Science.gov

Sample records for aid design engineers

  1. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  2. Computer-aided design for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Fehér, Tamás; Carbonell, Pablo; Pauthenier, Cyrille; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-12-20

    The development and application of biotechnology-based strategies has had a great socio-economical impact and is likely to play a crucial role in the foundation of more sustainable and efficient industrial processes. Within biotechnology, metabolic engineering aims at the directed improvement of cellular properties, often with the goal of synthesizing a target chemical compound. The use of computer-aided design (CAD) tools, along with the continuously emerging advanced genetic engineering techniques have allowed metabolic engineering to broaden and streamline the process of heterologous compound-production. In this work, we review the CAD tools available for metabolic engineering with an emphasis, on retrosynthesis methodologies. Recent advances in genetic engineering strategies for pathway implementation and optimization are also reviewed as well as a range of bionalytical tools to validate in silico predictions. A case study applying retrosynthesis is presented as an experimental verification of the output from Retropath, the first complete automated computational pipeline applicable to metabolic engineering. Applying this CAD pipeline, together with genetic reassembly and optimization of culture conditions led to improved production of the plant flavonoid pinocembrin. Coupling CAD tools with advanced genetic engineering strategies and bioprocess optimization is crucial for enhanced product yields and will be of great value for the development of non-natural products through sustainable biotechnological processes.

  3. Engineering Technology Programs Courses Guide for Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide describes the requirements for courses in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) that are part of engineering technology programs conducted in vocational-technical schools in Georgia. The guide is organized in five sections. The first section provides a rationale for occupations in design and in production,…

  4. Accelerating Battery Design Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Heon, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  5. Computer aided design of jet engine test cell exhaust systems

    SciTech Connect

    Collings, D.

    1982-01-01

    A computerized design procedure that provides a multi-directional analysis of available data is a proven method of developing accurate cost models and performing system trade-offs. The application to the engineering of exhaust silencing systems for jet engine test cells is discused.

  6. The development of a spreadsheet-aided-engineering design tool for parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, D.E.; Whinery, L.D.

    1997-04-01

    A spreadsheet-aided engineering design tool has been developed to assist in the parachute design process. The new tool was developed during FY96 and utilized in the design of the flight termination parachute system for a 1900 lb. payload. Many modifications were made during the initial utilization of this tool. Work on the tool continues as the authors attempt to create an application tool for the parachute engineer.

  7. Analytical Design Package (ADP2): A computer aided engineering tool for aircraft transparency design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuerer, J. E.; Gran, M.; Held, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) is being developed as a part of the Air Force Frameless Transparency Program (FTP). ADP2 is an integrated design tool consisting of existing analysis codes and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software. The objective of the ADP2 is to develop and confirm an integrated design methodology for frameless transparencies, related aircraft interfaces, and their corresponding tooling. The application of this methodology will generate high confidence for achieving a qualified part prior to mold fabrication. ADP2 is a customized integration of analysis codes, CAE software, and material databases. The primary CAE integration tool for the ADP2 is P3/PATRAN, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software tool. The open architecture of P3/PATRAN allows customized installations with different applications modules for specific site requirements. Integration of material databases allows the engineer to select a material, and those material properties are automatically called into the relevant analysis code. The ADP2 materials database will be composed of four independent schemas: CAE Design, Processing, Testing, and Logistics Support. The design of ADP2 places major emphasis on the seamless integration of CAE and analysis modules with a single intuitive graphical interface. This tool is being designed to serve and be used by an entire project team, i.e., analysts, designers, materials experts, and managers. The final version of the software will be delivered to the Air Force in Jan. 1994. The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) will then be ready for transfer to industry. The package will be capable of a wide range of design and manufacturing applications.

  8. National Science Foundation 1989 Engineering Senior Design Projects To Aid the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enderle, John D., Ed.

    Through the Bioengineering and Research to Aid the Disabled program of the National Science Foundation, design projects were awarded competitively to 16 universities. Senior engineering students at each of the universities constructed custom devices and software for disabled individuals. This compendium contains a description of each project in…

  9. University of Wyoming, College of Engineering, undergraduate design projects to aid Wyoming persons with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Steven F; Laurin, Kathy M; Bloom, Janet K Chidester

    2003-01-01

    In Spring 2002 the University of Wyoming received NSF funding from the Division of Bioengineering and Environmental Systems to provide a meaningful design experience for University of Wyoming, College of Engineering students that will directly aid individuals with disabilities within the state of Wyoming. Other universities have participated in this very worthwhile program [1, 2, 3]. To achieve the program purpose, the following objectives were established: Provide engineering students multi-disciplinary, meaningful, community service design projects, Provide persons with disabilities assistive devices to empower them to achieve the maximum individual growth and development and afford them the opportunity to participate in all aspects of life as they choose, Provide engineering students education and awareness on the special needs and challenges of persons with disabilities, and Provide undergraduate engineering students exposure to the biomedical field of engineering. To accomplish these objectives the College of Engineering partnered with three organizations that provide education and service related to disability. Specifically, the college has joined with the Wyoming Institute for Disabilities (WIND) assistive technology program, Wyoming New Options in Technology (WYNOT) and their Sports and Outdoor Assistive Recreation (SOAR) project along with the university's Special Education program. In this paper we will describe how the program was created, developed, and its current status.

  10. Accelerating Design of Batteries Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2010-11-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  11. Development of the engineering design integration (EDIN) system: A computer aided design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, C. R.; Hirsch, G. N.

    1977-01-01

    The EDIN (Engineering Design Integration) System which provides a collection of hardware and software, enabling the engineer to perform man-in-the-loop interactive evaluation of aerospace vehicle concepts, was considered. Study efforts were concentrated in the following areas: (1) integration of hardware with the Univac Exec 8 System; (2) development of interactive software for the EDIN System; (3) upgrading of the EDIN technology module library to an interactive status; (4) verification of the soundness of the developing EDIN System; (5) support of NASA in design analysis studies using the EDIN System; (6) provide training and documentation in the use of the EDIN System; and (7) provide an implementation plan for the next phase of development and recommendations for meeting long range objectives.

  12. NEXUS/NASCAD- NASA ENGINEERING EXTENDIBLE UNIFIED SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH NASA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    NEXUS, the NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is a research set of computer programs designed to support the full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. This sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. NEXUS primarily addresses the process of prototype engineering, the task of getting a single or small number of copies of a product to work. Prototype engineering is a critical element of large scale industrial production. The time and cost needed to introduce a new product are heavily dependent on two factors: 1) how efficiently required product prototypes can be developed, and 2) how efficiently required production facilities, also a prototype engineering development, can be completed. NEXUS extendibility and unification are achieved by organizing the system as an arbitrarily large set of computer programs accessed in a common manner through a standard user interface. The NEXUS interface is a multipurpose interactive graphics interface called NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design). NASCAD can be used to build and display two and three-dimensional geometries, to annotate models with dimension lines, text strings, etc., and to store and retrieve design related information such as names, masses, and power requirements of components used in the design. From the user's standpoint, NASCAD allows the construction, viewing, modification, and other processing of data structures that represent the design. Four basic types of data structures are supported by NASCAD: 1) three-dimensional geometric models of the object being designed, 2) alphanumeric arrays to hold data ranging from numeric scalars to multidimensional arrays of numbers or characters, 3) tabular data sets that provide a relational data base capability, and 4) procedure definitions to combine groups of system commands or other user procedures to create more powerful functions. NASCAD has extensive abilities to

  13. VIP: A knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Steven M.; Bellman, Kirstie L.

    1990-01-01

    The Vehicles Implementation Project (VIP), a knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems is described. VIP combines qualitative knowledge in the form of rules, quantitative knowledge in the form of equations, and other mathematical modeling tools. The system allows users rapidly to develop and experiment with models of spacecraft system designs. As information becomes available to the system, appropriate equations are solved symbolically and the results are displayed. Users may browse through the system, observing dependencies and the effects of altering specific parameters. The system can also suggest approaches to the derivation of specific parameter values. In addition to providing a tool for the development of specific designs, VIP aims at increasing the user's understanding of the design process. Users may rapidly examine the sensitivity of a given parameter to others in the system and perform tradeoffs or optimizations of specific parameters. A second major goal of VIP is to integrate the existing corporate knowledge base of models and rules into a central, symbolic form.

  14. Teaching Computer-Aided Design of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Engineering Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosman, A. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a teaching program for fluid mechanics and heat transfer which contains both computer aided learning (CAL) and computer aided design (CAD) components and argues that the understanding of the physical and numerical modeling taught in the CAL course is essential to the proper implementation of CAD. (Author/CMV)

  15. Validation of RetroPath, a computer-aided design tool for metabolic pathway engineering.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Tamás; Planson, Anne-Gaëlle; Carbonell, Pablo; Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Grigoras, Ioana; Dariy, Ekaterina; Perret, Alain; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-11-01

    Metabolic engineering has succeeded in biosynthesis of numerous commodity or high value compounds. However, the choice of pathways and enzymes used for production was many times made ad hoc, or required expert knowledge of the specific biochemical reactions. In order to rationalize the process of engineering producer strains, we developed the computer-aided design (CAD) tool RetroPath that explores and enumerates metabolic pathways connecting the endogenous metabolites of a chassis cell to the target compound. To experimentally validate our tool, we constructed 12 top-ranked enzyme combinations producing the flavonoid pinocembrin, four of which displayed significant yields. Namely, our tool queried the enzymes found in metabolic databases based on their annotated and predicted activities. Next, it ranked pathways based on the predicted efficiency of the available enzymes, the toxicity of the intermediate metabolites and the calculated maximum product flux. To implement the top-ranking pathway, our procedure narrowed down a list of nine million possible enzyme combinations to 12, a number easily assembled and tested. One round of metabolic network optimization based on RetroPath output further increased pinocembrin titers 17-fold. In total, 12 out of the 13 enzymes tested in this work displayed a relative performance that was in accordance with its predicted score. These results validate the ranking function of our CAD tool, and open the way to its utilization in the biosynthesis of novel compounds.

  16. Comparative study of auxetic geometries by means of computer-aided design and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez Elipe, Juan Carlos; Díaz Lantada, Andrés

    2012-10-01

    Auxetic materials (or metamaterials) are those with a negative Poisson ratio (NPR) and display the unexpected property of lateral expansion when stretched, as well as an equal and opposing densification when compressed. Such geometries are being progressively employed in the development of novel products, especially in the fields of intelligent expandable actuators, shape morphing structures and minimally invasive implantable devices. Although several auxetic and potentially auxetic geometries have been summarized in previous reviews and research, precise information regarding relevant properties for design tasks is not always provided. In this study we present a comparative study of two-dimensional and three-dimensional auxetic geometries carried out by means of computer-aided design and engineering tools (from now on CAD-CAE). The first part of the study is focused on the development of a CAD library of auxetics. Once the library is developed we simulate the behavior of the different auxetic geometries and elaborate a systematic comparison, considering relevant properties of these geometries, such as Poisson ratio(s), maximum volume or area reductions attainable and equivalent Young’s modulus, hoping it may provide useful information for future designs of devices based on these interesting structures.

  17. Modification of planned postoperative occlusion in orthognathic surgery, based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-engineered preoperative surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Moon-Key; You, Tae-Kwon; Lee, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    In orthognathic surgery, it is important to have a planned postoperative occlusion. A 3-dimensional preoperative simulation, based on 3-dimensional optically scanned occlusion data, can predict how the planned postoperative occlusion will affect the maxilla-mandibular relationship that results from orthognathic surgery. In this study we modified the planned postoperative occlusion, based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-engineered preoperative surgical simulations. This modification made it possible to resolve the facial asymmetry of the patient successfully with a simple bilateral intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy and no additional maxillary or mandibular surgery.

  18. NEXUS/NASCAD- NASA ENGINEERING EXTENDIBLE UNIFIED SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH NASA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    NEXUS, the NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is a research set of computer programs designed to support the full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. This sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. NEXUS primarily addresses the process of prototype engineering, the task of getting a single or small number of copies of a product to work. Prototype engineering is a critical element of large scale industrial production. The time and cost needed to introduce a new product are heavily dependent on two factors: 1) how efficiently required product prototypes can be developed, and 2) how efficiently required production facilities, also a prototype engineering development, can be completed. NEXUS extendibility and unification are achieved by organizing the system as an arbitrarily large set of computer programs accessed in a common manner through a standard user interface. The NEXUS interface is a multipurpose interactive graphics interface called NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design). NASCAD can be used to build and display two and three-dimensional geometries, to annotate models with dimension lines, text strings, etc., and to store and retrieve design related information such as names, masses, and power requirements of components used in the design. From the user's standpoint, NASCAD allows the construction, viewing, modification, and other processing of data structures that represent the design. Four basic types of data structures are supported by NASCAD: 1) three-dimensional geometric models of the object being designed, 2) alphanumeric arrays to hold data ranging from numeric scalars to multidimensional arrays of numbers or characters, 3) tabular data sets that provide a relational data base capability, and 4) procedure definitions to combine groups of system commands or other user procedures to create more powerful functions. NASCAD has extensive abilities to

  19. An Analysis of Computer Aided Design (CAD) Packages Used at MSFC for the Recent Initiative to Integrate Engineering Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Leigh M.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) packages at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It examines the effectiveness of recent efforts to standardize CAD practices across MSFC engineering activities. An assessment of the roles played by management, designers, analysts, and manufacturers in this initiative will be explored. Finally, solutions are presented for better integration of CAD across MSFC in the future.

  20. Computer aided engineering analysis of automotive bumpers

    SciTech Connect

    Glance, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a description of a general purpose, computer-aided engineering design methodology which has been employed in the design of automotive bumper systems. A comparison of computer-aided analysis predictions with actual test data is presented. Two case histories of bumper system designs are discussed.

  1. Computers in engineering 1983; Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibit, Chicago, IL, August 7-11, 1983. Volume 1 - Computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokonis, T. J.

    The papers presented in this volume provide examples of the impact of computers on present engineering practice and indicate some future trends in computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation. Topics discussed include computer-aided design of turbine cycle configuration, managing and development of engineering computer systems, computer-aided manufacturing with robots in the automotive industry, and computer-aided design/analysis techniques of composite materials in the cure phase. Papers are also presented on computer simulation of vehicular propulsion systems, the performance of a hydraulic system simulator in a CAD environment, and computer simulation of hovercraft heave dynamics and control.

  2. Methodology of Computer-Aided Design of Variable Guide Vanes of Aircraft Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falaleev, Sergei V.; Melentjev, Vladimir S.; Gvozdev, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology which helps to avoid a great amount of costly experimental research. This methodology includes thermo-gas dynamic design of an engine and its mounts, the profiling of compressor flow path and cascade design of guide vanes. Employing a method elaborated by Howell, we provide a theoretical solution to the task of…

  3. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold rolling material and Ti-6A1-4V and Inconel 718 were selected as typical hot rolling and cold rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape rolling process were developed. These models utilized the upper bound and the slab methods of analysis, and were capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll separating force, roll torque, and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design system was also capable of simulating the actual rolling process, and thereby designing the roll pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or a similar shape.

  4. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  5. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold-rolling material and Ti-6Al-4V and INCONEL 718 were selected as typical hot-rolling and cold-rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape-rolling process were developed. These models utilize the upper-bound and the slab methods of analysis, and are capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll-separating force, roll torque and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design (CAD) system is also capable of simulating the actual rolling process and thereby designing roll-pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or similar shape. The predictions from the CAD system were verified with respect to cold rolling of mild steel plates. The system is being applied to cold and hot isothermal rolling of an airfoil shape, and will be verified with respect to laboratory experiments under controlled conditions.

  6. CFD aided optimization of an innovative SCR catalyst design for heavy-duty marine diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastev, V. K.; Russo, S.; Verdemare, D.; Recine, G.; Biferale, L.; Falcucci, G.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the design of a new system for reducing NOx from exhaust gases from marine engines is shown. The core of the system is represented by the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) reactor, in which the catalyst is made of titanium dioxide nano-fibers functionalized with metal oxides and deposited by electrospinning on a corrugated metal support. Compared to the current monolithic reactor designs, the high specific surface offered by the fibers allows in principle to satisfy the TIER III emission standards, with a consistent saving in the reactor volume. To optimize the reactor design process, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been developed, alongside experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Results of different configurations are reported and critically assessed.

  7. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  8. Microcomputer CADD (Computer Aided Design and Drafting) and the Air Force Civil Engineer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    thanks go to the folks at Autodesk , Inc. and AT&T Information Systems for their generous loan of software and microcomputers to the Academy’s Civil ...CADD AND THE AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER AUTHOR(S) MAJOR NEIL H. FRAVEL FACULTY ADVISOR MAJOR ROBERT L. PETERS, ACSC/3823 STUS SPONSOR MRS. RITA M. GREGORY...NO I’I TITLE tinclude Securtty Clatficaton, MICROCOMPUTER CADD AND THE AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER I 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Fravel, Neil H., Major

  9. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  10. Computer-aided drafting and design (CAD) in the Plant Engineering organization at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J.T.; Knott, D.D.; Moore, M.B.

    1983-03-01

    The Plant Engineering organization at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), has been working with a CAD system for approximately 2 1/2 yr, and finds itself at a crossroads. CAD has not been a panacea to workload problems to date, and Plant Engineering commissioned a study to try to determine why and to make recommendations to management on what steps might be taken in the future. Recommendations range from making the current system more productive to enhancing it significantly with newer and more powerful graphics technology.

  11. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Morris, Macdonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1997-01-01

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks.

  12. Computer Aided Drafting and Design, Industrial Manufacturing Technician, and Mechanical Engineering Technician and Machine Tool, Die and Moldmaking Technology. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-East Ohio Tech Prep Consortium, Zanesville.

    This document contains competency profiles in four areas: computer-aided drafting and design; industrial manufacturing technician; mechanical engineering technician; and machine tool, die, and moldmaking technology occupations. The profiles are intended for use in articulating tech prep programs from high school through associate degrees in Ohio.…

  13. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Morris, MacDonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1999-01-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system (100) is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files (104) to design and/or generate lithographic masks (110).

  14. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1996-11-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  15. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Morris, MacDonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1996-01-01

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system (100) is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files (104) to design and/or generate lithographic masks (110).

  16. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Lipshutz, R.J.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  17. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1999-01-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  18. Infusion of a Gaming Paradigm into Computer-Aided Engineering Design Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-03

    iterdisciplinary system design/simularbn environment several gaming concepts such as network-centric multiplayer interactions, detection dfiterferences...into the VTB interdisciplinary system design/simulation environment several gaming concepts such as network-centric multiplayer interactions...simulation speed so that the physics-based gaming environment can operate fast enough for effective human interaction. The multiplayer gaming

  19. Current trends in the design of scaffolds for computer-aided tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Giannitelli, S M; Accoto, D; Trombetta, M; Rainer, A

    2014-02-01

    Advances introduced by additive manufacturing have significantly improved the ability to tailor scaffold architecture, enhancing the control over microstructural features. This has led to a growing interest in the development of innovative scaffold designs, as testified by the increasing amount of research activities devoted to the understanding of the correlation between topological features of scaffolds and their resulting properties, in order to find architectures capable of optimal trade-off between often conflicting requirements (such as biological and mechanical ones). The main aim of this paper is to provide a review and propose a classification of existing methodologies for scaffold design and optimization in order to address key issues and help in deciphering the complex link between design criteria and resulting scaffold properties.

  20. Biomimicry in Product Design through Materials Selection and Computer Aided Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandridis, G.; Tzetzis, D.; Kyratsis, P.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate a 7-step methodology that describes the way nature can act as a source of inspiration for the design and the development of a product. Furthermore, it suggests special computerized tools and methods for the product optimization regarding its environmental impact i.e. material selection, production methods. For validation purposes, a garden chaise lounge that imitates the form of a scorpion was developed as a result for the case study and the presentation of the current methodology.

  1. Computer-aided tissue engineering: overview, scope and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Darling, Andrew; Starly, Binil; Nam, Jae

    2004-02-01

    Advances in computer-aided technology and its application with biology, engineering and information science to tissue engineering have evolved a new field of computer-aided tissue engineering (CATE). This emerging field encompasses computer-aided design (CAD), image processing, manufacturing and solid free-form fabrication (SFF) for modelling, designing, simulation and manufacturing of biological tissue and organ substitutes. The present Review describes some salient advances in this field, particularly in computer-aided tissue modeling, computer-aided tissue informatics and computer-aided tissue scaffold design and fabrication. Methodologies of development of CATE modelling from high-resolution non-invasive imaging and image-based three-dimensional reconstruction, and various reconstructive techniques for CAD-based tissue modelling generation will be described. The latest development in SFF to tissue engineering and a framework of bio-blueprint modelling for three-dimensional cell and organ printing will also be introduced.

  2. Data Mining-Aided Crystal Engineering for the Design of Transparent Conducting Oxides: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, C.; Kim, K.; Berry, J. J.; Lee, J.; Jones, W. B.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to accelerate the pace of material discovery processes by systematically visualizing the huge search space that conventionally needs to be explored. To this end, we demonstrate not only the use of empirical- or crystal chemistry-based physical intuition for decision-making, but also to utilize knowledge-based data mining methodologies in the context of finding p-type delafossite transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). We report on examples using high-dimensional visualizations such as radial visualization combined with machine learning algorithms such as k-nearest neighbor algorithm (k-NN) to better define and visualize the search space (i.e. structure maps) of functional materials design. The vital role of search space generated from these approaches is discussed in the context of crystal chemistry of delafossite crystal structure.

  3. A Pilot Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing Curriculum that Promotes Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Elizabeth City State University (ECSU) is located in a community that is mostly rural in nature. The area is economically deprived when compared to the rest of the state. Many businesses lack the computerized equipment and skills needed to propel upward in today's technologically advanced society. This project will close the ever-widening gap between advantaged and disadvantaged workers as well as increase their participation with industry, NASA and/or other governmental agencies. Everyone recognizes computer technology as the catalyst for advances in design, prototyping, and manufacturing or the art of machining. Unprecedented quality control and cost-efficiency improvements are recognized through the use of computer technology. This technology has changed the manufacturing industry with advanced high-tech capabilities needed by NASA. With the ever-widening digital divide, we must continue to provide computer technology to those who are socio-economically disadvantaged.

  4. Computer-aided system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  5. Engineering Aid 1 & C. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The manual is written primarily to aid in the training of personnel to meet the professional qualifications of the engineering aid, first class and chief. In chapter one, the trainee becomes familiar with the rewards and responsibilities of an engineering aid. Chapter two deals with principles of SEABEE administration, the organization and…

  6. Electronic aids to conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchard, Eugene E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented in viewgraph form are techniques to improve the conceptual design of complex systems. The paper discusses theory of design, flexible software tools for computer aided design, and methods for enhancing communication among design teams.

  7. Computer aided airship design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. J.; Rosenstein, H.

    1975-01-01

    The Comprehensive Airship Sizing and Performance Computer Program (CASCOMP) is described which was developed and used in the design and evaluation of advanced lighter-than-air (LTA) craft. The program defines design details such as engine size and number, component weight buildups, required power, and the physical dimensions of airships which are designed to meet specified mission requirements. The program is used in a comparative parametric evaluation of six advanced lighter-than-air concepts. The results indicate that fully buoyant conventional airships have the lightest gross lift required when designed for speeds less than 100 knots and the partially buoyant concepts are superior above 100 knots. When compared on the basis of specific productivity, which is a measure of the direct operating cost, the partially buoyant lifting body/tilting prop-rotor concept is optimum.

  8. CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing) Highlights.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    AD-Aift 532 CAD/CAN (COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN /COMPUTER-ADD D7 MANUFACTURING) HIGHLIGHTSMU ARMY INDUSTRIAL BASE ENGINEERING ACTIVITY ROCK ISLAND IL D L...1985 B DISCLAIMER This document presents information for the US Army Materiel Command (AMC) Computer-Alded Design /Computer-Aided Manufacturing...contains summaries of Army Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and . Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) efforts that are either completed or ongoing. The Army CAD

  9. Computer-Aided System Needs for the Technical Design Section of the Base Level Civil Engineering Squadron.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    would not need the 3D , since they -mostly deal with two dimensional schematic drawings, and for civil engineers, the * possibility axist8 th-at...use 3D . The possibility seems to exist that civil engineers do not want to use 3D later, since they have not been doing design while looking at...I *. . ° ., -. - *. . -": - 00 0 F’OR THE TECHITICAL DESIGil SSCTIOU[ OF THE~ A’’L VEL CIVIL EGI4Ei’NG S3QUADRO-Li First Li_--ut.enant, USAF AFIT/G

  10. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  11. Computer-Aided Design in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Peter, Ed.

    This publication updates the 1982 occasional paper that was intended to foster staff awareness and assist colleges in Great Britain considering the use of computer-aided design (CAD) material in engineering courses. The paper begins by defining CAD and its place in the Integrated Business System with a brief discussion of the effect of CAD on the…

  12. Computer Code Aids Design Of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    AERO2S computer code developed to aid design engineers in selection and evaluation of aerodynamically efficient wing/canard and wing/horizontal-tail configurations that includes simple hinged-flap systems. Code rapidly estimates longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of conceptual airplane lifting-surface arrangements. Developed in FORTRAN V on CDC 6000 computer system, and ported to MS-DOS environment.

  13. Project-Based Teaching-Learning Computer-Aided Engineering Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoes, J. A.; Relvas, C.; Moreira, R.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided analysis, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping are tools that play an important key role within product design. These are areas of technical knowledge that must be part of engineering and industrial design courses' curricula. This paper describes our teaching experience of…

  14. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.; Olariu, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this grant has been the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles particularly focused on the elements of geometric design, graphical user interfaces, and the interaction of the multitude of software typically used in this engineering environment. This has resulted in the development of several analysis packages and design studies. These include two major software systems currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are SMART, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool, and EASIE, the Environment for Software Integration and Execution. Additional software tools were designed and implemented to address the needs of the engineer working in the conceptual design environment. SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and several engineering analysis capabilities. In addition, SMART has a carefully engineered user interface that makes it easy to learn and use. Finally, a number of specialty characteristics have been built into SMART which allow it to be used efficiently as a front end geometry processor for other analysis packages. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand-alone, analysis codes. Resulting in a streamlining of the exchange of data between programs reducing errors and improving the efficiency. EASIE provides both a methodology and a collection of software tools to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes.

  15. Telerobotic workstation design aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, K.; Hudlicka, E.; Young, D.; Cramer, N.

    1989-01-01

    Telerobot systems are being developed to support a number of space mission applications. In low earth orbit, telerobots and teleoperated manipulators will be used in shuttle operations and space station construction/maintenance. Free flying telerobotic service vehicles will be used at low and geosynchronous orbital operations. Rovers and autonomous vehicles will be equipped with telerobotic devices in planetary exploration. In all of these systems, human operators will interact with the robot system at varied levels during the scheduled operations. The human operators may be in either orbital or ground-based control systems. To assure integrated system development and maximum utility across these systems, designers must be sensitive to the constraints and capabilities that the human brings to system operation and must be assisted in applying these human factors to system development. The simulation and analysis system is intended to serve the needs of system analysis/designers as an integrated workstation in support of telerobotic design.

  16. Computer-aided design and computer science technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Voigt, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A description is presented of computer-aided design requirements and the resulting computer science advances needed to support aerospace design. The aerospace design environment is examined, taking into account problems of data handling and aspects of computer hardware and software. The interactive terminal is normally the primary interface between the computer system and the engineering designer. Attention is given to user aids, interactive design, interactive computations, the characteristics of design information, data management requirements, hardware advancements, and computer science developments.

  17. Engineering Aid 3 & 2, Vol. 2. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Benito C., Jr.

    Designed for individual study and not formal classroom instruction, this rate training manual provides subject matter that relates directly to the occupational qualifications of the Engineering Aid (EA) rating. This volume contains 10 chapters which deal with: (1) wood and light frame structures (examining the uses, kinds, sizes, and grades of…

  18. Novel Ergonomic Postural Assessment Method (NERPA) Using Product-Process Computer Aided Engineering for Ergonomic Workplace Design

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Lite, Alberto; Garcia, Manuel; Domingo, Rosario; Angel Sebastian, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) that result from poor ergonomic design are one of the occupational disorders of greatest concern in the industrial sector. A key advantage in the primary design phase is to focus on a method of assessment that detects and evaluates the potential risks experienced by the operative when faced with these types of physical injuries. The method of assessment will improve the process design identifying potential ergonomic improvements from various design alternatives or activities undertaken as part of the cycle of continuous improvement throughout the differing phases of the product life cycle. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper presents a novel postural assessment method (NERPA) fit for product-process design, which was developed with the help of a digital human model together with a 3D CAD tool, which is widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. The power of 3D visualization and the possibility of studying the actual assembly sequence in a virtual environment can allow the functional performance of the parts to be addressed. Such tools can also provide us with an ergonomic workstation design, together with a competitive advantage in the assembly process. Conclusions The method developed was used in the design of six production lines, studying 240 manual assembly operations and improving 21 of them. This study demonstrated the proposed method’s usefulness and found statistically significant differences in the evaluations of the proposed method and the widely used Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method. PMID:23977340

  19. Aids to School Bus Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  20. STV engine design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: (1) engine design criteria and issues; (2) design requirements for man rating; (3) test requirements for man rating; (4) design requirements for space basing; (5) engine operation requirements; (6) health monitoring; (7) lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) feed system; (8) lunar excursion vehicle (LEV) propellant system; (9) area ratio gimbal angle limits; (10) reaction control system; and (11) engine configuration and characteristics. This document is presented in viewgraph form.

  1. Computer-aided dental prostheses construction using reverse engineering.

    PubMed

    Solaberrieta, E; Minguez, R; Barrenetxea, L; Sierra, E; Etxaniz, O

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems with virtual articulators, which take into account the kinematics, constitutes a breakthrough in the construction of customised dental prostheses. This paper presents a multidisciplinary protocol involving CAM techniques to produce dental prostheses. This protocol includes a step-by-step procedure using innovative reverse engineering technologies to transform completely virtual design processes into customised prostheses. A special emphasis is placed on a novel method that permits a virtual location of the models. The complete workflow includes the optical scanning of the patient, the use of reverse engineering software and, if necessary, the use of rapid prototyping to produce CAD temporary prostheses.

  2. Computer-aided tissue engineering of a human vertebral body.

    PubMed

    Wettergreen, M A; Bucklen, B S; Sun, W; Liebschner, M A K

    2005-10-01

    Tissue engineering is developing into a less speculative science involving the careful interplay of numerous design parameters and multidisciplinary professionals. Problem solving abilities and state of the art research tools are required to develop solutions for a wide variety of clinical issues. One area of particular interest is orthopedic biomechanics, a field that is responsible for the treatment of over 700,000 vertebral fractures in the United States alone last year. Engineers are currently lacking the technology and knowledge required to govern the subsistence of cells in vivo, let alone the knowledge to create a functional tissue replacement for a whole organ. Despite this, advances in computer-aided tissue engineering are continually growing. Using a combinatory approach to scaffold design, patient-specific implants may be constructed. Computer-aided design, optimization of geometry using voxel finite element models or other optimization routines, creation of a library of architectures with specific material properties, rapid prototyping, and determination of a defect site using imaging modalities highlight the current availability of design resources. This study proposes a novel methodology from start to finish which could, in the future, be used to design a tissue-engineered construct for the replacement of an entire vertebral body.

  3. Integrated computer-aided design using minicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, O. O.

    1980-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), a highly interactive software, has been implemented on minicomputers at the NASA Langley Research Center. CAD/CAM software integrates many formerly fragmented programs and procedures into one cohesive system; it also includes finite element modeling and analysis, and has been interfaced via a computer network to a relational data base management system and offline plotting devices on mainframe computers. The CAD/CAM software system requires interactive graphics terminals operating at a minimum of 4800 bits/sec transfer rate to a computer. The system is portable and introduces 'interactive graphics', which permits the creation and modification of models interactively. The CAD/CAM system has already produced designs for a large area space platform, a national transonic facility fan blade, and a laminar flow control wind tunnel model. Besides the design/drafting element analysis capability, CAD/CAM provides options to produce an automatic program tooling code to drive a numerically controlled (N/C) machine. Reductions in time for design, engineering, drawing, finite element modeling, and N/C machining will benefit productivity through reduced costs, fewer errors, and a wider range of configuration.

  4. EGRAM- ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH DESIGN AID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dantzler, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    EGRAM aids in the design of spectrographic systems that utilize an echelle-first order cross disperser combination. This optical combination causes a two dimensional echellogram to fall on a detector. EGRAM describes the echellogram with enough detail to allow the user to effectively judge the feasibility of the spectrograph's design. By iteratively altering system parameters, the desired echellogram can be achieved without making a physical model. EGRAM calculates system parameters which are accurate to the first order and compare favorably to results from ray tracing techniques. The spectrographic system modelled by EGRAM consists of an entrance aperture, collimator, echelle, cross dispersion grating, focusing options, and a detector. The system is assumed to be free of aberrations and the echelle, cross disperser, and detector should be planar. The EGRAM program is menu driven and has a HELP facility. The user is prompted for information such as minimum and maximum wavelengths, slit dimensions, ruling frequencies, detector geometry, and angle of incidence. EGRAM calculates the resolving power and range of order numbers covered by the echellogram. A numerical map is also produced. This tabulates the order number, slit bandpass, and high/middle/low wavelengths. EGRAM can also compute the centroid coordinates of a specific wavelength and order (or vice versa). EGRAM is written for interactive execution and is written in Microsoft BASIC A. It has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS. EGRAM was developed in 1985.

  5. Microstereolithography-based computer-aided manufacturing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Various solid freeform fabrication technologies have been introduced for constructing three-dimensional (3-D) freeform structures. Of these, microstereolithography (MSTL) technology performs the best in 3-D space because it not only has high resolution, but also fast fabrication speed. Using this technology, 3-D structures with mesoscale size and microscale resolution are achievable. Many researchers have been trying to apply this technology to tissue engineering to construct medically applicable scaffolds, which require a 3-D shape that fits a defect with a mesoscale size and microscale inner architecture for efficient regeneration of artificial tissue. This chapter introduces the principles of MSTL technology and representative systems. It includes fabrication and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) processes to show the automation process by which measurements from medical images are used to fabricate the required 3-D shape. Then, various tissue engineering applications based on MSTL are summarized.

  6. Engineering Design Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike

    2004-01-01

    In the author's opinion, the separation of content between science, math, engineering, and technology education should not exist. Working with the relationship between these content areas enhances students' efforts to learn about the physical world. In teaching students about design, technology, and engineering, attention should be given to the…

  7. Quiet engine program flight engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klapproth, J. F.; Neitzel, R. E.; Seeley, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typical of a subsonic transport aircraft were considered. High and low tip speed engines in various acoustically treated nacelle configurations were included.

