicians currently employing DAs, use of brochures or options matrix sheets was the most common aid tool. However, leading recommended DA formats were paper-based brochures for clinic use (75%) and interactive online website programs for outside clinic use (73.5%). Given growing emphasis on the PCC model and the recognized desire of many patients to participate in the medical decision making process, positive responses toward SDM and the use of DAs by Hawai‘i physicians are promising. PMID:24251086

  9. Collaborative Brain-Computer Interface for Aiding Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Riccardo; Valeriani, Davide; Cinel, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    We look at the possibility of integrating the percepts from multiple non-communicating observers as a means of achieving better joint perception and better group decisions. Our approach involves the combination of a brain-computer interface with human behavioural responses. To test ideas in controlled conditions, we asked observers to perform a simple matching task involving the rapid sequential presentation of pairs of visual patterns and the subsequent decision as whether the two patterns in a pair were the same or different. We recorded the response times of observers as well as a neural feature which predicts incorrect decisions and, thus, indirectly indicates the confidence of the decisions made by the observers. We then built a composite neuro-behavioural feature which optimally combines the two measures. For group decisions, we uses a majority rule and three rules which weigh the decisions of each observer based on response times and our neural and neuro-behavioural features. Results indicate that the integration of behavioural responses and neural features can significantly improve accuracy when compared with the majority rule. An analysis of event-related potentials indicates that substantial differences are present in the proximity of the response for correct and incorrect trials, further corroborating the idea of using hybrids of brain-computer interfaces and traditional strategies for improving decision making. PMID:25072739

  10. Are patient decision aids the best way to improve clinical decision making? Report of the IPDAS Symposium.

    PubMed

    Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Nelson, Wendy L; Pignone, Michael; Elwyn, Glyn; Rovner, David R; O'Connor, Annette M; Coulter, Angela; Correa-de-Araujo, Rosaly

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the International Patient Decision Aid Standards Symposium held in 2006 at the annual meeting of the Society for Medical Decision Making in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The symposium featured a debate regarding the proposition that "decision aids are the best way to improve clinical decision making.'' The formal debate addressed the theoretical problem of the appropriate gold standard for an improved decision, efficacy of decision aids, and prospects for implementation. Audience comments and questions focused on both theory and practice: the often unacknowledged roots of decision aids in expected utility theory and the practical problems of limited patient decision aid implementation in health care. The participants' vote on the proposition was approximately half for and half against. PMID:17873257

  11. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forthofer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  12. Perceptions of Shared Decision Making and Decision Aids Among Rural Primary Care Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Melinda M.; Gorman, Paul N.; Rugge, J. Bruin; Fagnan, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Shared Decision Making (SDM) and Decision Aids (DAs) increase patients’ involvement in healthcare decisions and enhance satisfaction with their choices. Studies of SDM and DAs have primarily occurred in academic centers and large health systems, but most primary care is delivered in smaller practices and over 20% of Americans live in rural areas where poverty, disease prevalence and limited access to care may increase the need for SDM and DAs. Objective To explore perceptions and practices of rural primary care clinicians regarding SDM and DAs. Design Cross sectional survey. Setting and Participants Primary care clinicians affiliated with the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN). Results Surveys were returned by 181 of 231 eligible participants (78%), 174 could be analyzed. Two-thirds of participants were physicians, 84% practiced family medicine, and 55% were male. Sixty five percent of respondents were unfamiliar with the term “SDM”, but following definition, 97% reported they found the approach useful for conditions with multiple treatment options. Over 90% of clinicians perceived helping patients make decisions regarding chronic pain and health behavior change as moderate/hard in difficulty. Although 69% of respondents preferred that patients play an equal role in making decisions, they estimate this happens only 35% of the time. Time was reported as the largest barrier to engaging in SDM (63%). Respondents were receptive to using DAs to facilitate SDM in printed (95%) or web-based formats (72%) and topic preference varied by clinician specialty and decision difficulty. Conclusions Rural clinicians recognized the value of SDM and were receptive to using DAs in multiple formats. Integration of DAs to facilitate SDM in routine patient care may require addressing practice operation and reimbursement. PMID:22247423

  13. Aides' Involvement in Decision-Making and the Quality of Care in Institutional Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynes, Norma V.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The degree of participation in decision making by direct care staff aides, and its effect on the quality of care for mentally handicapped persons, was assessed among 125 staff of 3 state institutions averaging 1080 patients. (BB)

  14. Enhancing Ethical Decision Making in Sexuality and AIDS Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, C. Everett; Piercy, Fred P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates providing sexuality and AIDS education in a way that helps adolescents explore the ethical meaning of sexual behavior. Presents principles for Rest's model of moral development, which describes four internal processes that produce moral behavior, as one example of an ethical framework that could inform sexuality and AIDS education…

  15. A systematic review of decision aids for patients making a decision about treatment for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nicholas Zdenkowski; Butow, Phyllis; Tesson, Stephanie; Boyle, Frances

    2016-04-01

    Several complex treatment decisions may be offered to women with early stage breast cancer, about a range of treatments from different modalities including surgery, radiotherapy, and endocrine and chemotherapy. Decision aids can facilitate shared decision-making and improve decision-related outcomes. We aimed to systematically identify, describe and appraise the literature on treatment decision aids for women with early breast cancer, synthesise the data and identify breast cancer decisions that lack a decision aid. A prospectively developed search strategy was applied to MEDLINE, the Cochrane databases, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and abstract databases from major conferences. Data were extracted into a pre-piloted form. Quality and risk of bias were measured using Qualsyst criteria. Results were synthesised into narrative format. Thirty-three eligible articles were identified, evaluating 23 individual treatment decision aids, comprising 13 randomised controlled trial reports, seven non-randomised comparative studies, eight single-arm pre-post studies and five cross-sectional studies. The decisions addressed by these decision aids were: breast conserving surgery versus mastectomy (+/- reconstruction); use of chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy; radiotherapy; and fertility preservation. Outcome measures were heterogeneous, precluding meta-analysis. Decisional conflict decreased, and knowledge and satisfaction increased, without any change in anxiety or depression, in most studies. No studies were identified that evaluated decision aids for neoadjuvant systemic therapy, or contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. Decision aids are available and improved decision-related outcomes for many breast cancer treatment decisions including surgery, radiotherapy, and endocrine and chemotherapy. Decision aids for neoadjuvant systemic therapy and contralateral prophylactic mastectomy could not be found, and may be warranted. PMID:27017240

  16. Do personal stories make patient decision aids more effective? A critical review of theory and evidence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient decision aids support people to make informed decisions between healthcare options. Personal stories provide illustrative examples of others’ experiences and are seen as a useful way to communicate information about health and illness. Evidence indicates that providing information within personal stories affects the judgments and values people have, and the choices they make, differentially from facts presented in non-narrative prose. It is unclear if including narrative communications within patient decision aids enhances their effectiveness to support people to make informed decisions. Methods A survey of primary empirical research employing a systematic review method investigated the effect of patient decision aids with or without a personal story on people’s healthcare judgements and decisions. Searches were carried out between 2005-2012 of electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO), and reference lists of identified articles, review articles, and key authors. A narrative analysis described and synthesised findings. Results Of 734 citations identified, 11 were included describing 13 studies. All studies found participants’ judgments and/or decisions differed depending on whether or not their decision aid included a patient story. Knowledge was equally facilitated when the decision aids with and without stories had similar information content. Story-enhanced aids may help people recall information over time and/or their motivation to engage with health information. Personal stories affected both “system 1” (e.g., less counterfactual reasoning, more emotional reactions and perceptions) and “system 2” (e.g., more perceived deliberative decision making, more stable evaluations over time) decision-making strategies. Findings exploring associations with narrative communications, decision quality measures, and different levels of literacy and numeracy were mixed. The pattern of findings was similar for both experimental and real

  17. Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Bendure, A.O.

    1995-03-01

    Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making is as much of a challenge as properly using the tool once it has been selected. Failure to consider customer and stakeholder requirements and the technical bases and differences in risk-based decision making tools will produce confounding and/or politically unacceptable results when the tool is used. Selecting a risk-based decisionmaking tool must therefore be undertaken with the same, if not greater, rigor than the use of the tool once it is selected. This paper presents a process for selecting a risk-based tool appropriate to a set of prioritization or resource allocation tasks, discusses the results of applying the process to four risk-based decision-making tools, and identifies the ``musts`` for successful selection and implementation of a risk-based tool to aid in decision making.

  18. Decision aid tools to support women's decision making in pregnancy and birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Marylène; Shorten, Allison; Dubé, Eric; Wassef, Maggy; Bujold, Emmanuel; Chaillet, Nils

    2012-06-01

    Support for a model of shared medical decision making, where women and their care providers discuss risks and benefits of their different options, reveal their preferences, and jointly make a decision, is a growing expectation in obstetric care. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of different decision aid tools compared to regular care for women facing several options in the specific field of obstetric care. We included published studies about interventions designed to aid mothers' decision making and provide information about obstetrical treatment or screening options. Following a search of electronic databases for articles published in English and French from 1994 to 2010, we found ten studies that met the inclusion criteria. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we found that all decision aid tools, except for Decision Trees, facilitated significant increases in knowledge. The Computer-based Information Tool, the Decision Analysis Tools, Individual Counseling and Group Counseling intervention presented significant results in reducing anxiety levels. The Decision Analysis Tools and the Computer-based Information tool were associated with a reduction in levels of decisional conflict. The Decision Analysis Tool was the only tool that presented evidence of an impact on the final choice and final outcome. Decision aid tools can assist health professionals to provide information and counseling about choices during pregnancy and support women in shared decision making. The choice of a specific tool should depend on resources available to support their use as well as the specific decisions being faced by women, their health care setting and providers. PMID:22475401

  19. An Integrated Decision-Making Model for Categorizing Weather Products and Decision Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elgin, Peter D.; Thomas, Rickey P.

    2004-01-01

    The National Airspace System s capacity will experience considerable growth in the next few decades. Weather adversely affects safe air travel. The FAA and NASA are working to develop new technologies that display weather information to support situation awareness and optimize pilot decision-making in avoiding hazardous weather. Understanding situation awareness and naturalistic decision-making is an important step in achieving this goal. Information representation and situation time stress greatly influence attentional resource allocation and working memory capacity, potentially obstructing accurate situation awareness assessments. Three naturalistic decision-making theories were integrated to provide an understanding of the levels of decision making incorporated in three operational situations and two conditions. The task characteristics associated with each phase of flight govern the level of situation awareness attained and the decision making processes utilized. Weather product s attributes and situation task characteristics combine to classify weather products according to the decision-making processes best supported. In addition, a graphical interface is described that affords intuitive selection of the appropriate weather product relative to the pilot s current flight situation.

  20. Challenging Operations: An Ethical Framework to Assist Humanitarian Aid Workers in their Decision-making Processes

    PubMed Central

    Clarinval, Caroline; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper aims to raise awareness regarding ethical issues in the context of humanitarian action, and to offer a framework for systematically and effectively addressing such issues. Methods: Several cases highlight ethical issues that humanitarian aid workers are confronted with at different levels over the course of their deployments. The first case discusses a situation at a macro-level concerning decisions being made at the headquarters of a humanitarian organization. The second case looks at meso-level issues that need to be solved at a country or regional level. The third case proposes an ethical dilemma at the micro-level of the individual patient-provider relationship. Discussion: These real-life cases have been selected to illustrate the ethical dimension of conflicts within the context of humanitarian action that might remain unrecognized in everyday practice. In addition, we propose an ethical framework to assist humanitarian aid workers in their decision-making process. The framework draws on the principles and values that guide humanitarian action and public health ethics more generally. Beyond identifying substantive core values, the framework also includes a ten-step process modelled on tools used in the clinical setting that promotes a transparent and clear decision-making process and improves the monitoring and evaluation of aid interventions. Finally, we recommend organizational measures to implement the framework effectively. Conclusion: This paper uses a combination of public health/clinical ethics concepts and practices and applies them to the decision-making challenges encountered in relief operations in the humanitarian aid context. PMID:24987575

  1. Early Commitment on Financial Aid and College Decision Making of Poor Students: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Wang, Xiaobing; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian; Adams, Jennifer; Shi, Yaojiang; Yue, Ai; Li, Hongbin; Glauben, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Many educational systems have struggled with the question about how best to give out financial aid. In particular, if students do not know the amount of financial aid that they can receive before they make a decision about where to go to college and what major to study, it may distort their decision. This study utilizes an experiment (implemented…

  2. Helping pregnant women make better decisions: a systematic review of the benefits of patient decision aids in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Say, Rebecca; Robson, Stephen; Thomson, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Patient decision aids can be used to support pregnant women engaging in shared decisions, but little is known about their effects in obstetrics. The authors aimed to evaluate the effects of patient decision aids designed for pregnant women on clinical and psychosocial outcomes. Design Systematic review. Data on all outcomes were extracted and summarised. All studies were critically appraised for potential sources of bias and, when possible to obtain, the reported decision aids were evaluated. Meta-analysis was not possible due to the heterogeneity of outcomes in primary studies and the small number of studies. Data sources Electronic searches were performed using Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library and Medion databases from inception until December 2010. Reference lists of all included articles were also examined and key experts contacted. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Eligibility criteria included randomised controlled trials, which reported on patient decision aids for women facing any treatment decision in pregnancy published in English. Studies evaluating health education material that did not address women's values and preferences were excluded. Results Patient decision aids have been developed for decisions about prenatal testing, vaginal birth after Caesarean section, external cephalic version and labour analgesia. Use of decision aids is associated with a number of positive effects including reduced anxiety, lower decisional conflict, improved knowledge, improved satisfaction and increased perception of having made an informed choice. Conclusions Patient decision aids have the potential to improve obstetric care. However, currently the evidence base is limited by the small number of studies, the quality of the studies and because they involved heterogeneous decision aids, patient groups and outcomes. PMID:22189349

  3. The effect of a decision aid intervention on decision making about coronary heart disease risk reduction: secondary analyses of a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Decision aids offer promise as a practical solution to improve patient decision making about coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention medications and help patients choose medications to which they are likely to adhere. However, little data is available on decision aids designed to promote adherence. Methods In this paper, we report on secondary analyses of a randomized trial of a CHD adherence intervention (second generation decision aid plus tailored messages) versus usual care in an effort to understand how the decision aid facilitates adherence. We focus on data collected from the primary study visit, when intervention participants presented 45 minutes early to a previously scheduled provider visit; viewed the decision aid, indicating their intent for CHD risk reduction after each decision aid component (individualized risk assessment and education, values clarification, and coaching); and filled out a post-decision aid survey assessing their knowledge, perceived risk, decisional conflict, and intent for CHD risk reduction. Control participants did not present early and received usual care from their provider. Following the provider visit, participants in both groups completed post-visit surveys assessing the number and quality of CHD discussions with their provider, their intent for CHD risk reduction, and their feelings about the decision aid. Results We enrolled 160 patients into our study (81 intervention, 79 control). Within the decision aid group, the decision aid significantly increased knowledge of effective CHD prevention strategies (+21 percentage points; adjusted p<.0001) and the accuracy of perceived CHD risk (+33 percentage points; adjusted p<.0001), and significantly decreased decisional conflict (-0.63; adjusted p<.0001). Comparing between study groups, the decision aid also significantly increased CHD prevention discussions with providers (+31 percentage points; adjusted p<.0001) and improved perceptions of some features of patient

  4. Pilot decision making in a computer-aided flight management situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Y. Y.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental representation of a computer-aided multi-task flight management situation has been developed. A computer aiding program was implemented to serve as a back-up decision maker. An experiment was conducted with a balanced design of several subject runs for different workload levels. This was achieved using three levels of subsystem event arrival rates, three levels of control task involvement, and three levels of availability of computer aiding. Experimental results compared quite favorably with those from a computer simulation which employed a queueing model. It was shown that the aiding had enhanced system performance as well as subjective ratings, and that the adaptive aiding policy further reduced subsystem delay.

  5. Evaluating a Web-Based MMR Decision Aid to Support Informed Decision-Making by UK Parents: A Before-and-After Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Cath; Cheater, Francine M.; Peacock, Rose; Leask, Julie; Trevena, Lyndal

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this feasibility study was to evaluate the acceptability and potential effectiveness of a web-based MMR decision aid in supporting informed decision-making for the MMR vaccine. Design: This was a prospective before-and-after evaluation. Setting: Thirty parents of children eligible for MMR vaccination were recruited from…

  6. Integration of Visibility Sensors in NOAA PORTS® to aid in Decision Making for Safe Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenstein, E. B.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS®) provides real-time water level, currents and meteorological data for aid to navigation in twenty-three major ports and harbors. In response to PORTS® users' requests for visibility data, NOS began testing several varieties of visibility sensors for operations in a marine environment. Extensive testing resulted in the selection of the Vaisala FS11 visibility sensor. The FS11 sensor uses forward scattering technology to measure the amount of scattering in a small volume of air between the transmitter and receiver, resulting in an extrapolated visibility at a set height out to 75 km. Two sensors have been successfully operating in the Mobile Bay PORTS® at Middle Bay Port and Pinto Island since installation in 2010. The sensors are positioned at a height of 3 m above the ground, 24 km apart along the western shore of the bay in areas susceptible to fog formation. Real-time data from these sensors are disseminated on NOAA's Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (COOPS) PORTS® website every 6 minutes (min) and for distances up to 10 km (5.4 nm) from the instrument. This has proven to aid port pilots' decision making for safe movement of vessels in the harbor. Additionally, the Pinto Island sensor is located directly adjacent to the shipping channel - an area with high levels of atmospheric particulates of high carbon content. These particulates do not appear to have negatively affected sensor performance. This success has prompted interest in visibility sensors from other harbors with PORTS®. The ports of San Francisco, Narragansett Bay, Chesapeake Bay, Jacksonville FL, and Gulfport MS are planning or exploring the addition of visibility sensors to their PORTS® to aid in navigation. Additionally, the NOAA/COOPS Ocean System Test Evaluation Program (OSTEP) has continued with additional field testing of the FS11

  7. Manual and computer-aided materials selection for industrial production: An exercise in decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Seth P.

    1990-01-01

    Students are introduced to methods and concepts for systematic selection and evaluation of materials which are to be used to manufacture specific products in industry. For this laboratory exercise, students are asked to work in groups to identify and describe a product, then to proceed through the process to select a list of three candidates to make the item from. The exercise draws on knowledge of mechanical, physical, and chemical properties, common materials test techniques, and resource management skills in finding and assessing property data. A very important part of the exercise is the students' introduction to decision making algorithms, and learning how to apply them to a complex decision making process.

  8. Automation: Decision Aid or Decision Maker?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skitka, Linda J.

    1998-01-01

    This study clarified that automation bias is something unique to automated decision making contexts, and is not the result of a general tendency toward complacency. By comparing performance on exactly the same events on the same tasks with and without an automated decision aid, we were able to determine that at least the omission error part of automation bias is due to the unique context created by having an automated decision aid, and is not a phenomena that would occur even if people were not in an automated context. However, this study also revealed that having an automated decision aid did lead to modestly improved performance across all non-error events. Participants in the non- automated condition responded with 83.68% accuracy, whereas participants in the automated condition responded with 88.67% accuracy, across all events. Automated decision aids clearly led to better overall performance when they were accurate. People performed almost exactly at the level of reliability as the automation (which across events was 88% reliable). However, also clear, is that the presence of less than 100% accurate automated decision aids creates a context in which new kinds of errors in decision making can occur. Participants in the non-automated condition responded with 97% accuracy on the six "error" events, whereas participants in the automated condition had only a 65% accuracy rate when confronted with those same six events. In short, the presence of an AMA can lead to vigilance decrements that can lead to errors in decision making.

  9. Application of the Consumer Decision-Making Model to Hearing Aid Adoption in First-Time Users

    PubMed Central

    Amlani, Amyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1980, hearing aid adoption rates have remained essentially the same, increasing at a rate equal to the organic growth of the population. Researchers have used theoretical models from psychology and sociology to determine those factors or constructs that lead to the adoption of hearing aids by first-time impaired listeners entering the market. In this article, a theoretical model, the Consumer Decision-Making Model (CDM), premised on the neobehavioral approach that considers an individual's psychological and cognitive emphasis toward a product or service, is described. Three theoretical models (i.e., transtheoretical, social model of disability, Health Belief Model), and their relevant findings to the hearing aid market, are initially described. The CDM is then presented, along with supporting evidence of the model's various factors from the hearing aid literature. Future applications of the CDM to hearing health care also are discussed. PMID:27516718

  10. Re-imagining decision making: addressing a discrete social driver of HIV/AIDS through the lens of complexity science.

    PubMed

    Burman, Christopher J; Moerschell, Linda; Mamabolo, Robert; Aphane, Marota; Delobelle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that decision making is a discrete social driver that can be associated with the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Limpopo province in South Africa. The authors argue that complexity science can inform future research and interventions by presenting two decision making frameworks arising out of complexity science that have the potential to enable young people to better negotiate decision-making contexts whilst simultaneously opening spaces of dialogue that can mitigate the impact of HIV-risk in specific, punctuated contexts. The methodological design was prompted by findings from youth-oriented community engagement projects that include Communication Conversations and Sex & Relationships Education. The proposed methods have the potential to exploit the phenomenon of leadership emergence as a product of decision making at critical moments. This has the potential to promote the growth of home-grown leadership skill sets that make sense to young people and to enable them better manage their own health, thus reducing risk and vulnerability to HIV infection and sexual violence. PMID:25920986

  11. The pros and cons of funnel plots as an aid to risk communication and patient decision making.

    PubMed

    Rakow, Tim; Wright, Rebecca J; Spiegelhalter, David J; Bull, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    Funnel plots, which simultaneously display a sample statistic and the corresponding sample size for multiple cases, have a range of applications. In medicine, they are used to display treatment outcome rates and caseload volume by institution, which can inform strategic decisions about health care delivery. We investigated lay people's understanding of such plots and explored their suitability as an aid to individual treatment decisions. In two studies, 172 participants answered objective questions about funnel plots representing the surgical outcomes (survival or mortality rates) of institutions varying in caseload, and indicated their preferred institutions. Accuracy for extracting objective information was high, unless question phrasing was inconsistent with the plot's survival/mortality framing, or participants had low numeracy levels. Participants integrated caseload-volume and outcome-rate data when forming preferences, but were influenced by reference lines on the plot to make inappropriate discriminations between institutions with similar outcome rates. With careful choice of accompanying language, funnel plots can be readily understood and are therefore a useful tool for communicating risk. However, they are less effective as a decision aid for individual patient's treatment decisions, and we recommend refinements to the standard presentation of the plots if they are to be used for that purpose. PMID:25123852

  12. Effects of Instructional Aids on the Acquisition of Dynamic Decision-Making Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Christian; Kehoe, E. James; Wood, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the effects of two instructional aids in a complex, dynamic environment, specifically, a business simulation. Participants studied (1) a "causal map," which depicted key variables in an interconnected network, (2) a textual outline of the same relationships, or (3) no-aid. With the relevant aid still available, the participants…

  13. [An expert system of aiding decision making in breast pathology connected to a clinical data base].

    PubMed

    Brunet, M; Durrleman, S; Ferber, J; Ganascia, J G; Hacene, K; Hirt, F; Jouniaux, F; Meeus, L

    1987-01-01

    The René Huguenin Cancer Center holds a medical file for each patient which is intended to store and process medical data. Since 1970, we introduced computerization: a development plan was elaborated and simultaneously a statistical software (Clotilde--GSI/CFRO) was selected. Thus, we now have access to a large database, structured according to medical rationale, and utilizable with methods of artificial intelligence towards three objectives: improved data acquisition, decision making and exploitation. The first application was to breast pathology, which represents one of the Center's primary activities. The structure of the data concerning patients is by all criteria part of the medical knowledge. This information needs to be presented as well as processed with a suitable language. To this end, we chose a language-oriented object, Mering II, usable with Apple and IBM 4 micro-computers. This project has already allowed to work out an operational model. PMID:3620732

  14. Intelligent information extraction to aid science decision making in autonomous space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merényi, Erzsébet; Tasdemir, Kadim; Farrand, William H.

    2008-04-01

    Effective scientific exploration of remote targets such as solar system objects increasingly calls for autonomous data analysis and decision making on-board. Today, robots in space missions are programmed to traverse from one location to another without regard to what they might be passing by. By not processing data as they travel, they can miss important discoveries, or will need to travel back if scientists on Earth find the data warrant backtracking. This is a suboptimal use of resources even on relatively close targets such as the Moon or Mars. The farther mankind ventures into space, the longer the delay in communication, due to which interesting findings from data sent back to Earth are made too late to command a (roving, floating, or orbiting) robot to further examine a given location. However, autonomous commanding of robots in scientific exploration can only be as reliable as the scientific information extracted from the data that is collected and provided for decision making. In this paper, we focus on the discovery scenario, where information extraction is accomplished with unsupervised clustering. For high-dimensional data with complicated structure, detailed segmentation that identifies all significant groups and discovers the small, surprising anomalies in the data, is a challenging task at which conventional algorithms often fail. We approach the problem with precision manifold learning using self-organizing neural maps with non-standard features developed in the course of our research. We demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of this approach on multi-spectral imagery from the Mars Exploration Rovers Pancam, and on synthetic hyperspectral imagery.

  15. Perceptions of Prostate Cancer Screening Controversy and Informed Decision Making: Implications for Development of a Targeted Decision Aid for Unaffected Male First-Degree Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Gwede, Clement K.; Davis, Stacy N.; Wilson, Shaenelle; Patel, Mitul; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Meade, Cathy D.; Rivers, Brian M.; Yu, Daohai; Torres-Roca, Javier; Heysek, Randy; Spiess, Philippe E.; Pow-Sang, Julio; Jacobsen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose First-degree relatives (FDRs) of prostate cancer (PC) patients should consider multiple concurrent personal risk factors when engaging in informed decision making (IDM) about PC screening. This study assessed perceptions of IDM recommendations and risk-appropriate strategies for IDM among FDRs of varied race/ethnicity. Design A cross-sectional, qualitative Setting Study setting was a cancer center in southwest Florida. Participants The study comprised 44 participants (24 PC patients and 20 unaffected FDRs). Method Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted and analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison methods. Results Patients and FDRs found the PC screening debate and IDM recommendations to be complex and counterintuitive. They overwhelmingly believed screening saves lives and does not have associated harms. There was a strongly expressed need to improve communication between patients and FDRs. A single decision aid that addresses the needs of all FDRs, rather than separating by race/ethnicity, was recommended as sufficient by study participants. These perspectives guided the development of an innovative decision aid that deconstructs the screening controversy and IDM processes into simpler concepts and provides step-by-step strategies for FDRs to engage in IDM. Conclusion Implementing IDM among FDRs is challenging because the IDM paradigm departs from historical messages promoting routine screening. These contradictions should be recognized and addressed for men to participate effectively in IDM. A randomized pilot study evaluating outcomes of the resulting decision aid is underway. PMID:24968183

  16. Decision aids: when 'nudging' patients to make a particular choice is more ethical than balanced, nondirective content.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal-Barby, J S; Cantor, Scott B; Russell, Heidi Voelker; Naik, Aanand D; Volk, Robert J

    2013-02-01

    Patient decision aids, such as instructional leaflets describing treatment options for prostate cancer, are designed to help educate patients so that they can share in decisions about their care. Developers of these decision aids strive for balance, aiming to be as neutral, unbiased, and nondirective as possible. We argue that balance should not always be a goal, and we identify three situations where it should not be. For example, men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer frequently are not advised by their physicians that active surveillance is a reasonable alternative to immediate surgery or radiation. It may be desirable to design decision aids that promote active surveillance as an option. We recognize that the arguments put forth in this article are controversial. But they are also justified. We challenge medical decision makers and decision aid developers to determine if and when patients should be "nudged" toward one option or another. PMID:23381523

  17. A Visual Aid to Decision-Making for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rebecca; Willner, Paul; Dymond, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that people with mild intellectual disabilities have difficulty in "weighing-up" information, defined as integrating information from two different sources for the purpose of reaching a decision. This was demonstrated in two very different procedures, temporal discounting and a scenario-based financial decision-making…

  18. [Decision Making and Electrodermal Activity].

    PubMed

    Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka

    2016-08-01

    Decision making is aided by emotions. Bodily responses, such as sweating, heartbeat, and visceral sensation, are used to monitor the emotional state during decision making. Because decision making in dairy life is complicated and cognitively demanding, these bodily signals are thought to facilitate the decision making process by assigning positive or negative values for each of the behavioral options. The sweat response in a decision making task is measured by skin conductance response (SCR). SCR in decision making is divided into two categories: anticipatory SCR is observed before making decisions, and reward/punishment SCR is observed after the outcome of the decision is perceived. Brain lesion studies in human revealed that the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are important in decision making. Patients with lesinon in the amygdala exhibit neither the anticipatory nor reward/punishment SCRs, while patients with the ventromedial prefrontal lesions have deficits only in the anticipatory SCRs. Decision making tasks and SCR analysis have contributed to reveal the implicit aspects of decision making. Further research is necessary for clarifying the role of explicit process of decision making and its relationship with the implicit process. PMID:27503819

  19. FORBEEF: A Forage-Livestock System Computer Model Used as a Teaching Aid for Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, W. C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes the development of a computer simulation model of forage-beef production systems, which is intended to incorporate soil, forage, and animal decisions into an enterprise scenario. Produces a summary of forage production and livestock needs. Cites positive assessment of the program's value by participants in inservice training workshops.…

  20. EPA Growing DASEES (Decision Analysis For A Sustainable Environment, Economy & Society) - To Aid In Making Decisions On Complex Environmental Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Having a framework and tools to help sort through complicated environmental issues in an objective way would be useful to communities and risk managers, and all the stakeholders affected by these issues. This is one need that DASEES (Decision Analysis for a Sustainable En...

  1. Categorization = Decision Making + Generalization

    PubMed Central

    Seger, Carol A; Peterson, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    We rarely, if ever, repeatedly encounter exactly the same situation. This makes generalization crucial for real world decision making. We argue that categorization, the study of generalizable representations, is a type of decision making, and that categorization learning research would benefit from approaches developed to study the neuroscience of decision making. Similarly, methods developed to examine generalization and learning within the field of categorization may enhance decision making research. We first discuss perceptual information processing and integration, with an emphasis on accumulator models. We then examine learning the value of different decision making choices via experience, emphasizing reinforcement learning modeling approaches. Next we discuss how value is combined with other factors in decision making, emphasizing the effects of uncertainty. Finally, we describe how a final decision is selected via thresholding processes implemented by the basal ganglia and related regions. We also consider how memory related functions in the hippocampus may be integrated with decision making mechanisms and contribute to categorization. PMID:23548891

  2. Shared decision making

    MedlinePlus

    Shared decision making is when health care providers and patients work together to decide the best way to test ... you. The two of you will make a decision based on your provider's expertise and your values ...

  3. Peircean Decision Aid

    2008-08-14

    The Peircean decision aid (PDA) is a decision support architecture and embedded functionality that supports a decision maker in very complex environments dealing with massive amounts of disparate data, information and knowledge. The solution generated is a hybrid system solution employing a number of technologies that are based on Peircean reasoning, modal logic, and formal concept analysis. The system convolves data/information with knowledge to create a virtual belief state that is passed to a decisionmore » maker for consideration. The system can capture categorized knowledge or it can inductively learn or acquire new knowledge from suites of observations. Captured knowledge is used to abductively generate hypotheses that are potential explanations to observations or collected data. The zero order modal logic architecture is designed to augment knowledge update and belief revision and can be extended to include disjunctive screening of collected data. While intended to be a library for integration into a decision support architecture it possesses a basic stand-alone GUI for use as an analysis support tool.« less

  4. The Factors that Influence Data Utilization in Decision-Making: The Case of HIV/AIDS Programs in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Daniela Cristina

    2011-01-01

    In Mexico, as in many other countries, HIV/AIDS strategies are developed at the federal level and implemented at the state level. Local programs are expected to use data, in particular surveillance data, to drive their decisions on programmatic activities and prioritize populations with which the program will engage. Since the early 1980s Mexico…

  5. Deciding about Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitson, Mal

    Educational administrators have the power to determine the nature of decision-making structures and processes within their institutions and the extent to which decisions are implemented. This paper reviews assumptions underlying decision-making structures and processes established by school administrators; examines potential individual motives…

  6. Sustainability Based Decision Making

    EPA Science Inventory

    With sustainability as the “true north” for EPA research, a premium is placed on the ability to make decisions under highly complex and uncertain conditions. The primary challenge is reconciling disparate criteria toward credible and defensible decisions. Making decisions on on...

  7. Role of decision aids in orthopaedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    ten Have, Isha A; van den Bekerom, Michel PJ; van Deurzen, Derek FP; Hageman, Michel GJS

    2015-01-01

    Medical treatment of patients inherently entails the risk of undesired complication or side effects. It is essential to inform the patient about the expected outcomes, but also the possible undesired outcomes. The patients preference and values regarding the potential outcomes should be involved in the decision making process. Even though many orthopaedic surgeons are positive towards shared decision-making, it is minimally introduced in the orthopaedic daily practice and decision-making is still mostly physician based. Decision aids are designed to support the physician and patient in the shared- decision-making process. By using decision aids, patients can learn more about their condition and treatment options in advance to the decision-making. This will reduce decisional conflict and improve participation and satisfaction. PMID:26716082

  8. Reinventing Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klempen, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how three Wisconsin school superintendents used the process of situation appraisal and decision analysis to improve their problem-solving and decision-making capabilities and those of their leadership teams. Provides several examples. (PKP)

  9. Make better decisions.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Traditionally, decision making in organizations has rarely been the focus of systematic analysis. That may account for the astounding number of recent poor calls, such as decisions to invest in and securitize subprime mortgage loans or to hedge risk with credit default swaps. Business books are rich with insights about the decision process, but organizations have been slow to adopt their recommendations. It's time to focus on decision making, Davenport says, and he proposes four steps: (1) List and prioritize the decisions that must be made; (2) assess the factors that go into each, such as who plays what role, how often the decision must be made, and what information is available to support it; (3) design the roles, processes, systems, and behaviors your organization needs; and (4) institutionalize decision tools and assistance. The Educational Testing Service and The Stanley Works, among others, have succeeded in improving their decisions. ETS established a centralized deliberative body to make evidence-based decisions about new-product offerings, and Stanley has a Pricing Center of Excellence with internal consultants dedicated to its various business units. Leaders should bring multiple perspectives to their decision making, beware of analytical models that managers don't understand, be clear about their assumptions, practice "model management," and--because only people can revise decision criteria over time--cultivate human backups. PMID:19891389

  10. Decision Making and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Nelson, Wendy L.; Han, Paul K.; Pignone, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    We review decision-making along the cancer continuum in the contemporary context of informed and shared decision making, in which patients are encouraged to take a more active role in their health care. We discuss challenges to achieving informed and shared decision making, including cognitive limitations and emotional factors, but argue that understanding the mechanisms of decision making offers hope for improving decision support. Theoretical approaches to decision making that explain cognition, emotion, and their interaction are described, including classical psychophysical approaches, dual-process approaches that focus on conflicts between emotion versus cognition (or reason), and modern integrative approaches such as fuzzy-trace theory. In contrast to the earlier emphasis on rote use of numerical detail, modern approaches emphasize understanding the bottom-line gist of options (which encompasses emotion and other influences on meaning) and retrieving relevant social and moral values to apply to those gist representations. Finally, research on interventions to support better decision making in clinical settings is reviewed, drawing out implications for future research on decision making and cancer. PMID:25730718

  11. Decision Making in Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. A similar observation has been made in nuclear power plants. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multidimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication

  12. Designing for Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Decision making is the most common kind of problem solving. It is also an important component skill in other more ill-structured and complex kinds of problem solving, including policy problems and design problems. There are different kinds of decisions, including choices, acceptances, evaluations, and constructions. After describing the centrality…

  13. Quantitative Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Grover H.

    The use of quantitative decision making tools provides the decision maker with a range of alternatives among which to decide, permits acceptance and use of the optimal solution, and decreases risk. Training line administrators in the use of these tools can help school business officials obtain reliable information upon which to base district…

  14. Repeated Causal Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…

  15. Shared decision making

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shared decision making to improve care and reduce costs. N Engl J Med . 2013 Jan 3;368(1):6-8. ... UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David ...

  16. Bridging the gap between evidence and policy for infectious diseases: How models can aid public health decision-making.

    PubMed

    Knight, Gwenan M; Dharan, Nila J; Fox, Gregory J; Stennis, Natalie; Zwerling, Alice; Khurana, Renuka; Dowdy, David W

    2016-01-01

    The dominant approach to decision-making in public health policy for infectious diseases relies heavily on expert opinion, which often applies empirical evidence to policy questions in a manner that is neither systematic nor transparent. Although systematic reviews are frequently commissioned to inform specific components of policy (such as efficacy), the same process is rarely applied to the full decision-making process. Mathematical models provide a mechanism through which empirical evidence can be methodically and transparently integrated to address such questions. However, such models are often considered difficult to interpret. In addition, models provide estimates that need to be iteratively re-evaluated as new data or considerations arise. Using the case study of a novel diagnostic for tuberculosis, a framework for improved collaboration between public health decision-makers and mathematical modellers that could lead to more transparent and evidence-driven policy decisions for infectious diseases in the future is proposed. The framework proposes that policymakers should establish long-term collaborations with modellers to address key questions, and that modellers should strive to provide clear explanations of the uncertainty of model structure and outputs. Doing so will improve the applicability of models and clarify their limitations when used to inform real-world public health policy decisions. PMID:26546234

  17. Decision making and prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Knight, Sara J

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the challenges that men encounter in making decisions about prostate cancer screening, including complex affective and cognitive factors and controversies in the interpretation of the evidence on prostate cancer screening. Shared decision making involving patient decision aids are discussed as approaches that can be used to improve the quality of prostate cancer screening decisions, including a close alignment between a man's values, goals, and preferences and his choice about screening. PMID:24725488

  18. Modelling decision-making by pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, Nicholas J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Our scientific goal is to understand the process of human decision-making. Specifically, a model of human decision-making in piloting modern commercial aircraft which prescribes optimal behavior, and against which we can measure human sub-optimality is sought. This model should help us understand such diverse aspects of piloting as strategic decision-making, and the implicit decisions involved in attention allocation. Our engineering goal is to provide design specifications for (1) better computer-based decision-aids, and (2) better training programs for the human pilot (or human decision-maker, DM).

  19. Argumentation for Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amgoud, Leila

    Decision making, often viewed as a form of reasoning toward action, has raised the interest of many scholars including economists, psychologists, and computer scientists for a long time. Any decision problem amounts to selecting the “best” or sufficiently “good” action(s) that are feasible among different alternatives, given some available information about the current state of the world and the consequences of potential actions. Available information may be incomplete or pervaded with uncertainty. Besides, the goodness of an action is judged by estimating how much its possible consequences fit the preferences of the decision maker. This agent is assumed to behave in a rational way [29] amgoud-woold, at least in the sense that his decisions should be as much as possible consistent with his preferences.

  20. Shared clinical decision making

    PubMed Central

    AlHaqwi, Ali I.; AlDrees, Turki M.; AlRumayyan, Ahmad; AlFarhan, Ali I.; Alotaibi, Sultan S.; AlKhashan, Hesham I.; Badri, Motasim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine preferences of patients regarding their involvement in the clinical decision making process and the related factors in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a major family practice center in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between March and May 2012. Multivariate multinomial regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with patients preferences. Results: The study included 236 participants. The most preferred decision-making style was shared decision-making (57%), followed by paternalistic (28%), and informed consumerism (14%). The preference for shared clinical decision making was significantly higher among male patients and those with higher level of education, whereas paternalism was significantly higher among older patients and those with chronic health conditions, and consumerism was significantly higher in younger age groups. In multivariate multinomial regression analysis, compared with the shared group, the consumerism group were more likely to be female [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-6.27, p=0.008] and non-dyslipidemic (AOR=2.90, 95% CI: 1.03-8.09, p=0.04), and the paternalism group were more likely to be older (AOR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, p=0.04), and female (AOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.32-4.06, p=0.008). Conclusion: Preferences of patients for involvement in the clinical decision-making varied considerably. In our setting, underlying factors that influence these preferences identified in this study should be considered and tailored individually to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. PMID:26620990

  1. Decision Making and Drug Abuse Among HIV+ Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Preliminary Report from the Chicago Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Eileen M.; DeHaan, Samantha; Vassileva, Jasmin; Gonzalez, Raul; Weller, Joshua; Bechara, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    HIV+ substance dependent individuals (SDIs) make significantly poorer decisions compared with HIV− SDIs, but the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this impairment have not been identified. We administered the Iowa Gambling Task, a measure of decision making under uncertain risk, and the Cups Task, a measure of decision making under specified risk, to a group of 56 HIV+ and 23 HIV− men who have sex with men (MSMs) with a history of substance dependence enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. The IGT provides no explicit information regarding the contingencies for each possible choice, and the probability of each outcome remains ambiguous at least for the early trials; in contrast, the Cups Task provides explicit information about the probability of each outcome. The HIV+ group made significantly poorer decisions on the IGT compared with the HIV− group. Cups Task performance did not differ significantly between HIV− and HIV+ groups. Exploratory analyses of the IGT data suggested that HIV+ subjects tended to perform more poorly during the early learning phase when uncertainty about specific outcomes was greatest. Additionally, performance on the final two trial blocks was significantly correlated with Stroop Interference scores, suggesting IGT performance is driven increasingly by executive control during the later portion of the task. Potential cognitive mechanisms to be explored in later studies are discussed, including impairment in implicit learning processing PMID:23701366

  2. Enhanced decision making through neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Jung, TP; Makeig, Scott

    2012-06-01

    We propose to enhance the decision making of pilot, co-pilot teams, over a range of vehicle platforms, with the aid of neuroscience. The goal is to optimize this collaborative decision making interplay in time-critical, stressful situations. We will research and measure human facial expressions, personality typing, and brainwave measurements to help answer questions related to optimum decision-making in group situations. Further, we propose to examine the nature of intuition in this decision making process. The brainwave measurements will be facilitated by a University of California, San Diego (UCSD) developed wireless Electroencephalography (EEG) sensing cap. We propose to measure brainwaves covering the whole head area with an electrode density of N=256, and yet keep within the limiting wireless bandwidth capability of m=32 readouts. This is possible because solving Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and finding the hidden brainwave sources allow us to concentrate selective measurements with an organized sparse source -->s sensing matrix [Φs], rather than the traditional purely random compressive sensing (CS) matrix[Φ].

  3. The role of advance euthanasia directives as an aid to communication and shared decision-making in dementia.

    PubMed

    Hertogh, C M P M

    2009-02-01

    Recent evaluation of the practice of euthanasia and related medical decisions at the end of life in the Netherlands has shown a slight decrease in the frequency of physician-assisted death since the enactment of the Euthanasia Law in 2002. This paper focuses on the absence of euthanasia cases concerning patients with dementia and a written advance euthanasia directive, despite the fact that the only real innovation of the Euthanasia Law consisted precisely in allowing physicians to act upon such directives. The author discusses two principal reasons for this absence. One relates to the uncertainty about whether patients with advanced dementia truly experience the suffering they formerly feared. There is reason to assume that they don't, as a consequence of psychological adaptation and progressive unawareness (anosognosia). The second, more fundamental reason touches upon the ethical relevance of shared understanding and reciprocity. The author argues that, next to autonomy and mercifulness, "reciprocity" is a condition sine qua non for euthanasia. The absence thereof in advanced dementia renders euthanasia morally inconceivable, even if there are signs of suffering and notwithstanding the presence of an advance euthanasia directive. This does not mean, however, that advance euthanasia directives of patients with dementia are worthless. They might very well have a role in the earlier stages of certain subtypes of the disease. To illustrate this point the author presents a case in which the advance directive helped to create a window of opportunity for reciprocity and shared decision-making. PMID:19181882

  4. Programmable Calculators and Minicomputers in Agriculture. A Symposium Exploring Computerized Decision-Making Aids and Their Extension to the Farm Level. Proceedings of a Symposium (Hot Springs, Arkansas, February 6-7, 1980)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Ernest, Ed.

