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Sample records for aid early identification

  1. HIV/AIDS and Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.; Zimanyi, Louise, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development is increasingly concerned with the lack of attention to children affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This theme issue of "Coordinators' Notebook" examines issues related to ensuring that orphans and vulnerable children under 5 years receive attention in the international, national, and…

  2. Cheiloscopy: An aid for personal identification

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Rashmi; David, Maria Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation technique that deals with identification of humans based on lips traces. The aim of this study is to establish the uniqueness of lip prints which aids in personal identification. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 200 subjects. The materials used were dark-colored lipstick, paper, cellophane tape, a brush, and a magnifying lens. Results: This study shows that lip prints are unique and permanent for each individual, and the lip prints among family members and between twins revealed different patterns on the whole with few similar grooves suggesting the existence of heredity in the lip prints. Conclusion: Our study showed that lip prints are unique to each individual and can be used for personal identification. PMID:22408323

  3. Early identification and prevention of mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Persha, A J

    1992-01-01

    Early identification and prevention of mental retardation helps in terms of treatment for some conditions, better planning and management of cases, and counseling. Diagnostic procedures are available during pregnancy for early detection: blood tests, amniocentesis, ultrasound, fetoscopy, and urine tests; tests available for the newborn are blood tests for hypothyroidism, PKU; urine tests for metabolic disorders; apgar scores for screening of neurological deficits; neurobehavioral assessments, developmental schedules; neurodevelopmental screening; sensory examination; speech and language assessments; EEG; and imaging techniques. Early identification of mental retardation is beneficial in aiding the child's development and personality and in helping parents adjust mentally and learning to cope with caring for the child. Sometimes, it can help to limit the number and extent of the handicap. Prevention can be primary, secondary, or tertiary. The emphasis is on planned pregnancies, regular prenatal care, regular health checkups for mother and child, immunization, nutrition, prevention of environmental hazards and accidents, early identification and screening, genetic studies and counseling, family planning, and creation of awareness among the general population. Inadequate prenatal care is associated with prematurity and low birth weight, which are linked to mental retardation. Prenatal care for the pregnant woman involves participating in regular prenatal checkups, maintaining good nutrition, having preliminary screening, attending promptly to illnesses and infections, and getting immunized at the appropriate time. Avoidance of the following is recommended: unnecessary and nonprescribed drugs, physical accidents, exposure to radiation and teratogens, alcohol and tobacco consumption, exposure to infections such as measles, rubella, or syphilis, toxins and poisons such as lead, and attempts at abortion. Genetic counseling can provide information on the disorders, the

  4. GPS-Aided Tsunami Early Detection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. T.; Bar-Sever, Y. E.; Liu, Z.; Khachikyan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Most tsunami fatalities occur in near-field communities of earthquakes at offshore faults. Tsunami early warning is key for reducing the number of fatalities. Unfortunately, an earthquake's magnitude often does not gauge the resulting tsunami power. Here we show that real-time GPS stations along coastlines are able to detect seafloor motions due to big earthquakes, and that the detected seafloor displacements are able to determine tsunami energy and scales instantaneously for early warnings. Our method focuses on estimating tsunami energy directly from seafloor motions because a tsunami's potential or scale, no matter how it is defined, has to be proportional to the tsunami energy. Since seafloor motions are the only source of a tsunami, their estimation directly relates to the mechanism that generates tsunamis; therefore, it is a proper way of identifying earthquakes that are capable of triggering tsunamis, while being able to discriminate those particular earthquakes from false alarms. Examples of detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, and the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake will be presented. The development of the Indo-Pacific GPS-Aided Tsunami Early Detection (GATED) system will be reported.

  5. Early identification of motor delay

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (HINT), an infant neuromotor test using Canadian norms published in 2010 that could be used to screen for motor delay during the first year of life. Quality of evidence Extensive research has been published on the intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability and the content, concurrent, predictive, and known-groups validity of the HINT, as well as on the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parental concerns, as assessed by the HINT. Most evidence is level II. Main message Diagnosing motor delays during the first year of life is important because these often indicate more generalized developmental delays or specific disabilities, such as cerebral palsy. Parental concerns about their children’s motor development are strongly predictive of subsequent diagnoses involving motor delay. Conclusion Only through early identification of developmental motor delays, initially with screening tools such as the HINT, is it possible to provide referrals for early intervention that could benefit both the infant and the family. PMID:27521388

  6. Early Childhood Teachers' Behavior Intention to Apply Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Chuen-Tzay

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the behavior intention of early childhood teachers to apply teaching aids. The survey method was used to collect data from 281 early childhood teachers currently working at early childhood education institutes. The data was analyzed by t-test, Chi-square analysis, and Pearson coefficient to examine the…

  7. Achieving effective hearing aid fitting within one month after identification of childhood permanent hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Bastanza, G; Gallus, R; De Carlini, M; Picciotti, P M; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Orzan, E; Conti, G

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosis of child permanent hearing impairment (PHI) can be made with extreme timeliness compared to the past thanks to improvements in PHI identification through newborn hearing screening programmes. It now becomes essential to provide an effective amplification as quickly as possible in order to restore auditory function and favour speech and language development. The early fitting of hearing aids and possible later cochlear implantation indeed prompts the development of central auditory pathways, connections with secondary sensory brain areas, as well as with motor and articulatory cortex. The aim of this paper is to report the results of a strategic analysis that involves identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats regarding the process of achieving early amplification in all cases of significant childhood PHI. The analysis is focused on the Italian situation and is part of the Italian Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for Early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children". PMID:27054389

  8. Achieving effective hearing aid fitting within one month after identification of childhood permanent hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Bastanza, G; Gallus, R; De Carlini, M; Picciotti, P M; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Orzan, E; Conti, G

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosis of child permanent hearing impairment (PHI) can be made with extreme timeliness compared to the past thanks to improvements in PHI identification through newborn hearing screening programmes. It now becomes essential to provide an effective amplification as quickly as possible in order to restore auditory function and favour speech and language development. The early fitting of hearing aids and possible later cochlear implantation indeed prompts the development of central auditory pathways, connections with secondary sensory brain areas, as well as with motor and articulatory cortex. The aim of this paper is to report the results of a strategic analysis that involves identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats regarding the process of achieving early amplification in all cases of significant childhood PHI. The analysis is focused on the Italian situation and is part of the Italian Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for Early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children".

  9. Associated postmortem dental findings as an aid to personal identification.

    PubMed

    Pretty, I A; Addy, L D

    2002-01-01

    The use of the unique features of the human dentition to aid in personal identification is well accepted within the forensic field. Indeed, despite advances in DNA and other identification methodologies, comparative dental identifications still play a major role in identifying the victims of violence, disaster or other misfortune. The classic comparative dental identification employs the use of postmortem and antemortem dental records (principally written notes and radiographs) to determine similarities and exclude discrepancies. In many cases the tentative identification of the individual is unknown and therefore antemortem records cannot be located. In such a situation a dental profile of the individual is developed to aid the search for the individual's identity. With such a profile a forensic odontologist can identify and report indicators for age at time of death, race (within the four major ethnic groups) and sex. In addition to these parameters the forensic dentist may be able to give more insight into the individual. This paper outlines, for the non-expert, some of the additional personal information that can be derived from the teeth of the deceased, and which may assist in their ultimate identification. PMID:12407975

  10. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18-month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The…

  11. Early Identification of Ineffective Cooperative Learning Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, C .M.; Luo, L. F.; Chung, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning has many pedagogical benefits. However, if the cooperative learning teams become ineffective, these benefits are lost. Accordingly, this study developed a computer-aided assessment method for identifying ineffective teams at their early stage of dysfunction by using the Mahalanobis distance metric to examine the difference…

  12. Kindergarten Screening Procedures: Early Identification or Merely Early Labeling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillerich, Robert L.

    Concern about typical early identification procedures used with kindergarten children to predict potential reading failure is expressed in this paper. A diagnostic procedure for screening kindergarten children and then prescribing an individualized program for each child is described. The screening battery--Prediction with Diagnostic Qualities…

  13. 75 FR 3746 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Part C Early Intervention Services (EIS) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Part C Early..., Florida, that will ensure continuity of Part C, Early Intervention Services (EIS), HIV/AIDS care and...: Critical funding for HIV/AIDS care and treatment to the target populations in Orange County,...

  14. GC/IR computer-aided identification of anaerobic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hunian; Zhang, Feng S.; Yang, Hua; Li, Zhu; Ye, Song

    1993-09-01

    A new method was developed to identify anaerobic bacteria by using pattern recognition. The method is depended on GC / JR data. The system is intended for use as a precise rapid and reproduceable aid in the identification of unknown isolates. Key Words: Anaerobic bacteria Pattern recognition Computeraided identification GC / JR 1 . TNTRODUCTTON A major problem in the field of anaerobic bacteriology is the difficulty in accurately precisely and rapidly identifying unknown isolates. Tn the proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology C. M. Moss said: " Chromatographic analysis is a new future for clinical microbiology" . 12 years past and so far it seems that this is an idea whose time has not get come but it close. Now two major advances that have brought the technology forword in terms ofmaking it appropriate for use in the clinical laboratory can aldo be cited. One is the development and implementation of fused silica capillary columns. In contrast to packed columns and those of'' greater width these columns allow reproducible recovery of hydroxey fatty acids with the same carbon chain length. The second advance is the efficient data processing afforded by modern microcomputer systems. On the other hand the practical steps for sample preparation also are an advance in the clinical laboratory. Chromatographic Analysis means mainly of analysis of fatty acids. The most common

  15. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Catts, Hugh W; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-09-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension difficulties in third grade. A total of 366 children were administered a battery of screening measures at the beginning of kindergarten and progress monitoring probes across the school year. A subset of children also received a 26-week Tier 2 language intervention. Participants' achievement in word reading was assessed at the end of second grade, and their performance in reading comprehension was measured as the end of third grade. Results showed that measures of language ability in kindergarten significantly added to the prediction of reading comprehension difficulties over and above kindergarten word reading predictors and direct measures of word reading in second grade. Response to language intervention also proved to be a unique predictor of reading comprehension outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for the early identification of reading disabilities.

  16. Early Identification of Reading Disabilities within an RTI Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi Syuan; Bontempo, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Early and accurate identification of children at risk for reading disabilities (RD) is critical for the prevention of RD within a response to intervention framework. In this study, we investigated the use of universal screening and progress monitoring for the early identification of RD in kindergarten children. A total of 366 children were…

  17. HIV/AIDS in Early Childhood Centers: The Ethical Dilemma of Confidentiality versus Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sandra M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the privacy dilemma encountered by early childhood practitioners when they find out that a child in their program or one of the child's family members has HIV/AIDS. Provides general and specific guidelines regarding HIV/AIDS, describes universal precautions in child care settings, and delineates myths and facts about HIV/AIDS. (KB)

  18. AIDS: What Early Childhood Educators Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spar, Ruth

    Noting that Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is expected to become the fifth leading cause of death for children ages 1 to 4, this paper provides relevant information on AIDS and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) to help educators understand that they can work with children and adults who are HIV positive or who have AIDS. The…

  19. Teacher Aide Handbook for Early Childhood Education for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield State Coll., PA. Dept. of Special Education.

    The handbook, prepared by teachers in a summer workshop, is to be used by teacher aides at the nursery through grade 3 levels as well as by administrators and teachers. Teacher aides are said to be the candy stripers of education who help teachers in ways such as supervising art and music activities and making home visits. Notes from the…

  20. Early Identification of Hearing Loss: Practices and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, James H.; Mengle, Heidi

    1983-01-01

    The process of identification of hearing loss in preschool children, including infant screening techniques, audiological testing methods, and other tests used to determine the kind and degree of hearing loss, are discussed. Appropriate habilitation and educational placement is also discussed, including hearing aid selection and parent…

  1. Early Identification of Educationally High Potential and High Risk Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Barbara K.; Smith, Carol E.

    1970-01-01

    Early identification was investigated by following the same children from kindergarten entrance through grade five. Kindergarten predictive measures were the Bender Gestalt and teachers' evaluations; followup measures were yearly standard achievement test results. (Author)

  2. Computer-aided detection of early cancer in the esophagus using HD endoscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2013-02-01

    Esophageal cancer is the fastest rising type of cancer in the Western world. The recent development of High-Definition (HD) endoscopy has enabled the specialist physician to identify cancer at an early stage. Nevertheless, it still requires considerable effort and training to be able to recognize these irregularities associated with early cancer. As a first step towards a Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) system that supports the physician in finding these early stages of cancer, we propose an algorithm that is able to identify irregularities in the esophagus automatically, based on HD endoscopic images. The concept employs tile-based processing, so our system is not only able to identify that an endoscopic image contains early cancer, but it can also locate it. The identification is based on the following steps: (1) preprocessing, (2) feature extraction with dimensionality reduction, (3) classification. We evaluate the detection performance in RGB, HSI and YCbCr color space using the Color Histogram (CH) and Gabor features and we compare with other well-known features to describe texture. For classification, we employ a Support Vector Machine (SVM) and evaluate its performance using different parameters and kernel functions. In experiments, our system achieves a classification accuracy of 95.9% on 50×50 pixel tiles of tumorous and normal tissue and reaches an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.990. In 22 clinical examples our algorithm was able to identify all (pre-)cancerous regions and annotate those regions reasonably well. The experimental and clinical validation are considered promising for a CAD system that supports the physician in finding early stage cancer.

  3. Prolonged fear of AIDS as an early symptom of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Spivak, B; Mester, R; Babur, I; Mark, M; Bleich, A; Weizman, A

    1990-01-01

    A modern complaint--fear of AIDS--is making its way into the world of psychopathology and is becoming a symptom of a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including severe ones. We present a case of a young man who developed a pathological bizarre preoccupation of having AIDS and underwent various unnecessary medical procedures, until finally he was diagnosed as suffering from a paranoid schizophrenic disorder. With the high media profile that AIDS has achieved in recent years, it is expected that AIDS has become the object of psychopathological processes. However, the length of time elapsed between the onset of symptoms and the appropriate psychiatric diagnosis, despite being examined by other medical professionals, is surprising. The discussion focuses on the diagnostic questions and on issues related to primary and secondary psychiatric prevention. PMID:2277826

  4. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 7: Top down functional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The functions are identified and described in chart form as a tree in which the basic functions, to 'Provide National Identification Service,' are shown at the top. The lower levels of the tree branch out to indicate functions and sub-functions. Symbols are used to indicate whether or not a function was automated in the AIDS 1 or 2 system or is planned to be automated in the AIDS 3 system. The tree chart is shown in detail.

  5. Infants and Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Early Identification and Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; Odom, Samuel L.; Humphreys, Betsy P.; Sam, Ann M.

    2010-01-01

    The increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its detection during the first 3 years of life have substantial relevance for early intervention. The purpose of this article is to summarize current scientific and policy information on early identification and early intervention for infants and toddlers with ASD and their families.…

  6. Early identification systems for emerging foodborne hazards.

    PubMed

    Marvin, H J P; Kleter, G A; Prandini, A; Dekkers, S; Bolton, D J

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides a non-exhausting overview of early warning systems for emerging foodborne hazards that are operating in the various places in the world. Special attention is given to endpoint-focussed early warning systems (i.e. ECDC, ISIS and GPHIN) and hazard-focussed early warning systems (i.e. FVO, RASFF and OIE) and their merit to successfully identify a food safety problem in an early stage is discussed. Besides these early warning systems which are based on monitoring of either disease symptoms or hazards, also early warning systems and/or activities that intend to predict the occurrence of a food safety hazard in its very beginning of development or before that are described. Examples are trend analysis, horizon scanning, early warning systems for mycotoxins in maize and/or wheat and information exchange networks (e.g. OIE and GIEWS). Furthermore, recent initiatives that aim to develop predictive early warning systems based on the holistic principle are discussed. The assumption of the researchers applying this principle is that developments outside the food production chain that are either directly or indirectly related to the development of a particular food safety hazard may also provide valuable information to predict the development of this hazard.