  8. Stirling engine design manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve both as an introduction to Stirling engine analysis methods and as a key to the open literature on Stirling engines. Over 800 references are listed and these are cross referenced by date of publication, author and subject. Engine analysis is treated starting from elementary principles and working through cycles analysis. Analysis methodologies are classified as first, second or third order depending upon degree of complexity and probable application; first order for preliminary engine studies, second order for performance prediction and engine optimization, and third order for detailed hardware evaluation and engine research. A few comparisons between theory and experiment are made. A second order design procedure is documented step by step with calculation sheets and a worked out example to follow. Current high power engines are briefly described and a directory of companies and individuals who are active in Stirling engine development is included. Much remains to be done. Some of the more complicated and potentially very useful design procedures are now only referred to. Future support will enable a more thorough job of comparing all available design procedures against experimental data which should soon be available.

  9. Computer-aided design of LSI topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliutin, V. A.

    The problems and methods of the computer-aided design of the topology of LSI circuits and computer-aided manufacture of LSI templates are reviewed. Topics discussed include algorithms for the layout of cells and circuit units, algorithms for tracing connections, the design of the topology of matrix LSI, and the topology of functional LSI circuit units based on MIS structures. The discussion also covers the design of the layout of LSI circuits with single-layer commutation, application examples, and the main trends in the computer-aided design of LSI circuits.

  10. A computer-aided regulator design.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmarkar, J. S.; Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    A unified computer-aided method for the design of linear and nonlinear regulators is discussed. The general mathematical programming approach considered involves the determination of a vector that solves the problem of minimizing the objective function subject to constraints. Classical design problems stated are related to stability design, dominant mode design, and comprehensive design. A computer algorithm is also developed.

  11. An Elective Course on Computer-Aided Process Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerfeld, Jude T.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate chemical engineering course which has been offered at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The objectives, structure, instructional materials and content of this course, which emphasizes the structure and usage of computer-aided design systems, are also included. (HM)

  12. Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

    2004-01-01

    We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

  13. Computer-Aided Final Design Cost Estimating System Overview.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    laboratory _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ /1— COMPUTER-AIDED FINAL DESIGN • COST ESTIMATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW © by...PROJECT . TASKAAEA~~ WORK UNIT NUMBERSCONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY ~~~~~~~~~ .• . — P.O. Box 4005 ~~ 4A7627~ %T4fldt11 Champa ign , IL 61820...Construction Division (FA), U.S. Army Construction Engineering Re- search Laboratory (CERL), Champaign , IL. The Principal Investigator was Mr. Michael

  14. Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…

  15. Computer-Aided Socket Design For Amputees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novicov, Aleksey; Foort, James

    1983-07-01

    The fitting of sockets and artificial legs to amputees' stumps is a difficult and lengthy process that can take numerous trials. It has been proposed that most amputees can be fitted with a standard socket shape with minimal changes to the socket. To perform this task, a procedure is being developed at the Medical Engineering Resource Unit for computer aided socket design for amputees. An interactive PASCAL program, operating on a microcomputer, will prompt the operator (or prosthetist) by asking him to determine the condition of the stump. While the operator is inputing this information into the computer, together with a few critical anatomical measurements, a standard socket shape, viewed on the video monitor, will begin to change. Throughout the "shape fitting" procedure, the operator will have the ability to modify the socket shape on the screen with the use of a light pen. It will also be possible to view various cross-sections and different perspectives. The shape fitting procedure continues until a suitable socket shape is designed. Future efforts will focus on transferring the computer designed socket into a physical socket. The overall goal is to provide amputees with a better fit in less time and to objectify socket fitting so that new prosthetists may be easily taught.

  16. Multidisciplinary design optimization: An emerging new engineering discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1993-01-01

    This paper defines the Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) as a new field of research endeavor and as an aid in the design of engineering systems. It examines the MDO conceptual components in relation to each other and defines their functions.

  17. Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The design of modern aerospace systems relies on the efficient utilization of computational resources and the availability of computational tools to provide accurate system modeling. This research focuses on the development of a computer aided control system design application which provides a full range of stability analysis and control design capabilities for aerospace vehicles.

  18. On computer-aided design of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski, J. E.; Voigt, S. J.; Fulton, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Digital computers are being used in many engineering activities to support design work. This paper provides an overview of some of this work as it relates to the design of aerospace vehicles. Discussions are given of some of the complexities of the design process which lead to large design costs and time. A number of important but disjointed computer capabilities have evolved over the years in analysis, optimization, and graphics, and such capabilities aid in addressing the problem of design complexity. Examples of existing computer-aided design (CAD) systems are given and trends for future CAD systems are indicated, as well as their relationship to pertinent data management technology. It is suggested that major gains in design capability will occur through continued development of CAD methodology and that these gains may be accelerated through a large focused effort.

  19. Progress of the Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A. A.; Han, T.; Hartridge, S.; Shaffer, C.; Kim, G. H.; Pannala, S.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation, Progress of Computer-Aided Engineering of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries (CAEBAT) is about simulation and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools that are widely used to speed up the research and development cycle and reduce the number of build-and-break steps, particularly in the automotive industry. Realizing this, DOE?s Vehicle Technologies Program initiated the CAEBAT project in April 2010 to develop a suite of software tools for designing batteries.

  20. SMS engineering design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The engineering design for the Shuttle Missions Simulator is presented in sections, with each section representing a subsystem development activity. Subsystems covered include: electrical power system; mechanical power system; main propellant and external tank; solid rocket booster; reaction control system; orbital maneuvering system; guidance, navigation, and control; data processing system; mission control center interface; and image display system.

  1. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  2. Photogrammetry and computer-aided piping design

    SciTech Connect

    Keneflick, J.F.; Chirillo, R.D.

    1985-02-18

    Three-dimensional measurements taken from photographs of a plant model can be digitized and linked with computer-aided piping design. This can short-cut the design and construction of new plants and expedite repair and retrofitting projects. Some designers bridge the gap between model and computer by digitizing from orthographic prints obtained via orthography or the laser scanning of model sections. Such valve or fitting then processed is described in this paper. The marriage of photogrammetry and computer-aided piping design can economically produce such numerical drawings.

  3. Uncertainty management in intelligent design aiding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald E.; Gabbert, Paula S.

    1988-01-01

    A novel approach to uncertainty management which is particularly effective in intelligent design aiding systems for large-scale systems is presented. The use of this approach in the materials handling system design domain is discussed. It is noted that, during any point in the design process, a point value can be obtained for the evaluation of feasible designs; however, the techniques described provide unique solutions for these point values using only the current information about the design environment.

  4. PCACE- PERSONAL COMPUTER AIDED CABLING ENGINEERING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    A computerized interactive harness engineering program has been developed to provide an inexpensive, interactive system which is designed for learning and using an engineering approach to interconnection systems. PCACE is basically a database system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records. This directly emulates the typical manual engineering methods of data handling, thus making the user interface to the program very natural. Data files can be created, viewed, manipulated, or printed in real time. The printed ouput is in a form ready for use by fabrication and engineering personnel. PCACE also contains a wide variety of error-checking routines including connector contact checks during hardcopy generation. The user may edit existing harness data files or create new files. In creating a new file, the user is given the opportunity to insert all the connector and harness boiler plate data which would be part of a normal connector wiring diagram. This data includes the following: 1) connector reference designator, 2) connector part number, 3) backshell part number, 4) cable reference designator, 5) cable part number, 6) drawing revision, 7) relevant notes, 8) standard wire gauge, and 9) maximum circuit count. Any item except the maximum circuit count may be left blank, and any item may be changed at a later time. Once a file is created and organized, the user is directed to the main menu and has access to the file boiler plate, the circuit wiring records, and the wiring records index list. The organization of a file is such that record zero contains the connector/cable boiler plate, and all other records contain circuit wiring data. Each wiring record will handle a circuit with as many as nine wires in the interface. The record stores the circuit name and wire count and the following data for each wire: 1) wire identifier, 2) contact, 3) splice, 4) wire gauge if different from standard

  5. Computer Aided Drug Design: Success and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Ahmad, Khurshid; Roy, Sudeep; Ashraf, Jalaluddin Mohammad; Adil, Mohd; Siddiqui, Mohammad Haris; Khan, Saif; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Provazník, Ivo; Choi, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, computer-aided drug design has emerged as a powerful technique playing a crucial role in the development of new drug molecules. Structure-based drug design and ligand-based drug design are two methods commonly used in computer-aided drug design. In this article, we discuss the theory behind both methods, as well as their successful applications and limitations. To accomplish this, we reviewed structure based and ligand based virtual screening processes. Molecular dynamics simulation, which has become one of the most influential tool for prediction of the conformation of small molecules and changes in their conformation within the biological target, has also been taken into account. Finally, we discuss the principles and concepts of molecular docking, pharmacophores and other methods used in computer-aided drug design.

  6. Artwork Interactive Design System (AIDS) program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. T.; Taylor, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    An artwork interactive design system is described which provides the microelectronic circuit designer/engineer a tool to perform circuit design, automatic layout modification, standard cell design, and artwork verification at a graphics computer terminal using a graphics tablet at the designer/computer interface.

  7. Aids in designing laboratory flumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Garnett P.

    1971-01-01

    The upsurge of interest in our environment has caused research and instruction in the flow of water along open channels to become increasingly popular in universities and institutes. This, in turn, has brought a greater demand for properly-designed laboratory flumes. Whatever the reason for your interest, designing and building the flume will take a little preparation. You may choose a pattern exactly like a previous design, or you may follow the more time-consuming method of studying several existing flumes and combine the most desirable features of each.

  8. Engineering Design Handbook: Value Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-07-20

    worthwhile contribution to those goings-on, is often as important to the employee as the amount of compensation he receives. Training in the elements...be set up for: top management, operational management, operating personnel, and value engineers. 4-2.3.1 TOP Managiement Briefings In these...that is what you are being paid to handle, and the level of compensation is very likely to be (or should be) commensurate with your efficacy in

  9. Computer-Aided Engineering Of Cabling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    Program generates data sheets, drawings, and other information on electrical connections. DFACS program, centered around single data base, has built-in menus providing easy input of, and access to, data for all personnel involved in system, subsystem, and cabling. Enables parallel design of circuit-data sheets and drawings of harnesses. Also recombines raw information to generate automatically various project documents and drawings, including index of circuit-data sheets, list of electrical-interface circuits, lists of assemblies and equipment, cabling trees, and drawings of cabling electrical interfaces and harnesses. Purpose of program to provide engineering community with centralized data base for putting in, and gaining access to, functional definition of system as specified in terms of details of pin connections of end circuits of subsystems and instruments and data on harnessing. Primary objective to provide instantaneous single point of interchange of information, thus avoiding

  10. SNL Mechanical Computer Aided Design (MCAD) guide 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Brandon; Pollice, Stephanie L.; Martinez, Jack R.

    2007-12-01

    This document is considered a mechanical design best-practice guide to new and experienced designers alike. The contents consist of topics related to using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, performing basic analyses, and using configuration management. The details specific to a particular topic have been leveraged against existing Product Realization Standard (PRS) and Technical Business Practice (TBP) requirements while maintaining alignment with sound engineering and design practices. This document is to be considered dynamic in that subsequent updates will be reflected in the main title, and each update will be published on an annual basis.

  11. A rule based computer aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1986-01-01

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) system is presented which supports the iterative process of design, the dimensional continuity between mating parts, and the hierarchical structure of the parts in their assembled configuration. Prolog, an interactive logic programming language, is used to represent and interpret the data base. The solid geometry representing the parts is defined in parameterized form using the swept volume method. The system is demonstrated with a design of a spring piston.

  12. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.104 Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid...

  13. Shedding Light on Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Nyquist, Chell; Tyrie, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the steps incorporated to teach an engineering design process in a fifth-grade science classroom. The engineering design-based activity was an existing scientific inquiry activity using UV light--detecting beads and purposefully creating a series of engineering design-based challenges around the investigation. The…

  14. Designing Visual Aids That Promote Risk Literacy.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T

    2017-02-01

    Background Effective risk communication is essential for informed decision making. Unfortunately, many people struggle to understand typical risk communications because they lack essential decision-making skills. Objective The aim of this study was to review the literature on the effect of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, and to evaluate the benefits of visual aids in risk communication. Method We present a conceptual framework describing the influence of numeracy on risk literacy, decision making, and health outcomes, followed by a systematic review of the benefits of visual aids in risk communication for people with different levels of numeracy and graph literacy. The systematic review covers scientific research published between January 1995 and April 2016, drawn from the following databases: Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, Medline, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria were investigation of the effect of numeracy and/or graph literacy, and investigation of the effect of visual aids or comparison of their effect with that of numerical information. Thirty-six publications met the criteria, providing data on 27,885 diverse participants from 60 countries. Results Transparent visual aids robustly improved risk understanding in diverse individuals by encouraging thorough deliberation, enhancing cognitive self-assessment, and reducing conceptual biases in memory. Improvements in risk understanding consistently produced beneficial changes in attitudes, behavioral intentions, trust, and healthy behaviors. Visual aids were found to be particularly beneficial for vulnerable and less skilled individuals. Conclusion Well-designed visual aids tend to be highly effective tools for improving informed decision making among diverse decision makers. We identify five categories of practical, evidence-based guidelines for heuristic evaluation and design of effective visual aids.

  15. Simulation as an Aid to Experimental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Jack W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses simulation program to aid in the design of enzyme kinetic experimentation (includes sample runs). Concentration versus time profiles of any subset or all nine states of reactions can be displayed with/without simulated instrumental noise, allowing the user to estimate the practicality of any proposed experiment given known instrument…

  16. Fusion Engineering Device design description

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  17. Fusion engineering device design description

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  18. Multidisciplinary Expert-aided Analysis and Design (MEAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummel, Thomas C.; Taylor, James

    1989-01-01

    The MEAD Computer Program (MCP) is being developed under the Multidisciplinary Expert-Aided Analysis and Design (MEAD) Project as a CAD environment in which integrated flight, propulsion, and structural control systems can be designed and analyzed. The MCP has several embedded computer-aided control engineering (CACE) packages, a user interface (UI), a supervisor, a data-base manager (DBM), and an expert system (ES). The supervisor monitors and coordinates the operation of the CACE packages, the DBM; the ES, and the UI. The DBM tracks the control design process. Models created or installed by the MCP are tracked by date and version, and results are associated with the specific model version with which they were generated. The ES is used to relieve the control engineer from tedious and cumbersome tasks in the iterative design process. The UI provides the capability for a novice as well as an expert to utilize the MCP easily and effectively. The MCP version 2(MCP-2.0) is fully developed for flight control system design and analysis. Propulsion system modeling, analysis, and simulation is also supported; the same is true for structural models represented in state-space form. The ultimate goal is to cover the integration of flight, propulsion, and structural control engineering, including all discipline-specific functionality and interfaces. The current MCP-2.0 components and functionality are discussed.

  19. HIGHWAY ENGINEERING AIDE, A SUGGESTED TRAINING PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARNOLD, WALTER M.; AND OTHERS

    TO AID ADMINISTRATORS, SUPERVISORS, TEACHER TRAINEES, AND TEACHERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION OF A POSTSECONDARY COURSE, THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED PURSUANT TO A U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION (USOE) CONTRACT BY THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. THE CONTENT COVERS -- (1) ORIENTATION AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS, (2) TECHNICAL MATHEMATICS, (3)…

  20. Computer-Aided Structural Engineering (CASE) Project. CBASIN--Structural Design of Saint Anthony Falls Stilling Basins According to Corps of Engineers Criteria for Hydraulic Structures. Computer Program X0098

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    designs for essentially all sections of ordinary, straight inlet, chute spillways on earth foundations. This material should be useful to both...Engineers criteria for working stress design of hydraulic structures. Geometry is in accordance with the Saint Anthony Falls (SAF) stilling basin of the...accepts as input the overall geometry , hydraulic data, and soils parameters; therefore, this information must all be determined before starting the

  1. Review of AIDS development. [airborne computers for reliability engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermeulen, H. C.; Danielsson, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    The operation and implementation of the aircraft integrated data system AIDS are described. The system is described as an engineering tool with strong emphasis on analysis of recorded information. The AIDS is primarily directed to the monitoring of parameters related to: the safety of the flight; the performance of the aircraft; the performance of the flight guidance system; and the performance and condition of the engines. The system provide short term trend analysis on a trend chart that is updated by the flight engineer on every flight that lasts more than 4 flight hours. Engine data prints are automatically presented during take-off and in the case of limit excedance, e.g., the print shows an automatically reported impending hotstarts on engine nr. 1. Other significant features are reported.

  2. The Computer Aided Aircraft-design Package (CAAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalif, Guy U.

    1994-01-01

    The preliminary design of an aircraft is a complex, labor-intensive, and creative process. Since the 1970's, many computer programs have been written to help automate preliminary airplane design. Time and resource analyses have identified, 'a substantial decrease in project duration with the introduction of an automated design capability'. Proof-of-concept studies have been completed which establish 'a foundation for a computer-based airframe design capability', Unfortunately, today's design codes exist in many different languages on many, often expensive, hardware platforms. Through the use of a module-based system architecture, the Computer aided Aircraft-design Package (CAAP) will eventually bring together many of the most useful features of existing programs. Through the use of an expert system, it will add an additional feature that could be described as indispensable to entry level engineers and students: the incorporation of 'expert' knowledge into the automated design process.

  3. PCACE-Personal-Computer-Aided Cabling Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1987-01-01

    PCACE computer program developed to provide inexpensive, interactive system for learning and using engineering approach to interconnection systems. Basically database system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records. Directly emulates typical manual engineering methods of handling data, thus making interface between user and program very natural. Apple version written in P-Code Pascal and IBM PC version of PCACE written in TURBO Pascal 3.0

  4. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1992-01-01

    The goal was the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. Several packages and design studies were completed, including two software tools currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) and the Environment for Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and additionally provides initial mass property analysis. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand alone analysis codes that result in the streamlining of the exchange of data between programs, reducing errors and improving efficiency.

  5. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, it has been the primary goal of this grant to design and implement software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. The work carried out under this grant was performed jointly with members of the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) of NASA LaRC, Computer Sciences Corp., and Vigyan Corp. This has resulted in the development of several packages and design studies. Primary among these are the interactive geometric modeling tool, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (smart), and the integration and execution tools provided by the Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). In addition, it is the purpose of the personnel of this grant to provide consultation in the areas of structural design, algorithm development, and software development and implementation, particularly in the areas of computer aided design, geometric surface representation, and parallel algorithms.

  6. USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING TOOL IN POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-Aided Process Engineering has become established in industry as a design tool. With the establishment of the CAPE-OPEN software specifications for process simulation environments. CAPE-OPEN provides a set of "middleware" standards that enable software developers to acces...

  7. Domain specific software design for decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Kirby; Stanley, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    McDonnell Aircraft Company (MCAIR) is involved in many large multi-discipline design and development efforts of tactical aircraft. These involve a number of design disciplines that must be coordinated to produce an integrated design and a successful product. Our interpretation of a domain specific software design (DSSD) is that of a representation or framework that is specialized to support a limited problem domain. A DSSD is an abstract software design that is shaped by the problem characteristics. This parallels the theme of object-oriented analysis and design of letting the problem model directly drive the design. The DSSD concept extends the notion of software reusability to include representations or frameworks. It supports the entire software life cycle and specifically leads to improved prototyping capability, supports system integration, and promotes reuse of software designs and supporting frameworks. The example presented in this paper is the task network architecture or design which was developed for the MCAIR Pilot's Associate program. The task network concept supported both module development and system integration within the domain of operator decision aiding. It is presented as an instance where a software design exhibited many of the attributes associated with DSSD concept.

  8. Financial Aid for Minorities in Engineering and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett Park Press, MD.

    This directory of financial aid sources for minority students majoring in engineering or scientific fields includes the following types of information: (1) summary and description of the field, including college enrollment statistics, degrees awarded, demand for graduates (including salary ranges), and definitions of major fields; (2) directory of…

  9. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  10. Aspects on Transfer of Aided - Design Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goanta, A. M.; Anghelache, D. G.

    2016-08-01

    At this stage of development of hardware and software, each company that makes design software packages has a certain type of file created and customized in time to distinguish that company from its competitors. Thus today are widely known the DWG files belonging AutoCAD, IPT / IAM belonging to Inventor, PAR / ASM of Solid Edge's, PRT from the NX and so on. Behind every type of file there is a mathematical model which is common to more types of files. A specific aspect of the computer -aided design is that all softwares are working with both individual parts and assemblies, but their approach is different in that some use the same type of file both for each part and for the whole (PRT ), while others use different types of files (IPT / IAM, PAR / ASM, etc.). Another aspect of the computer -aided design is to transfer files between different companies which use different software packages or even the same software package but in different versions. Each of these situations generates distinct issues. Thus, to solve the partial reading by a project different from the native one, transfer files of STEP and IGES type are used

  11. Assembly design system based on engineering connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-12-01

    An assembly design system is an important part of computer-aided design systems, which are important tools for realizing product concept design. The traditional assembly design system does not record the connection information of production on the engineering layer; consequently, the upstream design idea cannot be fully used in the downstream design. An assembly design model based on the relationship of engineering connection is presented. In this model, all nodes are divided into two categories: The component and the connection. Moreover, the product is constructed on the basis of the connection relationship of the components. The model is an And/Or graph and has the ability to record all assembly schemes. This model records only the connection information that has engineering application value in the product design. In addition, this model can significantly reduce the number of combinations, and is very favorable for the assembly sequence planning in the downstream. The system contains a connection knowledge system that can be mapped to the connection node, and the connection knowledge obtained in practice can be returned to the knowledge system. Finally, VC++ 6.0 is used to develop a prototype system called Connect-based Assembly Planning (CAP). The relationship between the CAP system and the commercial assembly design system is also established.

  12. Computer-Aided Drug Design Methods.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenbo; MacKerell, Alexander D

    2017-01-01

    Computational approaches are useful tools to interpret and guide experiments to expedite the antibiotic drug design process. Structure-based drug design (SBDD) and ligand-based drug design (LBDD) are the two general types of computer-aided drug design (CADD) approaches in existence. SBDD methods analyze macromolecular target 3-dimensional structural information, typically of proteins or RNA, to identify key sites and interactions that are important for their respective biological functions. Such information can then be utilized to design antibiotic drugs that can compete with essential interactions involving the target and thus interrupt the biological pathways essential for survival of the microorganism(s). LBDD methods focus on known antibiotic ligands for a target to establish a relationship between their physiochemical properties and antibiotic activities, referred to as a structure-activity relationship (SAR), information that can be used for optimization of known drugs or guide the design of new drugs with improved activity. In this chapter, standard CADD protocols for both SBDD and LBDD will be presented with a special focus on methodologies and targets routinely studied in our laboratory for antibiotic drug discoveries.

  13. Rapid Geometry Creation for Computer-Aided Engineering Parametric Analyses: A Case Study Using ComGeom2 for Launch Abort System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, Veronica; Gage, Peter; Manning, Ted

    2007-01-01

    ComGeom2, a tool developed to generate Common Geometry representation for multidisciplinary analysis, has been used to create a large set of geometries for use in a design study requiring analysis by two computational codes. This paper describes the process used to generate the large number of configurations and suggests ways to further automate the process and make it more efficient for future studies. The design geometry for this study is the launch abort system of the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle.

  14. NASA System Engineering Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  15. Engineering Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Whitworth, Brooke A.; Gonczi, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    The number of students majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) is declining due in part to a lack of student interest (Fairweather 2008; NRC 2012; PCAST 2010). One reason may be the difference between how science is done in school and how it is done in the field (Osborne, Simon, and Collins 2003). An interdisciplinary…

  16. Computer-aided software development process design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe an intelligent tool designed to aid managers of software development projects in planning, managing, and controlling the development process of medium- to large-scale software projects. Its purpose is to reduce uncertainties in the budget, personnel, and schedule planning of software development projects. It is based on dynamic model for the software development and maintenance life-cycle process. This dynamic process is composed of a number of time-varying, interacting developmental phases, each characterized by its intended functions and requirements. System dynamics is used as a modeling methodology. The resulting Software LIfe-Cycle Simulator (SLICS) and the hybrid expert simulation system of which it is a subsystem are described.

  17. Bone tissue engineering scaffolding: computer-aided scaffolding techniques.

    PubMed

    Thavornyutikarn, Boonlom; Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qizhi

    Tissue engineering is essentially a technique for imitating nature. Natural tissues consist of three components: cells, signalling systems (e.g. growth factors) and extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM forms a scaffold for its cells. Hence, the engineered tissue construct is an artificial scaffold populated with living cells and signalling molecules. A huge effort has been invested in bone tissue engineering, in which a highly porous scaffold plays a critical role in guiding bone and vascular tissue growth and regeneration in three dimensions. In the last two decades, numerous scaffolding techniques have been developed to fabricate highly interconnective, porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. This review provides an update on the progress of foaming technology of biomaterials, with a special attention being focused on computer-aided manufacturing (Andrade et al. 2002) techniques. This article starts with a brief introduction of tissue engineering (Bone tissue engineering and scaffolds) and scaffolding materials (Biomaterials used in bone tissue engineering). After a brief reviews on conventional scaffolding techniques (Conventional scaffolding techniques), a number of CAM techniques are reviewed in great detail. For each technique, the structure and mechanical integrity of fabricated scaffolds are discussed in detail. Finally, the advantaged and disadvantage of these techniques are compared (Comparison of scaffolding techniques) and summarised (Summary).

  18. Application of Robust Design and Advanced Computer Aided Engineering Technologies: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-04-143

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, M.

    2013-06-01

    Oshkosh Corporation (OSK) is taking an aggressive approach to implementing advanced technologies, including hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology, throughout their commercial and military product lines. These technologies have important implications for OSK's commercial and military customers, including fleet fuel efficiency, quiet operational modes, additional on-board electric capabilities, and lower thermal signature operation. However, technical challenges exist with selecting the optimal HEV components and design to work within the performance and packaging constraints of specific vehicle applications. SK desires to use unique expertise developed at the Department of Energy?s (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), including HEV modeling and simulation. These tools will be used to overcome technical hurdles to implementing advanced heavy vehicle technology that meet performance requirements while improving fuel efficiency.

  19. Protein design for pathway engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksen, DT; Lian, JZ; Zhao, HM

    2014-02-01

    Design and construction of biochemical pathways has increased the complexity of biosynthetically-produced compounds when compared to single enzyme biocatalysis. However, the coordination of multiple enzymes can introduce a complicated set of obstacles to overcome in order to achieve a high titer and yield of the desired compound. Metabolic engineering has made great strides in developing tools to optimize the flux through a target pathway, but the inherent characteristics of a particular enzyme within the pathway can still limit the productivity. Thus, judicious protein design is critical for metabolic and pathway engineering. This review will describe various strategies and examples of applying protein design to pathway engineering to optimize the flux through the pathway. The proteins can be engineered for altered substrate specificity/selectivity, increased catalytic activity, reduced mass transfer limitations through specific protein localization, and reduced substrate/product inhibition. Protein engineering can also be expanded to design biosensors to enable high through-put screening and to customize cell signaling networks. These strategies have successfully engineered pathways for significantly increased productivity of the desired product or in the production of novel compounds. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Protein Design for Pathway Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Dawn T.; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2013-01-01

    Design and construction of biochemical pathways has increased the complexity of biosynthetically-produced compounds when compared to single enzyme biocatalysis. However, the coordination of multiple enzymes can introduce a complicated set of obstacles to overcome in order to achieve a high titer and yield of the desired compound. Metabolic engineering has made great strides in developing tools to optimize the flux through a target pathway, but the inherent characteristics of a particular enzyme within the pathway can still limit the productivity. Thus, judicious protein design is critical for metabolic and pathway engineering. This review will describe various strategies and examples of applying protein design to pathway engineering to optimize the flux through the pathway. The proteins can be engineered for altered substrate specificity/selectivity, increased catalytic activity, reduced mass transfer limitations through specific protein localization, and reduced substrate/product inhibition. Protein engineering can also be expanded to design biosensors to enable high through-put screening and to customize cell signaling networks. These strategies have successfully engineered pathways for significantly increased productivity of the desired product or in the production of novel compounds. PMID:23558037

  1. Protein design for pathway engineering.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Dawn T; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-02-01

    Design and construction of biochemical pathways has increased the complexity of biosynthetically-produced compounds when compared to single enzyme biocatalysis. However, the coordination of multiple enzymes can introduce a complicated set of obstacles to overcome in order to achieve a high titer and yield of the desired compound. Metabolic engineering has made great strides in developing tools to optimize the flux through a target pathway, but the inherent characteristics of a particular enzyme within the pathway can still limit the productivity. Thus, judicious protein design is critical for metabolic and pathway engineering. This review will describe various strategies and examples of applying protein design to pathway engineering to optimize the flux through the pathway. The proteins can be engineered for altered substrate specificity/selectivity, increased catalytic activity, reduced mass transfer limitations through specific protein localization, and reduced substrate/product inhibition. Protein engineering can also be expanded to design biosensors to enable high through-put screening and to customize cell signaling networks. These strategies have successfully engineered pathways for significantly increased productivity of the desired product or in the production of novel compounds.

  2. Vascular tissue engineering by computer-aided laser micromachining.

    PubMed

    Doraiswamy, Anand; Narayan, Roger J

    2010-04-28

    Many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds are not suitable for fabricating scaffolds with patient-specific attributes. For example, many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds do not provide control over overall scaffold geometry or over cell position within the scaffold. In this study, the use of computer-aided laser micromachining to create scaffolds for vascular tissue networks was investigated. Computer-aided laser micromachining was used to construct patterned surfaces in agarose or in silicon, which were used for differential adherence and growth of cells into vascular tissue networks. Concentric three-ring structures were fabricated on agarose hydrogel substrates, in which the inner ring contained human aortic endothelial cells, the middle ring contained HA587 human elastin and the outer ring contained human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Basement membrane matrix containing vascular endothelial growth factor and heparin was to promote proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells within the vascular tissue networks. Computer-aided laser micromachining provides a unique approach to fabricate small-diameter blood vessels for bypass surgery as well as other artificial tissues with complex geometries.

  3. Automation of Design Engineering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torrey, Glenn; Sawasky, Gerald; Courey, Karim

    2004-01-01

    A method, and a computer program that helps to implement the method, have been developed to automate and systematize the retention and retrieval of all the written records generated during the process of designing a complex engineering system. It cannot be emphasized strongly enough that all the written records as used here is meant to be taken literally: it signifies not only final drawings and final engineering calculations but also such ancillary documents as minutes of meetings, memoranda, requests for design changes, approval and review documents, and reports of tests. One important purpose served by the method is to make the records readily available to all involved users via their computer workstations from one computer archive while eliminating the need for voluminous paper files stored in different places. Another important purpose served by the method is to facilitate the work of engineers who are charged with sustaining the system and were not involved in the original design decisions. The method helps the sustaining engineers to retrieve information that enables them to retrace the reasoning that led to the original design decisions, thereby helping them to understand the system better and to make informed engineering choices pertaining to maintenance and/or modifications of the system. The software used to implement the method is written in Microsoft Access. All of the documents pertaining to the design of a given system are stored in one relational database in such a manner that they can be related to each other via a single tracking number.

  4. Expert System Approach For Generating And Evaluating Engine Design Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Stewart N. T.; Chew, Meng-Sang; Issa, Ghassan F.

    1989-03-01

    Artificial intelligence is becoming an increasingly important subject of study for computer scientists, engineering designers, as well as professionals in other fields. Even though AI technology is a relatively new discipline, many of its concepts have already found practical applications. Expert systems, in particular, have made significant contributions to technologies in such fields as business, medicine, engineering design, chemistry, and particle physics. This paper describes an expert system developed to aid the mechanical designer with the preliminary design of variable-stroke internal-combustion engines. The expert system accomplished its task by generating and evaluating a large number of design alternatives represented in the form of graphs. Through the application of structural and design rules directly to the graphs, optimal and near optimal preliminary design configurations of engines are deduced.

  5. Advanced space engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuffe, J. P. B.; Bradie, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for an O2/H2, 89 kN (20,000 lb) thrust staged combustion rocket engine that has a single-bell nozzle with an overall expansion ratio of 400:1. The engine has a best estimate vacuum specific impulse of 4623.8 N-s/kg (471.5 sec) at full thrust and mixture ratio = 6.0. The engine employs gear-driven, low pressure pumps to provide low NPSH capability while individual turbine-driven, high-speed main pumps provide the system pressures required for high-chamber pressure operation. The engine design dry weight for the fixed-nozzle configuration is 206.9 kg (456.3 lb). Engine overall length is 234 cm (92.1 in.). The extendible nozzle version has a stowed length of 141.5 cm (55.7 in.). Critical technology items in the development of the engine were defined. Development program plans and their costs for development, production, operation, and flight support of the ASE were established for minimum cost and minimum time programs.

  6. Issues of a Computer-Aided Design of Hydraulic Jacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenkov, V. I.; Averchenkov, A. V.; Kolyakinand, V. V.; Orekhov, O. D.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the issues of a computer-aided design of hydraulic equipment, namely hydraulic jacks. Design principles of the hydraulic jack CAD system are described. In addition, the possibilities for the system improvement and expansion are considered.

  7. Holographic aids for internal combustion engine flow studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Worldwide interest in improving the fuel efficiency of internal combustion (I.C.) engines has sparked research efforts designed to learn more about the flow processes of these engines. The flow fields must be understood prior to fuel injection in order to design efficient valves, piston geometries, and fuel injectors. Knowledge of the flow field is also necessary to determine the heat transfer to combustion chamber surfaces. Computational codes can predict velocity and turbulence patterns, but experimental verification is mandatory to justify their basic assumptions. Due to their nonintrusive nature, optical methods are ideally suited to provide the necessary velocity verification data. Optical sytems such as Schlieren photography, laser velocimetry, and illuminated particle visualization are used in I.C. engines, and now their versatility is improved by employing holography. These holographically enhanced optical techniques are described with emphasis on their applications in I.C. engines.