    Ten papers presented at a symposium discuss the array of computerized decision-making aids currently available to farmers and ways to speed up the rate of adoption of computers by agriculturalists. Topics presented include the development of software for agricultural decision-making; the role of programmable calculators and minicomputers in…

  5. Making Decisions in Quality Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Mildred

    This monograph provides educational staff with a theoretical basis for decision-making skills for application in quality circles. Roadblocks to good decisions are outlined, as well as the differences between group decision-making and individual decision-making (both have problems). The influence of values and personality characteristics on…

  6. Developing a Climate Service: Using Hydroclimate Monitoring and Forecasting to Aid Decision Making in Africa and Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. F.; Sheffield, J.; Fisher, C. K.; Chaney, N.; Wanders, N.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrological and water scarcity predictions have the potential to provide vital information for a variety of needs including water resources management, agricultural and urban water supply, and flood mitigation. In particular, seasonal forecasts of drought risk can enable farmers to make adaptive choices on crop varieties, labor usage, and technology investments. Forecast skill is generally derived from teleconnections with ocean variability specifically sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and, equally important persistence in the state of the land in terms of soil moisture, snowpack, or streamflow conditions. Short term precipitation forecasts are critical in flood prediction by extending flood prediction lead times beyond the basin travel time, and thus allows for extended warnings. The Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) is a UN-wide initiative in which WMO Members and inter- and non- governmental, regional, national and local stakeholders work in partnership to develop targeted climate services. Thus, GFCS offers the potential for hydroclimatologists to develop products (hydroclimatic forecasts) and information services (i.e. product dissemination) to users with the expectation that GFCS will increase the resilience of the society to weather and climate events and to reduce operational costs for economic sectors and regions dependent on water. This presentation will discuss the development of a nascent climate service system focused on hydroclimatic monitoring and forecasting, and initially developed by the authors for Africa and Latin America. Central to this system is the use of satellite remote sensing and hydroclimate forecasts (from days to seasons) in the development of weather and climate information useful for water management in sectors such as flood protection (precipitation and streamflow forecasting) and agriculture (drought and crop forecasting). The elements of this system will be discussed, including the challenges of monitoring and

  7. Digital Solutions for Informed Decision Making: An Academic-Community Partnership for the Development of a Prostate Cancer Decision Aid for African American Men.

    PubMed

    Owens, Otis L; Friedman, Daniela B; Brandt, Heather M; Bernhardt, Jay M; Hébert, James R

    2016-05-01

    African American (AA) men are significantly more likely to die of prostate cancer (PrCA) than other racial groups, and there is a critical need to identify strategies for providing information about PrCA screening and the importance of informed decision making (IDM). To assess whether a computer-based IDM intervention for PrCA screening would be appropriate for AA men, this formative evaluation study examined their (1) PrCA risk and screening knowledge; (2) decision-making processes for PrCA screening; (3) usage of, attitudes toward, and access to interactive communication technologies (ICTs); and (4) perceptions regarding a future, novel, computer-based PrCA education intervention. A purposive convenience sample of 39 AA men aged 37 to 66 years in the Southeastern United States was recruited through faith-based organizations to participate in one of six 90-minute focus groups and complete a 45-item descriptive survey. Participants were generally knowledgeable about PrCA. However, few engaged in IDM with their doctor and few were informed about the associated risks and uncertainties of PrCA screening. Most participants used ICTs on a daily basis for various purposes including health information seeking. Most participants were open to a novel, computer-based intervention if the system was easy to use and its animated avatars were culturally appropriate. Because study participants had low exposure to IDM for PrCA, but frequently used ICTs, IDM interventions using ICTs (e.g., computers) hold promise for AA men and should be explored for feasibility and effectiveness. These interventions should aim to increase PrCA screening knowledge and stress the importance of participating in IDM with doctors. PMID:25563381

  8. Digital Solutions for Informed Decision Making: An Academic-Community Partnership for the Development of a Prostate Cancer Decision Aid for African-American Men

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Otis L.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Brandt, Heather M.; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    African-American (AA) men are significantly more likely to die of prostate cancer (PrCA) than other racial groups, and there is a critical need to identify strategies for providing information about PrCA screening and the importance of informed decision making (IDM). To assess whether a computer-based IDM intervention for PrCA screening would be appropriate for AA men, this formative evaluation study examined their (1) PrCA risk and screening knowledge, (2) decision-making processes for PrCA screening, (3) usage of, attitudes toward, and access to interactive communication technologies (ICTs), and (4) perceptions regarding a future novel computer-based PrCA education intervention. A purposive convenience sample of 39 AA men aged 37–66 years in the Southeastern United States were recruited through faith-based organizations to participate in one of six 90-minute focus groups and complete a 45-item descriptive survey. Participants were generally knowledgeable about PrCA; however, few engaged in IDM with their doctor and few were informed about the associated risks and uncertainties of PrCA screening. Most participants used ICTs on a daily basis for various purposes including health information seeking. Most participants were open to a novel computer-based intervention if the system was easy to use and its animated avatars were culturally appropriate. Because study participants had low exposure to IDM for PrCA, but frequently used ICTs, IDM interventions using ICTs (e.g, computers) hold promise for AA men and should be explored for feasibility and effectiveness. These interventions should aim to increase PrCA screening knowledge and stress the importance of participating in IDM with their doctor. PMID:25563381

  9. Shared Problem Models and Crew Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of crew decision making to aviation safety has been well established through NTSB accident analyses: Crew judgment and decision making have been cited as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents in commercial air transport, general aviation, and military aviation. Yet the bulk of research on decision making has not proven helpful in improving the quality of decisions in the cockpit. One reason is that traditional analytic decision models are inappropriate to the dynamic complex nature of cockpit decision making and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions. A new model of dynamic naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove more useful for training or aiding cockpit decision making. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulation and National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation and reflect the crew's metacognitive skill. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relation between communication that serves to build performance. Implications of these findings for crew training will be discussed.

  10. Career Decision Making for Male Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Model of Critical Factors Aiding in Transitional Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Gregory B.

    2009-01-01

    This study is intended to reveal helpful information that will guide high school practitioners in serving students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) more effectively. ADHD is neurological in origin, making it invisible. This disorder makes people susceptible to distractibility, impulsivity, disorganization, frustration, anxiety,…

  11. Composite collective decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Czaczkes, Tomer J.; Czaczkes, Benjamin; Iglhaut, Carolin; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first gathered empirical data on memory-based foraging persistence in the ant Lasius niger. We used these data to create an agent-based model where ants may use social information (trail pheromones), private information (memories) or both to make foraging decisions. The combined use of social and private information by individuals results in greater efficiency at the group level than when either information source was used alone. The modelled ants couple consensus decision-making, allowing them to quickly exploit high-quality food sources, and combined decision-making, allowing different individuals to specialize in exploiting different resource patches. Such a composite collective decision-making system reaps the benefits of both its constituent parts. Exploiting such insights into composite collective decision-making may lead to improved decision-making algorithms. PMID:26019155

  12. Composite collective decision-making.

    PubMed

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Czaczkes, Benjamin; Iglhaut, Carolin; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-06-22

    Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first gathered empirical data on memory-based foraging persistence in the ant Lasius niger. We used these data to create an agent-based model where ants may use social information (trail pheromones), private information (memories) or both to make foraging decisions. The combined use of social and private information by individuals results in greater efficiency at the group level than when either information source was used alone. The modelled ants couple consensus decision-making, allowing them to quickly exploit high-quality food sources, and combined decision-making, allowing different individuals to specialize in exploiting different resource patches. Such a composite collective decision-making system reaps the benefits of both its constituent parts. Exploiting such insights into composite collective decision-making may lead to improved decision-making algorithms. PMID:26019155

  13. Making hard choices easier: a prospective, multicentre study to assess the efficacy of a fertility-related decision aid in young women with early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peate, M; Meiser, B; Cheah, B C; Saunders, C; Butow, P; Thewes, B; Hart, R; Phillips, K-A; Hickey, M; Friedlander, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fertility is a priority for many young women with breast cancer. Women need to be informed about interventions to retain fertility before chemotherapy so as to make good quality decisions. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the efficacy of a fertility-related decision aid (DA). Methods: A total of 120 newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer patients from 19 Australian oncology clinics, aged 18–40 years and desired future fertility, were assessed on decisional conflict, knowledge, decision regret, and satisfaction about fertility-related treatment decisions. These were measured at baseline, 1 and 12 months, and were examined using linear mixed effects models. Results: Compared with usual care, women who received the DA had reduced decisional conflict (β=−1.51; 95%CI: −2.54 to 0.48; P=0.004) and improved knowledge (β=0.09; 95%CI: 0.01–0.16; P=0.02), after adjusting for education, desire for children and baseline uncertainty. The DA was associated with reduced decisional regret at 1 year (β=−3.73; 95%CI: −7.12 to −0.35; P=0.031), after adjusting for education. Women who received the DA were more satisfied with the information received on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility (P<0.001), fertility options (P=0.005), and rated it more helpful (P=0.002), than those who received standard care. Conclusion: These findings support widespread use of this DA shortly after diagnosis (before chemotherapy) among younger breast cancer patients who have not completed their families. PMID:22415294

  14. Electronic Communication and Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, M. S.; Sarbaugh-Thompson, M.

    1996-01-01

    Electronic communication can either facilitate or sabotage decision-making contexts. This article formulates recommendations about when and how to use electronic communication to enhance decision making and describes various decision contexts. Solutions to communication problems such as groupthink, social deadlock, bureaucratic isolation from…

  15. [Applications of a simple system of aid to medical decision-making with various patients in internal medicine: SELF].

    PubMed

    Kohler, F; Monchovet, S; Patris, A; Vervin, D; Kagan-Meyer, L; Groussin-Weyland, M; Anthoine, D; Guerci, O; Legras, B

    1988-01-01

    Many medical decision helping systems are very complex and require expensive computers, which restricts their diffusion and limits their use to specialized people. The idea was to find a simplified system that any practitioner--even unaccustomed to microcomputing--would be able to use. Moreover, this system had to work on widely available and inexpensive microcomputers. SELF (system in fuzzy set) is this kind of system. It has been devised as a complete interactive system of medical decision help. It is entirely parameterized, allows any kind of application and works according to such rules as "if there is premise, then there is conclusion", tempered by a coefficient. The bases of knowledge are represented on a correspondence chart where columns materialize the premises (clinical signs, laboratory results, etc.) and horizontal lines all the diagnoses and therapeutic conclusions. The system includes proceedings that create, modify and update basic knowledge. It uses the fuzzy set rules to draw conclusions. SELF was first applied to the prescription of contraceptive methods, but it has now been tested in other specialties, such as gynaecology, pneumology, haematology and so forth. In every case, the reliability of the results obtained depends on the bases chosen by the creator himself. Owing to the general character of the system, one may regard it as being open to any user who would like to create his own applications. PMID:3420333

  16. [Medical decision making: some aspects].

    PubMed

    Steurer, J

    2004-09-22

    Three main aspects of medical decision making will be shortly described in this article. Comprehensible information is required to make decisions. The question is, how much information is needed to make decisions, and a third aspect in this article concerns the decision maker. Research in the field of information transfer has shown that medical information, as presented in most journals, is difficult to understand. According to the classic decision theory, decisions are taken after collecting all available information. More recent research in decision making proves the hypothesis that human beings are able to decide correctly with much less information than presumed earlier. In medicine the patient is the decision maker, and the primary task of physicians is to inform the patient about his health status and enable him to reach a conclusion. PMID:15500244

  17. Sterilization surgery - making a decision

    MedlinePlus

    ... have sterilization surgery. However, some may regret the decision later. Men or women who are younger at ... the options available to you before making the decision to have a sterilization procedure.

  18. Inertia and Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Alós-Ferrer, Carlos; Hügelschäfer, Sabine; Li, Jiahui

    2016-01-01

    Decision inertia is the tendency to repeat previous choices independently of the outcome, which can give rise to perseveration in suboptimal choices. We investigate this tendency in probability-updating tasks. Study 1 shows that, whenever decision inertia conflicts with normatively optimal behavior (Bayesian updating), error rates are larger and decisions are slower. This is consistent with a dual-process view of decision inertia as an automatic process conflicting with a more rational, controlled one. We find evidence of decision inertia in both required and autonomous decisions, but the effect of inertia is more clear in the latter. Study 2 considers more complex decision situations where further conflict arises due to reinforcement processes. We find the same effects of decision inertia when reinforcement is aligned with Bayesian updating, but if the two latter processes conflict, the effects are limited to autonomous choices. Additionally, both studies show that the tendency to rely on decision inertia is positively associated with preference for consistency. PMID:26909061

  19. Inertia and Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Alós-Ferrer, Carlos; Hügelschäfer, Sabine; Li, Jiahui

    2016-01-01

    Decision inertia is the tendency to repeat previous choices independently of the outcome, which can give rise to perseveration in suboptimal choices. We investigate this tendency in probability-updating tasks. Study 1 shows that, whenever decision inertia conflicts with normatively optimal behavior (Bayesian updating), error rates are larger and decisions are slower. This is consistent with a dual-process view of decision inertia as an automatic process conflicting with a more rational, controlled one. We find evidence of decision inertia in both required and autonomous decisions, but the effect of inertia is more clear in the latter. Study 2 considers more complex decision situations where further conflict arises due to reinforcement processes. We find the same effects of decision inertia when reinforcement is aligned with Bayesian updating, but if the two latter processes conflict, the effects are limited to autonomous choices. Additionally, both studies show that the tendency to rely on decision inertia is positively associated with preference for consistency. PMID:26909061

  20. Decision making in surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Lamb, B; Green, J S A; Vincent, C; Sevdalis, N

    2011-09-01

    Decisions in surgical oncology are increasingly being made by multi-disciplinary teams (MDTs). Although MDTs have been widely accepted as the preferred model for cancer service delivery, the process of decision making has not been well described and there is little evidence pointing to the ideal structure of an MDT. Performance in surgery has been shown to depend on non-technical skills, such as decision making, as well as patient factors and the technical skills of the healthcare team. Application of this systems approach to MDT working allows the identification of factors that affect the quality of decision making for cancer patients. In this article we review the literature on decision making in surgical oncology and by drawing from the systems approach to surgical performance we provide a framework for understanding the process of decision making in MDTs. Technical factors that affect decision making include the information about patients, robust ICT and video-conferencing equipment, a minimum dataset with expert review of radiological and pathological information, implementation and recording of the MDTs decision. Non-technical factors with an impact on decision making include attendance of team members at meetings, leadership, teamwork, open discussion, consensus on decisions and communication with patients and primary care. Optimising these factors will strengthen the decision making process and raise the quality of care for cancer patients. PMID:20719499

  1. Fracture risk assessment: improved evaluation of vertebral integrity among metastatic cancer patients to aid in surgical decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Camp, Jon J.; Holmes, David R.; Huddleston, Paul M.; Lu, Lichun; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2012-03-01

    Failure of the spine's structural integrity from metastatic disease can lead to both pain and neurologic deficit. Fractures that require treatment occur in over 30% of bony metastases. Our objective is to use computed tomography (CT) in conjunction with analytic techniques that have been previously developed to predict fracture risk in cancer patients with metastatic disease to the spine. Current clinical practice for cancer patients with spine metastasis often requires an empirical decision regarding spinal reconstructive surgery. Early image-based software systems used for CT analysis are time consuming and poorly suited for clinical application. The Biomedical Image Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic, Rochester has developed an image analysis computer program that calculates from CT scans, the residual load-bearing capacity in a vertebra with metastatic cancer. The Spine Cancer Assessment (SCA) program is built on a platform designed for clinical practice, with a workflow format that allows for rapid selection of patient CT exams, followed by guided image analysis tasks, resulting in a fracture risk report. The analysis features allow the surgeon to quickly isolate a single vertebra and obtain an immediate pre-surgical multiple parallel section composite beam fracture risk analysis based on algorithms developed at Mayo Clinic. The analysis software is undergoing clinical validation studies. We expect this approach will facilitate patient management and utilization of reliable guidelines for selecting among various treatment option based on fracture risk.

  2. Hospice Decision Making: Diagnosis Makes a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Deborah P.; Meeker, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the process of decision making about hospice enrollment and identified factors that influence the timing of that decision. Methods: This study employed an exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional design and was conducted using qualitative methods. In-depth in-person semistructured interviews were conducted with 36…

  3. Making Decisions about Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Project Inform Information, inspiration and advocacy for people with HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C Skip to content ... Health care reform CONTRIBUTORS Search for: Twitter Feed Project Inform ProjectInform ProjectInform Easy to use #PrEP cards ...

  4. Strategies for promoting ethical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Mysak, S

    1997-01-01

    The structured controversy as a strategy for helping the non-licensed caregiver make ethical decisions as well as develop critical thinking skills was an innovative teaching technique. Students in the Homecare/Special care aide program are essential providers of care to residents or clients in a special care facility or in a homecare setting. Theory and practice of ethical decision-making is not usually dealt with in the curriculum of the non-licensed caregiver. Implementation of this approach helped students learn theory and skills necessary when dealing with controversial issues in making ethical decisions. Thompson and Thompson's (1985) ten steps of bioethical decision-making were implemented to assist in the process. Structured controversy was defined and the process of implementing structured controversy outlined. A variety of ethical issues were presented based on the ethical principles of beneficence, justice, autonomy, truthfulness, confidentiality, and integrity (Yeo, 1991). Several definitions of critical thinking are presented. PMID:9136367

  5. What is lacking in current decision aids on cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Jimbo, Masahito; Rana, Gurpreet K.; Hawley, Sarah; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Kelly-Blake, Karen; Nease, Donald E.; Ruffin, Mack T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent guidelines on cancer screening have given not only more screening options but also conflicting recommendations. Thus, patients, with their clinicians’ support, must decide whether to get screened or not, which modality to use, and how often to get screened. Decision aids could potentially lead to better shared decision making regarding screening between the patient and the clinician. We reviewed 73 decision aids on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, and prostate cancers. The goal of this review was to assess the effectiveness of such decision aids, examine areas in need for more research, and determine how the decision aids can be currently applied in the real world setting. Most studies used sound study design. Significant variation existed in setting, theoretical framework, and measured outcomes. Just over a third of the decision aids included an explicit values clarification. Other than knowledge, little consistency was noted in which patient attributes were measured as outcomes. Few studies actually measured shared decision making. Little information was available on the feasibility and outcomes of integrating decision aids into practice. We discuss the implications for future research, as well as what the clinicians can do now to incorporate decision aids into their practice. PMID:23504675

  6. Robust Decision Making

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher A. Dieckmann, PE, CSEP-Acq

    2010-07-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is funded through the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy and other customers who have direct contracts with the Laboratory. The people, equipment, facilities and other infrastructure at the laboratory require continual investment to maintain and improve the laboratory’s capabilities. With ever tightening federal and customer budgets, the ability to direct investments into the people, equipment, facilities and other infrastructure which are most closely aligned with the laboratory’s mission and customers’ goals grows increasingly more important. The ability to justify those investment decisions based on objective criteria that can withstand political, managerial and technical criticism also becomes increasingly more important. The Systems Engineering tools of decision analysis, risk management and roadmapping, when properly applied to such problems, can provide defensible decisions.

  7. Decision making: the neuroethological turn.

    PubMed

    Pearson, John M; Watson, Karli K; Platt, Michael L

    2014-06-01

    Neuroeconomics applies models from economics and psychology to inform neurobiological studies of choice. This approach has revealed neural signatures of concepts like value, risk, and ambiguity, which are known to influence decision making. Such observations have led theorists to hypothesize a single, unified decision process that mediates choice behavior via a common neural currency for outcomes like food, money, or social praise. In parallel, recent neuroethological studies of decision making have focused on natural behaviors like foraging, mate choice, and social interactions. These decisions strongly impact evolutionary fitness and thus are likely to have played a key role in shaping the neural circuits that mediate decision making. This approach has revealed a suite of computational motifs that appear to be shared across a wide variety of organisms. We argue that the existence of deep homologies in the neural circuits mediating choice may have profound implications for understanding human decision making in health and disease. PMID:24908481

  8. Decision making: the neuroethological turn

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, John M.; Watson, Karli K.; Platt, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroeconomics applies models from economics and psychology to inform neurobiological studies of choice. This approach has revealed neural signatures of concepts like value, risk, and ambiguity, which are known to influence decision-making. Such observations have led theorists to hypothesize a single, unified decision process that mediates choice behavior via a common neural currency for outcomes like food, money, or social praise. In parallel, recent neuroethological studies of decision-making have focused on natural behaviors like foraging, mate choice, and social interactions. These decisions strongly impact evolutionary fitness and thus are likely to have played a key role in shaping the neural circuits that mediate decision-making. This approach has revealed a suite of computational motifs that appear to be shared across a wide variety of organisms. We argue that the existence of deep homologies in the neural circuits mediating choice may have profound implications for understanding human decision-making in health and disease. PMID:24908481

  9. Decision Making: The Underdeveloped Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Robert

    1974-01-01

    Business educators should give students specific training in a methodology which will enable them to make logical, systematic, and rational decisions. Kepner-Tregoe Analysis (KTA), a decision making model, is described and illustrated with an example of a student buying his first car. (SC)

  10. Adolescent Decision Making: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    An important developmental task during adolescence is learning to make decisions, experiencing the related positive and negative consequences, and learning from these outcomes. However, a youth's ability to make competent decisions is sometimes called into question because adolescence is also often a time of engagement in risky behaviors. This…

  11. Decision Making and Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Elias J.

    1983-01-01

    A position statement is offered that clarifies the function, role, and emphasis of decision making within the field of health education, and a rationale that proposes that health decision-making efforts be limited to areas where evidence links a health behavior (i.e., smoking) to a health problem (i.e., lung cancer) is presented. (Author/CJ)

  12. Ethical Decision Making: Basic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, C. Bret

    2008-01-01

    Among counselors, ethical dilemmas occur often. Although ethical dilemmas are challenging, they can be solved by implementing a code of ethics and/or an ethical decision-making model. Using case studies, the authors illustrate how counselors can make informed, accurate decisions that are made to protect the welfare of the client. It also helps…

  13. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  14. An Assessment of the Level of Influence of Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education on Knowledge, Attitude and Decision Making among Adolescents with Hearing Impairment in Some States in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeniyi, S. O.; Oyewumi, A. M.; Fakolade, O. A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated knowledge, attitude and decision making on HIV/AIDS among adolescents with hearing impairment in Oyo, Lagos and Kwara States. Seventy-six respondents participated in the study with age range between 16 and 20. The research adopted a descriptive survey research design. Seventy-six students with hearing impairment…

  15. Decision Making in the Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers, aviation, and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful In improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multi-dimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that

  16. Computer modeling of human decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human decision making are reviewed. Models which treat just the cognitive aspects of human behavior are included as well as models which include motivation. Both models which have associated computer programs, and those that do not, are considered. Since flow diagrams, that assist in constructing computer simulation of such models, were not generally available, such diagrams were constructed and are presented. The result provides a rich source of information, which can aid in construction of more realistic future simulations of human decision making.

  17. Engaging patients using an interprofessional approach to shared decision making.

    PubMed

    Dawn, Stacey; Légaré, France

    2015-01-01

    Many cancer treatment and screening decisions are difficult given that they rely upon patients' informed preferences. Interprofessional shared decision making is when two or more health care professionals collaborate with a patient to reach an agreed-upon decision. To support patients' engagement in shared decision making, effective interventions include patient decision aids and/or decision coaching. Patient decision aids are typically written or video-based resources, while decision coaching is provided by trained health care professionals who are supportive but non-directive. Both interventions make explicit the decision, provide balanced information on options based on the best available evidence, and help patients consider what matters most. The overall aim is to discuss how oncology nurses can engage in an interprofessional approach to shared decision making. PMID:26897867

  18. Examining Decision-Making Regarding Environmental Information

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, Julie Lynne; Medema, Heather Dawne; Hill, Susan Gardiner

    2001-10-01

    Eight participants were asked to view a computer-based multimedia presentation on an environmental phenomenon. Participants were asked to play a role as a senior aide to a national legislator. In this role, they were told that the legislator had asked them to review a multimedia presentation regarding the hypoxic zone phenomenon in the Gulf of Mexico. Their task in assuming the role of a senior aide was to decide how important a problem this issue was to the United States as a whole, and the proportion of the legislator’s research budget that should be devoted to study of the problem. The presentation was divided into 7 segments, each containing some new information not contained in the previous segments. After viewing each segment, participants were asked to indicate how close they were to making a decision and how certain they were that their current opinion would be their final decision. After indicating their current state of decision-making, participants were interviewed regarding the factors affecting their decision-making. Of interest was the process by which participants moved toward a decision. This experiment revealed a number of possible directions for future research. There appeared to be two approaches to decision-making: Some decision-makers moved steadily toward a decision, and occasionally reversed decisions after viewing information, while others abruptly reached a decision after a certain time period spent reviewing the information. Although the difference in estimates of distance to decisions did not differ statistically for these two groups, that difference was reflected in the participants’ estimates of confidence that their current opinion would be their final decision. The interviews revealed that the primary difference between these two groups was in their trade-offs between willingness to spend time in information search and the acquisition of new information. Participants who were less confident about their final decision, tended to be

  19. Decision aid for cigarette smokers scheduled for elective surgery

    PubMed Central

    Warner, David O.; LeBlanc, Annie; Kadimpati, Sandeep; Vickers, Kristin S.; Shi, Yu; Montori, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Decision aids can increase patient involvement in decision-making about health care. The study goal was to develop and test a decision aid for use by clinicians in discussion options for changing smoking behavior before and after elective surgery. Methods In formative work, a decision aid was designed to facilitate patient-clinician discussion regarding three options: continue smoking, attempt a period of temporary abstinence, and attempt to quit smoking for good. A randomized, two-group pilot study was then conducted in smokers evaluated in preparation for elective surgery in a preoperative clinic to test the hypothesis that the decision aid would improve measures of decisional quality compared with usual care. Results The final decision aid consisted of three laminated cards. The front of each card included a colorful graphic describing each choice; the reverse including 2–3 pros and cons for each decision, a simple graphic illustrating the effects of smoking on the body, and a motivational phrase. In the randomized trial of 130 patients, the decision aid significantly (p<0.05) improved measures of decisional quality and patient involvement in decision making (Cohen’s d effect sizes of 0.76 and 1.20 for the Decisional Conflict and OPTION scales, respectively). However, the decision aid did not affect any aspect of perioperative smoking behavior, including the distribution of or adherence to choices. Conclusions Although use of a decision aid to facilitate clinician-patient discussions regarding tobacco use around the time of surgery substantially improved measures of decisional quality, it alone did not change perioperative tobacco use behavior. PMID:25978327

  20. Weather to Make a Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, Julie E.; Mjelde, James W.; Litzenberg, Kerry K.

    2006-01-01

    DECIDE is a teacher-friendly, integrated approach designed to stimulate learning by allowing students to make decisions about situations they face in their lives while using scientific weather principles. This learning unit integrates weather science, decision theory, mathematics, statistics, geography, and reading in a context of decision…

  1. Sterilization surgery - making a decision

    MedlinePlus

    ... can sometimes be reversed, both must be considered permanent forms of birth control. When deciding if you want to have a ... other options for preventing pregnancy that are not permanent. Talk ... before making the decision to have a sterilization procedure.

  2. Can Gait Signatures Provide Quantitative Measures for Aiding Clinical Decision-Making? A Systematic Meta-Analysis of Gait Variability Behavior in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    König, Niklas; Singh, Navrag B.; Baumann, Christian R.; Taylor, William R.

    2016-01-01

    A disturbed, inconsistent walking pattern is a common feature of patients with Parkinson's disease (PwPD). Such extreme variability in both temporal and spatial parameters of gait has been associated with unstable walking and an elevated prevalence of falls. However, despite their ability to discretise healthy from pathological function, normative variability values for key gait parameters are still missing. Furthermore, an understanding of each parameter's response to pathology, as well as the inter-parameter relationships, has received little attention. The aim of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis was therefore to define threshold levels for pathological gait variability as well as to investigate whether all gait parameters are equally perturbed in PwPD. Based on a broader systematic literature search that included 13′195 titles, 34 studies addressed Parkinson's disease, presenting 800 PwPD and 854 healthy subjects. Eight gait parameters were compared, of which six showed increased levels of variability during walking in PwPD. The most commonly reported parameter, coefficient of variation of stride time, revealed an upper threshold of 2.4% to discriminate the two groups. Variability of step width, however, was consistently lower in PwPD compared to healthy subjects, and therefore suggests an explicit sensory motor system control mechanism to prioritize balance during walking. The results provide a clear functional threshold for monitoring treatment efficacy in patients with Parkinson's disease. More importantly, however, quantification of specific functional deficits could well provide a basis for locating the source and extent of the neurological damage, and therefore aid clinical decision-making for individualizing therapies. PMID:27445759

  3. Aging and consumer decision making

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Stephanie M.; Yoon, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Research on consumer decision making and aging is especially important for fostering a better understanding of ways to maintain consumer satisfaction and high decision quality across the life span. We provide a review of extant research on the effects of normal aging on cognition and decision processes and how these age-related processes are influenced by task environment, meaningfulness of the task, and consumer expertise. We consider how research centered on these topics generates insights about changes in consumption decisions that occur with aging and identify a number of gaps and directions for future research. PMID:22360794

  4. Heuristic decision making in medicine

    PubMed Central

    Marewski, Julian N.; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Can less information be more helpful when it comes to making medical decisions? Contrary to the common intuition that more information is always better, the use of heuristics can help both physicians and patients to make sound decisions. Heuristics are simple decision strategies that ignore part of the available information, basing decisions on only a few relevant predictors. We discuss: (i) how doctors and patients use heuristics; and (ii) when heuristics outperform information-greedy methods, such as regressions in medical diagnosis. Furthermore, we outline those features of heuristics that make them useful in health care settings. These features include their surprising accuracy, transparency, and wide accessibility, as well as the low costs and little time required to employ them. We close by explaining one of the statistical reasons why heuristics are accurate, and by pointing to psychiatry as one area for future research on heuristics in health care. PMID:22577307

  5. Training for Aviation Decision Making: The Naturalistic Decision Making Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the implications of a naturalistic decision making (NDM) perspective for training air crews to make flight-related decisions. The implications are based on two types of analyses: (a) identification of distinctive features that serve as a basis for classifying a diverse set of decision events actually encountered by flight crews, and (b) performance strategies that distinguished more from less effective crews flying full-mission simulators, as well as performance analyses from NTSB accident investigations. Six training recommendations are offered: (1) Because of the diversity of decision situations, crews need to be aware that different strategies may be appropriate for different problems; (2) Given that situation assessment is essential to making a good decision, it is important to train specific content knowledge needed to recognize critical conditions, to assess risks and available time, and to develop strategies to verify or diagnose the problem; (3) Tendencies to oversimplify problems may be overcome by training to evaluate options in terms of goals, constraints, consequences, and prevailing conditions; (4) In order to provide the time to gather information and consider options, it is essential to manage the situation, which includes managing crew workload, prioritizing tasks, contingency planning, buying time (e.g., requesting holding or vectors), and using low workload periods to prepare for high workload; (5) Evaluating resource requirements ("What do I need?") and capabilities ("'What do I have?" ) are essential to making good decisions. Using resources to meet requirements may involve the cabin crew, ATC, dispatchers, and maintenance personnel; (6) Given that decisions must often be made under high risk, time pressure, and workload, train under realistic flight conditions to promote the development of robust decision skills.

  6. Making better decisions in uncertain times (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St John, C.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific information about climate change and other human impacts on the environment are increasingly available and sought after (often in the form of probabilistic forecasts or technical information related to engineering solutions). However, it is increasingly apparent that there are barriers to the use of this information by decision makers - either from its lack of application altogether, its usability for people without scientific backgrounds, or its ability to inform sound decisions and widespread behavior change. While the argument has been made that an information deficit is to blame, we argue that there is also a motivation deficit contributing to a lack of understanding of information about climate change impacts and solutions. Utilizing insight from over thirty years of research in social and cognitive psychology, in addition to other social sciences, the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) seeks to understand how people make environmental decisions under conditions of uncertainty, and how these decisions can be improved. This presentation will focus specifically on recent research that has come forth since the 2009 publication of CRED's popular guide 'The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public.' Utilizing case studies from real world examples, this talk will explore how decision making can be improved through a better understanding of how people perceive and process uncertainty and risk. It will explore techniques such as choice architecture and 'nudging' behavior change, how social goals and group participation affect decision making, and how framing of environmental information influences mitigative behavior.

  7. Structured decision making: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.; Grand, James B.; Mitchell, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife management is a decision-focused discipline. It needs to integrate traditional wildlife science and social science to identify actions that are most likely to achieve the array of desires society has surrounding wildlife populations. Decision science, a vast field with roots in economics, operations research, and psychology, offers a rich set of tools to help wildlife managers frame, decompose, analyze, and synthesize their decisions. The nature of wildlife management as a decision science has been recognized since the inception of the field, but formal methods of decision analysis have been underused. There is tremendous potential for wildlife management to grow further through the use of formal decision analysis. First, the wildlife science and human dimensions of wildlife disciplines can be readily integrated. Second, decisions can become more efficient. Third, decisions makers can communicate more clearly with stakeholders and the public. Fourth, good, intuitive wildlife managers, by explicitly examining how they make decisions, can translate their art into a science that is readily used by the next generation.

  8. Writing as decision-making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souther, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The need to teach informational writing as a decision-making process is discussed. Situational analysis, its relationship to decisions in writing, and the need for relevant assignments are considered. Teaching students to ask the right questions is covered. The need to teach writing responsiveness is described. Three steps to get started and four teaching techniques are described. The information needs of the 'expert' and the 'manager' are contrasted.

  9. Crew decision making under stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, J.

    1992-01-01

    Flight crews must make decisions and take action when systems fail or emergencies arise during flight. These situations may involve high stress. Full-missiion flight simulation studies have shown that crews differ in how effectively they cope in these circumstances, judged by operational errors and crew coordination. The present study analyzed the problem solving and decision making strategies used by crews led by captains fitting three different personality profiles. Our goal was to identify more and less effective strategies that could serve as the basis for crew selection or training. Methods: Twelve 3-member B-727 crews flew a 5-leg mission simulated flight over 1 1/2 days. Two legs included 4 abnormal events that required decisions during high workload periods. Transcripts of videotapes were analyzed to describe decision making strategies. Crew performance (errors and coordination) was judged on-line and from videotapes by check airmen. Results: Based on a median split of crew performance errors, analyses to date indicate a difference in general strategy between crews who make more or less errors. Higher performance crews showed greater situational awareness - they responded quickly to cues and interpreted them appropriately. They requested more decision relevant information and took into account more constraints. Lower performing crews showed poorer situational awareness, planning, constraint sensitivity, and coordination. The major difference between higher and lower performing crews was that poorer crews made quick decisions and then collected information to confirm their decision. Conclusion: Differences in overall crew performance were associated with differences in situational awareness, information management, and decision strategy. Captain personality profiles were associated with these differences, a finding with implications for crew selection and training.

  10. Decision making: rational or hedonic?

    PubMed Central

    Cabanac, Michel; Bonniot-Cabanac, Marie-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments studied the hedonicity of decision making. Participants rated their pleasure/displeasure while reading item-sentences describing political and social problems followed by different decisions (Questionnaire 1). Questionnaire 2 was multiple-choice, grouping the items from Questionnaire 1. In Experiment 1, participants answered Questionnaire 2 rapidly or slowly. Both groups selected what they had rated as pleasant, but the 'leisurely' group maximized pleasure less. In Experiment 2, participants selected the most rational responses. The selected behaviors were pleasant but less than spontaneous behaviors. In Experiment 3, Questionnaire 2 was presented once with items grouped by theme, and once with items shuffled. Participants maximized the pleasure of their decisions, but the items selected on Questionnaires 2 were different when presented in different order. All groups maximized pleasure equally in their decisions. These results support that decisions are made predominantly in the hedonic dimension of consciousness. PMID:17848195

  11. Models of Affective Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Charpentier, Caroline J.; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Li, Xinyi; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Sharot, Tali

    2016-01-01

    Intuitively, how you feel about potential outcomes will determine your decisions. Indeed, an implicit assumption in one of the most influential theories in psychology, prospect theory, is that feelings govern choice. Surprisingly, however, very little is known about the rules by which feelings are transformed into decisions. Here, we specified a computational model that used feelings to predict choices. We found that this model predicted choice better than existing value-based models, showing a unique contribution of feelings to decisions, over and above value. Similar to the value function in prospect theory, our feeling function showed diminished sensitivity to outcomes as value increased. However, loss aversion in choice was explained by an asymmetry in how feelings about losses and gains were weighted when making a decision, not by an asymmetry in the feelings themselves. The results provide new insights into how feelings are utilized to reach a decision. PMID:27071751

  12. Pharmacoeconomics and formulary decision making.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, L A

    1996-01-01

    Pharmacoeconomic assessment of formulary actions has become increasingly common in local, national, and international formulary decision making. Tactics for managing medication use include formulary management and drug policies. Pharmacoeconomic data can provide support for these formulary decisions. For example, pharmacoeconomic data can support the inclusion or exclusion of a drug on or from the formulary and support practice guidelines that promote the most cost-effective or appropriate utilisation of pharmaceutical products. Various strategies can be used to incorporate pharmacoeconomics into formulary decision making. These include using published pharmacoeconomic studies and economic modelling techniques, and conducting local pharmacoeconomic research. Criteria for evaluating the pharmacoeconomic literature, suggestions for employing economic models, and suggested guidelines for conducting pharmacoeconomic projects are discussed. Although most formularies are viewed as cost-containment tools, formularies should not be a list of the 'cheapest' alternatives. Today's formulary should contain agents that optimise therapeutic outcomes while controlling cost. Pharmacoeconomic assessments of formulary decisions help to ensure that the agents promoted by our formularies yield the highest outcome per dollar spent. A discussion of the process for formulary action in a US hospital, the influence of pharmacoeconomics on US formularies, and strategies for incorporating pharmacoeconomics into formulary decision making are presented in this paper. PMID:10160112

  13. Promoting Metacognitive Decision-Making in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Robin; Bauml, Michelle; Quebec-Fuentes, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Effective teachers are characterized by their abilities to make thoughtful, deliberate, and informed adaptations while teaching (Hoffman & Pearson, 2000). These in-the-moment teaching decisions are guided by a complex web of teacher knowledge. Raising teachers' awareness of the decisions they make on a moment-by-moment basis may aid in…

  14. Teaching Rational Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolever, Roberts

    1978-01-01

    Presented is an outline of a college course, "Education in American Society," that focused on teaching students rational decision-making skills while examining current issues in American Education. The outline is followed by student comments, reactions, and evaluations of the course. (JMD)

  15. Participation in Educational Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Deborah D.

    1979-01-01

    The author suggests that teachers should be involved in the decision making process and that the administrator should structure meetings to generate such participation. Discussed are the National Group Technique (NGT) and the Delphi Technique as means of facilitating pooled judgments. (KC)

  16. Curriculum Decision Making in TAFE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBeath, Clare

    A study examined the decision-making stage in the curriculum development process in vocational programs throughout Australia. Data were collected from interviews from a network of persons currently involved in curriculum development and case studies of the curriculum development process in action at 16 vocational schools throughout Australia.…

  17. Unplanned Pregnancy: Making a Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taverner, William J.; Brick, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    This lesson helps participants examine their own attitudes and feelings about being faced with an unplanned pregnancy and understand the difficult choices involved when women need to make a decision about unplanned pregnancy. The lesson uses brainstorming, discussion, an examination of "case studies," and role-playing to help participants develop…

  18. Collaborative prototyping approaches for ICU decision aid design.

    PubMed

    Ehrhart, L S; Hanson, C W; Marshall, B E; Marshall, C; Medsker, C

    1999-01-01

    When computer-based aids do not support the human users' decision-making strategies or anticipate the organizational impacts of technological change, advances in information technology may degrade rather than enhance decision-making performance. Such failures suggest the design of human-computer cooperation for problem solving and decision-making must be driven by human cognitive and organizational process requirements rather than computer technology. Decision- and user-centered development techniques involve domain experts and end-users in the earliest phases of design to evolve an understanding of requirements through iterative prototyping. This paper presents a collaborative approach to cognitive systems engineering applied to developing a clinical aid to assist respiratory care in the surgical ICU. PMID:10566460

  19. Making a decision to forgive.

    PubMed

    Davis, Don E; Hook, Joshua N; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Rice, Kenneth G; Worthington, Everett L

    2015-04-01

    Prominent models and interventions designed to promote forgiveness have distinguished one's decision to forgive from achieving forgiveness as an end state, but because of a lack of a strong measure, there is a weak research base on making a decision to forgive. Thus, in three studies, the authors developed the Decision to Forgive Scale (DTFS) and examined evidence for its reliability and construct validity. The article focused on distinguishing making a decision to forgive from achieved level of forgiveness. Scores on the DTFS showed evidence of reliability, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from .92 to .94, and a 1-week temporal stability coefficient of .68. Using several strategies, the authors demonstrated that the DTFS is empirically distinct from the Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations scale (TRIM; McCullough et al., 1998). Namely, a 3-factor confirmatory factor analysis that included the DTFS and the 2 TRIM subscales showed excellent fit, suggesting these instruments assess 3 different constructs. The DTFS was only moderately related to the TRIM subscales, was more strongly related to stage of change than the TRIM, and predicted subsequent TRIM scores in a cross-lagged model. Finally, although decisions to forgive generally suggested greater forgiveness, these constructs interacted to predict existential distress. Namely, as decisional forgiveness increased, revenge was more strongly related to existential distress. Overall, the DTFS shows considerable promise for further clinical and basic research applications. PMID:25621589

  20. Reasoning, decision making and rationality.

    PubMed

    Evans, J S; Over, D E; Manktelow, K I

    1993-01-01

    It is argued that reasoning in the real world supports decision making and is aimed at the achievement of goals. A distinction is developed between two notions of rationality: rationality which is reasoning in such a way as to achieve one's goals--within cognitive constraints--and rationality which is reasoning by a process of logic. This dichotomy is related to the philosophical distinction between practical and theoretical reasoning. It is argued that logicality (rationality) does not provide a good basis for rationality and some psychological research on deductive reasoning is re-examined in this light. First, we review belief bias effects in syllogistic reasoning, and argue that the phenomena do not support the interpretations of irrationality that are often placed upon them. Second, we review and discuss recent studies of deontic reasoning in the Wason selection task, which demonstrate the decision making, and rational nature of reasoning in realistic contexts. The final section of the paper examines contemporary decision theory and shows how it fails, in comparable manner to formal logic, to provide an adequate model for assessing the rationality of human reasoning and decision making. PMID:8287673

  1. Decision making in xia2.

    PubMed

    Winter, Graeme; Lobley, Carina M C; Prince, Stephen M

    2013-07-01

    xia2 is an expert system for the automated reduction of macromolecular crystallography (MX) data employing well trusted existing software. The system can process a full MX data set consisting of one or more sequences of images at one or more wavelengths from images to structure-factor amplitudes with no user input. To achieve this many decisions are made, the rationale for which is described here. In addition, it is critical to support the testing of hypotheses and to allow feedback of results from later stages in the analysis to earlier points where decisions were made: the flexible framework employed by xia2 to support this feedback is summarized here. While the decision-making protocols described here were developed for xia2, they are equally applicable to interactive data reduction. PMID:23793152

  2. An ABC for decision making.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. PMID:25987751

  3. An ABC for decision making*

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. PMID:25987751

  4. Group performance and decision making.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Norbert L; Tindale, R Scott

    2004-01-01

    Theory and research on small group performance and decision making is reviewed. Recent trends in group performance research have found that process gains as well as losses are possible, and both are frequently explained by situational and procedural contexts that differentially affect motivation and resource coordination. Research has continued on classic topics (e.g., brainstorming, group goal setting, stress, and group performance) and relatively new areas (e.g., collective induction). Group decision making research has focused on preference combination for continuous response distributions and group information processing. New approaches (e.g., group-level signal detection) and traditional topics (e.g., groupthink) are discussed. New directions, such as nonlinear dynamic systems, evolutionary adaptation, and technological advances, should keep small group research vigorous well into the future. PMID:14744229

  5. Wildfire Decision Making Under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Decisions relating to wildfire management are subject to multiple sources of uncertainty, and are made by a broad range of individuals, across a multitude of environmental and socioeconomic contexts. In this presentation I will review progress towards identification and characterization of uncertainties and how this information can support wildfire decision-making. First, I will review a typology of uncertainties common to wildfire management, highlighting some of the more salient sources of uncertainty and how they present challenges to assessing wildfire risk. This discussion will cover the expanding role of burn probability modeling, approaches for characterizing fire effects, and the role of multi-criteria decision analysis, and will provide illustrative examples of integrated wildfire risk assessment across a variety of planning scales. Second, I will describe a related uncertainty typology that focuses on the human dimensions of wildfire management, specifically addressing how social, psychological, and institutional factors may impair cost-effective risk mitigation. This discussion will encompass decision processes before, during, and after fire events, with a specific focus on active management of complex wildfire incidents. An improved ability to characterize uncertainties faced in wildfire management could lead to improved delivery of decision support, targeted communication strategies, and ultimately to improved wildfire management outcomes.