  7. Early identification systems for emerging foodborne hazards.

    PubMed

    Marvin, H J P; Kleter, G A; Prandini, A; Dekkers, S; Bolton, D J

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides a non-exhausting overview of early warning systems for emerging foodborne hazards that are operating in the various places in the world. Special attention is given to endpoint-focussed early warning systems (i.e. ECDC, ISIS and GPHIN) and hazard-focussed early warning systems (i.e. FVO, RASFF and OIE) and their merit to successfully identify a food safety problem in an early stage is discussed. Besides these early warning systems which are based on monitoring of either disease symptoms or hazards, also early warning systems and/or activities that intend to predict the occurrence of a food safety hazard in its very beginning of development or before that are described. Examples are trend analysis, horizon scanning, early warning systems for mycotoxins in maize and/or wheat and information exchange networks (e.g. OIE and GIEWS). Furthermore, recent initiatives that aim to develop predictive early warning systems based on the holistic principle are discussed. The assumption of the researchers applying this principle is that developments outside the food production chain that are either directly or indirectly related to the development of a particular food safety hazard may also provide valuable information to predict the development of this hazard. PMID:18272277

  8. Early Commitment Financial Aid Programs: Promises, Practices, and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2005-01-01

    Student financial assistance has long been a means to promote access to postsecondary education and attainment of college degrees. Numerous types of financial aid programs have proliferated over the years, including a relatively new concept that specifically targets high-risk, low-income students, focusing not just on getting them to go to college…

  9. "Denture marking" as an aid to forensic identification.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Jayashree; Kumar, C Dhinesh; Simon, Paul

    2012-09-01

    "Identification through forensic science is an art of giving the corpse a name A real life detective work that would put even Sherlock Homes to shame." Forensic dentistry deals with proper handling and examination of dental evidence and proper evaluation and presentation of dental findings in interest of justice. Denture marking or labeling is not a new concept in either Prosthetic or Forensic dentistry and its routine practice has been urged by Forensic dentists internationally for many years. Denture marking is accepted as a means of identifying dentures and persons in geriatric institutions or post mortem during war, crimes, and civil unrest, natural and mass disasters. Prosthodontists are playing very important role in forensic dentistry as they are concerned with fabrication of various prostheses which can serve as an important tool for identification. Identification is essential requirement of any medico-legal investigation because a wrong identity may pose a problem in delivering justice. The main objective of this article is to discuss the various methods of denture marking and to emphasize the importance of denture marking for person identification in medico legal investigations.

  10. Early Identification and Treatment of Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Frick, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Severe and persistent antisocial behavior is a prevalent, serious, and costly mental health problem. Individuals who are most likely to show persistent antisocial behavior through adolescence and into adulthood often show patterns of severe and varied conduct problems early in childhood. Treatments that intervene early in the development of these problems are most effective and least costly. Furthermore, there appear to be several common causal pathways that differ in their genetic, emotional, cognitive, and contextual characteristics. These pathways are differentiated by the level of callous-unemotional traits displayed by the individual. PMID:27565364

  11. Experimental studies of forensic odontology to aid in the identification process

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Susmita; Sharma, Preeti; Gupta, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    The importance of dental identification is on the increase year after year. With the passage of time, the role of forensic odontology has increased as very often teeth and dental restorations are the only means of identification. Forensic odontology has played a key role in identification of persons in mass disasters (aviation, earthquakes, Tsunamis), in crime investigations, in ethnic studies, and in identification of decomposed and disfigured bodies like that of drowned persons, fire victims, and victims of motor vehicle accidents. The various methods employed in forensic odontology include tooth prints, radiographs, photographic study, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy and molecular methods. Investigative methods applied in forensic odontology are reasonably reliable, yet the shortcomings must be accounted for to make it a more meaningful and relevant procedure. This paper gives an overview of the various experimental studies to aid in the identification processes, discussing their feasibilities and limitations in day-to-day practice. PMID:21731343

  12. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 4: Economic feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the economic analysis of the AIDS 3 system design are presented. AIDS 3 evaluated a set of economic feasibility measures including life cycle cost, implementation cost, annual operating expenditures and annual capital expenditures. The economic feasibility of AIDS 3 was determined by comparing the evaluated measures with the same measures, where applicable, evaluated for the current system. A set of future work load scenarios was constructed using JPL's environmental evaluation study of the fingerprint identification system. AIDS 3 and the current system were evaluated for each of the economic feasibility measures for each of the work load scenarios. They were compared for a set of performance measures, including response time and accuracy, and for a set of cost/benefit ratios, including cost per transaction and cost per technical search. Benefit measures related to the economic feasibility of the system are also presented, including the required number of employees and the required employee skill mix.

  13. A new computer-assisted technique to aid personal identification.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Sala, Remo; Cantatore, Angela; Grandi, Marco; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2009-07-01

    The paper describes a procedure aimed at identification from two-dimensional (2D) images (video-surveillance tapes, for example) by comparison with a three-dimensional (3D) facial model of a suspect. The application is intended to provide a tool which can help in analyzing compatibility or incompatibility between a criminal and a suspect's facial traits. The authors apply the concept of "geometrically compatible images". The idea is to use a scanner to reconstruct a 3D facial model of a suspect and to compare it to a frame extracted from the video-surveillance sequence which shows the face of the perpetrator. Repositioning and reorientation of the 3D model according to subject's face framed in the crime scene photo are manually accomplished, after automatic resizing. Repositioning and reorientation are performed in correspondence of anthropometric landmarks, distinctive for that person and detected both on the 2D face and on the 3D model. In this way, the superimposition between the original two-dimensional facial image and the three-dimensional one is obtained and a judgment is formulated by an expert on the basis of the fit between the anatomical facial districts of the two subjects. The procedure reduces the influence of face orientation and may be a useful tool in identification.

  14. Technology-Aided Assessment of Sensorimotor Function in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Allievi, Alessandro G.; Arichi, Tomoki; Gordon, Anne L.; Burdet, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing need for new techniques capable of providing accurate information about sensorimotor function during the first 2 years of childhood. Here, we review current clinical methods and challenges for assessing motor function in early infancy, and discuss the potential benefits of applying technology-assisted methods. We also describe how the use of these tools with neuroimaging, and in particular functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), can shed new light on the intra-cerebral processes underlying neurodevelopmental impairment. This knowledge is of particular relevance in the early infant brain, which has an increased capacity for compensatory neural plasticity. Such tools could bring a wealth of knowledge about the underlying pathophysiological processes of diseases such as cerebral palsy; act as biomarkers to monitor the effects of possible therapeutic interventions; and provide clinicians with much needed early diagnostic information. PMID:25324827

  15. Early Identification and Interventions for Dyslexia: A Contemporary View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews current proposals concerning the definition of dyslexia and contrasts it with reading comprehension impairment. We then discuss methods for early identification and review evidence that teacher assessments and ratings may be valid screening tools. Finally, we argue that interventions should be theoretically motivated and…

  16. Early Identification of Educationally High Potential and High Risk Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keogh, Barbara K.; Smith, Carol E.

    Early identification of educationally high potential and high risk children was investigated by following the same 49 children from kindergarten entrance through grade five of a regular school program. Kindergarten predictive measures were the Bender Gestalt Test and teachers' evaluations; follow-up measures were yearly standard achievement test…

  17. Early Identification Guidelines: Suburban Model (Lucas County School District).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Educational Services.

    Developed by a suburban school district, this manual provides guidelines for the early identification of gifted preschool children and describes Project Unicorn, a project to conceptualize, plan, and implement a classroom curriculum model for gifted young children. Project activities were based on Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development and…

  18. Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

  19. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 5: Current system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The performance, costs, organization and other characteristics of both the manual system and AIDS 2 were used to establish a baseline case. The results of the evaluation are to be used to determine the feasibility of the AIDS 3 System, as well as provide a basis for ranking alternative systems during the second phase of the JPL study. The results of the study were tabulated by subject, scope and methods, providing a descriptive, quantitative and qualitative analysis of the current operating systems employed by the FBI Identification Division.

  20. Early Identification of Asperger Syndrome in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Wiebke; Konig, Udo; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Mattejat, Fritz; Becker, Katja; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify items of the ADI-R that allow an early and sensitive identification of children with possible Asperger syndrome (AS). The aim was to obtain an economic short interview suitable for screening purposes. The study was based on data from a clinical sample of 5-18-year-old children and adolescents (mean age 10.9…

  1. The Role of Early Childhood Professionals in the Early Identification of Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Franklyn-Banton, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder defined by impaired social skills, impaired language development and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. The increasing prevalence of autism worldwide has made this an important condition among professionals working with young children, including those in Jamaica. Early identification and intervention…

  2. Early identification of alcohol abuse: 2: Clinical and laboratory indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, S; Skinner, H A; Israel, Y

    1981-01-01

    Despite awareness of the wide variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with alcohol abuse, drinking problems often remain undetected in hospital and in general medical practice. The diagnosis of alcohol abuse has been emphasized repeatedly in the literature but far less attention has been paid to indicators that would permit detection of excessive drinking at a stage when intervention might be more effective and less costly. The search for indicators of early alcohol abuse is complicated since many of the medical sequelae of alcoholism are nonspecific and may only be manifested after a number of years of excessive drinking. Part 2 of this two-part series considers various clinical and laboratory features related to alcohol abuse and highlights items that are potentially more sensitive for detecting early stages of problem drinking. Use by physicians of a composite profile of both biomedical and psychosocial indicators of excessive alcohol consumption is recommended for early identification of this problem. PMID:7016289

  3. Pathways to Identity. Using Visualization to Aid Law Enforcement in Identification Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, Joseph R.; Scholtz, Jean; Hodges, Duncan; Emanuel, Lia; Stanton Fraser, Danae; Creese, Sadie; Love, Oriana J.

    2014-09-18

    The nature of identity has changed dramatically in recent years and has grown in complexity. Identities are defined in multiple domains: biological and psychological elements strongly contribute, but biographical and cyber elements also are necessary to complete the picture. Law enforcement is beginning to adjust to these changes, recognizing identity’s importance in criminal justice. The SuperIdentity project seeks to aid law enforcement officials in their identification tasks through research of techniques for discovering identity traits, generation of statistical models of identity and analysis of identity traits through visualization. We present use cases compiled through user interviews in multiple fields, including law enforcement, and describe the modeling and visualization tools design to aid in those use cases.

  4. Pathways to Identity: Aiding Law Enforcement in Identification Tasks With Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, Joseph R.; Scholtz, Jean; Hodges, Duncan; Emanuel, Lia; Stanton-Fraser, Danae; Creese, Sadie; Love, Oriana J.

    2014-09-18

    The nature of identity has changed dramatically in recent years, and has grown in complexity. Identities are defined in multiple domains: biological and psychological elements strongly contribute, but also biographical and cyber elements are necessary to complete the picture. Law enforcement is beginning to adjust to these changes, recognizing its importance in criminal justice. The SuperIdentity project seeks to aid law enforcement officials in their identification tasks through research of techniques for discovering identity traits, generation of statistical models of identity and analysis of identity traits through visualization. We present use cases compiled through user interviews in multiple fields, including law enforcement, as well as the modeling and visualization tools design to aid in those use cases.

  5. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document.

  6. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Olga V C A; Andrade, Paulo E; Capellini, Simone A

    2014-01-01

    Current response to intervention models (RTIs) favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Non-responders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Non-responders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI's implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 7 years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words [alternative tools for educators (ATE)] and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile) showed good sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (true negatives) to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a classroom setting. PMID

  7. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Olga V. C. A.; Andrade, Paulo E.; Capellini, Simone A.

    2015-01-01

    Current response to intervention models (RTIs) favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Non-responders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Non-responders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI’s implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 7 years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words [alternative tools for educators (ATE)] and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile) showed good sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (true negatives) to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a classroom setting

  8. Early Identification of Reading Disabilities within a RTI Framework

    PubMed Central

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi Syuan; Bontempo, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Early and accurate identification of children at risk for reading disabilities (RD) is critical for the prevention of RD within a RTI framework. In this study, we investigated the use of universal screening and progress monitoring for the early identification of RD in kindergarten children. Three-hundred sixty-six children were administered a battery of screening measures at the beginning of kindergarten and progress monitoring probes across the school year. A subset of children who showed initial risk for RD also received a 26-week Tier 2 intervention. Participants’ achievement in word reading accuracy and/or fluency was assessed at the end of first grade. Results indicated that a screening battery containing measures of letter naming fluency, phonological awareness, rapid naming or nonword repetition accurately identified good and poor readers at the end of first grade. Findings also showed that children’s response to supplemental and/or classroom instruction measured in terms of growth in letter naming fluency added significantly to the prediction of reading outcomes. PMID:23945079

  9. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... INFORMATION: The amount of the award to ensure ongoing HIV medical services is $543,037. Authority: Section... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and...

  10. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... health service areas. DFHS will continue to provide critical HIV medical care and treatment services... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and...

  11. Early identification and heritability of mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kremen, William S; Jak, Amy J; Panizzon, Matthew S; Spoon, Kelly M; Franz, Carol E; Thompson, Wesley K; Jacobson, Kristen C; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Xian, Hong; Toomey, Rosemary; Lyons, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Backgound Identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in midlife could improve early identification of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Also, AD is highly heritable, but the heritability of MCI has not been established. We estimated prevalence rates, association with premorbid general cognitive ability (GCA) and heritability for different definitions of neuropsychologically defined MCI in adults in their 50s. Method We examined 1126 twins aged 51–59 years when recruited into the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). Six neurocognitive domains were assessed using tests designed to avoid ceiling effects. To differentiate MCI from low overall ability, criteria included adjustment for GCA measured at approximately age 20 years. Results As in older adults, prevalence rates varied widely. Among the lower prevalence rates were some definitions of multiple-domain MCI and single-domain amnestic MCI, which may be less likely than other MCI categories to revert to normal on follow-up. Low prevalence rates in middle-aged adults are also more likely to be valid. MCI was also associated with lower premorbid GCA. Heritability estimates for any MCI and amnestic MCI averaged .40–.48. Conclusions By testing multiple cognitive domains and avoiding ceiling effects, MCI can be identified before age 60 years. Premorbid GCA is a risk/protective factor, but deficits after adjusting for early adult GCA suggest additional processes leading to declining trajectories. Heritabilities were comparable to AD, suggesting MCI as an appropriate phenotype for genetic association studies. Full validation will require follow-up assessments (currently under way). Community-based studies are important for this early identification because adults of this age are unlikely to present in clinics. PMID:24370560

  12. Eye examination for early diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Heiden, David; Saranchuk, Peter; Keenan, Jeremy D; Ford, Nathan; Lowinger, Alan; Yen, Michael; McCune, Joseph; Rao, Narsing A

    2016-04-01

    Choroidal tuberculosis is present in 5-20% of patients with disseminated tuberculosis, and point-of-care dilated binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy eye examination can provide immediate diagnosis. In geographical areas of high tuberculosis prevalence and in susceptible patients (CD4 counts less than 200 cells per μL) detection of choroidal granulomas should be accepted as evidence of disseminated tuberculosis. With training and proper support, eye screening can be done by HIV/AIDS clinicians, allowing early tuberculosis treatment. In regions with a high burden of tuberculosis, we recommend that eye screening be a standard part of the initial assessment of susceptible patients, including at a minimum all patients with HIV/AIDS with CD4 less than 100 cells per μL with or without eye symptoms, and with or without suspicion of disseminated tuberculosis.

  13. Eye examination for early diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Heiden, David; Saranchuk, Peter; Keenan, Jeremy D; Ford, Nathan; Lowinger, Alan; Yen, Michael; McCune, Joseph; Rao, Narsing A

    2016-04-01

    Choroidal tuberculosis is present in 5-20% of patients with disseminated tuberculosis, and point-of-care dilated binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy eye examination can provide immediate diagnosis. In geographical areas of high tuberculosis prevalence and in susceptible patients (CD4 counts less than 200 cells per μL) detection of choroidal granulomas should be accepted as evidence of disseminated tuberculosis. With training and proper support, eye screening can be done by HIV/AIDS clinicians, allowing early tuberculosis treatment. In regions with a high burden of tuberculosis, we recommend that eye screening be a standard part of the initial assessment of susceptible patients, including at a minimum all patients with HIV/AIDS with CD4 less than 100 cells per μL with or without eye symptoms, and with or without suspicion of disseminated tuberculosis. PMID:26907735

  14. Computer Aided Drug Design Approaches for Identification of Novel Autotaxin (ATX) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vrontaki, Eleni; Melagraki, Georgia; Kaffe, Eleanna; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Kokotos, George; Aidinis, Vassilis; Afantitis, Antreas

    2016-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) has become an attractive target with a huge pharmacological and pharmacochemical interest in LPA-related diseases and to date many small organic molecules have been explored as potential ATX inhibitors. As a useful aid in the various efforts of identifying novel effective ATX inhibitors, in silico methods can serve as an important and valuable tool. Especially, Virtual Screening (VS) has recently received increased attention due to the large datasets made available, the development of advanced VS techniques and the encouraging fact that VS has contributed to the discovery of several compounds that have either reached the market or entered clinical trials. Different techniques and workflows have been reported in literature with the goal to prioritize possible potent hits. In this review article several deployed virtual screening strategies for the identification of novel potent ATX inhibitors are described. PMID:26997151

  15. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 6: Environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the analysis of the external environment of the FBI Fingerprint Identification Division are presented. Possible trends in the future environment of the Division that may have an effect on the work load were projected to determine if future work load will lie within the capability range of the proposed new system, AIDS 3. Two working models of the environment were developed, the internal and external model, and from these scenarios the projection of possible future work load volume and mixture was developed. Possible drivers of work load change were identified and assessed for upper and lower bounds of effects. Data used for the study were derived from historical information, analysis of the current situation and from interviews with various agencies who are users of or stakeholders in the present system.