  8. University Engineering Design Challenge Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-04

    Universities utilizing engineering seniors to bring design solution ideas to AFOSR as well as bring a structured design program for the students . Each year...up to the point where the concrete silo and hged to the point the nail gun could not penetrate the concrete. Our lift worked for the students , but...was not sufficiently powered to carry the appropriate weight. Although not as successful as we had hoped, the students gained a very good

  9. Multidisciplinary and Multiobjective Optimization in Conceptual Design for Mixed-Stream Turbofan Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    AFIT/GAE/ENY/96D-6 Abstract Despite major advances in design tools such as engine cycle analysis software and computer-aided design, conceptual gas...Ratio of specific heat for turbine flow etaAB = =iAB Efficiency of afterburner etab = 1lb = Efficiency of burner etacprime = l, = Efficiency of fan...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Despite major advances in design tools such as engine cycle analysis software and computer-aided design, conceptual gas

  10. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  11. Problem Decomposition and Recomposition in Engineering Design: A Comparison of Design Behavior between Professional Engineers, Engineering Seniors, and Engineering Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ting; Becker, Kurt; Gero, John; DeBerard, Scott; DeBerard, Oenardi; Reeve, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences in using problem decomposition and problem recomposition between dyads of engineering experts, engineering seniors, and engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within 1 hour. The entire design process was video and audio recorded. After the design…

  12. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  13. Web-Based Learning in the Computer-Aided Design Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Wen-Tsai; Ou, S. C.

    2002-01-01

    Applies principles of constructivism and virtual reality (VR) to computer-aided design (CAD) curriculum, particularly engineering, by integrating network, VR and CAD technologies into a Web-based learning environment that expands traditional two-dimensional computer graphics into a three-dimensional real-time simulation that enhances user…

  14. Computer-aided design development transition for IPAD environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, H. G.; Mock, W. D.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of federally sponsored computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) programs to the aircraft life cycle design process, an overview of NAAD'S CAD development program, an evaluation of the CAD design process, a discussion of the current computing environment within which NAAD is developing its CAD system, some of the advantages/disadvantages of the NAAD-IPAD approach, and CAD developments during transition into the IPAD system are discussed.

  15. NASA Space Engineering Research Center for VLSI systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This annual review reports the center's activities and findings on very large scale integration (VLSI) systems design for 1990, including project status, financial support, publications, the NASA Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) Symposium on VLSI Design, research results, and outreach programs. Processor chips completed or under development are listed. Research results summarized include a design technique to harden complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) memory circuits against single event upset (SEU); improved circuit design procedures; and advances in computer aided design (CAD), communications, computer architectures, and reliability design. Also described is a high school teacher program that exposes teachers to the fundamentals of digital logic design.

  16. Human performance models for computer-aided engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkind, Jerome I. (Editor); Card, Stuart K. (Editor); Hochberg, Julian (Editor); Huey, Beverly Messick (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses a topic important to the field of computational human factors: models of human performance and their use in computer-based engineering facilities for the design of complex systems. It focuses on a particular human factors design problem -- the design of cockpit systems for advanced helicopters -- and on a particular aspect of human performance -- vision and related cognitive functions. By focusing in this way, the authors were able to address the selected topics in some depth and develop findings and recommendations that they believe have application to many other aspects of human performance and to other design domains.

  17. Implementation of a Three-Semester Concurrent Engineering Design Sequence for Lower-Division Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertozzi, N.; Hebert, C.; Rought, J.; Staniunas, C.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade the software products available for solid modeling, dynamic, stress, thermal, and flow analysis, and computer-aiding manufacturing (CAM) have become more powerful, affordable, and easier to use. At the same time it has become increasingly important for students to gain concurrent engineering design and systems integration…

  18. Nanoscale Engineering of Designer Cellulosomes.

    PubMed

    Gunnoo, Melissabye; Cazade, Pierre-André; Galera-Prat, Albert; Nash, Michael A; Czjzek, Mirjam; Cieplak, Marek; Alvarez, Beatriz; Aguilar, Marina; Karpol, Alon; Gaub, Hermann; Carrión-Vázquez, Mariano; Bayer, Edward A; Thompson, Damien

    2016-07-01

    Biocatalysts showcase the upper limit obtainable for high-speed molecular processing and transformation. Efforts to engineer functionality in synthetic nanostructured materials are guided by the increasing knowledge of evolving architectures, which enable controlled molecular motion and precise molecular recognition. The cellulosome is a biological nanomachine, which, as a fundamental component of the plant-digestion machinery from bacterial cells, has a key potential role in the successful development of environmentally-friendly processes to produce biofuels and fine chemicals from the breakdown of biomass waste. Here, the progress toward so-called "designer cellulosomes", which provide an elegant alternative to enzyme cocktails for lignocellulose breakdown, is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to rational design via computational modeling coupled with nanoscale characterization and engineering tools. Remaining challenges and potential routes to industrial application are put forward.

  19. Designing for Success: Developing Engineers Who Consider Universal Design Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Kimberly Edginton

    2012-01-01

    Engineers must design for a diverse group of potential users of their products; however, engineering curricula rarely include an emphasis on universal design principles. This research article details the effectiveness of a design project implemented in a first-year engineering course in an effort to raise awareness of the need for engineers to be…

  20. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-03-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering.

  1. Engineering Design Education Program for Graduate School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohbuchi, Yoshifumi; Iida, Haruhiko

    The new educational methods of engineering design have attempted to improve mechanical engineering education for graduate students in a way of the collaboration in education of engineer and designer. The education program is based on the lecture and practical exercises concerning the product design, and has engineering themes and design process themes, i.e. project management, QFD, TRIZ, robust design (Taguchi method) , ergonomics, usability, marketing, conception etc. At final exercise, all students were able to design new product related to their own research theme by applying learned knowledge and techniques. By the method of engineering design education, we have confirmed that graduate students are able to experience technological and creative interest.

  2. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  3. Corps of Engineers Hydraulic Design Criteria. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    of 13. The model scale was 1:25. The Ke ( loss coefficient) values shown are based on model ( ,221-1/1 M! discharge rating curves, computed energy ...available to offices of the Corps of Engineers for use as k hydraulic design criteria. Certain design aids based on accepted theory, such as energy -depth...612 Supercritical Flow 620 Nonuniform Flow 621 Mild Slopes 622 Steep Slopes 630 Energy Losses 631 Friction Losses 632 Special Losses 640Q Transitions

  4. Table-Top Robotics for Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczynski, Vincent; Dixon, Gregg; Ford, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Section at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy has developed a comprehensive activity based course to introduce second year students to mechanical engineering design. The culminating design activity for the course requires students to design, construct and test robotic devices that complete engineering challenges. Teams of…

  5. Computer-Aided Design Of Turbine Blades And Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Wayne Q.

    1988-01-01

    Quasi-three-dimensional method for determining aerothermodynamic configuration of turbine uses computer-interactive analysis and design and computer-interactive graphics. Design procedure executed rapidly so designer easily repeats it to arrive at best performance, size, structural integrity, and engine life. Sequence of events in aerothermodynamic analysis and design starts with engine-balance equations and ends with boundary-layer analysis and viscous-flow calculations. Analysis-and-design procedure interactive and iterative throughout.

  6. COMPUTER AIDED SOLVENT DESIGN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent substitution is an effective and useful means of eliminating the use of harmful solvents, but finding substitute solvents which are less harmful and as effective as currently used solvents presents significant difficulties. Solvent substitution is a form of reverse engin...

  7. Computer aids for integrated circuit design at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. W.

    A general framework for a hierarchical computer-aided design (CAD) system for VLSI design is described. The system supports both functional and physical design in the area of initial design specification, system synthesis, simulation, mask layout, verification, and documentation. The system is being implemented in phases within a user environment on a DECsystem 20-VAX 11/780 computer network. It supports evolutionary changes as new technologies, design strategies, and application programs are developed.

  8. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Research focused on two major areas. The first effort addressed the design and implementation of a technique that allows for the visualization of the real time variation of physical properties. The second effort focused on the design and implementation of an on-line help system with components designed for both authors and users of help information.

  9. Engineering Design vs. Artistic Design: Some Educational Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eder, Wolfgang Ernst

    2013-01-01

    "Design" can be a noun, or a verb. Six paths for research into engineering design (as verb) are identified, they must be coordinated for internal consistency and plausibility. Design research tries to clarify design processes and their underlying theories--for designing in general, and for particular forms, e.g., design engineering. Theories are a…

  10. Engineering test facility design definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bercaw, R. W.; Seikel, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) is the major focus of the Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Program to facilitate commercialization and to demonstrate the commercial operability of MHD/steam electric power. The ETF will be a fully integrated commercial prototype MHD power plant with a nominal output of 200 MW sub e. Performance of this plant is expected to meet or surpass existing utility standards for fuel, maintenance, and operating costs; plant availability; load following; safety; and durability. It is expected to meet all applicable environmental regulations. The current design concept conforming to the general definition, the basis for its selection, and the process which will be followed in further defining and updating the conceptual design.

  11. Flexible structure control experiments using a real-time workstation for computer-aided control engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieber, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    A Real-Time Workstation for Computer-Aided Control Engineering has been developed jointly by the Communications Research Centre (CRC) and Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB), West Germany. The system is presently used for the development and experimental verification of control techniques for large space systems with significant structural flexibility. The Real-Time Workstation essentially is an implementation of RUB's extensive Computer-Aided Control Engineering package KEDDC on an INTEL micro-computer running under the RMS real-time operating system. The portable system supports system identification, analysis, control design and simulation, as well as the immediate implementation and test of control systems. The Real-Time Workstation is currently being used by CRC to study control/structure interaction on a ground-based structure called DAISY, whose design was inspired by a reflector antenna. DAISY emulates the dynamics of a large flexible spacecraft with the following characteristics: rigid body modes, many clustered vibration modes with low frequencies and extremely low damping. The Real-Time Workstation was found to be a very powerful tool for experimental studies, supporting control design and simulation, and conducting and evaluating tests withn one integrated environment.

  12. New engine and advanced component design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on new engine and advance component design. Topics covered include: development of low emission high performance four valve engines, the effect of engine build options on powerplant inertias, silicon nitride turbocharger rotor for high performance automotive engines and development of Toyota reflex Burn (TRB) system in DI diesel.

  13. Removal of Supernumerary Teeth Utilizing a Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing Surgical Guide.

    PubMed

    Jo, Chanwoo; Bae, Doohwan; Choi, Byungho; Kim, Jihun

    2016-11-12

    Supernumerary teeth need to be removed because they can cause various complications. Caution is needed because their removal can cause damage to permanent teeth or tooth germs in the local vicinity. Surgical guides have recently been used in maxillofacial surgery. Because surgical guides are designed through preoperative analysis by computer-aided design software and fabricated using a 3-dimensional printer applying computer-aided manufacturing technology, they increase the accuracy and predictability of surgery. This report describes 2 cases of removal of a mesiodens-1 from a child and 1 from an adolescent-using a surgical guide; these would have been difficult to remove with conventional surgical methods.

  14. Human factors of intelligent computer aided display design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Design concepts for a decision support system being studied at NASA Langley as an aid to visual display unit (VDU) designers are described. Ideally, human factors should be taken into account by VDU designers. In reality, although the human factors database on VDUs is small, such systems must be constantly developed. Human factors are therefore a secondary consideration. An expert system will thus serve mainly in an advisory capacity. Functions can include facilitating the design process by shortening the time to generate and alter drawings, enhancing the capability of breaking design requirements down into simpler functions, and providing visual displays equivalent to the final product. The VDU system could also discriminate, and display the difference, between designer decisions and machine inferences. The system could also aid in analyzing the effects of designer choices on future options and in ennunciating when there are data available on a design selections.

  15. Computer Program Aids Design Of Impeller Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wei-Chung; Galazin, John V.

    1992-01-01

    Impeller blades for centrifugal turbopumps designed quickly with help of computer program. Generates blade contours and continually subjects them to evaluation. Checks physical parameters to ensure they are compatible with required performance and recycles design if criteria not met. Program written for centrifugal turbomachinery, also adapted to such axial pump components as inducer blades and stator vanes.

  16. Optimization, an Important Stage of Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Todd R.

    2010-01-01

    A number of leaders in technology education have indicated that a major difference between the technological design process and the engineering design process is analysis and optimization. The analysis stage of the engineering design process is when mathematical models and scientific principles are employed to help the designer predict design…

  17. Using the Continuum of Design Modelling Techniques to Aid the Development of CAD Modeling Skills in First Year Industrial Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storer, I. J.; Campbell, R. I.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Designers need to understand and command a number of modelling techniques to communicate their ideas to themselves and others. Verbal explanations, sketches, engineering drawings, computer aided design (CAD) models and physical prototypes are the most commonly used communication techniques. Within design, unlike some disciplines,…

  18. Incorporating Engineering Design Challenges into STEM Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Householder, Daniel L., Ed.; Hailey, Christine E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Successful strategies for incorporating engineering design challenges into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in American high schools are presented in this paper. The developers have taken the position that engineering design experiences should be an important component of the high school education of all American…

  19. How to Develop an Engineering Design Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dankenbring, Chelsey; Capobianco, Brenda M.; Eichinger, David

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an overview of engineering and the engineering design process, and describe the steps they took to develop a fifth grade-level, standards-based engineering design task titled "Getting the Dirt on Decomposition." Their main goal was to focus more on modeling the discrete steps they took to create and…

  20. De novo computer-aided design of novel antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Massarotti, Alberto; Coluccia, Antonio; Sorba, Giovanni; Silvestri, Romano; Brancale, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided drug design techniques have become an integral part of the drug discovery process. In particular, de novo methodologies can be useful to identify putative ligands for a specific target relying only on the structural information of the target itself. Here we discuss the basic de novo approaches available and their application in antiviral drug design.:

  1. Space systems computer-aided design technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) system is described, together with planned capability increases in the IDEAS system. The system's disciplines consist of interactive graphics and interactive computing. A single user at an interactive terminal can create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of earth-orbiting satellites, which represents a timely and cost-effective method during the conceptual design phase where various missions and spacecraft options require evaluation. Spacecraft concepts evaluated include microwave radiometer satellites, communication satellite systems, solar-powered lasers, power platforms, and orbiting space stations.

  2. Microcomputer-Aided Control Systems Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roat, S. D.; Melsheimer, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a single input/single output feedback control system design program for IBM PC and compatible microcomputers. Uses a heat exchanger temperature control loop to illustrate the various applications of the program. (ML)

  3. Program Aids Analysis And Optimization Of Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.; Lamarsh, William J., II

    1994-01-01

    NETS/ PROSSS (NETS Coupled With Programming System for Structural Synthesis) computer program developed to provide system for combining NETS (MSC-21588), neural-network application program and CONMIN (Constrained Function Minimization, ARC-10836), optimization program. Enables user to reach nearly optimal design. Design then used as starting point in normal optimization process, possibly enabling user to converge to optimal solution in significantly fewer iterations. NEWT/PROSSS written in C language and FORTRAN 77.

  4. Stable Beginnings in Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Mary E.; Hammer, David

    2016-01-01

    Novel Engineering activities are premised on the integration of engineering and literacy: students identify and engineer solutions to problems that arise for fictional characters in stories they read for class. There are advantages to this integration, for both engineering and literacy goals of instruction: the stories provide ''clients'' to…

  5. Engineering Design Information System (EDIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.S.; Short, R.D.; Schwarz, R.K.

    1990-11-01

    This manual is a guide to the use of the Engineering Design Information System (EDIS) Phase I. The system runs on the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., IBM 3081 unclassified computer. This is the first phase in the implementation of EDIS, which is an index, storage, and retrieval system for engineering documents produced at various plants and laboratories operated by Energy Systems for the Department of Energy. This manual presents on overview of EDIS, describing the system's purpose; the functions it performs; hardware, software, and security requirements; and help and error functions. This manual describes how to access EDIS and how to operate system functions using Database 2 (DB2), Time Sharing Option (TSO), Interactive System Productivity Facility (ISPF), and Soft Master viewing features employed by this system. Appendix A contains a description of the Soft Master viewing capabilities provided through the EDIS View function. Appendix B provides examples of the system error screens and help screens for valid codes used for screen entry. Appendix C contains a dictionary of data elements and descriptions.

  6. Pathway Design, Engineering, and Optimization.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ruiz, Eva; HamediRad, Mohammad; Zhao, Huimin

    2016-09-16

    The microbial metabolic versatility found in nature has inspired scientists to create microorganisms capable of producing value-added compounds. Many endeavors have been made to transfer and/or combine pathways, existing or even engineered enzymes with new function to tractable microorganisms to generate new metabolic routes for drug, biofuel, and specialty chemical production. However, the success of these pathways can be impeded by different complications from an inherent failure of the pathway to cell perturbations. Pursuing ways to overcome these shortcomings, a wide variety of strategies have been developed. This chapter will review the computational algorithms and experimental tools used to design efficient metabolic routes, and construct and optimize biochemical pathways to produce chemicals of high interest.

  7. Collaborative engineering-design support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dong HO; Decker, D. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Designing engineering objects requires many engineers' knowledge from different domains. There needs to be cooperative work among engineering designers to complete a design. Revisions of a design are time consuming, especially if designers work at a distance and with different design description formats. In order to reduce the design cycle, there needs to be a sharable design describing the engineering community, which can be electronically transportable. Design is a process of integrating that is not easy to define definitively. This paper presents Design Script which is a generic engineering design knowledge representation scheme that can be applied in any engineering domain. The Design Script is developed through encapsulation of common design activities and basic design components based on problem decomposition. It is implemented using CLIPS with a Windows NT graphical user interface. The physical relationships between engineering objects and their subparts can be constructed in a hierarchical manner. The same design process is repeatedly applied at each given level of hierarchy and recursively into lower levels of the hierarchy. Each class of the structure can be represented using the Design Script.

  8. Automotive Stirling reference engine design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The reference Stirling engine system is described which provides the best possible fuel economy while meeting or exceeding all other program objectives. The system was designed to meet the requirements of a 1984 Pontiac Phoenix (X-body). This design utilizes all new technology that can reasonably be expected to be developed by 1984 and that is judged to provide significant improvement, relative to development risk and cost. Topics covered include: (1) external heat system; (2) hot engine system; (3) cold engine system; (4) engine drive system; (5) power control system and auxiliaries; (6) engine instalation; (7) optimization and vehicle simulation; (8) engine materials; and (9) production cost analysis.

  9. Design of Training Aids and Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsdaine, Arthur A.

    Training devices should be designed to provide efficient learning conditions, especially guided practice and prompt feedback. These devices can be more useful than their operational equipment counterparts because they facilitate the focusing of learner attention on particular components of a total operation, they make operations visible for study,…

  10. Improvements in teaching aircraft engine design

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, J.D.; Heiser, W.H. Tennessee, University, Tullahoma )

    1992-07-01

    Aircraft gas turbine analysis and design pedagogy can be enriched through the incorporation improved preliminary engine thrust and fuel consumption models, novel computer programs for both aircraft system analysis and turbomechanical design, and a new perspective for engine-cycle analysis. Four computer programs have been developed for preliminary engine design; two of these automate aircraft system analysis, while another designs multistage axial-flow compressors and the last designs multistage axial-flow turbines. Student confusion with 'design-point' and 'off-design' concepts is by these means reduced. 6 refs.

  11. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  12. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.104 Does this part apply to...

  13. Computer aided process planning and die design in simulation environment in sheet metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisza, Miklós; Lukács, Zsolt

    2013-12-01

    During the recent 10-15 years, Computer Aided Process Planning and Die Design evolved as one of the most important engineering tools in sheet metal forming, particularly in the automotive industry. This emerging role is strongly emphasized by the rapid development of Finite Element Modeling, as well. The purpose of this paper is to give a general overview about the recent achievements in this very important field of sheet metal forming and to introduce some special results in this development activity. Therefore, in this paper, an integrated process simulation and die design system developed at the University of Miskolc, Department of Mechanical Engineering will be analyzed. The proposed integrated solutions have great practical importance to improve the global competitiveness of sheet metal forming in the very important segment of industry. The concept described in this paper may have specific value both for process planning and die design engineers.

  14. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    PubMed

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  15. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    PubMed Central

    Manbeck, Harvey B.; Hofstetter, Daniel W.; Murphy, Dennis J.; Puri, Virendra M.

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  16. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (SUN VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  17. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  18. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (SUN VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  19. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  20. Engineering Design Handbook: Maintenance Engineering Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-30

    housings so that the center of gravity is as close as possible to the mount- ing surface. b. Avoid any large, flat housing wall that acts as a diaphragm ...and amplifies vibration. Reinforce housing walls by using internal or external fins or ribs, or by adding mounting points, to minimize vibration...not be bent or unbent sharply when connected or disconnected. b. Design cables or lines that must be routed through walls or bulkheads for easy in

  1. Competing Ideologies in Software Design for Computer-Aided Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Illustrates the ideological foundations of computer-assisted composition (CAC) software by comparing two computer-writing aids: "Grammatik II" and "Interchange." Notes that many of the best CAC programs have come out of the composition classroom. Argues that English departments must support and reward those who work in CAC design. (RS)

  2. The Journal of Computer- Aided Molecular Design: a bibliometric note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes the articles in, and the citations to, volumes 2-24 of the Journal of Computer- Aided Molecular Design. The citations to the journal come from almost 2000 different sources that span a very wide range of academic subjects, with the most heavily cited articles being descriptions of software systems and of computational methods.

  3. Structure aided design of chimeric antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Karoli, Tomislav; Mamidyala, Sreeman K; Zuegg, Johannes; Fry, Scott R; Tee, Ernest H L; Bradford, Tanya A; Madala, Praveen K; Huang, Johnny X; Ramu, Soumya; Butler, Mark S; Cooper, Matthew A

    2012-04-01

    The rise of antibiotic resistance is of great clinical concern. One approach to reducing the development of resistance is to co-administer two or more antibiotics with different modes of action. However, it can be difficult to control the distribution and pharmacokinetics of two drugs to ensure both concentrations remain within the range of therapeutic efficacy whilst avoiding adverse effects. Hybrid drugs, where two drugs are linked together with a flexible linker, have been explored, but the resultant large, flexible molecules can have poor bioavailability. We have developed a chimeric approach using click chemistry where the pharmacophores of two drugs are overlapped into a single smaller, more drug-like molecule. Design and selection of compounds were assisted by in silico structural docking. We prepared a series of compounds that include candidates showing activity against the targets of both trimethoprim; dihydrofolate reductase, and ciprofloxacin; DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. The resultant triazole containing molecules show modest, but broad spectrum activities against drug sensitive and resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, with no observable cytotoxicity.

  4. DeMAID/GA an Enhanced Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Many companies are looking for new tools and techniques to aid a design manager in making decisions that can reduce the time and cost of a design cycle. One tool is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). Since the initial public release of DeMAID in 1989, much research has been done in the areas of decomposition, concurrent engineering, parallel processing, and process management; many new tools and techniques have emerged. Based on these recent research and development efforts, numerous enhancements have been added to DeMAID to further aid the design manager in saving both cost and time in a design cycle. The key enhancement, a genetic algorithm (GA), will be available in the next public release called DeMAID/GA. The GA sequences the design processes to minimize the cost and time in converging a solution. The major enhancements in the upgrade of DeMAID to DeMAID/GA are discussed in this paper. A sample conceptual design project is used to show how these enhancements can be applied to improve the design cycle.

  5. Robot-aided rehabilitation task design for inner shoulder muscles.

    PubMed

    Pei, Y; Kim, Y; Obinata, G; Genda, E; Stefanov, D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simultaneous design method of motion and external force trajectories for shoulder inner muscles in the robot-aided rehabilitation system, based on a biomechanical analysis of patient's body. The rehabilitation efficiency evaluation function was maximized by Genetic Algorithm (GA), where the structure of spline curves parameters are pre-defined, and the structural parameters are explored to design smooth rehabilitation motion and external force trajectories.

  6. Stirling engine design manual, 2nd edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve as an introduction to Stirling cycle heat engines, as a key to the available literature on Stirling engines and to identify nonproprietary Stirling engine design methodologies. Two different fully described Stirling engines are discussed. Engine design methods are categorized as first order, second order, and third order with increased order number indicating increased complexity. FORTRAN programs are listed for both an isothermal second order design program and an adiabatic second order design program. Third order methods are explained and enumerated. In this second edition of the manual the references are updated. A revised personal and corporate author index is given and an expanded directory lists over 80 individuals and companies active in Stirling engines.

  7. Engine Development Design Margins Briefing Charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentz, Chuck

    2006-01-01

    New engines experience durability problems after entering service. The most prevalent and costly is the hot section, particularly the high-pressure turbine. The origin of durability problems can be traced back to: 1) the basic aero-mechanical design systems, assumptions, and design margins used by the engine designers, 2) the available materials systems, and 3) to a large extent, aggressive marketing in a highly competitive environment that pushes engine components beyond the demonstrated capability of the basic technology available for the hardware designs. Unfortunately the user must operate the engine in the service environment in order to learn the actual thrust loading and the time at max effort take-off conditions used in service are needed to determine the hot section life. Several hundred thousand hours of operational service will be required before the demonstrated reliability of a fleet of engines or the design deficiencies of the engine hot section parts can be determined. Also, it may take three to four engine shop visits for heavy maintenance on the gas path hardware to establish cost effective build standards. Spare parts drive the oerator's engine maintenance costs but spare parts also makes lots of money for the engine manufacturer during the service life of an engine. Unless competition prevails for follow-on engine buys, there is really no motivation for an OEM to spend internal money to improve parts durability and reduce earnings derived from a lucrative spare parts business. If the hot section life is below design goals or promised values, the OEM migh argue that the engine is being operated beyond its basic design intent. On the other hand, the airframer and the operator will continue to remind the OEM that his engine was selected based on a lot of promises to deliver spec thrust with little impact on engine service life if higher thrust is used intermittently. In the end, a standoff prevails and nothing gets fixed. This briefing will propose

  8. Students' Metacognition during an Engineering Design Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawanto, Oenardi

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated metacognitive changes of three groups of 160 engineering students working on 60 different design projects. Two metacognitive features, cognitive self-appraisal and cognitive self-management, were used to indicate students' metacognitive level. The Engineering Design Project Inventory was used to assess students' metacognition.…

  9. Engineer's Notebook--A Design Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Todd R.

    2011-01-01

    As technology education continues to consider a move toward an engineering design focus as proposed by various leaders in technology education, it will be necessary to employ new pedagogical approaches. Hill (2006) provided some new perspectives regarding pedagogical approaches for technology education with an engineering design focus. One…

  10. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  11. Automotive Stirling engine: Mod 2 design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nightingale, Noel P.

    1986-01-01

    The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod 2, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, demonstrating poor performance. Installed in a General Motors Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/l (41 mpg)- a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod 2 Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation.

  12. Automotive Stirling engine: Mod II design report

    SciTech Connect

    Nightingale, N.P.

    1986-10-01

    The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod II, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, and demonstrate poor performance. Installed in a General Motors 1985 Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/L (41 mi/gal) - a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod II Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation. 35 figs.

  13. NREL Software Aids Offshore Wind Turbine Designs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    NREL researchers are supporting offshore wind power development with computer models that allow detailed analyses of both fixed and floating offshore wind turbines. While existing computer-aided engineering (CAE) models can simulate the conditions and stresses that a land-based wind turbine experiences over its lifetime, offshore turbines require the additional considerations of variations in water depth, soil type, and wind and wave severity, which also necessitate the use of a variety of support-structure types. NREL's core wind CAE tool, FAST, models the additional effects of incident waves, sea currents, and the foundation dynamics of the support structures.

  14. Genetic design automation: engineering fantasy or scientific renewal?

    PubMed

    Lux, Matthew W; Bramlett, Brian W; Ball, David A; Peccoud, Jean

    2012-02-01

    The aim of synthetic biology is to make genetic systems more amenable to engineering, which has naturally led to the development of computer-aided design (CAD) tools. Experimentalists still primarily rely on project-specific ad hoc workflows instead of domain-specific tools, which suggests that CAD tools are lagging behind the front line of the field. Here, we discuss the scientific hurdles that have limited the productivity gains anticipated from existing tools. We argue that the real value of efforts to develop CAD tools is the formalization of genetic design rules that determine the complex relationships between genotype and phenotype.

  15. Multiscale Mathematical Modeling in Dental Tissue Engineering: Toward Computer-Aided Design of a Regenerative System Based on Hydroxyapatite Granules, Focussing on Early and Mid-Term Stiffness Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Scheiner, Stefan; Komlev, Vladimir S.; Gurin, Alexey N.; Hellmich, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We here explore for the very first time how an advanced multiscale mathematical modeling approach may support the design of a provenly successful tissue engineering concept for mandibular bone. The latter employs double-porous, potentially cracked, single millimeter-sized granules packed into an overall conglomerate-type scaffold material, which is then gradually penetrated and partially replaced by newly grown bone tissue. During this process, the newly developing scaffold-bone compound needs to attain the stiffness of mandibular bone under normal physiological conditions. In this context, the question arises how the compound stiffness is driven by the key design parameters of the tissue engineering system: macroporosity, crack density, as well as scaffold resorption/bone formation rates. We here tackle this question by combining the latest state-of-the-art mathematical modeling techniques in the field of multiscale micromechanics, into an unprecedented suite of highly efficient, semi-analytically defined computation steps resolving several levels of hierarchical organization, from the millimeter- down to the nanometer-scale. This includes several types of homogenization schemes, namely such for porous polycrystals with elongated solid elements, for cracked matrix-inclusion composites, as well as for assemblies of coated spherical compounds. Together with the experimentally known stiffnesses of hydroxyapatite crystals and mandibular bone tissue, the new mathematical model suggests that early stiffness recovery (i.e., within several weeks) requires total avoidance of microcracks in the hydroxyapatite scaffolds, while mid-term stiffness recovery (i.e., within several months) is additionally promoted by provision of small granule sizes, in combination with high bone formation and low scaffold resorption rates. PMID:27708584

  16. Computer Aided Design Of Electrical Machines For Variable Speed Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, R.; Aravind, S.; Materu, P.

    1987-10-01

    In recent years, the product life cycle has decreased and demands for new products have emerged due to competition, modern industrial needs and rapidly changing technology. This has necessitated changes in design, development and manufacturing processes so as to improve quality and efficiency as well as reducing costs. Computer Aided Design (CAD) helps to meet this challenge in the design evaluation and final product design stages. This paper presents the development of an interactive software for the optimal design of a motor intended for variable speed applications. The use of finite element analysis methods is proposed as an indispensable part of the CAD system for electrical machine design. An illustration of the method is given for the design of a switched reluctance motor.

  17. A critical overview of analytical aids of design

    SciTech Connect

    Esat, I.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses effectiveness of some of the most important analytical tools of design in terms of their relationship to the design integration. The paper finally concludes that the level of integration remains rather superficial and success is only in certain areas relating to the downstream aspects of design. The degree of integration, particularly in the early stages of design activity, such as conceptualization remains very little. More importantly the paper points to the signs of stagnation, despite of phenomenal progress in every aspects of science, in many areas of science and engineering. The main cause of the stagnation is the curse of dimensionality and the complexity. The complexity now effecting every aspects of science and engineering. From the continuum mechanics to scheduling problems, ineffectiveness of the analytical tools of science and engineering becoming too obvious.

  18. Navigation and Alignment Aids Concept of Operations and Supplemental Design Information. Revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Cryan, Scott P.

    2016-01-01

    The IDSS Navigation and Alignment Aids Concept of Operations and Supplemental Design Information document provides supplemental information to the IDSS IDD. The guide provides insight into the navigation and alignment aids design, and how those aids can be utilized by incoming vehicles for proximity operations and docking. The navigation aids are paramount to successful docking.

  19. Engineering Changes in Product Design - A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthik, K.; Janardhan Reddy, K., Dr

    2016-09-01

    Changes are fundamental to product development. Engineering changes are unavoidable and can arise at any phase of the product life cycle. The consideration of market requirements, customer/user feedbacks, manufacturing constraints, design innovations etc., turning them into viable products can be accomplished when product change is managed properly. In the early design cycle, informal changes are accepted. However, changes become formal when its complexity and cost increases, and as product matures. To maximize the market shares, manufacturers have to effectively and efficiently manage engineering changes by means of Configuration Control. The paper gives a broad overview about ‘Engineering Change Management’ (ECM) through configuration management and its implications in product design. The aim is to give an idea and understanding about the engineering changes in product design scenario to the new researchers. This paper elaborates the significant aspect of managing the engineering changes and the importance of ECM in a product life cycle.

  20. Alloy design for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-08-01

    Metallic materials are fundamental to advanced aircraft engines. While perceived as mature, emerging computational, experimental and processing innovations are expanding the scope for discovery and implementation of new metallic materials for future generations of advanced propulsion systems.

  1. Engineering and Design: Adsorption Design Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    adsorptive media addressed in- clude granular activated carbon (GAC) and other alternative adsorption carbon media, such as powdered activated carbon (PAC... Adsorption Media. a. Activated Carbon . Activated carbon can be manufactured from carbonaceous material, in- cluding coal (bituminous, subbituminous...information contained in Corps of Engineers Guide Specification 11225: Downflow Liquid Granular Activated Carbon

  2. Accelerating Development of EV Batteries Through Computer-Aided Engineering (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Program has launched the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) project to work with national labs, industry and software venders to develop sophisticated software. As coordinator, NREL has teamed with a number of companies to help improve and accelerate battery design and production. This presentation provides an overview of CAEBAT, including its predictive computer simulation of Li-ion batteries known as the Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) model framework. MSMD's modular, flexible architecture connects the physics of battery charge/discharge processes, thermal control, safety and reliability in a computationally efficient manner. This allows independent development of submodels at the cell and pack levels.

  3. Enhancement of acetoin production in Candida glabrata by in silico-aided metabolic engineering

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetoin is a promising chemical compound that can potentially serve as a high value-added platform for a broad range of applications. Many industrial biotechnological processes are moving towards the use of yeast as a platform. The multi-auxotrophic yeast, Candida glabrata, can accumulate a large amount of pyruvate, but produces only trace amounts of acetoin. Here, we attempted to engineer C. glabrata to redirect the carbon flux of pyruvate to increase acetoin production. Results Based on an in silico strategy, a synthetic, composite metabolic pathway involving two distinct enzymes, acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetolactate decarboxylase (ALDC), was constructed, leading to the accumulation of acetoin in C. glabrata. Further genetic modifications were introduced to increase the carbon flux of the heterologous pathway, increasing the production of acetoin to 2.08 g/L. Additionally, nicotinic acid was employed to regulate the intracellular NADH level, and a higher production of acetoin (3.67 g/L) was obtained at the expense of 2,3-butanediol production under conditions of a lower NADH/NAD+ ratio. Conclusion With the aid of in silico metabolic engineering and cofactor engineering, C. glabrata was designed and constructed to improve acetoin production. PMID:24725668

  4. Advanced Control Considerations for Turbofan Engine Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Chicatelli, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the application of a model-based engine control (MBEC) methodology featuring a self tuning on-board model for an aircraft turbofan engine simulation. The nonlinear engine model is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the advanced control methodology over a wide range of operating points and life cycle conditions. The on-board model is a piece-wise linear model derived from the nonlinear engine model and updated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. MBEC is used here to show how advanced control architectures can improve efficiency during the design phase of a turbofan engine by reducing conservative operability margins. The operability margins that can be reduced, such as stall margin, can expand the engine design space and offer potential for efficiency improvements. Application of MBEC architecture to a nonlinear engine simulation is shown to reduce the thrust specific fuel consumption by approximately 1% over the baseline design, while maintaining safe operation of the engine across the flight envelope.