  6. Neuroethology of Decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Geoffrey K.; Watson, Karli K.; Pearson, John; Platt, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    A neuroethological approach to decision-making considers the effect of evolutionary pressures on neural circuits mediating choice. In this view, decision systems are expected to enhance fitness with respect to the local environment, and particularly efficient solutions to specific problems should be conserved, expanded, and repurposed to solve other problems. Here, we discuss basic prerequisites for a variety of decision systems from this viewpoint. We focus on two of the best-studied and most widely represented decision problems. First, we examine patch leaving, a prototype of environmentally based switching between action patterns. Second, we consider social information seeking, a process resembling foraging with search costs. We argue that while the specific neural solutions to these problems sometimes differ across species, both the problems themselves and the algorithms instantiated by biological hardware are repeated widely throughout nature. The behavioral and mathematical study of ubiquitous decision processes like patch leaving and social information seeking thus provides a powerful new approach to uncovering the fundamental design structure of nervous systems. PMID:22902613

  7. Addressing health literacy in patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective use of a patient decision aid (PtDA) can be affected by the user’s health literacy and the PtDA’s characteristics. Systematic reviews of the relevant literature can guide PtDA developers to attend to the health literacy needs of patients. The reviews reported here aimed to assess: 1. a) the effects of health literacy / numeracy on selected decision-making outcomes, and b) the effects of interventions designed to mitigate the influence of lower health literacy on decision-making outcomes, and 2. the extent to which existing PtDAs a) account for health literacy, and b) are tested in lower health literacy populations. Methods We reviewed literature for evidence relevant to these two aims. When high-quality systematic reviews existed, we summarized their evidence. When reviews were unavailable, we conducted our own systematic reviews. Results Aim 1: In an existing systematic review of PtDA trials, lower health literacy was associated with lower patient health knowledge (14 of 16 eligible studies). Fourteen studies reported practical design strategies to improve knowledge for lower health literacy patients. In our own systematic review, no studies reported on values clarity per se, but in 2 lower health literacy was related to higher decisional uncertainty and regret. Lower health literacy was associated with less desire for involvement in 3 studies, less question-asking in 2, and less patient-centered communication in 4 studies; its effects on other measures of patient involvement were mixed. Only one study assessed the effects of a health literacy intervention on outcomes; it showed that using video to improve the salience of health states reduced decisional uncertainty. Aim 2: In our review of 97 trials, only 3 PtDAs overtly addressed the needs of lower health literacy users. In 90% of trials, user health literacy and readability of the PtDA were not reported. However, increases in knowledge and informed choice were reported in those studies

  8. Improving decision making about clinical trial participation – a randomised controlled trial of a decision aid for women considering participation in the IBIS-II breast cancer prevention trial

    PubMed Central

    Juraskova, I; Butow, P; Bonner, C; Bell, M L; Smith, A B; Seccombe, M; Boyle, F; Reaby, L; Cuzick, J; Forbes, J F

    2014-01-01

    Background: Decision aids may improve informed consent in clinical trial recruitment, but have not been evaluated in this context. This study investigated whether decision aids (DAs) can reduce decisional difficulties among women considering participation in the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II (IBIS-II) trial. Methods: The IBIS-II trial investigated breast cancer prevention with anastrazole in two cohorts: women with increased risk (Prevention), and women treated for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Australia, New Zealand and United Kingdom participants were randomised to receive a DA (DA group) or standard trial consent materials (control group). Questionnaires were completed after deciding about participation in IBIS-II (post decision) and 3 months later (follow-up). Results: Data from 112 Prevention and 34 DCIS participants were analysed post decision (73 DA; 73 control); 95 Prevention and 24 DCIS participants were analysed at follow-up (58 DA; 61 control). There was no effect on the primary outcome of decisional conflict. The DCIS–DA group had higher knowledge post decision, and the Prevention-DA group had lower decisional regret at follow-up. Conclusions: This was the first study to evaluate a DA in the clinical trial setting. The results suggest DAs can potentially increase knowledge and reduce decisional regret about clinical trial participation. PMID:24892447

  9. Decision Making in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montyla, Timo; Still, Johanna; Gullberg, Stina; Del Missier, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined decision-making competence in ADHD by using multiple decision tasks with varying demands on analytic versus affective processes. Methods: Adults with ADHD and healthy controls completed two tasks of analytic decision making, as measured by the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, and two affective…

  10. [Decision-making and schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Adida, M; Maurel, M; Kaladjian, A; Fakra, E; Lazerges, P; Da Fonseca, D; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Abnormalities involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC) have long been postulated to underpin the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Investigations of PFC integrity have focused mainly on the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and abnormalities in this region have been extensively documented. However, defects in schizophrenia may extend to other prefrontal regions, including the ventromedial PFC (VMPFC), and evidence of VMPFC abnormalities comes from neuropathological, structural and functional studies. Patients with acquired brain injury to the VMPFC display profound disruption of social behaviour and poor judgment in their personal lives. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was developed to assess decision-making in these neurological cases : it presents a series of 100 choices from four card decks that differ in the distribution of rewarding and punishing outcomes. Whilst healthy volunteers gradually develop a preference for the two "safe" decks over the course of the task, patients with VMPFC lesions maintain a preference for the two "risky" decks which are associated with high reinforcement in the short term, but significant long-term debt. Interestingly, damage to VMPFC may cause both poor performance on the IGT and lack of insight concerning the acquired personality modification. Recently, our group reported a trait-related decisionmaking impairment in the three phases of bipolar disorder. In a PET study, VMPFC dysfunction was shown in bipolar manic patients impaired on a decision-making task and an association between decision-making cognition and lack of insight was described in mania. A quantitative association between grey matter volume of VMPFC and memory impairment was previously reported in schizophrenia. Research suggests that lack of insight is a prevalent feature in schizophrenia patients, like auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, and disorganized speech and thinking. Because schizophrenia is associated with significant social or occupational

  11. Comparison of display enhancement with intelligent decision-aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirlik, Alex; Markert, Wendy J.; Kossack, Merrick

    1992-01-01

    Currently, two main approaches exist for improving the human-machine interface component of a system in order to improve overall system performance, display enhancement and intelligent decision aiding. Each of these two approaches has its own set of advantages and disadvantages, as well as introduce its own set of additional performance problems. These characteristics should help identify which types of problem situations and domains are better aided by which type of strategy. The characteristic issues are described of these two decision aiding strategies. Then differences in expert and novice decision making are described in order to help determine whether a particular strategy may be better for a particular type of user. Finally, research is outlined to compare and contrast the two technologies, as well as to examine the interaction effects introduced by the different skill levels and the different methods for training operators.

  12. Simulation of human decision making

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Speed, Ann E.; Jordan, Sabina E.; Xavier, Patrick G.

    2008-05-06

    A method for computer emulation of human decision making defines a plurality of concepts related to a domain and a plurality of situations related to the domain, where each situation is a combination of at least two of the concepts. Each concept and situation is represented in the computer as an oscillator output, and each situation and concept oscillator output is distinguishable from all other oscillator outputs. Information is input to the computer representative of detected concepts, and the computer compares the detected concepts with the stored situations to determine if a situation has occurred.

  13. Review of Multi-Criteria Decision Aid for Integrated Sustainability Assessment of Urban Water Systems - MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated sustainability assessment is part of a new paradigm for urban water decision making. Multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) is an integrative framework used in urban water sustainability assessment, which has a particular focus on utilising stakeholder participation. Here ...

  14. Decision aids for localized prostate cancer treatment choice: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Violette, Philippe D; Agoritsas, Thomas; Alexander, Paul; Riikonen, Jarno; Santti, Henrikki; Agarwal, Arnav; Bhatnagar, Neera; Dahm, Philipp; Montori, Victor; Guyatt, Gordon H; Tikkinen, Kari A O

    2015-01-01

    Patients who are diagnosed with localized prostate cancer need to make critical treatment decisions that are sensitive to their values and preferences. The role of decision aids in facilitating these decisions is unknown. The authors conducted a systematic review of randomized trials of decision aids for localized prostate cancer. Teams of 2 reviewers independently identified, selected, and abstracted data from 14 eligible trials (n = 3377 men), of which 10 were conducted in North America. Of these, 11 trials compared decision aids with usual care, and 3 trials compared decision aids with other decision aids. Two trials suggested a modest positive impact on decisional regret. Results across studies varied widely for decisional conflict (4 studies), satisfaction with decision (2 studies), and knowledge (2 studies). No impact on treatment choices was observed (6 studies). In conclusion, scant evidence at high risk of bias suggests the variable impact of existing decision aids on a limited set of decisional processes and outcomes. Because current decision aids provide information but do not directly facilitate shared decision making, subsequent efforts would benefit from user-centered design of decision aids that promote shared decision making. PMID:25772796

  15. Decision Technology Systems: A Vehicle to Consolidate Decision Making Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgionne, Guisseppi A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of management decision making and the support needed to manage successfully highlights a Decision Technology System (DTS) that integrates other information systems. Topics discussed include computer information systems (CISs); knowledge gateways; the decision-making process; decision support systems (DSS); expert systems; and facility…

  16. [Decision making in cannabis users].

    PubMed

    Alameda Bailén, Jose Ramón; Paíno Quesada, Susana; Mogedas Valladares, Ana Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Several neuropsychological studies have shown that chronic cannabis users have cognitive impairments, including decision-making process. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the process, through the somatic marker hypothesis in a sample of 41 cannabis users compared with a control group of equal size, and to analyze the influence of age, sex, education level, age of onset and amount of daily consumption. In order to do that, the software "Cartas" (similar to the Iowa Gambling Task), was used, implementing its two versions: normal and reverse. The results show significant differences between cannabis users and control group in the normal and reverse task execution. By block analysis, the control group obtained higher scores in the normal task execution, however, in the reverse task, the differences between groups are present in the initial task execution but not final task execution. None of the analyzed variables (age, sex ...) are significantly related to task performance. These results suggest the existence of alterations in the decision making process of consumers cannabis, which may relate to the difficulty in generating somatic markers, and not for insensitivity punishments insensitivity. PMID:22648319

  17. Refining a brief decision aid in stable CAD: cognitive interviews

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe the results of cognitive interviews to refine the “Making Choices©” Decision Aid (DA) for shared decision-making (SDM) about stress testing in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods We conducted a systematic development process to design a DA consistent with International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) focused on Alpha testing criteria. Cognitive interviews were conducted with ten stable CAD patients using the “think aloud” interview technique to assess the clarity, usefulness, and design of each page of the DA. Results Participants identified three main messages: 1) patients have multiple options based on stress tests and they should be discussed with a physician, 2) take care of yourself, 3) the stress test is the gold standard for determining the severity of your heart disease. Revisions corrected the inaccurate assumption of item number three. Conclusions Cognitive interviews proved critical for engaging patients in the development process and highlighted the necessity of clear message development and use of design principles that make decision materials easy to read and easy to use. Cognitive interviews appear to contribute critical information from the patient perspective to the overall systematic development process for designing decision aids. PMID:24521210

  18. The neglected topic: presentation of cost information in patient decision AIDS.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal-Barby, J S; Robinson, Emily; Cantor, Scott B; Naik, Aanand D; Russell, Heidi Voelker; Volk, Robert J

    2015-05-01

    Costs are an important component of patients' decision making, but a comparatively underemphasized aspect of formal shared decision making. We hypothesized that decision aids also avoid discussion of costs, despite their being tools designed to facilitate shared decision making about patient-centered outcomes. We sought to define the frequency of cost-related information and identify the common modes of presenting cost and cost-related information in the 290 decision aids catalogued in the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute's Decision Aid Library Inventory (DALI) system. We found that 56% (n = 161) of the decision aids mentioned cost in some way, but only 13% (n = 37) gave a specific price or range of prices. We identified 9 different ways in which cost was mentioned. The most common approach was as a "pro" of one of the treatment options (e.g., "you avoid the cost of medication"). Of the 37 decision aids that gave specific prices or ranges of prices for treatment options, only 2 were about surgery decisions despite the fact that surgery decision aids were the most common. Our findings suggest that presentation of cost information in decision aids is highly variable. Evidence-based guidelines should be developed by the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration. PMID:25583552

  19. Improving Adolescent Judgment and Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Dansereau, Donald F; Knight, Danica K; Flynn, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Human judgment and decision making (JDM) has substantial room for improvement, especially among adolescents. Increased technological and social complexity "ups the ante" for developing impactful JDM interventions and aids. Current explanatory advances in this field emphasize dual processing models that incorporate both experiential and analytic processing systems. According to these models, judgment and decisions based on the experiential system are rapid and stem from automatic reference to previously stored episodes. Those based on the analytic system are viewed as slower and consciously developed. These models also hypothesize that metacognitive (self-monitoring) activities embedded in the analytic system influence how and when the two systems are used. What is not included in these models is the development of an intersection between the two systems. Because such an intersection is strongly suggested by memory and educational research as the basis of wisdom/expertise, the present paper describes an Integrated Judgment and Decision-Making Model (IJDM) that incorporates this component. Wisdom/expertise is hypothesized to contain a collection of schematic structures that can emerge from the accumulation of similar episodes or repeated analytic practice. As will be argued, in comparisons to dual system models, the addition of this component provides a broader basis for selecting and designing interventions to improve adolescent JDM. Its development also has implications for generally enhancing cognitive interventions by adopting principles from athletic training to create automated, expert behaviors. PMID:24391350

  20. Decision making in family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Labrecque, Michel; Ratté, Stéphane; Frémont, Pierre; Cauchon, Michel; Ouellet, Jérôme; Hogg, William; McGowan, Jessie; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Njoya, Merlin; Légaré, France

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare the ability of users of 2 medical search engines, InfoClinique and the Trip database, to provide correct answers to clinical questions and to explore the perceived effects of the tools on the clinical decision-making process. Design Randomized trial. Setting Three family medicine units of the family medicine program of the Faculty of Medicine at Laval University in Quebec city, Que. Participants Fifteen second-year family medicine residents. Intervention Residents generated 30 structured questions about therapy or preventive treatment (2 questions per resident) based on clinical encounters. Using an Internet platform designed for the trial, each resident answered 20 of these questions (their own 2, plus 18 of the questions formulated by other residents, selected randomly) before and after searching for information with 1 of the 2 search engines. For each question, 5 residents were randomly assigned to begin their search with InfoClinique and 5 with the Trip database. Main outcome measures The ability of residents to provide correct answers to clinical questions using the search engines, as determined by third-party evaluation. After answering each question, participants completed a questionnaire to assess their perception of the engine’s effect on the decision-making process in clinical practice. Results Of 300 possible pairs of answers (1 answer before and 1 after the initial search), 254 (85%) were produced by 14 residents. Of these, 132 (52%) and 122 (48%) pairs of answers concerned questions that had been assigned an initial search with InfoClinique and the Trip database, respectively. Both engines produced an important and similar absolute increase in the proportion of correct answers after searching (26% to 62% for InfoClinique, for an increase of 36%; 24% to 63% for the Trip database, for an increase of 39%; P = .68). For all 30 clinical questions, at least 1 resident produced the correct answer after searching with either

  1. Tools to Promote Shared Decision Making in Serious Illness

    PubMed Central

    Austin, C. Adrian; Mohottige, Dinushika; Sudore, Rebecca L.; Smith, Alexander K.; Hanson, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Serious illness impairs function and threatens survival. Patients facing serious illness value shared decision making, yet few decision aids address the needs of this population. OBJECTIVE To perform a systematic review of evidence about decision aids and other exportable tools that promote shared decision making in serious illness, thereby (1) identifying tools relevant to the treatment decisions of seriously ill patients and their caregivers, (2) evaluating the quality of evidence for these tools, and (3) summarizing their effect on outcomes and accessibility for clinicians. EVIDENCE REVIEW We searched PubMed, CINAHL, and PsychInfo from January 1, 1995, through October 31, 2014, and identified additional studies from reference lists and other systematic reviews. Clinical trials with random or nonrandom controls were included if they tested print, video, or web-based tools for advance care planning (ACP) or decision aids for serious illness. We extracted data on the study population, design, results, and risk for bias using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Each tool was evaluated for its effect on patient outcomes and accessibility. FINDINGS Seventeen randomized clinical trials tested decision tools in serious illness. Nearly all the trials were of moderate or high quality and showed that decision tools improve patient knowledge and awareness of treatment choices. The available tools address ACP, palliative care and goals of care communication, feeding options in dementia, lung transplant in cystic fibrosis, and truth telling in terminal cancer. Five randomized clinical trials provided further evidence that decision tools improve ACP documentation, clinical decisions, and treatment received. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Clinicians can access and use evidence-based tools to engage seriously ill patients in shared decision making. This field of research is in an early stage; future research is needed to

  2. Impaired Decision Making in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Remy P.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison…

  3. Facilitating Consensual Labor-Management Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Grant T.

    Facilitating consensual labor-management decision making may require interventions during, after, and before meetings. These interventions--including persuasion and mediation--may affect both the internal and the external processes of decision making. Communicative actions may help both the internal and the external decision making processes of a…

  4. Values in Decision Making: The INVOLVE Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfrink, Victoria L.; Coldwell, LuAnn Linson

    1993-01-01

    Describes the function of values and participatory decision making within the student affairs profession. Introduces a process model as a means of operationalizing values in the decision-making process and uses case studies to illustrate how the model can be used to improve student affairs professionals' decision making. (RJM)

  5. Acquisition and production of skilled behavior in dynamic decision-making tasks: Modeling strategic behavior in human-automation interaction: Why and aid can (and should) go unused

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirlik, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Advances in computer and control technology offer the opportunity for task-offload aiding in human-machine systems. A task-offload aid (e.g., an autopilot, an intelligent assistant) can be selectively engaged by the human operator to dynamically delegate tasks to an automated system. Successful design and performance prediction in such systems requires knowledge of the factors influencing the strategy the operator develops and uses for managing interaction with the task-offload aid. A model is presented that shows how such strategies can be predicted as a function of three task context properties (frequency and duration of secondary tasks and costs of delaying secondary tasks) and three aid design properties (aid engagement and disengagement times, aid performance relative to human performance). Sensitivity analysis indicates how each of these contextual and design factors affect the optimal aid aid usage strategy and attainable system performance. The model is applied to understanding human-automation interaction in laboratory experiments on human supervisory control behavior. The laboratory task allowed subjects freedom to determine strategies for using an autopilot in a dynamic, multi-task environment. Modeling results suggested that many subjects may indeed have been acting appropriately by not using the autopilot in the way its designers intended. Although autopilot function was technically sound, this aid was not designed with due regard to the overall task context in which it was placed. These results demonstrate the need for additional research on how people may strategically manage their own resources, as well as those provided by automation, in an effort to keep workload and performance at acceptable levels.

  6. FAmily CEntered (FACE) advance care planning: Study design and methods for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for patients with HIV/AIDS and their surrogate decision-makers

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Allison L.; Wang, Jichuan; Scott, Rachel; Briggs, Linda; Lyon, Maureen E.

    2016-01-01

    Although the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has become a chronic illness, disease-specific advance care planning has not yet been evaluated for the palliative care needs of adults with HIV/AIDS. This prospective, longitudinal, randomized, two-arm controlled clinical trial aims to test the efficacy of FAmily CEntered Advance Care Planning among adults living with AIDS and/or HIV with co-morbidities on congruence in treatment preferences, healthcare utilization, and quality of life. The FAmily CEntered intervention arm is two face-to-face sessions with a trained, certified facilitator: Session 1) Disease-Specific Advance Care Planning Respecting Choices Interview; Session 2) Completion of advance directive. The Healthy Living control arm is: Session 1) Developmental/Relationship History; Session 2) Nutrition. Follow-up data will be collected at 3, 6, 12, and 18-month post-intervention. A total of 288 patient/surrogate dyads will be enrolled from five hospital-based, out-patient clinics in Washington, District of Columbia. Participants will be HIV positive and ≥21 years of age; surrogates will be ≥18 years of age. Exclusion criteria are homicidality, suicidality, psychosis, and impaired cognitive functioning. We hypothesize that this intervention will enhance patient-centered communication with a surrogate decision-maker about end of life treatment preferences over time, enhance patient quality of life and decrease health care utilization. We further hypothesize that this intervention will decrease health disparities for Blacks in completion of advance directives. If proposed aims are achieved, the benefits of palliative care, particularly increased treatment preferences about end-of-life care and enhanced quality of life, will be extended to people living with AIDS. PMID:26044463

  7. Changing Times, Complex Decisions: Presidential Values and Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornak, Anne M.; Garza Mitchell, Regina L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article is to delve more deeply into the thought processes of the key decision makers at community colleges and understand how they make decisions. Specifically, this article focuses on the role of the community college president's personal values in decision making. Method: We conducted interviews with 13…

  8. The Self in Decision Making and Decision Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Lee Roy; Mitchell, Terence R.

    Since the early 1950's the principal prescriptive model in the psychological study of decision making has been maximization of Subjective Expected Utility (SEU). This SEU maximization has come to be regarded as a description of how people go about making decisions. However, while observed decision processes sometimes resemble the SEU model,…

  9. Decision-Making Theories and Career Assessment: A Psychometric Evaluation of the Decision Making Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Erin E.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2004-01-01

    To address criticisms that the empirical literature on assessment of career decision making has tended to lack a theoretical base, the present study explored the relevance of a general theory of decision making to career decision making by assessing the psychometric properties of the Decision Making Inventory (DMI), designed to measure Johnson's…

  10. Factors influencing dental decision making.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1988-01-01

    In clinical decision making, dentists routinely choose between alternative treatments such as crown vs amalgam/composite buildup, root canal vs extraction, fixed bridge vs removable partial denture, and prophylaxis vs subgingival curettage or periodontal scaling. A number of technical and patient factors can influence dentists' choice of treatment in these situations; however, little is known about their relative importance. To address this issue, a list of technical (e.g., periodontal status and caries rate) and patient (e.g., cost and patient preference) factors possibly influencing choice of treatment was developed for each pair of services. Responding to a mail questionnaire, 156 general dentists in Washington State listed the top three factors influencing their choice of service in each pair. Results revealed that dentists took different factors into account in choosing among alternative treatments. Technical factors dominated over patient concerns; only about 33 percent of the dentists considered patient factors important in choosing alternative therapies. The latter group was less preventively oriented, were solo practitioners, worked longer hours, and had lower prices. Results suggest patients may have little influence on prescriptions of therapy among experienced general dentists. PMID:3045303

  11. Decision-Making Strategies for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Janis T.; Dansereau, Donald F.

    2010-01-01

    College students' decision making is often less than optimal and sometimes leads to negative consequences. The effectiveness of two strategies for improving student decision making--node-link mapping and social perspective taking (SPT)--are examined. Participants using SPT were significantly better able to evaluate decision options and develop…

  12. Decision Making and Confidence Given Uncertain Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Michael D.; Dry, Matthew J.

    2006-01-01

    We study human decision making in a simple forced-choice task that manipulates the frequency and accuracy of available information. Empirically, we find that people make decisions consistent with the advice provided, but that their subjective confidence in their decisions shows 2 interesting properties. First, people's confidence does not depend…

  13. Assessing Adolescent Decision-Making Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral decision research offers a general approach to studying cognitive aspects of decision making, as well as a platform for studying their interplay with social and affective processes. Applied to any decision, behavioral decision research involves three interrelated tasks: (a) "normative" analysis, identifying the expected impacts of…

  14. The art of decision-making.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Thomas R

    2003-06-01

    As important as sound decision-making is, many executives neglect to utilize any formal decisionmaking process. As many executives know, making the wrong decision can be disastrous, if not career ending. In today's high-pressure, complex, and challenging healthcare environment, it makes sense to follow a tried and true process for making decisions. The author examines the traditional method of problem identification, setting objectives, listing alternatives and consequences, and selecting the best solution in the decision-making process as well as new research in this field. PMID:12796632

  15. Establishment of a Computer Assisted Instructional Program to Teach Managerial Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    1981-01-01

    The rapid growth of the health care industry demands that nurse managers be competent in decision making. The development of a computer assisted instructional package designed to meet this demand is described. Utilizing a branching technique, a decision model, written in FORTRAN, presents a user with decision junctures in selected scenarios. The model aids in teaching as well as evaluating managerial decision making.

  16. Computerized Aid Improves Safety Decision Process for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Nancy; Eden, Karen B.; Bloom, Tina; Perrin, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    A computerized safety decision aid was developed and tested with Spanish or English-speaking abused women in shelters or domestic violence (DV) support groups (n = 90). The decision aid provides feedback about risk for lethal violence, options for safety, assistance with setting priorities for safety, and a safety plan personalized to the user. Women reported that the decision aid was useful and provided much-needed privacy for making safety decisions. The majority (69%) reported severe to extreme danger in their relationship as scored by Danger Assessment (DA); only 60% reported having made a safety plan. After using the safety decision aid, the women felt more supported in their decision (p = .012) and had less total decisional conflict (p = .014). The study demonstrated that a computerized safety decision aid improved the safety planning process, as demonstrated by reduced decisional conflict after only one use in a sample of abused women. PMID:20040709

  17. Quality decision making in dialysis.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, L G; Anderberg, C; Ipsen, R; Persson, E; Andersson, G

    1998-01-01

    A patient approaching the final stage of his renal disease is faced with many difficult questions. Should he opt for a transplant or start on dialysis? In the case of dialysis, can he manage his treatment at home or will he need to be cared for in a clinic? Should be choose peritoneal dialysis or haemodialysis? Is the freedom of being independent from a machine, given by CAPD, as valuable as the freedom of having days without treatment, given by HD? The issues are complex and do not have a given answer. To make the proper decisions about his treatment the patient needs extensive information and support from the caregivers. Likewise, the caregivers need to know the patient well in order to give appropriate advice. In this exchange of information, the renal nurse has a very important role. Some patients may need to be dialysed in a hospital but most can get an equally good or even better dialysis treatment in a less stressful environment. A high degree of self-care is preferred by people who value independence and freedom of movement. Self-care also improves the self-confidence and increases the chances of maintaining employment and a rich social life. Self-care could mean both PD and HD, sometimes with the assistance of a spouse or a nurse. But a certain degree of self-care can also be maintained in limited-care centres and satellites, where the presence of nursing staff gives the feeling of security. For everybody involved, not least the purchasers of health care, it is desirable to keep the patients out of the costly hospital environment for as long as possible. PMID:10222906

  18. Decision story strategy: a practical approach for teaching decision making.

    PubMed

    Smith, D L; Hamrick, M H; Anspaugh, D J

    1981-12-01

    Teachers are usually very enthusiastic in their evaluations of decision stories. Decision Story Strategies offer a change of pace, promote student involvement and stimulate creative thinking, problem solving and everpresent creative teaching-learning opportunities. The real-life problems presented within the structure of a decision story provide meaningful learning opportunities for students. Students begin to think in a broader perspective when considering other points of view and information sources. The Decision Story Strategy used with the Decision-Making Model provides a powerful tool for health educators to develop skills for making and evaluating decisions in an interesting and meaningful context. It may not be a panacea for all health educators, but is an effective strategy for the teacher concerned with developing independent decision makers. Most importantly, students are provided opportunities to solve their present problems as well as develop decision-making skills for the future. PMID:6916032

  19. Shared Decision Aids: Increasing Patient Acceptance of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception

    PubMed Central

    George, Tracy P.; DeCristofaro, Claire; Dumas, Bonnie P.; Murphy, Pamela F.

    2015-01-01

    Unintended pregnancies are an important public health issue. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods (LARCs) are reliable, safe, highly effective methods for most women; however they are underutilized in the United States. Shared decision aids were added to usual care in five public health family planning clinics in the Southeastern United States, staffed by advance practice nurses and registered nurses. All five sites showed an increase in the use of LARCs during the time period that shared decision aids were used (results statistically significant to p < 0.001). It is important for women to make informed choices about contraception, and shared decision aids can be utilized to support this decision making. This resource has been adopted for statewide use in all public health clinics, and implications for practice suggest that the use of shared decision aids is an effective method to support informed patient decision making and acceptance of LARC methods of contraception. PMID:27417757

  20. Surrogate decision making in neurocritical care.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Eric E; Zahuranec, Darin B

    2012-06-01

    Patients with critical neurologic illness typically have impaired capacity to make their own medical decisions. In these cases, neurologists need to make medical decisions based on advance directives (such as a living will) or the decisions of a surrogate. A hypothetical case of a 60-year-old man with an intracerebral hemorrhage is used to highlight some of the difficulties that can occur when attempting to apply general statements made in a living will to a specific medical treatment decision. The ethical and legal issues surrounding surrogate decision making as they apply to acute critical neurologic disease are discussed, along with suggestions for how to resolve potential disagreements. PMID:22810254

  1. Shared Decision Making and Office Insertion of Tympanostomy Tubes.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Office insertion of tympanostomy tubes in young children without anesthesia is facilitated through shared decision making with families, including a candid discussion about anticipated pain (which is usually brief and transient) and how their child might react to being restrained. This commentary elaborates on the rationale for office tube insertion as an alternative to general anesthesia, including a clinical decision aid and suggestions for optimizing outcomes. PMID:27130946

  2. Monitoring and decision making by people in man machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of human monitoring and decision making behavior as well as its modeling are described. Classic and optimal control theoretical, monitoring models are surveyed. The relationship between attention allocation and eye movements is discussed. As an example of applications, the evaluation of predictor displays by means of the optimal control model is explained. Fault detection involving continuous signals and decision making behavior of a human operator engaged in fault diagnosis during different operation and maintenance situations are illustrated. Computer aided decision making is considered as a queueing problem. It is shown to what extent computer aids can be based on the state of human activity as measured by psychophysiological quantities. Finally, management information systems for different application areas are mentioned. The possibilities of mathematical modeling of human behavior in complex man machine systems are also critically assessed.

  3. Capturing Treatment Decision Making Among Patients With Solid Tumors and Their Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Randy A.; Steeves, Richard; Ropka, Mary E.; Hollen, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To examine the feasibility and acceptability of using a decision aid with an interactive decision-making process in patients with solid tumors and their caregivers during cancer-related treatment. Research Approach A phenomenologic approach was used to analyze qualitative data, with a focus on the meaning of participants’ lived experiences. Interviews were conducted by telephone or in person. Setting Outpatient clinics at two regional cancer centers. Participants 160 total individuals; 80 patients with newly diagnosed breast (n = 22), advanced-stage prostate (n = 19), or advanced-stage lung (n = 39) cancer, and their caregivers (n = 80). Methodologic Approach Twenty-seven of the 80 pairs engaged in audio recorded interviews that were conducted using a semistructured interview guide. Continuous text immersion revealed themes. Validity of qualitative analysis was achieved by member checking. Findings Significant findings included three themes: (a) the decision aid helped patients and caregivers understand treatment decisions better, (b) the decision aid helped patients and caregivers to be more involved in treatment decisions, and (c) frequent contact with the study nurse was valuable. Conclusions Decision making was more complex than participants expected. The decision aid helped patients and caregivers make satisfying treatment decisions and become integral in a shared treatment decision-making process. Interpretation Decision aids can help patients and their caregivers make difficult treatment decisions affecting quantity and quality of life during cancer treatment. The findings provide valuable information for healthcare providers helping patients and their caregivers make treatment decisions through a shared, informed, decision-making process. Knowledge Translation Decision aids can be helpful with treatment choices. Caregivers’ understanding about treatment is just as important in the decision-making process as the patients

  4. Making the Right Investment Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1984-01-01

    Issues in college divestiture of investments based on moral considerations, such as South Africa's apartheid system, are outlined. A governing board's options, role, and responsibility to the institution in the face of such decisions are discussed. (MSE)

  5. Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision making systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Ways in which computers can aid the decision making of an human operator of an aerospace system are investigated. The approach taken is to aid rather than replace the human operator, because operational experience has shown that humans can enhance the effectiveness of systems. As systems become more automated, the role of the operator has shifted to that of a manager and problem solver. This shift has created the research area of how to aid the human in this role. Published research in four areas is described. A discussion is presented of the DC-8 flight simulator at Georgia Tech.

  6. Shared decision making in endocrinology: present and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Ospina, Naykky Singh; Maraka, Spyridoula; Tamhane, Shrikant; Montori, Victor M; Brito, Juan P

    2016-08-01

    In medicine and endocrinology, there are few clinical circumstances in which clinicians can accurately predict what is best for their patients. As a result, patients and clinicians frequently have to make decisions about which there is uncertainty. Uncertainty results from limitations in the research evidence, unclear patient preferences, or an inability to predict how treatments will fit into patients' daily lives. The work that patients and clinicians do together to address the patient's situation and engage in a deliberative dialogue about reasonable treatment options is often called shared decision making. Decision aids are evidence-based tools that facilitate this process. Shared decision making is a patient-centred approach in which clinicians share information about the benefits, harms, and burden of different reasonable diagnostic and treatment options, and patients explain what matters to them in view of their particular values, preferences, and personal context. Beyond the ethical argument in support of this approach, decision aids have been shown to improve patients' knowledge about the available options, accuracy of risk estimates, and decisional comfort. Decision aids also promote patient participation in the decision-making process. Despite accumulating evidence from clinical trials, policy support, and expert recommendations in endocrinology practice guidelines, shared decision making is still not routinely implemented in endocrine practice. Additional work is needed to enrich the number of available tools and to implement them in practice workflows. Also, although the evidence from randomised controlled trials favours the use of this shared decision making in other settings, populations, and illnesses, the effect of this approach has been studied in a few endocrine disorders. Future pragmatic trials are needed to explore the effect and feasibility of shared decision making implementation into routine endocrinology and primary care practice. With the

  7. Computer Graphics and Administrative Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Reduction in prices now makes it possible for almost any institution to use computer graphics for administrative decision making and research. Current and potential uses of computer graphics in these two areas are discussed. (JN)

  8. Clinical Decision Making of Rural Novice Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seright, Teresa J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop substantive theory regarding decision making by the novice nurse in a rural hospital setting. Interviews were guided by the following research questions: What cues were used by novice rural registered nurses in order to make clinical decisions? What were the sources of feedback which influenced subsequent…

  9. Decision Making: Rational, Nonrational, and Irrational.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Herbert A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the current state of knowledge about human decision-making and problem-solving processes, explaining recent developments and their implications for management and management training. Rational goal-setting is the key to effective decision making and accomplishment. Bounded rationality is a realistic orientation, because the world is too…

  10. Decision Making in Educational Settings. Fastback 211.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Charles S.

    This booklet reviews decision-making, an important part of administrative processes, from the perspective of school teachers and other educators. The two most commonly used processes are the rational decision-making process (identify the problem, evaluate the problem, collect information, identify alternative solutions, select and implement…

  11. Making Insulation Decisions through Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanik, H. Bahadir; Memis, Yasin

    2014-01-01

    Engaging students in studies about conservation and sustainability can support their understanding of making environmental conscious decisions to conserve Earth. This article aims to contribute these efforts and direct students' attention to how they can use mathematics to make environmental decisions. Contributors to iSTEM: Integrating…

  12. Influence of framing on medical decision making

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jun; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience. PMID:27034630

  13. Ethical Decision Making and Effective Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaucher, Ellie

    2010-01-01

    The problem. Educational leaders face challenges in the 21st century, make numerous decisions daily, and have the choice to make decisions based on ethics. Educational leaders may follow a corporate model regarding expenses and revenues while ignoring the best interests of children and their academic achievement. The alternative to the corporate…

  14. Somatic markers, working memory, and decision making.

    PubMed

    Hinson, John M; Jameson, Tina L; Whitney, Paul

    2002-12-01

    The somatic marker hypothesis formulated by Damasio (e.g., 1994; Damasio, Tranel, & Damasio, 1991) argues that affective reactions ordinarily guide and simplify decision making. Although originally intended to explain decision-making deficits in people with specific frontal lobe damage, the hypothesis also applies to decision-making problems in populations without brain injury. Subsequently, the gambling task was developed by Bechara (Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994) as a diagnostic test of decision-making deficit in neurological populations. More recently, the gambling task has been used to explore implications of the somatic marker hypothesis, as well as to study suboptimal decision making in a variety of domains. We examined relations among gambling task decision making, working memory (WM) load, and somatic markers in a modified version of the gambling task. Increased WM load produced by secondary tasks led to poorer gambling performance. Declines in gambling performance were associated with the absence of the affective reactions that anticipate choice outcomes and guide future decision making. Our experiments provide evidence that WM processes contribute to the development of somatic markers. If WM functioning is taxed, somatic markers may not develop, and decision making may thereby suffer. PMID:12641178

  15. Transformational Leadership & Decision Making in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Robert E.; Balch, Bradley V.

    2005-01-01

    It is essential for every school leader to possess the savvy to effect positive change, raise achievement levels, and foster a positive school climate. Now it seems that the struggle for school leaders to make productive decisions has become clouded with ever-growing uncertainty and skepticism. "Transformational Leadership & Decision Making in…

  16. Reading and Consumer Decision Making Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Michaeleen P.; Laughlin, Margaret A.

    Teachers at all grade levels need to recognize the importance of instruction in consumer reading and decision making skills. The definitions and prerequisites of a literate consumer underscore the importance of reading and reasoning skills development for making effective decisions. Consumer educators must also recognize that economic…

  17. Decision Making: New Paradigm for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Charles E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Defines education's new paradigm as schooling based on decision making, the critical thinking skills serving it, and the knowledge base supporting it. Outlines a model decision-making process using a hypothetical breakfast problem; a late riser chooses goals, generates ideas, develops an action plan, and implements and evaluates it. (4 references)…

  18. The semantic side of decision making.

    PubMed

    Medin, D L; Schwartz, H C; Blok, S V; Birnbaum, L A

    1999-12-01

    The research reported in this paper follows the perspective that decision making is a meaningful act that conveys information. Furthermore, the potential meanings associated with decision options may affect the decisions themselves. This idea is examined in the contexts of compensation, donation, and exchange. In general, judgments were relation dependent and meaning dependent. Furthermore, the results show nonmonotonicities and limited substitutability in a pattern that challenges straightforward ways of mapping decisions onto a common currency of utility. PMID:10682198

  19. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people’s decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others’ authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions. PMID:26784448

  20. The Relations between Decision Making in Social Relationships and Decision Making Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Enver

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this paper aimed to examine the relationships between decisiveness in social relationships, and the decision-making styles of a group of university students and to investigate the contributions of decision-making styles in predicting decisiveness in social relationship (conflict resolution, social relationship selection…

  1. The perspectives of iranian physicians and patients towards patient decision aids: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient preference is one of the main components of clinical decision making, therefore leading to the development of patient decision aids. The goal of this study was to describe physicians’ and patients’ viewpoints on the barriers and limitations of using patient decision aids in Iran, their proposed solutions, and, the benefits of using these tools. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2011 in Iran by holding in-depth interviews with 14 physicians and 8 arthritis patient. Interviewees were selected through purposeful and maximum variation sampling. As an example, a patient decision aid on the treatment of knee arthritis was developed upon literature reviews and gathering expert opinion, and was presented at the time of interview. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the data by using the OpenCode software. Results The results were summarized into three categories and ten codes. The extracted categories were the perceived benefits of using the tools, as well as the patient-related and physician-related barriers in using decision aids. The following barriers in using patient decision aids were identified in this study: lack of patients and physicians’ trainings in shared decision making, lack of specialist per capita, low treatment tariffs and lack of an exact evaluation system for patient participation in decision making. Conclusions No doubt these barriers demand the health authorities’ special attention. Hence, despite patients and physicians’ inclination toward using patient decision aids, these problems have hindered the practical usage of these tools in Iran - as a developing country. PMID:24066792

  2. Adaptive Peircean decision aid project summary assessments.

    SciTech Connect

    Senglaub, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    This efforts objective was to identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain. The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill's's canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment/domain to assess predictions from the reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of utility provided for a number of ancillary queries.

  3. Smoking: Making the risky decision

    SciTech Connect

    Viscusi, W.K.

    1993-01-01

    This book approaches the smoking debate from a new angle. The thrust of the study was to determine if smokers are cognizant of the risks connected with smoking, and if so, how these risk beliefs influence the decision to smoke. The study evaluates the government's anti-smoking policies and recommends changes to these policies. Viscusi does not address the actual health risks of smoking independent of risk perception and subsequent behavioral data; the US Surgeon General's smoking risk assessments are acknowledged at face vale.

  4. Gender and internet consumers' decision-making.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chyan; Wu, Chia-Chun

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide managers of shopping websites information regarding consumer purchasing decisions based on the Consumer Styles Inventory (CSI). According to the CSI, one can capture what decision-making styles online shoppers use. Furthermore, this research also discusses the gender differences among online shoppers. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to understand the decision-making styles and discriminant analysis was used to distinguish the differences between female and male shoppers. The result shows that there are differences in purchasing decisions between online female and male Internet users. PMID:17305453

  5. Intergroup Conflict and Rational Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peñarroja, Vicente; Serrano, Miguel A.; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Moliner, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Alacreu-Crespo, Adrián; Gracia, Esther; Molina, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    The literature has been relatively silent about post-conflict processes. However, understanding the way humans deal with post-conflict situations is a challenge in our societies. With this in mind, we focus the present study on the rationality of cooperative decision making after an intergroup conflict, i.e., the extent to which groups take advantage of post-conflict situations to obtain benefits from collaborating with the other group involved in the conflict. Based on dual-process theories of thinking and affect heuristic, we propose that intergroup conflict hinders the rationality of cooperative decision making. We also hypothesize that this rationality improves when groups are involved in an in-group deliberative discussion. Results of a laboratory experiment support the idea that intergroup conflict –associated with indicators of the activation of negative feelings (negative affect state and heart rate)– has a negative effect on the aforementioned rationality over time and on both group and individual decision making. Although intergroup conflict leads to sub-optimal decision making, rationality improves when groups and individuals subjected to intergroup conflict make decisions after an in-group deliberative discussion. Additionally, the increased rationality of the group decision making after the deliberative discussion is transferred to subsequent individual decision making. PMID:25461384

  6. Adolescent women's contraceptive decision making.

    PubMed

    Weisman, C S; Plichta, S; Nathanson, C A; Chase, G A; Ensminger, M E; Robinson, J C

    1991-06-01

    A modified rational decision model incorporating salient events and social influences (particularly from sexual partners) is used to analyze adolescent women's consistent use of oral contraceptives (OCs) over a six-month period. Data are taken from a panel study of 308 clients of an inner-city family planning clinic. Expected OC use was computed for each subject on the basis of subjective expected utility (SEU) theory, and is found in multivariate analyses to be a significant predictor of actual OC use. In addition, variables representing baseline and follow-up partner influences, the salience of pregnancy for the subject, and positive side effects of OCs during the first months of use are found to predict OC use. Partner's support of OC use during follow-up and positive side effects of OCs are found to predict OC use among subjects for whom OC use was not the expected decision according to baseline SEU. Implications of the findings for models of adolescents' contraceptive behavior and for clinicians are discussed. PMID:1861049

  7. Decision-Making Amplification under Uncertainty: An Exploratory Study of Behavioral Similarity and Intelligent Decision Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Merle Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent decision systems have the potential to support and greatly amplify human decision-making across a number of industries and domains. However, despite the rapid improvement in the underlying capabilities of these "intelligent" systems, increasing their acceptance as decision aids in industry has remained a formidable challenge.…

  8. Making the Connection between Environmental Science and Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, C. A.; Crimmins, M.; Ferguson, D. B.; Garfin, G. M.; Scott, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    As society is confronted with population growth, limited resources, and the impacts of climate variability and change, it is vital that institutions of higher education promote the development of professionals who can work with decision-makers to incorporate scientific information into environmental planning and management. Skills for the communication of science are essential, but equally important is the ability to understand decision-making contexts and engage with resource managers and policy makers. It is increasingly being recognized that people who understand the linkages between science and decision making are crucial if science is to better support planning and policy. A new graduate-level seminar, "Making the Connection between Environmental Science and Decision Making," is a core course for a new post-baccalaureate certificate program, Connecting Environmental Science and Decision Making at the University of Arizona. The goal of the course is to provide students with a basic understanding of the dynamics between scientists and decision makers that result in scientific information being incorporated into environmental planning, policy, and management decisions. Through readings from the environmental and social sciences, policy, and planning literature, the course explores concepts including scientific information supply and demand, boundary organizations, co-production of knowledge, platforms for engagement, and knowledge networks. Visiting speakers help students understand some of the challenges of incorporating scientific information into planning and decision making within institutional and political contexts. The course also includes practical aspects of two-way communication via written, oral, and graphical presentations as well as through the interview process to facilitate the transfer of scientific information to decision makers as well as to broader audiences. We aspire to help students develop techniques that improve communication and

  9. Making Sustainable Decisions Using the KONVERGENCE Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, Steven James; Gibson, Patrick Lavern; Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Kerr, Thomas A; Nitschke, Robert Leon; Dakins, Maxine Ellen

    2003-02-01

    Hundreds of contaminated facilities and sites must be cleaned up. “Cleanup” includes decommissioning, environmental restoration, and waste management. Cleanup can be complex, expensive, risky, and time-consuming. Decisions are often controversial, can stall or be blocked, and are sometimes re-done - some before implementation, some decades later. Making and keeping decisions with long time horizons involves special difficulties and requires new approaches, including: • New ways (mental model) to analyze and visualize the problem, • Awareness of the option to shift strategy or reframe from a single decision to an adaptable network of decisions, and • Improved tactical processes that account for several challenges. These include the following: • Stakeholder values are a more fundamental basis for decision making and keeping than “meeting regulations.” • Late-entry players and future generations will question decisions. • People may resist making “irreversible” decisions. • People need “compelling reasons” to take action in the face of uncertainties. Our project goal is to make cleanup decisions easier to make, implement, keep, and sustain. By sustainability, we mean decisions that work better over the entire time-period—from when a decision is made, through implementation, to its end point. That is, alternatives that can be kept “as is” or adapted as circumstances change. Increased attention to sustainability and adaptability may decrease resistance to making and implementing decisions. Our KONVERGENCE framework addresses these challenges. The framework is based on a mental model that states: where Knowledge, Values, and Resources converge (the K, V, R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision. We define these areas or universes as follows: • Knowledge: what is known about the problem and possible solutions? • Values: what is important to those affected by the decision? • Resources: what is available to implement

  10. Decision Aids for Airborne Intercept Operations in Advanced Aircrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madni, A.; Freedy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A tactical decision aid (TDA) for the F-14 aircrew, i.e., the naval flight officer and pilot, in conducting a multitarget attack during the performance of a Combat Air Patrol (CAP) role is presented. The TDA employs hierarchical multiattribute utility models for characterizing mission objectives in operationally measurable terms, rule based AI-models for tactical posture selection, and fast time simulation for maneuver consequence prediction. The TDA makes aspect maneuver recommendations, selects and displays the optimum mission posture, evaluates attackable and potentially attackable subsets, and recommends the 'best' attackable subset along with the required course perturbation.