  16. Early Identification for Special Education: Implications for Research and Development in the Pacific Rim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan; Gerber, Michael; Hong, Li-Yu; Mannan, Hasheem; Zhang, Weng-jing

    2012-01-01

    Early identification and intervention for children with disabilities can significantly improve longer term outcomes, but in developing nations like many in the Pacific Rim, such programs and practices can be expensive and must compete against other needs. We argue that early identification and intervention by schools leads not only to life…

  17. Letter and Numeral Identification: Their Relationship with Early Literacy and Numeracy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Hood, Michelle; Ford, Ruth M.; Neumann, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between letter and numeral identification is reviewed to determine whether early identification of these symbols impact upon both literacy and numeracy development. Numerals and letters share similar perceptual properties such as geometric features and arbitrary labels. Through early socio-cultural experiences with surrounding…

  18. Digital imaging methods as an aid in dental identification of human remains.

    PubMed

    Bowers, C Michael; Johansen, Raymond J

    2002-03-01

    The physical comparison of known (K) and questioned (Q) evidence samples is an accepted tool in numerous forensic identification disciplines (1). A subset of this process is the use of antemortem and postmortem dental radiographs to identify unidentified human remains. This method has been generally accepted for decades (2). The outcome is performed with a considerable degree of accuracy, due in part to a finite pool of possible candidates for identification derived via the NCIC database, passenger lists, and law enforcement Missing Persons reports. This paper describes a dental identification comparison protocol that incorporated digital imaging technology in this process. The computer was used to create digital exemplars of the K and Q evidence that were spatially and quantitatively compared (3). The digital mode allowed direct metric and morphologic comparison through the aid of a digital camera, desktop computer, monitor, and printer. The well-known computer program Adobe Photoshop 5.0 (4) was used to process the digital information in two forensic cases described in this paper. It is a commercially available digital imaging editing program that is operated on laptop and desktop computers possessing sufficient chip speed and RAM (Pentium II or equivalent and at least 76MB RAM) to open the large-size files generated by high-resolution digital capture devices. This program accepts raster-based image formats (e.g. .JPG, .BMP). Photoshop is noted for its diverse imaging functions, which allow the computer monitor to be used as a comparison microscope when Q and K sample images are tiled side-by-side and/or superimposed. Two and three-dimensional Q and K evidence samples can be individually digitized and then independently resized to allow two-dimensional comparison. The investigator also has the ability to create magnified images (200% to 300%) when the original digital image has been captured at near photoquality resolution (300 dpi). The visual comparison of

  19. Medical versus surgical methods of early abortion: protocol for a systematic review and environmental scan of patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Kyla Z; Thompson, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Currently, we lack understanding of the content, quality and impact of patient decision aids to support decision-making between medical and surgical methods of early abortion. We plan to undertake a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to identify, appraise and describe the impact of early abortion method decision aids evaluated quantitatively (Part I), and an environmental scan to identify and appraise other early abortion method decision aids developed in the US (Part II). Methods and analysis For the systematic review, we will search PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases for articles describing experimental and observational studies evaluating the impact of an early abortion method decision aid on women's decision-making processes and outcomes. For the environmental scan, we will identify decision aids by supplementing the systematic review search with Internet-based searches and key informant consultation. The primary reviewer will assess all studies and decision aids for eligibility, and a second reviewer will also assess a subset of these. Both reviewers will independently assess risk of bias in the studies and abstract data using a piloted form. Finally, both reviewers will assess decision aid quality using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards criteria, ease of readability using Flesch/Flesch-Kincaid tests, and informational content using directed content analysis. Ethics and dissemination As this study does not involve human subjects, ethical approval will not be sought. We aim to disseminate the findings in a scientific journal, via academic and/or professional conferences and among the broader community to contribute knowledge about current early abortion method decision-making support. Trial registration number This protocol is registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42015016717). PMID:26173718

  20. Demonstration of Benefits of Early Identification of Psychosocial Problems and Early Intervention Toward Rehabilitation of Cancer Patients. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diller, Leonard; And Others

    Early identification of psychosocial problems and early intervention with cancer patients can be beneficial to patient rehabilitation. This report focusses on: (1) developing and implementing an effective "model program" of psychosocial intervention for adult cancer patients; (2) evaluating the impact of intervention in ameliorating cancer…

  1. Cytochemical identification of HSP110 during early mouse facial development.

    PubMed

    Evrard, L; Vanmuylder, N; Dourov, N; Glineur, R; Louryan, S

    1999-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death constitutes a common phenomenon observed during development. This process plays an important role in the regulation of cell populations and in early differentiation of embryonic organs. Several teratologic situations are considered as resulting in a dramatic increase of the apoptotic process. In mammalian cells, heat shock proteins (HSPs), expressed or increased in response to various stresses, act as molecular chaperones in physiological conditions. In order to determine specific histochemical markers of apoptotic cells in normal craniofacial development, we observed the expression of stress proteins (HSPs) 70, 86, and 110. The apoptotic pattern of mesectodermal cell death areas was confirmed using both nuclear staining (Feulgen) and specific labeling of DNA fragmentation (TUNEL). These areas are localized in the proximal parts of the first and second visceral arches. They are located in mesectodermal and ganglionic cells. Apoptotic mesectodermal populations strongly express HSP110, as shown by the cytochemical identification of HSP110 and by double staining HSP110-TUNEL, suggesting that this protein could be considered as a new marker for apoptotic embryonic cells, and could be used in further teratologic studies to better quantify induced cell death.

  2. Epidemiology and early identification of autism: research challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Charman, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders may be as high as 60 per 10000, considerably greater than the long-accepted figure of 5 per 10 000 for classic autism. Increased recognition, the broadening of the diagnostic concept and methodological differences across studies may account for most or all of the apparent increase in prevalence, although this cannot be quantified. In addition to the implications for families and services, these conceptual changes will affect the scientific study of autism. At present, case definition is reliant on the behavioural and developmental picture alone. Because the behavioural phenotype of autism and the broader autism spectrum disorders includes individuals with different ultimate aetiologies, even when biological or genetic markers are found they will not be present in all individuals with the phenotype. The fact that autism is not a unitary 'disorder' presents a significant challenge to genetic, biological, neurological and psychological research. Progress has recently been made in the earlier identification of autism both through screening programmes and by increased understanding and enhanced surveillance. This offers an opportunity to better understand the early developmental course of autism and may provide additional clues to the underlying pathology. PMID:14521185

  3. Computer-aided identification of prostatic adenocarcinoma: Segmentation of glandular structures

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Eisengart, Laurie; Healy, Mark A; Straus, Francis H; Yang, Ximing J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Identification of individual prostatic glandular structures is an important prerequisite to quantitative histological analysis of prostate cancer with the aid of a computer. We have developed a computer method to segment individual glandular units and to extract quantitative image features, for computer identification of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Methods: Two sets of digital histology images were used: database I (n = 57) for developing and testing the computer technique, and database II (n = 116) for independent validation. The segmentation technique was based on a k-means clustering and a region-growing method. Computer segmentation results were evaluated subjectively and also compared quantitatively against manual gland outlines, using the Jaccard similarity measure. Quantitative features that were extracted from the computer segmentation results include average gland size, spatial gland density, and average gland circularity. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to combine quantitative image features. Classification performance was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results: Jaccard similarity coefficients between computer segmentation and manual outlines of individual glands were between 0.63 and 0.72 for non-cancer and between 0.48 and 0.54 for malignant glands, respectively, similar to an interobserver agreement of 0.79 for non-cancer and 0.75 for malignant glands, respectively. The AUC value for the features of average gland size and gland density combined via LDA was 0.91 for database I and 0.96 for database II. Conclusions: Using a computer, we are able to delineate individual prostatic glands automatically and identify prostatic adenocarcinoma accurately, based on the quantitative image features extracted from computer-segmented glandular structures. PMID:21845231

  4. Identification of Special Educational Needs for Early Childhood Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Florence Akua; Badu-Shayar, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Early Childhood Education is a key element for the growth and development of every country. This paper, provides a summary of reviewing the impact of early childhood special educational assessment on children to be "at risk" of developing special educational needs. It was identified mainly that early identification of at-risk factors for…

  5. Inertial aided cycle slip detection and identification for integrated PPP GPS and INS.

    PubMed

    Du, Shuang; Gao, Yang

    2012-10-25

    The recently developed integrated Precise Point Positioning (PPP) GPS/INS system can be useful to many applications, such as UAV navigation systems, land vehicle/machine automation and mobile mapping systems. Since carrier phase measurements are the primary observables in PPP GPS, cycle slips, which often occur due to high dynamics, signal obstructions and low satellite elevation, must be detected and repaired in order to ensure the navigation performance. In this research, a new algorithm of cycle slip detection and identification has been developed. With the aiding from INS, the proposed method jointly uses WL and EWL phase combinations to uniquely determine cycle slips in the L1 and L2 frequencies. To verify the efficiency of the algorithm, both tactical-grade and consumer-grade IMUs are tested by using a real dataset collected from two field tests. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can efficiently detect and identify the cycle slips and subsequently improve the navigation performance of the integrated system.

  6. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K.; Kim, Soo Hyung; Zheng, Bin

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 ± 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  7. Consistency of Hearing Aid Use in Infants with Early-Identified Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Mary Pat; Hoover, Brenda; Peterson, Barbara; Stelmachowicz, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine the consistency of hearing aid use by infants. A goal was to identify maternal, child and situational factors that affected consistency of device use. Method Maternal interviews were conducted using a non-validated structured interview (Amplification in Daily Life Questionnaire), which included five-point Likert scale items and open-ended questions. Participants were mothers of seven infants with mild to moderately-severe hearing loss, who were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Data were collected at four intervals (10.5–12, 16.5, 22.5 and 28.5 months of age). Results Consistency of amplification use was variable at early ages, but improved with age. By 28.5 months of age, toddlers used amplification regularly in most settings. Selected daily situations (e.g., car, outdoors) were more challenging for maintaining device use than contexts where the child was closely monitored. Only two families established early, consistent full time use across all contexts examined. Qualitative results were used to identify familial, developmental and situational variables that influenced the consistency of infant/toddler device use. Conclusion Families may benefit from audiological counseling that acknowledges the multi-faceted challenges that arise. Audiologists can work in partnership with families to promote consistent device use across a variety of daily situations. PMID:19029531

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF CHARACTERISTICS OF KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN THAT FORETELL EARLY LEARNING PROBLEMS. SUMMARY REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REECE, WILLIAM K.

    THIS DOCUMENT CONSISTS OF THE SUMMARY REPORT CONTAINED IN "IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF CHARACTERISTICS OF KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN THAT FORETELL EARLY LEARNING PROBLEMS." SEE ABSTRACT UNDER PS 000 918. (JS)

  9. A systematic review of decision aids for patients making a decision about treatment for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nicholas Zdenkowski; Butow, Phyllis; Tesson, Stephanie; Boyle, Frances

    2016-04-01

    Several complex treatment decisions may be offered to women with early stage breast cancer, about a range of treatments from different modalities including surgery, radiotherapy, and endocrine and chemotherapy. Decision aids can facilitate shared decision-making and improve decision-related outcomes. We aimed to systematically identify, describe and appraise the literature on treatment decision aids for women with early breast cancer, synthesise the data and identify breast cancer decisions that lack a decision aid. A prospectively developed search strategy was applied to MEDLINE, the Cochrane databases, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and abstract databases from major conferences. Data were extracted into a pre-piloted form. Quality and risk of bias were measured using Qualsyst criteria. Results were synthesised into narrative format. Thirty-three eligible articles were identified, evaluating 23 individual treatment decision aids, comprising 13 randomised controlled trial reports, seven non-randomised comparative studies, eight single-arm pre-post studies and five cross-sectional studies. The decisions addressed by these decision aids were: breast conserving surgery versus mastectomy (+/- reconstruction); use of chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy; radiotherapy; and fertility preservation. Outcome measures were heterogeneous, precluding meta-analysis. Decisional conflict decreased, and knowledge and satisfaction increased, without any change in anxiety or depression, in most studies. No studies were identified that evaluated decision aids for neoadjuvant systemic therapy, or contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. Decision aids are available and improved decision-related outcomes for many breast cancer treatment decisions including surgery, radiotherapy, and endocrine and chemotherapy. Decision aids for neoadjuvant systemic therapy and contralateral prophylactic mastectomy could not be found, and may be warranted.

  10. Early Identification of Acute Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions: Realistic Implications for Best Practice in Patient Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Juliet Battard; Edwards, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Acute hemolytic transfusion reactions can result in severe complications and death. Through early identification and prompt intervention, nurses can reduce the risks associated with these serious reactions. Realistic evidence-based patient monitoring protocols can help guide identification of acute hemolytic transfusion reactions and facilitate lifesaving interventions to avert critical patient situations. PMID:27323466

  11. AID, p53 and MLH1 expression in early gastric neoplasms and the correlation with the background mucosa

    PubMed Central

    KAWATA, SOICHIRO; YASHIMA, KAZUO; YAMAMOTO, SOHEI; SASAKI, SHUJI; TAKEDA, YOHEI; HAYASHI, AKIHIRO; MATSUMOTO, KAZUYA; KAWAGUCHI, KOICHIRO; HARADA, KENICHI; MURAWAKI, YOSHIKAZU

    2015-01-01

    A number of tumor-associated genes have been associated with gastric cancer development. The present study evaluated differences in tumor-associated protein expression and phenotype among early gastric neoplasms, and correlated these data with those of the background mucosa. The expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), p53 and MLH1 in 151 early gastric neoplasms [22 gastric adenomas, 92 intramucosal carcinomas (MCs), and 37 submucosal carcinomas (SMCs)] was examined immunohistochemically and compared with that of the corresponding background mucosal condition. The cellular phenotypes of the neoplasms and the corresponding background intestinal metaplasia were also determined. Aberrant AID, p53 and MLH1 expression was detected in 36.4, 0 and 0% of the adenomas, in 35.9, 32.6 and 16.3% of the MCs, and in 56.8, 62.2 and 21.6% of the SMCs, respectively. The frequency of aberrant AID and p53 expression in the SMCs was significantly increased compared with that in the MCs (AID, P<0.05; p53, P<0.01). Aberrant AID expression was significantly associated with p53 overexpression in the SMCs (P<0.01), but not in the adenomas or MCs. In addition, AID expression was associated with the severity of mononuclear cell activity in the non-cancerous mucosa adjacent to the tumor (P<0.05), particularly in the SMC cases. The percentage of MCs (34.8%) and SMCs (24.3%) that were of the gastric phenotype was higher compared with the percentage of adenomas (18.2%). These results indicated that p53 and MLH1 expression and a gastric phenotype may be important for carcinogenesis, and that chronic inflammation and AID and p53 expression are associated with submucosal progression. PMID:26622562

  12. Blood Transfusions in the Early Years of AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, William H.; Drucker, Ernest

    2006-01-01

    Blood transfusions transmit HIV more effectively than other means, yet there has been little examination of their role in the origins and early course of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. We review historical data in archives, government reports, and medical literature from African and European sources documenting the introduction, establishment, use, and growth of blood transfusions in sub-Saharan Africa. These data allow estimation of the geographic diffusion and growth of blood transfusions between 1940 and 1990. By 1955, 19 African colonies and countries reported transfusion programs—with national rates of 718 to 1372 per 100 000 by 1964, and urban rates similar to those in developed countries. We estimated 1 million transfusions per year in sub-Saharan Africa by 1970 and 2 million per year by the 1980s, indicating that transfusions were widely used throughout sub-Saharan Africa during the crucial period of 1950–1970, when all epidemic strains of HIV first emerged in this region. PMID:16670233

  13. After early identification--what follows? A study of some aspects of deaf education from an otolaryngological viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Stewart, I F

    1984-06-01

    Otolaryngologists have accepted their role in the early diagnosis of the deaf and hard of hearing child: however, the social implications and habilitative programs embarked upon may often be regarded as unrelated to the practice of otolaryngology. The otolaryngologist is a key member of the team responsible for early detection and diagnosis, and he must become as involved with the available educational programs as are the other highly qualified competent individuals bringing expertise to the problem. The reason for emphasizing this area is that the otolaryngologist has witnessed a number of a major expansions in knowledge which have occurred in the past 15 years. These include: 1. Early identification of deafness through screening programs. 2. Early diagnosis through peripheral and brain stem evoked response audiometry. 3. Improvement in amplification in hearing aids. 4. Earlier placement in educational programs, many of which have been the center of controversy, particularly in the past 15 years. 5. Emphasis on continued research and development of programs such as the Cochlear Implant. A historical review of deaf education is presented together with an evaluation of the various claims made by the supporters of the auditory-oral vs. total communication techniques. No totally convincing argument for either system can be advanced. There is considerable doubt that the tri-stimulus, or total communication approach to teaching of the deaf, has any superiority over the auditory-oral approach. There are failures with both philosophies and the "deaf voice" is a stigma often associated with either system's graduates. A 13-year follow-up case study is presented in which the child was enrolled in an auditory-oral program. Comments are made as the child was followed through home training to preschool and on to complete integration in the regular school system. The implications of such a study for the Otolaryngologist, particularly with regard to early identification in order

  14. The Impact of Early Design Phase Risk Identification Biases on Space System Project Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, John D., Jr.; Eveleigh, Tim; Holzer, Thomas; Sarkani, Shahryar

    2012-01-01

    Risk identification during the early design phases of complex systems is commonly implemented but often fails to result in the identification of events and circumstances that truly challenge project performance. Inefficiencies in cost and schedule estimation are usually held accountable for cost and schedule overruns, but the true root cause is often the realization of programmatic risks. A deeper understanding of frequent risk identification trends and biases pervasive during space system design and development is needed, for it would lead to improved execution of existing identification processes and methods.