  5. Computer-aided design of polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This book on computer-aided design of polymers and composites introduces and discusses the subject from the viewpoint of atomic and molecular models. Thus, the origins of stiffness, strength, extensibility, and fracture toughness in composite materials can be analyzed directly in terms of chemical composition and molecular structure. Aspects of polymer composite reliability are considered along with characterization techniques for composite reliability, relations between atomic and molecular properties, computer aided design and manufacture, polymer CAD/CAM models, and composite CAD/CAM models. Attention is given to multiphase structural adhesives, fibrous composite reliability, metal joint reliability, polymer physical states and transitions, chemical quality assurance, processability testing, cure monitoring and management, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), surface NDE, elementary properties, ionic-covalent bonding, molecular analysis, acid-base interactions, the manufacturing science, and peel mechanics.

  6. Computer-aided conceptual design of Air Cushion Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, E. G. U.; Lavis, D. R.

    This paper describes the development and use of a computer-aided design tool which has been used to explore preferred options for amphibious Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and Surface-Effect Ship (SES) designs in support of U.S. Navy and U.S. Army programs. The tool, referred to as the ACV Design Synthesis Model (ADSM), is an interactive computer program which provides a description of feasible ACV or SES concepts that could be developed, by a competent design team, to perform the mission described by the input parameters. The paper discusses how the program was used to explore parametrically the design of a range of self-propelled hoverbarges to meet requirements of the U.S. Army Logistics Over the Shore (LOTS) phases of an amphibious landing. Examples of results are presented to illustrate the method used in determining design and performance trade-offs.

  7. RAMCAD (Reliability, Availability and Maintainability in Computer-Aided Design)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    documents the Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability in Computer-Aided Design (RAMCAD) Software Development Program which was started in July 1986 ...by General Dynamics Convair Division under a Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA 86-16-PMRS). This PRDA was issued on May 15, 1986 ...PRDA 86-16-PMRS) was issued on May 15, 1986 , by the Air Force Human Resources ..aboratory (AFHRL, changed to Armstrong Laboratory, Human Resources

  8. Engineering Design Handbook. Breech Mechanism Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    to contain the high propellant pre -sures the block i3 first unlocked by a limited rotation developed in the weapon chamber. then swung out of the...system oriented engineering data and It is in this area where innovative uses of internal related characteristics of both current and pre - power to...I io 10 rounds provide adequate support for the case and pre - per minute. Mechanization is provided for vent its rearward displacement or rupture. 41

  9. Design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    An initial investigation of the design considerations in clustering nuclear rocket engines for space transfer vehicles has been made. The clustering of both propulsion modules (which include start tanks) and nuclear rocket engines installed directly to a vehicle core tank appears to be feasible. Special provisions to shield opposite run tanks and the opposite side of a core tank - in the case of the boost pump concept - are required; the installation of a circumferential reactor side shield sector appears to provide an effective solution to this problem. While the time response to an engine-out event does not appear to be critical, the gimbal displacement required appears to be important. Since an installation of three engines offers a substantial reduction in gimbal requirements for engine-out and it may be possible to further enhance mission reliability with the greater number of engines, it is recommended that a cluster of four engines be considered.

  10. Engineering design: A cognitive process approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strimel, Greg Joseph

    The intent of this dissertation was to identify the cognitive processes used by advanced pre-engineering students to solve complex engineering design problems. Students in technology and engineering education classrooms are often taught to use an ideal engineering design process that has been generated mostly by educators and curriculum developers. However, the review of literature showed that it is unclear as to how advanced pre-engineering students cognitively navigate solving a complex and multifaceted problem from beginning to end. Additionally, it was unclear how a student thinks and acts throughout their design process and how this affects the viability of their solution. Therefore, Research Objective 1 was to identify the fundamental cognitive processes students use to design, construct, and evaluate operational solutions to engineering design problems. Research Objective 2 was to determine identifiers within student cognitive processes for monitoring aptitude to successfully design, construct, and evaluate technological solutions. Lastly, Research Objective 3 was to create a conceptual technological and engineering problem-solving model integrating student cognitive processes for the improved development of problem-solving abilities. The methodology of this study included multiple forms of data collection. The participants were first given a survey to determine their prior experience with engineering and to provide a description of the subjects being studied. The participants were then presented an engineering design challenge to solve individually. While they completed the challenge, the participants verbalized their thoughts using an established "think aloud" method. These verbalizations were captured along with participant observational recordings using point-of-view camera technology. Additionally, the participant design journals, design artifacts, solution effectiveness data, and teacher evaluations were collected for analysis to help achieve the

  11. Undergraduate engineering students investigate inexpensive seismometer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubenthal, Michael; Boyd, Tom; Lahr, John; Taber, John

    Using seismometers as a catalyst for learning, the IRIS Consortium has partnered with the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to intensively expose the 2002 CSM freshman engineering class to geophysics instrument design. These students worked to design inexpensive seismic recording systems for use in educational environments as part of the Engineering Practices Introductory Course Sequence (EPICS).Through the EPICS courses, CSM strives to strengthen the ability of first-year engineering students to resolve open-ended problems in a team environment and learn skills that are vital to their success as engineers. Students learn AutoCAD, technical drawing/drafting skills, prototyping, analysis skills, and communication skills necessary to present and promote engineering design solutions to the professional community. These engineering skills, introduced through coursework, are applied to an open-ended engineering challenge throughout the semester. Although the CSM faculty clearly has skills and expertise in engineering, as well as the pedagogy to deliver this information, the program needs exciting, real-world engineering challenges, technical support to develop the problem, and the human resources and experience to provide students with sufficient content knowledge to attempt the challenge.

  12. Conflict Management in Collaborative Engineering Design: Basic Research in Fundamental Theory, Modeling Framework, and Computer Support for Collaborative Engineering Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    as the World Wide Web and Internet become integral parts of all profes- sional communities. Within the scope of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE...in determining future human productivity in this era of Internet revolution. New collaborative engineering tools are being introduced into the...quan- titative requirements) value of the property on a particular instance of that thing . With this definition, collaborative design and group

  13. The Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1994-01-01

    Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed, the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. The design manager's aid for intelligent decomposition (DeMAID) is a knowledge based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for design. Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save considerable money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined.

  14. Engineering and Design: Composite Materials for Civil Engineering Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-31

    plan should include appropriate funds and schedule for this special design effort, including appropri- ate expert consultation. A reliable quality...assurance plan is essential for design, fabrication, and erection. To ensure acceptability of the final product, specific verifica- tion, testing, and...structural applications, the design engineer must develop a more thorough quality assurance plan , sufficient to verify the adequacy of the FRP in

  15. Engineering Design Modules as Physics Teaching Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Douglas L.; Kane, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Pre-engineering is increasingly being taught as a high school subject. This development presents challenges as well as opportunities for the physics education community. If pre-engineering is taught as a separate class, it may divert resources and students from traditional physics classes. However, design modules can be used as physics teaching…

  16. Embedding Context in Teaching Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeyer, Xaver; Chen, Wei; McKenna, Ann F.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the global, societal, environmental and economic (GSEE) context of a product, process or system is critical to an engineer's ability to design and innovate. The already packed curricula in engineering programs provide few occasions to offer meaningful experiences to address this issue, and most departments delegate this requirement…

  17. AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  18. Computer-aided structural design of a lunar radio telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akgul, Ferhat; Gerstle, Walter H.; Johnson, Stewart W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided structural design of the main reflector of a fully steerable radio telescope to be located (in the 21st century) on the moon, and presents the results of the structural analysis of the reflector. The reflector is a paraboloid with a surface area of 12,660 sq m and a focal ratio of 0.42. The reflector's surface will be covered by a 5.08 cm-thick sandwich panel made of thin-walled aluminum cells filled with low-density foam. The low weight of the design will be achieved by using graphite-epoxy as the structural material.

  19. Three-Dimensional Computer Aided Design of a Vertical Winnower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yumei; Lin, Saijia; Weng, Lijie

    The research states home and abroad of the winnowing technology and winnowers are reviewed in brief. For the air duct, the core component of the winnower, the relevant technical parameters in the winnowing process are calculated based on the winnowing principle. The three-dimensional computer aided design (3D-CAD) software Solidworks is applied. The designed vertical winnower is able to separate different raw materials by adjusting the air speed and has been put into practical production to separate the Chinese traditional medicine with high separating effect.

  20. Collaborative Learning in Engineering Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Sigrin

    1990-01-01

    Described is a capstone experience for undergraduate biomedical engineering students in which student teams work with children and adults with cerebral palsy to produce devices that make their lives easier or more enjoyable. The collaborative approach, benefits to the clients, and evaluation of the projects are discussed. (CW)

  1. Engineering Design EDUCATION: When, What, and HOW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalaf, Kinda; Balawi, Shadi; Hitt, George Wesley; Radaideh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative, interdisciplinary, design-and-build course created to improve placement, content, and pedagogy for introductory engineering design education. Infused at the freshman level, the course aims to promote expert design thinking by using problem-based learning (PBL) as the mode of delivery. The course is structured to…

  2. Taking Engineering Design out for a Spin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crismond, David; Soobyiah, Mark; Cain, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights what inquiry and design have in common, and what makes engineering design uniquely different from inquiry. A case study is presented that gives students practice in conducting fair-test experiments, in troubleshooting to learn how to make designs better, and in building science-based explanations for how things work. The…

  3. NASA Now: Engineering Design: Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Norman W. Schaeffler, a NASA aerospace research engineer, describes how wind tunnels work and how aircraft designers use them to understand aerodynamic forces at low speeds. Learn the advantage...

  4. Engineering design and integration simulation utilization manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, G. N.

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Engineering Design Integration (EDIN) Simulation System as it exists at Johnson Space Center is provided. A discussion of the EDIN Simulation System capabilities and applications is presented.

  5. Team Based Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective was encompassed in the research question driving the inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

  6. Team Based Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective is encompassed in the research question driving this inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

  7. Engineering Design Education through the CDIO Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemata, Kazuya; Minamide, Akiyuki; Matsuishi, Masakatsu

    CDIO is a framework for the engineering education curriculum. It is based on learning the design process through actual system and product development. Students learn to “Conceive-Design-Implement-Operate” within this framework. The CDIO standard needs not to be satisfied by every related subject independently. What is required is just satisfied as a whole. At Kanazawa Institute of Technology (KIT) , we have two introductory engineering design courses: Design Project 1 (PD1) and Design Project 2 (PD2) . PD1 is given in the first semester of the freshman year and PD2 in the second semester of the sophomore year. Standard PD1 and PD2 courses satisfy the “Conceive-Design” processes of the CDIO approach. The authors succeeded in expanding the processes of CDIO in PD2 course. This paper describes the details of engineering design education based upon the CDIO framework.

  8. Visions of visualization aids - Design philosophy and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1989-01-01

    Aids for the visualization of high-dimensional scientific or other data must be designed. Simply casting multidimensional data into a two-dimensional or three-dimensional spatial metaphor does not guarantee that the presentation will provide insight or a parsimonious description of phenomena implicit in the data. Useful visualization, in contrast to glitzy, high-tech, computer-graphics imagery, is generally based on preexisting theoretical beliefs concerning the underlying phenomena. These beliefs guide selection and formatting of the plotted variables. Visualization tools are useful for understanding naturally three-dimensional data bases such as those used by pilots or astronauts. Two examples of such aids for spatial maneuvering illustrate that informative geometric distortion may be introduced to assist visualization and that visualization of complex dynamics alone may not be adequate to provide the necessary insight into the underlying processes.

  9. Towards Requirements in Systems Engineering for Aerospace IVHM Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Lin, Wei; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Health management (HM) technologies have been employed for safety critical system for decades, but a coherent systematic process to integrate HM into the system design is not yet clear. Consequently, in most cases, health management resorts to be an after-thought or 'band-aid' solution. Moreover, limited guidance exists for carrying out systems engineering (SE) on the subject of writing requirements for designs with integrated vehicle health management (IVHM). It is well accepted that requirements are key to developing a successful IVHM system right from the concept stage to development, verification, utilization, and support. However, writing requirements for systems with IVHM capability have unique challenges that require the designers to look beyond their own domains and consider the constraints and specifications of other interlinked systems. In this paper we look at various stages in the SE process and identify activities specific to IVHM design and development. More importantly, several relevant questions are posed that system engineers must address at various design and development stages. Addressing these questions should provide some guidance to systems engineers towards writing IVHM related requirements to ensure that appropriate IVHM functions are built into the system design.

  10. Evolution of Geometric Sensitivity Derivatives from Computer Aided Design Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William T.; Lazzara, David; Haimes, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The generation of design parameter sensitivity derivatives is required for gradient-based optimization. Such sensitivity derivatives are elusive at best when working with geometry defined within the solid modeling context of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems. Solid modeling CAD systems are often proprietary and always complex, thereby necessitating ad hoc procedures to infer parameter sensitivity. A new perspective is presented that makes direct use of the hierarchical associativity of CAD features to trace their evolution and thereby track design parameter sensitivity. In contrast to ad hoc methods, this method provides a more concise procedure following the model design intent and determining the sensitivity of CAD geometry directly to its respective defining parameters.

  11. Production of 2,3-butanediol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by in silico aided metabolic engineering

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background 2,3-Butanediol is a chemical compound of increasing interest due to its wide applications. It can be synthesized via mixed acid fermentation of pathogenic bacteria such as Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses three different 2,3-butanediol biosynthetic pathways, but produces minute amount of 2,3-butanediol. Hence, we attempted to engineer S. cerevisiae strain to enhance 2,3-butanediol production. Results We first identified gene deletion strategy by performing in silico genome-scale metabolic analysis. Based on the best in silico strategy, in which disruption of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) pathway is required, we then constructed gene deletion mutant strains and performed batch cultivation of the strains. Deletion of three ADH genes, ADH1, ADH3 and ADH5, increased 2,3-butanediol production by 55-fold under microaerobic condition. However, overproduction of glycerol was observed in this triple deletion strain. Additional rational design to reduce glycerol production by GPD2 deletion altered the carbon fluxes back to ethanol and significantly reduced 2,3-butanediol production. Deletion of ALD6 reduced acetate production in strains lacking major ADH isozymes, but it did not favor 2,3-butanediol production. Finally, we introduced 2,3-butanediol biosynthetic pathway from Bacillus subtilis and E. aerogenes to the engineered strain and successfully increased titer and yield. Highest 2,3-butanediol titer (2.29 g·l-1) and yield (0.113 g·g-1) were achieved by Δadh1 Δadh3 Δadh5 strain under anaerobic condition. Conclusions With the aid of in silico metabolic engineering, we have successfully designed and constructed S. cerevisiae strains with improved 2,3-butanediol production. PMID:22640729

  12. Software engineering and Ada in design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, Don

    1986-01-01

    Modern software engineering promises significant reductions in software costs and improvements in software quality. The Ada language is the focus for these software methodology and tool improvements. The IBM FSD approach, including the software engineering practices that guide the systematic design and development of software products and the management of the software process are examined. The revised Ada design language adaptation is revealed. This four level design methodology is detailed including the purpose of each level, the management strategy that integrates the software design activity with the program milestones, and the technical strategy that maps the Ada constructs to each level of design. A complete description of each design level is provided along with specific design language recording guidelines for each level. Finally, some testimony is offered on education, tools, architecture, and metrics resulting from project use of the four level Ada design language adaptation.

  13. Classroom Experiences in an Engineering Design Graphics Course with a CAD/CAM Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Ronald E.; Juricic, Davor

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the development of a new CAD/CAM laboratory experience for an Engineering Design Graphics (EDG) course. The EDG curriculum included freehand sketching, introduction to Computer-Aided Design and Drafting (CADD), and emphasized 3-D solid modeling. Reviews the project and reports on the testing of the new laboratory components which were…

  14. Extending Engineering Design Graphics Laboratories to Have a CAD/CAM Component: Implementation Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juricic, Davor; Barr, Ronald E.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a project that extended the Engineering Design Graphics curriculum to include instruction and laboratory experience in computer-aided design, analysis, and manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Discusses issues in project implementation, including introduction of finite element analysis to lower-division students, feasibility of classroom prototype…

  15. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Moon-Key; Lee, Ji-Yeon

    2016-04-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy.

  16. CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacture). A Brief Guide to Materials in the Library of Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, George D.

    This brief guide to materials in the Library of Congress (LC) on computer aided design and/or computer aided manufacturing lists reference materials and other information sources under 13 headings: (1) brief introductions; (2) LC subject headings used for such materials; (3) textbooks; (4) additional titles; (5) glossaries and handbooks; (6)…

  17. Retrofitting a crown to a sleep apnea device by using computer-aided design and computer-aided milling technology.

    PubMed

    Biethman, Rick; Land, Martin F; Hruskocy, Heather; Colgin, Bruce

    2014-07-01

    Retrofitting a new crown to an existing dental device is challenging. The continued evolution of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) significantly simplifies the process. This article demonstrates retrofitting a gold crown to an existing sleep apnea device.

  18. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy. PMID:27162756

  19. Microwave processing of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Pendola, Martin; Saha, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Because of their favorable mechanical properties and natural esthetics, ceramics are widely used in restorative dentistry. The conventional ceramic sintering process required for their use is usually slow, however, and the equipment has an elevated energy consumption. Sintering processes that use microwaves have several advantages compared to regular sintering: shorter processing times, lower energy consumption, and the capacity for volumetric heating. The objective of this study was to test the mechanical properties of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) after the specimens were processed with microwave hybrid sintering. Density, hardness, and bending strength were measured. When ceramic specimens were sintered with microwaves, the processing times were reduced and protocols were simplified. Hardness was improved almost 20% compared to regular sintering, and flexural strength measurements suggested that specimens were approximately 50% stronger than specimens sintered in a conventional system. Microwave hybrid sintering may preserve or improve the mechanical properties of dental ceramics designed for CAD/CAM processing systems, reducing processing and waiting times.

  20. Perceptions of Engineers Regarding Successful Engineering Team Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowaczyk, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    The perceptions of engineers and scientists at NASA Langley Research Center toward engineering design teams were evaluated. A sample of 49 engineers and scientists rated 60 team behaviors in terms of their relative importance for team success. They also completed a profile of their own perceptions of their strengths and weaknesses as team members. Behaviors related to team success are discussed in terms of those involving the organizational culture and commitment to the team and those dealing with internal team dynamics. The latter behaviors focused on team issues occurring during the early stages of a team's existence. They included the level and extent of debate and discussion regarding methods for completing the team task and the efficient use of team time to explore and discuss methodologies critical to the problem. The discussion includes a comparison of engineering teams with the prototypical business team portrayed in the literature.

  1. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienau, P. J.; Lunis, B. C.

    1991-09-01

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating and cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of the resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental consideration. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very large potential in the United States.

  2. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Culver, G.; Ellis, P.F.; Higbee, C.; Kindle, C.; Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.; Rafferty, K.; Stiger, S.; Wright, P.M.

    1989-03-01

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of these resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse, aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental considerations. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very potential in the United States.

  3. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating and cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of the resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental consideration. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very large potential in the United States.

  4. Mechanical engineering capstone senior design textbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Rolin Farrar, Jr.

    This textbook is intended to bridge the gap between mechanical engineering equations and mechanical engineering design. To that end, real-world examples are used throughout the book. Also, the material is presented in an order that follows the chronological sequence of coursework that must be performed by a student in the typical capstone senior design course in mechanical engineering. In the process of writing this book, the author surveyed the fifty largest engineering schools (as ranked by the American Society of Engineering Education, or ASEE) to determine what engineering instructors are looking for in a textbook. The survey results revealed a clear need for a textbook written expressly for the capstone senior design course as taught throughout the nation. This book is designed to meet that need. This text was written using an organizational method that the author calls the General Topics Format. The format gives the student reader rapid access to the information contained in the text. All manufacturing methods, and some other material presented in this text, have been presented using the General Topics Format. The text uses examples to explain the importance of understanding the environment in which the product will be used and to discuss product abuse. The safety content contained in this text is unique. The Safety chapter teaches engineering ethics and includes a step-by-step guide to resolving ethical conflicts. The chapter includes explanations of rules, recommendations, standards, consensus standards, key safety concepts, and the legal implications of product failure. Key design principles have been listed and explained. The text provides easy-to-follow design steps, helpful for both the student and new engineer. Prototyping is presented as consisting of three phases: organization, building, and refining. A chapter on common manufacturing methods is included for reference.

  5. Advanced Vibration Analysis Tool Developed for Robust Engine Rotor Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this research program is to develop vibration analysis tools, design tools, and design strategies to significantly improve the safety and robustness of turbine engine rotors. Bladed disks in turbine engines always feature small, random blade-to-blade differences, or mistuning. Mistuning can lead to a dramatic increase in blade forced-response amplitudes and stresses. Ultimately, this results in high-cycle fatigue, which is a major safety and cost concern. In this research program, the necessary steps will be taken to transform a state-of-the-art vibration analysis tool, the Turbo- Reduce forced-response prediction code, into an effective design tool by enhancing and extending the underlying modeling and analysis methods. Furthermore, novel techniques will be developed to assess the safety of a given design. In particular, a procedure will be established for using natural-frequency curve veerings to identify ranges of operating conditions (rotational speeds and engine orders) in which there is a great risk that the rotor blades will suffer high stresses. This work also will aid statistical studies of the forced response by reducing the necessary number of simulations. Finally, new strategies for improving the design of rotors will be pursued.

  6. Engineering and design: Soil vapor extraction and bioventing. Engineer manual

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-30

    This manual provides practical guidance for the design and operation of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) systems. It is intended for use by environmental, civil, geotechnical, chemical, mechanical, and electrical engineers; geologists, hydrogeologists, and soil scientists; chemists; project managers; and other involved in any phase of SVE and BV projects. The manual describes current best practice for SVE and BV site characterization, system design, and system start-up and operations.

  7. Biologically inspired binaural hearing aid algorithms: Design principles and effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Albert

    2002-05-01

    Despite rapid advances in the sophistication of hearing aid technology and microelectronics, listening in noise remains problematic for people with hearing impairment. To solve this problem two algorithms were designed for use in binaural hearing aid systems. The signal processing strategies are based on principles in auditory physiology and psychophysics: (a) the location/extraction (L/E) binaural computational scheme determines the directions of source locations and cancels noise by applying a simple subtraction method over every frequency band; and (b) the frequency-domain minimum-variance (FMV) scheme extracts a target sound from a known direction amidst multiple interfering sound sources. Both algorithms were evaluated using standard metrics such as signal-to-noise-ratio gain and articulation index. Results were compared with those from conventional adaptive beam-forming algorithms. In free-field tests with multiple interfering sound sources our algorithms performed better than conventional algorithms. Preliminary intelligibility and speech reception results in multitalker environments showed gains for every listener with normal or impaired hearing when the signals were processed in real time with the FMV binaural hearing aid algorithm. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD Grant No. R21DC04840 and the Beckman Institute.

  8. Visions of visualization aids: Design philosophy and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    Aids for the visualization of high-dimensional scientific or other data must be designed. Simply casting multidimensional data into a two- or three-dimensional spatial metaphor does not guarantee that the presentation will provide insight or parsimonious description of the phenomena underlying the data. Indeed, the communication of the essential meaning of some multidimensional data may be obscured by presentation in a spatially distributed format. Useful visualization is generally based on pre-existing theoretical beliefs concerning the underlying phenomena which guide selection and formatting of the plotted variables. Two examples from chaotic dynamics are used to illustrate how a visulaization may be an aid to insight. Two examples of displays to aid spatial maneuvering are described. The first, a perspective format for a commercial air traffic display, illustrates how geometric distortion may be introduced to insure that an operator can understand a depicted three-dimensional situation. The second, a display for planning small spacecraft maneuvers, illustrates how the complex counterintuitive character of orbital maneuvering may be made more tractable by removing higher-order nonlinear control dynamics, and allowing independent satisfaction of velocity and plume impingement constraints on orbital changes.

  9. A Conceptual Design of a Departure Planner Decision Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anagnostakis, Ioannis; Idris, Husni R.; Clark, John-Paul; Feron, Eric; Hansman, R. John; Odoni, Amedeo R.; Hall, William D.

    2000-01-01

    Terminal area Air Traffic Management handles both arriving and departing traffic. To date, research work on terminal area operations has focused primarily on the arrival flow and typically departures are taken into account only in an approximate manner. However, arrivals and departures are highly coupled processes especially in the terminal airspace, with complex interactions and sharing of the same airport resources between arrivals and departures taking place in practically every important terminal area. Therefore, the addition of automation aids for departures, possibly in co-operation with existing arrival flow automation systems, could have a profound contribution in enhancing the overall efficiency of airport operations. This paper presents the conceptual system architecture for such an automation aid, the Departure Planner (DP). This architecture can be used as a core in the development of decision-aiding systems to assist air traffic controllers in improving the performance of departure operations and optimize runway time allocation among different operations at major congested airports. The design of such systems is expected to increase the overall efficiency of terminal area operations and yield benefits for all stakeholders involved in Air Traffic Management (ATM) operations, users as well as service providers.

  10. An Interactive Computer Aided Electrical Engineering Education Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavati, Cicero Romao

    This paper describes an educational package to help the learning process. A case study is presented of an energy distribution course in the Electrical Engineering Department at the Federal University of Espirito Santo (UFES). The advantages of the developed package are shown by comparing it with the traditional academic book. This package presents…

  11. Engineering Design Handbook. Helicopter Engineering. Part Two. Detail Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    4-62 4-2.2.5 Rotor Brakes ........................ ........................... 4-62) 4-2.2.5.1 R,ýquirernents and Limitations...9-4 9-2.2.4 Rotor Brake ..................................... .............. 9-4 9-2.2.5 Wheel Brakes ...9.27 9-2.9.1 Actuators and Assoziated Equipment Design ...... ................... 9.27 9-2.9.2 Brake D esign

  12. IDEAS: A multidisciplinary computer-aided conceptual design system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    During the conceptual development of advanced aerospace vehicles, many compromises must be considered to balance economy and performance of the total system. Subsystem tradeoffs may need to be made in order to satisfy system-sensitive attributes. Due to the increasingly complex nature of aerospace systems, these trade studies have become more difficult and time-consuming to complete and involve interactions of ever-larger numbers of subsystems, components, and performance parameters. The current advances of computer-aided synthesis, modeling and analysis techniques have greatly helped in the evaluation of competing design concepts. Langley Research Center's Space Systems Division is currently engaged in trade studies for a variety of systems which include advanced ground-launched space transportation systems, space-based orbital transfer vehicles, large space antenna concepts and space stations. The need for engineering analysis tools to aid in the rapid synthesis and evaluation of spacecraft has led to the development of the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design system. The ADEAS system has been used to perform trade studies of competing technologies and requirements in order to pinpoint possible beneficial areas for research and development. IDEAS is presented as a multidisciplinary tool for the analysis of advanced space systems. Capabilities range from model generation and structural and thermal analysis to subsystem synthesis and performance analysis.

  13. Computer Aided Antenna Design and Frequency Selection for HF Communications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    EESIGN ON THE ADPE-.- NIF (GREEN MACHINE) ... .... . . . . . . . 57 E. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN USING ECAC1S ACCESSIBIE ANTENNA PACKAGE . . . . . . .. 57 F...8217 C8 L4 E-4 W 3a ’H 1 H -g I) - 4 ’ 0-4 =2 E-4 V. E-4 b. m 0 m 4 =- v- -4 3 4 E’- 4 = P4 H - ofC. I- 1 4 = W P4 w 4 I = N = V rq I 0-4 ~ to H W4

  14. Computer aided design and analysis of gear tooth geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A simulation method for gear hobbing and shaping of straight and spiral bevel gears is presented. The method is based upon an enveloping theory for gear tooth profile generation. The procedure is applicable in the computer aided design of standard and nonstandard tooth forms. An inverse procedure for finding a conjugate gear tooth profile is presented for arbitrary cutter geometry. The kinematic relations for the tooth surfaces of straight and spiral bevel gears are proposed. The tooth surface equations for these gears are formulated in a manner suitable for their automated numerical development and solution.

  15. Computer-aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuo, Hung Chang; Huston, Ronald L.; Coy, John J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  16. Computer aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  17. CATIA - A computer aided design and manufacturing tridimensional system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, F.

    A properietary computer graphics-aided, three-dimensional interactive application (CATIA) design system is described. CATIA employs approximately 100 graphics displays, which are used by some 500 persons engaged in the definition of aircraft structures, structural strength analyses, the kinematic analysis of mobile elements, aerodynamic calculations, the choice of tooling in the machining of aircraft elements, and the programming of robotics. CATIA covers these diverse fields with a single data base. After a description of salient aspects of the system's hardware and software, graphics examples are given of the definition of curves, surfaces, complex volumes, and analytical tasks.

  18. The Engineering Process in Construction & Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Melissa A.; Stuby, Kristin T.; Szczepanski, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that high-impact activities in science and math classes promote positive attitudinal shifts in students. By implementing high-impact activities, such as designing a school and a skate park, mathematical thinking can be linked to the engineering design process. This hands-on approach, when possible, to demonstrate or…

  19. Engineering coatings: Design and application. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Grainger, S.; Blunt, J.

    1999-07-01

    This is a guidebook for coating selection and the means of application for specific circumstances. Mechanisms of wear and corrosion are discussed in detail to assist in the analysis of component failures and newly designed parts. Coverage includes coating finishing, quality assurance, health and safety issues and other useful reference information for designers and surface engineers who use or select coatings.

  20. Simulation and Spacecraft Design: Engineering Mars Landings.

    PubMed

    Conway, Erik M

    2015-10-01

    A key issue in history of technology that has received little attention is the use of simulation in engineering design. This article explores the use of both mechanical and numerical simulation in the design of the Mars atmospheric entry phases of the Viking and Mars Pathfinder missions to argue that engineers used both kinds of simulation to develop knowledge of their designs' likely behavior in the poorly known environment of Mars. Each kind of simulation could be used as a warrant of the other's fidelity, in an iterative process of knowledge construction.

  1. A 1050 K Stirling space engine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penswick, L. Barry

    1988-01-01

    As part of the NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Program on Conversion Systems for Nuclear Applications, Sunpower, Inc. completed for NASA Lewis a reference design of a single-cylinder free-piston Stirling engine that is optimized for the lifetimes and temperatures appropriate for space applications. The NASA effort is part of the overall SP-100 program which is a combined DOD/DOE/NASA project to develop nuclear power for space. Stirling engines have been identified as a growth option for SP-100 offering increased power output and lower system mass and radiator area. Superalloy materials are used in the 1050 K hot end of the engine; the engine temperature ratio is 2.0. The engine design features simplified heat exchangers with heat input by sodium heat pipes, hydrodynamic gas bearings, a permanent magnet linear alternator, and a dynamic balance system. The design shows an efficiency (including the alternator) of 29 percent and a specific mass of 5.7 kg/kW. This design also represents a significant step toward the 1300 K refractory Stirling engine which is another growth option of SP-100.

  2. Innovative Design of Complex Engineering Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    The document contains the proceedings of the training workshop on Innovative Design of Complex Engineering Systems. The workshop was held at the Peninsula Higher Education Center, Hampton, Virginia, March 23 and 24, 2004. The workshop was jointly sponsored by Old Dominion University and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to a) provide broad overviews of the diverse activities related to innovative design of high-tech engineering systems; and b) identify training needs for future aerospace work force development in the design area. The format of the workshop included fifteen, half-hour overview-type presentations, a panel discussion on how to teach and train engineers in innovative design, and three exhibits by commercial vendors.

  3. 40 CFR 94.204 - Designation of engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designation of engine families. 94.204... Designation of engine families. This section specifies the procedure and requirements for grouping of engines into engine families. (a) Manufacturers shall divide their engines into groupings of engines which...

  4. Space Engineering Projects in Design Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, R.; Wood, K.; Nichols, S.; Hearn, C.; Corrier, S.; DeKunder, G.; George, S.; Hysinger, C.; Johnson, C.; Kubasta, K.

    1993-01-01

    NASA/USRA is an ongoing sponsor of space design projects in the senior design courses of the Mechanical Engineering Department at The University of Texas at Austin. This paper describes the UT senior design sequence, focusing on the first-semester design methodology course. The philosophical basis and pedagogical structure of this course is summarized. A history of the Department's activities in the Advanced Design Program is then presented. The paper includes a summary of the projects completed during the 1992-93 Academic Year in the methodology course, and concludes with an example of two projects completed by student design teams.

  5. Design methodology and projects for space engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, S.; Kleespies, H.; Wood, K.; Crawford, R.

    1993-01-01

    NASA/USRA is an ongoing sponsor of space design projects in the senior design course of the Mechanical Engineering Department at The University of Texas at Austin. This paper describes the UT senior design sequence, consisting of a design methodology course and a capstone design course. The philosophical basis of this sequence is briefly summarized. A history of the Department's activities in the Advanced Design Program is then presented. The paper concludes with a description of the projects completed during the 1991-92 academic year and the ongoing projects for the Fall 1992 semester.

  6. Integrated Intelligent training and job aiding for combustion turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckeithan, Clifford M., Jr.; Quentin, George H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to augment such an expert system gas turbine startup advisor, known as the EPRI SA VANT System, by including an intelligent training package. It will give a brief background on the SA VANT development and an overview of its evolution into a full-blown Gas Turbine Information System (GTIS) for rapid access of on-line documentation, diagnostics, and training. In particular, the paper will address: (1) the conversion of the knowledge base used by the SA VANT startup advisor so that it can be used for both training and job aiding; and (2) the hypertext-oriented user manuals being incorporated into the system for rapidly accessing on-line documentation at the job site.