  11. Shared Decision Making in Cancer Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butow, Phyllis; Tattersall, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Cancer treatment outcomes have improved over the past 20 years, but treatment decision making in this context remains complex. There are often a number of reasonable treatment alternatives, including no treatment in some circumstances. Patients and doctors often have to weigh up uncertain benefits against uncertain costs. Shared decision making…

  12. Teaching Decision-Making Using Situational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Daniel W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the basic tenets of the Situational Leadership model, examines the steps of the Conflict Model for decision making, and presents a conceptual model that integrates the two. The integrated model aims to provide a systematic means for allowing individuals to learn how to participate in organizational decisions. (JDD)

  13. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  14. The Basic Teaching Skill: Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavelson, Richard J.

    Any teaching act is the result of a decision, either conscious or unconscious. Previous research on basic teaching skills examined alternative teaching acts, such as explaining, questioning, reinforcing, without examining how teachers choose between one or another act. This paper argues that the basic teaching skill is decision making. This…

  15. Decision-Making When Public Opinion Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppock, Rob

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the impact of public opinion on government decision-making, and develops a model that describes how certain input or control factors can combine to produce discontinuous or divergent policy decisions. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, single copies available. (Author/JG)

  16. Legal Considerations in Clinical Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ursu, Samuel C.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of legal issues in dental clinical decision making looks at the nature and elements of applicable law, especially malpractice, locus of responsibility, and standards of care. Greater use of formal decision analysis in clinical dentistry and better research on diagnosis and treatment are recommended, particularly in light of increasing…

  17. The Development of Decision-Making Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mettas, Alexandros

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests an innovative idea of using the "technology fair" as a means for promoting pre-service teachers (university students) decision-making skills. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of a procedure of working with primary school children to complete and present a technology fair project, on the decision-making…

  18. Teacher Empowerment in the Decision Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, George E.; DeWalt, Cassandra Sligh

    2006-01-01

    According to Erlandson and Bifano (1987), teacher empowerment is a vital dimension of the school's organization. Lieberman (1989) defined teacher empowerment as "empowering teachers to participate in group decisions and to have real decision-making roles in the school community" (p. 24). Furthermore, Summers (2006) addressed the need for…

  19. [Aeromedical Decision-Making in Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Weber, F

    2016-09-01

    This paper reviews aeromedical decision-making in psychiatry. It explains the "one-percent rule", the general medical criteria for fitness for flying and how they are applied to psychiatric disorders. PMID:27607071

  20. Characterization of Ambiguity in Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, J. Frank; Zukowski, Lisa G.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a psychology experiment that investigated the effect of ambiguity on human decision-making behavior. (Available from Behavioral Science, University of Louisville, P.O. Box 1055, Louisville, KY 40201; $3.50 single copy.) (JG)

  1. Values and Decision Making in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakomski, Gabriele

    1987-01-01

    Argues against the current trends in giving importance to subjective values in educational administration, particularly the argument that attention to subjective values can overcome the perceived irrelevance of scientific administration and organization theory and help administrators make better decisions. (MD)

  2. Cognitive reflection vs. calculation in decision making

    PubMed Central

    Sinayev, Aleksandr; Peters, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005). In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes to better decision making. In two studies, CRT responses were used to calculate Cognitive Reflection and numeric ability; a numeracy scale was also administered. Numeric ability, measured on the CRT or the numeracy scale, accounted for the CRT's ability to predict more normative decisions (a subscale of decision-making competence, incentivized measures of impatient and risk-averse choice, and self-reported financial outcomes); Cognitive Reflection contributed no independent predictive power. Results were similar whether the two abilities were modeled (Study 1) or calculated using proportions (Studies 1 and 2). These findings demonstrate numeric ability as a robust predictor of superior decision making across multiple tasks and outcomes. They also indicate that correlations of decision performance with the CRT are insufficient evidence to implicate overriding intuitions in the decision-making biases and outcomes we examined. Numeric ability appears to be the key mechanism instead. PMID:25999877

  3. Decision blocks: A tool for automating decision making in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eick, Christoph F.; Mehta, Nikhil N.

    1991-01-01

    The human capability of making complex decision is one of the most fascinating facets of human intelligence, especially if vague, judgemental, default or uncertain knowledge is involved. Unfortunately, most existing rule based forward chaining languages are not very suitable to simulate this aspect of human intelligence, because of their lack of support for approximate reasoning techniques needed for this task, and due to the lack of specific constructs to facilitate the coding of frequently reoccurring decision block to provide better support for the design and implementation of rule based decision support systems. A language called BIRBAL, which is defined on the top of CLIPS, for the specification of decision blocks, is introduced. Empirical experiments involving the comparison of the length of CLIPS program with the corresponding BIRBAL program for three different applications are surveyed. The results of these experiments suggest that for decision making intensive applications, a CLIPS program tends to be about three times longer than the corresponding BIRBAL program.

  4. Biologically inspired intelligent decision making

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Timmy; Sleator, Roy D; Walsh, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a class of powerful machine learning models for classification and function approximation which have analogs in nature. An ANN learns to map stimuli to responses through repeated evaluation of exemplars of the mapping. This learning approach results in networks which are recognized for their noise tolerance and ability to generalize meaningful responses for novel stimuli. It is these properties of ANNs which make them appealing for applications to bioinformatics problems where interpretation of data may not always be obvious, and where the domain knowledge required for deductive techniques is incomplete or can cause a combinatorial explosion of rules. In this paper, we provide an introduction to artificial neural network theory and review some interesting recent applications to bioinformatics problems. PMID:24335433

  5. Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the

  6. Economic Decision-Making. Decision-Making in Contemporary America, Unit III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Donald P.; And Others

    This unit on economic decision-making is the third of five units in a ninth grade social studies course (see SO 010 891 for course description). Major objectives are to help students analyze alternative choices in consumer decision situations and defend the selections; evaluate information and make decisions about what to produce, how to produce,…

  7. From Career Decision-Making Styles to Career Decision-Making Profiles: A Multidimensional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Landman, Shiri; Davidovitch, Shlomit; Asulin-Peretz, Lisa; Gadassi, Reuma

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on individual differences in career decision-making processes has often focused on classifying individuals into a few types of decision-making "styles" based on the most dominant trait or characteristic of their approach to the decision process (e.g., rational, intuitive, dependent; Harren, 1979). In this research, an alternative…

  8. Patients’ decision making in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, T.; Griffin, D.; Barlow, D.; Realpe, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A patient-centred approach, usually achieved through shared decision making, has the potential to help improve decision making around knee arthroplasty surgery. However, such an approach requires an understanding of the factors involved in patient decision making. This review’s objective is to systematically examine the qualitative literature surrounding patients’ decision making in knee arthroplasty. Methods A systematic literature review using Medline and Embase was conducted to identify qualitative studies that examined patients’ decision making around knee arthroplasty. An aggregated account of what is known about patients’ decision making in knee arthroplasties is provided. Results Seven studies with 234 participants in interviews or focus groups are included. Ten themes are replicated across studies, namely: expectations of surgery; coping mechanisms; relationship with clinician; fear; pain; function; psychological implications; social network; previous experience of surgery; and conflict in opinions. Conclusions This review is helpful in not only directing future research to areas that are not understood, or require confirmation, but also in highlighting areas that future interventions could address. These include those aimed at delivering information, which are likely to affect the satisfaction rate, demand, and use of knee arthroplasties. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4;163–169. PMID:26450640

  9. Making Sustainable Decisions Using The KONVERGENCE Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S. J.; Gibson, P. L.; Joe, J. C.; Kerr, T. A.; Nitschke, R. L.; Dakins, M. E.

    2003-02-25

    Hundreds of contaminated facilities and sites must be cleaned up. ''Cleanup'' includes decommissioning, environmental restoration, and waste management. Cleanup can be complex, expensive, risky, and time-consuming. Decisions are often controversial, can stall or be blocked, and are sometimes re-done--some before implementation, some decades later. Making and keeping decisions with long time horizons involves special difficulties and requires new approaches. Our project goal is to make cleanup decisions easier to make, implement, keep, and sustain. By sustainability, we mean decisions that work better over the entire time-period-from when a decision is made, through implementation, to its end point. That is, alternatives that can be kept ''as is'' or adapted as circumstances change. Increased attention to sustainability and adaptability may decrease resistance to making and implementing decisions. Our KONVERGENCE framework addresses these challenges. The framework is based on a mental model that states: where Knowledge, Values, and Resources converge (the K, V, R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision. We define these areas or universes as follows: (1) Knowledge: what is known about the problem and possible solutions? (2) Values: what is important to those affected by the decision? (3) Resources: what is available to implement possible solutions or improve knowledge? This mental model helps analyze and visualize what is happening as decisions are made and kept. Why is there disagreement? Is there movement toward konvergence? Is a past decision drifting out of konvergence? The framework includes strategic improvements, i.e., expand the spectrum of alternatives to include adaptable alternatives and decision networks. It includes tactical process improvements derived from experience, values, and relevant literature. This paper includes diagnosis and medication (suggested path forward) for intractable cases.

  10. Decision-making based on emotional images.

    PubMed

    Katahira, Kentaro; Fujimura, Tomomi; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2011-01-01

    The emotional outcome of a choice affects subsequent decision making. While the relationship between decision making and emotion has attracted attention, studies on emotion and decision making have been independently developed. In this study, we investigated how the emotional valence of pictures, which was stochastically contingent on participants' choices, influenced subsequent decision making. In contrast to traditional value-based decision-making studies that used money or food as a reward, the "reward value" of the decision outcome, which guided the update of value for each choice, is unknown beforehand. To estimate the reward value of emotional pictures from participants' choice data, we used reinforcement learning models that have successfully been used in previous studies for modeling value-based decision making. Consequently, we found that the estimated reward value was asymmetric between positive and negative pictures. The negative reward value of negative pictures (relative to neutral pictures) was larger in magnitude than the positive reward value of positive pictures. This asymmetry was not observed in valence for an individual picture, which was rated by the participants regarding the emotion experienced upon viewing it. These results suggest that there may be a difference between experienced emotion and the effect of the experienced emotion on subsequent behavior. Our experimental and computational paradigm provides a novel way for quantifying how and what aspects of emotional events affect human behavior. The present study is a first step toward relating a large amount of knowledge in emotion science and in taking computational approaches to value-based decision making. PMID:22059086

  11. Quantum probability and quantum decision-making.

    PubMed

    Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D

    2016-01-13

    A rigorous general definition of quantum probability is given, which is valid not only for elementary events but also for composite events, for operationally testable measurements as well as for inconclusive measurements, and also for non-commuting observables in addition to commutative observables. Our proposed definition of quantum probability makes it possible to describe quantum measurements and quantum decision-making on the same common mathematical footing. Conditions are formulated for the case when quantum decision theory reduces to its classical counterpart and for the situation where the use of quantum decision theory is necessary. PMID:26621989

  12. Regional Climate Change and Development of Public Health Decision Aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegedus, A. M.; Darmenova, K.; Grant, F.; Kiley, H.; Higgins, G. J.; Apling, D.

    2011-12-01

    According to the World Heath Organization (WHO) climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, and changes the way we must look at protecting vulnerable populations. Worldwide, the occurrence of some diseases and other threats to human health depend predominantly on local climate patterns. Rising average temperatures, in combination with changing rainfall patterns and humidity levels, alter the lifecycle and regional distribution of certain disease-carrying vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks and rodents. In addition, higher surface temperatures will bring heat waves and heat stress to urban regions worldwide and will likely increase heat-related health risks. A growing body of scientific evidence also suggests an increase in extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and hurricanes that can be destructive to human health and well-being. Therefore, climate adaptation and health decision aids are urgently needed by city planners and health officials to determine high risk areas, evaluate vulnerable populations and develop public health infrastructure and surveillance systems. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. WRF model is initialized with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model simulations forced with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. Our methodology involves development of climatological indices of extreme weather, quantifying the risk of occurrence of water/rodent/vector-borne diseases as well as developing various heat stress related decision aids. Our results indicate that the downscale simulations provide the necessary

  13. Zeno's paradox in decision-making.

    PubMed

    Yearsley, James M; Pothos, Emmanuel M

    2016-04-13

    Classical probability theory has been influential in modelling decision processes, despite empirical findings that have been persistently paradoxical from classical perspectives. For such findings, some researchers have been successfully pursuing decision models based on quantum theory (QT). One unique feature of QT is the collapse postulate, which entails that measurements (or in decision-making, judgements) reset the state to be consistent with the measured outcome. If there is quantum structure in cognition, then there has to be evidence for the collapse postulate. A striking, a prioriprediction, is that opinion change will be slowed down (under idealized conditions frozen) by continuous judgements. In physics, this is the quantum Zeno effect. We demonstrate a quantum Zeno effect in decision-making in humans and so provide evidence that advocates the use of quantum principles in decision theory, at least in some cases. PMID:27053743

  14. How well-run boards make decisions.

    PubMed

    Useem, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the aftermath of seismic debacles like those that toppled Enron and WorldCom, corporate boards have been shaken up and made over. More directors are independent these days, for instance, and corporations now disclose directors' salaries and committee members' names. Research shows that most of the changes are having a positive effect on companies' performance. They are primarily structural, though, and don't go to the heart of a board's work: making the choices that shape a firm's future. Which decisions boards own and how those calls are made are largely hidden from the public. As a result, boards are often unable to learn from the best governance practices of their counterparts at other companies. This article pulls back the curtain and provides an inside look. Drawing on interviews with board members and executives at 31 companies, along with a close examination of three boardroom decisions, the author identifies several formal processes that can help companies improve their decision making: creating calendars that specify when the board and the standing committees will consider key items; drafting charters that define the decisions committees are responsible for; and developing decision protocols that divvy up responsibilities between directors and executives. The author also identifies a number of informal decision-making principles: Items that are strategically significant and touch on the firm's core values should go to the board. Large decisions should be divided into small pieces, so the board can devote sufficient attention to each one. Directors must remain vigilant to ensure that their decisions are effectively implemented. The CEO and either the nonexecutive chair or the lead director should engage in ongoing dialogue regarding which decisions to take to the full board and when. And directors should challenge assumptions before making yes-or-no decisions on management proposals. PMID:17131569

  15. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making

    PubMed Central

    Mostert, Pim; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying the subsequent temporal integration into a decision variable. Here, we adopted a decoding approach to empirically assess this dissociation in human magnetoencephalography recordings. We used a functional localizer to identify the neural signature that reflects sensory-specific processes, and subsequently traced this signature while subjects were engaged in a perceptual decision making task. Our results revealed a temporal dissociation in which sensory processing was limited to an early time window and consistent with occipital areas, whereas decision-related processing became increasingly pronounced over time, and involved parietal and frontal areas. We found that the sensory processing accurately reflected the physical stimulus, irrespective of the eventual decision. Moreover, the sensory representation was stable and maintained over time when it was required for a subsequent decision, but unstable and variable over time when it was task-irrelevant. In contrast, decision-related activity displayed long-lasting sustained components. Together, our approach dissects neuro-anatomically and functionally distinct contributions to perceptual decisions. PMID:26666393

  16. Decision-making processes of youth.

    PubMed

    Moore, J W; Jensen, B; Hauck, W E

    1990-01-01

    Research supports the theory that after administrators make a decision, feedback, both positive and negative, and also the administrators' perceived security vis-à-vis their position affect their level of commitment to a course of action. However, this research fails to recognize that subjects of college age playing administrators in the simulated, experimental treatments which have been presented in the research had nothing personally to lose if they made a bad decision--an orientation contradictory to the reality of most actual administrative positions. Additionally, the research ignores the interactional effects of the personality of decision makers in terms of their anxiety levels and the judgments they make. This study took both of these considerations into account by creating a decision-making situation within which prospective administrators made monetary commitments to long-term goals while their anxiety level, both as a basic personality attribute and an index of the reality of the decision-making process, was monitored under conditions of varying levels of job insecurity and resistance to their policies in relation to their decisions. Analyses revealed that contrary to the results of past research which used college students as subjects: (1) there is a significant negative correlation between levels of anxiety and commitments to previously chosen courses of action; (2) there are no significant effects of job security on commitment; and, most importantly, (3) high resistance to a policy decision leads to significantly less monetary commitments to long-term goals. The findings suggest that the basis for the contradictory results lies with the anxiety level of decision makers and the realism of experiencing a loss by making poor decisions. PMID:2264508

  17. Hip Arthroplasty Pseudotumors: Pathogenesis, Imaging, and Clinical Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Derik L; Morrison, James J

    2016-01-01

    Pseudotumors are a complication of hip arthroplasty. The goal of this article is to review the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, histology, and the role of diagnostic imaging in clinical decision making for treatment, and surveillance of pseudotumors. We will discuss the multimodal imaging appearances, differential diagnosis, associated complications, treatment, and prognosis of pseudotumors, as an aid to the assessment of orthopedic prostheses at the hip. PMID:27195183

  18. Staged decision making based on probabilistic forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booister, Nikéh; Verkade, Jan; Werner, Micha; Cranston, Michael; Cumiskey, Lydia; Zevenbergen, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Flood forecasting systems reduce, but cannot eliminate uncertainty about the future. Probabilistic forecasts explicitly show that uncertainty remains. However, as - compared to deterministic forecasts - a dimension is added ('probability' or 'likelihood'), with this added dimension decision making is made slightly more complicated. A technique of decision support is the cost-loss approach, which defines whether or not to issue a warning or implement mitigation measures (risk-based method). With the cost-loss method a warning will be issued when the ratio of the response costs to the damage reduction is less than or equal to the probability of the possible flood event. This cost-loss method is not widely used, because it motivates based on only economic values and is a technique that is relatively static (no reasoning, yes/no decision). Nevertheless it has high potential to improve risk-based decision making based on probabilistic flood forecasting because there are no other methods known that deal with probabilities in decision making. The main aim of this research was to explore the ways of making decision making based on probabilities with the cost-loss method better applicable in practice. The exploration began by identifying other situations in which decisions were taken based on uncertain forecasts or predictions. These cases spanned a range of degrees of uncertainty: from known uncertainty to deep uncertainty. Based on the types of uncertainties, concepts of dealing with situations and responses were analysed and possible applicable concepts where chosen. Out of this analysis the concepts of flexibility and robustness appeared to be fitting to the existing method. Instead of taking big decisions with bigger consequences at once, the idea is that actions and decisions are cut-up into smaller pieces and finally the decision to implement is made based on economic costs of decisions and measures and the reduced effect of flooding. The more lead-time there is in

  19. Domain specific software design for decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Kirby; Stanley, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    McDonnell Aircraft Company (MCAIR) is involved in many large multi-discipline design and development efforts of tactical aircraft. These involve a number of design disciplines that must be coordinated to produce an integrated design and a successful product. Our interpretation of a domain specific software design (DSSD) is that of a representation or framework that is specialized to support a limited problem domain. A DSSD is an abstract software design that is shaped by the problem characteristics. This parallels the theme of object-oriented analysis and design of letting the problem model directly drive the design. The DSSD concept extends the notion of software reusability to include representations or frameworks. It supports the entire software life cycle and specifically leads to improved prototyping capability, supports system integration, and promotes reuse of software designs and supporting frameworks. The example presented in this paper is the task network architecture or design which was developed for the MCAIR Pilot's Associate program. The task network concept supported both module development and system integration within the domain of operator decision aiding. It is presented as an instance where a software design exhibited many of the attributes associated with DSSD concept.

  20. Use of ultrasonography to make management decisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transrectal ultrasonography has been available for making management decisions since the mid 1980’s. This technology allows for the real-time visualization of internal structures (i.e. ovary and fetus) that are otherwise difficult to evaluate. The use of this technology in making reproductive manag...

  1. Nonrational Processes in Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson, Mark D.; Gottlieb, Michael C.; Handelsman, Mitchell M.; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Most current ethical decision-making models provide a logical and reasoned process for making ethical judgments, but these models are empirically unproven and rely upon assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasi-legal reasoning. Such models predominate despite the fact that many nonrational factors influence ethical thought and behavior,…

  2. A brief history of decision making.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Leigh; O'Connell, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Sometime around the middle of the past century, telephone executive Chester Barnard imported the term decision making from public administration into the business world. There it began to replace narrower terms, like "resource allocation" and "policy making," shifting the way managers thought about their role from continuous, Hamlet-like deliberation toward a crisp series of conclusions reached and actions taken. Yet, decision making is, of course, a broad and ancient human pursuit, flowing back to a time when people sought guidance from the stars. From those earliest days, we have strived to invent better tools for the purpose, from the Hindu-Arabic systems for numbering and algebra, to Aristotle's systematic empiricism, to friar Occam's advances in logic, to Francis Bacon's inductive reasoning, to Descartes's application of the scientific method. A growing sophistication with managing risk, along with a nuanced understanding of human behavior and advances in technology that support and mimic cognitive processes, has improved decision making in many situations. Even so, the history of decision-making strategies--captured in this time line and examined in the four accompanying essays on risk, group dynamics, technology, and instinct--has not marched steadily toward perfect rationalism. Twentieth-century theorists showed that the costs of acquiring information lead executives to make do with only good-enough decisions. Worse, people decide against their own economic interests even when they know better. And in the absence of emotion, it's impossible to make any decisions at all. Erroneous framing, bounded awareness, excessive optimism: The debunking of Descartes's rational man threatens to swamp our confidence in our choices. Is it really surprising, then, that even as technology dramatically increases our access to information, Malcolm Gladwell extols the virtues of gut decisions made, literally, in the blink of an eye? PMID:16447367

  3. Application of decision aid technology to command and control

    SciTech Connect

    Wanner, E.; Steigerwald, R.; Clark, D.

    1984-03-01

    The development of decision aids for command and control (C/sup 2/), including a look at the C/sup 2/ environment and objectives are reviewed. Developing computer based decision aids can involve the use of techniques ranging from simple automation of manual tasks to the use of artificial intelligence for complex automation of an expert's heuristic reasoning ability. Database management techniques, operations research and decision analysis are also useful. 7 references.

  4. Development and pilot testing of a decision aid for drivers with dementia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing number of older adults drive automobiles. Given that the prevalence of dementia is rising, it is necessary to address the issue of driving retirement. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how a self-administered decision aid contributed to decision making about driving retirement by individuals living with dementia. The primary outcome measure in this study was decisional conflict. Knowledge, decision, satisfaction with decision, booklet use and booklet acceptability were the secondary outcome measures. Methods A mixed methods approach was adopted. Drivers with dementia were recruited from an Aged Care clinic and a Primary Care center in NSW, Australia. Telephone surveys were conducted before and after participants read the decision aid. Results Twelve participants were recruited (mean age 75, SD 6.7). The primary outcome measure, decisional conflict, improved following use of the decision aid. Most participants felt that the decision aid: (i) was balanced; (ii) presented information well; and (iii) helped them decide about driving. In addition, mean knowledge scores improved after booklet use. Conclusions This decision aid shows promise as an acceptable, useful and low-cost tool for drivers with dementia. A self-administered decision aid can be used to assist individuals with dementia decide about driving retirement. A randomized controlled trial is underway to evaluate the effectiveness of the tool. PMID:24642051

  5. Whose decision is it? The microstructure of medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Simon N

    2008-01-01

    Medical decision making is sometimes viewed as a relatively simple process in which a decision may be made by the patient, by the physician, or by both patient and physician working together. This two-dimensional portrayal eclipses the important role that others, such as other professionals, family, and friends, may play in the process; as an example of this phenomenon, we trace the evolution of a decision of a teenager with cancer who is contemplating discontinuing chemotherapy. This example also shows how a decision can usefully be understood as consisting of a number of identifiable substeps--what we call the "microstructure" of the decision. These steps show how the physician can play an important role without usurping the patient's rightful decisional authority. PMID:19209569

  6. Acceptable regret in medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Djulbegovic, B; Hozo, I; Schwartz, A; McMasters, K M

    1999-09-01

    When faced with medical decisions involving uncertain outcomes, the principles of decision theory hold that we should select the option with the highest expected utility to maximize health over time. Whether a decision proves right or wrong can be learned only in retrospect, when it may become apparent that another course of action would have been preferable. This realization may bring a sense of loss, or regret. When anticipated regret is compelling, a decision maker may choose to violate expected utility theory to avoid regret. We formulate a concept of acceptable regret in medical decision making that explicitly introduces the patient's attitude toward loss of health due to a mistaken decision into decision making. In most cases, minimizing expected regret results in the same decision as maximizing expected utility. However, when acceptable regret is taken into consideration, the threshold probability below which we can comfortably withhold treatment is a function only of the net benefit of the treatment, and the threshold probability above which we can comfortably administer the treatment depends only on the magnitude of the risks associated with the therapy. By considering acceptable regret, we develop new conceptual relations that can help decide whether treatment should be withheld or administered, especially when the diagnosis is uncertain. This may be particularly beneficial in deciding what constitutes futile medical care. PMID:10580533

  7. Shared decision making and informed consent for hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ogburn, Tony

    2014-03-01

    This article provides an overview of the components of the informed consent process for surgery including the components specific to hysterectomy. Shared decision making and informed consent for hysterectomy rely on a mutual understanding by the patient and surgeon of the goals, risks, benefits, and alternatives as well as the choice of hysterectomy technique. The importance of a patient-centered approach is emphasized with an explanation of several communication methods and resources for decision aids that will help to ensure that patients have a good understanding of the items listed above and are able to provide informed consent. PMID:24145363

  8. Features of Computer-Based Decision Aids: Systematic Review, Thematic Synthesis, and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Krömker, Dörthe; Meguerditchian, Ari N; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient information and education, such as decision aids, are gradually moving toward online, computer-based environments. Considerable research has been conducted to guide content and presentation of decision aids. However, given the relatively new shift to computer-based support, little attention has been given to how multimedia and interactivity can improve upon paper-based decision aids. Objective The first objective of this review was to summarize published literature into a proposed classification of features that have been integrated into computer-based decision aids. Building on this classification, the second objective was to assess whether integration of specific features was associated with higher-quality decision making. Methods Relevant studies were located by searching MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. The review identified studies that evaluated computer-based decision aids for adults faced with preference-sensitive medical decisions and reported quality of decision-making outcomes. A thematic synthesis was conducted to develop the classification of features. Subsequently, meta-analyses were conducted based on standardized mean differences (SMD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported knowledge or decisional conflict. Further subgroup analyses compared pooled SMDs for decision aids that incorporated a specific feature to other computer-based decision aids that did not incorporate the feature, to assess whether specific features improved quality of decision making. Results Of 3541 unique publications, 58 studies met the target criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. The synthesis identified six features: content control, tailoring, patient narratives, explicit values clarification, feedback, and social support. A subset of 26 RCTs from the thematic synthesis was used to conduct the meta-analyses. As expected, computer-based decision aids performed better than usual care or alternative aids; however

  9. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  10. Supporting Parental Decisions About Genomic Sequencing for Newborn Screening: The NC NEXUS Decision Aid.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Megan A; Paquin, Ryan S; Roche, Myra I; Furberg, Robert D; Rini, Christine; Berg, Jonathan S; Powell, Cynthia M; Bailey, Donald B

    2016-01-01

    Advances in genomic sequencing technology have raised fundamental challenges to the traditional ways genomic information is communicated. These challenges will become increasingly complex and will affect a much larger population in the future if genomics is incorporated into standard newborn screening practice. Clinicians, public health officials, and other stakeholders will need to agree on the types of information that they should seek and communicate to parents. Currently, few evidence-based and validated tools are available to support parental informed decision-making. These tools will be necessary as genomics is integrated into clinical practice and public health systems. In this article we describe how the North Carolina Newborn Exome Sequencing for Universal Screening study is addressing the need to support parents in making informed decisions about the use of genomic testing in newborn screening. We outline the context for newborn screening and justify the need for parental decision support. We also describe the process of decision aid development and the data sources, processes, and best practices being used in development. By the end of the study, we will have an evidenced-based process and validated tools to support parental informed decision-making about the use of genomic sequencing in newborn screening. Data from the study will help answer important questions about which genomic information ought to be sought and communicated when testing newborns. PMID:26729698

  11. Supporting Parental Decisions About Genomic Sequencing for Newborn Screening: The NC NEXUS Decision Aid

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Megan A.; Paquin, Ryan S.; Roche, Myra I.; Furberg, Robert D.; Rini, Christine; Berg, Jonathan S.; Powell, Cynthia M.; Bailey, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in genomic sequencing technology have raised fundamental challenges to the traditional ways genomic information is communicated. These challenges will become increasingly complex and will affect a much larger population in the future if genomics is incorporated into standard newborn screening practice. Clinicians, public health officials, and other stakeholders will need to agree on the types of information that they should seek and communicate to parents. Currently, few evidence-based and validated tools are available to support parental informed decision-making. These tools will be necessary as genomics is integrated into clinical practice and public health systems. In this article we describe how the North Carolina Newborn Exome Sequencing for Universal Screening study is addressing the need to support parents in making informed decisions about the use of genomic testing in newborn screening. We outline the context for newborn screening and justify the need for parental decision support. We also describe the process of decision aid development and the data sources, processes, and best practices being used in development. By the end of the study, we will have an evidenced-based process and validated tools to support parental informed decision-making about the use of genomic sequencing in newborn screening. Data from the study will help answer important questions about which genomic information ought to be sought and communicated when testing newborns. PMID:26729698

  12. How to Make Financial Aid "Freshman-Friendly"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Susan L.; Johnson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Ultimately, making financial aid "freshman friendly" also makes financial aid "sophomore friendly," "junior friendly," and "senior friendly." Indiana University has in place an Office of Enrollment Management (OEM) model that includes focused financial aid packaging strategies complemented by unique contact services and communication interventions…

  13. NASA Risk-Informed Decision Making Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Stamatelatos, Michael; Maggio, Gaspare; Everett, Christopher; Youngblood, Robert; Rutledge, Peter; Benjamin, Allan; Williams, Rodney; Smith, Curtis; Guarro, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This handbook provides guidance for conducting risk-informed decision making in the context of NASA risk management (RM), with a focus on the types of direction-setting key decisions that are characteristic of the NASA program and project life cycles, and which produce derived requirements in accordance with existing systems engineering practices that flow down through the NASA organizational hierarchy. The guidance in this handbook is not meant to be prescriptive. Instead, it is meant to be general enough, and contain a sufficient diversity of examples, to enable the reader to adapt the methods as needed to the particular decision problems that he or she faces. The handbook highlights major issues to consider when making decisions in the presence of potentially significant uncertainty, so that the user is better able to recognize and avoid pitfalls that might otherwise be experienced.

  14. Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Occupation-Based Occupational Therapy Using the Aid for Decision Making in Occupation Choice (ADOC) for Older Residents: Pilot Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama, Hirofumi; Tomori, Kounosuke; Ohno, Kanta; Takahashi, Kayoko; Ogahara, Kakuya; Sawada, Tatsunori; Uezu, Sei; Nagatani, Ryutaro; Yamauchi, Keita

    2016-01-01

    Background Care-home residents are mostly inactive, have little interaction with staff, and are dependent on staff to engage in daily occupations. We recently developed an iPad application called the Aid for Decision-making in Occupation Choice (ADOC) to promote shared decision-making in activities and occupation-based goal setting by choosing from illustrations describing daily activities. This study aimed to evaluate if interventions based on occupation-based goal setting using the ADOC could focus on meaningful activities to improve quality of life and independent activities of daily living, with greater cost-effectiveness than an impairment-based approach as well as to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a large cluster, randomized controlled trial. Method In this single (assessor)-blind pilot cluster randomized controlled trial, the intervention group (ADOC group) received occupational therapy based on occupation-based goal setting using the ADOC, and the interventions were focused on meaningful occupations. The control group underwent an impairment-based approach focused on restoring capacities, without goal setting tools. In both groups, the 20-minute individualized intervention sessions were conducted twice a week for 4 months. Main Outcome Measures Short Form-36 (SF-36) score, SF-6D utility score, quality adjusted life years (QALY), Barthel Index, and total care cost. Results We randomized and analyzed 12 facilities (44 participants, 18.5% drop-out rate), with 6 facilities each allocated to the ADOC (n = 23) and control (n = 21) groups. After the 4-month intervention, the ADOC group had a significantly greater change in the BI score, with improved scores (P = 0.027, 95% CI 0.41 to 6.87, intracluster correlation coefficient = 0.14). No other outcome was significantly different. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, calculated using the change in BI score, was $63.1. Conclusion The results suggest that occupational therapy using the ADOC for older

  15. [Looking for a more participative healthcare: sharing medical decision making].

    PubMed

    Bravo, Paulina; Contreras, Aixa; Perestelo-Pérez, Lilisbeth; Pérez-Ramos, Jeanette; Málaga, Germán

    2013-01-01

    The healthcare model is shifting from a paternalistic towards a more inclusive and participative approach, such as shared decision making (SDM). SDM considers patients as autonomous and responsible agents. SDM is a therapeutic approach where healthcare providers and patients share the best evidence available to make a decision according to the values and preferences of the patient. Decision aids are tools that can facilitate this information exchange. These tools help patients to increase knowledge about options, reduce decisional conflict and improve satisfaction. Additionally, communication skills play a key role within the professional-patient relationship, as they facilitate sharing information and preferences in an effective and respectful manner. This therapeutic approach could support the reduction of health inequalities that affect Latin America, as it promotes an active and informed participation of patients in their healthcare process. PMID:24448951

  16. Quality of decision making and group norms.

    PubMed

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Cihangir, S

    2001-06-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consensus norms did not. This effect appeared to be mediated by the perceived value of shared and unshared information: Consensus norm groups valued shared information more highly than critical groups did, and valence was a good predictor of decision outcome. In addition, the 2nd study showed that the group norm manipulation has no impact on individual decisions, consistent with the assumption that this is a group effect. Results suggest that the content of group norms is an important factor influencing the quality of group decision-making processes and that the content of group norms may be related to the group's proneness for groupthink. PMID:11414374

  17. [Kairos. Decision-making in medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Jousset, David

    2014-06-01

    This paper assesses the decision making patterns in medical ethics: the formalized pattern of decision science, the meditative pattern of an art of judgement and lastly the still-to-be-elaborated pattern of kairology or sense of the right time. The ethical decision is to be thought out in the conditions of medical action while resorting to the philosophical concepts that shed light on the issue. And it is precisely where medicine and philosophy of human action meet that the Greek notion of kairos, or "propitious moment", evokes the critical point where decision has to do with what is vital. Reflection shows that this kairos can be thought out outside the sacrificial pattern (deciding comes down to killing a possibility) by understanding the opportune moment as a sign of ethical action, as the condition for the formation of the subject (making a decision) and finally as a new relationship to time, including in the context of medical urgency. Thus with an approach to clinical ethics centred on the relation to the individual, the focus is less on the probabilistic knowledge of the decidable than on the meaning of the decision, and the undecidable comes to be accepted as an infinite dimension going beyond the limits of our acts, which makes the contingency and the grandeur of human responsibility. PMID:25272798

  18. Decision making of vending machine users.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, L W

    1988-06-01

    This article discusses two possible solutions to decision making about controls by users of vending machines: the 'one button to press' system (requiring a compound decision - the pressing of one button only); the 'several buttons to press' system (requiring a compound decision - the pressing of several buttons). The basis for the discussion is a field evaluation of a train ticket vending machine (TVM) that can sell 800 different types of tickets and can accept all kinds of payment. For this evaluation several hundred TVM users and ticket window users were observed and interviewed. Special attention was paid to the errors which were made. PMID:15676652

  19. Interference effects of categorization on decision making.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2016-05-01

    Many decision making tasks in life involve a categorization process, but the effects of categorization on subsequent decision making has rarely been studied. This issue was explored in three experiments (N=721), in which participants were shown a face stimulus on each trial and performed variations of categorization-decision tasks. On C-D trials, they categorized the stimulus and then made an action decision; on X-D trials, they were told the category and then made an action decision; on D-alone trials, they only made an action decision. An interference effect emerged in some of the conditions, such that the probability of an action on the D-alone trials (i.e., when there was no explicit categorization before the decision) differed from the total probability of the same action on the C-D or X-D trials (i.e., when there was explicit categorization before the decision). Interference effects are important because they indicate a violation of the classical law of total probability, which is assumed by many cognitive models. Across all three experiments, a complex pattern of interference effects systematically occurred for different types of stimuli and for different types of categorization-decision tasks. These interference effects present a challenge for traditional cognitive models, such as Markov and signal detection models, but a quantum cognition model, called the belief-action entanglement (BAE) model, predicted that these results could occur. The BAE model employs the quantum principles of superposition and entanglement to explain the psychological mechanisms underlying the puzzling interference effects. The model can be applied to many important and practical categorization-decision situations in life. PMID:26896726

  20. The Evolutionary Roots of Human Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Laurie R.; Rosati, Alexandra G.

    2015-01-01

    Humans exhibit a suite of biases when making economic decisions. We review recent research on the origins of human decision making by examining whether similar choice biases are seen in nonhuman primates, our closest phylogenetic relatives. We propose that comparative studies can provide insight into four major questions about the nature of human choice biases that cannot be addressed by studies of our species alone. First, research with other primates can address the evolution of human choice biases and identify shared versus human-unique tendencies in decision making. Second, primate studies can constrain hypotheses about the psychological mechanisms underlying such biases. Third, comparisons of closely related species can identify when distinct mechanisms underlie related biases by examining evolutionary dissociations in choice strategies. Finally, comparative work can provide insight into the biological rationality of economically irrational preferences. PMID:25559115

  1. Understanding Decision Making in Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Lighthall, Geoffrey K.; Vazquez-Guillamet, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Background Human decision making involves the deliberate formulation of hypotheses and plans as well as the use of subconscious means of judging probability, likely outcome, and proper action. Rationale There is a growing recognition that intuitive strategies such as use of heuristics and pattern recognition described in other industries are applicable to high-acuity environments in medicine. Despite the applicability of theories of cognition to the intensive care unit, a discussion of decision-making strategies is currently absent in the critical care literature. Content This article provides an overview of known cognitive strategies, as well as a synthesis of their use in critical care. By understanding the ways by which humans formulate diagnoses and make critical decisions, we may be able to minimize errors in our own judgments as well as build training activities around known strengths and limitations of cognition. PMID:26387708

  2. Re-engineering shared decision-making.

    PubMed

    Gillick, Muriel R

    2015-09-01

    Shared decision-making is widely accepted as the gold standard of clinical care. Numerous obstacles to achieving shared decision-making have been identified, including patient factors, physician factors and systemic factors. Until now, the paradigm is seldom successfully implemented in clinical practice, raising questions about the practicality of the process recommended for its use. A re-engineered model is proposed in which physicians elicit and prioritise patients' goals of care and then help translate those goals into treatment options, after clarifying the patient's underlying health status. Preliminary evidence suggests that each step of this revised process is feasible and that patients and physicians are comfortable with this strategy. Adoption of this model, after further testing, would allow the goal of shared decision-making to be realised. PMID:25926672

  3. Dynamical decision making in a genetic perceptron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filicheva, Svetlana; Zaikin, Alexey; Kanakov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    Decision making is an essential element of cell functioning, which determines milestones of its evolution including differentiation, apoptosis and possible transition to cancerous state. Recently the concept of stochastic resonance in decision making (SRIDM) was introduced, demonstrated and explained using a synthetic genetic classifier circuit as an example. It manifests itself as a maximum in the dependence of classification accuracy upon noise intensity, and was caused by the concurrent action of two factors, both coarsening the classification accuracy by themselves, but found to extenuate the effect of each other: perturbation of classifier threshold and additive noise in classifier inputs. In the present work we extend the SRIDM concept to dynamical decision making, in which a classifier keeps track of the changeable input. We reproduce the stochastic resonance effect caused by noise and threshold perturbation, and demonstrate a new mechanism of SRIDM, which is associated with bistability and not connected with threshold perturbation.