  15. A novel computer-aided detection system for pulmonary nodule identification in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hao; Li, Lihong; Wang, Huafeng; Zhang, Hao; Moore, William; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CADe) of pulmonary nodules from computer tomography (CT) scans is critical for assisting radiologists to identify lung lesions at an early stage. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for CADe of lung nodules using a two-stage vector quantization (VQ) scheme. The first-stage VQ aims to extract lung from the chest volume, while the second-stage VQ is designed to extract initial nodule candidates (INCs) within the lung volume. Then rule-based expert filtering is employed to prune obvious FPs from INCs, and the commonly-used support vector machine (SVM) classifier is adopted to further reduce the FPs. The proposed system was validated on 100 CT scans randomly selected from the 262 scans that have at least one juxta-pleural nodule annotation in the publicly available database - Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI). The two-stage VQ only missed 2 out of the 207 nodules at agreement level 1, and the INCs detection for each scan took about 30 seconds in average. Expert filtering reduced FPs more than 18 times, while maintaining a sensitivity of 93.24%. As it is trivial to distinguish INCs attached to pleural wall versus not on wall, we investigated the feasibility of training different SVM classifiers to further reduce FPs from these two kinds of INCs. Experiment results indicated that SVM classification over the entire set of INCs was in favor of, where the optimal operating of our CADe system achieved a sensitivity of 89.4% at a specificity of 86.8%.

  16. Early Identification of Skill Needs in Europe. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Susanne Liane, Ed.; Schomann, Klaus, Ed.; Tessaring, Manfred, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers: "Early Recognition of Skill Needs in Europe: European Conference, Berlin, 30/31 May 2002" (Susanne Liane Schmidt, Klaus Schomann, Manfred Tessaring); "Welcome and Opening of the European Conference 'Early Recognition of Skill Needs in Europe,' 30 May 2002, Social Sciences Research Center Berlin"…

  17. Early Identification of Gifted Minority Kindergarten Students in Newark, NJ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Louis, Barbara; Ukeje, Ikechukwu; Lewis, Michael; Leong, Philip

    1997-01-01

    A screening and assessment procedure has been developed in Newark, New Jersey, to identify gifted inner-city minority kindergarten students. The procedure uses the Brigance K & 1 Screen, a new Gifted Screening intelligence measure, and the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. The procedure has increased identification of gifted students among…

  18. Update on hydrocodone metabolites in rats and dogs aided with a semi-automatic software for metabolite identification Mass-MetaSite.

    PubMed

    Li, Austin C; Chovan, James P; Yu, Erya; Zamora, Ismael

    2013-04-01

    1. There has been a lack of in vivo metabolite profiling update of hydrocodone since the original report on species differences was published in 1978. As such, the mechanism for its analgesic activity in different species has been ambiguous. To address safety concern from regulatory agencies, hydrocodone metabolite profiles in rats and dogs are updated herein aided by a newly developed software, Mass-MetaSite. 2. Samples collected from rats and dogs dosed orally with hydrocodone were analyzed with reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with LTQ-Orbitrap. The exact mass measurement data collected with data-dependent acquisition methodology were analyzed both traditionally, using Xcalibur Qual Browser and MetWorks, and by Mass-MetaSite. 3. Profiling of hydrocodone metabolites in rat and dog plasma reflected previously reported species differences in circulating metabolites. While hydrocodone mainly underwent O-demethylation and ketone reduction in rats forming hydromorphone and reduced hydromorphone, which were then subsequently cleared via glucuronide conjugation, hydrocodone in dogs was cleared predominantly by N-demethylation and N-oxidation. 4. Given the success ratio of metabolite detection offered by Mass-MetaSite, the software will be able to aid chemists in early identification of drug metabolites from complex biomatrices.

  19. The Price of Innocence: Teachers, Gender, Childhood Sexuality, HIV and AIDS in Early Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia

    2007-01-01

    Drawing from data collected during interviews with grade 2 teachers who work in a black working-class township school, this paper explores the meanings that teachers attach to HIV and AIDS education. It is argued that the relationship of many teachers to the subject of HIV and AIDS is inscribed within regulatory forces based on the notion of…

  20. Rapid Identification of Mycobacterium Species with the Aid of Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) From Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Siddhartha; Bandyopadhyay, Debasis; Paine, Suman Kalyan; Gupta, Soma; Banerjee, Surajita; Bhattacharya, Sujata; Gachhui, Ratan; Bhattacharya, Basudev

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacteria are aerobic, nonspore forming, non-motile,single-cell bacteria.Of more than 40 currently recognized species of mycobacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human TB is the commonest pathogen for pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis cases. The other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) or the nontubercular mycobacterium (NTM) produces similar diseases which cannot be differentiated from tuberculosis by clinical symptoms and signs. But this differentiation is important as the chemotherapy varies widely according to the strain of mycobacterium. The burden of morbidity and mortality of tuberculosis is rapidly growing worldwide, particularly with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The strain identification of Mycobacterium remains a cumbersome, labor intensive and expensive procedure, which requires 3 to 12 weeks of time. The conventional methods of strain identification lack proper standardization and precise diagnosis. The prime objective of this study is to overcome these problems. A multiplex PCR using 3 amplicons of 165,365, and 541 base pair target sequences was done with a total number of 165 clinical isolates of suspected Koch’s patients. Strain identification was compared both by conventional methods and multiplex PCR. The results of the study show that this multiplex PCR is supposed to be less complicated, less time consuming, cost-effective and superior to the conventional methods. It is also applicable for culture negative samples where strain identification is not possible by conventional approach. PMID:21258579

  1. Early Concerns of Mothers of Children Later Diagnosed with Autism: Implications for Early Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishore, M. Thomas; Basu, Anirban

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to identify early indicators in autism, particularly with reference to comorbid mental retardation and specific culture so that early intervention can be given. In this backdrop, this study aims to understand the early indicators of autism as perceived by the Indian mothers: the age of reporting and receiving diagnosis, and their…

  2. Early Identification of Minority Gifted: The State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amodeo, Luiza B.; Flores, Laura J.

    As early as 1958, respected educators pointed out that: traditional methods (standardized IQ tests, teacher recommendations, parent questionnaires) did not identify minority/culturally diverse children; the concept of gifted needed to include creativity; and creativity could be a strength of minority children. During the late 1960's in response to…

  3. Young Children with ADHD: Early Identification and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Kern, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often begin early in life. In fact, many young children enter school with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that put them at a significant disadvantage compared with their typically-developing peers. Over the past several decades, researchers, psychologists and educators have devoted…

  4. Identification and expression of a human cytomegalovirus early glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, C P; Vesole, D H; Nelson, J; Oldstone, M B; Stinski, M F

    1989-01-01

    A human cytomegalovirus early gene which possesses three temporally regulated promoters is located in the large unique component of the viral genome between 0.054 and 0.064 map units (C.-P. Chang, C.L. Malone, and M.F. Stinski, J. Virol. 63:281-290, 1989). This gene contains a major open reading frame (ORF) located 233 bases downstream of the cap site of an early unspliced RNA. The major ORF predicts a polypeptide of 17 kilodaltons (kDa) which contains a glycoproteinlike signal and anchor domains as well as potential N-glycosylation sites. Antisera were prepared against synthetic peptides derived from amino acid sequences within the major ORF. The antisera detected a viral glycoprotein of 48 kDa in infected cells and recognized the in vitro-translated 17-kDa protein early-gene product. The viral glycoprotein, designated gp48, was modified by N-linked glycans and possibly O-linked glycans. The synthesis of gp48 occurred in the absence of viral DNA replication but accumulated to the highest levels at late times after infection. Since gp48 was found in the virion, it is considered an early structural glycoprotein. Images PMID:2545908

  5. Limiting Cumulative HIV Viremia Copy-Years by Early Treatment Reduces Risk of AIDS and Death

    PubMed Central

    Walker, A. Sarah; Suthar, Amitabh B.; Sabin, Caroline; Bucher, Heiner C.; Jarrin, Inma; Moreno, Santiago; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Porter, Kholoud; Ford, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Viremia copy-years (VCY), a time-updated measure of cumulative HIV exposure, predicts AIDS/death; although its utility in deciding when to start combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains unclear. We aimed to assess the impact of initiating versus deferring cART on risk of AIDS/death by levels of VCY both independent of and within CD4 cell count strata ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter. Methods: Using Concerted Action on Seroconversion to AIDS and Death in Europe (CASCADE) data, we created a series of nested “trials” corresponding to consecutive months for individuals ≥16 years at seroconversion after 1995 who were cART-naive and AIDS-free. Pooling across all trials, time to AIDS/death by CD4, and VCY strata was compared in those initiating vs. deferring cART using Cox models adjusted for: country, sex, risk group, seroconversion year, age, time since last HIV-RNA, and current CD4, VCY, HIV-RNA, and mean number of previous CD4/HIV-RNA measurements/year. Results: Of 9353 individuals, 5312 (57%) initiated cART and 486 (5%) acquired AIDS/died. Pooling CD4 strata, risk of AIDS/death associated with initiating vs. deferring cART reduced as VCY increased. In patients with high CD4 cell counts, ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter, there was a trend for a greater reduction for those initiating vs. deferring with increasing VCY (P = 0.09), with the largest benefit in the VCY ≥100,000 copy-years/mL group [hazard ratio (95% CI) = 0.41 (0.19 to 0.87)]. Conclusions: For individuals with CD4 ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter, limiting the cumulative HIV burden to <100,000 copy-years/mL through cART may reduce the risk of AIDS/death. PMID:27116045

  6. MutAid: Sanger and NGS Based Integrated Pipeline for Mutation Identification, Validation and Annotation in Human Molecular Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ram Vinay; Pabinger, Stephan; Kriegner, Albert; Weinhäusel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Sanger sequencing as well as Next-Generation Sequencing have been used for the identification of disease causing mutations in human molecular research. The majority of currently available tools are developed for research and explorative purposes and often do not provide a complete, efficient, one-stop solution. As the focus of currently developed tools is mainly on NGS data analysis, no integrative solution for the analysis of Sanger data is provided and consequently a one-stop solution to analyze reads from both sequencing platforms is not available. We have therefore developed a new pipeline called MutAid to analyze and interpret raw sequencing data produced by Sanger or several NGS sequencing platforms. It performs format conversion, base calling, quality trimming, filtering, read mapping, variant calling, variant annotation and analysis of Sanger and NGS data under a single platform. It is capable of analyzing reads from multiple patients in a single run to create a list of potential disease causing base substitutions as well as insertions and deletions. MutAid has been developed for expert and non-expert users and supports four sequencing platforms including Sanger, Illumina, 454 and Ion Torrent. Furthermore, for NGS data analysis, five read mappers including BWA, TMAP, Bowtie, Bowtie2 and GSNAP and four variant callers including GATK-HaplotypeCaller, SAMTOOLS, Freebayes and VarScan2 pipelines are supported. MutAid is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/mutaid. PMID:26840129

  7. MutAid: Sanger and NGS Based Integrated Pipeline for Mutation Identification, Validation and Annotation in Human Molecular Genetics.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ram Vinay; Pabinger, Stephan; Kriegner, Albert; Weinhäusel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Sanger sequencing as well as Next-Generation Sequencing have been used for the identification of disease causing mutations in human molecular research. The majority of currently available tools are developed for research and explorative purposes and often do not provide a complete, efficient, one-stop solution. As the focus of currently developed tools is mainly on NGS data analysis, no integrative solution for the analysis of Sanger data is provided and consequently a one-stop solution to analyze reads from both sequencing platforms is not available. We have therefore developed a new pipeline called MutAid to analyze and interpret raw sequencing data produced by Sanger or several NGS sequencing platforms. It performs format conversion, base calling, quality trimming, filtering, read mapping, variant calling, variant annotation and analysis of Sanger and NGS data under a single platform. It is capable of analyzing reads from multiple patients in a single run to create a list of potential disease causing base substitutions as well as insertions and deletions. MutAid has been developed for expert and non-expert users and supports four sequencing platforms including Sanger, Illumina, 454 and Ion Torrent. Furthermore, for NGS data analysis, five read mappers including BWA, TMAP, Bowtie, Bowtie2 and GSNAP and four variant callers including GATK-HaplotypeCaller, SAMTOOLS, Freebayes and VarScan2 pipelines are supported. MutAid is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/mutaid.

  8. Identification of Mytilus edulis genetic regulators during early development.

    PubMed

    Bassim, Sleiman; Tanguy, Arnaud; Genard, Bertrand; Moraga, Dario; Tremblay, Rejean

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that enable growth and survival of an organism while driving it to the full range of its adaptation is fundamental to the issues of biodiversity and evolution, particularly regarding global climatic changes. Here we report the Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and de novo assembly of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis transcriptome during early development. This study is based on high-throughput data, which associates genome-wide differentially expressed transcript (DET) patterns with early activation of developmental processes. Approximately 50,383 high-quality contigs were assembled. Over 8000 transcripts were associated with functional proteins from public databases. Coding and non-coding genes served to design customized microarrays targeting every developmental stage, which encompass major transitions in tissue organization. Consequently, multi-processing pattern exploration protocols applied to 3633 DETs helped discover 12 unique coordinated eigengenes supposedly implicated in various physiological and morphological changes that larvae undergo during early development. Moreover, dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs) provided key insights to understand stage-specific molecular mechanisms activated throughout ontogeny. In addition, delayed and contemporaneous interactions between DETs were coerced with 16 relevant regulators that interrelated in non-random genetic regulatory networks (GRNs). Genes associated with mechanisms of neural and muscular development have been characterized and further included in dynamic networks necessary in growth and functional morphology. This is the first large-scale study being dedicated to M. edulis throughout early ontogeny. Integration between RNA-seq and microarray data enabled a high-throughput exploration of hidden processes essential in growth and survival of microscopic mussel larvae. Our integrative approach will support a holistic understanding of systems biology and will help establish new links

  9. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 2: Technical feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of this effort are presented in a manner for use by both the AIDS 3 Operational and Economic Feasibility subtasks as well as the Development of Alternative subtask. The approach taken was to identify the major functions that appear in AIDS 3 and then to determine which technologies would be needed for support. The technologies were then examined from the point of view of reliability, throughput, security, availability, cost and possible future trends. Whenever possible graphs are given to indicate projected costs of rapidly changing technologies.

  10. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 3: Operational feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation is presented which is defined as the adequacy of system design with known functional and performance requirements. The proposed Rockwell International AIDS 3 card, document and data flow are presented to summarize the concepts involved and the relationships between functions. The analysis and evaluation includes a study of system capability, processing rates, search requirements and response accuracy as well as a consideration of operational components and hardware integration. Results indicate that the AIDS 3 System concept is operationally feasible if production capacity is slightly enhanced but that operational complexity, hardware integration and a lack of conceptual data pertinent to some of the functions are areas of concern.

  11. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  12. Software aided approaches to structure-based metabolite identification in drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Pähler, Axel; Brink, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in mass spectrometry (MS) such as accurate mass high resolution instrumentation have fundamentally changed the approach to systematic metabolite identification over the past decade. Despite technological break-through on the instrumental side, metabolite identification still requires tedious manual data inspection and interpretation of huge analytical datasets. The process of metabolite identification has become largely facilitated and partly automated by cheminformatics approaches such as knowledge base metabolite prediction using, for example, Meteor, MetaDrug, MetaSite and StarDrop that are typically applied pre-acquisition. Likewise, emerging new technologies in postacquisition data analysis like mass defect filtering (MDF) have moved the technology driven analytical methodology to metabolite identification toward generic, structure-based workflows. The biggest challenge for automation however remains the structural assignment of drug metabolites. Software-guided approaches for the unsupervised metabolite identification still cannot compete with expert user manual data interpretation yet. Recently MassMetaSite has been introduced for the automated ranked output of metabolite structures based on the combination of metabolite prediction and interrogation of analytical mass spectrometric data. This approach and others are promising milestones toward an unsupervised process to metabolite identification and structural characterization moving away from a sample focused per-compound approach to a structure-driven generic workflow.