  7. Design approaches to more energy efficient engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, N. T.; Colladay, R. S.; Macioce, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    In 1976 NASA initiated the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program to assist in the development of technology for more fuel-efficient aircraft for commercial airline use. The Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) Project of the ACEE program is intended to lay the advanced-technology foundation for a new generation of turbofan engines. This project, planned as a seven-year cooperative government-industry effort, is aimed at developing and demonstrating advanced component and systems technologies for engines that could be introduced into airline service by the late 1980s or early 1990s. In addition to fuel savings, new engines must offer potential for being economically attractive to the airline users and environmentally acceptable. A description is presented of conceptual energy-efficient engine designs which offer potential for achieving all of the goals established for the EEE Project.

  8. Automotive Stirling Engine Mod 1 Design Review, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Risk assessment, safety analysis of the automotive stirling engine (ASE) mod I, design criteria and materials properties for the ASE mod I and reference engines, combustion are flower development, and the mod I engine starter motor are discussed. The stirling engine system, external heat system, hot engine system, cold engine system, and engine drive system are also discussed.

  9. System engineering toolbox for design-oriented engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Everhart, K.; Stevens, R.; Babbitt, N., III; Clemens, P.; Stout, L.

    1994-01-01

    This system engineering toolbox is designed to provide tools and methodologies to the design-oriented systems engineer. A tool is defined as a set of procedures to accomplish a specific function. A methodology is defined as a collection of tools, rules, and postulates to accomplish a purpose. For each concept addressed in the toolbox, the following information is provided: (1) description, (2) application, (3) procedures, (4) examples, if practical, (5) advantages, (6) limitations, and (7) bibliography and/or references. The scope of the document includes concept development tools, system safety and reliability tools, design-related analytical tools, graphical data interpretation tools, a brief description of common statistical tools and methodologies, so-called total quality management tools, and trend analysis tools. Both relationship to project phase and primary functional usage of the tools are also delineated. The toolbox also includes a case study for illustrative purposes. Fifty-five tools are delineated in the text.

  10. Design of applicative 100 W Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kagawa, Noboru; Hirata, Koichi; Takeuchi, Makoto

    1995-12-31

    A small 100 W displacer type Stirling engine is being developed under a project of a JSME committee, RC127. The project consists of sixteen Japanese academic researchers of universities and governmental laboratories and eleven enterprise members related to the Stirling field. The engine has very unique features. Its expansion cylinder is heated by combustion gas or solar energy directly, and a simple cooling system rejects heat from the working fluid. A regenerator is built in the displacer piston with heating and cooling tubes in which the working fluid flows from/to outer tubes. The outer tubes for heating were located at the top of the expansion cylinder and the tubes for cooling are in the middle of the cylinder. The target performance is a 100 W output with 20% thermal efficiency at the operating conditions of 923 K expansion space temperature, 343 K compression space temperature, and 1,000 rpm. The 100 W displacer engine was designed based on a design manual established by a related JSME committee, RC110. It contains several guides to design for cycle, heat exchanger system, and mechanism of most Stirling cycle machines. The engine was designed by using the fundamental method, the second and third-order analyses accomplished with the newly arranged knowledge about each component. This paper presents the engine specifications and the theoretical analysis results. The design method is also introduced briefly.

  11. CFD Aided Design and Production of Hydraulic Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Alper; Cetinturk, Huseyin; Demirel, Gizem; Ayli, Ece; Celebioglu, Kutay; Aradag, Selin; ETU Hydro Research Center Team

    2014-11-01

    Hydraulic turbines are turbo machines which produce electricity from hydraulic energy. Francis type turbines are the most common one in use today. The design of these turbines requires high engineering effort since each turbine is tailor made due to different head and discharge. Therefore each component of the turbine is designed specifically. During the last decades, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become very useful tool to predict hydraulic machinery performance and save time and money for designers. This paper describes a design methodology to optimize a Francis turbine by integrating theoretical and experimental fundamentals of hydraulic machines and commercial CFD codes. Specific turbines are designed and manufactured with the help of a collaborative CFD/CAD/CAM methodology based on computational fluid dynamics and five-axis machining for hydraulic electric power plants. The details are presented in this study. This study is financially supported by Turkish Ministry of Development.

  12. Incorporating Computer-Aided Software in the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Core Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnaizy, Raafat; Abdel-Jabbar, Nabil; Ibrahim, Taleb H.; Husseini, Ghaleb A.

    2014-01-01

    Introductions of computer-aided software and simulators are implemented during the sophomore-year of the chemical engineering (ChE) curriculum at the American University of Sharjah (AUS). Our faculty concurs that software integration within the curriculum is beneficial to our students, as evidenced by the positive feedback received from industry…

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING TOOLS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of Computer-Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) and process simulation tools has become established industry practice to predict simulation software, new opportunities are available for the creation of a wide range of ancillary tools that can be used from within multiple sim...

  14. Knowledge management in the engineering design environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    2006-01-01

    The Aerospace and Defense industry is experiencing an increasing loss of knowledge through workforce reductions associated with business consolidation and retirement of senior personnel. Significant effort is being placed on process definition as part of ISO certification and, more recently, CMMI certification. The process knowledge in these efforts represents the simplest of engineering knowledge and many organizations are trying to get senior engineers to write more significant guidelines, best practices and design manuals. A new generation of design software, known as Product Lifecycle Management systems, has many mechanisms for capturing and deploying a wider variety of engineering knowledge than simple process definitions. These hold the promise of significant improvements through reuse of prior designs, codification of practices in workflows, and placement of detailed how-tos at the point of application.

  15. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  16. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now.

  17. Engineering Design Handbook. Electromagnetic Compatibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    Properties 3-77 Flux Density from a Loop 3-77 Experimental Data 3-78 Magnetic Fields from Wires and Cables 3-83 Parallel-wire Line (Low...THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS 4-51 4-6.3 DESIGN DATA ’. 4-64 4-6.3.1 Absorption Loss 4-64 4-6.3.2 Reflection Loss 4-65 4-6.3.3 Combined Losses 4...PRESENTLY AVAILABLE PERFORMANCE DATA 5-124 5-10.4.1 Thin Dipoles 5-124 5-10.4.2 Dipole Arrays 5-129 5-10.4.3

  18. Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

  19. Creating a strategic plan for configuration management using computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.; Sarfaty, R.

    1993-05-01

    This paper provides guidance in the definition, documentation, measurement, enhancement of processes, and validation of a strategic plan for configuration management (CM). The approach and methodology used in establishing a strategic plan is the same for any enterprise, including the Department of Energy (DOE), commercial nuclear plants, the Department of Defense (DOD), or large industrial complexes. The principles and techniques presented are used world wide by some of the largest corporations. The authors used industry knowledge and the areas of their current employment to illustrate and provide examples. Developing a strategic configuration and information management plan for DOE Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID) facilities is discussed in this paper. A good knowledge of CM principles is the key to successful strategic planning. This paper will describe and define CM elements, and discuss how CM integrates the facility`s physical configuration, design basis, and documentation. The strategic plan does not need the support of a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. However, the use of the CASE tool provides a methodology for consistency in approach, graphics, and database capability combined to form an encyclopedia and a method of presentation that is easily understood and aids the process of reengineering. CASE tools have much more capability than those stated above. Some examples are supporting a joint application development group (JAD) to prepare a software functional specification document and, if necessary, provide the capability to automatically generate software application code. This paper briefly discusses characteristics and capabilities of two CASE tools that use different methodologies to generate similar deliverables.

  20. Computer aided design environment for the analysis and design of multi-body flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakrishnan, Jayant V.; Singh, Ramen P.

    1989-01-01

    A computer aided design environment consisting of the programs NASTRAN, TREETOPS and MATLAB is presented in this paper. With links for data transfer between these programs, the integrated design of multi-body flexible structures is significantly enhanced. The CAD environment is used to model the Space Shuttle/Pinhole Occulater Facility. Then a controller is designed and evaluated in the nonlinear time history sense. Recent enhancements and ongoing research to add more capabilities are also described.

  1. Various advanced design projects promoting engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) program promotes engineering education in the field of design by presenting students with challenging design projects drawn from actual NASA interests. In doing so, the program yields two very positive results. Firstly, the students gain a valuable experience that will prepare them for design problems with which they will be faced in their professional careers. Secondly, NASA is able to use the work done by students as an additional resource in meeting its own design objectives. The 1994 projects include: Universal Test Facility; Automated Protein Crystal Growth Facility; Stiffening of the ACES Deployable Space Boom; Launch System Design for Access to Space; LH2 Fuel Tank Design for SSTO Vehicle; and Feed System Design for a Reduced Pressure Tank.

  2. The application of computer-aided technologies in automotive styling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ze-feng; Zhang, Ji; Zheng, Ying

    2012-04-01

    In automotive industry, outline design is its life and creative design is its soul indeed. Computer-aided technology has been widely used in the automotive industry and more and more attention has been paid. This paper chiefly introduce the application of computer-aided technologies including CAD, CAM and CAE, analyses the process of automotive structural design and describe the development tendency of computer-aided design.

  3. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1994-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: first, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the dentist who will offer this new technology directly to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities.

  4. A digital patient for computer-aided prosthesis design

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giorgio; Facoetti, Giancarlo; Rizzi, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This article concerns the design of lower limb prosthesis, both below and above knee. It describes a new computer-based design framework and a digital model of the patient around which the prosthesis is designed and tested in a completely virtual environment. The virtual model of the patient is the backbone of the whole system, and it is based on a biomechanical general-purpose model customized with the patient's characteristics (e.g. anthropometric measures). The software platform adopts computer-aided and knowledge-guided approaches with the goal of replacing the current development process, mainly hand made, with a virtual one. It provides the prosthetics with a set of tools to design, configure and test the prosthesis and comprehends two main environments: the prosthesis modelling laboratory and the virtual testing laboratory. The first permits the three-dimensional model of the prosthesis to be configured and generated, while the second allows the prosthetics to virtually set up the artificial leg and simulate the patient's postures and movements, validating its functionality and configuration. General architecture and modelling/simulation tools for the platform are described as well as main aspects and results of the experimentation. PMID:24427528

  5. Bioreactor Design for Tendon/Ligament Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B.; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake

    2013-01-01

    Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments. PMID:23072472

  6. Design of software engineering teaching website

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuxiang; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Guangbin; Liu, Xingshun; Gao, Zhenbo

    "􀀶oftware engineering" is different from the general professional courses, it is born for getting rid of the software crisis and adapting to the development of software industry, it is a theory course, especially a practical course. However, due to the own characteristics of software engineering curriculum, in the daily teaching process, concerning theoretical study, students may feel boring, obtain low interest in learning and poor test results and other problems. ASPNET design technique is adopted and Access 2007 database is used for system to design and realize "Software Engineering" teaching website. System features mainly include theoretical teaching, case teaching, practical teaching, teaching interaction, database, test item bank, announcement, etc., which can enhance the vitality, interest and dynamic role of learning.

  7. Computer-Aided Software Engineering - An approach to real-time software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.; Turkovich, John J.

    1989-01-01

    A new software engineering discipline is Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE), a technology aimed at automating the software development process. This paper explores the development of CASE technology, particularly in the area of real-time/scientific/engineering software, and a history of CASE is given. The proposed software development environment for the Advanced Launch System (ALS CASE) is described as an example of an advanced software development system for real-time/scientific/engineering (RT/SE) software. The Automated Programming Subsystem of ALS CASE automatically generates executable code and corresponding documentation from a suitably formatted specification of the software requirements. Software requirements are interactively specified in the form of engineering block diagrams. Several demonstrations of the Automated Programming Subsystem are discussed.

  8. Designing, engineering, and testing wood structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce basic structural engineering concepts in a clear, simple manner while actively involving students. This project emphasizes the fact that a good design uses materials efficiently. The test structure in this experiment can easily be built and has various design options. Even when the structure is loaded to collapsing, only one or two pieces usually break, leaving the remaining pieces intact and reusable.

  9. Aiding Design of Wave Energy Converters via Computational Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebeli Aqdam, Hejar; Ahmadi, Babak; Raessi, Mehdi; Tootkaboni, Mazdak

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing interest in renewable energy sources, wave energy converters will continue to gain attention as a viable alternative to current electricity production methods. It is therefore crucial to develop computational tools for the design and analysis of wave energy converters. A successful design requires balance between the design performance and cost. Here an analytical solution is used for the approximate analysis of interactions between a flap-type wave energy converter (WEC) and waves. The method is verified using other flow solvers and experimental test cases. Then the model is used in conjunction with a powerful heuristic optimization engine, Charged System Search (CSS) to explore the WEC design space. CSS is inspired by charged particles behavior. It searches the design space by considering candidate answers as charged particles and moving them based on the Coulomb's laws of electrostatics and Newton's laws of motion to find the global optimum. Finally the impacts of changes in different design parameters on the power takeout of the superior WEC designs are investigated. National Science Foundation, CBET-1236462.

  10. Engineering Design for a Technological Dependent Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parden, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses a Sloan Foundation undergraduate project conducted at the University of California at Santa Clara, with emphases upon interdisciplinary design. Indicates that engineering should be seen as a broad education for a technology dependent society, rather than education leading to a specialized, dead-end career. (CC)

  11. Visual display aid for orbital maneuvering - Design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an interactive proximity operations planning system that allows on-site planning of fuel-efficient multiburn maneuvers in a potential multispacecraft environment. Although this display system most directly assists planning by providing visual feedback to aid visualization of the trajectories and constraints, its most significant features include: (1) the use of an 'inverse dynamics' algorithm that removes control nonlinearities facing the operator, and (2) a trajectory planning technique that separates, through a 'geometric spreadsheet', the normally coupled complex problems of planning orbital maneuvers and allows solution by an iterative sequence of simple independent actions. The visual feedback of trajectory shapes and operational constraints, provided by user-transparent and continuously active background computations, allows the operator to make fast, iterative design changes that rapidly converge to fuel-efficient solutions. The planning tool provides an example of operator-assisted optimization of nonlinear cost functions.

  12. Hardware synthesis from DDL. [Digital Design Language for computer aided design and test of LSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, A. M.; Shiva, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    The details of the digital systems can be conveniently input into the design automation system by means of Hardware Description Languages (HDL). The Computer Aided Design and Test (CADAT) system at NASA MSFC is used for the LSI design. The Digital Design Language (DDL) has been selected as HDL for the CADAT System. DDL translator output can be used for the hardware implementation of the digital design. This paper addresses problems of selecting the standard cells from the CADAT standard cell library to realize the logic implied by the DDL description of the system.

  13. Instructional design considerations promoting engineering design self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andrew M.

    Engineering design activities are frequently included in technology and engineering classrooms. These activities provide an open-ended context for practicing critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, and innovation---collectively part of the 21st Century Skills which are increasingly needed for success in the workplace. Self-efficacy is a perceptual belief that impacts learning and behavior. It has been shown to directly impact each of these 21st Century Skills but its relation to engineering design is only recently being studied. The purpose of this study was to examine how instructional considerations made when implementing engineering design activities might affect student self-efficacy outcomes in a middle school engineering classroom. Student responses to two self-efficacy inventories related to design, the Engineering Design Self-Efficacy Instrument and Creative Thinking Self-Efficacy Inventory, were collected before and after participation in an engineering design curriculum. Students were also answered questions on specific factors of their experience during the curriculum which teachers may exhibit control over: teamwork and feedback. Results were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, paired and independent t-tests, and structural equation modeling to better understand patterns for self-efficacy beliefs in students. Results suggested that design self-efficacy and creative thinking self-efficacy are significantly correlated, r(1541) = .783, p < .001, and increased following participation in a design curriculum, M diff = 1.32, t(133) = 7.60, p < .001 and Mdiff = 0.79, t(124) = 4.19, p < .001 respectively. Structural models also showed that students perceive team inclusion and feedback as significant contributors to their self-efficacy beliefs, while team diversity was not related to self-efficacy. Separate models for each predictor demonstrated good fit. Recommendations are made based on the corresponding nature of engineering design self

  14. An investigation of constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Originally, computer programs for engineering design focused on detailed geometric design. Later, computer programs for algorithmically performing the preliminary design of specific well-defined classes of objects became commonplace. However, due to the need for extreme flexibility, it appears unlikely that conventional programming techniques will prove fruitful in developing computer aids for engineering conceptual design. The use of symbolic processing techniques, such as object-oriented programming and constraint propagation, facilitate such flexibility. Object-oriented programming allows programs to be organized around the objects and behavior to be simulated, rather than around fixed sequences of function- and subroutine-calls. Constraint propagation allows declarative statements to be understood as designating multi-directional mathematical relationships among all the variables of an equation, rather than as unidirectional assignments to the variable on the left-hand side of the equation, as in conventional computer programs. The research has concentrated on applying these two techniques to the development of a general-purpose computer aid for engineering conceptual design. Object-oriented programming techniques are utilized to implement a user-extensible database of design components. The mathematical relationships which model both geometry and physics of these components are managed via constraint propagation. In addition, to this component-based hierarchy, special-purpose data structures are provided for describing component interactions and supporting state-dependent parameters. In order to investigate the utility of this approach, a number of sample design problems from the field of aerospace engineering were implemented using the prototype design tool, Rubber Airplane. The additional level of organizational structure obtained by representing design knowledge in terms of components is observed to provide greater convenience to the program user, and to

  15. A Study of Current Trends and Issues Related to Technical/Engineering Design Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Aaron C.; Scales Alice

    2000-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of engineering design graphics educators who responded to questions related to current trends and issues in the profession of graphics education. Concludes that there is a clear trend in institutions towards the teaching of constraint-based modeling and computer-aided manufacturing. (Author/YDS)

  16. Three-dimensional computer-aided human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Y C; Chen, S; Wu, G J; Lin, Y H

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research was to conduct a human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot design using computer-aided 3D simulation technology. A prototype tubing-type grafting robot for fruits and vegetables was the subject of a series of case studies. To facilitate the incorporation of human models into the operating environment of the grafting robot, I-DEAS graphic software was applied to establish individual models of the grafting robot in line with Jack ergonomic analysis. Six human models (95th percentile, 50th percentile, and 5th percentile by height for both males and females) were employed to simulate the operating conditions and working postures in a real operating environment. The lower back and upper limb stresses of the operators were analyzed using the lower back analysis (LBA) and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) functions in Jack. The experimental results showed that if a leg space is introduced under the robot, the operator can sit closer to the robot, which reduces the operator's level of lower back and upper limbs stress. The proper environmental layout for Taiwanese operators for minimum levels of lower back and upper limb stress are to set the grafting operation at 23.2 cm away from the operator at a height of 85 cm and with 45 cm between the rootstock and scion units.

  17. Factors Related to Successful Engineering Team Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowaczyk, Ronald H.; Zang, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    The perceptions of a sample of 49 engineers and scientists from NASA Langley Research Center toward engineering design teams were evaluated. The respondents rated 60 team behaviors in terms of their relative importance for team success. They also completed a profile of their own perceptions of their strengths and weaknesses as team members. Behaviors related to team success are discussed in terms of those involving the organizational culture and commitment to the team and those dealing with internal team dynamics. The latter behaviors included the level and extent of debate and discussion regarding methods for completing the team task and the efficient use of team time to explore and discuss methodologies critical to the problem. Successful engineering teams may find their greatest challenges occurring during the early stages of their existence. In contrast to the prototypical business team, members on an engineering design share expertise and knowledge which allows them to deal with task issues sooner. However, discipline differences among team members can lead to conflicts regarding the best method or approach to solving the engineering problem.

  18. Synthetic metabolism: metabolic engineering meets enzyme design.

    PubMed

    Erb, Tobias J; Jones, Patrik R; Bar-Even, Arren

    2017-01-30

    Metabolic engineering aims at modifying the endogenous metabolic network of an organism to harness it for a useful biotechnological task, for example, production of a value-added compound. Several levels of metabolic engineering can be defined and are the topic of this review. Basic 'copy, paste and fine-tuning' approaches are limited to the structure of naturally existing pathways. 'Mix and match' approaches freely recombine the repertoire of existing enzymes to create synthetic metabolic networks that are able to outcompete naturally evolved pathways or redirect flux toward non-natural products. The space of possible metabolic solution can be further increased through approaches including 'new enzyme reactions', which are engineered on the basis of known enzyme mechanisms. Finally, by considering completely 'novel enzyme chemistries' with de novo enzyme design, the limits of nature can be breached to derive the most advanced form of synthetic pathways. We discuss the challenges and promises associated with these different metabolic engineering approaches and illuminate how enzyme engineering is expected to take a prime role in synthetic metabolic engineering for biotechnology, chemical industry and agriculture of the future.

  19. Computer aided design and manufacturing of composite propfan blades for a cruise missile wind tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.; Downey, Kevin M.

    1992-01-01

    One of the propulsion concepts being investigated for future cruise missiles is advanced unducted propfans. To support the evaluation of this technology applied to the cruise missile, a joint DOD and NASA test project was conducted to design and then test the characteristics of the propfans on a 0.55-scale, cruise missile model in a NASA wind tunnel. The configuration selected for study is a counterrotating rearward swept propfan. The forward blade row, having six blades, rotates in a counterclockwise direction, and the aft blade row, having six blades, rotates in a clockwise direction, as viewed from aft of the test model. Figures show the overall cruise missile and propfan blade configurations. The objective of this test was to evaluate propfan performance and suitability as a viable propulsion option for next generation of cruise missiles. This paper details the concurrent computer aided design, engineering, and manufacturing of the carbon fiber/epoxy propfan blades as the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  20. Inverse problems in the design, modeling and testing of engineering systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alifanov, Oleg M.

    1991-01-01

    Formulations, classification, areas of application, and approaches to solving different inverse problems are considered for the design of structures, modeling, and experimental data processing. Problems in the practical implementation of theoretical-experimental methods based on solving inverse problems are analyzed in order to identify mathematical models of physical processes, aid in input data preparation for design parameter optimization, help in design parameter optimization itself, and to model experiments, large-scale tests, and real tests of engineering systems.

  1. Use of human engineering standards in design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. G.; Armstrong, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for a research study intended to assess the impact of present human engineering standards on product design. The approach consisted of three basic steps: a comparison of two display panels to determine if, in fact, products designed to the same standards are truly standardized; a review of two existing standards to determine how well their information can be used to solve design problems; and a survey of human factors specialists to assess their opinions about standards. It is shown that standards have less than the desired influence on product design. This is evidenced by a lack of standardization between hardware designed under common standards, by deficiencies within the standards that detract from their usefulness and encourage users to ignore them, and by the respondents of the survey who consider standards less valuable than other reference sources for design implementation. Recommendations aimed at enhancing the use of standards are set forth.

  2. Converting Between PLY and Ballistic Research Laboratory-Computer-Aided Design (BRL-CAD) File Formats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Converting Between PLY and Ballistic Research Laboratory–Computer-Aided Design (BRL-CAD) File Formats by Rishub Jain ARL-CR-0760...0760 February 2015 Converting Between PLY and Ballistic Research Laboratory–Computer-Aided Design (BRL-CAD) File Formats Rishub Jain US...and Ballistic Research Laboratory–Computer-Aided Design (BRL-CAD) File Formats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-10-2-0076 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  3. Target Impact Detection Algorithm Using Computer-aided Design (CAD) Model Geometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 558 Technical Report ARMET-TR-13024 TARGET IMPACT DETECTION ALGORITHM USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ( CAD ...DETECTION ALGORITHM USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ( CAD ) MODEL GEOMETRY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...This report documents a method and algorithm to export geometry from a three-dimensional, computer-aided design ( CAD ) model in a format that can be

  4. Rubber airplane: Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Rubber Airplane: Constraint-based Component-Modeling for Knowledge Representation in Computer Aided Conceptual Design are presented. Topics covered include: computer aided design; object oriented programming; airfoil design; surveillance aircraft; commercial aircraft; aircraft design; and launch vehicles.

  5. Perspectives on knowledge in engineering design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasdorf, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    Various perspectives are given of the knowledge currently used in engineering design, specifically dealing with knowledge-based expert systems (KBES). Constructing an expert system often reveals inconsistencies in domain knowledge while formalizing it. The types of domain knowledge (facts, procedures, judgments, and control) differ from the classes of that knowledge (creative, innovative, and routine). The feasible tasks for expert systems can be determined based on these types and classes of knowledge. Interpretive tasks require reasoning about a task in light of the knowledge available, where generative tasks create potential solutions to be tested against constraints. Only after classifying the domain by type and level can the engineer select a knowledge-engineering tool for the domain being considered. The critical features to be weighed after classification are knowledge representation techniques, control strategies, interface requirements, compatibility with traditional systems, and economic considerations.

  6. Computer-aided drug design at Boehringer Ingelheim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muegge, Ingo; Bergner, Andreas; Kriegl, Jan M.

    2016-09-01

    Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) is an integral part of the drug discovery endeavor at Boehringer Ingelheim (BI). CADD contributes to the evaluation of new therapeutic concepts, identifies small molecule starting points for drug discovery, and develops strategies for optimizing hit and lead compounds. The CADD scientists at BI benefit from the global use and development of both software platforms and computational services. A number of computational techniques developed in-house have significantly changed the way early drug discovery is carried out at BI. In particular, virtual screening in vast chemical spaces, which can be accessed by combinatorial chemistry, has added a new option for the identification of hits in many projects. Recently, a new framework has been implemented allowing fast, interactive predictions of relevant on and off target endpoints and other optimization parameters. In addition to the introduction of this new framework at BI, CADD has been focusing on the enablement of medicinal chemists to independently perform an increasing amount of molecular modeling and design work. This is made possible through the deployment of MOE as a global modeling platform, allowing computational and medicinal chemists to freely share ideas and modeling results. Furthermore, a central communication layer called the computational chemistry framework provides broad access to predictive models and other computational services.

  7. Assess/Mitigate Risk through the Use of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to perform an independent assessment of the mitigation of the Constellation Program (CxP) Risk 4421 through the use of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools. With the cancellation of the CxP, the assessment goals were modified to capture lessons learned and best practices in the use of CASE tools. The assessment goal was to prepare the next program for the use of these CASE tools. The outcome of the assessment is contained in this document.

  8. Collaboration between Industrial Designers and Design Engineers - Comparing the Understanding of Design Intent.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Esben Skov; Møller, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a case study comparing the understanding of design intent between industrial designers and design engineers. The study is based on the hypothesis that it is not all aspects of the design intent that are equally difficult to share between industrial designers and design engineers in the product development process. The study builds on five semi-structured interviews, where two industrial designers and three design engineers were interviewed about different aspects of the design intent. Based on our results, there seem to be indications that the more complex and abstract elements of industrial design knowledge such as the meaning, semantics, values, emotions and social aspects of the product are less shared by the design engineers. Moreover, the results also indicate that the different aspects of the design intent are perceived separately, rather than as part of a whole by the design engineers. The connection between the different aspects of the design intent is not shared between the industrial designer and design engineer making the shared knowledge less meaningful to the design engineers. The results of this study cannot be claimed to be conclusive due to the limited empirical material. Further investigation and analytically richer data are required in order to verify and broaden the findings. More case studies have therefore been planned in order to understand the area better.

  9. Selection, design, and engineering of therapeutic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Presta, Leonard G

    2005-10-01

    mAbs account for an increasing portion of marketed human biological therapeutics. As a consequence, the importance of optimal selection, design, and engineering of these not only has expanded in the past 2 decades but also is now coming into play as a competitive factor. This review delineates the 4 basic areas for optimal therapeutic antibody selection and provides examples of the increasing number of considerations necessary for, and options available for, antibody design. Though some of the advances in antibody technology (eg, antibodies derived from phage-display libraries) have already made it to market, other more recent advances, such as engineering antibodies for enhanced effector functions, may not be far behind, especially given the increasing competition for therapeutic antibodies to the same target (eg, anti-CD20 and anti-TNF-alpha).

  10. Cabin fuselage structural design with engine installation and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, Tanapaal; Bishop, Mike; Gumus, Ilker; Gussy, Joel; Triggs, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Design requirements for the cabin, cabin system, flight controls, engine installation, and wing-fuselage interface that provide adequate interior volume for occupant seating, cabin ingress and egress, and safety are presented. The fuselage structure must be sufficient to meet the loadings specified in the appropriate sections of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23. The critical structure must provide a safe life of 10(exp 6) load cycles and 10,000 operational mission cycles. The cabin seating and controls must provide adjustment to account for various pilot physiques and to aid in maintenance and operation of the aircraft. Seats and doors shall not bind or lockup under normal operation. Cabin systems such as heating and ventilation, electrical, lighting, intercom, and avionics must be included in the design. The control system will consist of ailerons, elevator, and rudders. The system must provide required deflections with a combination of push rods, bell cranks, pulleys, and linkages. The system will be free from slack and provide smooth operation without binding. Environmental considerations include variations in temperature and atmospheric pressure, protection against sand, dust, rain, humidity, ice, snow, salt/fog atmosphere, wind and gusts, and shock and vibration. The following design goals were set to meet the requirements of the statement of work: safety, performance, manufacturing and cost. To prevent the engine from penetrating the passenger area in the event of a crash was the primary safety concern. Weight and the fuselage aerodynamics were the primary performance concerns. Commonality and ease of manufacturing were major considerations to reduce cost.

  11. Engineering report (conceptual design) PFP solution stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, J.B.

    1997-07-17

    This Engineering Report (Conceptual Design) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  12. 14 CFR 183.29 - Designated engineering representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated engineering representatives. 183... § 183.29 Designated engineering representatives. (a) A structural engineering representative may approve structural engineering information and other structural considerations within limits prescribed by and...

  13. 14 CFR 183.29 - Designated engineering representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designated engineering representatives. 183... § 183.29 Designated engineering representatives. (a) A structural engineering representative may approve structural engineering information and other structural considerations within limits prescribed by and...

  14. 14 CFR 183.29 - Designated engineering representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designated engineering representatives. 183... § 183.29 Designated engineering representatives. (a) A structural engineering representative may approve structural engineering information and other structural considerations within limits prescribed by and...

  15. 14 CFR 183.29 - Designated engineering representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designated engineering representatives. 183... § 183.29 Designated engineering representatives. (a) A structural engineering representative may approve structural engineering information and other structural considerations within limits prescribed by and...

  16. 14 CFR 183.29 - Designated engineering representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designated engineering representatives. 183... § 183.29 Designated engineering representatives. (a) A structural engineering representative may approve structural engineering information and other structural considerations within limits prescribed by and...

  17. Introducing Engineering Design through an Intelligent Rube Goldberg Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acharya, Sushil; Sirinterlikci, Arif

    2010-01-01

    Engineering students need a head start on designing a component, a process, or a system early in their educational endeavors, and engineering design topics need to be introduced appropriately without negatively affecting students' motivation for engineering. In ENGR1010 at Robert Morris University, freshmen engineering students are introduced to…

  18. Instructional Design Issues in a Distributed Collaborative Engineering Design (CED) Instructional Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Wu, Yiyan

    2010-01-01

    Changes in engineering practices have spawned changes in engineering education and prompted the use of distributed learning environments. A distributed collaborative engineering design (CED) course was designed to engage engineering students in learning about and solving engineering design problems. The CED incorporated an advanced interactive…

  19. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  20. Perceptions of the Design of Voice Output Communication Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Simon; Townend, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Voice output communication aids (VOCAs) are a key form of aided communication within the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). In recent years, rapid developments in technology have resulted in an explosion of devices available commercially, yet little research has been conducted into what people who use VOCAs…

  1. Biomedical Engineering Strategies in System Design Space

    PubMed Central

    Savageau, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Modern systems biology and synthetic bioengineering face two major challenges in relating properties of the genetic components of a natural or engineered system to its integrated behavior. The first is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the digital representation of the genotype to the analog representation of the parameters for the molecular components. For example, knowing the DNA sequence does not allow one to determine the kinetic parameters of an enzyme. The second is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the parameters of the components and the environment to the phenotype of the global system. For example, knowing the parameters does not tell one how many qualitatively distinct phenotypes are in the organism's repertoire or the relative fitness of the phenotypes in different environments. These also are challenges for biomedical engineers as they attempt to develop therapeutic strategies to treat pathology or to redirect normal cellular functions for biotechnological purposes. In this article, the second of these fundamental challenges will be addressed, and the notion of a “system design space” for relating the parameter space of components to the phenotype space of bioengineering systems will be focused upon. First, the concept of a system design space will be motivated by introducing one of its key components from an intuitive perspective. Second, a simple linear example will be used to illustrate a generic method for constructing the design space in which qualitatively distinct phenotypes can be identified and counted, their fitness analyzed and compared, and their tolerance to change measured. Third, two examples of nonlinear systems from different areas of biomedical engineering will be presented. Finally, after giving reference to a few other applications that have made use of the system design space approach to reveal important design principles, some concluding remarks concerning challenges and opportunities for further

  2. Biomedical engineering strategies in system design space.

    PubMed

    Savageau, Michael A

    2011-04-01

    Modern systems biology and synthetic bioengineering face two major challenges in relating properties of the genetic components of a natural or engineered system to its integrated behavior. The first is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the digital representation of the genotype to the analog representation of the parameters for the molecular components. For example, knowing the DNA sequence does not allow one to determine the kinetic parameters of an enzyme. The second is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the parameters of the components and the environment to the phenotype of the global system. For example, knowing the parameters does not tell one how many qualitatively distinct phenotypes are in the organism's repertoire or the relative fitness of the phenotypes in different environments. These also are challenges for biomedical engineers as they attempt to develop therapeutic strategies to treat pathology or to redirect normal cellular functions for biotechnological purposes. In this article, the second of these fundamental challenges will be addressed, and the notion of a "system design space" for relating the parameter space of components to the phenotype space of bioengineering systems will be focused upon. First, the concept of a system design space will be motivated by introducing one of its key components from an intuitive perspective. Second, a simple linear example will be used to illustrate a generic method for constructing the design space in which qualitatively distinct phenotypes can be identified and counted, their fitness analyzed and compared, and their tolerance to change measured. Third, two examples of nonlinear systems from different areas of biomedical engineering will be presented. Finally, after giving reference to a few other applications that have made use of the system design space approach to reveal important design principles, some concluding remarks concerning challenges and opportunities for further development

  3. The Use of Executive Control Processes in Engineering Design by Engineering Students and Professional Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Raymond A.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    A cognitive construct that is important when solving engineering design problems is executive control process, or metacognition. It is a central feature of human consciousness that enables one "to be aware of, monitor, and control mental processes." The framework for this study was conceptualized by integrating the model for creative design, which…

  4. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  5. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  6. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  7. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  8. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  9. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  10. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  11. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  12. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  13. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  14. NASA Now: Engineering Design Process: Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Now, NASA engineer Russ Werneth discusses the continuous nature of the engineering design process and shares what it was like to design and plan the spacewalks that were key...