  4. Correlates of risky decision-making.

    PubMed

    Plax, T G; Rosenfeld, L B

    1976-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a personality pattern which could be used for both the explication and prediction of risky behavior in a variety of decision-making situations. Two months after the completion of a battery of psychological examinations, 240 randomly selected subjects responded to three problems adapted from the Kogan and Wallach Choice Dilemma Problems. Analyses of the data (correlational, factor analytic, and stepwise multiple regression) revealed a stable personality index representative of individuals exhibiting riskiness in decision-making. Variables contributing to this pattern characterized a dynamic task oriented individual. The results of this study should prove useful to future decision-making research by providing a framework for prediction. PMID:957088

  5. Collective decision-making in microbes

    PubMed Central

    Ross-Gillespie, Adin; Kümmerli, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Microbes are intensely social organisms that routinely cooperate and coordinate their activities to express elaborate population level phenotypes. Such coordination requires a process of collective decision-making, in which individuals detect and collate information not only from their physical environment, but also from their social environment, in order to arrive at an appropriately calibrated response. Here, we present a conceptual overview of collective decision-making as it applies to all group-living organisms; we introduce key concepts and principles developed in the context of animal and human group decisions; and we discuss, with appropriate examples, the applicability of each of these concepts in microbial contexts. In particular, we discuss the roles of information pooling, control skew, speed vs. accuracy trade-offs, local feedbacks, quorum thresholds, conflicts of interest, and the reliability of social information. We conclude that collective decision-making in microbes shares many features with collective decision-making in higher taxa, and we call for greater integration between this fledgling field and other allied areas of research, including in the humanities and the physical sciences. PMID:24624121

  6. Design and Focus Test of a Preconsultation Decision Aid for Breast Cancer Reconstruction Patients: A Quality Improvement Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Kenneth J.; Liu, Xiang X.; Luan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To design, develop, and evaluate via focus group a preconsultation decision aid to improve patient satisfaction for breast reconstruction. Methods: The design of the decision aid was based on perceived patient needs, literature, existing decision aids, and current standard of breast cancer reconstruction treatment and consultation at Stanford. Our decision aid was designed to (1) reducing fear of the unknown in patients via providing a knowledge base that they can rely on, (2) helping patients identify their key breast reconstruction concerns, (3) addressing common patient concerns, (4) providing a framework to help patients identify the treatment option that may be right for them, and (5) promoting shared decision making. Physicians were consulted on the decision aid, following which a focus group was conducted for patient feedback. Results: Interviewed patients (n = 12) were supportive of the decision aid initiative. Participants were especially pleased with the side-by-side comparison of surgical options and the parsimonious way information was represented. All patients before undergoing reconstruction (n = 3) requested the decision guide to reference at home. All interviewed patients believed information level was “about right.” Conclusions: Decision aid was well received by patients in the focus group. As the initiative is for quality improvement, we saw no need to further delay the distribution of the decision aid. A pilot study will be conducted to evaluate whether our decision aid has an effect on patients’ decision regret, stress, and anxiety. PMID:26171096

  7. Visually Guided Decision Making in Foraging Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaowu; Si, Aung; Pahl, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Honeybees can easily be trained to perform different types of discrimination tasks under controlled laboratory conditions. This review describes a range of experiments carried out with free-flying forager honeybees under such conditions. The research done over the past 30 or so years suggests that cognitive abilities (learning and perception) in insects are more intricate and flexible than was originally imagined. It has become apparent that honeybees are capable of a variety of visually guided tasks, involving decision making under challenging situations: this includes simultaneously making use of different sensory modalities, such as vision and olfaction, and learning to use abstract concepts such as “sameness” and “difference.” Many studies have shown that decision making in foraging honeybees is highly flexible. The trained animals learn how to solve a task, and do so with a high accuracy, but when they are presented with a new variation of the task, they apply the learnt rules from the earlier setup to the new situation, and solve the new task as well. Honeybees therefore not only feature a rich behavioral repertoire to choose from, but also make decisions most apt to the current situation. The experiments in this review give an insight into the environmental cues and cognitive resources that are probably highly significant for a forager bee that must continually make decisions regarding patches of resources to be exploited. PMID:22719721

  8. How Decisions Emerge: Action Dynamics in Intertemporal Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dshemuchadse, Maja; Scherbaum, Stefan; Goschke, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In intertemporal decision making, individuals prefer smaller rewards delivered sooner over larger rewards delivered later, often to an extent that seems irrational from an economical perspective. This behavior has been attributed to a lack of self-control and reflection, the nonlinearity of human time perception, and several other sources.…

  9. Helping novice nurses make effective clinical decisions: the situated clinical decision-making framework.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Mary; Peterson, Barbara L

    2009-01-01

    The nature of novice nurses' clinical decision-making has been well documented as linear, based on limited knowledge and experience in the profession, and frequently focused on single tasks or problems. Theorists suggest that, with sufficient experience in the clinical setting, novice nurses will move from reliance on abstract principles to the application of concrete experience and to view a clinical situation within its context and as a whole. In the current health care environment, novice nurses frequently work with few clinical supports and mentors while facing complex patient situations that demand skilled decision-making. The Situated Clinical Decision-Making Framework is presented for use by educators and novice nurses to support development of clinical decision-making. It provides novice nurses with a tool that a) assists them in making decisions; b) can be used to guide retrospective reflection on decision-making processes and outcomes; c) socializes them to an understanding of the nature of decision-making in nursing; and d) fosters the development of their knowledge, skill, and confidence as nurses. This article provides an overview of the framework, including its theoretical foundations and a schematic representation of its components. A case exemplar illustrates one application of the framework in assisting novice nurses in developing their decision-making skills. Future directions regarding the use and study of this framework in nursing education are considered. PMID:19606659

  10. Motivations Underlying Career Decision-Making Activities: The Career Decision-Making Autonomy Scale (CDMAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Frederic

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to develop and validate a measure of motivation toward career decision-making activities, the Career Decision-Making Autonomy Scale (CDMAS). The CDMAS is designed to assess the constructs of intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, and external regulation. A longitudinal study was…

  11. Career Planning and Decision-Making for College. AEL Career Decision-Making Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Lola, Ed.

    Six course units and learning activities for the Career Planning and Decision-Making course is presented. The course emphasizes career comprehension, career values, and career action. Career comprehension includes developing knowledge of the world of work and planning and decision-making skills. Career values focus on clarifying, identifying, and…

  12. Exploring Patient Values in Medical Decision Making: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yew Kong; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient decisions are influenced by their personal values. However, there is a lack of clarity and attention on the concept of patient values in the clinical context despite clear emphasis on patient values in evidence-based medicine and shared decision making. The aim of the study was to explore the concept of patient values in the context of making decisions about insulin initiation among people with type 2 diabetes. Methods and Findings We conducted individual in-depth interviews with people with type 2 diabetes who were making decisions about insulin treatment. Participants were selected purposively to achieve maximum variation. A semi-structured topic guide was used to guide the interviews which were audio-recorded and analysed using a thematic approach. We interviewed 21 participants between January 2011 and March 2012. The age range of participants was 28–67 years old. Our sample comprised 9 women and 12 men. Three main themes, ‘treatment-specific values’, ‘life goals and philosophies’, and ‘personal and social background’, emerged from the analysis. The patients reported a variety of insulin-specific values, which were negative and/or positive beliefs about insulin. They framed insulin according to their priorities and philosophies in life. Patients’ decisions were influenced by sociocultural (e.g. religious background) and personal backgrounds (e.g. family situations). Conclusions This study highlighted the need for expanding the current concept of patient values in medical decision making. Clinicians should address more than just values related to treatment options. Patient values should include patients’ priorities, life philosophy and their background. Current decision support tools, such as patient decision aids, should consider these new dimensions when clarifying patient values. PMID:24282518

  13. Medical decision making for the incompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Drane, J F; Roth, R B

    1987-12-01

    In America competent adult patients have a right to refuse unwanted medical treatments. For incompetent patients who have made no advance directive, the family ordinarily makes decisions about medical treatments. But in many healthcare facilities, problems arise in choosing a surrogate to make decisions for an incompetent patient and in working with that surrogate. Concrete, step-by-step procedures for resolving conflict are needed. Every effort should be made to have competent patients fill out advance directives or indicate their treatment preferences in the event of loss of competence. Family members may not override decisions made by competent patients, but anyone closely involved with the patients' care may question their competence. The physician generally assesses the patients' competence, but sometimes the courts are involved. The physician may be the appropriate person to choose a surrogate for a patient with limited competence or to make decisions for a totally incompetent patient. The surrogate may be a relative, close friend, physician who knows the patient well, or someone provided by the hospital or government. Treatment decisions are made within the surrogate-patient-physician triad. When different value judgments about the proper treatment conflict, the surrogate may have to mediate to restore physician-patient communication, or institutional proceedings through the ethics committee may be needed to resolve disputes quickly, amicably, and at low cost. As a last resort, the case may be referred to the courts. PMID:10285412

  14. Got risk? risk-centric perspective for spacecraft technology decision-making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Cornford, Steven L.; Moran, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    A risk-based decision-making methodology conceived and developed at JPL and NASA has been used to aid in decision making for spacecraft technology assessment, adoption, development and operation. It takes a risk-centric perspective, through which risks are used as a reasoning step to interpose between mission objectives and risk mitigation measures.

  15. Decision-Making concerning Ethical Issues of Science and Technology: A Series of Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Constance M.; Schlenker, Richard M.

    Procedures are outlined for aiding students in clarifying values and making decisions. Activities are included which were selected to sensitize students to some current situations that involve making technological, scientific, or bioethical decisions. The five activities are concerned with the following problematic situations: (1) government…

  16. Do choosing wisely tools meet criteria for patient decision aids? A descriptive analysis of patient materials

    PubMed Central

    Légaré, France; Hébert, Jessica; Goh, Larissa; Lewis, Krystina B; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Ester; Robitaille, Hubert; Stacey, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Choosing Wisely is a remarkable physician-led campaign to reduce unnecessary or harmful health services. Some of the literature identifies Choosing Wisely as a shared decision-making approach. We evaluated the patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada to determine whether they meet the criteria for shared decision-making tools known as patient decision aids. Design Descriptive analysis of all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials. Data source In May 2015, we selected all Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials from its official website. Main outcomes and measures Four team members independently extracted characteristics of the English materials using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) modified 16-item minimum criteria for qualifying and certifying patient decision aids. The research team discussed discrepancies between data extractors and reached a consensus. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Results Of the 24 patient materials assessed, 12 were about treatments, 11 were about screening and 1 was about prevention. The median score for patient materials using IPDAS criteria was 10/16 (range: 8–11) for screening topics and 6/12 (range: 6–9) for prevention and treatment topics. Commonly missed criteria were stating the decision (21/24 did not), providing balanced information on option benefits/harms (24/24 did not), citing evidence (24/24 did not) and updating policy (24/24 did not). Out of 24 patient materials, only 2 met the 6 IPDAS criteria to qualify as patient decision aids, and neither of these 2 met the 6 certifying criteria. Conclusions Patient materials developed by Choosing Wisely Canada do not meet the IPDAS minimal qualifying or certifying criteria for patient decision aids. Modifications to the Choosing Wisely Canada patient materials would help to ensure that they qualify as patient decision aids and thus as more effective shared decision-making tools. PMID:27566638

  17. The precautionary principle and medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2004-06-01

    The precautionary principle is a useful strategy for decision-making when physicians and patients lack evidence relating to the potential outcomes associated with various choices. According to a version of the principle defended here, one should take reasonable measures to avoid threats that are serious and plausible. The reasonableness of a response to a threat depends on several factors, including benefit vs. harm, realism, proportionality, and consistency. Since a concept of reasonableness plays an essential role in applying the precautionary principle, this principle gives physicians and patients a decision-making strategy that encourages the careful weighing and balancing of different values that one finds in humanistic approaches to clinical reasoning. Properly understood, the principle presents a worthwhile alternative to approaches to clinical reasoning that apply expected utility theory to decision problems. PMID:15512973

  18. How expert advice influences decision making.

    PubMed

    Meshi, Dar; Biele, Guido; Korn, Christoph W; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2012-01-01

    People often use expert advice when making decisions in our society, but how we are influenced by this advice has yet to be understood. To address this, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we provided expert and novice advice to participants during an estimation task. Participants reported that they valued expert advice more than novice advice, and activity in the ventral striatum correlated with this valuation, even before decisions with the advice were made. When using advice, participants compared their initial opinion to their advisor's opinion. This comparison, termed the "opinion difference", influenced advice utilization and was represented in reward-sensitive brain regions. Finally, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex integrated both the size of the opinion difference and the advisor's level of expertise, and average activity in this area correlated with mean advice utilization across participants. Taken together, these findings provide neural evidence for how advice engenders behavioral change during the decision-making process. PMID:23185425

  19. How Expert Advice Influences Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Meshi, Dar; Biele, Guido; Korn, Christoph W.; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2012-01-01

    People often use expert advice when making decisions in our society, but how we are influenced by this advice has yet to be understood. To address this, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we provided expert and novice advice to participants during an estimation task. Participants reported that they valued expert advice more than novice advice, and activity in the ventral striatum correlated with this valuation, even before decisions with the advice were made. When using advice, participants compared their initial opinion to their advisor’s opinion. This comparison, termed the “opinion difference”, influenced advice utilization and was represented in reward-sensitive brain regions. Finally, the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex integrated both the size of the opinion difference and the advisor’s level of expertise, and average activity in this area correlated with mean advice utilization across participants. Taken together, these findings provide neural evidence for how advice engenders behavioral change during the decision-making process. PMID:23185425

  20. Decision making dynamics in corporate boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Stefano; Bonabeau, Eric; Weisbuch, Gérard

    2003-05-01

    Members of boards of directors of large corporations who also serve together on an outside board, form the so-called interlock graph of the board and are assumed to have a strong influence on each others’ opinion. We here study how the size and the topology of the interlock graph affect the probability that the board approves a strategy proposed by the Chief Executive Officer. We propose a measure of the impact of the interlock on the decision making, which is found to be a good predictor of the decision dynamics outcome. We present two models of decision making dynamics, and we apply them to the data of the boards of the largest US corporations in 1999.

  1. Decision Making in Health and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunink, Myriam; Glasziou, Paul; Siegel, Joanna; Weeks, Jane; Pliskin, Joseph; Elstein, Arthur; Weinstein, Milton C.

    2001-11-01

    Decision making in health care means navigating through a complex and tangled web of diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainties, patient preferences and values, and costs. In addition, medical therapies may include side effects, surgery may lead to undesirable complications, and diagnostic technologies may produce inconclusive results. In many clinical and health policy decisions it is necessary to counterbalance benefits and risks, and to trade off competing objectives such as maximizing life expectancy vs optimizing quality of life vs minimizing the required resources. This textbook plots a clear course through these complex and conflicting variables. It clearly explains and illustrates tools for integrating quantitative evidence-based data and subjective outcome values in making clinical and health policy decisions. An accompanying CD-ROM features solutions to the exercises, PowerPoint® presentations of the illustrations, and sample models and tables.

  2. Model choice for decision making under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bàrdossy, Andràs

    2015-04-01

    Present and future water management decisions are often supported by modelling. The choice of the appropriate model and model parameters depend on the decision related question, the quality of the model and the available information. While spatially detailed physics based models might seem very transferable, the uncertainty of the parametrization and of the input may lead to highly diverging results, which are of no use for decision making. The optimal model choice requires a quantification of the input/natural parameter uncertainty. As a next step the influence of this uncertainty on predictions using models with different complexity has to be quantified. Finally the influence of this prediction uncertainty on the decisions to be taken has to be assessed. Different data/information availability and modelling questions thus might require different modelling approaches. A framework for this model choice and parametrization problem will be presented together with examples from regions with very different data availability and data quality.

  3. Making business decisions using trend information

    SciTech Connect

    Prevette, S.S., Westinghouse Hanford, Richland, WA

    1997-11-24

    Performance Measures, and the trend information that results from their analyses, can help managers in their decision making process. The business decisions that are to be discussed are: Assignment of limited Resources, Funding, Budget; Contractor Rewards/Incentives; Where to focus Process Improvement, Reengineering efforts; When to ask ``What Happened?!!``; Determine if a previous decision was effectively implemented. Trending can provide an input for rational Business Decisions. Key Element is determination of whether or not a significant trend exists - segregating Common Cause from Special Cause. The Control Chart is the tool for accomplishment of trending and determining if you are meeting your Business Objectives. Eliminate Numerical Targets; the goal is Significant Improvement. Profound Knowledge requires integrating data results with gut feeling.

  4. Emerging Educational Institutional Decision-Making Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford-Rowe, Kevin H.; Holt, Marnie

    2011-01-01

    The "emerging educational institutional decision-making matrix" is developed to allow educational institutions to adopt a rigorous and consistent methodology of determining which of the myriad of emerging educational technologies will be the most compelling for the institution, particularly ensuring that it is the educational or pedagogical but…

  5. Optimal Decision Making in Neural Inhibition Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ravenzwaaij, Don; van der Maas, Han L. J.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2012-01-01

    In their influential "Psychological Review" article, Bogacz, Brown, Moehlis, Holmes, and Cohen (2006) discussed optimal decision making as accomplished by the drift diffusion model (DDM). The authors showed that neural inhibition models, such as the leaky competing accumulator model (LCA) and the feedforward inhibition model (FFI), can mimic the…

  6. Regents Make History: The DNA Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gies, Joseph C.

    1977-01-01

    A routine-sounding request for a science lab renovation grew into a controversy with immense implications: Is DNA research safe? Does it belong on campus? Is it beyond human capacity to control? The decision-making role of the University of Michigan regents is described. (Editor/LBH)

  7. Ultrasound technology: A decision-making tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ultrasound demonstration was conducted for participants (~ 110 people) of the Arkansas Cattle Grower’s Conference, Hope, AR. Evaluation of live animals with ultrasound technology allows beef producers the ability to make selection and management decisions. Specifically, ultrasound at the conclu...

  8. Personal Decision Making. Focus on Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leet, Don R.; Charkins, R. J.; Lang, Nancy A.; Lopus, Jane S.; Tamaribuchi, Gail

    This book highlights and examines basic economic concepts as they relate to consumer, business, social, and personal choices. Students are shown connections between their classroom learning and their real-world experiences in budgeting, career planning, credit management, and housing. The set of 15 lessons include: (1) "Decision Making: Scarcity,…

  9. Supporting Medical Decision Making with Argumentation Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jingyan; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the collaborative decision-making and communicative discourse of groups of learners engaged in a simulated medical emergency in two conditions. In one condition subgroups used a traditional whiteboard (TW group) to document medical arguments on how to solve a medical emergency. In the other condition subgroups used…

  10. Student decision making in large group discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ptak, Corey; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.

    2015-04-01

    It is increasingly common in physics classes for students to work together to solve problems and perform laboratory experiments. When students work together, they need to negotiate the roles and decision making within the group. We examine how a large group of students negotiates authority as part of their two week summer College Readiness Program at Rochester Institute of Technology. The program is designed to develop metacognitive skills in first generation and Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) STEM undergraduates through cooperative group work, laboratory experimentation, and explicit reflection exercises. On the first full day of the program, the students collaboratively developed a sign for the word ``metacognition'' for which there is not a sign in American Sign Language. This presentation will focus on three aspects of the ensuing discussion: (1) how the instructor communicated expectations about decision making; (2) how the instructor promoted student-driven decision making rather than instructor-driven policy; and (3) one student's shifts in decision making behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of this research for activity-based physics instruction.

  11. International Students Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubillo, Jose Maria; Sanchez, Joaquin; Cervino, Julio

    2006-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model that integrates the different groups of factors which influence the decision-making process of international students, analysing different dimensions of this process and explaining those factors which determine students' choice. Design/methodology/approach--A hypothetical model…

  12. How Do You Measure Shared Decision Making?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, John J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The Teacher Involvement and Participation Scale, version 2 (TIPS 2) helps schools assess eight dimensions of the decision-making process, including goals/vision/mission; facilitating procedures and structures; curriculum/instruction; budgeting; staffing; staff development; operations; and standards. This article explains additional applications…

  13. Greater than the Parts: Shared Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Anabel L.

    1986-01-01

    The article describes the goals, rationale, structure of the shared decision-making model in effect at the Nueva Learning Center, a private elementary school for gifted and talented in Hillsborough, California. An example applying the model to class scheduling and 10 steps for facilitating the process are given. (Author/DB)

  14. SERVIR: Environmental Decision Making in the Americas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William; Irwin, Dan

    2008-01-01

    SERVIR is a regional visualization and monitoring system for Mesoamerica that integrates satellite and other geospatial data for improved scientific knowledge and decision making by managers, researchers, students, and the general public. SERVIR addresses the nine societal benefit areas of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). This talk will provide an overview of products and services available through SERVIR.

  15. High School Students' Decision Making about Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined decision making in an urban US high school classroom in which tenth-grade students analyzed scientific evidence about current issues of sustainability, technology and society. A full-year course, called Science and Sustainability, was used in both groups, and a computer program, called "Convince Me", provided scaffolding for…

  16. Conflict Management and Decision Making. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium on conflict management and decision making is comprised of three papers. "Two Approaches to Conflict Management in Teams: A Case Study" (Mychal Coleman, Gary N. McLean) describes a study that provided conflict management training to two employee teams using the traditional lecture method and cooperative learning (CL). (Initially,…

  17. Career Decision-Making and Corporate Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sainty, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the extent of influence of corporate (or organisational) responsibility on university students' career decision-making. It reports on a pilot study conducted at the University of Sydney which aims to: explore students' ethical, professional and social understanding regarding corporate responsibility; determine the…

  18. This Side Up: Making Decisions About Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Maureen H.; Newman, Carol

    This guide was developed as a source of information for young people who are faced with making decisions about drugs. Written in a "catchy" yet informative style, the materials presented address the following areas of concern: (1) definitions and effects of various drugs, including alcohol, tobacco, and narcotics; (2) physical and psychological…

  19. Decision-Making Processes of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J. William; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=142) participated in study on decision making in which prospective administrators made monetary commitments to long-term goals under varying conditions. Found significant negative correlation between anxiety level and commitments to previously chosen courses of action; no significant effects of job security on commitment; and…

  20. Decision Making in Computer-Simulated Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suits, J. P.; Lagowski, J. J.

    A set of interactive, computer-simulated experiments was designed to respond to the large range of individual differences in aptitude and reasoning ability generally exhibited by students enrolled in first-semester general chemistry. These experiments give students direct experience in the type of decision making needed in an experimental setting.…

  1. Pilot Decision-Making in Irreversible Emergencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a reflexive learning treatment utilizing select case studies could enhance the decision-making of pilots who encounter an irreversible emergency. Participants, who consisted of members of the subject university's professional pilot program, were divided into either a control or experimental group and…

  2. Methods of Data Collection for Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramson, Robert; Parlette, Nicholas

    1978-01-01

    Five data collection methods are described: interviews of individuals, nominal group approaches, administration of questionnaires, inspection of records, and the Delphi decision making technique. A matrix is included and provides a brief description of each method, along with its choice criteria and its advantages and disadvantages. (BM)

  3. Decision Making and Systems Thinking: Educational Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurtseven, M. Kudret; Buchanan, Walter W.

    2016-01-01

    Decision making in most universities is taught within the conventional OR/MS (Operations Research/Management Science) paradigm. This paradigm is known to be "hard" since it is consisted of mathematical tools, and normally suitable for solving structured problems. In complex situations the conventional OR/MS paradigm proves to be…

  4. Pupil Decision Making in the Reading Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Being able to make decisions is important for all students. Students need to have opportunities to choose from among alternative situations. Reading, as one curriculum area, provides a plethora of opportunities to choose and to select. The philosopher John Locke believed the following facets of an individual's development were in the ensuing order…

  5. Economics: Scarcity and Citizen Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliard, June V.; Morton, John S.

    1981-01-01

    Maintaining that economics can contribute significantly to the achievement of citizenship education goals within the social studies program, this article offers information on concepts for analyzing economic policies, dealing with policy issues in the classroom, and understanding the relationship of scarcity to decision making. (DB)

  6. New Paradoxes of Risky Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 25 years, prospect theory and its successor, cumulative prospect theory, replaced expected utility as the dominant descriptive theories of risky decision making. Although these models account for the original Allais paradoxes, 11 new paradoxes show where prospect theories lead to self-contradiction or systematic false predictions.…

  7. Respecting Teachers' Diverse Decision-Making Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starnes, Bobby Ann

    1999-01-01

    Reflects on teachers' diverse decision-making systems. Matching teachers' beliefs, or frameworks, to the programs they are asked to use is crucial to success and sustainability. Incompatible programs and curricula that are forced on teachers will not succeed. Examples of "teacher-proof" programs illustrate this viewpoint. (CDS)

  8. Speed versus accuracy in collective decision making.

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Nigel R; Dornhaus, Anna; Fitzsimmons, Jon P; Stevens, Martin

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a speed versus accuracy trade-off in collective decision making. House-hunting ant colonies choose a new nest more quickly in harsh conditions than in benign ones and are less discriminating. The errors that occur in a harsh environment are errors of judgement not errors of omission because the colonies have discovered all of the alternative nests before they initiate an emigration. Leptothorax albipennis ants use quorum sensing in their house hunting. They only accept a nest, and begin rapidly recruiting members of their colony, when they find within it a sufficient number of their nest-mates. Here we show that these ants can lower their quorum thresholds between benign and harsh conditions to adjust their speed-accuracy trade-off. Indeed, in harsh conditions these ants rely much more on individual decision making than collective decision making. Our findings show that these ants actively choose to take their time over judgements and employ collective decision making in benign conditions when accuracy is more important than speed. PMID:14667335

  9. Neurally Constrained Modeling of Perceptual Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Braden A.; Heitz, Richard P.; Cohen, Jeremiah Y.; Schall, Jeffrey D.; Logan, Gordon D.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic accumulator models account for response time in perceptual decision-making tasks by assuming that perceptual evidence accumulates to a threshold. The present investigation mapped the firing rate of frontal eye field (FEF) visual neurons onto perceptual evidence and the firing rate of FEF movement neurons onto evidence accumulation to…

  10. Improving Decision-Making Skills in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Placek, Rita; Pearson, Kaye

    A program for improving adolescents' decision-making skills to reduce the number of inappropriate behavioral choices related to wellness is described. The targeted population consisted of seventh and tenth grade students in a rural, middle class community. Data from local law enforcement records and school-based program referrals supported…

  11. Toward a Contingency Theory of Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, C. John; Hoy, Wayne K.

    1998-01-01

    There is no single best decision-making approach. This article reviews and compares six contemporary models (classical, administrative, incremental, mixed-scanning, garbage-can, and political) and develops a framework and 10 propositions to match strategies with circumstances. A contingency approach suggests that administrators use satisficing (a…

  12. Consumer Decision Making in a Global Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusby, Linda A.

    This document examines the underlying rationale for the development of a global approach in consumer studies. The concept of consumer ethics is discussed and the consumer decision-making process is placed within an ecosystem perspective of the marketplace. The model developed introduces educators, marketers, and consumers to a more global…

  13. Teaching Decision Making in Business Dynamics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosas, Marilyn V.

    1981-01-01

    Teaching decision making in the classroom provides an excellent opportunity for students to clarify their feelings regarding problems that employers experience with entry-level employees. Some of these may include excessive absences, inappropriate dress, the effect of personal problems on job performance, and ethics in the work situation. (CT)

  14. Nature of Science and Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khishfe, Rola

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship of nature of science (NOS) instruction and students' decision-making (DM) related to a controversial socioscientific issue about genetically modified food. Participants were ninth-grade students in four intact sections (two regulars and two honors) in a public high school in the Midwest. All four groups were…

  15. Quorum responses and consensus decision making

    PubMed Central

    Sumpter, David J.T.; Pratt, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Animal groups are said to make consensus decisions when group members come to agree on the same option. Consensus decisions are taxonomically widespread and potentially offer three key benefits: maintenance of group cohesion, enhancement of decision accuracy compared with lone individuals and improvement in decision speed. In the absence of centralized control, arriving at a consensus depends on local interactions in which each individual's likelihood of choosing an option increases with the number of others already committed to that option. The resulting positive feedback can effectively direct most or all group members to the best available choice. In this paper, we examine the functional form of the individual response to others' behaviour that lies at the heart of this process. We review recent theoretical and empirical work on consensus decisions, and we develop a simple mathematical model to show the central importance to speedy and accurate decisions of quorum responses, in which an animal's probability of exhibiting a behaviour is a sharply nonlinear function of the number of other individuals already performing this behaviour. We argue that systems relying on such quorum rules can achieve cohesive choice of the best option while also permitting adaptive tuning of the trade-off between decision speed and accuracy. PMID:19073480

  16. Entrustment Decision Making in Clinical Training.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, Olle; Hart, Danielle; Ankel, Felix; Busari, Jamiu; Englander, Robert; Glasgow, Nicholas; Holmboe, Eric; Iobst, William; Lovell, Elise; Snell, Linda S; Touchie, Claire; Van Melle, Elaine; Wycliffe-Jones, Keith

    2016-02-01

    The decision to trust a medical trainee with the critical responsibility to care for a patient is fundamental to clinical training. When carefully and deliberately made, such decisions can serve as significant stimuli for learning and also shape the assessment of trainees. Holding back entrustment decisions too much may hamper the trainee's development toward unsupervised practice. When carelessly made, however, they jeopardize patient safety. Entrustment decision-making processes, therefore, deserve careful analysis.Members (including the authors) of the International Competency-Based Medical Education Collaborative conducted a content analysis of the entrustment decision-making process in health care training during a two-day summit in September 2013 and subsequently reviewed the pertinent literature to arrive at a description of the critical features of this process, which informs this article.The authors discuss theoretical backgrounds and terminology of trust and entrustment in the clinical workplace. The competency-based movement and the introduction of entrustable professional activities force educators to rethink the grounds for assessment in the workplace. Anticipating a decision to grant autonomy at a designated level of supervision appears to align better with health care practice than do most current assessment practices. The authors distinguish different modes of trust and entrustment decisions and elaborate five categories, each with related factors, that determine when decisions to trust trainees are made: the trainee, supervisor, situation, task, and the relationship between trainee and supervisor. The authors' aim in this article is to lay a theoretical foundation for a new approach to workplace training and assessment. PMID:26630606

  17. Errors in Aviation Decision Making: Bad Decisions or Bad Luck?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Martin, Lynne; Davison, Jeannie; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Despite efforts to design systems and procedures to support 'correct' and safe operations in aviation, errors in human judgment still occur and contribute to accidents. In this paper we examine how an NDM (naturalistic decision making) approach might help us to understand the role of decision processes in negative outcomes. Our strategy was to examine a collection of identified decision errors through the lens of an aviation decision process model and to search for common patterns. The second, and more difficult, task was to determine what might account for those patterns. The corpus we analyzed consisted of tactical decision errors identified by the NTSB (National Transportation Safety Board) from a set of accidents in which crew behavior contributed to the accident. A common pattern emerged: about three quarters of the errors represented plan-continuation errors, that is, a decision to continue with the original plan despite cues that suggested changing the course of action. Features in the context that might contribute to these errors were identified: (a) ambiguous dynamic conditions and (b) organizational and socially-induced goal conflicts. We hypothesize that 'errors' are mediated by underestimation of risk and failure to analyze the potential consequences of continuing with the initial plan. Stressors may further contribute to these effects. Suggestions for improving performance in these error-inducing contexts are discussed.

  18. Toward an Expanded Definition of Adaptive Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan D.

    1997-01-01

    Uses the lifespan, life-space model to examine the definition of adaptive decision making. Reviews the existing definition of adaptive decision making as "rational" decision making and offers alternate perspectives on decision making with an emphasis on the implications of using the model. Makes suggestions for future theory, research, and…

  19. Decision support aids with anthropomorphic characteristics influence trust and performance in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Pak, Richard; Fink, Nicole; Price, Margaux; Bass, Brock; Sturre, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of deliberately anthropomorphic automation on younger and older adults' trust, dependence and performance on a diabetes decision-making task. Research with anthropomorphic interface agents has shown mixed effects in judgments of preferences but has rarely examined effects on performance. Meanwhile, research in automation has shown some forms of anthropomorphism (e.g. etiquette) have effects on trust and dependence on automation. Participants answered diabetes questions with no-aid, a non-anthropomorphic aid or an anthropomorphised aid. Trust and dependence in the aid was measured. A minimally anthropomorphic aide primarily affected younger adults' trust in the aid. Dependence, however, for both age groups was influenced by the anthropomorphic aid. Automation that deliberately embodies person-like characteristics can influence trust and dependence on reasonably reliable automation. However, further research is necessary to better understand the specific aspects of the aid that affect different age groups. Automation that embodies human-like characteristics may be useful in situations where there is under-utilisation of reasonably reliable aids by enhancing trust and dependence in that aid. Practitioner Summary: The design of decision-support aids on consumer devices (e.g. smartphones) may influence the level of trust that users place in that system and their amount of use. This study is the first step in articulating how the design of aids may influence user's trust and use of such systems. PMID:22799560

  20. Map-based decision aids for fire support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarosh, Victor

    1996-06-01

    The Fire Control Division at ARDEC is developing prototype decision aid tools to enable fire support echelons to rapidly respond to requests for fire support. Decision aids on fire support platforms can assist in route planning, site selection, and develop mobility overlays to enable the shooter to rapidly move into position and prepare for the fire mission. The Decision Aid system utilizes an integrated design approach which has each module interacting with the others by sharing data bases and common algorithms to provide recommended courses of action for route planning and generation, position selection, self defense, logistics estimates, situational awareness and fire mission planning aids such as tactical assessment, tactical planning, sustainment, etc. The Decision Aid system will use expert system artificial intelligence which will be developed from knowledge bases utilizing object oriented design. The modules currently reason on Defense Mapping Agency Interim Terrain Data and Digital Terrain Elevation Data and collect mission, intelligence, and sensor data from the digitized battlefield information distribution system to provide the crew or mission planners with intelligent recommendations. The system can provide a trade off analysis of time vs. safety, enable commanders to rapidly respond to fire support request, automatically generate OpOrders, and create overlays which depict mobility corridors, NBC areas, friendly units, overhead concealment, communications, and threat areas. The Decision Aids system can provide a vastly improved mobility, situational awareness, and decision cycle capabilities which can be utilized to increase the tempo of battle.

  1. Asia: fighting HIV / AIDS makes business sense.

    PubMed

    1999-11-15

    Three Asian companies are investing in HIV/AIDS education and prevention schemes because they are starting to feel the effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on their workforces. A total of 17 companies from the region signed a document in the Fifth International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific committing to the fight against AIDS. The group said that effective workplace programs can prevent an increase in absenteeism, health care costs and labor turnover, a decrease in productivity, loss of experienced personnel and the need for increased resources to hire and retrain replacements. American International Assurance in Thailand accredits companies with effective HIV/AIDS campaigns in the workplace and gives them a 5-10% discount on premiums on group life insurance policies. At Freeport Mining in Indonesia, an HIV/AIDS campaign markedly improved condom usage rates and decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among workers. Meanwhile, India's Tata Tea Limited expanded its health services to include surveys, training, education, and counseling on HIV/AIDS and STDs. PMID:12295521

  2. Nature of Science and Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khishfe, Rola

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship of nature of science (NOS) instruction and students' decision-making (DM) related to a controversial socioscientific issue about genetically modified food. Participants were ninth-grade students in four intact sections (two regulars and two honors) in a public high school in the Midwest. All four groups were taught by their regular science teacher. The treatment comprised a four-week unit about genetic engineering. Two groups (one regular and one honors), referred to as comparison groups, received instruction in genetic engineering and how to formulate arguments and make decisions related to this controversial issue. The other two groups (one regular and one honors), referred to as treatment groups, received instruction in genetic engineering and how to apply NOS aspects as they formulate arguments and make decisions in relation to this controversial issue. Chi-square analyses showed significant differences between the comparison and the treatment groups in relation to the understandings of four NOS aspects. There were no differences in their decisions, but there were differences in their DM factors in the context of the controversial socioscientific issue about genetically modified food. These results are discussed in light of the relationship between students' understandings of NOS and their DM related to controversial socioscientific issues.

  3. Midbrain contributions to sensorimotor decision making.

    PubMed

    Felsen, Gidon; Mainen, Zachary F

    2012-07-01

    Making decisions about future actions is a fundamental function of the nervous system. Classical theories hold that separate sets of brain regions are responsible for selecting and implementing an action. Traditionally, action selection has been considered the domain of high-level regions, such as the prefrontal cortex, whereas action generation is thought to be carried out by dedicated cortical and subcortical motor regions. However, increasing evidence suggests that the activity of individual neurons in cortical motor structures reflects abstract properties of "decision variables" rather than conveying simple motor commands. Less is known, though, about the role of subcortical structures in decision making. In particular, the superior colliculus (SC) is critical for planning and initiating visually guided, gaze-displacing movements and selecting visual targets, but whether and how it contributes more generally to sensorimotor decisions are unclear. Here, we show that the SC is intimately involved in orienting decisions based on odor cues, even though the SC does not explicitly process olfactory stimuli. Neurons were recorded from the intermediate and deep SC layers in rats trained to perform a delayed-response, odor-cued spatial choice task. SC neurons commonly fired well in advance of movement initiation, predicting the chosen direction nearly 1 s before movement. Moreover, under conditions of sensory uncertainty, SC activity varied with task difficulty and reward outcome, reflecting the influence of decision variables on the intercollicular competition thought to underlie orienting movements. These results indicate that the SC plays a more general role in decisions than previously appreciated, extending beyond visuomotor functions. PMID:22496524

  4. Trait Anxiety Has Effect on Decision Making under Ambiguity but Not Decision Making under Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Chunyan; Yu, Fengqiong; Chen, Xingui

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that trait anxiety (TA) affects decision making. However, results remain largely inconsistent across studies. The aim of the current study was to further address the interaction between TA and decision making. 304 subjects without depression from a sample consisting of 642 participants were grouped into high TA (HTA), medium TA (MTA) and low TA (LTA) groups based on their TA scores from State Trait Anxiety Inventory. All subjects were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) that measures decision making under ambiguity and the Game of Dice Task (GDT) that measures decision making under risk. While the HTA and LTA groups performed worse on the IGT compared to the MTA group, performances on the GDT between the three groups did not differ. Furthermore, the LTA and HTA groups showed different individual deck level preferences in the IGT: the former showed a preference for deck B indicating that these subjects focused more on the magnitude of rewards, and the latter showed a preference for deck A indicating significant decision making impairment. Our findings suggest that trait anxiety has effect on decision making under ambiguity but not decision making under risk and different levels of trait anxiety related differently to individual deck level preferences in the IGT. PMID:26000629

  5. Trait Anxiety Has Effect on Decision Making under Ambiguity but Not Decision Making under Risk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Chunyan; Yu, Fengqiong; Chen, Xingui

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that trait anxiety (TA) affects decision making. However, results remain largely inconsistent across studies. The aim of the current study was to further address the interaction between TA and decision making. 304 subjects without depression from a sample consisting of 642 participants were grouped into high TA (HTA), medium TA (MTA) and low TA (LTA) groups based on their TA scores from State Trait Anxiety Inventory. All subjects were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) that measures decision making under ambiguity and the Game of Dice Task (GDT) that measures decision making under risk. While the HTA and LTA groups performed worse on the IGT compared to the MTA group, performances on the GDT between the three groups did not differ. Furthermore, the LTA and HTA groups showed different individual deck level preferences in the IGT: the former showed a preference for deck B indicating that these subjects focused more on the magnitude of rewards, and the latter showed a preference for deck A indicating significant decision making impairment. Our findings suggest that trait anxiety has effect on decision making under ambiguity but not decision making under risk and different levels of trait anxiety related differently to individual deck level preferences in the IGT. PMID:26000629

  6. Before you make that big decision...

    PubMed

    Kahneman, Daniel; Lovallo, Dan; Sibony, Olivier

    2011-06-01

    When an executive makes a big bet, he or she typically relies on the judgment of a team that has put together a proposal for a strategic course of action. After all, the team will have delved into the pros and cons much more deeply than the executive has time to do. The problem is, biases invariably creep into any team's reasoning-and often dangerously distort its thinking. A team that has fallen in love with its recommendation, for instance, may subconsciously dismiss evidence that contradicts its theories, give far too much weight to one piece of data, or make faulty comparisons to another business case. That's why, with important decisions, executives need to conduct a careful review not only of the content of recommendations but of the recommendation process. To that end, the authors-Kahneman, who won a Nobel Prize in economics for his work on cognitive biases; Lovallo of the University of Sydney; and Sibony of McKinsey-have put together a 12-question checklist intended to unearth and neutralize defects in teams' thinking. These questions help leaders examine whether a team has explored alternatives appropriately, gathered all the right information, and used well-grounded numbers to support its case. They also highlight considerations such as whether the team might be unduly influenced by self-interest, overconfidence, or attachment to past decisions. By using this practical tool, executives will build decision processes over time that reduce the effects of biases and upgrade the quality of decisions their organizations make. The payoffs can be significant: A recent McKinsey study of more than 1,000 business investments, for instance, showed that when companies worked to reduce the effects of bias, they raised their returns on investment by seven percentage points. Executives need to realize that the judgment of even highly experienced, superbly competent managers can be fallible. A disciplined decision-making process, not individual genius, is the key to good

  7. Decision-making mechanisms in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deco, Gustavo; Rolls, Edmund T.

    2007-02-01

    Behavioral, neurophysiological, and theoretical studies are converging to a common theory of decision-making that assumes an underlying diffusion process which integrates both the accumulation of perceptual and cognitive evidence for making the decision and motor choice in one unifying neural network. In particular, neuronal activity in the ventral premotor cortex (VPC) is related to decision-making while trained monkeys compare two mechanical vibrations applied sequentially to the tip of a finger to report which of the two stimuli have the higher frequency (Romo et al. 2004, Neuron 41: 165). In particular, neurons were found whose response depended only on the difference between the two applied frequencies, the sign of that difference being the determining factor for correct task performance. We describe an integrate-and-fire attractor model with realistic synaptic dynamics including AMPA, NMDA and GABA synapses which can reproduce the decision-making related response selectivity of VPC neurons during the comparison period of the task. Populations of neurons for each decision in the biased competition attractor receive a bias input that depends on the firing rates of neurons in the VPC that code for the two vibrotactile frequencies. It was found that if the connectivity parameters of the network are tuned, using mean-field techniques, so that the network has two possible stable stationary final attractors respectively related to the two possible decisions, then the firing rate of the neurons in whichever attractor wins reflects the sign of the difference in the frequencies being compared but not the absolute frequencies. Thus Weber's law for frequency comparison is not encoded by the firing rate of the neurons in these attractors. An analysis of the nonstationary evolution of the dynamics of the network model shows that Weber's law is implemented in the probability of transition from the initial spontaneous firing state to one of the two possible attractor states

  8. Has Lean improved organizational decision making?

    PubMed

    Simons, Pascale; Benders, Jos; Bergs, Jochen; Marneffe, Wim; Vandijck, Dominique

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - Sustainable improvement is likely to be hampered by ambiguous objectives and uncertain cause-effect relations in care processes (the organization's decision-making context). Lean management can improve implementation results because it decreases ambiguity and uncertainties. But does it succeed? Many quality improvement (QI) initiatives are appropriate improvement strategies in organizational contexts characterized by low ambiguity and uncertainty. However, most care settings do not fit this context. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether a Lean-inspired change program changed the organization's decision-making context, making it more amenable for QI initiatives. Design/methodology/approach - In 2014, 12 professionals from a Dutch radiotherapy institute were interviewed regarding their perceptions of a Lean program in their organization and the perceived ambiguous objectives and uncertain cause-effect relations in their clinical processes. A survey (25 questions), addressing the same concepts, was conducted among the interviewees in 2011 and 2014. The structured interviews were analyzed using a deductive approach. Quantitative data were analyzed using appropriate statistics. Findings - Interviewees experienced improved shared visions and the number of uncertain cause-effect relations decreased. Overall, more positive (99) than negative Lean effects (18) were expressed. The surveys revealed enhanced process predictability and standardization, and improved shared visions. Practical implications - Lean implementation has shown to lead to greater transparency and increased shared visions. Originality/value - Lean management decreased ambiguous objectives and reduced uncertainties in clinical process cause-effect relations. Therefore, decision making benefitted from Lean increasing QI's sustainability. PMID:27256776

  9. Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision making systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.; Chu, Y. Y.; Greenstein, J. S.; Walden, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was made of interaction between a human pilot and automated on-board decision making systems. Research was initiated on the topic of pilot problem solving in automated and semi-automated flight management systems and attempts were made to develop a model of human decision making in a multi-task situation. A study was made of allocation of responsibility between human and computer, and discussed were various pilot performance parameters with varying degrees of automation. Optimal allocation of responsibility between human and computer was considered and some theoretical results found in the literature were presented. The pilot as a problem solver was discussed. Finally the design of displays, controls, procedures, and computer aids for problem solving tasks in automated and semi-automated systems was considered.

  10. A group decision-making model for siting LULUs

    SciTech Connect

    Juang, C.H.; Wu, S.; Sheu, H.J.

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents a group decision-making model for siting locally unwanted land uses (LULUs) such as hazardous and nonhazardous solid waste landfills. The new model is based on fuzzy set theory, which has been proven to be effective and efficient in handling ambiguous information such as opinions expressed by a panel of representatives with diverse backgrounds. The model involves an operation called fuzzy weighted average (FWA) for aggregating opinions. The weights used in the FWA operation are determined by the entropy method. Entropy is a measure of the uncertainty associated with a piece of information such as an opinion. By measuring the entropy of each of the opinions to be aggregated, the weight of each opinion may be objectively determined. The result of the FWA operation may be used to aid in making decisions. Examples are presented to illustrate the proposed model.