  13. Organizational and Occupational Identification: Relations to Teacher Satisfaction and Intention to Early Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Murat; Hamarat, Bahattin; Colak, Ertugrul; Duran, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the effects of two work related identification (occupational and organizational) of school teachers on intention to early retirement (withdrawal) and satisfaction with the occupation and satisfaction with the school. It also seeks the influence of perceived external prestige on withdrawal and satisfaction.…

  14. National and Racial-Ethnic Identification: What It Means to Be American among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Victoria C.; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Mistry, Rashmita S.; Brown, Christia Spears; Chow, Kirby A.; White, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explored early adolescents' national American identification, and meanings attached to being American. Participants (N = 102; 51% female; ages 10-12, [x-bar] = 11.45, SD = 0.70) were racially and ethnically diverse from primarily middle- to upper-middle class families (median household income = US$150,000-US$199,999; 75%…

  15. The Development of a Culturally Fair Model for the Early Identification and Selection of Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storlie, Theodore R.; And Others

    A two-stage model for early identification and selection of gifted children in kindergarden through grade 3 was successfully developed for the Walker Full-time Gifted Program in the Flint, Michigan Community Schools. Using the Nominative Group Process of interactive decision-making, project participants, school administrators, school…

  16. Early Identification of Mental Health Problems in Schools: The Status of Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Jessica Mass; Saka, Noa; Romanelli, Lisa Hunter; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    When embedded within a continuum of mental health services including both prevention and treatment, school-based mental health identification programs can promote improved academic and mental health functioning among students. This article describes the scientific status of assessment instrumentation that may be used for early mental health…

  17. Early Lexical Expression in Typically Developing Maltese Children: Implications for the Identification of Language Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Dodd, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Limited word production may be the first indicator of impaired language development. The unavailability of normative data and standardized assessments for young Maltese children hinders the identification of early language delays. This study aimed to document Maltese children's expressive vocabulary growth and accompanying range of variation, to…

  18. [Research on Early Identification of Bipolar Disorder Based on Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haowei; Gao, Yanni; Yuan, Chengmei; Liu, Ying; Ding, Yuqing

    2015-06-01

    Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network belongs to multi-layer feedforward neural network, and has the ability and characteristics of high intelligence. It can realize the complex nonlinear mapping by its own learning through the network. Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness with high recurrence rate, high self-harm rate and high suicide rate. Most of the onset of the bipolar disorder starts with depressive episode, which can be easily misdiagnosed as unipolar depression and lead to a delayed treatment so as to influence the prognosis. The early identifica- tion of bipolar disorder is of great importance for patients with bipolar disorder. Due to the fact that the process of early identification of bipolar disorder is nonlinear, we in this paper discuss the MLP neural network application in early identification of bipolar disorder. This study covered 250 cases, including 143 cases with recurrent depression and 107 cases with bipolar disorder, and clinical features were statistically analyzed between the two groups. A total of 42 variables with significant differences were screened as the input variables of the neural network. Part of the samples were randomly selected as the learning sample, and the other as the test sample. By choosing different neu- ral network structures, all results of the identification of bipolar disorder were relatively good, which showed that MLP neural network could be used in the early identification of bipolar disorder. PMID:26485974

  19. [Research on Early Identification of Bipolar Disorder Based on Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haowei; Gao, Yanni; Yuan, Chengmei; Liu, Ying; Ding, Yuqing

    2015-06-01

    Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network belongs to multi-layer feedforward neural network, and has the ability and characteristics of high intelligence. It can realize the complex nonlinear mapping by its own learning through the network. Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness with high recurrence rate, high self-harm rate and high suicide rate. Most of the onset of the bipolar disorder starts with depressive episode, which can be easily misdiagnosed as unipolar depression and lead to a delayed treatment so as to influence the prognosis. The early identifica- tion of bipolar disorder is of great importance for patients with bipolar disorder. Due to the fact that the process of early identification of bipolar disorder is nonlinear, we in this paper discuss the MLP neural network application in early identification of bipolar disorder. This study covered 250 cases, including 143 cases with recurrent depression and 107 cases with bipolar disorder, and clinical features were statistically analyzed between the two groups. A total of 42 variables with significant differences were screened as the input variables of the neural network. Part of the samples were randomly selected as the learning sample, and the other as the test sample. By choosing different neu- ral network structures, all results of the identification of bipolar disorder were relatively good, which showed that MLP neural network could be used in the early identification of bipolar disorder.

  20. The At Risk Child: Early Identification, Intervention, and Evaluation of Early Childhood Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Joan M.

    A review of literature was conducted in order to: (1) determine whether factors placing the young child at risk for school failure can be identified; (2) determine whether early family interventions and early childhood programs are effective; and (3) identify policy implications. Findings are summarized, and recommendations are offered. Research…

  1. EARLY IDENTIFICATION AND MITIGATION OF LEARNING PROBLEMS, ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM (3RD, NEW BRUNSWICK, NEW JERSEY, MAY 19, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ.

    TWO SPEECHES PRESENTED AT THE THIRD ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM HELD BY RUTGERS STATE UNIVERSITY IN 1967 CONSIDER LEARNING DISABILITIES. IN "NEUROPHRENIC CHILDREN--THEIR EARLY IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT," EDGAR A. DOLL EXPLAINS HIS CONCEPT OF NEUROPHRENIA AND THE IMPORTANCE OF EARLY IDENTIFICATION AND DISCUSSES THE USE OF THE VINELAND SOCIAL MATURITY…

  2. Design space exploration for early identification of yield limiting patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Helen; Zou, Elain; Lee, Robben; Hong, Sid; Liu, Square; Wang, JinYan; Du, Chunshan; Zhang, Recco; Madkour, Kareem; Ali, Hussein; Hsu, Danny; Kabeel, Aliaa; ElManhawy, Wael; Kwan, Joe

    2016-03-01

    In order to resolve the causality dilemma of which comes first, accurate design rules or real designs, this paper presents a flow for exploration of the layout design space to early identify problematic patterns that will negatively affect the yield. A new random layout generating method called Layout Schema Generator (LSG) is reported in this paper, this method generates realistic design-like layouts without any design rule violation. Lithography simulation is then used on the generated layout to discover the potentially problematic patterns (hotspots). These hotspot patterns are further explored by randomly inducing feature and context variations to these identified hotspots through a flow called Hotspot variation Flow (HSV). Simulation is then performed on these expanded set of layout clips to further identify more problematic patterns. These patterns are then classified into design forbidden patterns that should be included in the design rule checker and legal patterns that need better handling in the RET recipes and processes.

  3. AIDS/HIV Infection Policies for Early Childhood and School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Public Health, Boston.

    This volume of policies related to children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) describes appropriate ways to guarantee students' rights while maintaining public health, and answers questions for parents, educators, and caregivers. Section 1 presents policy guidelines for infants, toddlers, and…

  4. Identification of early proteomic markers for hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Meneses-Lorente, G; Watt, A; Salim, K; Gaskell, S J; Muniappa, Nagaraja; Lawrence, Jeffrey; Guest, P C

    2006-08-01

    The identification of biomarkers for disease state, drug efficacy, and toxicity is becoming increasingly important for drug discovery and development. We have used two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify proteomic markers associated with hepatocellular steatosis in rats after dosing with a compound (CDA) in preclinical development. Rats were dosed daily for up to 5 days with CDA for measurement of blood biochemical parameters, histological, and proteomic analysis. Alterations in plasma glucose and liver transaminases were detected from dosing day 3 onward, and livers showed trace levels of hepatocellular vacuolation from 6 h which increased in extent and severity over the 5 day time course. The number of significantly altered protein spots increased over the 5 day time course, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed that the predominant functions altered by CDA treatment were cell death and cellular assembly and organization. This included alterations in secreted proteins, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial chaperones, antioxidant proteins, and enzymes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. Comparative in vitro dosing studies showed similar alterations to the proteome, neutral lipid accumulation, and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity in response to CDA treatment of cultured rat hepatocytes. The finding that several proteins showed significant changes in abundance before the onset of overt toxicity in vivo suggested that these could serve as predictive biomarkers of compounds with a propensity to induce liver steatosis. These markers underwent further direct analysis in the in vitro hepatocyte toxicity model to determine their utility in the development of high throughput assays for drug-induced steatosis.

  5. Identification of early cancerous lesion of esophagus with endoscopic images by hyperspectral image technique (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Shih-Hua; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a method to identify early esophageal cancer within endoscope using hyperspectral imaging technology. The research samples are three kinds of endoscopic images including white light endoscopic, chromoendoscopic, and narrow-band endoscopic images with different stages of pathological changes (normal, dysplasia, dysplasia - esophageal cancer, and esophageal cancer). Research is divided into two parts: first, we analysis the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images with different stages to know the spectral responses by pathological changes. Second, we identified early cancerous lesion of esophagus by principal component analysis (PCA) of the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images. The results of this study show that the identification of early cancerous lesion is possible achieve from three kinds of images. In which the spectral characteristics of NBI endoscopy images of a gray area than those without the existence of the problem the first two, and the trend is very clear. Therefore, if simply to reflect differences in the degree of spectral identification, chromoendoscopic images are suitable samples. The best identification of early esophageal cancer is using the NBI endoscopic images. Based on the results, the use of hyperspectral imaging technology in the early endoscopic esophageal cancer lesion image recognition helps clinicians quickly diagnose. We hope for the future to have a relatively large amount of endoscopic image by establishing a hyperspectral imaging database system developed in this study, so the clinician can take this repository more efficiently preliminary diagnosis.

  6. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 9: Functional requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The current system and subsystem used by the Identification Division are described. System constraints that dictate the system environment are discussed and boundaries within which solutions must be found are described. The functional requirements were related to the performance requirements. These performance requirements were then related to their applicable subsystems. The flow of data, documents, or other pieces of information from one subsystem to another or from the external world into the identification system is described. Requirements and design standards for a computer based system are presented.

  7. Identification of the sex genes in an early diverged fungus.

    PubMed

    Idnurm, Alexander; Walton, Felicia J; Floyd, Anna; Heitman, Joseph

    2008-01-10

    Sex determination in fungi is controlled by a small, specialized region of the genome in contrast to the large sex-specific chromosomes of animals and some plants. Different gene combinations reside at these mating-type (MAT) loci and confer sexual identity; invariably they encode homeodomain, alpha-box, or high mobility group (HMG)-domain transcription factors. So far, MAT loci have been characterized from a single monophyletic clade of fungi, the Dikarya (the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes), and the ancestral state and evolutionary history of these loci have remained a mystery. Mating in the basal members of the kingdom has been less well studied, and even their precise taxonomic inter-relationships are still obscure. Here we apply bioinformatic and genetic mapping to identify the sex-determining (sex) region in Phycomyces blakesleeanus (Zygomycota), which represents an early branch within the fungi. Each sex allele contains a single gene that encodes an HMG-domain protein, implicating the HMG-domain proteins as an earlier form of fungal MAT loci. Additionally, one allele also contains a copy of a unique, chromosome-specific repetitive element, suggesting a generalized mechanism for the earliest steps in the evolution of sex determination and sex chromosome structure in eukaryotes.

  8. Early identification of autism in fragile X syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    McCary, L. M.; Roberts, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading genetic cause of autism, accounting for approximately 5% of autism cases with as many as 50% of individuals with FXS meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder. Both FXS and idiopathic autism (IA) are attributed to genetic causes; however, FXS is an identified single gene disorder whereas autism is a complex disorder with multiple potential causes, some of which have been identified. Studies in IA have focused on the prospective longitudinal examination of infant siblings of children with autism as a target group due to their high risk of developing the disorder. We propose that this same model be applied to the study of infants with FXS. There is a lack of research focusing on the early development of autism within FXS and debate in the literature regarding how to best conceptualise this co-morbidity or whether it should be considered a co-morbid condition at all. Studying the emergence and stability of autism in infants with FXS has multiple benefits such as clarifying the underlying mechanisms of the development of autism in FXS and solidifying similarities and differences between co-morbid FXS with autism and IA. Infant research in both IA and FXS are discussed as well as conclusions and implications for practice and future research. PMID:22974167

  9. Predictors for Early Identification of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Mei-Hua; Lin, Kuei-Hsiang; Lin, Kuan-Tsou; Hung, Chi-Ming; Cheng, Hung-Shiang; Tyan, Yu-Chang; Huang, Hui-Wen; Sanno-Duanda, Bintou; Yang, Ming-Hui; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou; Chu, Pei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can cause permanent liver damage and hepatocellular carcinoma, and deaths related to HCV deaths have recently increased. Chronic HCV infection is often undiagnosed such that the virus remains infective and transmissible. Identifying HCV infection early is essential for limiting its spread, but distinguishing individuals who require further HCV tests is very challenging. Besides identifying high-risk populations, an optimal subset of indices for routine examination is needed to identify HCV screening candidates. Therefore, this study analyzed data from 312 randomly chosen blood donors, including 144 anti-HCV-positive donors and 168 anti-HCV-negative donors. The HCV viral load in each sample was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to find the optimal cell blood counts and thrombopoietin measurements for screening purposes. Correlations with values for key indices and viral load were also determined. Strong predictors of HCV infection were found by using receiver operating characteristics curves to analyze the optimal subsets among red blood cells, monocytes, platelet counts, platelet large cell ratios, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (P < 0.0001) were 75.6%, 78.5%, and 0.859, respectively. PMID:26413522

  10. Early identification of autism in fragile X syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    McCary, L M; Roberts, J E

    2013-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading genetic cause of autism, accounting for approximately 5% of autism cases with as many as 50% of individuals with FXS meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder. Both FXS and idiopathic autism (IA) are attributed to genetic causes; however, FXS is an identified single gene disorder whereas autism is a complex disorder with multiple potential causes, some of which have been identified. Studies in IA have focused on the prospective longitudinal examination of infant siblings of children with autism as a target group due to their high risk of developing the disorder. We propose that this same model be applied to the study of infants with FXS. There is a lack of research focusing on the early development of autism within FXS and debate in the literature regarding how to best conceptualise this co-morbidity or whether it should be considered a co-morbid condition at all. Studying the emergence and stability of autism in infants with FXS has multiple benefits such as clarifying the underlying mechanisms of the development of autism in FXS and solidifying similarities and differences between co-morbid FXS with autism and IA. Infant research in both IA and FXS are discussed as well as conclusions and implications for practice and future research.

  11. Computer-aided identification of the water diffusion coefficient for maize kernels dried in a thin layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawa, Sebastian; Weres, Jerzy; Olek, Wiesław

    2016-07-01

    Uncertainties in mathematical modelling of water transport in cereal grain kernels during drying and storage are mainly due to implementing unreliable values of the water diffusion coefficient and simplifying the geometry of kernels. In the present study an attempt was made to reduce the uncertainties by developing a method for computer-aided identification of the water diffusion coefficient and more accurate 3D geometry modelling for individual kernels using original inverse finite element algorithms. The approach was exemplified by identifying the water diffusion coefficient for maize kernels subjected to drying. On the basis of the developed method, values of the water diffusion coefficient were estimated, 3D geometry of a maize kernel was represented by isoparametric finite elements, and the moisture content inside maize kernels dried in a thin layer was predicted. Validation of the results against experimental data showed significantly lower error values than in the case of results obtained for the water diffusion coefficient values available in the literature.

  12. Immunophenotypic characterization of myelopoiesis in early and late myelodysplastic syndromes: use of CD44 as an aid in early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Karmon, Yuval; Manaster, J; Chezar, J

    2002-08-15

    We investigated the possibility that myeloid cells from the bone marrow (BM) of myelodysplastic patients differ in their expression of CD44 antigen compared with expression of the antigen in normal controls. In addition, two triple-surface marker assays incorporating, respectively, CD44/CD33/CD66 and CD33/CD34/HLA-DR were used to evaluate the degree of myeloid maturation and assess the number of blasts in BM by flow cytometry. Patients with early-stage myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; RA [FAB classification]) have significantly decreased expression of CD44 on gated myeloid cells. In contrast, patients with late-stage MDS (RAEB and RAEB-T [FAB classification]) showed an elevated expression of CD44 and an increased number of CD34 blasts compared with early-stage MDS patients and normal controls. Late-stage MDS patients also had an increase in the immature myeloid compartment (CD66 weak expression) compared with early-stage MDS patients and normal controls. We have already included this assay as part of our MDS evaluation protocol alongside BM morphology and cytogenetics.

  13. Dental materials as an aid for victim identification: examination of calcined remains by SEM/EDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Mary A.; Bush, Peter J.

    2010-06-01

    Detection and identification of human remains in situations in which they are calcined, disarticulated, and fragmented may be a challenging task. In such situations the non-biological materials that may be present in the dentition can provide the best evidence available for potential identification. Four human jaw segments were utilized. A known combination of dental resins was placed in each segment, when possible. Other restorations, pre-existing in the cadavers, were retained. The jaw segments were cremated in a commercial cremation oven for 2.5 hrs at 1010C. Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) was used to analyze the dentition and fragmented debris. Analysis with SEM/EDS demonstrated the ability to confirm brand of known dental resins placed in each cadaver. In addition, pre-existing materials in each jaw segment were profiled and a likely brand name suggested. It was shown that microscopic fragments of heat-altered materials could be identified and classified, adding another level of certainty in victim identification.