  15. Computational thermodynamics aided design of novel ferritic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying; Chen, Tianyi; Tan, Lizhen

    2016-06-30

    With the aid of computational thermodynamics, Ni was identified to suppress the liquidus temperature of Fe2Zr and four Fe-Cr-Ni-Zr alloys were designed to study the Ni effect on the phase stability of Fe2Zr laves_phase. These alloys were fabricated through traditional arc-metling, followed by annealing at 1000 C for 336 hours and 700 C for 1275 hours. The microstructure were examined and characterized by SEM BSE image, EDS compositional mapping and point scan, XRD and TEM analysis. The major results were summarized below: 1)For investigated alloys with 12wt% Cr, 3~6wt% Zr and 3~9 wt%Ni, the phases in equilibrium with the BCC phase are C15_Laves phase, Fe23Zr6 phase. The volume fraction of intermetallic phases increases with Ni and Zr contents. 2)Instead of (Fe,Cr)2Zr C14_Laves phase, Ni stabilizes the C15_Laves structure in Fe-Cr-Ni-Zr alloys by substituting Fe and Cr atoms with Ni atoms in the first sublattice. 3)Fe23Zr6, that is metastable in the Fe-Cr-Zr ternary, is also stabilized by Ni addition. 4)Ni7Zr2 phase was observed in samples with high Ni/Zr ratio. Extensive solubility of Fe was identified in the phase. The microstructural and composition results obtained from this study will be incorportated into the the Fe-Cr-Ni-Zr database. The current samples will be subjected to ion irradiaition to be compared with those results for Fe-Cr-Zr alloys. Additional alloys will be designed to form (Fe,Cr,Ni)2Zr nanoprecipitates for further studies.

  16. Computer Aided Design: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Wan-Lee

    This instructional manual contains 12 learning activity packets for use in a workshop in computer-aided design and drafting (CADD). The lessons cover the following topics: introduction to computer graphics and computer-aided design/drafting; coordinate systems; advance space graphics hardware configuration and basic features of the IBM PC…

  17. Organ printing: computer-aided jet-based 3D tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Vladimir; Boland, Thomas; Trusk, Thomas; Forgacs, Gabor; Markwald, Roger R

    2003-04-01

    Tissue engineering technology promises to solve the organ transplantation crisis. However, assembly of vascularized 3D soft organs remains a big challenge. Organ printing, which we define as computer-aided, jet-based 3D tissue-engineering of living human organs, offers a possible solution. Organ printing involves three sequential steps: pre-processing or development of "blueprints" for organs; processing or actual organ printing; and postprocessing or organ conditioning and accelerated organ maturation. A cell printer that can print gels, single cells and cell aggregates has been developed. Layer-by-layer sequentially placed and solidified thin layers of a thermo-reversible gel could serve as "printing paper". Combination of an engineering approach with the developmental biology concept of embryonic tissue fluidity enables the creation of a new rapid prototyping 3D organ printing technology, which will dramatically accelerate and optimize tissue and organ assembly.

  18. Potential of diesel engine, diesel engine design concepts, control strategy and implementation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Trella, T.; Shen, T.

    1980-03-01

    Diesel engine design concepts and control system strategies are surveyed with application to passenger cars and light trucks. The objective of the study is to indicate the fuel economy potential of the technologies investigated. The engine design parameters discussed are related to the engine configuration, combustion process, valving, friction, compression ratio, and heat transfer. Various engine control strategies and control implementation are considered.

  19. High School Engineering and Technology Education Integration through Design Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This study contextualized the use of the engineering design process by providing descriptions of how each element in a design process was integrated in an eleventh grade industry and engineering systems course. The guiding research question for this inquiry was: How do students engage in the engineering design process in a course where technology…

  20. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.

    1990-01-01

    The use of low- and moderate-temperature (50 to 300{degree}F) geothermal resources for direct use applications has increased significantly since the late 1970s. As a result of this growth, and the need for state-of-the-art information on geothermal direct use project development, the Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook was published. The book contains 20 chapters titled: Introduction; Demonstration projects lessons learned; Nature of geothermal resources; Exploration for direct heat resources; Geothermal fluid sampling techniques; Drilling and well construction; Well testing and reservoir evaluation; Materials selection guidelines; Well pumps; Piping geothermal fluids; Heat exchangers; Space heating equipment; Heat pumps; Absorption refrigeration; Greenhouses; Aquaculture; Industrial applications; Engineering cost analysis; Regulatory and commercial aspects; and Environmental considerations.

  1. Synthetic biology through biomolecular design and engineering.

    PubMed

    Channon, Kevin; Bromley, Elizabeth H C; Woolfson, Derek N

    2008-08-01

    Synthetic biology is a rapidly growing field that has emerged in a global, multidisciplinary effort among biologists, chemists, engineers, physicists, and mathematicians. Broadly, the field has two complementary goals: To improve understanding of biological systems through mimicry and to produce bio-orthogonal systems with new functions. Here we review the area specifically with reference to the concept of synthetic biology space, that is, a hierarchy of components for, and approaches to generating new synthetic and functional systems to test, advance, and apply our understanding of biological systems. In keeping with this issue of Current Opinion in Structural Biology, we focus largely on the design and engineering of biomolecule-based components and systems.

  2. Empathic engineering: helping deliver dignity through design

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Ian; Cornish, Katie; Bradley, Mike; Clarkson, P. John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dignity is a key value within healthcare. Technology is also recognized as being a fundamental part of healthcare delivery, but also a potential cause of dehumanization of the patient. Therefore, understanding how medical devices can be designed to help deliver dignity is important. This paper explores the role of empathy tools as a way of engendering empathy in engineers and designers to enable them to design for dignity. A framework is proposed that makes the link between empathy tools and outcomes of feelings of dignity. It represents a broad systems view that provides a structure for reviewing the evidence for the efficacy of empathy tools and also how dignity can be systematically understood for particular medical devices. PMID:26453036

  3. DeMAID/GA USER'S GUIDE Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition with a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Many companies are looking for new tools and techniques to aid a design manager in making decisions that can reduce the time and cost of a design cycle. One tool that is available to aid in this decision making process is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). Since the initial release of DEMAID in 1989, numerous enhancements have been added to aid the design manager in saving both cost and time in a design cycle. The key enhancement is a genetic algorithm (GA) and the enhanced version is called DeMAID/GA. The GA orders the sequence of design processes to minimize the cost and time to converge to a solution. These enhancements as well as the existing features of the original version of DEMAID are described. Two sample problems are used to show how these enhancements can be applied to improve the design cycle. This report serves as a user's guide for DeMAID/GA.

  4. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization on Conceptual Design of Aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Zhan-xue; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zeng-wen

    2016-06-01

    In order to obtain better integrated performance of aero-engine during the conceptual design stage, multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, weight, and aircraft mission are required. Unfortunately, the couplings between these disciplines make it difficult to model or solve by conventional method. MDO (Multidisciplinary Design Optimization) methodology which can well deal with couplings of disciplines is considered to solve this coupled problem. Approximation method, optimization method, coordination method, and modeling method for MDO framework are deeply analyzed. For obtaining the more efficient MDO framework, an improved CSSO (Concurrent Subspace Optimization) strategy which is based on DOE (Design Of Experiment) and RSM (Response Surface Model) methods is proposed in this paper; and an improved DE (Differential Evolution) algorithm is recommended to solve the system-level and discipline-level optimization problems in MDO framework. The improved CSSO strategy and DE algorithm are evaluated by utilizing the numerical test problem. The result shows that the efficiency of improved methods proposed by this paper is significantly increased. The coupled problem of VCE (Variable Cycle Engine) conceptual design is solved by utilizing improved CSSO strategy, and the design parameter given by improved CSSO strategy is better than the original one. The integrated performance of VCE is significantly improved.

  5. Engineering Design Handbook. Joining of Advanced Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    347 A0-830 291 350 AD·881 357 355 A0830 268 356 AD-817 023 357 AD-873 103 3591 ADA-035 445 360 A0-783 697 361 AOA-013 769 4101 AOA- 038 803...A0·873 103 3581 ADA·035 445 360 AD·7B3 697 361 ADA·013 769 4101 AOA· 038 803 411 lSI AOC·008 827 412 ICI ADC·OOB 828 413iS) ADC·OOB 829 414...t17. 50 Helicopter Engineering. Part Two, Detail Design

  6. Fiber-sensor design for turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W. Jr.; Beshears, D.L.; Noel, B.W.; Turley, W.D.; Lewis, W. III.

    1991-01-01

    Turbine engine systems present a challenging environment for applications of fiber-optic-based probes and sensors. High temperatures, large vibrations, strong black-body emission backgrounds, and optical path haziness, represent some of the obstacles that characterize these environments. This paper discusses the design philosophy and implementation of a fluorescence-based, extrinsic, fiber-optic sensor. This technique utilizes the temperature-dependent fluorescent emission of a ceramic phosphor coating to discern the temperature of the interrogated surface. Surface temperature measurements to 1500{degrees}K are achievable in the combustion environment using these methods. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. CAEDS--Computer-Aided Engineering and Architectural Design System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    ATTN: DAR-CO-S ATTN; KUSA-’HHC-CFC/Engr ATTN: DAEN- CP NARADOM, ATTN: DMONA-F 071141I UPA 0 Jap (USAgI) TT8: DAN-HP Ch, PR De -PR 94343 .WTCO, Pae. Dliv...Arnold Air Porno Station, Tn 37389 Fort Blvoir 22060 A nn: DAN-RM Port enntng 31905 AnN: DAtN-ZC Western Area Ofice. CE Port Bls. 79916 ATTN: lUAEN

  8. Space shuttle main engine: Interactive design challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. P.; Wood, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The operating requirements established by NASA for the SSME were considerably more demanding than those for earlier rocket engines used in the military launch vehicles or Apollo program. The SSME, in order to achieve the high performance, low weight, long life, reusable objectives, embodied technical demands far in excess of its predecessor rocket engines. The requirements dictated the use of high combustion pressure and the staged combustion cycle which maximizes performance through total use of all propellants in the main combustion process. This approach presented a myriad of technical challenges for maximization of performance within attainable state of the art capabilities for operating pressures, operating temperatures and rotating machinery efficiencies. Controlling uniformity of the high pressure turbomachinery turbine temperature environment was a key challenge for thrust level and life capability demanding innovative engineering. New approaches in the design of the components were necessary to accommodate the multiple use, minimum maintenance objectives. Included were the use of line replaceable units to facilitate field maintenance automatic checkout and internal inspection capabilities.

  9. On the design and structural analysis of jet engine fan blade structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoo, Leye M.

    2013-07-01

    Progress in the design and structural analysis of commercial jet engine fan blades is reviewed and presented. This article is motivated by the key role fan blades play in the performance of advanced gas turbine jet engines. The fundamentals of the associated physics are emphasized. Recent developments and advancements have led to an increase and improvement in fan blade structural durability, stability and reliability. This article is intended as a high level review of the fan blade environment and current state of structural design to aid further research in developing new and innovative fan blade technologies.

  10. Diagnostic systems in DEMO: Engineering design issues

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, T. N.

    2014-08-21

    The diagnostic systems of DEMO that are mounted on or near the torus, whether intended for the monitoring and control functions of the engineering aspects or the physics behaviour of the machine, will have to be designed to suit the hostile nuclear environment. This will be necessary not just for their survival and correct functioning but also to satisfy the pertinent regulatory bodies, especially where any of them relate to machine protection or the prevention or mitigation of accidents foreseen in the safety case. This paper aims to indicate the more important of the reactor design considerations that are likely to apply to diagnostics for DEMO, drawn from experience on JET, the provisions in hand for ITER and modelling results for the wall erosion and neutron damage effects in DEMO.

  11. Engineering design projects as a reflection promoter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabag, Nissim; Trotskovsky, Elena; Waks, Shlomo

    2014-05-01

    This article describes examples of reflection documented in a longitudinal research comprising two studies: a three-year three-stage study on technology project-based learning (TPBL) and a three-year two-stage study on engineering thinking (ET). Both studies used qualitative tools such as interviews, active observations, and document analysis. Reflections expressed by 10th grade pupils from eight high schools and 14 post-secondary school students who participated in the TPBL study as well as the reflection findings of experts and undergraduates from the ET study were used. The data analysis indicates that reflection is not generated on its own; it must be fostered. Reflection takes one of three forms: as a reaction to an irregularity or error made when working on the system design; conducted in groups that is inherent to the design process in industry; and from intuition that something may not be quite right, even though preliminary results seem to be correct.

  12. EXTENSION OF COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential of computer-aided process engineering (CAPE) tools to enable process engineers to improve the environmental performance of both their processes and across the life cycle (from cradle-to-grave) has long been proffered. However, this use of CAPE has not been fully ach...

  13. A rocket engine design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    The overall structure and capabilities of an expert system designed to evaluate rocket engine performance are described. The expert system incorporates a JANNAF standard reference computer code to determine rocket engine performance and a state-of-the-art finite element computer code to calculate the interactions between propellant injection, energy release in the combustion chamber, and regenerative cooling heat transfer. Rule-of-thumb heuristics were incorporated for the hydrogen-oxygen coaxial injector design, including a minimum gap size constraint on the total number of injector elements. One-dimensional equilibrium chemistry was employed in the energy release analysis of the combustion chamber and three-dimensional finite-difference analysis of the regenerative cooling channels was used to calculate the pressure drop along the channels and the coolant temperature as it exits the coolant circuit. Inputting values to describe the geometry and state properties of the entire system is done directly from the computer keyboard. Graphical display of all output results from the computer code analyses is facilitated by menu selection of up to five dependent variables per plot.

  14. A Rocket Engine Design Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    The overall structure and capabilities of an expert system designed to evaluate rocket engine performance are described. The expert system incorporates a JANNAF standard reference computer code to determine rocket engine performance and a state of the art finite element computer code to calculate the interactions between propellant injection, energy release in the combustion chamber, and regenerative cooling heat transfer. Rule-of-thumb heuristics were incorporated for the H2-O2 coaxial injector design, including a minimum gap size constraint on the total number of injector elements. One dimensional equilibrium chemistry was used in the energy release analysis of the combustion chamber. A 3-D conduction and/or 1-D advection analysis is used to predict heat transfer and coolant channel wall temperature distributions, in addition to coolant temperature and pressure drop. Inputting values to describe the geometry and state properties of the entire system is done directly from the computer keyboard. Graphical display of all output results from the computer code analyses is facilitated by menu selection of up to five dependent variables per plot.

  15. Space transportation booster engine configuration study. Addendum: Design definition document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Gas generator engine characteristics and results of engine configuration refinements are discussed. Updated component mechanical design, performance, and manufacturing information is provided. The results are also provided of ocean recovery studies and various engine integration tasks. The details are provided of the maintenance plan for the Space Transportation Booster Engine.

  16. Coming to Terms with Engineering Design as Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Theodore

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges posed by engineering design as a content area of technology education. What adjustments will technology teachers have to make in their approach to teaching and learning when they teach design as engineering in response to the new standards? How faithful to engineering as practiced must their approach be? There…

  17. Exploring the Relationships among Creativity, Engineering Knowledge, and Design Team Interaction on Senior Engineering Design Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Badaruddin

    2012-01-01

    In the 21st century, engineers are expected to be creative and work collaboratively in teams to solve or design new products. Research in the past has shown how creativity and good team communication, together with knowledge, can impact the outcomes in the organization. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among creativity,…

  18. Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Hydroxyapatite/Epoxide Acrylate Maleic Compound Construction for Craniomaxillofacial Bone Defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shen, Shunyao; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Steve Guofang; Wang, Xudong

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing hydroxyapatite (HA)/epoxide acrylate maleic (EAM) compound construction artificial implants for craniomaxillofacial bone defects. Computed tomography, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and three-dimensional reconstruction, as well as rapid prototyping were performed in 12 patients between 2008 and 2013. The customized HA/EAM compound artificial implants were manufactured through selective laser sintering using a rapid prototyping machine into the exact geometric shapes of the defect. The HA/EAM compound artificial implants were then implanted during surgical reconstruction. Color-coded superimpositions demonstrated the discrepancy between the virtual plan and achieved results using Geomagic Studio. As a result, the HA/EAM compound artificial bone implants were perfectly matched with the facial areas that needed reconstruction. The postoperative aesthetic and functional results were satisfactory. The color-coded superimpositions demonstrated good consistency between the virtual plan and achieved results. The three-dimensional maximum deviation is 2.12 ± 0.65  mm and the three-dimensional mean deviation is 0.27 ± 0.07  mm. No facial nerve weakness or pain was observed at the follow-up examinations. Only 1 implant had to be removed 2 months after the surgery owing to severe local infection. No other complication was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, computer-aided, individually fabricated HA/EAM compound construction artificial implant was a good craniomaxillofacial surgical technique that yielded improved aesthetic results and functional recovery after reconstruction.

  19. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Task 7: Engine data summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    A performance optimized engine system design for a man-rated advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle engine was investigated. The data are presented in tables, figures, and drawings. The following categories of data for the advanced expander cycle engine are presented: engine operating specification and pressure schedule; engine system layout drawing; major component layout drawings, including thrust chamber and nozzle, extendible nozzle actuating mechanism and seal, LOX turbopump, LOX boost pump, hydrogen turbopump, hydrogen boost pump, and propellant control valves; engine performance and service life prediction; engine weight; and engine envelope. The data represent updates based upon current results from the design and analyses tasks performed under contract. Futher iterations in the designs and data can be expected as the advanced expander cycle engine design matures.

  20. Development of Engineering Design Education in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Kanazawa Technical College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hirofumi; Ten-Nichi, Michio; Mathui, Hirosi; Nakamura, Akizi

    This paper introduces a method of the engineering design education for college of technology mechanical engineering students. In order to teach the practical engineering design, the MIL-STD-499A process is adapted and improved upon for a Mechatronics hands-on lesson used as the MOT method. The educational results in five years indicate that knowledge of the engineering management is useful for college students in learning engineering design. Portfolio for lessons and the hypothesis method also have better effects on the understanding of the engineering specialty.

  1. Problem Solving and Engineering Design, Introducing Bachelor Students to Engineering Practice at K. U. Leuven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heylen, Christel; Smet, Marc; Buelens, Hermans; Sloten, Jos Vander

    2007-01-01

    A present-day engineer has a large scientific knowledge; he is a team-player, eloquent communicator and life-long learner. At the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the course "Problem Solving and Engineering Design" introduces engineering students from the first semester onwards into real engineering practice and teamwork. Working in small…

  2. A Study of the Use of Ontologies for Building Computer-Aided Control Engineering Self-Learning Educational Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Isaías; Benavides, Carmen; Alaiz, Héctor; Alonso, Angel

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes research on the use of knowledge models (ontologies) for building computer-aided educational software in the field of control engineering. Ontologies are able to represent in the computer a very rich conceptual model of a given domain. This model can be used later for a number of purposes in different software applications. In this study, domain ontology about the field of lead-lag compensator design has been built and used for automatic exercise generation, graphical user interface population and interaction with the user at any level of detail, including explanations about why things occur. An application called Onto-CELE (ontology-based control engineering learning environment) uses the ontology for implementing a learning environment that can be used for self and lifelong learning purposes. The experience has shown that the use of knowledge models as the basis for educational software applications is capable of showing students the whole complexity of the analysis and design processes at any level of detail. A practical experience with postgraduate students has shown the mentioned benefits and possibilities of the approach.

  3. Engineering Design Information System (EDIS) user' manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.S.; Short, R.D.

    1991-11-01

    This manual is a guide to the use of the Engineering Design Information System (EDIS). The system runs on the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., IBM 3084 unclassified computer. EDIS is in the second phase of implementation, which provides an index, storage, and retrieval system for engineering documents produced at various plants and laboratories operated by Energy Systems for the Department of Energy (DOE). The second phase also provides additional hard copy request functionality. Section 2.0 of this manual presents an overview of EDIS, describing the system's purpose; the functions it performs; hardware, software, and security requirements; and help and error functions. Section 3.0 describes how to access EDIS and how to operate system functions using Database 2 (DB2), Time Sharing Option (TSO), Interactive System Productivity Facility (ISPF), Soft Master viewing, and FT/Express file transfer features employed by this system. Appendix A lists the special hardware and software requirements that must be met to run the View function. Appendix B contains a description of the Soft Master viewing capabilities provided through the EDIS View function. Appendix C contains a list of special hardware and software requirements for the Store and Download functions of EDIS. Appendix D provides examples of the system error screens and help screens for valid codes used for screen entry. Appendix E contains a dictionary of data elements and descriptions.

  4. Using Approximations to Accelerate Engineering Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torczon, Virginia; Trosset, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    Optimization problems that arise in engineering design are often characterized by several features that hinder the use of standard nonlinear optimization techniques. Foremost among these features is that the functions used to define the engineering optimization problem often are computationally intensive. Within a standard nonlinear optimization algorithm, the computational expense of evaluating the functions that define the problem would necessarily be incurred for each iteration of the optimization algorithm. Faced with such prohibitive computational costs, an attractive alternative is to make use of surrogates within an optimization context since surrogates can be chosen or constructed so that they are typically much less expensive to compute. For the purposes of this paper, we will focus on the use of algebraic approximations as surrogates for the objective. In this paper we introduce the use of so-called merit functions that explicitly recognize the desirability of improving the current approximation to the objective during the course of the optimization. We define and experiment with the use of merit functions chosen to simultaneously improve both the solution to the optimization problem (the objective) and the quality of the approximation. Our goal is to further improve the effectiveness of our general approach without sacrificing any of its rigor.

  5. Mouse genome engineering using designer nucleases.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Mario; Cermak, Tomas; Voytas, Daniel F; Pelczar, Pawel

    2014-04-02

    Transgenic mice carrying site-specific genome modifications (knockout, knock-in) are of vital importance for dissecting complex biological systems as well as for modeling human diseases and testing therapeutic strategies. Recent advances in the use of designer nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 system for site-specific genome engineering open the possibility to perform rapid targeted genome modification in virtually any laboratory species without the need to rely on embryonic stem (ES) cell technology. A genome editing experiment typically starts with identification of designer nuclease target sites within a gene of interest followed by construction of custom DNA-binding domains to direct nuclease activity to the investigator-defined genomic locus. Designer nuclease plasmids are in vitro transcribed to generate mRNA for microinjection of fertilized mouse oocytes. Here, we provide a protocol for achieving targeted genome modification by direct injection of TALEN mRNA into fertilized mouse oocytes.

  6. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    SciTech Connect

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  7. Design study of RL10 derivatives. Volume 2: Engine design characteristics. [application of rocket engine to space tug propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, A.

    1973-01-01

    The design characteristics of the RL-10 rocket engine are discussed. The results from critical elements evaluation, baseline engine design, parametric and special study tasks are presented. Critical element evaluation established the feasibility of various engine features such as tank head idle, pumped idle, autogenous tank pressurization, and two-phase pumping. Three baseline engines, derived from the RL-10 were conceptually designed. Parametric life and performance data were generated. Special studies were conducted to establish the impact on the engine design of environment, safety, interchangeability, and maintenance.

  8. Rocket Propellants Engine Design/Operations/Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    2002-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Astronautics Operations (LMA) was competitively awarded a contract May 21, 2001 for next generation launch system architecture definition and technology maturation. The Second Generation Launch Vehicle Program objectives include reducing the technical and programmatic risk of proceeding to full scale development of the system by establishing requirements for the next generation launch system and maturing critical technologies needed by the system. LMA will conduct analyses and trades to optimize the architecture ETO elements including configuration, conceptual designs, and preliminary operations definition. To fully understand the engine and propellant trades were conducted by LMA to yield the optimized architecture system from the operability, reliability, safety, and cost perspectives. A government/industry team addressed the required trade studies, the parameters and weighting factors, and the most critical trades were addressed. This report summarizes the participation of JCM Consulting, Inc. in the propellant trade study.

  9. Engineering CAR-T Cells: Design Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shivani; Riddell, Stanley R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being empirically designed based on a simple understanding of TCR signaling, T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been remarkably successful in treating patients with advanced refractory B cell malignancies. However, many challenges remain in improving the safety and efficacy of this therapy and extending it toward the treatment of epithelial cancers. Other aspects TCR signaling beyond those directly provided by CD3ζ and CD28 phosphorylation strongly influence a T cell’s ability to differentiate and acquire full effector functions. Here, we discuss how the principles of TCR recognition, including spatial constraints, Kon/Koff rates, and synapse formation, along with in-depth analysis of CAR signaling might be applied to develop safer and more effective synthetic tumor targeting receptors. PMID:26169254

  10. Energy efficient engine ICLS engine bearings, drives and configuration: Detail design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broman, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    The detailed design of the forward and aft sumps, the accessory drive system, the lubrication system, and the piping/manifold configuration to be employed in the ICLS engine test of the Energy Efficient Engine is addressed in the report. The design goals for the above components were established based on the requirements of the test cell engine.

  11. Extended precision data types for the development of the original computer aided engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescaru, A.; Oanta, E.; Axinte, T.; Dascalescu, A.-D.

    2015-11-01

    Computer aided engineering is based on models of the phenomena which are expressed as algorithms. The implementations of the algorithms are usually software applications which are processing a large volume of numerical data, regardless the size of the input data. In this way, the finite element method applications used to have an input data generator which was creating the entire volume of geometrical data, starting from the initial geometrical information and the parameters stored in the input data file. Moreover, there were several data processing stages, such as: renumbering of the nodes meant to minimize the size of the band length of the system of equations to be solved, computation of the equivalent nodal forces, computation of the element stiffness matrix, assemblation of system of equations, solving the system of equations, computation of the secondary variables. The modern software application use pre-processing and post-processing programs to easily handle the information. Beside this example, CAE applications use various stages of complex computation, being very interesting the accuracy of the final results. Along time, the development of CAE applications was a constant concern of the authors and the accuracy of the results was a very important target. The paper presents the various computing techniques which were imagined and implemented in the resulting applications: finite element method programs, finite difference element method programs, applied general numerical methods applications, data generators, graphical applications, experimental data reduction programs. In this context, the use of the extended precision data types was one of the solutions, the limitations being imposed by the size of the memory which may be allocated. To avoid the memory-related problems the data was stored in files. To minimize the execution time, part of the file was accessed using the dynamic memory allocation facilities. One of the most important consequences of the

  12. Computer aided design of microcircuits. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-09-01

    Government sponsored research covering the computer aided design, modeling, layout, and packaging of integrated and other microelectronic circuits are cited. Computer programs and the use of computer graphics are included.

  13. Conjugated Polymer Design and Engineering for Organic Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Claire Hoi Kar

    The molecular structure of a conjugated polymer critically impacts its physical and optoelectronic properties, thus determining its ultimate performance in organic electronic devices. In this work, new polymers and derivatives are designed, synthesized, characterized, and tested in photovoltaic devices. Through device engineering and nanoscale characterization, general structure-function relationships are established to aid the design of the next-generation of high performance polymer semiconductors for organic electronic applications. Using a prototypical conjugated polymer, the influence of backbone regioregularity is examined and found to highly impact polymer crystallinity, solid state morphology and device stability. The investigation of alternative aromatic units in the backbone also led to new understandings in polymer processability and the development of promising materials for organic photovoltaics. Besides the backbone structure, the side chain choice of the polymer can significantly affect material properties and device performance as well. In fact, the side chain substitution can influence both the optoelectronic properties and the physical properties of the polymer. A sterically bulky side chain can be used to tune the donor/acceptor separation distance, which in turn determines the charge separation efficiency. The addition of a polar side group increases the dielectric constant of a polymer and improves overall charge separation. Choosing the appropriate solubilizing group can also induce solid state packing of the polymer and considerably enhance device efficiency. Finally, the influence of post-fabrication processing techniques on the crystallinity and charge transport properties of a polymer is highlighted.

  14. Design search and optimization in aerospace engineering.

    PubMed

    Keane, A J; Scanlan, J P

    2007-10-15

    In this paper, we take a design-led perspective on the use of computational tools in the aerospace sector. We briefly review the current state-of-the-art in design search and optimization (DSO) as applied to problems from aerospace engineering, focusing on those problems that make heavy use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This ranges over issues of representation, optimization problem formulation and computational modelling. We then follow this with a multi-objective, multi-disciplinary example of DSO applied to civil aircraft wing design, an area where this kind of approach is becoming essential for companies to maintain their competitive edge. Our example considers the structure and weight of a transonic civil transport wing, its aerodynamic performance at cruise speed and its manufacturing costs. The goals are low drag and cost while holding weight and structural performance at acceptable levels. The constraints and performance metrics are modelled by a linked series of analysis codes, the most expensive of which is a CFD analysis of the aerodynamics using an Euler code with coupled boundary layer model. Structural strength and weight are assessed using semi-empirical schemes based on typical airframe company practice. Costing is carried out using a newly developed generative approach based on a hierarchical decomposition of the key structural elements of a typical machined and bolted wing-box assembly. To carry out the DSO process in the face of multiple competing goals, a recently developed multi-objective probability of improvement formulation is invoked along with stochastic process response surface models (Krigs). This approach both mitigates the significant run times involved in CFD computation and also provides an elegant way of balancing competing goals while still allowing the deployment of the whole range of single objective optimizers commonly available to design teams.

  15. Design Team Approach Simulates Real-World Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portz, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Creating activities that model engineering design as it appears in industry provides great experience for technology students. Design in general creates an element with special regard to its form and function. Engineering design involves doing that, and going beyond to produce an efficient product that addresses its intended purpose. In this…

  16. Engineering Materials and Machine Design Courses in ET Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Stanley M.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to determine the current status of courses in engineering materials and their relationship to machine design and design project courses in mechanical engineering technology programs. Includes discussions of two recommendations of the study that were endorsed by a national conference. (TW)

  17. Thermal design improvements for 30kWe arcjet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, William D.; Chopra, A.; King, D. Q.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Two thermal design improvements for 30 kWe arcjet engines are described. A ZrB2 high temperature coating was used to increase the surface emissivity of the nozzle radiating surface, enabling lower temperature operation, which should lead to longer nozzle life. The ZrB2-coated engine operated 120 C cooler than the uncoated baseline engine indicating a 30 percent increase in the surface emissivity. An engine design which has fewer active seals than previous designs and operates at lower overall component temperatures is described. The nozzle on the engine operated at 1950 C at 30 kWe while the baseline engine nozzle reached 2000 C at 23 kWe. The back of the engine was more than a factor of two cooler when compared to the baseline engine.

  18. Correction of facial and mandibular asymmetry using a computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing prefabricated titanium implant.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jason; Hatamleh, Muhanad; Alwahadni, Ahed; Srinivasan, Dilip

    2014-05-01

    Patients with significant craniofacial asymmetry may have functional problems associated with their occlusion and aesthetic concerns related to the imbalance in soft and hard tissue profiles. This report details a case of facial asymmetry secondary to left mandible angle deficiency due to undergoing previous radiotherapy. We describe the correction of the bony deformity using computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing custom-made titanium onlay using novel direct metal laser sintering. The direct metal laser sintering onlay proved a very accurate operative fit and showed a good aesthetic correction of the bony defect with no reported complications postoperatively. It is a useful low-morbidity technique, and there is no resorption or associated donor-site complications.

  19. Dual-scan technique for the customization of zirconia computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing frameworks.

    PubMed

    Andreiuolo, Rafael Ferrone; Sabrosa, Carlos Eduardo; Dias, Katia Regina H Cervantes

    2013-09-01

    The use of bi-layered all-ceramic crowns has continuously grown since the introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia cores. Unfortunately, despite the outstanding mechanical properties of zirconia, problems related to porcelain cracking or chipping remain. One of the reasons for this is that ceramic copings are usually milled to uniform thicknesses of 0.3-0.6 mm around the whole tooth preparation. This may not provide uniform thickness or appropriate support for the veneering porcelain. To prevent these problems, the dual-scan technique demonstrates an alternative that allows the restorative team to customize zirconia CAD/CAM frameworks with adequate porcelain thickness and support in a simple manner.

  20. Assessment of Chair-side Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Restorations: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Ibraheem, Shukran Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper aimed to evaluate the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and the factors that affect the survival of restorations. Materials and Methods: A thorough literature search using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library and Grey literature were performed from the year 2004 up to June 2014. Only relevant research was considered. Results: The use of chair-side CAD/CAM systems is promising in all dental branches in terms of minimizing time and effort made by dentists, technicians and patients for restoring and maintaining patient oral function and aesthetic, while providing high quality outcome. Conclusion: The way of producing and placing the restorations made with the chair-side CAD/CAM (CEREC and E4D) devices is better than restorations made by conventional laboratory procedures. PMID:25954082

  1. Computer-aided roll pass design in rolling of airfoil shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akgerman, N.; Lahoti, G. D.; Altan, T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes two computer-aided design (CAD) programs developed for modeling the shape rolling process for airfoil sections. The first program, SHPROL, uses a modular upper-bound method of analysis and predicts the lateral spread, elongation, and roll torque. The second program, ROLPAS, predicts the stresses, roll separating force, the roll torque and the details of metal flow by simulating the rolling process, using the slab method of analysis. ROLPAS is an interactive program; it offers graphic display capabilities and allows the user to interact with the computer via a keyboard, CRT, and a light pen. The accuracy of the computerized models was evaluated by (a) rolling a selected airfoil shape at room temperature from 1018 steel and isothermally at high temperature from Ti-6Al-4V, and (b) comparing the experimental results with computer predictions. The comparisons indicated that the CAD systems, described here, are useful for practical engineering purposes and can be utilized in roll pass design and analysis for airfoil and similar shapes.

  2. Fixed-point Design of the Lattice-reduction-aided Iterative Detection and Decoding Receiver for Coded MIMO Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    REPORT Fixed-point Design of theLattice-reduction-aided Iterative Detection andDecoding Receiver for Coded MIMO Systems 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - Fixed-point Design of theLattice-reduction-aided Iterative Detection andDecoding Receiver for Coded ...important, this report illustrates the performance of coded LR aided detectors. 1 Fixed-point Design of the Lattice-reduction-aided Iterative Detection and

  3. Compact designer TALENs for efficient genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Beurdeley, Marine; Bietz, Fabian; Li, Jin; Thomas, Severine; Stoddard, Thomas; Juillerat, Alexandre; Zhang, Feng; Voytas, Daniel F; Duchateau, Philippe; Silva, George H

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases are readily targetable 'molecular scissors' for genome engineering applications. These artificial nucleases offer high specificity coupled with simplicity in design that results from the ability to serially chain transcription activator-like effector repeat arrays to target individual DNA bases. However, these benefits come at the cost of an appreciably large multimeric protein complex, in which DNA cleavage is governed by the nonspecific FokI nuclease domain. Here we report a significant improvement to the standard transcription activator-like effector nuclease architecture by leveraging the partially specific I-TevI catalytic domain to create a new class of monomeric, DNA-cleaving enzymes. In vivo yeast, plant and mammalian cell assays demonstrate that the half-size, single-polypeptide compact transcription activator-like effector nucleases exhibit overall activity and specificity comparable to currently available designer nucleases. In addition, we harness the catalytic mechanism of I-TevI to generate novel compact transcription activator-like effector nuclease-based nicking enzymes that display a greater than 25-fold increase in relative targeted gene correction efficacy.