  11. Incorporating patients' preferences into medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Liana

    2013-02-01

    Current models of care emphasize the importance of including patients' values in the decision-making process. This is particularly important for decisions for which there are few data supporting a clear strategy or treatment choice. Constructing preferences for complex decisions requires that patients be able to consider multiple trade-offs between specific risks and benefits. Several marketing research techniques have been recently applied to heath care settings to facilitate this process. Most can be programmed to generate patients' preferences or priorities, which can then be used to improve patient-physician communication. In this article, we will describe some of the currently available approaches that have been successfully used in the health care setting. We provide case examples to illustrate the potential value of adopting each of these approaches in clinical practice. PMID:23132890

  12. Farmer Decision-Making for Climate Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubell, M.; Niles, M.; Salerno, J.

    2015-12-01

    This talk will provide an overview of several studies of how farmers make decisions about climate change adaptation and mitigation. A particular focus will be the "limiting factors hypothesis", which argues that farmers will respond to the climate variables that usually have the largest impact on their crop productivity. For example, the most limiting factor in California is usually water so how climate change affects water will be the largest drive of climate adaptation decisions. This basic idea is drawn from the broader theory of "psychological distance", which argue that human decisions are more attuned to ideas that are psychologically closer in space, time, or other factors. Empirical examples come from California, New Zealand, and Africa.

  13. Decision Making: from Neuroscience to Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daeyeol

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive behaviors increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction and improve the quality of life. However, it is often difficult to identify optimal behaviors in real life due to the complexity of the decision maker’s environment and social dynamics. As a result, although many different brain areas and circuits are involved in decision making, evolutionary and learning solutions adopted by individual decision makers sometimes produce suboptimal outcomes. Although these problems are exacerbated in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders, their underlying neurobiological causes remain incompletely understood. In this review, theoretical frameworks in economics and machine learning and their applications in recent behavioral and neurobiological studies are summarized. Examples of such applications in clinical domains are also discussed for substance abuse, Parkinson’s disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and autism. Findings from these studies have begun to lay the foundations necessary to improve diagnostics and treatment for various neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:23622061

  14. Group Dynamics and Decision Making: Backcountry Recreationists in Avalanche Terrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Leslie Shay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and determine the prevalence of decision-making characteristics of recreational backcountry groups when making a decision of where to travel and ride in avalanche terrain from the perspective of individuals. Decision-making characteristics encompassed communication, decision-making processes, leadership,…

  15. Decision Making in a Joint Doctoral Program in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieth, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the decision making in developing and starting a partnership between three universities using the decision-making models developed by Graham Allison in 1971 and updated in 1999. University partnerships are complicated and require more than one decision-making model to explain all the significant decisions that are make in…

  16. 43 CFR 10010.48 - Decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decision-making procedures. 10010.48... POLICY ACT Relationship to Decision-Making § 10010.48 Decision-making procedures. (a) Procedures by which the Commission makes decisions are specified in 43 CFR part 10000. (b) The Commission will...

  17. 43 CFR 10010.48 - Decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decision-making procedures. 10010.48... POLICY ACT Relationship to Decision-Making § 10010.48 Decision-making procedures. (a) Procedures by which the Commission makes decisions are specified in 43 CFR part 10000. (b) The Commission will...

  18. 43 CFR 10010.48 - Decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Decision-making procedures. 10010.48... POLICY ACT Relationship to Decision-Making § 10010.48 Decision-making procedures. (a) Procedures by which the Commission makes decisions are specified in 43 CFR part 10000. (b) The Commission will...

  19. Data-Based Decision Making in Education: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildkamp, Kim, Ed.; Lai, Mei Kuin, Ed.; Earl, Lorna, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    In a context where schools are held more and more accountable for the education they provide, data-based decision making has become increasingly important. This book brings together scholars from several countries to examine data-based decision making. Data-based decision making in this book refers to making decisions based on a broad range of…

  20. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  1. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  2. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  3. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  4. 43 CFR 10010.48 - Decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decision-making procedures. 10010.48... POLICY ACT Relationship to Decision-Making § 10010.48 Decision-making procedures. (a) Procedures by which the Commission makes decisions are specified in 43 CFR part 10000. (b) The Commission will...

  5. 36 CFR 1010.13 - Trust decision-making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trust decision-making... § 1010.13 Trust decision-making procedures. To ensure that at major decision-making points all relevant... to being prepared at the earliest point in the decision-making process, shall accompany the...

  6. Conflict and Group Decision-Making: A New Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dace, Karen L.

    In the opinion of decision-making scholars, conflict is a natural component of group decision-making. A new direction for conflict and group decision-making theory and research will help dispel the confusion as to the promotive or disruptive nature of disagreement in group decision-making. Conflict literature is replete with descriptions of the…

  7. Your Budget Leadership--Do You Make "Sound" Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Brian O.; DeAngelis, Karen J.

    2011-01-01

    One mark of an effective leader is effective decision making. A few analysts have developed "normative" decision-making models--models that describe how administrators should make decisions--while others have developed "descriptive" models--models that describe how administrators actually make decisions. In this article, the authors introduce a…

  8. Development of a decision aid to inform patients’ and families’ renal replacement therapy selection decisions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    . The handbook was comprised of written words, pictures of patients and health care providers, and diagrams describing the findings and quality of scientific studies comparing treatments. The handbook text was written at a 4th to 6th grade reading level. Pilot study results demonstrated that a majority of patients could understand information presented in the handbook. Patient and families screening the nearly completed video and handbook reviewed the materials favorably. Conclusions This rigorously designed decision aid may help patients and families make informed decisions about their treatment options for RRT that are well aligned with their values. PMID:23198793

  9. Evolutionary Perspective on Collective Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Dene; Sayama, Hiroki; Dionne, Shelley D.; Yammarino, Francis J.; Wilson, David Sloan

    Team decision making dynamics are investigated from a novel perspective by shifting agency from decision makers to representations of potential solutions. We provide a new way to navigate social dynamics of collective decision making by interpreting decision makers as constituents of an evolutionary environment of an ecology of evolving solutions. We demonstrate distinct patterns of evolution with respect to three forms of variation: (1) Results with random variations in utility functions of individuals indicate that groups demonstrating minimal internal variation produce higher true utility values of group solutions and display better convergence; (2) analysis of variations in behavioral patterns within a group shows that a proper balance between selective and creative evolutionary forces is crucial to producing adaptive solutions; and (3) biased variations of the utility functions diminish the range of variation for potential solution utility, leaving only the differential of convergence performance static. We generally find that group cohesion (low random variation within a group) and composition (appropriate variation of behavioral patterns within a group) are necessary for a successful navigation of the solution space, but performance in both cases is susceptible to group level biases.

  10. Involving the motor system in decision making.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Reto; König, Peter; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2004-02-01

    The control of behaviour is usually understood in terms of three distinct components: sensory processing, decision making and movement control. Recently, this view has been questioned on the basis of physiological and behavioural data, blurring the distinction between these three stages. This raises the question to what extent the motor system itself can contribute to the interpretation of behavioural situations. To investigate this question we use a neural model of sensory motor integration applied to a behaving mobile robot performing a navigation task. We show that the population response of the motor system provides a substrate for the categorization of behavioural situations. This categorization allows for the assessment of the complexity of a behavioural situation and regulates whether higher-level decision making is required to resolve behavioural conflicts. Our model lends credence to an emerging reconceptualization of behavioural control where the motor system can be considered as part of a high-level perceptual system. PMID:15101417

  11. Shared decision making after MacIntyre.

    PubMed

    Tilburt, Jon

    2011-04-01

    This paper explores the practical consequences that Enlightenment ideals had on morality as it applies to clinical practice, using Alisdair MacIntyre's conceptualization and critique of the Enlightenment as its reference point. Taking the perspective of a practicing clinician, I critically examine the historical origins of ideas that made shared decision making (SDM) a necessary and ideal model of clinician-patient relationship. I then build on MacIntyre's critique of Enlightenment thought and examine its implications for conceptions of shared decision-making that use an Enlightenment justification, as well as examining contemporary threats to SDM that the Enlightenment made possible. I conclude by offering an alternative framing of SDM that fits with the clinician's duty to act on behalf of and along with patients but that avoids the tenuous Enlightenment assumptions that MacIntyre's work so vocally critiques. PMID:21378085

  12. Distributed decision-making for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller; Gardner, J. A.; Willoughby, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    A programmatic and technical perspective in the context of future space applications is presented, that includes some of the management challenges that arise as the decision-making process becomes increasingly more decentralized. Three challenges are discussed: (1) the degree to which the planners must communicate with each other and with those who are seeking space operations resources, (2) the collection, management, employment and dissemination of the information needed to make decisions, and (3) the challenges connected with schedule integration. The technical perspective presented leads to recommended adaptations to the normal scheduling algorithms that retain the 'degrees of freedom' in the planning result. It is shown that these adaptations are specific technical responses to the programmatic challenges discussed.

  13. Leadership of risk decision making in a complex, technology organization: The deliberative decision making model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaming, Susan C.

    2007-12-01

    The continuing saga of satellite technology development is as much a story of successful risk management as of innovative engineering. How do program leaders on complex, technology projects manage high stakes risks that threaten business success and satellite performance? This grounded theory study of risk decision making portrays decision leadership practices at one communication satellite company. Integrated product team (IPT) leaders of multi-million dollar programs were interviewed and observed to develop an extensive description of the leadership skills required to navigate organizational influences and drive challenging risk decisions to closure. Based on the study's findings the researcher proposes a new decision making model, Deliberative Decision Making, to describe the program leaders' cognitive and organizational leadership practices. This Deliberative Model extends the insights of prominent decision making models including the rational (or classical) and the naturalistic and qualifies claims made by bounded rationality theory. The Deliberative Model describes how leaders proactively engage resources to play a variety of decision leadership roles. The Model incorporates six distinct types of leadership decision activities, undertaken in varying sequence based on the challenges posed by specific risks. Novel features of the Deliberative Decision Model include: an inventory of leadership methods for managing task challenges, potential stakeholder bias and debates; four types of leadership meta-decisions that guide decision processes, and aligned organizational culture. Both supporting and constraining organizational influences were observed as leaders managed major risks, requiring active leadership on the most difficult decisions. Although the company's engineering culture emphasized the importance of data-based decisions, the uncertainties intrinsic to satellite risks required expert engineering judgment to be exercised throughout. An investigation into

  14. "Decisions, decisions, decisions": transfer and specificity of decision-making skill between sports.

    PubMed

    Causer, Joe; Ford, Paul R

    2014-08-01

    The concept of transfer of learning holds that previous practice or experience in one task or domain will enable successful performance in another related task or domain. In contrast, specificity of learning holds that previous practice or experience in one task or domain does not transfer to other related tasks or domains. The aim of the current study is to examine whether decision-making skill transfers between sports that share similar elements, or whether it is specific to a sport. Participants (n = 205) completed a video-based temporal occlusion decision-making test in which they were required to decide on which action to execute across a series of 4 versus 4 soccer game situations. A sport engagement questionnaire was used to identify 106 soccer players, 43 other invasion sport players and 58 other sport players. Positive transfer of decision-making skill occurred between soccer and other invasion sports, which are related and have similar elements, but not from volleyball, supporting the concept of transfer of learning. PMID:24414520

  15. Implementing Participatory Decision Making in Forest Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananda, Jayanath

    2007-04-01

    Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein’s public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.

  16. Making decisions with a continuous mind.

    PubMed

    Scherbaum, S; Dshemuchadse, M; Kalis, A

    2008-12-01

    Neuroeconomics is a rapidly expanding field at the interfaces of the human sciences. The interdisciplinary nature of this field results in several challenges when attempts are made to solve puzzling questions in human decision making, such as why and how people discount future gains. We argue that an empirical approach based on dynamic systems theory (DST) could inspire and advance the neuroeconomic investigation of decision-making processes in three ways: by enriching the mental model, by extending the empirical tool set, and by facilitating interdisciplinary exchange. The present article addresses the challenges neuroeconomics faces by focusing on intertemporal choice. After a brief introduction of DST and related research, a DST-based conceptual model of decision making is developed and linked to underlying neural principles. On this basis, we outline the application of DST-informed empirical strategies to intertemporal choice. Finally, we discuss the general consequences of and possible objections to the proposed approach to research in intertemporal choice and the field of neuroeconomics. PMID:19033241

  17. Impaired strategic decision making in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Daeyeol; Shin, Young-Min; Chey, Jeanyung

    2007-11-14

    Adaptive decision making in dynamic social settings requires frequent re-evaluation of choice outcomes and revision of strategies. This requires an array of multiple cognitive abilities, such as working memory and response inhibition. Thus, the disruption of such abilities in schizophrenia can have significant implications for social dysfunctions in affected patients. In the present study, 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 control subjects completed two computerized binary decision-making tasks. In the first task, the participants played a competitive zero-sum game against a computer in which the predictable choice behavior was penalized and the optimal strategy was to choose the two targets stochastically. In the second task, the expected payoffs of the two targets were fixed and unaffected by the subject's choices, so the optimal strategy was to choose the target with the higher expected payoff exclusively. The schizophrenia patients earned significantly less money during the first task, even though their overall choice probabilities were not significantly different from the control subjects. This was mostly because patients were impaired in integrating the outcomes of their previous choices appropriately in order to maintain the optimal strategy. During the second task, the choices of patients and control subjects displayed more similar patterns. This study elucidated the specific components in strategic decision making that are impaired in schizophrenia. The deficit, which can be characterized as strategic stiffness, may have implications for the poor social adjustment in schizophrenia patients. PMID:17905200

  18. Shared Decision-Making in Diabetes Care.

    PubMed

    Tamhane, Shrikant; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Hargraves, Ian; Montori, Victor M

    2015-12-01

    Shared decision-making (SDM) is a collaborative process by which patients and clinicians work together in a deliberative dialogue. The purpose of this dialogue is to identify reasonable management options that best fit and addresses the unique situation of the patient. SDM supports the patient-centered translation of research into practice. SDM also helps implement a core principle of evidence-based medicine: evidence is necessary but never sufficient to make a clinical decision, as consideration of patient values and context is also required. SDM conversations build on a partnership between the patient and the clinician, draw on the body of evidence with regard to the different treatment options, and consider options in light of the values, preferences, and context of the patient. SDM is appropriate for diabetes care because diabetes care often requires consideration of management options that differ in ways that matter to patients, such as the way in which they place significant demands on patient's life and living. In the last decade, SDM has proven feasible and useful for sharing evidence with patients and for involving patients in making decisions with their clinicians. Health care and clinical policies advocate SDM, but these policies have yet to impact diabetes care. In this paper, we describe what SDM is, its known impact on diabetes care, and needed work to implement this patient-centered approach in the care of the millions of patients with diabetes. PMID:26458383

  19. Dopaminergic Modulation of Risky Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Nicholas W.; Montgomery, Karienn S.; Beas, Blanca S.; Mitchell, Marci R.; LaSarge, Candi L.; Mendez, Ian A.; Bañuelos, Cristina; Vokes, Colin M.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Haberman, Rebecca P.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Setlow, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by abnormal risky decision-making and dysregulated dopamine receptor expression. The current study was designed to determine how different dopamine receptor subtypes modulate risk-taking in young adult rats, using a “Risky Decision-making Task” that involves choices between small “safe” rewards and large “risky” rewards accompanied by adverse consequences. Rats showed considerable, stable individual differences in risk preference in the task, which were not related to multiple measures of reward motivation, anxiety, or pain sensitivity. Systemic activation of D2-like receptors robustly attenuated risk-taking, whereas drugs acting on D1-like receptors had no effect. Systemic amphetamine also reduced risk-taking, an effect which was attenuated by D2-like (but not D1-like) receptor blockade. Dopamine receptor mRNA expression was evaluated in a separate cohort of drug-naive rats characterized in the task. D1 mRNA expression in both nucleus accumbens shell and insular cortex was positively associated with risk-taking, while D2 mRNA expression in orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex predicted risk preference in opposing nonlinear patterns. Additionally, lower levels of D2 mRNA in dorsal striatum were associated with greater risk-taking. These data strongly implicate dopamine signaling in prefrontal corticalstriatal circuitry in modulating decision-making processes involving integration of reward information with risks of adverse consequences. PMID:22131407

  20. Naturalistic Decision Making for Power System Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck; Ey, Pamela

    2010-02-01

    Motivation – Investigations of large-scale outages in the North American interconnected electric system often attribute the causes to three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. To document and understand the mental processes used by expert operators when making critical decisions, a naturalistic decision making (NDM) model was developed. Transcripts of conversations were analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design – An item analysis indicated that the operators’ Situation Awareness Levels, mental models, and mental simulations can be mapped at different points in the training scenario. This may identify improved training methods or analytical/ visualization tools. Originality/Value – This study applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message – The NDM approach provides a viable framework for systematic training management to accelerate learning in simulator-based training scenarios for power system operators and teams.

  1. Naturalistic Decision Making For Power System Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Podmore, Robin; Robinson, Marck; Ey, Pamela

    2009-06-23

    Abstract: Motivation -- As indicated by the Blackout of 2003, the North American interconnected electric system is vulnerable to cascading outages and widespread blackouts. Investigations of large scale outages often attribute the causes to the three T’s: Trees, Training and Tools. A systematic approach has been developed to document and understand the mental processes that an expert power system operator uses when making critical decisions. The approach has been developed and refined as part of a capability demonstration of a high-fidelity real-time power system simulator under normal and emergency conditions. To examine naturalistic decision making (NDM) processes, transcripts of operator-to-operator conversations are analyzed to reveal and assess NDM-based performance criteria. Findings/Design -- The results of the study indicate that we can map the Situation Awareness Level of the operators at each point in the scenario. We can also identify clearly what mental models and mental simulations are being performed at different points in the scenario. As a result of this research we expect that we can identify improved training methods and improved analytical and visualization tools for power system operators. Originality/Value -- The research applies for the first time, the concepts of Recognition Primed Decision Making, Situation Awareness Levels and Cognitive Task Analysis to training of electric power system operators. Take away message -- The NDM approach provides an ideal framework for systematic training management and mitigation to accelerate learning in team-based training scenarios with high-fidelity power grid simulators.

  2. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Ray J.

    2011-01-01

    Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) toward overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal's motivation toward effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action. PMID:21734862

  3. Pleasure in decision-making situations

    PubMed Central

    Cabanac, Michel; Guillaume, Jacqueline; Balasko, Marta; Fleury, Adriana

    2002-01-01

    Background This study explores the role of pleasure in decision making. Results In Experiment 1, 12 subjects were presented with a questionnaire containing 46 items taken from the literature. Twenty-three items described a situation where a decision should be made and ended with a suggested solution. The other items served as filler items. The subjects were requested not to make a decision but to rate the pleasure or displeasure they experienced when reading the situation described in the item. The subjects' ratings were then compared to the decisions on the same situations made by the other subjects of the studies published by other workers. The ratings of pleasure/displeasure given by our subjects correlated significantly with the choices published by other authors. This result satisfies a necessary condition for pleasure to be the key of the decision making process in theoretical situations. In Experiment 2, a new group of 12 subjects rated their experience of pleasure/displeasure when reading various versions of 50 situations taken from daily life where an ethical decision had to be made (Questionnaire I) including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice test with the 50 situations (Questionnaire II) using the same 200 items and offering the various behaviors. Subjects tended to choose ethical and unethical responses corresponding to their highest pleasure rating within each problem. In all cases the subjects' behavior was higher than chance level, and thus, followed the trend to maximize pleasure. In Experiment 3, 12 subjects reading 50 mathematical short problems followed by correct and incorrect versions of the answer to the problem (Questionnaire III), including 200 items. This was followed by a multiple-choice mathematical test with the 50 problems (Questionnaire IV) using the same 200 items and offering the correct and incorrect answers. In questionnaire IV, subjects tended to choose correct as well as incorrect responses corresponding to their

  4. Self-Esteem in Decision Making and Decision-Making Styles of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temel, Veysel; Birol, Sefa Sahan; Nas, Kazim; Akpinar, Selahattin; Tekin, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the self-esteem in decision-making and decision-making styles of the teachers in various branches of Çat town of Erzurum Province, Turkey in terms of some variables in 2014-2015 year. A total of 153 teachers (84 females and 69 males) (age (? = 1.6536 ± 0.72837) from different departments participated in the…

  5. Public involvement in science and decision making.

    PubMed

    Till, J E; Meyer, K R

    2001-04-01

    Members of the public are becoming increasingly interested in understanding risks associated with their exposure to radionuclides and chemicals in the environment. They also want to be more involved in decision making about future exposures to risks. This paper reviews one community's involvement in decisions about technical methods to calculate soil cleanup criteria for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Denver, Colorado. The public anticipated that much of the site would be available for their use following cleanup. Final decisions regarding the future use of the site have yet to be made; however, the soil action levels were developed for this eventuality. When the public expressed considerable concern about cleanup standards for the site in 1996, a community group met to focus efforts on reviewing the cleanup standards. Later, the U.S. Department of Energy officially established the community panel to oversee an independent calculation of radionuclide soil action levels that would be used as the basis for cleanup at Rocky Flats. The primary radionuclide of concern was 239+240Pu. The Radionuclide Soil Action Level Oversight Panel (Panel) was substantively involved in all aspects of the work, from selecting the contractor, approving the computer code that formed the basis of the calculation, and assisting in developing the exposure scenarios, to selecting the values for the numerous input parameters. Communicating the uncertainties to the public, which was a major component of the analysis of soil action levels, presented a unique challenge. Over the course of the 18-mo project, the Panel and interested members of the public gained an understanding of the technical elements of the calculation and the sensitivities of the different parameters. This project serves as an excellent model of the effectiveness of public involvement in science and decision making for the future. It also illustrates the public expectations, difficulties, and time

  6. Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, Paul

    2013-11-19

    Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making (Final Report) This Department of Energy workshop award (grant #DE-SC0008480) provided primary support for the American Meteorological Society’s study on climate information needs for financial decision making. The goal of this study was to help advance societal decision making by examining the implications of climate variability and change on near-term financial investments. We explored four key topics: 1) the conditions and criteria that influence returns on investment of major financial decisions, 2) the climate sensitivity of financial decisions, 3) climate information needs of financial decision makers, and 4) potential new mechanisms to promote collaboration between scientists and financial decision makers. Better understanding of these four topics will help scientists provide the most useful information and enable financial decision makers to use scientific information most effectively. As a result, this study will enable leaders in business and government to make well-informed choices that help maximize long-term economic success and social wellbeing in the United States The outcomes of the study include a workshop, which brought together leaders from the scientific and financial decision making communities, a publication of the study report, and a public briefing of the results to the policy community. In addition, we will present the results to the scientific community at the AMS Annual Meeting in February, 2014. The study results were covered well by the media including Bloomberg News and E&E News. Upon request, we also briefed the Office of Science Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) on the outcomes. We presented the results to the policy community through a public briefing in December on Capitol Hill. The full report is publicly available at www.ametsoc.org/cin. Summary of Key Findings The United States invests roughly $1.5 trillion U.S. dollars (USD) in

  7. Ethical case deliberation and decision making.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Diego

    2003-01-01

    During the last thirty years different methods have been proposed in order to manage and resolve ethical quandaries, specially in the clinical setting. Some of these methodologies are based on the principles of Decision-making theory. Others looked to other philosophical traditions, like Principlism, Hermeneutics, Narrativism, Casuistry, Pragmatism, etc. This paper defends the view that deliberation is the cornerstone of any adequate methodology. This is due to the fact that moral decisions must take into account not only principles and ideas, but also emotions, values and beliefs. Deliberation is the process in which everyone concerned by the decision is considered a valid moral agent, obliged to give reasons for their own points of view, and to listen to the reasons of others. The goal of this process is not the reaching of a consensus but the enrichment of one's own point of view with that of the others, increasing in this way the maturity of one's own decision, in order to make it more wise or prudent. In many cases the members of a group of deliberation will differ in the final solution of the case, but the confrontation of their reasons will modify the perception of the problem of everyone. This is the profit of the process. Our moral decisions cannot be completely rational, due to the fact that they are influenced by feelings, values, beliefs, etc., but they must be reasonable, that is, wise and prudent. Deliberation is the main procedure to reach this goal. It obliges us to take others into account, respecting their different beliefs and values and prompting them to give reasons for their own points of view. This method has been traditional in Western clinical medicine all over its history, and it should be also the main procedure for clinical ethics. PMID:14620459

  8. Incorporating environmental justice into environmental decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.; Vogt, D.P.; Hwang, Ho-Ling

    1995-07-01

    Executive Order 12898, signed on February 11, 1994, broadly states that federal activities, programs, and policies should not produce disproportionately high and adverse impacts on minority and low-income populations. Moreover, the Order indicates that these populations should not be denied the benefits of, or excluded from participation in, these activities, programs, and policies. Because a presidential memorandum accompanying the order said that National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents should begin to address environmental justice immediately, much attention has been paid to assessment-related issues. Also important, a topic that appears to have received relatively little attention, is how decision makers should be expected to use information about environmental justice in their decision making. This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of environmental justice information in the decision-making process by focusing on the following five main topics: (1) the importance, or weight, attached to environmental justice within larger decision-making contexts; (2) the potential tension between localized environmental justice issues and regional or national issues and needs; (3) the use of environmental justice information to develop (perhaps in concert with affected minority and low-income communities) appropriate mitigation strategies, or to establish conditions under which activities, programs, and policies may be accepted locally; (4) the general implications of shifting the distribution of broadly defined risks, costs, and benefits among different population groups; and (5) the implications of implementing environmental justice on an individual, ad hoc basis rather than within a larger environmental justice framework. This paper raises the issues and discusses the implications of alternative approaches to them.

  9. Maintaining Homeostasis by Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Christoph W.; Bach, Dominik R.

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that—in both the foraging and the casino frames—participants’ choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  10. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    PubMed

    Korn, Christoph W; Bach, Dominik R

    2015-05-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  11. Decision-making competence and attempted suicide

    PubMed Central

    Szanto, Katalin; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M; Hallquist, Michael N; Vanyukov, Polina M; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y

    2015-01-01

    Objective The propensity of people vulnerable to suicide to make poor life decisions is increasingly well documented. Do they display an extreme degree of decision biases? The present study used a behavioral decision approach to examine the susceptibility of low-lethality and high-lethality suicide attempters to common decision biases, which may ultimately obscure alternative solutions and deterrents to suicide in a crisis. Method We assessed older and middle-aged individuals who made high-lethality (medically serious; N=31) and low-lethality suicide attempts (N=29). Comparison groups included suicide ideators (N=30), non-suicidal depressed (N=53), and psychiatrically healthy participants (N=28). Attempters, ideators, and non-suicidal depressed participants had unipolar non-psychotic major depression. Decision biases included sunk cost (inability to abort an action for which costs are irrecoverable), framing (responding to superficial features of how a problem is presented), under/overconfidence (appropriateness of confidence in knowledge), and inconsistent risk perception. Data were collected between June of 2010 and February of 2014. Results Both high- and low-lethality attempters were more susceptible to framing effects, as compared to the other groups included in this study (p≤ 0.05, ηp2 =.06). In contrast, low-lethality attempters were more susceptible to sunk costs than both the comparison groups and high-lethality attempters (p≤ 0.01, ηp2 =.09). These group differences remained after accounting for age, global cognitive performance, and impulsive traits. Premorbid IQ partially explained group differences in framing effects. Conclusion Suicide attempters’ failure to resist framing may reflect their inability to consider a decision from an objective standpoint in a crisis. Low-lethality attempters’ failure to resist sunk-cost may reflect their tendency to confuse past and future costs of their behavior, lowering their threshold for acting on suicidal

  12. Supporting patients in shared decision making in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Claire; Fraser, Aileen

    2015-04-01

    This article defines shared decision making in patient care and describes the background to this philosophy. The shared decision making approach is part of a wider initiative to promote patient-centred care and increase patient involvement in clinical decisions. Shared decision making recognises patients' rights to make decisions about their care and is used to assist them to make informed and individualised decisions about care and treatment. As well as reviewing the principles of shared decision making, the article offers practical guidance on how nurses can implement this initiative, including information on sharing expertise, agenda setting, assessing risks and benefits, setting goals, and support and follow up. PMID:25828022

  13. An Emerging Field of Research: Challenges in Pediatric Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Lipstein, Ellen A.; Brinkman, William B.; Fiks, Alexander G.; Hendrix, Kristin S.; Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Miller, Victoria A.; Prosser, Lisa A.; Ungar, Wendy J.; Fox, David

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in pediatric decision science, spurred by policies advocating for children’s involvement in medical decision making. Challenges specific to pediatric decision research include: the dynamic nature of child participation in decisions due to the growth and development of children, the family context of all pediatric decisions, and the measurement of preferences and outcomes that may inform decision making in the pediatric setting. The objectives of this manuscript are to describe each of these challenges, to provide decision researchers with insight into pediatric decision making, and establish a blueprint for future research that will contribute to high quality pediatric medical decision making. Much work has been done toward addressing gaps in pediatric decision science, but substantial work remains. Understanding and addressing the challenges that exist in pediatric decision making may foster medical decision-making science across the age spectrum. PMID:25145576

  14. Money Related Decommissioning and Funding Decision Making

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Lynne S.

    2008-01-15

    'Money makes the world go round', as the song says. It definitely influences decommissioning decision-making and financial assurance for future decommissioning. This paper will address two money-related decommissioning topics. The first is the evaluation of whether to continue or to halt decommissioning activities at Fermi 1. The second is maintaining adequacy of financial assurance for future decommissioning of operating plants. Decommissioning costs considerable money and costs are often higher than originally estimated. If costs increase significantly and decommissioning is not well funded, decommissioning activities may be deferred. Several decommissioning projects have been deferred when decision-makers determined future spending is preferable than current spending, or when costs have risen significantly. Decommissioning activity timing is being reevaluated for the Fermi 1 project. Assumptions for waste cost-escalation significantly impact the decision being made this year on the Fermi 1 decommissioning project. They also have a major impact on the estimated costs for decommissioning currently operating plants. Adequately funding full decommissioning during plant operation will ensure that the users who receive the benefit pay the full price of the nuclear-generated electricity. Funding throughout operation also will better ensure that money is available following shutdown to allow decommissioning to be conducted without need for additional funds.

  15. A Design Pattern for Decentralised Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Gabriele; Fernández-Oto, Cristian; Dorigo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The engineering of large-scale decentralised systems requires sound methodologies to guarantee the attainment of the desired macroscopic system-level behaviour given the microscopic individual-level implementation. While a general-purpose methodology is currently out of reach, specific solutions can be given to broad classes of problems by means of well-conceived design patterns. We propose a design pattern for collective decision making grounded on experimental/theoretical studies of the nest-site selection behaviour observed in honeybee swarms (Apis mellifera). The way in which honeybee swarms arrive at consensus is fairly well-understood at the macroscopic level. We provide formal guidelines for the microscopic implementation of collective decisions to quantitatively match the macroscopic predictions. We discuss implementation strategies based on both homogeneous and heterogeneous multiagent systems, and we provide means to deal with spatial and topological factors that have a bearing on the micro-macro link. Finally, we exploit the design pattern in two case studies that showcase the viability of the approach. Besides engineering, such a design pattern can prove useful for a deeper understanding of decision making in natural systems thanks to the inclusion of individual heterogeneities and spatial factors, which are often disregarded in theoretical modelling. PMID:26496359

  16. [HEALTH ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND FAIR DECISION MAKING].

    PubMed

    Jeantet, Marine; Lopez, Alain

    2015-09-01

    Health technology assessment consists in evaluating the incremental cost-benefit ratio of a medicine, a medical device, a vaccine, a health strategy, in comparison to alternative health technologies. This form of socio-eoonomic evaluation aims at optimizing resource allocation within the health system. By setting the terms of valid alternatives, it is useful to highlight public choices, but it cannot in itself make the decision as regards the public funding of patient's access to the considered technology. The decision to include such technology in the basket of health goods and sercices covered, the levels and conditions of the coverage, also result from budget constraints, from economic situation and from a political vision about health policy, social protection and public expenditure. Accordingly, health economic analysis must be implemented on specific and targeted topics. The decision making process, with its health, economic and ethical stakes, calls for a public procedure and debate, based on shared information and argument. Otherwise, health system regulation, confronted with radical and costly innovations in the coming years, will become harder to handle. This requires the development of health economic research teams able to contribute to this assessment exercise. PMID:26619723

  17. Mentalizing in economic decision-making.

    PubMed

    Polezzi, David; Daum, Irene; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Lotto, Lorella; Civai, Claudia; Sartori, Giuseppe; Rumiati, Rino

    2008-07-19

    In the Ultimatum Game, participants typically reject monetary offers they consider unfair even if the alternative is to gain no money at all. In the present study, ERPs were recorded while subjects processed different offers of a proposer. In addition to clearly fair and unfair offers, mid-value offers which cannot be easily classified as fair or unfair and therefore involve more elaborate decision making were analyzed. A fast initial distinction between fair and other kinds of offers was reflected by amplitude of the feedback related negativity (FRN). Mid-value offers were associated with longer RTs, and a larger N350 amplitude. In addition, source analyses revealed a specific involvement of the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule during processing of mid-value offers compared to offers categorized clearly as fair or unfair, suggesting a contribution of mentalizing about the intention of the proposer to the decision making process. Taken together, the present findings support the idea that economic decisions are significantly affected by non-rational factors, trying to narrow the gap between formal theory and the real decisional behaviour. PMID:18406476

  18. [Economic studies and decision analysis as tools for decision making].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pimentel, Leticia; Silva-Romo, Rodolfo; Wacher-Rodarte, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Management implies decision-making and economics deals with efficiency which means to obtain the best possible results with the available resources, and to compare such results with those that were foreseen. The economic evaluation comprises a set of techniques aimed at comparing resource allocation on alternate courses of action and its consequences. In health care, these results are the overall well-being of the society. This paper summarizes the techniques that are customarily used in economic evaluation, and intends to serve as an introductory text to increasing the ability of the readers to grasp original articles in the field of health economics. PMID:17692169

  19. Creating an advance-care-planning decision aid for high-risk surgery: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-risk surgery patients may lose decision-making capacity as a result of surgical complications. Advance care planning prior to surgery may be beneficial, but remains controversial and is hindered by a lack of appropriate decision aids. This study sought to examine stakeholders’ views on the appropriateness of using decision aids, in general, to support advance care planning among high-risk surgery populations and the design of such a decision aid. Methods Key informants were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by phone until data collected reached theoretical saturation. Key informants were asked to discuss their thoughts about advance care planning and interventions to support advance care planning, particularly for this population. Researchers took de-identified notes that were analyzed for emerging concordant, discordant, and recurrent themes using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results Key informants described the importance of initiating advance care planning preoperatively, despite potential challenges present in surgical settings. In general, decision aids were viewed as an appropriate approach to support advance care planning for this population. A recipe emerged from the data that outlines tools, ingredients, and tips for success that are needed to design an advance care planning decision aid for high-risk surgical settings. Conclusions Stakeholders supported incorporating advance care planning in high-risk surgical settings and endorsed the appropriateness of using decision aids to do so. Findings will inform the next stages of developing the first advance care planning decision aid for high-risk surgery patients. PMID:25067908

  20. Shared decision-making: nurses must respect autonomy over paternalism.

    PubMed

    Grffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2013-06-01

    Shared decision-making lies at the heart of the Government's reforms of the NHS in England. The slogan, 'No decision about me without me', underpins shared decision-making that sees patients as active participants in their treatment decisions. In this article, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah argue that for 'no decision about me, without me' to be a reality, district nurses must guard against paternalistic decision-making that excludes the views and wishes of their patients. PMID:24046930

  1. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  2. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  3. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  4. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  5. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  6. Goal Setting and Decision Making by At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galotti, Kathleen M.; Kozberg, Steven F.; Gustafon, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Typically, adolescence is a time when individuals begin to make consequential, life-framing decisions. However, much of the decision-making literature focuses on high-risk decisions, such as the use of drugs and alcohol, while much less is known about how adolescents make positive decisions, for example, regarding their educational or career…

  7. Aeromedical decision making: from principles to practice.

    PubMed

    Navathe, Pooshan; Drane, Michael; Preitner, Claude

    2014-05-01

    While there is literature which describes aeromedical decision making (ADM), there is not much which describes a process identifying the steps to be taken in arriving at such decisions. A five-step algorithm is proposed to clarify the ADM process. The five steps are: 1) determine the likelihood of a clinically significant event from the health condition; 2) determine the likelihood of an undesirable aviation event from the health condition; 3) determine the acceptability of the combined risks (#1 and #2); 4) determine the risk level after clinical intervention for the health condition; and 5) determine the risk level after operational restrictions for the health condition. There are several factors which can affect the various steps in the algorithm, such as uncertainty, difficulty in generalization, power and "fit" of the studies, etc. Notwithstanding these issues, the algorithm serves a useful purpose in providing a pathway for ADM. PMID:24834574

  8. Development and Testing of a Decision Aid on Goals of Care for Advanced Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Einterz, Seth F.; Gilliam, Robin; Lin, Feng Chang; McBride, J. Marvin; Hanson, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Decision aids are effective to improve decision-making, yet they are rarely tested in nursing homes (NHs). Study objectives were to 1) examine the feasibility of a Goals of Care (GOC) decision aid for surrogate decision-makers (SDMs)of persons with dementia; and 2) test its effect on quality of communication and decision-making. Design Pre-post intervention to test a GOC decision aid intervention for SDMs for persons with dementia in NHs. Investigators collected data from reviews of resident health records and interviews with SDMs at baseline and 3-month follow up. Setting Two NHs in North Carolina. Participants 18 residents who were over 65 years of age, had moderate to severe dementia on the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS=5,6,7), and an English-speaking surrogate decision-maker. Intervention 1) GOC Decision Aid video viewed by the SDM, and 2) a structured care plan meeting between the SDM and interdisciplinary NH team Measurements Surrogate knowledge, quality of communication with health care providers, surrogate-provider concordance on goals of care, and palliative care domains addressed in the care plan. Results 89% of the SDMs thought the decision aid was relevant to their needs. After viewing the video decision aid, SDMs increased the number of correct responses on knowledge-based questions (12.5 vs 14.2, P<.001). At 3 months they reported improved quality of communication scores (6.1 vs 6.8, P=.01) and improved concordance on primary goal of care with nursing home team (50% vs 78%, P=.003). The number of palliative care domains addressed in the care plan increased (1.8 vs 4.3, P<.001). Conclusion The decision-support intervention piloted in this study was feasible and relevant for surrogate decision-makers of persons with advanced dementia in nursing homes, and it improved quality of communication between SDM and NH providers. A larger randomized clinical trial is underway to provide further evidence of the effects of this decision aid

  9. Risk-based decision making for terrorism applications.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Robin L; Liebe, Robert M; Bestafka, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the anti-terrorism risk-based decision aid (ARDA), a risk-based decision-making approach for prioritizing anti-terrorism measures. The ARDA model was developed as part of a larger effort to assess investments for protecting U.S. Navy assets at risk and determine whether the most effective anti-terrorism alternatives are being used to reduce the risk to the facilities and war-fighting assets. With ARDA and some support from subject matter experts, we examine thousands of scenarios composed of 15 attack modes against 160 facility types on two installations and hundreds of portfolios of 22 mitigation alternatives. ARDA uses multiattribute utility theory to solve some of the commonly identified challenges in security risk analysis. This article describes the process and documents lessons learned from applying the ARDA model for this application. PMID:19187486

  10. Biomedical Informatics for Computer-Aided Decision Support Systems: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Ashwin; Kon, Mark A.; Najarian, Kayvan

    2013-01-01

    The volumes of current patient data as well as their complexity make clinical decision making more challenging than ever for physicians and other care givers. This situation calls for the use of biomedical informatics methods to process data and form recommendations and/or predictions to assist such decision makers. The design, implementation, and use of biomedical informatics systems in the form of computer-aided decision support have become essential and widely used over the last two decades. This paper provides a brief review of such systems, their application protocols and methodologies, and the future challenges and directions they suggest. PMID:23431259

  11. Linking Assessment to Decision Making in Water Resources Planning - Decision Making Frameworks and Case Study Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broman, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Simes, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate assessments have become an accepted and commonly used component of long term water management and planning. There is substantial variation in the methods used in these assessments; however, managers and decision-makers have come to value their utility to identify future system limitations, and to evaluate future alternatives to ensure satisfactory system performance. A new set of decision-making frameworks have been proposed, including robust decision making (RDM), and decision scaling, that directly address the deep uncertainties found in both future climate, and non-climatic factors. Promising results have been obtained using these new frameworks, offering a more comprehensive understanding of future conditions leading to failures, and identification of measures to address these failures. Data and resource constraints have limited the use of these frameworks within the Bureau of Reclamation. We present here a modified framework that captures the strengths of previously proposed methods while using a suite of analysis tool that allow for a 'rapid climate assessment' to be performed. A scalable approach has been taken where more complex tools can be used if project resources allow. This 'rapid assessment' is demonstrated through two case studies on the Santa Ana and Colorado Rivers where previous climate assessments have been completed. Planning-level measures are used to compare how decision making is affected when using this new decision making framework.

  12. Consensus versus Devil's Advocacy: The Influence of Decision Process and Task Structure on Strategic Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Audrey J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compares decision processes of consensus and devil's advocacy within an additive task, a disjunctive task, and a conjunctive task structure. Finds that high-conflict decision processes such as devil's advocacy enhances decision making in disjunctive tasks, retards decision making in additive tasks, but has no effect on decision making in…

  13. onlineDeCISion.org: a web-based decision aid for DCIS treatment.