  14. At-Risk Readers in French Immersion: Early Identification and Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Nancy; Chen, Xi

    2010-01-01

    The present study analyses the impact of phonological awareness instruction on the reading achievement of at-risk Grade 1 readers enrolled in an early French immersion program. Twenty-nine children from diverse linguistic backgrounds participated in the study. At-risk readers were identified on the basis of their text reading performance and…

  15. Computer-aided dental identification: an objective method for assessment of radiographic image similarity.

    PubMed

    Flint, Diane J; Brent Dove, Stephen; Brumit, Paula C; White, Marea; Senn, David R

    2009-01-01

    A pilot study evaluated a computer-based method for comparing digital dental images, utilizing a registration algorithm to correct for variations in projection geometry between images prior to a subtraction analysis. A numerical assessment of similarity was generated for pairs of images. Using well-controlled laboratory settings, the method was evaluated as to its ability to identify the correct specimen with positive results. A subsequent clinical study examined longitudinal radiographic examinations of selected anatomical areas on 47 patients, analyzing the computer-based method in making the correct identification based upon a threshold level of similarity. The results showed that at a threshold of 0.855, there were two false negative and two false positive identifications out of 957 analyses. Based on these initial findings, 25 dental records having two sets of full mouth series of radiographs were selected. The radiographs were digitized and grouped into six anatomical regions. The more recent set of films served as postmortem images. Each postmortem image was analyzed against all other images within the region. Images were registered to correct for differences in projection geometry prior to analysis. An area of interest was selected to assess image similarity. Analysis of variance was used to determine that there was a significant difference between images from the same individual and those from different individuals. Results showed that the threshold level of concordance will vary with the anatomical region of the mouth examined. This method may provide the most objective and reliable method for postmortem dental identification using intra-oral images.

  16. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 8: Measures of effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The development of both quantitative criteria that were used to evaluate conceptional systems for automating the functions for the FBI Identification Division is described. Specific alternative systems for automation were compared by using these developed criteria, defined as Measures of Effectiveness (MOE), to gauge system's performance in attempting to achieve certain goals. The MOE, essentially measurement tools that were developed through the combination of suitable parameters, pertain to each conceivable area of system operation. The methods and approaches used, both in selecting the parameters and in using the resulting MOE, are described.

  17. Effects of elevated temperatures on different restorative materials: An aid to forensic identification processes

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Chetan A.; Ghige, Suvarna K.; Gosavi, Suchitra R.; Hazarey, Vinay K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heat-induced alterations to dental and restorative materials can be of great interest to forensic dentistry. Knowing the specific optical behavior of dental materials can be of high importance as recognition of changes induced by high temperatures can lead to the determination of material which was used in a dental restoration, facilitating identification of burned human remains. Aim: To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures (200°C–400°C–600°C–800°C–1000°C) on unrestored teeth and different restorative materials macroscopically and then examine them under a stereomicroscope for the purpose of identification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 375 extracted teeth which were divided into five groups of 75 teeth each as follows: group 1- unrestored teeth, group 2- teeth restored with all-ceramic crowns, Group 3- with class I silver amalgam filling, group 4- with class I composite restoration, and group 5- with class I glass ionomer cement restoration. Results: Unrestored and restored teeth display a series of specific macroscopic & stereomicroscopic structural changes for each range of temperature. Conclusion: Dental tissues and restorative materials undergo a series of changes which correlate well with the various temperatures to which they were exposed. These changes are a consequence of the nature of the materials and their physicochemical characteristics. PMID:26005305

  18. Optimizing the Detection of Circulating Markers to Aid in Early Lung Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Murlidhar, Vasudha; Ramnath, Nithya; Nagrath, Sunitha; Reddy, Rishindra M.

    2016-01-01

    Improving early detection of lung cancer is critical to improving lung cancer survival. Studies have shown that computerized tomography (CT) screening can reduce mortality from lung cancer, but this involves risks of radiation exposure and can identify non-cancer lung nodules that lead to unnecessary interventions for some. There is a critical need to develop alternative, less invasive methods to identify patients who have early-stage lung cancer. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a promising area of research, but current technology is limited by a low yield of CTCs. Alternate studies are investigating circulating nucleic acids and proteins as possible tumor markers. It is critical to develop innovative methods for early lung cancer detection that may include CTCs or other markers that are low-risk and low-cost, yet specific and sensitive, to facilitate improved survival by diagnosing the disease when it is surgically curable. PMID:27367729

  19. Host-Fish Identification and Early Life Thermal Requisites of the Federal Endangered Winged Mapleleaf Mussel (Quadrula fragosa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steingraeber, M. T.; Hove, M. C.; Bartsch, M. R.; Kalas, J. A.; Newton, T. J.

    2005-05-01

    The winged mapleleaf mussel (Quadrula fragosa) is a federal endangered species with only one known reproducing population. Controlled propagation is needed to aid in recovering this species, but little is known of its specific early life-history requirements, including the identity of host-fish that facilitate transformation of its parasitic glochidia (larvae) into free-living juveniles. In autumn 2003, we initiated three winged mapleleaf host-fish identification tests that were each conducted in different thermal regimes. Results of the two shorter-term tests at warmer temperatures identified blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) and channel catfish (I. punctatus) as suitable host-fish species. Close examination of these test data allowed us to empirically estimate: the minimum daily mean water temperature (9.24°C) required for glochidia to grow and develop into juveniles; and the cumulative water temperature units of net daily growth (395°C•d)needed to initiate peak juvenile recovery. We applied these findings to the longer-term third test and predicted with great accuracy (±7 d) the initial date of peak juvenile mussel recovery after >8 months development in a colder, more natural thermal regime. Our final results also indicated a consistent daily temperature >17°C is needed to trigger the large-scale release of winged mapleleaf juveniles from the gills of host-fish.

  20. A Financial Aid Need Analysis Methodology for Early Care and Education. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vast, Teresa; Baum, Sandy

    Based on the view that early care and education programs must have substantial non-tuition revenue from the public and private sectors to reduce the proportion of costs for high quality programs passed on to families as tuition costs, this report presents a methodology for identifying an "expected family contribution," a representation of what a…

  1. Identification of structural interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention: the concept mapping exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Quader, Abu S; Collins, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Structural interventions have been defined as those prevention interventions that include physical, social, cultural, organizational, community, economic, legal, and policy factors. In an effort to examine the feasibility, evaluability, and sustainability of structural interventions for HIV prevention, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented a project that involved asking experts in HIV prevention and other areas of public health-including injury and violence prevention, tobacco control, drug abuse, and nutrition-to provide input on the identification of structural interventions based on the aforementioned definition. The process resulted in a list of 123 interventions that met the definition. The experts were asked to group these interventions into categories based on similarity of ideas. They were also asked to rate these interventions in terms of impact they would have, if implemented, on reducing HIV transmission. The findings highlight the need for conducting further research on structural interventions, including feasibility of implementation and effectiveness of reducing HIV transmission risks. PMID:22043093

  2. Morphological Variations and Biometrics of Ear: An Aid to Personal Identification

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Harpreet Kaur; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Goyal, Sharry; Sudan, Madhu; Ladgotra, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The morphological characteristics and dimensions of external ear vary in different human ethnic races which can be utilized in forensics for personal identification of living or deceased. Aim To determine uniqueness of morphological and biometric variations of both ears for individualization among North East (NE) and North West (NW) subpopulation of India. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on randomly selected 80 students, 40 from each subgroup. Nine ear parameters were recorded twice using digital Vernier’s caliper by single investigator and two indices (Ear Index and Lobule Index) were calculated for both the ears. Morphological ear shapes and lobule attachment were also noted. Pearson’s coefficient correlation test was performed on cross-tabulations to evaluate significant relationship between different variables. Results Of the total 35% free and 65% attached ear lobes were noted in both population groups. Oval ear shape was most commonly noted followed by triangular, rectangular and round in both populations. On comparing anthropometric measurements of ears in two populations it was found that except the tragus length and lobule index all other values were noted more in NW population. No statistical difference was found in ear and lobular indices of males and females although the left ear index and lobule index were found to be higher than right in both populations except in NW females where right lobule index was recorded more than left. Conclusion The results obtained can be used in anthropological and forensic sciences for the inclusion and exclusion of persons for identification on the basis of ear variations. PMID:27437349

  3. REDUCTION IN INCIDENCE OF HOSPITALIZATIONS FOR PSYCHOTIC EPISODES THROUGH EARLY IDENTIFICATION AND INTERVENTION

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, William R.; SUSSER, EZRA; McCleary, Richard; Verdi, Mary; Lynch, Sarah; Williams, Deanna; McKeague, Ian W

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study tested whether the incidence of hospitalization for psychosis was reduced by a community-wide system of early identification and intervention to prevent onset of psychosis. Method The Portland Identification and Early Referral (PIER) program was initiated in 2001. Youth and young adults ages 12-35 were identified by professionals in a wide variety of educational, health and mental health settings. PIER staff assessed, confirmed risk for psychosis and provided treatment for 24 months to eligible and consenting young people (N=148). The monthly rate of hospital admissions for first episode psychosis was the outcome measure for efficacy of identification and intervention. Admission rates before and after the program began accepting referrals were compared, both in the experimental area and in aggregated urban areas of Maine. ARIMA models were used to assess the effect. Results Based on ARIMA models, the rate of hospitalized psychosis decreased significantly by 26% (95% C.I., -64% to -11%) in the Greater Portland area. Conversely, it increased by 8% (95% C.I. -5% to +36%) in the Urban Control area. Including increases in the control area, the actual vs. expected difference (-26% -8%) was -34%. The change was largest for non-affective-non-schizophrenic Disorders. Conclusions PIER demonstrated that population-wide early identification is feasible. Preventive intervention can reduce rates of initial hospitalizations for psychosis in a mid-sized city. Clinical trial registration The study was reviewed and approved by the Maine Medical Center Institutional Review Board and registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01597141). All research subjects gave informed consent prior to participating. PMID:24632857

  4. Computer-aided identification of polymorphism sets diagnostic for groups of bacterial and viral genetic variants

    PubMed Central

    Price, Erin P; Inman-Bamber, John; Thiruvenkataswamy, Venugopal; Huygens, Flavia; Giffard, Philip M

    2007-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes that exhibit presence/absence variation have provided informative marker sets for bacterial and viral genotyping. Identification of marker sets optimised for these purposes has been based on maximal generalized discriminatory power as measured by Simpson's Index of Diversity, or on the ability to identify specific variants. Here we describe the Not-N algorithm, which is designed to identify small sets of genetic markers diagnostic for user-specified subsets of known genetic variants. The algorithm does not treat the user-specified subset and the remaining genetic variants equally. Rather Not-N analysis is designed to underpin assays that provide 0% false negatives, which is very important for e.g. diagnostic procedures for clinically significant subgroups within microbial species. Results The Not-N algorithm has been incorporated into the "Minimum SNPs" computer program and used to derive genetic markers diagnostic for multilocus sequence typing-defined clonal complexes, hepatitis C virus (HCV) subtypes, and phylogenetic clades defined by comparative genome hybridization (CGH) data for Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica and Clostridium difficile. Conclusion Not-N analysis is effective for identifying small sets of genetic markers diagnostic for microbial sub-groups. The best results to date have been obtained with CGH data from several bacterial species, and HCV sequence data. PMID:17672919

  5. Identification of WD40 repeats by secondary structure-aided profile-profile alignment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Dong, Xiaobao; Han, Lei; Su, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Ziding; Li, Jinyan; Song, Jiangning

    2016-06-01

    A WD40 protein typically contains four or more repeats of ~40 residues ended with the Trp-Asp dipeptide, which folds into β-propellers with four β strands in each repeat. They often function as scaffolds for protein-protein interactions and are involved in numerous fundamental biological processes. Despite their important functional role, the "velcro" closure of WD40 propellers and the diversity of WD40 repeats make their identification a difficult task. Here we develop a new WD40 Repeat Recognition method (WDRR), which uses predicted secondary structure information to generate candidate repeat segments, and further employs a profile-profile alignment to identify the correct WD40 repeats from candidate segments. In particular, we design a novel alignment scoring function that combines dot product and BLOSUM62, thereby achieving a great balance of sensitivity and accuracy. Taking advantage of these strategies, WDRR could effectively reduce the false positive rate and accurately identify more remote homologous WD40 repeats with precise repeat boundaries. We further use WDRR to re-annotate the Pfam families in the β-propeller clan (CL0186) and identify a number of WD40 repeat proteins with high confidence across nine model organisms. The WDRR web server and the datasets are available at http://protein.cau.edu.cn/wdrr/.

  6. Identification of Fusarium graminearum infection severity of wheat grains by digitally aided spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkai, Géza; Erostyák, János; Mesterházy, Ákos

    2013-05-01

    The Fusarium head blight caused mostly by Fusarium graminearum (F.g.) is the most important disease of wheat because it not only leads to yield loss, but the toxin contamination makes the yield harvested. First, visual assessment of the heads was made, then the ratio of Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK) becomes the attention, and since introduction of the toxin limits for wheat, the deoxynivalenol contamination has gained significance. However, the FDK has a greater practical significance, as the identification of Fusarium damaged kernels is the precondition of their separation.For this reason a more exact and more sensitive method was developed by using updated spectroscopy methods. The infection sensitive spectral index (ISSI) function has been developed to characterize spectral features of images of grains with different infection severities. The green and red color ranges could be best used in this analysis. It was also found that the way how different spectra from different grains or samples can be normalized and compared. This histogram analyzing method uses scanned images and it seems to be useful in describing the infection severity of heterogeneous samples better than available before.This might serve as scientific background to develop new instruments for rapid tests.

  7. A case for critical ethnography: rethinking the early years of the AIDS epidemic in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fassin, Didier

    2013-12-01

    The epidemic of AIDS in South Africa has been characterized not only by its rapid progression but also its impassioned controversies. Retrospectively examining a long-term anthropological project and discussing some reactions it elicited, the paper proposes a defense and illustration of a critical ethnography at three moments of the research. Ethnography is first discussed as fieldworks, proposing an alternative to the horizontal multi-sited approach via a vertical multi-layered method using various scales and locations, and thus connecting the disease endured by patients in townships and former homelands with the heated debates in scientific and political forums: this procedure substitutes a political economy of the disease for its cultural and behavioral interpretations. Ethnography is then discussed as writing, suggesting acknowledgment of the social intelligence of the agents as well as the need for a scientific distance: this principle allows the articulation of the objective historical condition of the individuals and their subjective experience of history, both revealed in the development of the epidemic. Ultimately ethnography is considered from the perspective of its afterlife, that is, the continuous process of its translation by readers and commentators, on the one hand, by the author trying to reach beyond the boundaries of the academic realm, on the other, the work of anthropology appearing as a living object open to public conversation and consequently a resource for knowledge and action. PMID:23973002

  8. A case for critical ethnography: rethinking the early years of the AIDS epidemic in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fassin, Didier

    2013-12-01

    The epidemic of AIDS in South Africa has been characterized not only by its rapid progression but also its impassioned controversies. Retrospectively examining a long-term anthropological project and discussing some reactions it elicited, the paper proposes a defense and illustration of a critical ethnography at three moments of the research. Ethnography is first discussed as fieldworks, proposing an alternative to the horizontal multi-sited approach via a vertical multi-layered method using various scales and locations, and thus connecting the disease endured by patients in townships and former homelands with the heated debates in scientific and political forums: this procedure substitutes a political economy of the disease for its cultural and behavioral interpretations. Ethnography is then discussed as writing, suggesting acknowledgment of the social intelligence of the agents as well as the need for a scientific distance: this principle allows the articulation of the objective historical condition of the individuals and their subjective experience of history, both revealed in the development of the epidemic. Ultimately ethnography is considered from the perspective of its afterlife, that is, the continuous process of its translation by readers and commentators, on the one hand, by the author trying to reach beyond the boundaries of the academic realm, on the other, the work of anthropology appearing as a living object open to public conversation and consequently a resource for knowledge and action.

  9. Mycobactin analysis as an aid for the identification of Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae subspecies.

    PubMed Central

    Bosne, S; Lévy-Frébault, V V

    1992-01-01

    Mycobactin patterns from 65 Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae strains have been determined by thin-layer chromatography. By use of a rich liquid medium containing an iron chelator (ethylenediamine-di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid [EDDA]) to ensure iron starvation, all strains were able to form mycobactins. The method developed here allows sensitive detection of mycobactin by thin-layer chromatography from as little as 5 ml of culture after a 2-week incubation. Within M. fortuitum two mycobactin patterns were identified, whereas within M. chelonae four were recognized. Comparisons with the subspecific identification performed by using biochemical tests showed that 73% of the M. fortuitum subsp. fortuitum strains shared the same mycobactin pattern (designated F), whereas 75% of the M. fortuitum subsp. peregrinum strains shared the other mycobactin pattern (designated P). Within the M. fortuitum strains that cannot be assigned to a subspecies on the basis of their biochemical features, only F and P patterns were determined. Similarly, 93% of the M. chelonae subsp. chelonae strains produced the so-called C1 and C2 patterns and 86% of the M. chelonae subsp. abscessus strains produced A1 and A2 patterns. C2 and A2 were the patterns most frequently encountered; they were represented by 65 and 50% of the M. chelonae subsp. chelonae and M. chelonae subsp. abscessus strains, respectively. Within the biochemically M. chelonae strains that did not fit any subspecies on the basis of biochemical test results, C1, C2, and A1 patterns were found. Whereas about 30% of both M. fortuitum and M. chelonae strains cannot be characterized to the subspecies level on the basis of biochemical tests, 100% of the strains of both species can be characterized on the basis of mycobactin patterns. Images PMID:1583124

  10. A scalable computer-aided detection system for microcalcification cluster identification in a pan-European distributed database of mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retico, A.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M. E.; Preite Martinez, A.; Stefanini, A.; Tata, A.