  4. Chemical engineering design of CO oxidation catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herz, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    How a chemical reaction engineer would approach the challenge of designing a CO oxidation catalyst for pulsed CO2 lasers is described. CO oxidation catalysts have a long history of application, of course, so it is instructive to first consider the special requirements of the laser application and then to compare them to the characteristics of existing processes which utilize CO oxidation catalysts. All CO2 laser applications require a CO oxidation catalyst with the following characteristics: (1) active at stoichiometric ratios of O2 and CO, (2) no inhibition by CO2 or other components of the laser environment, (3) releases no particulates during vibration or thermal cycling, and (4) long lifetime with a stable activity. In all applications, low consumption of power is desirable, a characteristic especially critical in aerospace applications and, thus, catalyst activity at low temperatures is highly desirable. High power lasers with high pulse repetition rates inherently require circulation of the gas mixture and this forced circulation is available for moving gas past the catalyst. Low repetition rate lasers, however, do not inherently require gas circulation, so a catalyst that did not require such circulation would be favorable from the standpoint of minimum power consumption. Lasers designed for atmospheric penetration of their infrared radiation utilize CO2 formed from rare isotopes of oxygen and this application has the additional constraint that normal abundance oxygen isotopes in the catalyst must not exchange with rare isotopes in the gas mixture.

  5. ARIES-III divertor engineering design

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; Schultz, K.R.; Cheng, E.T.; Grotz, S.; Hasan, M.A.; Najmabadi, F.; Sharafat, S.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Sze, D.K.; Herring, J.S.; Valenti, M.; Steiner, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the engineering design of the ARIES-III double- null divertor. The divertor coolant tubes are made from W-3Re alloy and cooled by subcooled flow boiling of organic coolant. A coating of 4 mm thick tungsten is plasma sprayed onto the divertor surface. This W layer can withstand the thermal deposition of a few disruptions. At a maximum surface heat flux of 5.4 MW/m{sup 2}, a conventional divertor design can be used. The divertor surface is contoured to have a constant heat flux of 5.4 MW/m{sup 2}. The net erosion of the W-surface was found to be negligible at about 0.1 mm/year. After 3 years of operation, the W-3Re alloy ARIES-III divertor can be disposed of as Class A waste. In order to control the prompt dose release at site boundary to less than 200 Rem, isotopic tailoring of the W-alloy will be needed.

  6. Orbital transfer rocket engine technology 7.5K-LB thrust rocket engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, T. J.; Roschak, E.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary design of an advanced LOX/LH2 expander cycle rocket engine producing 7,500 lbf thrust for Orbital Transfer vehicle missions was completed. Engine system, component and turbomachinery analysis at both on design and off design conditions were completed. The preliminary design analysis results showed engine requirements and performance goals were met. Computer models are described and model outputs are presented. Engine system assembly layouts, component layouts and valve and control system analysis are presented. Major design technologies were identified and remaining issues and concerns were listed.

  7. Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul, Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Under-The-Wing (UTW) engine acoustic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowers, H. D.; Coward, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The acoustic considerations involved in the low source noise basic engine design and the design procedures followed in the development of the under-the-wing (UTW) engine boilerplate and composite nacelle acoustic treatment designs are presented. Laboratory experiments, component tests, and scale model and engine tests supporting the UTW engine acoustic design are referenced. Acoustic design features include a near-sonic inlet, low fan and core pressure ratios, low fan tip speed, high and low frequency stacked core treatment, multiple thickness treatment, and fan frame and stator vane treatment.

  8. INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR EAST ENGINEERING DESIGN AREA DETAIL VIEW, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR EAST ENGINEERING DESIGN AREA DETAIL VIEW, FACING NORTH. - NASA Industrial Plant, Systems Integration & Checkout Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Control methods for aiding a pilot during STOL engine failure transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. R.; Debra, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    Candidate autopilot control laws that control the engine failure transient sink rates by demonstrating the engineering application of modern state variable control theory were defined. The results of approximate modal analysis were compared to those derived from full state analyses provided from computer design solutions. The aircraft was described, and a state variable model of its longitudinal dynamic motion due to engine and control variations was defined. The classical fast and slow modes were assumed to be sufficiently different to define reduced order approximations of the aircraft motion amendable to hand analysis control definition methods. The original state equations of motion were also applied to a large scale state variable control design program, in particular OPTSYS. The resulting control laws were compared with respect to their relative responses, ease of application, and meeting the desired performance objectives.

  10. Making Recycled Paper: An Engineering Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ting; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educators are facing the challenge of attracting more students. The disparity between the need for engineers and the enrollment of engineering students is growing (Genalo, Bruning, & Adams, 2000), and career aspirations of high school students are inconsistent with the employment…

  11. Hamsters, Picture Books, and Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tank, Kristina; Pettis, Christy; Moore, Tamara; Fehr, Abby

    2013-01-01

    With the integration of engineering into science instruction, teachers have been seeking ways to add engineering in their classrooms. This article presents a primary (K-2) STEM unit that took place in a half-day kindergarten classroom as a way to address the scientific and engineering practices (dimension 1, p.41) and the disciplinary core idea…

  12. Bioblendstocks that Enable High Efficiency Engine Designs

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, Robert L.; Fioroni, Gina M.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Bradley T.; Farrell, John

    2016-11-03

    The past decade has seen a high level of innovation in production of biofuels from sugar, lipid, and lignocellulose feedstocks. As discussed in several talks at this workshop, ethanol blends in the E25 to E50 range could enable more highly efficient spark-ignited (SI) engines. This is because of their knock resistance properties that include not only high research octane number (RON), but also charge cooling from high heat of vaporization, and high flame speed. Emerging alcohol fuels such as isobutanol or mixed alcohols have desirable properties such as reduced gasoline blend vapor pressure, but also have lower RON than ethanol. These fuels may be able to achieve the same knock resistance benefits, but likely will require higher blend levels or higher RON hydrocarbon blendstocks. A group of very high RON (>150) oxygenates such as dimethyl furan, methyl anisole, and related compounds are also produced from biomass. While providing no increase in charge cooling, their very high octane numbers may provide adequate knock resistance for future highly efficient SI engines. Given this range of options for highly knock resistant fuels there appears to be a critical need for a fuel knock resistance metric that includes effects of octane number, heat of vaporization, and potentially flame speed. Emerging diesel fuels include highly branched long-chain alkanes from hydroprocessing of fats and oils, as well as sugar-derived terpenoids. These have relatively high cetane number (CN), which may have some benefits in designing more efficient CI engines. Fast pyrolysis of biomass can produce diesel boiling range streams that are high in aromatic, oxygen and acid contents. Hydroprocessing can be applied to remove oxygen and consequently reduce acidity, however there are strong economic incentives to leave up to 2 wt% oxygen in the product. This oxygen will primarily be present as low CN alkyl phenols and aryl ethers. While these have high heating value, their presence in diesel fuel

  13. A simple method of calculating Stirling engines for engine design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    A calculation method is presented for a rhombic drive Stirling engine with a tubular heater and cooler and a screen type regenerator. Generally the equations presented describe power generation and consumption and heat losses. It is the simplest type of analysis that takes into account the conflicting requirements inherent in Stirling engine design. The method itemizes the power and heat losses for intelligent engine optimization. The results of engine analysis of the GPU-3 Stirling engine are compared with more complicated engine analysis and with engine measurements.

  14. Computer-Aided Assessment Questions in Engineering Mathematics Using "MapleTA"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, I. S.

    2008-01-01

    The use of "MapleTA"[R] in the assessment of engineering mathematics at Liverpool John Moores University (JMU) is discussed with particular reference to the design of questions. Key aspects in the formulation and coding of questions are considered. Problems associated with the submission of symbolic answers, the use of randomly generated numbers…

  15. Two-stroke engine diagnostics and design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on research and development efforts on two-stroke cycle engines for automotive applications. Partial contents include: Velocity Field Characteristics in Motored Two-Stroke Ported Engines; Flow Vector Measurements at the Scavenging Ports in a Fired Two-Stroke Engine; A Study on Exhaust Dynamic Effect of Two-Stroke Motorcycle Petrol Engine; Characterization of Ignition and Parametric Study of a Two-Stroke-Cycle Direct-Injected Gasoline Engine; LDV Measurements of Intake Port Flow in a Two-Stroke Engine with and without Combustion; Appraisal of Regenerative Blowers for Scavenging of Small 2T S.I. Powerplants; and Development Experience of a Poppet-Valved Two-Stroke Flagship Engine.

  16. The Engineering of Engineering Education: Curriculum Development from a Designer's Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rompelman, Otto; De Graaff, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Engineers have a set of powerful tools at their disposal for designing robust and reliable technical systems. In educational design these tools are seldom applied. This paper explores the application of concepts from the systems approach in an educational context. The paradigms of design methodology and systems engineering appear to be suitable…

  17. High School Student Modeling in the Engineering Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan; Huffman, Tanner; Thayer, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    A diverse group of 20 high school students from four states in the US were individually provided with an engineering design challenge. Students chosen were in capstone engineering courses and had taken multiple engineering courses. As students considered the problem and developed a solution, observational data were recorded and artifacts…

  18. Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.

  19. Optical engineering capstone design projects with industry sponsors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunch, Robert M.; Leisher, Paul O.; Granieri, Sergio C.

    2014-09-01

    Capstone senior design is the culmination of a student's undergraduate engineering education that prepares them for engineering practice. In fact, any engineering degree program that pursues accreditation by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET must contain "a major design experience based on the knowledge and skills acquired in earlier course work and incorporating appropriate engineering standards and multiple realistic constraints." At Rose-Hulman, we offer an interdisciplinary Optical Engineering / Engineering Physics senior design curriculum that meets this requirement. Part of this curriculum is a two-course sequence where students work in teams on a design project leading to a functional prototype. The students begin work on their capstone project during the first week of their senior year. The courses are deliverable-driven and the students are held accountable for regular technical progress through weekly updates with their faculty advisor and mid-term design reviews. We have found that client-sponsored projects offer students an enriched engineering design experience as it ensures consideration of constraints and standards requirements similar to those that they will encounter as working engineers. Further, client-sponsored projects provide teams with an opportunity for regular customer interactions which help shape the product design. The process that we follow in both soliciting and helping to scope appropriate industry-related design projects will be described. In addition, an outline of the capstone course structure as well as methods used to hold teams accountable for technical milestones will be discussed. Illustrative examples of past projects will be provided.

  20. Expert vs. novice: Problem decomposition/recomposition in engineering design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ting

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the differences of using problem decomposition and problem recomposition among dyads of engineering experts, dyads of engineering seniors, and dyads of engineering freshmen. Fifty participants took part in this study. Ten were engineering design experts, 20 were engineering seniors, and 20 were engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within an hour. The entire design process was video and audio recorded. After the design session, members participated in a group interview. This study used protocol analysis as the methodology. Video and audio data were transcribed, segmented, and coded. Two coding systems including the FBS ontology and "levels of the problem" were used in this study. A series of statistical techniques were used to analyze data. Interview data and participants' design sketches also worked as supplemental data to help answer the research questions. By analyzing the quantitative and qualitative data, it was found that students used less problem decomposition and problem recomposition than engineer experts in engineering design. This result implies that engineering education should place more importance on teaching problem decomposition and problem recomposition. Students were found to spend less cognitive effort when considering the problem as a whole and interactions between subsystems than engineer experts. In addition, students were also found to spend more cognitive effort when considering details of subsystems. These results showed that students tended to use dept-first decomposition and experts tended to use breadth-first decomposition in engineering design. The use of Function (F), Behavior (B), and Structure (S) among engineering experts, engineering seniors, and engineering freshmen was compared on three levels. Level 1 represents designers consider the problem as an integral whole, Level 2 represents designers consider interactions between

  1. Computer-aided design of stripline ferrite junction circulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    A general design procedure is presented for stripline Y-junction circulators employing solid dielectric between ground planes. The resonator design and impedance matching are derived in a form suitable for computer evaluation. The procedure is applicable to cases where either the circulator bandwidth or the ground plane spacing is specified. An experimental S-band switching circulator design illustrates the technique.

  2. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  3. Advanced Technology Spark-Ignition Aircraft Piston Engine Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each item of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  4. AiResearch QCGAT engine, airplane, and nacelle design features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan engine and nacelle system was designed and tested. The engine utilized the core of the AiResearch model TFE731-3 engine and incorporated several unique noise- and emissions-reduction features. Components that were successfully adapted to this core include the fan, gearbox, combustor, low-pressure turbine, and associated structure. A highly versatile workhorse nacelle incorporating interchangeable acoustic and hardwall duct liners, showed that large-engine attenuation technology could be applied to small propulsion engines. The application of the mixer compound nozzle demonstrated both performance and noise advantages on the engine. Major performance, emissions, and noise goals were demonstrated.

  5. Methodology for Benefit Analysis of CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing) in USN Shipyards.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    D-Ri38 398 METHODOLOGY FOR BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF CAD/CAM / (COMPUTER-HIDED DESIGN/COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING) IN USN SHIPYARDS(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE...Monterey, California DT I ~" t • EB3 1984 THESIS METHODOLOGY FOR BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF CAD/CAM IN USN SHIPYARDS by Richard B. Grahlman March 1984 Thesis...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Methodology for Benefit Analysis of CAD/CAM Mastrch 1984 i in UM Sipyads. PERFORMIANG ORG. REPORT NUM8ER 7- AUHOW11111 4

  6. Product Design Engineering--A Global Education Trend in Multidisciplinary Training for Creative Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering…

  7. ORNL engineering design and construction reengineering report

    SciTech Connect

    McNeese, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    A team composed of individuals representing research and development (R and D) divisions, infrastructure support organizations, and Department of Energy (DOE)-Oak Ridge Operations was chartered to reengineer the engineering, design, and construction (ED and C) process at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The team recognized that ED and C needs of both R and D customers and the ORNL infrastructure program have to be met to maintain a viable and competitive national laboratory. Their goal was to identify and recommend implementable best-in-class ED and C processes that will efficiently and cost-effectively support the ORNL R and D staff by being responsive to their programmatic and infrastructure needs. The team conducted process mapping of current and potential ED and C approaches, developed idealized versions of ED and C processes, and identified potential barriers to an efficient ED and C process. Eight subteams were assigned to gather information and to evaluate the significance of potential barriers through benchmarking, surveys, interviews, and reviews of key topical areas in order to determine whether the perceived barriers were real and important and whether they resulted from laws or regulations over which ORNL has no control.

  8. Heat Exchanger Design in Combined Cycle Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, H.; Feast, S.; Bond, A.

    Combined cycle engines employing both pre-cooled air-breathing and rocket modes of operation are the most promising propulsion system for achieving single stage to orbit vehicles. The air-breathing phase is purely for augmentation of the mission velocity required in the rocket phase and as such must be mass effective, re-using the components of the rocket cycle, whilst achieving adequate specific impulse. This paper explains how the unique demands placed on the air-breathing cycle results in the need for sophisticated thermodynamics and the use of a series of different heat exchangers to enable precooling and high pressure ratio compression of the air for delivery to the rocket combustion chambers. These major heat exchanger roles are; extracting heat from incoming air in the precooler, topping up cycle flow temperatures to maintain constant turbine operating conditions and extracting rejected heat from the power cycle via regenerator loops for thermal capacity matching. The design solutions of these heat exchangers are discussed.

  9. Engineering Software Suite Validates System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    EDAptive Computing Inc.'s (ECI) EDAstar engineering software tool suite, created to capture and validate system design requirements, was significantly funded by NASA's Ames Research Center through five Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts. These programs specifically developed Syscape, used to capture executable specifications of multi-disciplinary systems, and VectorGen, used to automatically generate tests to ensure system implementations meet specifications. According to the company, the VectorGen tests considerably reduce the time and effort required to validate implementation of components, thereby ensuring their safe and reliable operation. EDASHIELD, an additional product offering from ECI, can be used to diagnose, predict, and correct errors after a system has been deployed using EDASTAR -created models. Initial commercialization for EDASTAR included application by a large prime contractor in a military setting, and customers include various branches within the U.S. Department of Defense, industry giants like the Lockheed Martin Corporation, Science Applications International Corporation, and Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, as well as NASA's Langley and Glenn Research Centers

  10. Structural design of Stirling engine with free pistons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusov, Jozef; Gavlas, Stanislav; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    Stirling engine is a device that converts thermal energy to mechanical work, which is mostly used to drive a generator of electricity. Advantage of Stirling engine is that it works with closed-cycle, where working medium is regularly cooled and heated, which acts on the working piston. This engine can be made in three modifications - alpha, beta, gamma. This paper discusses the design of the gamma Stirling engine with free pistons.

  11. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Model for Designing HIV/AIDS Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Janet K.; Sanou, Missa P.; Abbott, Jeffrey R.; Coleman, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) discovered in 1986 is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats. FIV is classified into five subtypes (A–E), and all subtypes and circulating intersubtype recombinants have been identified throughout the world. A commercial FIV vaccine, consisting of inactivated subtype-A and –D viruses (Fel-O-Vax FIV, Fort Dodge Animal Health), was released in the United States in 2002. The United States Department of Agriculture approved the commercial release of Fel-O-Vax FIV based on two efficacy trials using 105 laboratory cats and a major safety trial performed on 689 pet cats. The prototype and commercial FIV vaccines had broad prophylactic efficacy against global FIV subtypes and circulating intersubtype recombinants. The mechanisms of cross-subtype efficacy are attributed to FIV-specific T-cell immunity. Findings from these studies are being used to define the prophylactic epitopes needed for an HIV-1 vaccine for humans. PMID:20210778

  12. Engine design considerations for 2nd generation supersonic transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental and economic goals projected for advanced supersonic transports will require revolutionary improvements in propulsion systems. Variable cycle engine concepts that incorporate unique components and advanced technologies show promise in meeting these goals. Pratt & Whitney Aircraft is conducting conceptual design studies of variable cycle engine concepts under NASA sponsorship. This paper reviews some of the design considerations for these engine concepts. Emphasis is placed on jet noise abatement, reduction of emissions, performance improvements, installation considerations, hot-section characteristics and control system requirements. Two representative variable cycle engine concepts that incorporate these basic design considerations are described.

  13. Linking First-Year and Senior Engineering Design Teams: Engaging Early Academic Career Students in Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Garey A.; Weckler, Paul; Thomas, Dan

    2015-01-01

    In Biosystems Engineering at Oklahoma State University, senior design is a two semester course in which students work on real-world projects provided by clients. First-year (freshmen and trans­fer) students enroll in an introductory engineering course. Historically, these students worked on a team-based analysis project, and the engineering design…

  14. Integral Engine Inlet Particle Separator. Volume 2. Design Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    herein will be used in the design of integral inlet particle separators for future Army aircraft gas turbine engines . Apprupriate technical personnel...OF INTEGRAL GAS TURBINE ENGINE SOLID PARTICLE INLET SEPARATORS, PHASE I, FEASIBILITY STUDY AND DESIGN, Pratt and Whitney Aircraft ; USAAVLABS Technical...USAAVLABS Technical Report 70-36, U.S. Army Aviation Materiel Laboratories, Fort Eustis, Virginia, August 1970 AD 876 584. 13. ENGINES , AIRCRAFT

  15. Building a Framework for Engineering Design Experiences in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Cameron D.; Lammi, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Denson and Lammi put forth a conceptual framework that will help promote the successful infusion of engineering design experiences into high school settings. When considering a conceptual framework of engineering design in high school settings, it is important to consider the complex issue at hand. For the purposes of this…

  16. Integrating Surface Modeling into the Engineering Design Graphics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Nathan W.

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested there is a knowledge base that surrounds the use of 3D modeling within the engineering design process and correspondingly within engineering design graphics education. While solid modeling receives a great deal of attention and discussion relative to curriculum efforts, and rightly so, surface modeling is an equally viable 3D…

  17. Integrating Engineering Design Challenges into Secondary STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Ronald L.; Strobel, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Engineering is being currently taught in the full spectrum of the P-12 system, with an emphasis on design-oriented teaching (Brophy, Klein, Portsmore, & Rogers, 2008). Due to only a small amount of research on the learning of engineering design in elementary and middle school settings, the community of practice lacks the necessary knowledge of the…

  18. Impact of computer-aided design and drafting on operator perceptions and performance intentions

    SciTech Connect

    Mandeville, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the introduction of computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) technology is to improve engineering quantity and quality outcomes. What is not so obvious is that the manner in which the operator views the CADD job may affect these outcomes. The study found that: (1) the subjects hold job characteristic beliefs about their jobs that are similar to those held by individuals in related professional and technical positions in other organizations; (2) subjects in routine jobs who had little experience with CADD believe that the characteristics of the job with CADD will be less desirable than there present job utilizing manual drafting; however, experienced users believe that there is little difference; (3) the subjects performing technologically routine jobs indicate that quantity and quality of their jobs decreases with CADD, while holders of technologically nonroutine jobs indicate the opposite; (4) significant but weak relationships existed between job characteristic beliefs, attitudes, and job intentions; however, the model relationships and strengths varied when subgroups were analyzed; and (5) the correlation of social referent group beliefs with subject beliefs are significant but weak.

  19. Formal design methods for reliable computer-aided diagnosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Faust, Oliver; Acharya, U Rajendra; Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-01-01

    Physiological signals, medical images, and biosystems can be used to access the health of a subject and they can support clinicians by improving the diagnosis for treatment purposes. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in healthcare applications can help in automated decision making, visualization and extraction of hidden complex features to aid in the clinical diagnosis. These CAD systems focus on improving the quality of patient care with a minimum of fault due to device failures. In this paper, we argue that a formal and model driven design methodology can lead to systems which meet this requirement. Modeling is not new to CAD, but modeling for systems design is less explored. Therefore, we discuss selected systems design techniques and provide a more concrete design example on computer-aided diagnosis and automated decision making.

  20. A comprehensive overview of computational resources to aid in precision genome editing with engineered nucleases.

    PubMed

    Periwal, Vinita

    2016-07-03

    Genome editing with engineered nucleases (zinc finger nucleases, TAL effector nucleases s and Clustered regularly inter-spaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) has recently been shown to have great promise in a variety of therapeutic and biotechnological applications. However, their exploitation in genetic analysis and clinical settings largely depends on their specificity for the intended genomic target. Large and complex genomes often contain highly homologous/repetitive sequences, which limits the specificity of genome editing tools and could result in off-target activity. Over the past few years, various computational approaches have been developed to assist the design process and predict/reduce the off-target activity of these nucleases. These tools could be efficiently used to guide the design of constructs for engineered nucleases and evaluate results after genome editing. This review provides a comprehensive overview of various databases, tools, web servers and resources for genome editing and compares their features and functionalities. Additionally, it also describes tools that have been developed to analyse post-genome editing results. The article also discusses important design parameters that could be considered while designing these nucleases. This review is intended to be a quick reference guide for experimentalists as well as computational biologists working in the field of genome editing with engineered nucleases.

  1. Computer-aided methods in bespoke breast prosthesis design and fabrication.

    PubMed

    Eggbeer, D; Evans, P

    2011-01-01

    This case study presents a method of utilizing computer-aided design technologies to provide bespoke, external breast prostheses. The technique is illustrated through a case study of a mastectomy patient. Photogrammetry methods were used to capture the breast form when supported by a brassiere and the unsupported breast and defect side. Computer-aided design techniques were used to generate a digital prosthesis based upon the supported breast shape and with a fitting surface that matched the defect side. Furthermore, a two-part mould was designed and fabricated using rapid prototyping methods. A colour-matched prosthesis was then fabricated in a gel-based, platinum-cured silicone.

  2. Facet‐Engineered Surface and Interface Design of Photocatalytic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Li, Zhengquan

    2016-01-01

    The facet‐engineered surface and interface design for photocatalytic materials has been proven as a versatile approach to enhance their photocatalytic performance. This review article encompasses some recent advances in the facet engineering that has been performed to control the surface of mono‐component semiconductor systems and to design the surface and interface structures of multi‐component heterostructures toward photocatalytic applications. The review begins with some key points which should receive attention in the facet engineering on photocatalytic materials. We then discuss the synthetic approaches to achieve the facet control associated with the surface and interface design. In the following section, the facet‐engineered surface design on mono‐component photocatalytic materials is introduced, which forms a basis for the discussion on more complex systems. Subsequently, we elucidate the facet‐engineered surface and interface design of multi‐component photocatalytic materials. Finally, the existing challenges and future prospects are discussed. PMID:28105398

  3. Motivation for Creativity in Architectural Design and Engineering Design Students: Implications for Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casakin, Hernan; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2010-01-01

    The investigation reported here dealt with the study of motivation for creativity. The goals were to assess motivation for creativity in architectural design and engineering design students based on the Cognitive Orientation theory which defines motivation as a function of a set of belief types, themes, and groupings identified as relevant for the…

  4. Computer-aided design tools for economical MEMS fabrication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Christian; Priebe, Andreas; Brueck, Rainer; Hahn, Kai

    1999-03-01

    Since the early 70s when microsystem technology was first introduce an enormous market for MST-products has been developed. Airbag sensors, micro pumps, ink jet nozzles etc. and the market is just about to start up. Establishing these products for a reasonable price requires mass production. Meanwhile, also computer-based design-tools have been developed in order to reduce the expenses for MST-design. In contrast to other physical design processes like e.g. in micro electronics, MEMS physical design is characterized by the fact that each product requires a tailored sequence of fabrication steps, usually selected from a variety of processing alternatives. The selection from these alternatives is based on economical constraints. Therefore, the design has a strong influence on the money and time spent to take an MST-product to market.

  5. Connecting Students' Background Experiences to Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Christina; Wilson- Lopez, Amy; Mejia, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Many youth do not pursue engineering because they do not see how it connects to their lives and interests. Concerned about this problem, the National Research Council (2012) suggested ways that teachers can make engineering more relevant and accessible to youth who have not traditionally pursued careers in this field. According to the National…

  6. Clinical Immersion and Biomedical Engineering Design Education: "Engineering Grand Rounds".

    PubMed

    Walker, Matthew; Churchwell, André L

    2016-03-01

    Grand Rounds is a ritual of medical education and inpatient care comprised of presenting the medical problems and treatment of a patient to an audience of physicians, residents, and medical students. Traditionally, the patient would be in attendance for the presentation and would answer questions. Grand Rounds has evolved considerably over the years with most sessions being didactic-rarely having a patient present (although, in some instances, an actor will portray the patient). Other members of the team, such as nurses, nurse practitioners, and biomedical engineers, are not traditionally involved in the formal teaching process. In this study we examine the rapid ideation in a clinical setting to forge a system of cross talk between engineers and physicians as a steady state at the praxis of ideation and implementation.

  7. Interdisciplinary and multilevel optimum design. [in aerospace structural engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1987-01-01

    Interactions among engineering disciplines and subsystems in engineering system design are surveyed and specific instances of such interactions are described. Examination of the interactions that a traditional design process in which the numerical values of major design variables are decided consecutively is likely to lead to a suboptimal design. Supporting numerical examples are a glider and a space antenna. Under an alternative approach introduced, the design and its sensitivity data from the subsystems and disciplines are generated concurrently and then made available to the system designer enabling him to modify the system design so as to improve its performance. Examples of a framework structure and an airliner wing illustrate that approach.

  8. A Study of the Use of Ontologies for Building Computer-Aided Control Engineering Self-Learning Educational Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Isaías; Benavides, Carmen; Alaiz, Héctor; Alonso, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes research on the use of knowledge models (ontologies) for building computer-aided educational software in the field of control engineering. Ontologies are able to represent in the computer a very rich conceptual model of a given domain. This model can be used later for a number of purposes in different software applications. In…

  9. Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Over-The-Wing (OTW) engine acoustic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowers, H. D.; Coward, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The acoustic considerations involved in the low source noise basic engine design and the design procedures followed in the development of the over-the-wing (OTW) nacelle acoustic treatment design are presented. Laboratory experiments, component tests, and scale model and engine tests supporting the OTW engine acoustic design are referenced. Acoustic design features include a near-sonic inlet, low fan and core pressure ratios, low fan tip speed, high and low frequency stacked core treatment, multiple thickness treatment, and fan frame and stator vane treatment.

  10. Developments in REDES: The rocket engine design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.

    1990-01-01

    The Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) is being developed at the NASA-Lewis to collect, automate, and perpetuate the existing expertise of performing a comprehensive rocket engine analysis and design. Currently, REDES uses the rigorous JANNAF methodology to analyze the performance of the thrust chamber and perform computational studies of liquid rocket engine problems. The following computer codes were included in REDES: a gas properties program named GASP, a nozzle design program named RAO, a regenerative cooling channel performance evaluation code named RTE, and the JANNAF standard liquid rocket engine performance prediction code TDK (including performance evaluation modules ODE, ODK, TDE, TDK, and BLM). Computational analyses are being conducted by REDES to provide solutions to liquid rocket engine thrust chamber problems. REDES is built in the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) expert system shell and runs on a Sun 4/110 computer.

  11. Developments in REDES: The Rocket Engine Design Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth O.

    1990-01-01

    The Rocket Engine Design Expert System (REDES) was developed at NASA-Lewis to collect, automate, and perpetuate the existing expertise of performing a comprehensive rocket engine analysis and design. Currently, REDES uses the rigorous JANNAF methodology to analyze the performance of the thrust chamber and perform computational studies of liquid rocket engine problems. The following computer codes were included in REDES: a gas properties program named GASP; a nozzle design program named RAO; a regenerative cooling channel performance evaluation code named RTE; and the JANNAF standard liquid rocket engine performance prediction code TDK (including performance evaluation modules ODE, ODK, TDE, TDK, and BLM). Computational analyses are being conducted by REDES to provide solutions to liquid rocket engine thrust chamber problems. REDES was built in the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) expert system shell and runs on a Sun 4/110 computer.

  12. Reverse engineering by design: using history to teach.

    PubMed

    Fagette, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Engineering students rarely have an opportunity to delve into the historic antecedents of design in their craft, and this is especially true for biomedical devices. The teaching emphasis is always on the new, the innovative, and the future. Even so, over the last decade, I have coupled a research agenda with engineering special projects into a successful format that allows young biomedical engineering students to understand aspects of their history and learn the complexities of design. There is value in having knowledge of historic engineering achievements, not just for an appreciation of these accomplishments but also for understanding exactly how engineers and clinicians of the day executed their feats-in other words, how the design process works. Ultimately, this particular educational odyssey confirms that history and engineering education are not only compatible but mutually supportive.

  13. WASTE REDUCTION USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Growing environmental concerns have spurred considerable interest in pollution prevention. In most instances, pollution prevention involves introducing radical changes to the design of processes so that waste generation is minimized.
    Process simulators can be effective tools i...

  14. Computer-Aided Apparel Design in University Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belleau, Bonnie D.; Bourgeois, Elva B.

    1991-01-01

    As computer-assisted design (CAD) become an integral part of the fashion industry, universities must integrate CAD into the apparel curriculum. Louisiana State University's curriculum enables students to collaborate in CAD problem solving with industry personnel. (SK)

  15. Computer-aided space shuttle orbiter wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. P.; Decker, J. P.; Rau, T. R.; Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been made to provide a space shuttle orbiter wing design that met the guideline requirements of landing performance, stability, and hypersonic trim for a specified center-of-gravity envelope. The analytical study was facilitated by the use of the Optimal Design Integration system (ODIN) and the experimental part of the investigation was conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel and the Langley continuous-flow hypersonic tunnel.

  16. High School Student Information Access and Engineering Design Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Developing solutions to engineering design problems requires access to information. Research has shown that appropriately accessing and using information in the design process improves solution quality. This quasi-experimental study provides two groups of high school students with a design problem in a three hour design experience. One group has…

  17. Engineering Design Handbook. Maintainability Engineering Theory and Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Development 7-13 7-4.1 Cost Estimating Relationships and Basic Building Blocks 7-13 7-4.1.1 Parameters and Planning Factors 7-13 7-4.1.2 Variables 7...13 7-4.1.3 Equations 7-13 7-4.1.4 Engineering Cost Estimate 7—14 7-4.2 Statistical CER Development 7-14 7-4.3 Cost Estimating Relationships 7...16 7-4.3.1 Generalized Estimation for Budgetary Purposes 7—16 7-4.3.2 Detailed Cost Estimating Relationships — Parameters 7—16 7-4.3.2.1 Annual

  18. Computational design and engineering of polymeric orthodontic aligners.

    PubMed

    Barone, S; Paoli, A; Razionale, A V; Savignano, R

    2016-10-05

    Transparent and removable aligners represent an effective solution to correct various orthodontic malocclusions through minimally invasive procedures. An aligner-based treatment requires patients to sequentially wear dentition-mating shells obtained by thermoforming polymeric disks on reference dental models. An aligner is shaped introducing a geometrical mismatch with respect to the actual tooth positions to induce a loading system, which moves the target teeth toward the correct positions. The common practice is based on selecting the aligner features (material, thickness, and auxiliary elements) by only considering clinician's subjective assessments. In this article, a computational design and engineering methodology has been developed to reconstruct anatomical tissues, to model parametric aligner shapes, to simulate orthodontic movements, and to enhance the aligner design. The proposed approach integrates computer-aided technologies, from tomographic imaging to optical scanning, from parametric modeling to finite element analyses, within a 3-dimensional digital framework. The anatomical modeling provides anatomies, including teeth (roots and crowns), jaw bones, and periodontal ligaments, which are the references for the down streaming parametric aligner shaping. The biomechanical interactions between anatomical models and aligner geometries are virtually reproduced using a finite element analysis software. The methodology allows numerical simulations of patient-specific conditions and the comparative analyses of different aligner configurations. In this article, the digital framework has been used to study the influence of various auxiliary elements on the loading system delivered to a maxillary and a mandibular central incisor during an orthodontic tipping movement. Numerical simulations have shown a high dependency of the orthodontic tooth movement on the auxiliary element configuration, which should then be accurately selected to maximize the aligner

  19. Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugelmass, Rachel

    This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

  20. UXO Engineering Design. Technical Specification and ConceptualDesign

    SciTech Connect

    Beche, J-F.; Doolittle, L.; Greer, J.; Lafever, R.; Radding, Z.; Ratti, A.; Yaver, H.; Zimmermann, S.