    PubMed

    Ozanne, Elissa M; Schneider, Katharine H; Soeteman, Djøra; Stout, Natasha; Schrag, Deborah; Fordis, Michael; Punglia, Rinaa S

    2015-11-01

    Women diagnosed with DCIS face complex treatment decisions and often do so with inaccurate and incomplete understanding of the risks and benefits involved. Our objective was to create a tool to guide these decisions for both providers and patients. We developed a web-based decision aid designed to provide clinicians with tailored information about a patient’s recurrence risks and survival outcomes following different treatment strategies for DCIS. A theoretical framework, microsimulation model (Soeteman et al., J Natl Cancer 105:774–781, 2013) and best practices for web-based decision tools guided the development of the decision aid. The development process used semi-structured interviews and usability testing with key stakeholders, including a diverse group of multidisciplinary clinicians and a patient advocate. We developed onlineDeCISion.​org to include the following features that were rated as important by the stakeholders: (1) descriptions of each of the standard treatment options available; (2) visual projections of the likelihood of time-specific (10-year and lifetime) breast-preservation, recurrence, and survival outcomes; and (3) side-by-side comparisons of down-stream effects of each treatment choice. All clinicians reviewing the decision aid in usability testing were interested in using it in their clinical practice. The decision aid is available in a web-based format and is planned to be publicly available. To improve treatment decision making in patients with DCIS, we have developed a web-based decision aid onlineDeCISion.​org that conforms to best practices and that clinicians are interested in using in their clinics with patients to better inform treatment decisions. PMID:26475704

  14. Information Processing in Decision-Making Systems

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Matthijs; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Redish, A. David

    2015-01-01

    Decisions result from an interaction between multiple functional systems acting in parallel to process information in very different ways, each with strengths and weaknesses. In this review, the authors address three action-selection components of decision-making: The Pavlovian system releases an action from a limited repertoire of potential actions, such as approaching learned stimuli. Like the Pavlovian system, the habit system is computationally fast but, unlike the Pavlovian system permits arbitrary stimulus-action pairings. These associations are a “forward” mechanism; when a situation is recognized, the action is released. In contrast, the deliberative system is flexible but takes time to process. The deliberative system uses knowledge of the causal structure of the world to search into the future, planning actions to maximize expected rewards. Deliberation depends on the ability to imagine future possibilities, including novel situations, and it allows decisions to be taken without having previously experienced the options. Various anatomical structures have been identified that carry out the information processing of each of these systems: hippocampus constitutes a map of the world that can be used for searching/imagining the future; dorsal striatal neurons represent situation-action associations; and ventral striatum maintains value representations for all three systems. Each system presents vulnerabilities to pathologies that can manifest as psychiatric disorders. Understanding these systems and their relation to neuroanatomy opens up a deeper way to treat the structural problems underlying various disorders. PMID:22492194

  15. Linguistic decision making for robot route learning.

    PubMed

    He, Hongmei; McGinnity, Thomas Martin; Coleman, Sonya; Gardiner, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning enables the creation of a nonlinear mapping that describes robot-environment interaction, whereas computing linguistics make the interaction transparent. In this paper, we develop a novel application of a linguistic decision tree for a robot route learning problem by dynamically deciding the robot's behavior, which is decomposed into atomic actions in the context of a specified task. We examine the real-time performance of training and control of a linguistic decision tree, and explore the possibility of training a machine learning model in an adaptive system without dual CPUs for parallelization of training and control. A quantified evaluation approach is proposed, and a score is defined for the evaluation of a model's robustness regarding the quality of training data. Compared with the nonlinear system identification nonlinear auto-regressive moving average with eXogeneous inputs model structure with offline parameter estimation, the linguistic decision tree model with online linguistic ID3 learning achieves much better performance, robustness, and reliability. PMID:24806654

  16. A decision aid regarding long-term tube feeding targeting substitute decision makers for cognitively impaired older persons in Japan: A small-scale before-and-after study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Japan, there is no decision-making guide regarding long-term tube feeding that specifically targets individuals making decisions on behalf of cognitively impaired older persons (substitute decision makers). The objective of this study was to describe the development and evaluation of such a decision aid. Methods In this before-and-after study, participants comprised substitute decision makers for 13 cognitively impaired inpatients aged 65 years and older who were being considered for placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube in acute care hospitals and mixed-care hospitals in Japan. Questionnaires were used to compare substitute decision makers’ knowledge, decisional conflict, and predisposition regarding feeding tube placement before and after exposure to a decision aid. The acceptability of the decision aid was also assessed. Paired t-tests were used to compare participants’ knowledge and decisional conflict scores before and after using the decision aid. Results Substitute decision makers showed significantly increased knowledge (P < .001) and decreased decisional conflict (P < .01) regarding long-term tube feeding after using the decision aid. All substitute decision makers found the decision aid helpful and acceptable. Conclusions The decision aid facilitated the decision-making process of substitute decision makers by decreasing decisional conflict and increasing knowledge. PMID:24495735

  17. Collaborative decision making for sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsley, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    For many years, economic development has mean industrial recruitment where business-at-any-cost was preached by a small elite, where civic discord replaced civic discussion, where families made more money but had less to spend, where residents learned to lock their doors, where communities changed from the unique to commonplace and a thousand towns looked alike. But now, scores of communities are saying no to old, worn-out approaches to development and embracing a new kind of development that respects the community and the environment. Created collaboratively by people from all walks of community life, this new approach is called sustainable community economic development. Though new, sustainable development is based on traditional values of stewardship and working together. Its principles are powerful in their simplicity. Its lessons enrich community decision making. This paper describes these principles and lessons. It introduces a community decision-making process that applies them and suggests the kinds of results you can expect from such a process in your town.

  18. Possibility expectation and its decision making algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, James M.; Yan, Bolin

    1992-01-01

    The fuzzy integral has been shown to be an effective tool for the aggregation of evidence in decision making. Of primary importance in the development of a fuzzy integral pattern recognition algorithm is the choice (construction) of the measure which embodies the importance of subsets of sources of evidence. Sugeno fuzzy measures have received the most attention due to the recursive nature of the fabrication of the measure on nested sequences of subsets. Possibility measures exhibit an even simpler generation capability, but usually require that one of the sources of information possess complete credibility. In real applications, such normalization may not be possible, or even desirable. In this report, both the theory and a decision making algorithm for a variation of the fuzzy integral are presented. This integral is based on a possibility measure where it is not required that the measure of the universe be unity. A training algorithm for the possibility densities in a pattern recognition application is also presented with the results demonstrated on the shuttle-earth-space training and testing images.

  19. Multistable binary decision making on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Andrew; Lee, Ching Hua

    2013-03-01

    We propose a simple model for a binary decision making process on a graph, motivated by modeling social decision making with cooperative individuals. The model is similar to a random field Ising model or fiber bundle model, but with key differences in behavior on heterogeneous networks. For many types of disorder and interactions between the nodes, we predict with mean field theory discontinuous phase transitions that are largely independent of network structure. We show how these phase transitions can also be understood by studying microscopic avalanches and describe how network structure enhances fluctuations in the distribution of avalanches. We suggest theoretically the existence of a “glassy” spectrum of equilibria associated with a typical phase, even on infinite graphs, so long as the first moment of the degree distribution is finite. This behavior implies that the model is robust against noise below a certain scale and also that phase transitions can switch from discontinuous to continuous on networks with too few edges. Numerical simulations suggest that our theory is accurate.

  20. Flood Impact Modelling to support decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Gareth; Quinn, Paul; O'Donnell, Greg

    2015-04-01

    Much of what is known about the impacts of landuse change and Natural Flood Management (NFM) is at the local/plot scale. Evidence of the downstream impacts at the larger catchment scale is limited. However, the strategic and financial decisions of land managers, stakeholders and policy makers are made at the larger scale. There are a number of techniques that have the potential to scale local impacts to the catchment scale. This poster will show findings for the 30km2 Leven catchment, North Yorkshire, England. A NFM approach has been adopted by the Environment Agency to reduce flood risk within the catchment. A dense network of stream level gauges were installed in the catchment at the commencement of this project to gain a detailed understanding of the catchment behaviour during storm events. A novel Flood Impact Modelling (FIM) approach has been adopted which uses the network of gauges to disaggregate the outlet hydrograph in terms of source locations. Using a combination of expert opinion and local evidence, the model can be used to assess the impacts of distributed changes in land use management and NFM on flood events. A number of potential future landuse and NFM scenarios have been modelled to investigate their impact on flood peaks. These modelled outcomes are mapped to a simple Decision Support Matrix (DSM). The DSM encourages end users (e.g. land managers and policy makers) to develop an NFM scheme by studying the degree to which local runoff can be attenuated and how that flow will propagate through the network to the point of impact. The DSM relates the impact on flood peaks in terms of alterations to soil management practices and landscape flow connectivity (e.g. soil underdrainage), which can be easily understood by farmers and land managers. The DSM and the FIM together provide a simple to use and transparent modelling tool, making best use of expert knowledge, to support decision making.

  1. The Effects of Advanced 'Glass Cockpit' Displayed Flight Instrumentation on In-flight Pilot Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigerwald, John

    The Cognitive Continuum Theory (CCT) was first proposed 25 years ago to explain the relationship between intuition and analytical decision making processes. In order for aircraft pilots to make these analytical and intuitive decisions, they obtain information from various instruments within the cockpit of the aircraft. Advanced instrumentation is used to provide a broad array of information about the aircraft condition and flight situation to aid the flight crew in making effective decisions. The problem addressed is that advanced instrumentation has not improved the pilot decision making in modern aircraft. Because making a decision is dependent upon the information available, this experimental quantitative study sought to determine how well pilots organize and interpret information obtained from various cockpit instrumentation displays when under time pressure. The population for this study was the students, flight instructors, and aviation faculty at the Middle Georgia State College School of Aviation campus in Eastman, Georgia. The sample was comprised of two groups of 90 individuals (45 in each group) in various stages of pilot licensure from student pilot to airline transport pilot (ATP). The ages ranged from 18 to 55 years old. There was a statistically significant relationship at the p < .05 level in the ability of the participants to organize and interpret information between the advanced glass cockpit instrumentation and the traditional cockpit instrumentation. It is recommended that the industry explore technological solutions toward creating cockpit instrumentation that could match the type of information display to the type of decision making scenario in order to aid pilots in making decisions that will result in better organization of information. Understanding the relationship between the intuitive and analytical decisions that pilots make and the information source they use to make those decisions will aid engineers in the design of instrumentation

  2. Overdetection in breast cancer screening: development and preliminary evaluation of a decision aid

    PubMed Central

    Hersch, Jolyn; Jansen, Jesse; Barratt, Alexandra; Irwig, Les; Houssami, Nehmat; Jacklyn, Gemma; Thornton, Hazel; Dhillon, Haryana; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    piloting of decision aids is recommended to further improve understanding of overdetection and support informed decision-making about screening. PMID:25256188

  3. Medical versus surgical methods of early abortion: protocol for a systematic review and environmental scan of patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Kyla Z; Thompson, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Currently, we lack understanding of the content, quality and impact of patient decision aids to support decision-making between medical and surgical methods of early abortion. We plan to undertake a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to identify, appraise and describe the impact of early abortion method decision aids evaluated quantitatively (Part I), and an environmental scan to identify and appraise other early abortion method decision aids developed in the US (Part II). Methods and analysis For the systematic review, we will search PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases for articles describing experimental and observational studies evaluating the impact of an early abortion method decision aid on women's decision-making processes and outcomes. For the environmental scan, we will identify decision aids by supplementing the systematic review search with Internet-based searches and key informant consultation. The primary reviewer will assess all studies and decision aids for eligibility, and a second reviewer will also assess a subset of these. Both reviewers will independently assess risk of bias in the studies and abstract data using a piloted form. Finally, both reviewers will assess decision aid quality using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards criteria, ease of readability using Flesch/Flesch-Kincaid tests, and informational content using directed content analysis. Ethics and dissemination As this study does not involve human subjects, ethical approval will not be sought. We aim to disseminate the findings in a scientific journal, via academic and/or professional conferences and among the broader community to contribute knowledge about current early abortion method decision-making support. Trial registration number This protocol is registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42015016717). PMID:26173718

  4. A novel sustainable decision making model for municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, M.-L. . E-mail: d89541004@ntu.edu.tw; Ma Hwongwen . E-mail: hwma@ntu.edu.tw; Yang, W.-F. . E-mail: wfyang@ntu.edu.tw

    2007-07-01

    This paper reviews several models developed to support decision making in municipal solid waste management (MSWM). The concepts underlying sustainable MSWM models can be divided into two categories: one incorporates social factors into decision making methods, and the other includes public participation in the decision-making process. The public is only apprised or takes part in discussion, and has little effect on decision making in most research efforts. Few studies have considered public participation in the decision-making process, and the methods have sought to strike a compromise between concerned criteria, not between stakeholders. However, the source of the conflict arises from the stakeholders' complex web of value. Such conflict affects the feasibility of implementing any decision. The purpose of this study is to develop a sustainable decision making model for MSWM to overcome these shortcomings. The proposed model combines multicriteria decision making (MCDM) and a consensus analysis model (CAM). The CAM is built up to aid in decision-making when MCDM methods are utilized and, subsequently, a novel sustainable decision making model for MSWM is developed. The main feature of CAM is the assessment of the degree of consensus between stakeholders for particular alternatives. A case study for food waste management in Taiwan is presented to demonstrate the practicality of this model.

  5. Evaluation of a Computerized Contraceptive Decision Aid for Adolescent Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chewning, Betty; Mosena, Pat; Wilson, Dale; Erdman, Harold; Potthoff, Sandra; Murphy, Anita; Kuhnen, Kathleen Kennedy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a computer-based contraceptive decision aid used with adolescent female family planning clinic patients (N=949). Results show improved short-term knowledge of and confidence in oral contraceptive (OC) efficacy. Higher OC knowledge after one year and fewer pregnancies were seen in one group. Findings suggest the usefulness of informatics…

  6. Formative Evaluation of a Generic Decision Aid for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jared T.; Guillen, Julio

    Results of a formative evaluation of a decision aid for students of taxonomic domains such as statistics or biology are reported. The tool, XPT-EASE, is designed to allow a student to search a taxonomy by traversing its branches in an arbitrary order, presumably the order simplest for the student, rather than by starting from the root node and…

  7. Adaptive awareness for personal and small group decision making.

    SciTech Connect

    Perano, Kenneth J.; Tucker, Steve; Pancerella, Carmen M.; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Berry, Nina M.; Kyker, Ronald D.

    2003-12-01

    Many situations call for the use of sensors monitoring physiological and environmental data. In order to use the large amounts of sensor data to affect decision making, we are coupling heterogeneous sensors with small, light-weight processors, other powerful computers, wireless communications, and embedded intelligent software. The result is an adaptive awareness and warning tool, which provides both situation awareness and personal awareness to individuals and teams. Central to this tool is a sensor-independent architecture, which combines both software agents and a reusable core software framework that manages the available hardware resources and provides services to the agents. Agents can recognize cues from the data, warn humans about situations, and act as decision-making aids. Within the agents, self-organizing maps (SOMs) are used to process physiological data in order to provide personal awareness. We have employed a novel clustering algorithm to train the SOM to discern individual body states and activities. This awareness tool has broad applicability to emergency teams, military squads, military medics, individual exercise and fitness monitoring, health monitoring for sick and elderly persons, and environmental monitoring in public places. This report discusses our hardware decisions, software framework, and a pilot awareness tool, which has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  8. The Use of Graphs as Decision Aids in Relation to Information Overload and Managerial Decision Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Siu Y.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of information overload focuses on a study of masters degree students at a Hong Kong university that investigated the effectiveness of graphs as decision aids to reduce adverse effects of information overload on decision quality. Results of a simulation of a business prediction task with a sample of business managers are presented.…

  9. The physics of bacterial decision making

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Lu, Mingyang; Schultz, Daniel; Onuchic, Jose' N.

    2014-01-01

    The choice that bacteria make between sporulation and competence when subjected to stress provides a prototypical example of collective cell fate determination that is stochastic on the individual cell level, yet predictable (deterministic) on the population level. This collective decision is performed by an elaborated gene network. Considerable effort has been devoted to simplify its complexity by taking physics approaches to untangle the basic functional modules that are integrated to form the complete network: (1) A stochastic switch whose transition probability is controlled by two order parameters—population density and internal/external stress. (2) An adaptable timer whose clock rate is normalized by the same two previous order parameters. (3) Sensing units which measure population density and external stress. (4) A communication module that exchanges information about the cells' internal stress levels. (5) An oscillating gate of the stochastic switch which is regulated by the timer. The unique circuit architecture of the gate allows special dynamics and noise management features. The gate opens a window of opportunity in time for competence transitions, during which the circuit generates oscillations that are translated into a chain of short intervals with high transition probability. In addition, the unique architecture of the gate allows filtering of external noise and robustness against variations in circuit parameters and internal noise. We illustrate that a physics approach can be very valuable in investigating the decision process and in identifying its general principles. We also show that both cell-cell variability and noise have important functional roles in the collectively controlled individual decisions. PMID:25401094

  10. Sensorimotor decision making in the zebrafish tectum.

    PubMed

    Barker, Alison J; Baier, Herwig

    2015-11-01

    An animal's survival depends on its ability to correctly evaluate sensory stimuli and select appropriate behavioral responses. When confronted with ambiguous stimuli, the brain is faced with the task of selecting one action while suppressing others. Although conceptually simple, the site and substrate of this elementary form of decision making is still largely unknown. Zebrafish larvae respond to a moving dot stimulus in either of two ways: a small object (potential prey) evokes approach, whereas a large object (potential predator) is avoided. The classification of object size relies on processing in the optic tectum. We genetically identified a population of cells, largely comprised of glutamatergic tectal interneurons with non-stratified morphologies, that are specifically required for approach toward small objects. When these neurons are ablated, we found that the behavioral response is shifted; small objects now tend to elicit avoidance. Conversely, optogenetic facilitation of neuronal responses with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) enhances approaches to small objects. Calcium imaging in head-fixed larvae shows that a large proportion of these neurons are tuned to small sizes. Their receptive fields are shaped by input from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that are selective for prey identity. We propose a model in which valence-based decisions arise, at a fundamental level, from competition between dedicated sensorimotor pathways in the tectum. PMID:26592341

  11. Chemotactic decision making in swimming microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salek, M. Mehdi; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Stocker, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Swimming cells are often guided by chemical gradients (``chemotaxis'') to search for nutrients, hosts, and mates, and to avoid predators and noxious substances. It remains unclear, however, how variable the chemotactic abilities of cells are among cells of one species, and whether there are better ``decision makers'' within a population. Inspired by studies in macro-organism ecology, we fabricated a microfluidic ``T-maze'' in which marine bacteria are subjected to a chemical attractant gradient at each of a series of consecutive T-junctions. We used video microscopy to capture the motion of thousands of bacteria as they migrate up or down the gradient at each subsequent junction. This approach provides detailed statistics at both the single-cell and population levels, while simultaneously sorting the cells by chemotactic ability. Using a range of bacteria, we demonstrate how the microfluidic T-maze allows us to sort the better decision-making cells in the population, opening the door for improved efficiency of a range of microbial processes in nature and industry.

  12. Collective decision making in cohesive flocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, K.; Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-09-01

    Most of us must have been fascinated by the eye-catching displays of collectively moving animals. Schools of fish can move in a rather orderly fashion and then change direction amazingly abruptly. There are a large number of further examples both from the living and the non-living world for phenomena during which the many interacting, permanently moving units seem to arrive at a common behavioural pattern taking place in a short time. As a paradigm of this type of phenomena we consider the problem of how birds arrive at a decision resulting in their synchronized landing. We introduce a simple model to interpret this process. Collective motion prior to landing is modelled using a simple self-propelled particle (SPP) system with a new kind of boundary condition, while the tendency and the sudden propagation of the intention of landing are introduced through rules analogous to the random field Ising model in an external field. We show that our approach is capable of capturing the most relevant features of collective decision making in a system of units with variance of individual intentions and being under an increasing level of pressure to switch states. We find that as a function of the few parameters of our model the collective switching from the flying to the landing state is indeed much sharper than the distribution of individual landing intentions. The transition is accompanied by a number of interesting features discussed in this paper.

  13. Advance directive decision making among medical inpatients.

    PubMed

    Rein, A J; Harshman, D L; Frick, T; Phillips, J M; Lewis, S; Nolan, M T

    1996-01-01

    Per the Patient Self-Determination Act of 1991, hospitals are required to ascertain whether patients have an advance directive (AD). At this point, factors prompting patients to issue ADs have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to describe patients' understanding of ADs as well as the process patients used to arrive at their decisions to implement an AD. A stratified random sample of 26 patients from two intensive care units, one general medical unit, one general cardiac unit, and one acquired immunodeficiency unit were selected for participation. Patients were asked a series of open-ended questions to determine their knowledge and understanding of ADs. The constant comparative method was used to review the transcripts. It was found that only 31 per cent of patients had issued an AD, and 20% had learned of ADs for the first time during their hospitalization. Response analysis showed four phases of AD decision making: evaluation of illness, establishment of priorities, consideration of implications of the directives, and selection or rejection of directives. In conclusion, patients continue to have limited understanding of ADs and their implications. Continued investigation will elucidate the best strategies to educate patients about this topic. PMID:8583031

  14. Shared Decision Making: Through the Patient's Eyes.

    PubMed

    Klassa, Patricia J; Dendrinos, Susan; Penn, Annette; Radke, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Birth is an intimate moment in a woman's life, and healthcare providers play a pivotal role in pregnant women having safe and memorable birth experiences. Utilizing the shared decision-making model during the prenatal period involves listening to the voices of identified high-risk patients and giving them options for care during labor and birth. "Through the Patient's Eyes" is an innovative program that evolved from the care planning process for these identified high-risk obstetric patients who are invited back postpartum to describe to the team birth through "their" eyes. Through this program, the team learned that compassionate care comes from truly listening to pregnant women and their families and that nurses play a pivotal role as educators and advocates. Sharing birth stories with the staff who cared for them not only had a positive effect on the staff but also many women described profound healing afterward. PMID:27465455

  15. Combining disparate data for decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettings, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Combining information of disparate types from multiple data or model sources is a fundamental task in decision making theory. Procedures for combining and utilizing quantitative data with uncertainties are well-developed in several approaches, but methods for including qualitative and semi-quantitative data are much less so. Possibility theory offers an approach to treating all three data types in an objective and repeatable way. In decision making, biases are frequently present in several forms, including those arising from data quality, data spatial and temporal distribution, and the analyst's knowledge and beliefs as to which data or models are most important. The latter bias is particularly evident in the case of qualitative data and there are numerous examples of analysts feeling that a qualitative dataset is more relevant than a quantified one. Possibility theory and fuzzy logic now provide fairly general rules for quantifying qualitative and semi-quantitative data in ways that are repeatable and minimally biased. Once a set of quantified data and/or model layers is obtained, there are several methods of combining them to obtain insight useful in decision making. These include: various combinations of layers using formal fuzzy logic (for example, layer A and (layer B or layer C) but not layer D); connecting the layers with varying influence links in a Fuzzy Cognitive Map; and using the set of layers for the universe of discourse for agent based model simulations. One example of logical combinations that have proven useful is the definition of possible habitat for valley fever fungus (Coccidioides sp.) using variables such as soil type, altitude, aspect, moisture and temperature. A second example is the delineation of the lithology and possible mineralization of several areas beneath basin fill in southern Arizona. A Fuzzy Cognitive Map example is the impacts of development and operation of a hypothetical mine in an area adjacent to a city. In this model

  16. An Instructional System for Consumer Decision-Making: Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchman, J. Richard; DiSario, Martha R.

    An instructional system is presented for building the competencies of adult basic education students in making consumer decisions, and offers a guide to teachers who wish to design their own decision-making problems for students. The first four chapters provide a brief introduction, discuss the rational consumer decision-making process and the…

  17. The Impact of PPBS on Educational Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajcic, John M.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts a brief analysis of the traditional decision-making process for budget preparation and the alternative, program planning, budgeting system (PPBS), in an effort to determine the effect of PPBS on the decision-making process for resource allocation and to answer the question of whether PPBS has improved decision-making processes. (Author/RK)

  18. An Anti-Introspectivist View of Career Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieshok, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews 50 years of empirical literature on career decision making, summarizing 10 things the field knows "for sure." Presents an anti-introspectivist view of career decision making arguing that mental processing for decision making and behavior initiation is not performed at a conscious level and reflection on these processes may be detrimental…

  19. 42 CFR 93.412 - Making decisions on institutional noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... unwillingness to implement and follow the requirements of this part and its assurance. In making this decision... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. 93... Institutional Compliance Issues § 93.412 Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. (a) Institutions...

  20. 42 CFR 93.412 - Making decisions on institutional noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unwillingness to implement and follow the requirements of this part and its assurance. In making this decision... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. 93... Institutional Compliance Issues § 93.412 Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. (a) Institutions...

  1. Reflective Decision Making among University Department Heads across Academic Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampmann, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Within the scope of leadership and management, decision making greatly defines the role of university administrator, in particular, the university department head and his/her ability to be a reflective practitioner in the realm of decision making. Decision making is one characteristic of university department head work which warrants close…

  2. 42 CFR 93.412 - Making decisions on institutional noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... unwillingness to implement and follow the requirements of this part and its assurance. In making this decision... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. 93... Institutional Compliance Issues § 93.412 Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. (a) Institutions...

  3. 42 CFR 93.412 - Making decisions on institutional noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... unwillingness to implement and follow the requirements of this part and its assurance. In making this decision... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. 93... Institutional Compliance Issues § 93.412 Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. (a) Institutions...

  4. Age Differences in Adaptive Decision Making: The Role of Numeracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yiwei; Wang, Jiaxi; Kirk, Robert M.; Pethtel, Olivia L.; Kiefner, Allison E.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purposes of the present study were to examine age differences in adaptive decision making and to evaluate the role of numeracy in mediating the relationship between age and adaptive decision making. Adaptive decision making was assessed by the Cups task (Levin, Weller, Pederson, & Harshman, 2007). Forty-six younger (18 to 24 years…

  5. Decision Making and Schools for the 70's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pharis, William L.; And Others

    The authors of this volume divide their consideration of decision-making into three major areas: 1) a step-by-step analysis for a systematic decision-making process that has widespread application; 2) an explicit description of the legal and extralegal components of the current decision-making structure; and 3) a review of some changing concepts…

  6. Strategic Decision Making in a Time of Information Overload.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powe, Kathleen Begley; Plung, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of decision making for librarians focuses on strategic decisions made to support library operations and growth. Examines five principles used to make good business decisions: basic philosophy of library operations, methodology for making choices, interlibrary cooperation and networking, internal and external influences, and assessment…

  7. School Board Decision Making: An Analysis of the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Karen S.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the characteristics in the school board decision-making process and to discover whether school board members are aware of the characteristics surrounding the school board's decision-making process. Specifically, this study examines the decision-making process of a school board in Virginia, and it provides…

  8. George Williams in Thailand: An Ethical Decision-Making Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Constance R.; Smith, J. Goosby

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a classroom ethical decision-making exercise designed to help students make reasoned ethical decisions while gaining insight into their own and others' ethical decision-making strategies. During the exercise, students individually analyze an original mini-case, then meet in small groups to reach consensus on the advice and…

  9. Anomalies in medical decision making: the preception of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.; Tonn, B.

    1985-03-28

    This paper discusses risk perception in medical decision making. Biases in risk perception by physicians and patients could result in undue loss of life and unwarranted medical expenses. Possible biases include availability of information, framing of choices, and the fundamental attribution error. An example of an anomaly in medical decision making possibly related to biased decision making is elective hysterectomy. 25 refs.

  10. Stress in Decision-Making: Three Causes, Three Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Don

    This paper is a brief description of a conference presentation consisting of a 2.5-hour clinic session on decision-making. A motion picture, "The Making of a Decision," followed by a lively discussion, was used to illustrate the strenghts and weaknesses of administrators in their decision-making process. Presented in the film are three different…

  11. Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Barriers in Career Decision Making among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rosemary R.; Hatcher, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study explored differences between career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) and career barriers of students enrolled in applied technology programs compared to those enrolled in college transfer. Participants in the ex post facto cross-sectional survey included 787 students at a community college. The following research questions were…

  12. Government: Political Decision-Making. Decision-Making in Contemporary America, Unit IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Donald P.; And Others

    This unit on economic decision-making is the fourth of five units in a ninth grade social studies course (see SO 010 891). Major objectives are to help students (1) explain how dissent and protest may be used as effective means of change and to consider the consequences of such actions; (2) examine the judicial branch of government in order to…

  13. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  14. Biomolecular decision-making process for self assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    2005-01-01

    The brain is often identified with decision-making processes in the biological world. In fact, single cells, single macromolecules (proteins) and populations of molecules also make simple decisions. These decision processes are essential to survival and to the biological self-assembly and self-repair processes that we seek to emulate. How do these tiny systems make effective decisions? How do they make decisions in concert with a cooperative network of other molecules or cells? How can we emulate the decision-making behaviors of small-scale biological systems to program and self-assemble microsystems? This LDRD supported research to answer these questions. Our work included modeling and simulation of protein populations to help us understand, mimic, and categorize molecular decision-making mechanisms that nonequilibrium systems can exhibit. This work is an early step towards mimicking such nanoscale and microscale biomolecular decision-making processes in inorganic systems.

  15. Diverter Decision Aiding for In-Flight Diversions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Frederick M.; Homoki, David A.; Sexton, George A.

    1990-01-01

    It was determined that artificial intelligence technology can provide pilots with the help they need in making the complex decisions concerning en route changes in a flight plan. A diverter system should have the capability to take all of the available information and produce a recommendation to the pilot. Phase three illustrated that using Joshua to develop rules for an expert system and a Statice database provided additional flexibility by permitting the development of dynamic weighting of diversion relevant parameters. This increases the fidelity of the AI functions cited as useful in aiding the pilot to perform situational assessment, navigation rerouting, flight planning/replanning, and maneuver execution. Additionally, a prototype pilot-vehicle interface (PVI) was designed providing for the integration of both text and graphical based information. Advanced technologies were applied to PVI design, resulting in a hierarchical menu based architecture to increase the efficiency of information transfer while reducing expected workload. Additional efficiency was gained by integrating spatial and text displays into an integrated user interface.

  16. Decision making. A step-by-step process.

    PubMed

    McConnell, E A

    1989-05-01

    Some decisions affect no one but ourselves, and others affect more than one person. Some decisions are quite simple and have minimal, if any, ramifications; other decisions are more complex and can have major ramifications. Some decisions are easy to make because a person has the experience and knowledge, and other decisions require extensive deliberation because of their complexity or because a person may lack knowledge in that area. Making effective decisions is not an inherent gift, but the process can be learned. The decision a person makes today will someday be the base from which to assess a new situation. PMID:2729970

  17. Presenting quantitative information about decision outcomes: a risk communication primer for patient decision aid developers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Making evidence-based decisions often requires comparison of two or more options. Research-based evidence may exist which quantifies how likely the outcomes are for each option. Understanding these numeric estimates improves patients’ risk perception and leads to better informed decision making. This paper summarises current “best practices” in communication of evidence-based numeric outcomes for developers of patient decision aids (PtDAs) and other health communication tools. Method An expert consensus group of fourteen researchers from North America, Europe, and Australasia identified eleven main issues in risk communication. Two experts for each issue wrote a “state of the art” summary of best evidence, drawing on the PtDA, health, psychological, and broader scientific literature. In addition, commonly used terms were defined and a set of guiding principles and key messages derived from the results. Results The eleven key components of risk communication were: 1) Presenting the chance an event will occur; 2) Presenting changes in numeric outcomes; 3) Outcome estimates for test and screening decisions; 4) Numeric estimates in context and with evaluative labels; 5) Conveying uncertainty; 6) Visual formats; 7) Tailoring estimates; 8) Formats for understanding outcomes over time; 9) Narrative methods for conveying the chance of an event; 10) Important skills for understanding numerical estimates; and 11) Interactive web-based formats. Guiding principles from the evidence summaries advise that risk communication formats should reflect the task required of the user, should always define a relevant reference class (i.e., denominator) over time, should aim to use a consistent format throughout documents, should avoid “1 in x” formats and variable denominators, consider the magnitude of numbers used and the possibility of format bias, and should take into account the numeracy and graph literacy of the audience. Conclusion A substantial and

  18. Delivering patient decision aids on the Internet: definitions, theories, current evidence, and emerging research areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2005, the International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration identified twelve quality dimensions to guide assessment of patient decision aids. One dimension—the delivery of patient decision aids on the Internet—is relevant when the Internet is used to provide some or all components of a patient decision aid. Building on the original background chapter, this paper provides an updated definition for this dimension, outlines a theoretical rationale, describes current evidence, and discusses emerging research areas. Methods An international, multidisciplinary panel of authors examined the relevant theoretical literature and empirical evidence through 2012. Results The updated definition distinguishes Internet-delivery of patient decision aids from online health information and clinical practice guidelines. Theories in cognitive psychology, decision psychology, communication, and education support the value of Internet features for providing interactive information and deliberative support. Dissemination and implementation theories support Internet-delivery for providing the right information (rapidly updated), to the right person (tailored), at the right time (the appropriate point in the decision making process). Additional efforts are needed to integrate the theoretical rationale and empirical evidence from health technology perspectives, such as consumer health informatics, user experience design, and human-computer interaction. Despite Internet usage ranging from 74% to 85% in developed countries and 80% of users searching for health information, it is unknown how many individuals specifically seek patient decision aids on the Internet. Among the 86 randomized controlled trials in the 2011 Cochrane Collaboration’s review of patient decision aids, only four studies focused on Internet-delivery. Given the limited number of published studies, this paper particularly focused on identifying gaps in the empirical evidence base and

  19. A dynamic, embodied paradigm to investigate the role of serotonin in decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Derrik E.; Craig, Alexis B.; Zaldivar, Andrew; Brewer, Alyssa A.; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator that has been attributed to cost assessment and harm aversion. In this review, we look at the role 5-HT plays in making decisions when subjects are faced with potential harmful or costly outcomes. We review approaches for examining the serotonergic system in decision-making. We introduce our group’s paradigm used to investigate how 5-HT affects decision-making. In particular, our paradigm combines techniques from computational neuroscience, socioeconomic game theory, human–robot interaction, and Bayesian statistics. We will highlight key findings from our previous studies utilizing this paradigm, which helped expand our understanding of 5-HT’s effect on decision-making in relation to cost assessment. Lastly, we propose a cyclic multidisciplinary approach that may aid in addressing the complexity of exploring 5-HT and decision-making by iteratively updating our assumptions and models of the serotonergic system through exhaustive experimentation. PMID:24319413

  20. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: parent support for early decision making.

    PubMed

    Toebbe, Sarah; Yehle, Karen; Kirkpatrick, Jane; Coddington, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a life threatening congenital cardiac anomaly. After a child has been diagnosed with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, parents must make life or death decisions within days of birth. Healthcare providers must provide appropriate education so that parents are able to make informed, timely decisions. Information regarding the diagnosis, treatment options, and parental decision making process for initial decision making for hypoplastic left heart syndrome are provided to guide nurses who work with these families. The challenging decision making process that parents must go through after diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome will be described. PMID:23246301

  1. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Decision Making During Spacecraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2009-01-01

    , provide insight into the effect of various faults or failures on the risk and failure drivers of the system and the likelihood of possible end case scenarios, thereby facilitating the decision making process during operations. This paper describes the process of adjusting PRA models based on observed spacecraft data, on one hand, and utilizing the models for insight into the future system behavior on the other hand. While PRA models are typically used as a decision aid during the design phase of a space mission, we advocate adjusting them based on the observed behavior of the spacecraft and utilizing them for decision support during the operations phase.

  2. The involvement of the striatum in decision making.

    PubMed

    Goulet-Kennedy, Julie; Labbe, Sara; Fecteau, Shirley

    2016-03-01

    Decision making has been extensively studied in the context of economics and from a group perspective, but still little is known on individual decision making. Here we discuss the different cognitive processes involved in decision making and its associated neural substrates. The putative conductors in decision making appear to be the prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Impaired decision-making skills in various clinical populations have been associated with activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the striatum. We highlight the importance of strengthening the degree of integration of both cognitive and neural substrates in order to further our understanding of decision-making skills. In terms of cognitive paradigms, there is a need to improve the ecological value of experimental tasks that assess decision making in various contexts and with rewards; this would help translate laboratory learnings into real-life benefits. In terms of neural substrates, the use of neuroimaging techniques helps characterize the neural networks associated with decision making; more recently, ways to modulate brain activity, such as in the prefrontal cortex and connected regions (eg, striatum), with noninvasive brain stimulation have also shed light on the neural and cognitive substrates of decision making. Together, these cognitive and neural approaches might be useful for patients with impaired decision-making skills. The drive behind this line of work is that decision-making abilities underlie important aspects of wellness, health, security, and financial and social choices in our daily lives. PMID:27069380

  3. The involvement of the striatum in decision making

    PubMed Central

    Goulet-Kennedy, Julie; Labbe, Sara; Fecteau, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Decision making has been extensively studied in the context of economics and from a group perspective, but still little is known on individual decision making. Here we discuss the different cognitive processes involved in decision making and its associated neural substrates. The putative conductors in decision making appear to be the prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Impaired decision-making skills in various clinical populations have been associated with activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the striatum. We highlight the importance of strengthening the degree of integration of both cognitive and neural substrates in order to further our understanding of decision-making skills. In terms of cognitive paradigms, there is a need to improve the ecological value of experimental tasks that assess decision making in various contexts and with rewards; this would help translate laboratory learnings into real-life benefits. In terms of neural substrates, the use of neuroimaging techniques helps characterize the neural networks associated with decision making; more recently, ways to modulate brain activity, such as in the prefrontal cortex and connected regions (eg, striatum), with noninvasive brain stimulation have also shed light on the neural and cognitive substrates of decision making. Together, these cognitive and neural approaches might be useful for patients with impaired decision-making skills. The drive behind this line of work is that decision-making abilities underlie important aspects of wellness, health, security, and financial and social choices in our daily lives. PMID:27069380

  4. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the

  5. Learner Decision Making in the Inclusion Style of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byra, Mark; Jenkins, Jayne

    In the inclusion style of teaching, learners must make decisions about level of task difficulty. They must decide at which level to enter the presented task and then, for additional sets of trials, decide whether to perform the task the same way, make it more difficult, or make it less difficult. This study examined learner decision making in a…

  6. The metabolic score: A decision making tool in diabetes care.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2015-11-01

    The heterogeneity of diabetes mellitus, and the various metabolic abnormalities associated with it, are well known. Current management guidelines used to help choose glucose-lowering drugs in diabetes mellitus describe various drug classes in detail, but do not take the overall metabolic profile into consideration. To help physicians choose appropriate oral therapy, we propose a discrete metabolic score, based upon the presence and absence of metabolic comorbidities included in the definition of metabolic syndrome. This communication describes how to choose an appropriate oral antidiabetic drug using such a score. The metabolic score based decision making aid should be able to prove its utility in all health care settings, especially resource constrained societies. PMID:26564303

  7. Game theory and neural basis of social decision making

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daeyeol

    2008-01-01

    Decision making in a social group displays two unique features. First, humans and other animals routinely alter their behaviors in response to changes in their physical and social environment. As a result, the outcomes of decisions that depend on the behaviors of multiple decision makers are difficult to predict, and this requires highly adaptive decision-making strategies. Second, decision makers may have other-regarding preferences and therefore choose their actions to improve or reduce the well-beings of others. Recently, many neurobiological studies have exploited game theory to probe the neural basis of decision making, and found that these unique features of social decision making might be reflected in the functions of brain areas involved in reward evaluation and reinforcement learning. Molecular genetic studies have also begun to identify genetic mechanisms for personal traits related to reinforcement learning and complex social decision making, further illuminating the biological basis of social behavior. PMID:18368047

  8. Mechanistic biomarkers for clinical decision making in rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, William H.; Lindstrom, Tamsin M.; Cheung, Regina K.; Sokolove, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The use of biomarkers is becoming increasingly intrinsic to the practice of medicine and holds great promise for transforming the practice of rheumatology. Biomarkers have the potential to aid clinical diagnosis when symptoms are present or to provide a means of detecting early signs of disease when they are not. Some biomarkers can serve as early surrogates of eventual clinical outcomes or guide therapeutic decision making by enabling identification of individuals likely to respond to a specific therapy. Using biomarkers might reduce the costs of drug development by enabling individuals most likely to respond to be enrolled in clinical trials, thereby minimizing the number of participants required. In this Review, we discuss the current use and the potential of biomarkers in rheumatology and in select fields at the forefront of biomarker research. We emphasize the value of different types of biomarkers, addressing the concept of ‘actionable’ biomarkers, which can be used to guide clinical decision making, and ‘mechanistic’ biomarkers, a subtype of actionable biomarker that is embedded in disease pathogenesis and, therefore, represents a superior biomarker. We provide examples of actionable and mechanistic biomarkers currently available, and discuss how development of such biomarkers could revolutionize clinical practice and drug development. PMID:23419428

  9. Decision making by single women seeking abortion.

    PubMed

    Quinn, M

    1980-01-01

    30 single women attending the Auckland Medical Aid Center (AMAC) for an abortion during a 3-week period in May 1977 were interviewed about the factors leading up to the pregnancy, the impact of the pregnancy on their relationships with relevant others, and the process of obtaining an abortion. The prospective subjects were divided into 2 age groups, 16-20 and 21-25 years and 2 residence groups, Auckland city area or beyond this area. The proportion of the sample selected from each category was intended to approximate proportions as reported for all AMAC clientele. Of the 30 women interviewed, half were aged less than 20 years and half were more than 20. 24 of the women were European and the remainder Polynesian. 3 women had previously been married, in 2 cases resulting in children. 3 women had given birth; 2 of these women were solo parents while 1 woman had had her child adopted. All those who had either married or given birth were in the 21-25 year age group. In 20 cases the women had decided on abortion either before pregnancy even occurred or as soon as it was confirmed. This along with the fact that only 2 women in this sample actually made the decision to seek an abortion after arriving at the clinic suggests that counseling directed at helping women decide the future of the pregnancy after arrival at the hospital is largely superfluous. Other major problems of the women which caused considerable stress included obtaining a doctor's referral to AMAC, the physical difficulties in getting to AMAC, changes the pregnancy precipitated in relationships between women and those they confided in. 2/3 of the younger group made little or no use of contraception. None gave ignorance as a reason for nonuse. Women in the older age group tended to use more sophisticated techniques, such as oral contraception (OC), IUD, or diaphragm; the younger women relied on condoms or used nothing at all. In addition to the 7 women who had never used contraception, a further 12 women

  10. Decision Making In A High-Tech World: Automation Bias and Countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, Kathleen L.; Skitka, Linda J.; Burdick, Mark R.; Heers, Susan T.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Automated decision aids and decision support systems have become essential tools in many high-tech environments. In aviation, for example, flight management systems computers not only fly the aircraft, but also calculate fuel efficient paths, detect and diagnose system malfunctions and abnormalities, and recommend or carry out decisions. Air Traffic Controllers will soon be utilizing decision support tools to help them predict and detect potential conflicts and to generate clearances. Other fields as disparate as nuclear power plants and medical diagnostics are similarly becoming more and more automated. Ideally, the combination of human decision maker and automated decision aid should result in a high-performing team, maximizing the advantages of additional cognitive and observational power in the decision-making process. In reality, however, the presence of these aids often short-circuits the way that even very experienced decision makers have traditionally handled tasks and made decisions, and introduces opportunities for new decision heuristics and biases. Results of recent research investigating the use of automated aids have indicated the presence of automation bias, that is, errors made when decision makers rely on automated cues as a heuristic replacement for vigilant information seeking and processing. Automation commission errors, i.e., errors made when decision makers inappropriately follow an automated directive, or automation omission errors, i.e., errors made when humans fail to take action or notice a problem because an automated aid fails to inform them, can result from this tendency. Evidence of the tendency to make automation-related omission and commission errors has been found in pilot self reports, in studies using pilots in flight simulations, and in non-flight decision making contexts with student samples. Considerable research has found that increasing social accountability can successfully ameliorate a broad array of cognitive biases and

  11. Phenotyping, endotyping and clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Fokkens, W J

    2016-06-01

    We have exiting times in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The last year has brought us a number of new ideas and publications to help in decision-making in daily practice. In the first issue of this year, Claire Hopkins and co-authors identified the most important outcomes for patients, public and practitioners that should be evaluated in studies on health interventions for CRS. In this issue of the journal, a group of experts tried to define appropriateness criteria for endoscopic sinus surgery during management of uncomplicated adult chronic rhinosinusitis. Appropriate indications for endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) are currently poorly defined and the lack of clear surgical indications for ESS likely contributes to the large geographic variation in surgical rates. Using the Delphi method a total of 624 clinical scenarios (half CRSsNP and half CRSwNP) were ranked. The study clearly states that this group of experts indicates that ESS can only be indicated after medical treatment has failed with patients still having significant symptoms (SNOT-22 over 20) and at least some abnormalities at CT scan. PMID:27236249

  12. Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    2002-01-01

    This research surveys twenty large companies and their travellers to identify and evaluate the effects of pressures on the business travel market in the future. The influence of the following areas on the decision making process are addressed: (1) Corporate travel policies and increasing professionalism in corporate purchasing; (2) The development of global strategic airline alliances; (3) The emergence of low cost airlines on short haul markets; and (4) The development of internet based booking tools and travel agency IT. The survey shows differences in views between travel managers, and travellers with regard to corporate travel policies. While travel managers see policy rules, travellers interpret these as guidelines, indicating travel managers will need to take further actions to exercise true control of travel budgets. The data shows that companies are more likely to prescribe a class of airline ticket, than the choice of airline itself. Corporate hierarchical bias in travel policies is still common both for short and particularly long haul flying. Other findings show that while travel managers believe that their companies are likely to sign global deals with strategic airline groups within a five year period in a bid to consolidating spending, they also believe that nearly a third of short haul flying will be taken with low cost carriers, indicating further penetration in this business travel market by these carriers. The paper also provides other predictions about the business travel market, based on the survey findings.

  13. A system of system lenses for leadership decision-making.

    PubMed

    Cady, Phil

    2016-01-01

    The sheer volume and dynamics among system agents in healthcare makes decision-making a daunting task at all levels. Being clear about what leaders mean by "healthcare system" is critical in aligning system strategy and leadership decision-making. This article presents an emerging set of lenses (ideology and beliefs, rational and irrational information processing, interpersonal social dynamics, process and value creation, and context) to help frame leadership decision-making in healthcare systems. PMID:26656390

  14. A decision aid for diagnosis of liver lesions on MRI.

    PubMed Central

    Tombropoulos, R.; Shiffman, S.; Davidson, C.