    2006-12-01

    A computer-aided detection (CADe) system for microcalcification cluster identification in mammograms has been developed in the framework of the EU-founded MammoGrid project. The CADe software is mainly based on wavelet transforms and artificial neural networks. It is able to identify microcalcifications in different kinds of mammograms (i.e. acquired with different machines and settings, digitized with different pitch and bit depth or direct digital ones). The CADe can be remotely run from GRID-connected acquisition and annotation stations, supporting clinicians from geographically distant locations in the interpretation of mammographic data. We report the FROC analyses of the CADe system performances on three different dataset of mammograms, i.e. images of the CALMA INFN-founded database collected in the Italian National screening program, the MIAS database and the so-far collected MammoGrid images. The sensitivity values of 88% at a rate of 2.15 false positive findings per image (FP/im), 88% with 2.18 FP/im and 87% with 5.7 FP/im have been obtained on the CALMA, MIAS and MammoGrid database, respectively.

  11. Myocardial strain estimation from CT: towards computer-aided diagnosis on infarction identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ken C. L.; Tee, Michael; Chen, Marcus; Bluemke, David A.; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    Regional myocardial strains have the potential for early quantification and detection of cardiac dysfunctions. Although image modalities such as tagged and strain-encoded MRI can provide motion information of the myocardium, they are uncommon in clinical routine. In contrary, cardiac CT images are usually available, but they only provide motion information at salient features such as the cardiac boundaries. To estimate myocardial strains from a CT image sequence, we adopted a cardiac biomechanical model with hyperelastic material properties to relate the motion on the cardiac boundaries to the myocardial deformation. The frame-to-frame displacements of the cardiac boundaries are obtained using B-spline deformable image registration based on mutual information, which are enforced as boundary conditions to the biomechanical model. The system equation is solved by the finite element method to provide the dense displacement field of the myocardium, and the regional values of the three principal strains and the six strains in cylindrical coordinates are computed in terms of the American Heart Association nomenclature. To study the potential of the estimated regional strains on identifying myocardial infarction, experiments were performed on cardiac CT image sequences of ten canines with artificially induced myocardial infarctions. The leave-one-subject-out cross validations show that, by using the optimal strain magnitude thresholds computed from ROC curves, the radial strain and the first principal strain have the best performance.

  12. Role of the dental surgeon in the early detection of adults with underlying HIV infection / AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Jorge; del Romero, Jorge; Hernando, Victoria; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    A review is made of the late diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, a subject of growing interest in public health. It has been estimated that in Europe 30% of all HIV-infected people are unaware of their seropositive condition, and this in turn is associated with a poorer long-term disease prognosis and an increased risk of transmission to other individuals. The role of the dental surgeon in this context could be of great importance, since there are many oral lesions that can suggest the existence of underlying infection. The study also addresses the controversial subject of rapid HIV testing, and whether these tests should be performed on a routine basis in the dental clinic, or whether it is preferable to refer the patient to a specialized center. Key words:HIV in Spain, HIV screening, early diagnosis. PMID:22143719

  13. Computerized nipple identification for multiple image analysis in computer-aided diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Chuan; Chan Heangping; Paramagul, Chintana; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Labomir M.; Petrick, Nicholas

    2004-10-01

    Correlation of information from multiple-view mammograms (e.g., MLO and CC views, bilateral views, or current and prior mammograms) can improve the performance of breast cancer diagnosis by radiologists or by computer. The nipple is a reliable and stable landmark on mammograms for the registration of multiple mammograms. However, accurate identification of nipple location on mammograms is challenging because of the variations in image quality and in the nipple projections, resulting in some nipples being nearly invisible on the mammograms. In this study, we developed a computerized method to automatically identify the nipple location on digitized mammograms. First, the breast boundary was obtained using a gradient-based boundary tracking algorithm, and then the gray level profiles along the inside and outside of the boundary were identified. A geometric convergence analysis was used to limit the nipple search to a region of the breast boundary. A two-stage nipple detection method was developed to identify the nipple location using the gray level information around the nipple, the geometric characteristics of nipple shapes, and the texture features of glandular tissue or ducts which converge toward the nipple. At the first stage, a rule-based method was designed to identify the nipple location by detecting significant changes of intensity along the gray level profiles inside and outside the breast boundary and the changes in the boundary direction. At the second stage, a texture orientation-field analysis was developed to estimate the nipple location based on the convergence of the texture pattern of glandular tissue or ducts towards the nipple. The nipple location was finally determined from the detected nipple candidates by a rule-based confidence analysis. In this study, 377 and 367 randomly selected digitized mammograms were used for training and testing the nipple detection algorithm, respectively. Two experienced radiologists identified the nipple locations

  14. 32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.22 Policy—Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. (a) DA...

  15. 32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.22 Policy—Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. (a) DA...

  16. 32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.22 Policy—Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. (a) DA...

  17. 32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.22 Policy—Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. (a) DA...

  18. 32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.22 Policy—Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. (a) DA...

  19. Early identification of at-risk nursing students: a student support model.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, T Hampton

    2008-06-01

    Due to the shortage of nurses in the health care industry, colleges offering associate-degree nursing programs are beginning to pay more attention to attrition and the factors contributing to success. Alogistic regression model was used to explain the cognitive and noncognitive variables that contribute to success in a nursing fundamentals course. Although much work is necessary to fully understand first-semester nursing students' retention and success, an early identification model is explored to better support students as they enter associate-degree nursing programs.

  20. 75 FR 28263 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS... with HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing, oral health care, outpatient mental... providing services after March 31, 2010. HRSA's HIV/AIDS Bureau identified the Rural Health Group as...

  1. Young Children, HIV/AIDS and Gender: A Summary Review. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development. Young Children and HIV/AIDS Sub-Series, No. 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia; Brixen, Farhana Farook

    2006-01-01

    Studies point to the existence of a global HIV/AIDS emergency among young people. An estimated 6,000 youths a day become infected, an average of one new infection every 14 seconds. The most socially and economically disadvantaged young people appear to be especially at risk of infection, and young women in developing contexts are at the greatest…

  2. HIV/AIDS: What about Very Young Children? Working Papers in Early Childhood Development. Young Children and HIV/AIDS Sub-Series, No. 35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Alison

    2005-01-01

    The research reviewed and the current responses identified in this paper show that at local, national and international levels there are gaps in programming and policy to engage ideas and mobilise resources to address the needs and experiences of very young children infected/affected by HIV and AIDS. Chapter one identifies some key areas where the…

  3. Universal newborn hearing screening and early identification of deafness: parents' responses to knowing early and their expectations of child communication development.

    PubMed

    Young, Alys; Tattersall, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This article presents results from an interview study of 45 parents/caregivers (representing 27 families) whose infants were correctly identified as deaf during the first phase of the implementation of the national universal Newborn Hearing Screening Programme in England. Average age of children when parents were interviewed was 25 weeks. Two issues are explored: (a) how parents talk about significance of knowing early that their child is deaf and (b) parents' expectations of their child's development in light of early identification. Although results demonstrate clear support from parents' perspective of knowing early, they also identify the psychological complexities of recognizing both the grief and reassurance that early knowledge brings; the risks of early knowledge-inducing timetables of expectations that create distress when not met speedily; the extent to which parental models of the developmental advantages of early identification are underpinned by notions of normal speech and the possibility of being like hearing children; and the pervasiveness of deficit and illness models associated with having identified deafness early. Implications for parental support and professional responses are also discussed.

  4. Identification of Acoustically Similar and Dissimilar Vowels in Profoundly Deaf Adults Who Use Hearing Aids and/or Cochlear Implants: Some Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia J.; Peterson, Nathaniel R.; Rosado, Christian A.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined the effects of aging and residual hearing on the identification of acoustically similar and dissimilar vowels in adults with postlingual deafness who use hearing aids (HAs) and/or cochlear implants (CIs). Method The authors used two groups of acoustically similar and dissimilar vowels to assess vowel identification. Also, the Consonant–Nucleus–Consonant Word Recognition Test (Peterson & Lehiste, 1962) and sentences from the Hearing in Noise Test (Nilsson, Soli, & Sullivan, 1994) were administered. Forty CI recipients with postlingual deafness (ages 31–81 years) participated in the study. Results Acoustically similar vowels were more difficult to identify than acoustically dissimilar vowels. With increasing age, performance deteriorated when identifying acoustically similar vowels. Vowel identification was also affected by the use of a contralateral HA and the degree of residual hearing prior to implantation. Moderate correlations were found between speech perception and vowel identification performance. Conclusions Identification performance was affected by the acoustic similarity of the vowels. Older adults experienced more difficulty identifying acoustically similar confusable vowels than did younger adults. The findings might lend support to the ease of language understanding model (Ronnberg, Rudner, Foo, & Lunner, 2008), which proposes that the quality and perceptual robustness of acoustic input affects speech perception. PMID:23824440

  5. Gene Expression Analysis for the Identification of Genes Involved in Early Tumour Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, Stefano; Scarpulla, Salvatore; Lagana, Alessandro; Memeo, Lorenzo; Gulisano, Massimo

    Prostatic tissues can undergo to cancer insurgence and prostate cancer is one of the most common types of malignancies affecting adult men in the United States. Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesi-cles (SVCA) is a very rare neoplasm with only 48 histologically confirmed cases reported in the European and United States literature. Prostatic tissues, seminal vesicles and epididymis belongs all to the same microenvironment, shows a very close morphology and share the same embryological origin. Despite these common features the rate of cancer occurrence is very different. The understanding of molecular differences between non neoplastic prostatic tissues and non neoplastic epididymis or seminal vesicles may suggest potential mechanisms of resistance to tumour occurrence. The comparison of expression patterns of non neoplastic prostatic and seminal vesicles tissues to identify differentially expressed genes can help researchers in the identification of biological actors involved in the early stages of the tumour development.

  6. A Clinical Algorithm for Early Identification and Intervention of Cervical Muscular Torticollis.

    PubMed

    Nichter, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a common newborn pediatric muscular deformity of the neck. The purpose of this article is to suggest a clinical algorithm for pediatric clinicians to promote prompt identification and intervention for infants with CMT. Early intervention for a child with CMT at less than 1 month of age yields a 98% success rate by 2.5 months of age, with the infant achieving near normal range of motion. Intervention initiated at 6 months of age or later can require 9 to 10 months of therapy with less success in achieving full range of motion of the cervical musculature. The clinical algorithm proposed here incorporates the American Physical Therapy Association guideline for CMT to optimize outcomes for the child and reduce health care expenditures. Current evidence and guidelines demonstrate that primary care providers are the primary diagnostic clinicians, while physical therapists are the preferred provider for the treatment of CMT.

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) Scanning Facilitates Early Identification of Neonatal Cystic Fibrosis Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Antoine; Chevaleyre, Claire; Barc, Celine; Berri, Mustapha; Adriaensen, Hans; Lecompte, François; Villemagne, Thierry; Pezant, Jérémy; Delaunay, Rémi; Moënne-Loccoz, Joseph; Berthon, Patricia; Bähr, Andrea; Wolf, Eckhard; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Attucci, Sylvie; Ramphal, Reuben; Sarradin, Pierre; Buzoni-Gatel, Dominique; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Caballero, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most prevalent autosomal recessive disease in the Caucasian population. A cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout (CFTR-/-) pig that displays most of the features of the human CF disease has been recently developed. However, CFTR-/- pigs presents a 100% prevalence of meconium ileus that leads to death in the first hours after birth, requiring a rapid diagnosis and surgical intervention to relieve intestinal obstruction. Identification of CFTR-/- piglets is usually performed by PCR genotyping, a procedure that lasts between 4 to 6 h. Here, we aimed to develop a procedure for rapid identification of CFTR-/- piglets that will allow placing them under intensive care soon after birth and immediately proceeding with the surgical correction. Methods and Principal Findings Male and female CFTR+/- pigs were crossed and the progeny was examined by computed tomography (CT) scan to detect the presence of meconium ileus and facilitate a rapid post-natal surgical intervention. Genotype was confirmed by PCR. CT scan presented a 94.4% sensitivity to diagnose CFTR-/- piglets. Diagnosis by CT scan reduced the birth-to-surgery time from a minimum of 10 h down to a minimum of 2.5 h and increased the survival of CFTR-/- piglets to a maximum of 13 days post-surgery as opposed to just 66 h after later surgery. Conclusion CT scan imaging of meconium ileus is an accurate method for rapid identification of CFTR-/- piglets. Early CT detection of meconium ileus may help to extend the lifespan of CFTR-/- piglets and, thus, improve experimental research on CF, still an incurable disease. PMID:26600426

  8. Early identification and intervention services for children with autism in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Cong, Tran; Weiss, Bahr; Toan, Khuc Nang; Le Thu, Tran Thi; Trang, Nguyen Thi Nha; Hoa, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thuy, Dao Thi Thu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In high income countries in Europe and North America, early identification and intervention for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been linked to improved long-term outcomes. However, in most low and middle income countries (LMIC) little is known about use or availability of such services, which limits the ability of policy and development planning. The purpose of the present study was assess the use of ASD services in Vietnam, an Asian LMIC, in order to identify areas within the field that should be specifically targeted to improve ASD services in Vietnam. METHODS Surveys were conducted in six different cities across Vietnam with 90 parents/caregivers of children with ASD, 115 professionals working with children with ASD, and 10 directors of agencies providing ASD services. Parents/caregivers’ survey assessed demographics and information regarding their child’s symptoms and services the child received. Professionals’ survey assessed their demographic and professional background, the ASD services they provide, and their perspective on the quality of ASD services at their agency. Directors’ survey included these same questions as well as additional questions regarding the operation of the agency. RESULTS Early identification and intervention ASD services are available in Vietnam, at least in major cities. However, there is a lack of well-trained professionals, the tools used for evaluation and diagnosis are limited, outdated and unstandardized, and the quality of services is questionable. Most importantly, a scientific evidence base for services is absent, and the country lacks an official governmental policy for supporting children with ASD. CONCLUSIONS Research directly assessing the quality of ASD services in Vietnam is needed. Most centrally, efforts at facilitating governmental policy and support advocacy are needed to increase the likelihood that families and children with ASD will receive appropriate and effective services. PMID:27088123

  9. An Early Warning System for Identification and Monitoring of Disturbances to Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Mills, R. T.

    2011-12-01

    Forest ecosystems are susceptible to damage due to threat events like wildfires, insect and disease attacks, extreme weather events, land use change, and long-term climate change. Early identification of such events is desired to devise and implement a protective response. The mission of the USDA Forest Service is to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the nation's forests. However, limited resources for aerial surveys and ground-based inspections are insufficient for monitoring the large areas covered by the U.S. forests. The USDA Forest Service, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and NASA Stennis Space Center are developing an early warning system for the continuous tracking and long-term monitoring of disturbances and responses in forest ecosystems using high resolution satellite remote sensing data. Geospatiotemporal data mining techniques were developed and applied to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) products derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD 13 data at 250 m resolution on eight day intervals. Representative phenologically similar regions, or phenoregions, were developed for the conterminous United States (CONUS) by applying a k-means clustering algorithm to the NDVI data spanning the full eight years of the MODIS record. Annual changes in the phenoregions were quantitatively analyzed to identify the significant changes in phenological behavior. This methodology was successfully applied for identification of various forest disturbance events, including wildfire, tree mortality due to Mountain Pine Beetle, and other insect infestation and diseases, as well as extreme events like storms and hurricanes in the United States. Where possible, the results were validated and quantitatively compared with aerial and ground-based survey data available from different agencies. This system was able to identify most of the disturbances reported by aerial and ground-based surveys, and it also identified

  10. 75 FR 73110 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of a non-competitive one-time replacement award from Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C funds for the Louisiana State University, Health Sciences Center, Viral Disease Clinic in...

  11. Supernova 2012ec: identification of the progenitor and early monitoring with PESSTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maund, J. R.; Fraser, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Botticella, M. T.; Barbarino, C.; Childress, M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Inserra, C.; Pignata, G.; Reichart, D.; Schmidt, B.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Tomasella, L.; Valenti, S.; Yaron, O.

    2013-04-01

    We present the identification of the progenitor of the Type IIP SN 2012ec in archival pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel F814W images. The properties of the progenitor are further constrained by non-detections in pre-explosion WFPC2 F450W and F606W images. We report a series of early photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2012ec. The r'-band light curve shows a plateau with M_{r^' }}=-17.0. The early spectrum is similar to the Type IIP SN 1999em, with the expansion velocity measured at Hα absorption minimum of -11 700 km s-1 (at 1 d post-discovery). The photometric and spectroscopic evolution of SN 2012ec shows it to be a Type IIP SN, discovered only a few days post-explosion (<6 d). We derive a luminosity for the progenitor, in comparison with MARCS model spectral energy distributions, of log {L/L}_{⊙} = 5.15± 0.19, from which we infer an initial mass range of 14-22 M⊙. This is the first SN with an identified progenitor to be followed by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO).