    2005-04-23

    The design and fabrication of the UXO detector has numerous challenges and is an important component to the success of this study. This section describes the overall engineering approach, as well as some of the technical details that brought us to the present design. In general, an array of sensor coils is measuring the signal generated by the UXO object in response to a stimulation provided by the driver coil. The information related to the location, shape and properties of the object is derived from the analysis of the measured data. Each sensor coil is instrumented with a waveform digitizer operating at a nominal digitization rate of 100 kSamples per second. The sensor coils record both the large transient pulse of the driver coil and the UXO object response pulse. The latter is smaller in amplitude and must be extracted from the large transient signal. The resolution required is 16 bits over a dynamic range of at least 140 dB. The useful signal bandwidth of the application extends from DC to 40 kHz. The low distortion of each component is crucial in order to maintain an excellent linearity over the full dynamic range and to minimize the calibration procedure. The electronics must be made as compact as possible so that the response of its metallic parts has a minimum signature response. Also because of a field system portability requirement, the power consumption of the instrument must be kept as low as possible. The theory and results of numerical and experimental studies that led to the proof-of-principle multitransmitter-multireceiver Active ElectroMagnetic (AEM) system, that can not only accurately detect but also characterize and discriminate UXO targets, are summarized in LBNL report-53962: ''Detection and Classification of Buried Metallic Objects, UX-1225''.

  1. Accuracy of different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guides for dental implant placement

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Liu, Changying; Su, Yucheng; Li, Jun; Zhou, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of implants placed using different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) surgical guides, including partially guided and totally guided templates, and determine the accuracy of these guides Materials and methods: In total, 111 implants were placed in 24 patients using CAD/CAM surgical guides. After implant insertion, the positions and angulations of the placed implants relative to those of the planned ones were determined using special software that matched pre- and postoperative computed tomography (CT) images, and deviations were calculated and compared between the different guides and templates. Results: The mean angular deviations were 1.72 ± 1.67 and 2.71 ± 2.58, the mean deviations in position at the neck were 0.27 ± 0.24 and 0.69 ± 0.66 mm, the mean deviations in position at the apex were 0.37 ± 0.35 and 0.94 ± 0.75 mm, and the mean depth deviations were 0.32 ± 0.32 and 0.51 ± 0.48 mm with tooth- and mucosa-supported stereolithographic guides, respectively (P < .05 for all). The mean distance deviations when partially guided (29 implants) and totally guided templates (30 implants) were used were 0.54 ± 0.50 mm and 0.89 ± 0.78 mm, respectively, at the neck and 1.10 ± 0.85 mm and 0.81 ± 0.64 mm, respectively, at the apex, with corresponding mean angular deviations of 2.56 ± 2.23° and 2.90 ± 3.0° (P > .05 for all). Conclusions: Tooth-supported surgical guides may be more accurate than mucosa-supported guides, while both partially and totally guided templates can simplify surgery and aid in optimal implant placement. PMID:26309497

  2. Engineering Design Handbook. Metric Conversion Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    metre /second (m3/s) WORK (SEE ENERGY) 5-40 OARCOM-P 706-470 TABLE 5-3 EXPERIMENTALLY DETERMINED CONSTANTS Avogadro constant , N. Bohr...FOR USE IN THE SI 4-23 REFERENCES 4-27 CHAPTER 5 CONVERSION FACTORS, MEASURED CONTANTS, AND DIMENSIONLESS CONSTANTS REFERENCES 5-1...lists of "dimen- sionless" constants and physical constants in SI units. 5. CHAPTER 6 ENGINEERING DRAWINGS. The use of SI units in engineering

  3. Using simulation to aid trial design: Ring-vaccination trials

    PubMed Central

    Hitchings, Matt David Thomas; Grais, Rebecca Freeman

    2017-01-01

    Background The 2014–6 West African Ebola epidemic highlights the need for rigorous, rapid clinical trial methods for vaccines. A challenge for trial design is making sample size calculations based on incidence within the trial, total vaccine effect, and intracluster correlation, when these parameters are uncertain in the presence of indirect effects of vaccination. Methods and findings We present a stochastic, compartmental model for a ring vaccination trial. After identification of an index case, a ring of contacts is recruited and either vaccinated immediately or after 21 days. The primary outcome of the trial is total vaccine effect, counting cases only from a pre-specified window in which the immediate arm is assumed to be fully protected and the delayed arm is not protected. Simulation results are used to calculate necessary sample size and estimated vaccine effect. Under baseline assumptions about vaccine properties, monthly incidence in unvaccinated rings and trial design, a standard sample-size calculation neglecting dynamic effects estimated that 7,100 participants would be needed to achieve 80% power to detect a difference in attack rate between arms, while incorporating dynamic considerations in the model increased the estimate to 8,900. This approach replaces assumptions about parameters at the ring level with assumptions about disease dynamics and vaccine characteristics at the individual level, so within this framework we were able to describe the sensitivity of the trial power and estimated effect to various parameters. We found that both of these quantities are sensitive to properties of the vaccine, to setting-specific parameters over which investigators have little control, and to parameters that are determined by the study design. Conclusions Incorporating simulation into the trial design process can improve robustness of sample size calculations. For this specific trial design, vaccine effectiveness depends on properties of the ring

  4. Conceptual design of the MHD Engineering Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bents, D. J.; Bercaw, R. W.; Burkhart, J. A.; Mroz, T. S.; Rigo, H. S.; Pearson, C. V.; Warinner, D. K.; Hatch, A. M.; Borden, M.; Giza, D. A.

    The reference conceptual design of the MHD engineering test facility, a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commerical feasibility of open cycle MHD is summarized. Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them is reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates are included and the engineering issues that should be reexamined are identified.

  5. Conceptual design of the MHD Engineering Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Bercaw, R. W.; Burkhart, J. A.; Mroz, T. S.; Rigo, H. S.; Pearson, C. V.; Warinner, D. K.; Hatch, A. M.; Borden, M.; Giza, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The reference conceptual design of the MHD engineering test facility, a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commerical feasibility of open cycle MHD is summarized. Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them is reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates are included and the engineering issues that should be reexamined are identified.

  6. Computer aided optimal design of compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, F. W.; Sharma, A.; Ragsdell, K. M.

    1980-07-01

    An automated procedure for the design of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems is presented. The procedure relies upon modern nonlinear programming algorithms, decomposition theory, and numerical models of the various system components. Two modern optimization methods are employed; BIAS, a Method of Multipliers code and OPT, a Generalized Reduced Gradient code. The procedure is demonstrated by the design of a CAES facility employing the Media, Illinois Galesville aquifer as the reservoir. The methods employed produced significant reduction in capital and operating cost, and in number of aquifer wells required.

  7. Vision multiplexing: an optical engineering concept for low-vision aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peli, Eli

    2007-09-01

    The normal visual system provides a wide field of view apparently at high resolution. The wide field is continuously monitored at low resolution for navigation and detection of objects of interest. These objects are sampled using the high-resolution fovea, applying a temporal multiplexing scheme. Most vision impairments that cause low vision impact upon only one of the components; the peripheral low-resolution wide field or the central high-resolution fovea. The loss of one of these components prevents the interplay of central and peripheral vision needed for normal function and causes disability. Traditional low-vision aids improve the impacted component, but usually at a cost of a significant loss in the surviving component. For example, magnifying devices increase resolution but reduce the field of view, while minifying devices increase the field of view but reduce resolution. A general optical engineering approach - vision multiplexing - is presented. Vision multiplexing seeks to provide both the wide field of view and the high-resolution information in ways that could be accessed and interpreted by the visual system. The use of various optical and electro-optical methods in the development of a number of new visual aids, all of which apply vision multiplexing to restore the interplay of high-resolution and wide-angle vision using eye movements in a natural way, will be described. Vision-multiplexing devices at various stages of development and testing illustrate the successes and difficulties in applying this approach for patients with tunnel vision, hemianopia (half blindness), and visual acuity loss (usually due to central retinal disease).

  8. Concurrent engineering design and management knowledge capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: real-time management, personnel management, project management, conceptual design and decision making; the SITRF design problem; and the electronic-design notebook.

  9. Special Technology Area Review on Computer Aided Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    develop MHDL, AHDL , etc., not only to provide a common modeling language but also to support a robust design environment. This would include language...tools are critical. Analog synthesis requirements must be reflected in VHDL and AHDL (Analog Hardware Description Language) standards. The tools should

  10. Design Principles for Computer-Aided Vocabulary Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Robin

    1994-01-01

    Presents six principles for the design of adaptive computer-assisted language learning (CALL) programs for vocabulary that incorporate a theory describing quality in the learning outcome and linking it to the learner's approach. Highlights include interactivity; general architecture of a software system; and diagnosis and modification. (Contains…

  11. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  12. Engineering Design Handbook. Development Guide for Reliability. Part Two. Design for Reliability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    engineer can evaluate the responses of person- nel to the failure to aid in predicting sec- ondary accidents (injuries resulting firm human reactions to...Co. / Lawrence Radiation Laboratory Hoffman Electronics Co. Aerojet ElectroSystems Co. Centre d’Etude Nucleaires de Saclay Aerojet Nuclear...the development of engineering drawings, the cost is somewhat offset by fu- ture application of the models in accident pre- vention, maintenance

  13. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p < 0.001). Significant differences in mean costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p < 0.001). Significant differences were also obtained between the costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit.

  14. Fracture resistance of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-generated composite resin-based molar crowns.

    PubMed

    Harada, Akio; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Inagaki, Ryoichi; Örtengren, Ulf; Niwano, Yoshimi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether different fabrication processes, such as the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system or the manual build-up technique, affect the fracture resistance of composite resin-based crowns. Lava Ultimate (LU), Estenia C&B (EC&B), and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic IPS e.max press (EMP) were used. Four types of molar crowns were fabricated: CAD/CAM-generated composite resin-based crowns (LU crowns); manually built-up monolayer composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-monolayer crowns); manually built-up layered composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-layered crowns); and EMP crowns. Each type of crown was cemented to dies and the fracture resistance was tested. EC&B-layered crowns showed significantly lower fracture resistance compared with LU and EMP crowns, although there was no significant difference in flexural strength or fracture toughness between LU and EC&B materials. Micro-computed tomography and fractographic analysis showed that decreased strength probably resulted from internal voids in the EC&B-layered crowns introduced by the layering process. There was no significant difference in fracture resistance among LU, EC&B-monolayer, and EMP crowns. Both types of composite resin-based crowns showed fracture loads of >2000 N, which is higher than the molar bite force. Therefore, CAD/CAM-generated crowns, without internal defects, may be applied to molar regions with sufficient fracture resistance.

  15. Product design engineering - a global education trend in multidisciplinary training for creative product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-03-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering training. Product design engineering (PDE) is a new interdisciplinary programme combining the strengths of the industrial design and engineering. This paper examines the emergence of PDE in an environment of critique of conventional engineering education and exemplifies the current spread of programmes endorsing a hybrid programme of design and engineering skills. The paper exemplifies PDE with the analysis of the programme offered at Swinburne University of Technology (Australia), showing how the teaching of 'designerly' thinking to engineers produces a new graduate particularly suited to the current and future environment of produce design practice. The paper concludes with reflections on the significance of this innovative curriculum model for the field of product design and for engineering design in general.

  16. Experience gained at ZAO Ural Turbine Works with the use of computer-aided design systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenko, V. V.; Valamin, A. E.; Shanturov, D. N.; Sokolov, E. V.; Toibich, S. V.; Glushchenko, A. N.

    2008-08-01

    The results of work accomplished in the field of computer-aided design at ZAO Ural Turbine Works (UTZ) are presented. A concept is described following which the tasks for a specialist’s workstations being developed at the UTZ are solved. Results from solution of problems with the use of modern numerical simulation computer programs for analyzing gas dynamic processes, casting, welding, and strength of complex structures are given. An example is given to show efficient use of a computer-aided design system for shifting an enterprise to a modern level of automation.

  17. Computer Aided Design of Computer Generated Holograms for electron beam fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urquhart, Kristopher S.; Lee, Sing H.; Guest, Clark C.; Feldman, Michael R.; Farhoosh, Hamid

    1989-01-01

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems that have been developed for electrical and mechanical design tasks are also effective tools for the process of designing Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs), particularly when these holograms are to be fabricated using electron beam lithography. CAD workstations provide efficient and convenient means of computing, storing, displaying, and preparing for fabrication many of the features that are common to CGH designs. Experience gained in the process of designing CGHs with various types of encoding methods is presented. Suggestions are made so that future workstations may further accommodate the CGH design process.

  18. Variance Analysis and Comparison in Computer-Aided Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, T.; Schiffer, T.; Schinko, C.; Fellner, D. W.

    2011-09-01

    The need to analyze and visualize differences of very similar objects arises in many research areas: mesh compression, scan alignment, nominal/actual value comparison, quality management, and surface reconstruction to name a few. In computer graphics, for example, differences of surfaces are used for analyzing mesh processing algorithms such as mesh compression. They are also used to validate reconstruction and fitting results of laser scanned surfaces. As laser scanning has become very important for the acquisition and preservation of artifacts, scanned representations are used for documentation as well as analysis of ancient objects. Detailed mesh comparisons can reveal smallest changes and damages. These analysis and documentation tasks are needed not only in the context of cultural heritage but also in engineering and manufacturing. Differences of surfaces are analyzed to check the quality of productions. Our contribution to this problem is a workflow, which compares a reference / nominal surface with an actual, laser-scanned data set. The reference surface is a procedural model whose accuracy and systematics describe the semantic properties of an object; whereas the laser-scanned object is a real-world data set without any additional semantic information.

  19. Intelligent Embedded Instruction for Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    8217 convenience and according to their individual learning preferences. This benefit is extremely valuable for adult professionals whose needs may be highly...solving problems. Adult designers tend to develop their own personal ways of using CAD software which can optimize a system’s use. This ability has been...average age for subjects with more than 1 year of computer experience was 34 whereas those with less than 2 months of experience averaged 41 years old

  20. Control Design for a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the control algorithms and control design process for a generic commercial aircraft engine simulation of a 40,000 lb thrust class, two spool, high bypass ratio turbofan engine. The aircraft engine is a complex nonlinear system designed to operate over an extreme range of environmental conditions, at temperatures from approximately -60 to 120+ F, and at altitudes from below sea level to 40,000 ft, posing multiple control design constraints. The objective of this paper is to provide the reader an overview of the control design process, design considerations, and justifications as to why the particular architecture and limits have been chosen. The controller architecture contains a gain-scheduled Proportional Integral controller along with logic to protect the aircraft engine from exceeding any limits. Simulation results illustrate that the closed loop system meets the Federal Aviation Administration s thrust response requirements

  1. Design concepts for low-cost composite turbofan engine frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, S. C.; Stoffer, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    Design concepts for low cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of a commercial, high bypass engine. Four alternative composite frame design concepts identified which consisted of generic type components and subcomponents that could be adapted to use in different locations in the engine and the different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were projected with a goal for the lowest number of parts at the lowest possible cost. After a preliminary evaluation of all four frame concepts, two designs were selected for an extended design and evaluation which narrowed the final selection down to one frame that was significantly lower in cost and slighty lighter than the other frame. An implementation plan for this lowest cost frame is projected for future development and includes prospects for reducing its weight with proposed unproven, innovative fabrication techniques.

  2. QCGAT aircraft/engine design for reduced noise and emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanson, L.; Terrill, K. M.

    1980-01-01

    The high bypass ratio QCGAT engine played an important role in shaping the aircraft design. The aircraft which evolved is a sleek, advanced design, six-place aircraft with 3538 kg (7,800 lb) maximum gross weight. It offers a 2778 kilometer (1500 nautical mile) range with cruise speed of 0.5 Mach number and will take-off and land on the vast majority of general aviation airfields. Advanced features include broad application of composite materials and a supercritical wing design with winglets. Full-span fowler flaps were introduced to improve landing capability. Engines are fuselage-mounted with inlets over the wing to provide shielding of fan noise by the wing surfaces. The design objectives, noise, and emission considerations, engine cycle and engine description are discussed as well as specific design features.

  3. Initial trade and design studies for the fusion engineering device

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-06-01

    The Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. The Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), initiated a program of trade and design studies in October 1980 to support the selection of the FED concept. This document presents the results of these initial trade and design studies. Based on these results, a baseline configuration has been identified and the Design Center effort for the remainder of the fiscal year will be devoted to the development of a self-consistent FED design description.

  4. Energy Efficient Engine: Flight propulsion system final design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald Y.; Stearns, E. Marshall

    1985-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) is a NASA program to create fuel saving technology for future transport engines. The Flight Propulsion System (FPS) is the engine designed to achieve E3 goals. Achieving these goals required aerodynamic, mechanical and system technologies advanced beyond that of current production engines. These technologies were successfully demonstrated in component rigs, a core engine and a turbofan ground test engine. The design and benefits of the FPS are presented. All goals for efficiency, environmental considerations, and economic payoff were met. The FPS has, at maximum cruise, 10.67 km (35,000 ft), M0.8, standard day, a 16.9 percent lower installed specific fuel consumption than a CF6-50C. It provides an 8.6 percent reduction in direct operating cost for a short haul domestic transport and a 16.2 percent reduction for an international long distance transport.

  5. Design, fabrication, and testing of contact-aided compliant cellular mechanisms with curved walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirone, Samantha A.; Hayes, Gregory R.; Babcox, Brian L.; Frecker, Mary; Adair, James H.; Lesieutre, George A.

    2011-03-01

    Contact-Aided Compliant Cellular Mechanisms (C3M) are compliant cellular structures with integrated contact mechanisms. The focus of the paper is on the design, fabrication, and testing of C3M with curved walls for high strain applications. It is shown that global strains were increased by replacing straight walls with curved walls in the traditional honeycomb structure, while the addition of contact mechanisms increased cell performance via stress relief in some cases. Furthermore, curved walls are beneficial for fabrication at the meso-scale. The basic curved honeycomb cell geometry is defined by a set of variables. These variables were optimized using Matlab and finite element analysis to find the best non-contact and contact-aided curved cell geometries as well as the cell geometry that provides the greatest stress relief. Currently, the most effective contact-aided curved honeycomb cell can withstand global strains approximately 160% greater than the most effective contact-aided, non-curved cell. Four different designs were fabricated via the Lost Mold-Rapid Infiltration Forming (LM-RIF) process. An array of the contact-aided optimized curved cell was then mechanically tested using a custom designed test rig, and the results were found to have a higher modulus of elasticity and lower global strain than the predictions. Despite these discrepancies, a high-strength highstrain cellular structure was developed, for potential use in morphing aircraft applications.

  6. Complexity aided design. The FuturICT technological innovation paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, A.; Ajmone-Marsan, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Batty, M.; Masera, M.; Rome, E.

    2012-11-01

    "In the next century, planet earth will don an electronic skin. It will use the Internet as a scaffold to support and transmit its sensations. This skin is already being stitched together. It consists of millions of embedded electronic measuring devices: thermostats, pressure gauges, pollution detectors, cameras, microphones, glucose sensors, EKGs, electroencephalographs. These will probe and monitor cities and endangered species, the atmosphere, our ships, highways and fleets of trucks, our conversations, our bodies-even our dreams ....What will the earth's new skin permit us to feel? How will we use its surges of sensation? For several years-maybe for a decade-there will be no central nervous system to manage this vast signaling network. Certainly there will be no central intelligence...some qualities of self-awareness will emerge once the Net is sensually enhanced. Sensuality is only one force pushing the Net toward intelligence". These statements are quoted by an interview by Cherry Murray, Dean of the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Professor of Physics. It is interesting to outline the timeliness and highly predicting power of these statements. In particular, we would like to point to the relevance of the question "What will the earth's new skin permit us to feel?" to the work we are going to discuss in this paper. There are many additional compelling questions, as for example: "How can the electronic earth's skin be made more resilient?"; "How can the earth's electronic skin be improved to better satisfy the need of our society?";"What can the science of complex systems contribute to this endeavour?"

  7. Protein design in systems metabolic engineering for industrial strain development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Zeng, An-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Accelerating the process of industrial bacterial host strain development, aimed at increasing productivity, generating new bio-products or utilizing alternative feedstocks, requires the integration of complementary approaches to manipulate cellular metabolism and regulatory networks. Systems metabolic engineering extends the concept of classical metabolic engineering to the systems level by incorporating the techniques used in systems biology and synthetic biology, and offers a framework for the development of the next generation of industrial strains. As one of the most useful tools of systems metabolic engineering, protein design allows us to design and optimize cellular metabolism at a molecular level. Here, we review the current strategies of protein design for engineering cellular synthetic pathways, metabolic control systems and signaling pathways, and highlight the challenges of this subfield within the context of systems metabolic engineering.

  8. A Study of Computer-Aided Geometric Optical Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    WAHLSTEDT OCT B2 AFIT/GEP/PH/82D-24 UNCLASSIFIED F /’G 9/2 N smhohmohholi EohhhhhhhhhhhE 1111.2 1 .6 mmiima __’___ MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL...The irting point () f the desigri was a Questar 3 inch telescope.. Avidj tional optic:l elements were added and " the design impoved until the desirF...The P|WI? J ) f e the lens is defined as the index of refractioni at ,ither focal point divided by the respective focal length. The power of the lens

  9. A Functional Level Preprocessor for Computer Aided Digital Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    the parsing of ucer input, is based on that for the computer language, PASCAL [J2,1J. The procedure is tle author’s original design Each line of input...NIKLAUS WIR~iN. PASCAL -USER:I MANUAL AmD REPORT. NEW YORK, NY: SPRINGER-VERLAG 1978 Li LANCAST17R, DOIN. CMOS CoORBOLK(A. IND)IANAPOLIS, IND): HOWAI(D...34flGS 0151, OtTAll me:;genera ted by SISL, duri -ne iti; last run. Each message is of the foriiat: SutiWur Uk ;L ATLNG M1:SSA(;lE-, )’URIAT NUMBELR, and

  10. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T = 62.6 ± 65.2 μm ; MC = 60.4 ± 38.4 μm; PMC = 58.1 ± 38.0 μm, and RI = 89.8 ± 62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T = 71.5%, RI = 49.2%, MC = 69.6%, and PMC = 71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T = 8.5%, RI = 0%, MC = 0.8%, and PMC = 3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  11. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  12. Scientists Grow Therapeutic Protein in Engineered Soya Bean Seeds to Prevent AIDS | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Genetically modified soya beans provide a scalable, low-cost method of producing microbicides that prevent AIDS, a technique sustainable for resource-poor countries where AIDS is spreading rapidly. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, more than 36 million people worldwide are living with HIV. While the number of AIDS-related deaths are decreasing, infection rates are still increasing, specifically in Eastern and Southern Africa.

  13. Computer-Aided Design of RNA Origami Structures.

    PubMed

    Sparvath, Steffen L; Geary, Cody W; Andersen, Ebbe S

    2017-01-01

    RNA nanostructures can be used as scaffolds to organize, combine, and control molecular functionalities, with great potential for applications in nanomedicine and synthetic biology. The single-stranded RNA origami method allows RNA nanostructures to be folded as they are transcribed by the RNA polymerase. RNA origami structures provide a stable framework that can be decorated with functional RNA elements such as riboswitches, ribozymes, interaction sites, and aptamers for binding small molecules or protein targets. The rich library of RNA structural and functional elements combined with the possibility to attach proteins through aptamer-based binding creates virtually limitless possibilities for constructing advanced RNA-based nanodevices.In this chapter we provide a detailed protocol for the single-stranded RNA origami design method using a simple 2-helix tall structure as an example. The first step involves 3D modeling of a double-crossover between two RNA double helices, followed by decoration with tertiary motifs. The second step deals with the construction of a 2D blueprint describing the secondary structure and sequence constraints that serves as the input for computer programs. In the third step, computer programs are used to design RNA sequences that are compatible with the structure, and the resulting outputs are evaluated and converted into DNA sequences to order.

  14. Computer-aided design and three-dimensional printing in the manufacturing of an ocular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Ruiters, Sébastien; Sun, Yi; de Jong, Stéphan; Politis, Constantinus; Mombaerts, Ilse

    2016-04-27

    Restoring the facial appearance in acquired anophthalmos entails precision fitting of a customised ocular prosthesis. The fabrication is an artisanal process, and is primarily based on an impression of the anophthalmic cavity. This is usually achieved by the impression-moulding method, which, however, may introduce errors, resulting in a poorly fitted prosthesis. We developed a new method in the manufacturing of a customised ocular prosthesis based on computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. An ocular prosthesis, based on a three-dimensional (3D) printed impression-free mould of the anophthalmic cavity, was successfully fitted in a 68-year-old male. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a customised ocular prosthesis designed with the aid of 3D printing.

  15. The Design of a Project to Assess Bilateral Versus Unilateral Hearing Aid Fitting

    PubMed Central

    Arlinger, Stig; Gatehouse, Stuart; Kiessling, Jürgen; Naylor, Graham; Verschuure, Hans; Wouters, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Binaural hearing provides advantages over monaural in several ways, particularly in difficult listening situations. For a person with bilateral hearing loss, the bilateral fitting of hearing aids thus seems like a natural choice. However, surprisingly few studies have been reported in which the additional benefit of bilateral versus unilateral hearing aid use has been investigated based on real-life experiences. Therefore, a project has been designed to address this issue and to find tools to identify people for whom the drawbacks would outweigh the advantages of bilateral fitting. A project following this design is likely to provide reliable evidence concerning differences in benefit between unilateral and bilateral fitting of hearing aids by evaluating correlations between entrance data and outcome measures and final preferences. PMID:18567594

  16. Student Interest in Engineering Design-Based Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selcen Guzey, S.; Moore, Tamara J.; Morse, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Current reform efforts in science education around the world call on teachers to use integrated approaches to teach science. As a part of such reform efforts in the United States, engineering practices and engineering design have been identified in K-12 science education standards. However, there is relatively little is known about effective ways…

  17. Ingenuity in Action: Connecting Tinkering to Engineering Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jennifer; Werner-Avidon, Maia; Newton, Lisa; Randol, Scott; Smith, Brooke; Walker, Gretchen

    2013-01-01

    The Lawrence Hall of Science, a science center, seeks to replicate real-world engineering at the "Ingenuity in Action" exhibit, which consists of three open-ended challenges. These problems encourage children to engage in engineering design processes and problem-solving techniques through tinkering. We observed and interviewed 112…

  18. QCSEE task 2: Engine and installation preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, R. E.; Lee, R.; Chamay, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    High-bypass turbofan engines with features required for commercial short haul powered lift transports were designed. Two engines were configured for each of the externally blown flap installations, under-the-wing and over-the-wing. Estimates of installed and uninstalled performance, noise, and weight were defined for each propulsion system.

  19. Energy Efficient Engine core design and performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, E. Marshall

    1982-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) is a NASA program to develop fuel saving technology for future large transport aircraft engines. Testing of the General Electric E3 core showed that the core component performance and core system performance necessary to meet the program goals can be achieved. The E3 core design and test results are described.

  20. Fuel Cell Car Design Project for Freshman Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Steve R.; Davis, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    In the Samuel Ginn College of Engineering at Auburn University, we have integrated a semester long design project based on a toy fuel cell car into our freshman "Introduction to Chemical Engineering Class." The project provides the students a basic foundation in chemical reactions, energy, and dimensional analysis that facilitates…

  1. Design of a 37 kw waste-fired pump engine

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, G.H.; Patterson, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    High Cost and possible shortages of irrigation pumping fuel are prompted the evaluation of alternate fuel engines. This engine is a steam turbine powered by a milo-stalk-fired boiler. Some short runs were accomplished in 1982 but further design will be required. ref.

  2. Engineering Design Activities and Conceptual Change in Middle School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnittka, Christine G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of engineering design classroom activities on conceptual change in science, and on attitudes toward and knowledge about engineering. Students were given a situated learning context and a rationale for learning science in an active, inquiry-based method, and worked in small collaborative…

  3. Microbeads and Engineering Design in Chemistry: No Small Educational Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adam; Turner, Ken

    2015-01-01

    A multipart laboratory activity introducing microbeads was created to meet engineering and engineering design practices consistent with new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Microbeads are a current topic of concern as they have been found to cause adverse impacts in both marine and freshwater systems resulting in multiple states proposing…

  4. A Course in Chemical Engineering Practice: Graduate Plant Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marnell, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Describes a year-long graduate plant design course. The course provides students with an appreciation of the profit motive that drives business activity, the role of the chemical engineer in achieving this goal, and historical and contemporary perspectives on chemical engineering practice. (JN)

  5. Integrating Engineering Design into Technology Education: Georgia's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Cameron D.; Kelley, Todd R.; Wicklein, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive research study reported on Georgia's secondary level (grades 6-12) technology education programs capability to incorporate engineering concepts and/or engineering design into their curriculum. Participants were middle school and high school teachers in the state of Georgia who currently teach technology education. Participants…

  6. Engineering Design Graphics: Into the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, La Verne Abe; Meyers, Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Graphical plans for construction of machinery and architecture have evolved over the last 6,000 years beginning from hieroglyphics to drawings on printable media, from the "Golden Age" of engineering graphics to the innovation of computer graphics and prototyping. The evolution of engineering design graphics as a profession has also evolved. Years…

  7. Design Approaches and Comparison of TAPS Packages for Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, S. Manjit

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purpose is to promote the use of modern technologies such as multimedia packages to engineering students. The aim is to help them to learning in their learning, visualization, problem solving and understanding engineering concepts such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: TAPS packages are developed to help…

  8. Optimizing Your K-5 Engineering Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppola, Matthew Perkins; Merz, Alice H.

    2017-01-01

    Today, elementary school teachers continue to revisit old lessons and seek out new ones, especially in engineering. Optimization is the process by which an existing product or procedure is revised and refined. Drawn from the authors' experiences working directly with students in grades K-5 and their teachers and preservice teachers, the…

  9. Emerging Engineers Design a Paper Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enderson, Mary C.; Grant, Melva R.

    2013-01-01

    With the advancement of specialized middle schools and high schools focusing on the arts, communication, engineering, mathematics, and science, many students who attend traditional schools miss out on valuable learning opportunities--in particular, when it comes to learning mathematics. Mathematics classrooms can be filled with real-world…

  10. Optical Design and Engineering: Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2005-01-01

    This paper contains some recommendations for the optics curricula that seek to serve students intent on a career in optical engineering, as well as suggestions for the young professional embarking on such a career. It also illustrates the suggestions with some examples of actual optical systems.

  11. Engineering Design Projects as a Reflection Promoter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabag, Nissim; Trotskovsky, Elena; Waks, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    This article describes examples of reflection documented in a longitudinal research comprising two studies: a three-year three-stage study on technology project-based learning (TPBL) and a three-year two-stage study on engineering thinking (ET). Both studies used qualitative tools such as interviews, active observations, and document analysis.…

  12. Theo Jansen Project in Engineering Design Course and a Design Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yucheng; Artigue, Aaron; Sommers, Jeremy; Chambers, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of a project-oriented mechanical engineering course, Engineering Design, were achieved through a design project, where students designed, built and demonstrated an extreme version of a basic Theo Jansen device. Through this project, junior students in the University of Louisiana fully developed the capability of applying mathematic and…

  13. Conceptual design of single turbofan engine powered light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, F. S.; Voorhees, C. G.; Heinrich, A. M.; Baisden, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    The conceptual design of a four place single turbofan engine powered light aircraft was accomplished utilizing contemporary light aircraft conventional design techniques as a means of evaluating the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program (GASP) as a preliminary design tool. In certain areas, disagreement or exclusion were found to exist between the results of the conventional design and GASP processes. Detail discussion of these points along with the associated contemporary design methodology are presented.

  14. Assembly and insertion of a self-fitting hearing aid: design of effective instruction materials.

    PubMed

    Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

    2011-12-01

    A self-fitting hearing aid has been proposed as a viable option to meet the need for rehabilitation in areas where audiology services are unreliable. A successful outcome with a self-fitting hearing aid pivots in part on the clarity of the instructions accompanying the device. The aims of this article are (a) to review the literature to determine features that should be incorporated into written health-care materials and factors to consider in the design process when developing written instructions for a target audience of older adults and (b) to apply this information to the development of a set of written instructions as the first step in self-fitting of a hearing aid, assembling four parts and inserting the aid into the ear. The method involved a literature review of published peer reviewed research. The literature revealed four steps in the development of written health-care materials: planning, design, assessment of suitability, and pilot testing. Best practice design principles for each step were applied in the development of instructions for how to assemble and insert a hearing aid. Separate booklets were developed for the left and right aids and the content of each consisted of simple line drawings accompanied by captions. The reading level was Grade 3.5 equivalent and the Flesch Reading Ease Score was 91.1 indicating that the materials were "very easy" to read. It is essential to follow best practice design principles when developing written health-care materials to motivate the reader, maximize comprehension, and increase the likelihood of successful application of the content.

  15. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (SGI IRIS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  16. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (SGI IRIS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  17. Fundamentals of Digital Engineering: Designing for Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The concept of designing for reliability will be introduced along with a brief overview of reliability, redundancy and traditional methods of fault tolerance is presented, as applied to current logic devices. The fundamentals of advanced circuit design and analysis techniques will be the primary focus. The introduction will cover the definitions of key device parameters and how analysis is used to prove circuit correctness. Basic design techniques such as synchronous vs asynchronous design, metastable state resolution time/arbiter design, and finite state machine structure/implementation will be reviewed. Advanced topics will be explored such as skew-tolerant circuit design, the use of triple-modular redundancy and circuit hazards, device transients and preventative circuit design, lock-up states in finite state machines generated by logic synthesizers, device transient characteristics, radiation mitigation techniques. worst-case analysis, the use of timing analyzer and simulators, and others. Case studies and lessons learned from spaceflight designs will be given as examples

  18. NRC Reviewer Aid for Evaluating the Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2012-01-13

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations (ConOps). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering (HFE) and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to support NRC HFE reviewers of SMR applications by identifying some of the questions that can be asked of applicants whose designs have characteristics identified in the issues. The questions for each issue were identified and organized based on the review elements and guidance contained in Chapter 18 of the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), and the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711).

  19. 40 CFR 94.204 - Designation of engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Combustion chamber design; (6) Bore; (7) Stroke; (8) Number of cylinders, (engines with aftertreatment... stroke dimensions; (4) The approximate intake and exhaust event timing and duration (valve or port);...

  20. 40 CFR 94.204 - Designation of engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Combustion chamber design; (6) Bore; (7) Stroke; (8) Number of cylinders, (engines with aftertreatment... stroke dimensions; (4) The approximate intake and exhaust event timing and duration (valve or port);...