    1993-01-01

    Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the evaluation of liver abnormalities. The interpretation of MR images requires expert training in a rapidly changing field. DAFODILL (Decision Aid for Diagnosing Liver Lesions) is a decision-support tool designed to aid radiologists in the diagnosis of hepatic lesions seen on MRI. DAFODILL uses a knowledge base of MRI findings and a belief-network inference engine to generate probabilistic differential diagnoses of the most commonly encountered hepatic lesions. DAFODILL performs limited image processing to identify clinically relevant features, which are presented to the user for confirmation before they are used by the network. Preliminary evaluation of an initial version of the system suggests that DAFODILL may be a useful tool for radiology residents and nonexpert radiologists in interpreting MR images of the liver. PMID:8130512

  15. Decision-Making in Old Age: Cautiousness and Rigidity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Richard E.; Hutchison, Sam L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Elderly participants (N=64) were classified as to high or low rigidity and completed the Choice Dilemmas Questionnaire. Previous findings were supported in that subjects preferred not to make decisions. Subjects were more cautious in making decisions applying to younger individuals and rigidity was related to risky decisions. (RC)

  16. Swift and Smart Decision Making: Heuristics that Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Tarter, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine the research literature on decision making and identify and develop a set of heuristics that work for school decision makers. Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is a synthesis of the research on decision-making heuristics that work. Findings: A set of nine rules for swift and smart decision…

  17. The Decision-Making Structure and the Dean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Betty M.; George, Shirley A.

    1987-01-01

    Characteristics in the college academic setting and the external environment that affect the decision-making structure and that the dean should consider before reorganization are examined. Concepts and theories about governance, decision-making, organizational structure, and characteristics of effective decision makers are also briefly reviewed. A…

  18. High School Students' Career-Related Decision-Making Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Saka, Noa

    2001-01-01

    Examines the construct of career-related decision-making difficulties among 1,843 Israeli adolescents. Three versions of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ) were constructed to match three decision situations. The structures of the revised CDDQ were found similar to that proposed by I. Gati et al. (1996). Boys reported…

  19. Towards Ethical Decision-Making in Counselling Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Maggie; Cook, Peter; Hunt, Kathy; Alred, Geof; Robson, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Explores the process of ethical decision-making in counseling research and examines to what extent decision-making is based on intuitive thinking. Reviews and considers several models of ethical problem solving. Argues that ethical decisions are reached through intuition, informed by ethical principles, codes of practice, and reference to the laws…

  20. Data Collection for Educational Decision-Making: Establishing Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooler, Dennis D.

    A method is presented by which decision makers may establish priorities for the collection of data to be used as input to the decision-making process. It is assumed that the experience, intuition, and previously collected data will influence the decision, as will the constraints of design, and the audience to whom the particular decision is…

  1. Development of Decision Making: Sequential versus Integrative Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2012-01-01

    Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules--sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such…

  2. The evaluation of a rectal cancer decision aid and the factors influencing its implementation in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is common in North America. Two surgical options exist for rectal cancer patients: low anterior resection with re-establishment of bowel continuity, and abdominoperineal resection with a permanent stoma. A rectal cancer decision aid was developed using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards to facilitate patients being more actively involved in making this decision with the surgeon. The overall aim of this study is to evaluate this decision aid and explore barriers and facilitators to implementing in clinical practice. Methods First, a pre- and post- study will be guided by the Ottawa Decision Support Framework. Eligible patients from a colorectal cancer center include: 1) adult patients diagnosed with rectal cancer, 2) tumour at a maximum of 10 cm from anal verge, and 3) surgeon screened candidates eligible to consider both low anterior resection and abdominoperineal resection. Patients will be given a paper-version and online link to the decision aid to review at home. Using validated tools, the primary outcomes will be decisional conflict and knowledge of surgical options. Secondary outcomes will be patient’s preference, values associated with options, readiness for decision-making, acceptability of the decision aid, and feasibility of its implementation in clinical practice. Proposed analysis includes paired t-test, Wilcoxon, and descriptive statistics. Second, a survey will be conducted to identify the barriers and facilitators of using the decision aid in clinical practice. Eligible participants include Canadian surgeons working with rectal cancer patients. Surgeons will be given a pre-notification, questionnaire, and three reminders. The survey package will include the patient decision aid and a facilitators and barriers survey previously validated among physicians and nurses. Principal component analysis will be performed to determine common themes, and logistic regression will be used to identify variables

  3. Improving IT Portfolio Management Decision Confidence Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making and Hypervariate Display Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landmesser, John Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Information technology (IT) investment decision makers are required to process large volumes of complex data. An existing body of knowledge relevant to IT portfolio management (PfM), decision analysis, visual comprehension of large volumes of information, and IT investment decision making suggest Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) and…

  4. When Family Considerations Influence Work Decisions: Decision-Making Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    The work-family literature has provided an abundance of evidence that various family factors are linked to various work decisions, suggesting that the "family-relatedness" of work decisions is a prevalent phenomenon (Greenhaus & Powell, 2012). However, the cognitive processes by which such linkages occur have received little attention. We offer a…

  5. Embodied Choice: How Action Influences Perceptual Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Lepora, Nathan F.; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Embodied Choice considers action performance as a proper part of the decision making process rather than merely as a means to report the decision. The central statement of embodied choice is the existence of bidirectional influences between action and decisions. This implies that for a decision expressed by an action, the action dynamics and its constraints (e.g. current trajectory and kinematics) influence the decision making process. Here we use a perceptual decision making task to compare three types of model: a serial decision-then-action model, a parallel decision-and-action model, and an embodied choice model where the action feeds back into the decision making. The embodied model incorporates two key mechanisms that together are lacking in the other models: action preparation and commitment. First, action preparation strategies alleviate delays in enacting a choice but also modify decision termination. Second, action dynamics change the prospects and create a commitment effect to the initially preferred choice. Our results show that these two mechanisms make embodied choice models better suited to combine decision and action appropriately to achieve suitably fast and accurate responses, as usually required in ecologically valid situations. Moreover, embodied choice models with these mechanisms give a better account of trajectory tracking experiments during decision making. In conclusion, the embodied choice framework offers a combined theory of decision and action that gives a clear case that embodied phenomena such as the dynamics of actions can have a causal influence on central cognition. PMID:25849349

  6. Adaptive Allocation of Decision Making Responsibility Between Human and Computer in Multi-Task Situations. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Y. Y.

    1978-01-01

    A unified formulation of computer-aided, multi-task, decision making is presented. Strategy for the allocation of decision making responsibility between human and computer is developed. The plans of a flight management systems are studied. A model based on the queueing theory was implemented.

  7. Physician participation in hospital strategic decision making: the effect of hospital strategy and decision content.

    PubMed Central

    Ashmos, D P; McDaniel, R R

    1991-01-01

    An exploratory study examined variation in the participation of physicians in hospital strategic decision making as a function of (1) strategic decision content or (2) hospital strategy, or both. The findings revealed that who participates is a function of decision content while how physicians participate is a function of decision content and the interaction of decision content and hospital strategy. PMID:1869445

  8. Incorporating affective bias in models of human decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nygren, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    Research on human decision making has traditionally focused on how people actually make decisions, how good their decisions are, and how their decisions can be improved. Recent research suggests that this model is inadequate. Affective as well as cognitive components drive the way information about relevant outcomes and events is perceived, integrated, and used in the decision making process. The affective components include how the individual frames outcomes as good or bad, whether the individual anticipates regret in a decision situation, the affective mood state of the individual, and the psychological stress level anticipated or experienced in the decision situation. A focus of the current work has been to propose empirical studies that will attempt to examine in more detail the relationships between the latter two critical affective influences (mood state and stress) on decision making behavior.

  9. A control-theory model for human decision-making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.; Tanner, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    A model for human decision making is an adaptation of an optimal control model for pilot/vehicle systems. The models for decision and control both contain concepts of time delay, observation noise, optimal prediction, and optimal estimation. The decision making model was intended for situations in which the human bases his decision on his estimate of the state of a linear plant. Experiments are described for the following task situations: (a) single decision tasks, (b) two-decision tasks, and (c) simultaneous manual control and decision making. Using fixed values for model parameters, single-task and two-task decision performance can be predicted to within an accuracy of 10 percent. Agreement is less good for the simultaneous decision and control situation.

  10. Child-parent shared decision making about asthma management.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Victoria; Smith, Joanna; Ormandy, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Aim To explore and describe child-parent shared decision making for the management of childhood asthma. Methods A qualitative, descriptive, interview-based study was undertaken. Eight children and nine parents participated. The framework approach underpinned data analysis. Findings A dynamic model of the way children and parents transfer, shift and share asthma management decisions was uncovered. Asthma management decisions between children and parents were non-linear, with responsibility transferring from parent to child under different conditions. Children made a range of decisions about their asthma, often sharing decisions with their parents. However, during acute illness episodes, children often relied on parents to make decisions about their asthma. Conclusion Neither the child nor parent has complete autonomy over asthma management decisions. Decision making is a dynamic, shifting and shared process, dependent on contextual factors and child and parent decision preferences. PMID:27156418

  11. Decision-Making, Science and Gasoline Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. W.; Small, M. C.

    2001-12-01

    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as a oxygenated additive to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Generally, the amount of MTBE used for octane enhancement was lower than that required to meet CAAA requirements. An unintended consequence of MTBE use has been widespread groundwater contamination. The decision to use certain amounts of MTBE or other chemcials as gasoline additives is the outcome of economic, regulatory, policy, political, and scientific considerations. Decision makers ask questions such as "How do ground water impacts change with changing MTBE content? How many wells would be impacted? and What are the associated costs?" These are best answered through scientific inquiry, but many different approaches could be developed. Decision criteria include time, money, comprehensiveness, and complexity of the approach. Because results must be communicated to a non-technical audience, there is a trade off between the complexity of the approach and the ability to convince economists, lawyers and policy makers that results make sense. The question on MTBE content posed above was investigated using transport models, a release scenario and gasoline composition. Because of the inability of transport models to predict future concentrations, an approach was chosen to base comparative assessment on a calibrated model. By taking this approach, "generic" modeling with arbitrarily selected parameters was avoided and the validity of the simulation results rests upon relatively small extrapolations from the original calibrated models. A set of simulations was performed that assumed 3% (octane enhancement) and 11% (CAAA) MTBE in gasoline. The results were that ground water concentrations would be reduced in proportion to the reduction of MTBE in the fuel

  12. Insufficient knowledge among psoriasis patients can represent a barrier to participation in decision-making.

    PubMed

    Renzi, Cristina; Di Pietro, Cristina; Gisondi, Paolo; Chinni, Luca M; Fazio, Marcello; Ianni, Andrea; Tabolli, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Patient participation in treatment decisions can have positive effects on patient satisfaction, compliance and health outcomes. The objectives of this study were to examine attitudes of psoriasis patients regarding participation in treatment decisions and to evaluate the effect of a decision-aid for discussing treatment options. A "quasi experiment" was conducted in a large dermatological hospital in Italy: a questionnaire evaluating the decision-making process and treatment knowledge was self-completed by 231 consecutive psoriasis patients after routine clinical practice and by a second sample of 171 patients exposed to a decision-board. In routine clinical practice 67.9% of patients wanted to be involved in decision-making, 28.4% wanted to leave decisions entirely to the doctor and 3.7% preferred making decisions alone. 17.9% and 25.3% of the control and decision-board group had good knowledge. At multivariate analysis good knowledge increased the likelihood of preferring an active role (risk ratio (RR) = 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.9; p = 0.006). The decision-board only marginally improved patient knowledge and doctor-patient communication. In conclusion, large proportions of psoriasis patients want to participate in decision-making, but insufficient patient knowledge can represent a barrier. PMID:17106601

  13. Decision-making triggers in adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Nie, Martin A; Schultz, Courtney A

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed whether decision-making triggers increase accountability of adaptive-management plans. Triggers are prenegotiated commitments in an adaptive-management plan that specify what actions are to be taken and when on the basis of information obtained from monitoring. Triggers improve certainty that particular actions will be taken by agencies in the future. We conducted an in-depth, qualitative review of the political and legal contexts of adaptive management and its application by U.S. federal agencies. Agencies must satisfy the judiciary that adaptive-management plans meet substantive legal standards and comply with the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act. We examined 3 cases in which triggers were used in adaptive-management plans: salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Columbia River, oil and gas development by the Bureau of Land Management, and a habitat conservation plan under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In all the cases, key aspects of adaptive management, including controls and preidentified feedback loops, were not incorporated in the plans. Monitoring and triggered mitigation actions were limited in their enforceability, which was contingent on several factors, including which laws applied in each case and the degree of specificity in how triggers were written into plans. Other controversial aspects of these plans revolved around who designed, conducted, interpreted, and funded monitoring programs. Additional contentious issues were the level of precaution associated with trigger mechanisms and the definition of ecological baselines used as points of comparison. Despite these challenges, triggers can be used to increase accountability, by predefining points at which an adaptive management plan will be revisited and reevaluated, and thus improve the application of adaptive management in its complicated political and legal context. PMID:22891956

  14. Integrated Traffic Flow Management Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon R.; Sridhar, Banavar; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2009-01-01

    A generalized approach is proposed to support integrated traffic flow management decision making studies at both the U.S. national and regional levels. It can consider tradeoffs between alternative optimization and heuristic based models, strategic versus tactical flight controls, and system versus fleet preferences. Preliminary testing was accomplished by implementing thirteen unique traffic flow management models, which included all of the key components of the system and conducting 85, six-hour fast-time simulation experiments. These experiments considered variations in the strategic planning look-ahead times, the replanning intervals, and the types of traffic flow management control strategies. Initial testing indicates that longer strategic planning look-ahead times and re-planning intervals result in steadily decreasing levels of sector congestion for a fixed delay level. This applies when accurate estimates of the air traffic demand, airport capacities and airspace capacities are available. In general, the distribution of the delays amongst the users was found to be most equitable when scheduling flights using a heuristic scheduling algorithm, such as ration-by-distance. On the other hand, equity was the worst when using scheduling algorithms that took into account the number of seats aboard each flight. Though the scheduling algorithms were effective at alleviating sector congestion, the tactical rerouting algorithm was the primary control for avoiding en route weather hazards. Finally, the modeled levels of sector congestion, the number of weather incursions, and the total system delays, were found to be in fair agreement with the values that were operationally observed on both good and bad weather days.

  15. Decision sidestepping: How the motivation for closure prompts individuals to bypass decision making.

    PubMed

    Otto, Ashley S; Clarkson, Joshua J; Kardes, Frank R

    2016-07-01

    We all too often have to make decisions-from the mundane (e.g., what to eat for breakfast) to the complex (e.g., what to buy a loved one)-and yet there exists a multitude of strategies that allows us to make a decision. This work focuses on a subset of decision strategies that allows individuals to make decisions by bypassing the decision-making process-a phenomenon we term decision sidestepping. Critical to the present manuscript, however, we contend that decision sidestepping stems from the motivation to achieve closure. We link this proposition back to the fundamental nature of closure and how those seeking closure are highly bothered by decision making. As such, we argue that the motivation to achieve closure prompts a reliance on sidestepping strategies (e.g., default bias, choice delegation, status quo bias, inaction inertia, option fixation) to reduce the bothersome nature of decision making. In support of this framework, five experiments demonstrate that (a) those seeking closure are more likely to engage in decision sidestepping, (b) the effect of closure on sidestepping stems from the bothersome nature of decision making, and (c) the reliance on sidestepping results in downstream consequences for subsequent choice. Taken together, these findings offer unique insight into the cognitive motivations stimulating a reliance on decision sidestepping and thus a novel framework by which to understand how individuals make decisions while bypassing the decision-making process. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337138

  16. 42 CFR 93.412 - Making decisions on institutional noncompliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. 93... Institutional Compliance Issues § 93.412 Making decisions on institutional noncompliance. (a) Institutions must... unwillingness to implement and follow the requirements of this part and its assurance. In making this...

  17. Small Groups' Ecological Reasoning While Making an Environmental Management Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Explores the ideas and reasoning students use to make a collaborative environmental management decision. Compares students' discussions with scientists' guidelines for making environmental management decisions. Finds that whereas across groups students touched on all of the themes that scientists consider to be important for making environmental…

  18. Practice Makes Perfect: Prospective Teachers Develop Skills in Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Martha Tyler; Norton, Robert

    Preservice teachers must develop decision making skills and feel comfortable with decision making processes. Prospective teachers at MidAmerican Nazarene College (MNU), Kansas, are involved in a research based output system called the Decision-Making Packet (DMP). DMP's are units of study that allow students choice and require their pupils to take…

  19. Formation of Mathematical Objects as Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfler, Willi

    2002-01-01

    Proposes and substantiates that in order for mathematical objects to emerge for the individual, the construction processes have to be supplemented by a deliberate decision to view, treat, use, and investigate a structure or a collection of items as a unified object. Suggests that this decision strongly depends on the mediation by symbols,…

  20. A Canonical Theory of Dynamic Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Fox, John; Cooper, Richard P.; Glasspool, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Decision-making behavior is studied in many very different fields, from medicine and economics to psychology and neuroscience, with major contributions from mathematics and statistics, computer science, AI, and other technical disciplines. However the conceptualization of what decision-making is and methods for studying it vary greatly and this has resulted in fragmentation of the field. A theory that can accommodate various perspectives may facilitate interdisciplinary working. We present such a theory in which decision-making is articulated as a set of canonical functions that are sufficiently general to accommodate diverse viewpoints, yet sufficiently precise that they can be instantiated in different ways for specific theoretical or practical purposes. The canons cover the whole decision cycle, from the framing of a decision based on the goals, beliefs, and background knowledge of the decision-maker to the formulation of decision options, establishing preferences over them, and making commitments. Commitments can lead to the initiation of new decisions and any step in the cycle can incorporate reasoning about previous decisions and the rationales for them, and lead to revising or abandoning existing commitments. The theory situates decision-making with respect to other high-level cognitive capabilities like problem solving, planning, and collaborative decision-making. The canonical approach is assessed in three domains: cognitive and neuropsychology, artificial intelligence, and decision engineering. PMID:23565100

  1. A framework for automated decision making and problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1980-01-01

    Problems can be subdivided into two main categories: well structured problems and ill structured problems. The first require routine repetitive decisions which are generally amenable to programmable decision processes. The second require novel nonprogrammable decision processes. The decision making processes can be subdivided into those representative of those done by humans and those done by machine. Many of such decision processes require a combination of humans d machines. Automated decision making and problem solving technologies are expected to have their greatest potential impact in the space program.

  2. Patient decision making among older individuals with cancer.

    PubMed

    Strohschein, Fay J; Bergman, Howard; Carnevale, Franco A; Loiselle, Carmen G

    2011-07-01

    Patient decision making is an area of increasing inquiry. For older individuals experiencing cancer, variations in health and functional status, physiologic aspects of aging, and tension between quality and quantity of life present unique challenges to treatment-related decision making. We used the pragmatic utility method to analyze the concept of patient decision making in the context of older individuals with cancer. We first evaluated its maturity in existing literature and then posed analytical questions to clarify aspects found to be only partially mature. In this context, we found patient decision making to be an ongoing process, changing with time, reflecting individual and relational components, as well as analytical and emotional ones. Assumptions frequently associated with patient decision making were not consistent with the empirical literature. Careful attention to the multifaceted components of patient decision making among older individuals with cancer provides guidance for research, supportive interventions, and targeted follow-up care. PMID:21343431

  3. Better clinical decision making and reducing diagnostic error.

    PubMed

    Croskerry, P; Nimmo, G R

    2011-06-01

    A major amount of our time working in clinical practice involves thinking and decision making. Perhaps it is because decision making is such a commonplace activity that it is assumed we can all make effective decisions. However, this is not the case and the example of diagnostic error supports this assertion. Until quite recently there has been a general nihilism about the ability to change the way that we think, but it is now becoming accepted that if we can think about, and understand, our thinking processes we can improve our decision making, including diagnosis. In this paper we review the dual process model of decision making and highlight ways in which decision making can be improved through the application of this model to our day-to-day practice and by the adoption of de-biasing strategies and critical thinking. PMID:21677922

  4. Considering Risk and Resilience in Decision-Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the concepts of decision-making, risk analysis, uncertainty and resilience analysis. The relation between risk, vulnerability, and resilience is analyzed. The paper describes how complexity, uncertainty, and ambiguity are the most critical factors in the definition of the approach and criteria for decision-making. Uncertainty in its various forms is what limits our ability to offer definitive answers to questions about the outcomes of alternatives in a decision-making process. It is shown that, although resilience-informed decision-making would seem fundamentally different from risk-informed decision-making, this is not the case as resilience-analysis can be easily incorporated within existing analytic-deliberative decision-making frameworks.

  5. Cellular and molecular basis of decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Yapici, Nilay; Zimmer, Manuel; Domingos, Ana I

    2014-01-01

    People think they are in control of their own decisions: what to eat or drink, whom to marry or pick a fight with, where to live, what to buy. Behavioural economists and neurophysiologists have long studied decision-making behaviours. However, these behaviours have only recently been studied through the light of molecular genetics. Here, we review recent research in mice, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, that analyses the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying decision-making. These studies interrogate decision-making about food, sexual behaviour, aggression or foraging strategies, and add molecular and cell biology understanding onto the consilience of brain and decision. PMID:25239948

  6. Decision-making Strategies and Performance among Seniors1

    PubMed Central

    Besedeš, Tibor; Deck, Cary; Sarangi, Sudipta; Shor, Mikhael

    2011-01-01

    Using paper and pencil experiments administered in senior centers, we examine decision-making performance in multi-attribute decision problems. We differentiate the effects of declining cognitive performance and changing cognitive process on decision-making performance of seniors as they age. We find a significant decline in performance with age due to reduced reliance on common heuristics and increased decision-making randomness among our oldest subjects. However, we find that increasing the number of options in a decision problem increases the number of heuristics brought to the task. This challenges the choice overload view that people give up when confronted with too much choice. PMID:22408282

  7. Decision-making in healthcare as a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Kuziemsky, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare transformation requires a change in how the business of healthcare is done. Traditional decision-making approaches based on stable and predictable systems are inappropriate in healthcare because of the complex nature of healthcare delivery. This article reviews challenges to using traditional decision-making approaches in healthcare and how insight from Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) could support healthcare management. The article also provides a system model to guide decision-making in healthcare as a CAS. PMID:26656389

  8. Assessment of Unconscious Decision Aids Applied to Complex Patient-Centered Medical Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Manigault, Andrew Wilhelm; Whillock, Summer Rain

    2015-01-01

    Background To improve patient health, recent research urges for medical decision aids that are designed to enhance the effectiveness of specific medically related decisions. Many such decisions involve complex information, and decision aids that independently use deliberative (analytical and slower) or intuitive (more affective and automatic) cognitive processes for such decisions result in suboptimal decisions. Unconscious thought can arguably use both intuitive and deliberative (slow and analytic) processes, and this combination may further benefit complex patient (or practitioner) decisions as medical decision aids. Indeed, mounting research demonstrates that individuals render better decisions generally if they are distracted from thinking consciously about complex information after it is presented (but can think unconsciously), relative to thinking about that information consciously or not at all. Objective The current research tested whether the benefits of unconscious thought processes can be replicated using an Internet platform for a patient medical decision involving complex information. This research also explored the possibility that judgments reported after a period of unconscious thought are actually the result of a short period of conscious deliberation occurring during the decision report phase. Methods A total of 173 participants in a Web-based experiment received information about four medical treatments, the best (worst) associated with mostly positive (negative) side-effects/attributes and the others with equal positive-negative ratios. Next, participants were either distracted for 3 minutes (unconscious thought), instructed to think about the information for 3 minutes (conscious thought), or moved directly to the decision task (immediate decision). Finally, participants reported their choice of, and attitudes toward, the treatments while experiencing high, low, or no cognitive load, which varied their ability to think consciously while

  9. A Cross-National CAI Tool To Support Learning Operations Decision-Making and Market Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockler, Robert J.; Afanasiev, Mikhail Y.; Dologite, Dorothy G.

    1999-01-01

    Describes bicultural (United States and Russia) development of a computer-aided instruction (CAI) tool to learn management decision-making using information systems technologies. The program has been used with undergraduate and graduate students in both countries; it integrates free and controlled market concepts and combines traditional computer…

  10. Mental fatigue impairs soccer-specific decision-making skill.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mitchell R; Zeuwts, Linus; Lenoir, Matthieu; Hens, Nathalie; De Jong, Laura M S; Coutts, Aaron J

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of mental fatigue on soccer-specific decision-making. Twelve well-trained male soccer players performed a soccer-specific decision-making task on two occasions, separated by at least 72 h. The decision-making task was preceded in a randomised order by 30 min of the Stroop task (mental fatigue) or 30 min of reading from magazines (control). Subjective ratings of mental fatigue were measured before and after treatment, and mental effort (referring to treatment) and motivation (referring to the decision-making task) were measured after treatment. Performance on the soccer-specific decision-making task was assessed using response accuracy and time. Visual search behaviour was also assessed throughout the decision-making task. Subjective ratings of mental fatigue and effort were almost certainly higher following the Stroop task compared to the magazines. Motivation for the upcoming decision-making task was possibly higher following the Stroop task. Decision-making accuracy was very likely lower and response time likely higher in the mental fatigue condition. Mental fatigue had unclear effects on most visual search behaviour variables. The results suggest that mental fatigue impairs accuracy and speed of soccer-specific decision-making. These impairments are not likely related to changes in visual search behaviour. PMID:26949830

  11. Dissolving decision making? Models and their roles in decision-making processes and policy at large.

    PubMed

    Zeiss, Ragna; van Egmond, Stans

    2014-12-01

    This article studies the roles three science-based models play in Dutch policy and decision making processes. Key is the interaction between model construction and environment. Their political and scientific environments form contexts that shape the roles of models in policy decision making. Attention is paid to three aspects of the wider context of the models: a) the history of the construction process; b) (changes in) the political and scientific environments; and c) the use in policy processes over longer periods of time. Models are more successfully used when they are constructed in a stable political and scientific environment. Stability and certainty within a scientific field seems to be a key predictor for the usefulness of models for policy making. The economic model is more disputed than the ecology-based model and the model that has its theoretical foundation in physics and chemistry. The roles models play in policy processes are too complex to be considered as straightforward technocratic powers. PMID:25549446

  12. A universal decision support system. Addressing the decision-making needs of patients, families, and clinicians in the setting of critical illness.

    PubMed

    Cox, Christopher E; White, Douglas B; Abernethy, Amy P

    2014-08-15

    In the setting of a complex critical illness, preference-sensitive decision making-choosing between two or more reasonable treatment options-can be difficult for patients, families, and clinicians alike. A common challenge to making high-quality decisions in this setting is a lack of critical information access and sharing among participants. Decision aids-brochures, web applications, and videos-are a major focus of current research because mounting evidence suggests they can improve decision-making quality and enhance collaborative shared decision making. However, many decision aids have important limitations, including a relatively narrow capacity for personalization, an inability to gather and generate clinical data, a focus on only a single disease or treatment, and high developmental costs. To address these issues and to help guide future research, we propose a model of "universal" electronic decision support that can be easily adapted by clinicians and patients/families for whatever decision is at hand. In this scalable web-based platform, a general shared decision-making core structure would accommodate simple, interchangeable disease and treatment information modules. The format and content of the system could be adapted to decisional participants' unique characteristics, abilities, and needs. Universal decision support can better standardize a decisional approach and also allow a unique degree of personalization within a framework of shared decision making. We also discuss potential criticisms of this approach as well as strategies that can overcome them in a critical illness setting. PMID:25019639

  13. The Role of Personalised Choice in Decision Support: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Online Decision Aid for Prostate Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Salkeld, Glenn; Cunich, Michelle; Dowie, Jack; Howard, Kirsten; Patel, Manish I.; Mann, Graham; Lipworth, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Importance Decision support tools can assist people to apply population-based evidence on benefits and harms to individual health decisions. A key question is whether “personalising” choice within decisions aids leads to better decision quality. Objective To assess the effect of personalising the content of a decision aid for prostate cancer screening using the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Australia. Participants 1,970 men aged 40–69 years were approached to participate in the trial. Intervention 1,447 men were randomly allocated to either a standard decision aid with a fixed set of five attributes or a personalised decision aid with choice over the inclusion of up to 10 attributes. Outcome Measures To determine whether there was a difference between the two groups in terms of: 1) the emergent opinion (generated by the decision aid) to have a PSA test or not; 2) self-rated decision quality after completing the online decision aid; 3) their intention to undergo screening in the next 12 months. We also wanted to determine whether men in the personalised choice group made use of the extra decision attributes. Results 5% of men in the fixed attribute group scored ‘Have a PSA test’ as the opinion generated by the aid, as compared to 62% of men in the personalised choice group (χ2 = 569.38, 2df, p< 0001). Those men who used the personalised decision aid had slightly higher decision quality (t = 2.157, df = 1444, p = 0.031). The men in the personalised choice group made extensive use of the additional decision attributes. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of their stated intention to undergo screening in the next 12 months. Conclusions Together, these findings suggest that personalised decision support systems could be an important development in shared decision-making and patient-centered care. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN

  14. Student Unrest and Crisis Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Edwin M.

    1969-01-01

    How the administrator might anticipate student-initiated reform is examined by observing present school practices, crisis condition influence on the decision process, and implications of alternative administrative action. (LN)

  15. Student Involvement in Governmental Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    Proposes that teachers introduce their students to the process by which Federal and State decision-makers propose rules and regulations for implementation within society by exposing them to the "Federal Register" and their state's equivalent publication. (MLH)

  16. Testing theories of financial decision making.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Christopher P; Echenique, Federico; Saito, Kota

    2016-04-12

    We describe the observable content of some of the most widely used models of decision under uncertainty: models of translation invariant preferences. In particular, we characterize the models of variational, maxmin, constant absolute risk aversion, and constant relative risk aversion utilities. In each case we present a revealed preference axiom that is satisfied by a dataset if and only if the dataset is consistent with the corresponding utility representation. We test our axioms using data from an experiment on financial decisions. PMID:27035947

  17. Passenger comfort technology for system decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Decisions requiring passenger comfort technology were shown to depend on: the relationship between comfort and other factors (e.g., cost, urgency, alternate modes) in traveler acceptance of the systems, serving a selected market require technology to quantify effects of comfort versus offsetting factors in system acceptance. Public predict the maximum percentage of travelers who willingly accept the overall comfort of any trip ride. One or the other of these technology requirements apply to decisions on system design, operation and maintenance.

  18. Application of expert systems in project management decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Regina; Shaffer, Steven; Stokes, James; Goldstein, David

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of developing an expert systems-based project management decision aid to enhance the performance of NASA project managers was assessed. The research effort included extensive literature reviews in the areas of project management, project management decision aiding, expert systems technology, and human-computer interface engineering. Literature reviews were augmented by focused interviews with NASA managers. Time estimation for project scheduling was identified as the target activity for decision augmentation, and a design was developed for an Integrated NASA System for Intelligent Time Estimation (INSITE). The proposed INSITE design was judged feasible with a low level of risk. A partial proof-of-concept experiment was performed and was successful. Specific conclusions drawn from the research and analyses are included. The INSITE concept is potentially applicable in any management sphere, commercial or government, where time estimation is required for project scheduling. As project scheduling is a nearly universal management activity, the range of possibilities is considerable. The INSITE concept also holds potential for enhancing other management tasks, especially in areas such as cost estimation, where estimation-by-analogy is already a proven method.

  19. How social cognition can inform social decision making.

    PubMed

    Lee, Victoria K; Harris, Lasana T

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures-while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context-and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory. PMID:24399928

  20. How social cognition can inform social decision making

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Victoria K.; Harris, Lasana T.

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures—while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context—and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory. PMID:24399928

  1. Gender and Values: What Is the Impact on Decision Making?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Stephen M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Linkages among gender, decision making, and values related to moral development and equity/equality are studied for 54 graduate and 186 undergraduate business school students (48 percent females) attending a Southern urban university. Results illustrate gender-related differences in value systems, weights of decision issues, and decisions. Future…

  2. 5 CFR 875.407 - Who makes insurability decisions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who makes insurability decisions? 875.407 Section 875.407 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... decisions? The Carrier determines the insurability of all applicants. The Carrier's decision may not...

  3. Control, Contingency and Delegation in Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Stephen R.

    1979-01-01

    Proposes a model which emphasizes the delegation of decision-making authority and managerial control of operations. Suggests that risks can be reduced by using (1) a contingency approach to delegation, (2) decision rules for consistency, (3) decision models for specific situations, (4) vital indicator reports, (5) management by objectives, and (6)…

  4. The Risky Shift in Policy Decision Making: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilpert, B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Based on analysis of data on 432 decision-makers from around the world, this study examines the decision-making phenomenon that individuals tend to move toward riskier decisions after group discussion. Findings of the analysis contradicted earlier studies, showing a consistent shift toward greater risk avoidance. Available from Elsevier Scientific…

  5. The problem of consciousness in habitual decision making.

    PubMed

    Bernacer, Javier; Balderas, Gloria; Martinez-Valbuena, Ivan; Pastor, Maria A; Murillo, Jose Ignacio

    2014-02-01

    Newell & Shanks (N&S) carry out an extremely sharp and static distinction between conscious and unconscious decisions, ignoring a process that dynamically transfers decisions and actions between the conscious and unconscious domains of the mind: habitual decision making. We propose a new categorisation and discuss the main characteristics of this process from a philosophical and neuroscientific perspective. PMID:24461349

  6. Subjective Expected Utility: A Model of Decision-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischoff, Baruch; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a model of decision making known to researchers in the field of behavioral decision theory (BDT) as subjective expected utility (SEU). The descriptive and predictive validity of the SEU model, probability and values assessment using SEU, and decision contexts are examined, and a 54-item reference list is provided. (JL)

  7. Making Career Decisions--A Sequential Elimination Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for career decision making based on the sequential elimination of occupational alternatives, an adaptation for career decisions of Tversky's (1972) elimination-by-aspects theory of choice. The expected utility approach is reviewed as a representative compensatory model for career decisions. Advantages, disadvantages, and…

  8. Beginning Teachers: How Do They Make Decisions about Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Martha

    Sixteen first-year elementary school teachers participated in telephone interviews and classroom observations that focused on decision making processes before and during reading instruction. The most difficult aspect for the majority of teachers interviewed was explaining what influenced their decisions. The major decisions made prior to reading…

  9. Family Decision-Making in Early Adolescence: Conversations and Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Janis E.; And Others

    This study investigated the processes and outcomes of family decision-making during children's transition from late childhood to adolescence. Members of 28 one-parent families and 40 two-parent families completed four decision tasks independently, then as a family. Decision tasks concerned selecting a bicycle, a snack, a movie, and a camp for the…

  10. Trait-related decision making impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence from decision making under ambiguity but not decision making under risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long; Dong, Yi; Ji, Yifu; Tao, Rui; Chen, Xuequan; Ye, Jianguo; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Fengqiong; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether deficits in decision making were potential endophenotype markers for OCD considering different phases of the disease. Fifty-seven non-medicated OCD patients (nmOCD), 77 medicated OCD patients (mOCD), 48 remitted patients with OCD (rOCD) and 115 healthy controls were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which measured decision making under ambiguity, and the Game of Dice Task (GDT), which measured decision making under risk. While the three patients groups showed impaired performance on the IGT compared with healthy controls, all patients showed intact performance on the GDT. Furthermore, the rOCD patients showed a preference for deck B, indicating that they showed more sensitivity to the frequency of loss than to the magnitude of loss, whereas the mOCD patients showed a preference for deck A, indicating that they had more sensitivity to the magnitude of loss than to the frequency of loss. These data suggested that OCD patients had trait-related impairments in decision making under ambiguity but not under risk, and that dissociation of decision making under ambiguity and under risk is an appropriate potential neurocognitive endophenotype for OCD. The subtle but meaningful differences in decision making performance between the OCD groups require further study. PMID:26601899

  11. Economic aspects of clinical decision making: applications of clinical decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Crane, V S

    1988-03-01

    Clinical decision analysis as a basic tool for decision making is described, and potential applications of decision analysis in six areas of clinical practice are identified. Clinical decision analysis is a systematic method of describing clinical problems in a quantitative fashion, identifying possible courses of action, assessing the probability and value of outcomes, and then making a calculation to select the ultimate course of action. Clinical decision analysis provides a structure for clinical decision problems, helps clarify medical controversies, and encourages decision makers to speak a common language. Applications of clinical decision analysis in the areas of diagnostic testing, patient management, product and program selection, research and education, patient preferences, and health-care-policy evaluation are described. Decision analysis offers health professionals a tool for making quantifiable, cost-effective clinical decisions, especially in terms of clinical outcomes. PMID:3285672

  12. Better environmental decision making - recent progress and future trends.

    PubMed

    Pollard, S J T; Davies, G J; Coley, F; Lemon, M

    2008-08-01

    Recent trends in risk-based decision making are reviewed in relation to novel developments in comparative risk analysis, strategic risk analysis, weight of evidence frameworks, and participative decision making. Delivery of these innovations must take account of organisational capabilities in risk management and the institutional culture that implements decision on risk. We stress the importance of managing risk knowledge within organisations, and emphasise the use of core criteria for effective risk-based decisions by reference to decision process, implementation and the security of strategic added value. PMID:18774589

  13. Bridging the gap between science and decision making

    PubMed Central

    von Winterfeldt, Detlof

    2013-01-01

    All decisions, whether they are personal, public, or business-related, are based on the decision maker’s beliefs and values. Science can and should help decision makers by shaping their beliefs. Unfortunately, science is not easily accessible to decision makers, and scientists often do not understand decision makers’ information needs. This article presents a framework for bridging the gap between science and decision making and illustrates it with two examples. The first example is a personal health decision. It shows how a formal representation of the beliefs and values can reflect scientific inputs by a physician to combine with the values held by the decision maker to inform a medical choice. The second example is a public policy decision about managing a potential environmental hazard. It illustrates how controversial beliefs can be reflected as uncertainties and informed by science to make better decisions. Both examples use decision analysis to bridge science and decisions. The conclusions suggest that this can be a helpful process that requires skills in both science and decision making. PMID:23940310

  14. Training in Decision-making Strategies: An approach to enhance students' competence to deal with socio-scientific issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresch, Helge; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2013-10-01

    Dealing with socio-scientific issues in science classes enables students to participate productively in controversial discussions concerning ethical topics, such as sustainable development. In this respect, well-structured decision-making processes are essential for elaborate reasoning. To foster decision-making competence, a computer-based programme was developed that trains secondary school students (grades 11-13) in decision-making strategies. The main research question is: does training students to use these strategies foster decision-making competence? In addition, the influence of meta-decision aids was examined. Students conducted a task analysis to select an appropriate strategy prior to the decision-making process. Hence, the second research question is: does combining decision-making training with a task analysis enhance decision-making competence at a higher rate? To answer these questions, 386 students were tested in a pre-post-follow-up control-group design that included two training groups (decision-making strategies/decision-making strategies combined with a task analysis) and a control group (decision-making with additional ecological information instead of strategic training). An open-ended questionnaire was used to assess decision-making competence in situations related to sustainable development. The decision-making training led to a significant improvement in the post-test and the follow-up, which was administered three months after the training. Long-term effects on the quality of the students' decisions were evident for both training groups. Gains in competence when reflecting upon the decision-making processes of others were found, to a lesser extent, in the training group that received the additional meta-decision training. In conclusion, training in decision-making strategies is a promising approach to deal with socio-scientific issues related to sustainable development.

  15. Better Decision Making in Complex, Dynamic Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qudrat-Ullah, Hassan

    Complex managerial problems abound. For instance, project costs continue to overrun, friendly fire events, where a fighter plane bombs its own troops on ground, appear unavoidable, and overexploitation of renewables continues unabated. In essence, managers and policymakers today face problems that are increasingly complex, and dynamic. Therefore, the need for effective and efficient decisional aids is always on the rise.

  16. Decision Making in the Arrow of Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Édgar; Neri, Izaak; Dörpinghaus, Meik; Meyr, Heinrich; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-12-01

    We show that the steady-state entropy production rate of a stochastic process is inversely proportional to the minimal time needed to decide on the direction of the arrow of time. Here we apply Wald's sequential probability ratio test to optimally decide on the direction of time's arrow in stationary Markov processes. Furthermore, the steady-state entropy production rate can be estimated using mean first-passage times of suitable physical variables. We derive a first-passage time fluctuation theorem which implies that the decision time distributions for correct and wrong decisions are equal. Our results are illustrated by numerical simulations of two simple examples of nonequilibrium processes.

  17. Acute Stress Modulates Risk Taking in Financial Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Anthony J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2016-01-01

    People’s decisions are often susceptible to various demands exerted by the environment, leading to stressful conditions. Although a goal for researchers is to elucidate stress-coping mechanisms to facilitate decision-making processes, it is important to first understand the interaction between the state created by a stressful environment and how decisions are performed in such environments. The objective of this experiment was to probe the impact of exposure to acute stress on financial decision-making and examine the particular influence of stress on decisions with a positive or negative valence. Participants’ choices exhibited a stronger reflection effect when participants were under stress than when they were in the no-stress control phase. This suggests that stress modulates risk taking, potentially exacerbating behavioral bias in subsequent decision making. Consistent with dual-process approaches, decision makers fall back on automatized reactions to risk under the influence of disruptive stress. PMID:19207694

  18. FIESTA: An operational decision aid for space network fault isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Dawn; Quillin, Bob; Matteson, Nadine; Wilkinson, Bill; Miksell, Steve

    1987-01-01

    The Fault Tolerance Expert System for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Applications (FIESTA) is a fault detection and fault diagnosis expert system being developed as a decision aid to support operations in the Network Control Center (NCC) for NASA's Space Network. The operational objectives which influenced FIESTA development are presented and an overview of the architecture used to achieve these goals are provided. The approach to the knowledge engineering effort and the methodology employed are also presented and illustrated with examples drawn from the FIESTA domain.

  19. What Is Known about Parents’ Treatment Decisions? A Narrative Review of Pediatric Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Lipstein, Ellen A.; Brinkman, William B.; Britto, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Background With the increasing complexity of decisions in pediatric medicine, there is a growing need to understand the pediatric decision-making process. Objective To conduct a narrative review of the current research on parent decision making about pediatric treatments and identify areas in need of further investigation. Methods Articles presenting original research on parent decision making were identified from MEDLINE (1966–6/2011), using the terms “decision making,” “parent,” and “child.” We included papers focused on treatment decisions but excluded those focused on information disclosure to children, vaccination, and research participation decisions. Results We found 55 papers describing 52 distinct studies, the majority being descriptive, qualitative studies of the decision-making process, with very limited assessment of decision outcomes. Although parents’ preferences for degree of participation in pediatric decision making vary, most are interested in sharing the decision with the provider. In addition to the provider, parents are influenced in their decision making by changes in their child’s health status, other community members, prior knowledge, and personal factors, such as emotions and faith. Parents struggle to balance these influences as well as to know when to include their child in decision making. Conclusions Current research demonstrates a diversity of influences on parent decision making and parent decision preferences; however, little is known about decision outcomes or interventions to improve outcomes. Further investigation, using prospective methods, is needed in order to understand how to support parents through the difficult treatment decisions. PMID:21969136

  20. Collective Decision-Making in Homing Pigeons: Larger Flocks Take Longer to Decide but Do Not Make Better Decisions.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos D; Przybyzin, Sebastian; Wikelski, Martin; Dechmann, Dina K N

    2016-01-01

    Social animals routinely are challenged to make consensus decisions about movement directions and routes. However, the underlying mechanisms facilitating such decision-making processes are still poorly known. A prominent question is how group members participate in group decisions. We addressed this question by examining how flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia) decide their homing direction. We released newly formed flocks varying in size and determined the time taken to choose a homing direction (decision-making period) and the accuracy of that choice. We found that the decision-making period increases exponentially with flock size, which is consistent with a participatory decision-making process. We additionally found that there is no effect of flock size on the accuracy of the decisions made, which does not match with current theory for democratic choices of flight directions. Our combined results are better explained by a participatory choice of leaders that subsequently undertake the flock directional decisions. However, this decision-making model would only entirely fit with our results if leaders were chosen based on traits other than their navigational experience. Our study provides rare empirical evidence elucidating decision-making processes in freely moving groups of animals. PMID:26863416