  12. Genetic identification of female Cannabis sativa plants at early developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Techen, Natascha; Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2010-11-01

    Sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were used to identify female plants at an early developmental stage in four different varieties of Cannabis sativa. Using the cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method, DNA was isolated from two-week-old plants of three drug-type varieties (Terbag W1, Terbag K2, and Terbag MX) and one fiber-type variety (Terbag Fedora A7) of C. sativa grown under controlled environmental conditions through seeds. Attempts to use MADC2 (male-associated DNA from Cannabis sativa) primers as a marker to identify the sex of Cannabis sativa plants were successful. Amplification of genomic DNA using MADC2-F and MADC2-R primers produced two distinct fragments, one with a size of approximately 450 bp for female plants and one for male plants with a size of approximately 300 bp. After harvesting the tissues for DNA extraction, plants were subjected to a flowering photoperiod (i.e., 12-h light cycle), and the appearance of flowers was compared with the DNA analysis. The results of the molecular analysis were found to be concordant with the appearance of male or female flowers. The results of this study represent a quick and reliable technique for the identification of sex in Cannabis plants using SCAR markers at a very early developmental stage.

  13. Proteomic identification of early salicylate- and flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pei; Zhang, Huoming; Yu, Boying; Xiong, Liming; Xia, Yiji

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the early defense responses against pathogen infection in plants. The mechanism about the initial and direct regulation of the defense signaling pathway by ROS remains elusive. Perturbation of cellular redox homeostasis by ROS is believed to alter functions of redox-sensitive proteins through their oxidative modifications. Here we report an OxiTRAQ-based proteomic study in identifying proteins whose cysteines underwent oxidative modifications in Arabidopsis cells during the early response to salicylate or flg22, two defense pathway elicitors that are known to disturb cellular redox homeostasis. Among the salicylate- and/or flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins are those involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodeling, RNA processing, post-translational modifications, and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. The identification of the salicylate-/flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins provides a foundation from which further study can be conducted toward understanding biological significance of their oxidative modifications during the plant defense response. PMID:25720653

  14. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  15. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria I: one year clinical isolates identification in Tertiary Hospital Aids Reference Center, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in pre highly active antiretroviral therapy era.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rosa Maria Carvalho; Saad, Maria Helena Féres; Silva, Marlei Gomes da; Fonseca, Leila de Souza

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolates at University Hospital, Reference Center for Aids in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during one year. We used standard biochemical tests for species identification and IS1245 PCR amplification was applied as a Mycobacterium avium specific identification marker. Four hundred and four specimens from 233 patients yielded acid-fast bacilli growth. M. tuberculosis was identified in 85% of the patients and NTM in 15%. NTM disseminated infection was a common event correlated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients and only in HIV negative patients the source of NTM was non sterile site. M. avium complex (MAC) was biochemically identified in 57.8% (49/83) of NTM isolates, most of them from sterile sites (75.5%), and in 94% (46/49) the IS 1245 marker specific for M. avium was present. Twenty NTM strains showed a MAC biochemical pattern with the exception of a urease-positive (99% of MAC are urease-negative), however IS1245 was detected in 96% of the strains leading to their identification as M. avium. In this group differences in NTM source was not significant. The second most frequently isolated NTM was identified as M. scrofulaceum (7.2%), followed by M. terrae (3.6%), M. gordonae (2.4%), M. chelonae (1.2%), M. fortuitum (1.2%) and one strain which could not be identified. All were IS1245 negative except for one strain identified as M. scrofulaceum. It is interesting to note that non-sterile sites were the major source of these isolates (92.8%). Our finding indicated that M. avium is still the major atypical species among in the MAC isolates recovered from Brazilian Aids patients without highty active antiretroviral therapy schema. Some discrepancies were seen between the identification methods and further investigations must be done to better characterize NTM isolates using other phenotypic and genotypic methods. PMID:12219142

  16. Early Identification and Systemic Educational Intervention for Young Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandau, Hannes; Pretis, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the international experience with early identification and intervention for children with AD/HD. Much less is known about AD/HD in two- to five-year-old preschool children than is known for older school-aged youngsters. Despite this lack of knowledge, AD/HD is increasingly recognized in this population and stimulant…

  17. 48 CFR 227.7203-3 - Early identification of computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on..., DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-3 Early identification of computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to the Government...

  18. 48 CFR 227.7203-3 - Early identification of computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on..., DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-3 Early identification of computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to the Government...

  19. 48 CFR 227.7203-3 - Early identification of computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on..., DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-3 Early identification of computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to the Government...

  20. 48 CFR 227.7203-3 - Early identification of computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on..., DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-3 Early identification of computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to the Government...

  1. 48 CFR 227.7203-3 - Early identification of computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on..., DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-3 Early identification of computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to the Government...

  2. A Diagnostic/Prescriptive Approach to Early Identification and Its Effects on First-Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillerich, Robert L.

    After a review was made of the literature related to early identification of reading problems, a battery of diagnostic tests was constructed of receptive and expressive language elements assumed necessary for success in reading. After pilot work and revisions, the battery (PDQ) was administered to 916 entering kindergarten pupils by their…

  3. Improving the Efficacy of First Grade Reading Screening: An Investigation of Word Identification Fluency with Other Early Literacy Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Nathan H.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of several early literacy measures that have been used in research and practice for first grade reading screening. A set of measures, Word Identification Fluency (WIF), Letter Naming Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency, and Nonsense Word Fluency, were administered as screening measures with 138 first grade…

  4. Early Identification of Hearing Impairment in Infants and Young Children: NIH Consensus Statement [and] Summary of the NIH Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NIH Consensus Statement, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This consensus statement on early identification of hearing impairment in infants and young children was developed by a nonadvocate, non-Federal panel of 58 experts during a 3-day meeting in 1993. The panel concluded that: (1) all infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit should be screened for hearing loss prior to discharge; (2)…

  5. Children Placed at Risk for Learning and Behavioral Difficulties: Implementing a School-Wide System of Early Identification and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Tam E.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Gresham, Frank M.; Beebe-Frankenberger, Margaret E.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a school-wide system of early identification and intervention for children recognized as being at risk for learning and behavior difficulties. Suggested guidelines for implementing such a program include: evaluating existing theory, knowledge, and practice; providing ongoing professional development; creating a school-wide…

  6. First S.T.E.P.: A Model for the Early Identification of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Koegel, Robert L.; Nefdt, Nicolette; Fredeen, Rosy; Klein, Eileen F.; Bruinsma, Yvonne E. M.

    2005-01-01

    Even though children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be reliably identified by autism experts at 18 months, and the majority of parents report symptoms before age 2, the average age of diagnosis for children with autism in the United States is 3 to 4 years of age. Early identification is especially vital given the growing amount of…

  7. Early identification of hERG liability in drug discovery programs by automated patch clamp

    PubMed Central

    Danker, Timm; Möller, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Blockade of the cardiac ion channel coded by human ether-à-gogo-related gene (hERG) can lead to cardiac arrhythmia, which has become a major concern in drug discovery and development. Automated electrophysiological patch clamp allows assessment of hERG channel effects early in drug development to aid medicinal chemistry programs and has become routine in pharmaceutical companies. However, a number of potential sources of errors in setting up hERG channel assays by automated patch clamp can lead to misinterpretation of data or false effects being reported. This article describes protocols for automated electrophysiology screening of compound effects on the hERG channel current. Protocol details and the translation of criteria known from manual patch clamp experiments to automated patch clamp experiments to achieve good quality data are emphasized. Typical pitfalls and artifacts that may lead to misinterpretation of data are discussed. While this article focuses on hERG channel recordings using the QPatch (Sophion A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark) technology, many of the assay and protocol details given in this article can be transferred for setting up different ion channel assays by automated patch clamp and are similar on other planar patch clamp platforms. PMID:25228880

  8. Proteomic profiling of cellulase-aid-extracted membrane proteins for functional identification of cellulose synthase complexes and their potential associated- components in cotton fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ao; Wang, Ruyi; Li, Xianliang; Liu, Mingyong; Fan, Jian; Guo, Kai; Luo, Bing; Chen, Tingting; Feng, Shengqiu; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Bingrui; Peng, Liangcai; Xia, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fibers are an excellent model for understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants. In this study, we determined a high cellulose biosynthesis activity in vitro by optimizing biochemical reaction conditions in cotton fibers. By adding a commercial cellulase enzyme into fibers extraction process, we extracted markedly higher levels of GhCESA1 and GhCESA8 proteins and observed an increase in β-1,4-glucan and β-1,3-glucan products in vitro. LC-MS/MS analysis of anti-GhCESA8-immunoprecipitated proteins showed that 19 proteins could be found in three independent experiments including four CESAs (GhCESA1,2,7,8), five well-known non-CESA proteins, one callose synthase (CALS) and nine novel proteins. Notably, upon the cellulase treatment, four CESAs, one CALS and four novel proteins were measured at relatively higher levels by calculating total peptide counts and distinct peptide numbers, indicating that the cellulase-aid-extracted proteins most likely contribute to the increase in β-glucan products in vitro. These results suggest that the cellulase treatment may aid to release active cellulose synthases complexes from growing glucan chains and make them more amenable to extraction. To our knowledge, it is the first time report about the functional identification of the potential proteins that were associated with plant cellulose and callose synthases complexes by using the cellulase-aided protein extraction. PMID:27192945

  9. Proteomic profiling of cellulase-aid-extracted membrane proteins for functional identification of cellulose synthase complexes and their potential associated- components in cotton fibers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ao; Wang, Ruyi; Li, Xianliang; Liu, Mingyong; Fan, Jian; Guo, Kai; Luo, Bing; Chen, Tingting; Feng, Shengqiu; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Bingrui; Peng, Liangcai; Xia, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fibers are an excellent model for understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants. In this study, we determined a high cellulose biosynthesis activity in vitro by optimizing biochemical reaction conditions in cotton fibers. By adding a commercial cellulase enzyme into fibers extraction process, we extracted markedly higher levels of GhCESA1 and GhCESA8 proteins and observed an increase in β-1,4-glucan and β-1,3-glucan products in vitro. LC-MS/MS analysis of anti-GhCESA8-immunoprecipitated proteins showed that 19 proteins could be found in three independent experiments including four CESAs (GhCESA1,2,7,8), five well-known non-CESA proteins, one callose synthase (CALS) and nine novel proteins. Notably, upon the cellulase treatment, four CESAs, one CALS and four novel proteins were measured at relatively higher levels by calculating total peptide counts and distinct peptide numbers, indicating that the cellulase-aid-extracted proteins most likely contribute to the increase in β-glucan products in vitro. These results suggest that the cellulase treatment may aid to release active cellulose synthases complexes from growing glucan chains and make them more amenable to extraction. To our knowledge, it is the first time report about the functional identification of the potential proteins that were associated with plant cellulose and callose synthases complexes by using the cellulase-aided protein extraction. PMID:27192945

  10. Optical elastic scattering for early label-free identification of clinical pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuer, Valentin; Gal, Olivier; Méteau, Jérémy; Marcoux, Pierre; Schultz, Emmanuelle; Lacot, Éric; Maurin, Max; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2016-03-01

    We report here on the ability of elastic light scattering in discriminating Gram+, Gram- and yeasts at an early stage of growth (6h). Our technique is non-invasive, low cost and does require neither skilled operators nor reagents. Therefore it is compatible with automation. It is based on the analysis of the scattering pattern (scatterogram) generated by a bacterial microcolony growing on agar, when placed in the path of a laser beam. Measurements are directly performed on closed Petri dishes. The characteristic features of a given scatterogram are first computed by projecting the pattern onto the Zernike orthogonal basis. Then the obtained data are compared to a database so that machine learning can yield identification result. A 10-fold cross-validation was performed on a database over 8 species (15 strains, 1906 scatterograms), at 6h of incubation. It yielded a 94% correct classification rate between Gram+, Gram- and yeasts. Results can be improved by using a more relevant function basis for projections, such as Fourier-Bessel functions. A fully integrated instrument has been installed at the Grenoble hospital's laboratory of bacteriology and a validation campaign has been started for the early screening of MSSA and MRSA (Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus) carriers. Up to now, all the published studies about elastic scattering were performed in a forward mode, which is restricted to transparent media. However, in clinical diagnostics, most of media are opaque, such as blood-supplemented agar. That is why we propose a novel scheme capable of collecting back-scattered light which provides comparable results.

  11. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience.

  12. Taxonomy for Strengthening the Identification of Core Elements for Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for HIV/AIDS Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Whittier, David K.; Jones, Patricia L.; Smith, Bryce D.; Uhl, Gary; Fisher, Holly H.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of core elements was developed to denote characteristics of an intervention, such as activities or delivery methods, presumed to be responsible for the efficacy of evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBIs) for HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper describes the development of a taxonomy of core elements based on a literature review of…

  13. Age-Related Declines in Early Sensory Memory: Identification of Rapid Auditory and Visual Stimulus Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fogerty, Daniel; Humes, Larry E.; Busey, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related temporal-processing declines of rapidly presented sequences may involve contributions of sensory memory. This study investigated recall for rapidly presented auditory (vowel) and visual (letter) sequences presented at six different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) that spanned threshold SOAs for sequence identification. Younger, middle-aged, and older adults participated in all tasks. Results were investigated at both equivalent performance levels (i.e., SOA threshold) and at identical physical stimulus values (i.e., SOAs). For four-item sequences, results demonstrated best performance for the first and last items in the auditory sequences, but only the first item for visual sequences. For two-item sequences, adults identified the second vowel or letter significantly better than the first. Overall, when temporal-order performance was equated for each individual by testing at SOA thresholds, recall accuracy for each position across the age groups was highly similar. These results suggest that modality-specific processing declines of older adults primarily determine temporal-order performance for rapid sequences. However, there is some evidence for a second amodal processing decline in older adults related to early sensory memory for final items in a sequence. This selective deficit was observed particularly for longer sequence lengths and was not accounted for by temporal masking. PMID:27199737

  14. Age-Related Declines in Early Sensory Memory: Identification of Rapid Auditory and Visual Stimulus Sequences.

    PubMed

    Fogerty, Daniel; Humes, Larry E; Busey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Age-related temporal-processing declines of rapidly presented sequences may involve contributions of sensory memory. This study investigated recall for rapidly presented auditory (vowel) and visual (letter) sequences presented at six different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) that spanned threshold SOAs for sequence identification. Younger, middle-aged, and older adults participated in all tasks. Results were investigated at both equivalent performance levels (i.e., SOA threshold) and at identical physical stimulus values (i.e., SOAs). For four-item sequences, results demonstrated best performance for the first and last items in the auditory sequences, but only the first item for visual sequences. For two-item sequences, adults identified the second vowel or letter significantly better than the first. Overall, when temporal-order performance was equated for each individual by testing at SOA thresholds, recall accuracy for each position across the age groups was highly similar. These results suggest that modality-specific processing declines of older adults primarily determine temporal-order performance for rapid sequences. However, there is some evidence for a second amodal processing decline in older adults related to early sensory memory for final items in a sequence. This selective deficit was observed particularly for longer sequence lengths and was not accounted for by temporal masking.

  15. Fetal programming and early identification of newborns at high risk of free radical-mediated diseases

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Serafina; Santacroce, Antonino; Picardi, Anna; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays metabolic syndrome represents a real outbreak affecting society. Paradoxically, pediatricians must feel involved in fighting this condition because of the latest evidences of developmental origins of adult diseases. Fetal programming occurs when the normal fetal development is disrupted by an abnormal insult applied to a critical point in intrauterine life. Placenta assumes a pivotal role in programming the fetal experience in utero due to the adaptive changes in structure and function. Pregnancy complications such as diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, and hypoxia are associated with placental dysfunction and programming. Many experimental studies have been conducted to explain the phenotypic consequences of fetal-placental perturbations that predispose to the genesis of metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In recent years, elucidating the mechanisms involved in such kind of process has become the challenge of scientific research. Oxidative stress may be the general underlying mechanism that links altered placental function to fetal programming. Maternal diabetes, prenatal hypoxic/ischaemic events, inflammatory/infective insults are specific triggers for an acute increase in free radicals generation. Early identification of fetuses and newborns at high risk of oxidative damage may be crucial to decrease infant and adult morbidity. PMID:27170927

  16. Age-Related Declines in Early Sensory Memory: Identification of Rapid Auditory and Visual Stimulus Sequences.

    PubMed

    Fogerty, Daniel; Humes, Larry E; Busey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Age-related temporal-processing declines of rapidly presented sequences may involve contributions of sensory memory. This study investigated recall for rapidly presented auditory (vowel) and visual (letter) sequences presented at six different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) that spanned threshold SOAs for sequence identification. Younger, middle-aged, and older adults participated in all tasks. Results were investigated at both equivalent performance levels (i.e., SOA threshold) and at identical physical stimulus values (i.e., SOAs). For four-item sequences, results demonstrated best performance for the first and last items in the auditory sequences, but only the first item for visual sequences. For two-item sequences, adults identified the second vowel or letter significantly better than the first. Overall, when temporal-order performance was equated for each individual by testing at SOA thresholds, recall accuracy for each position across the age groups was highly similar. These results suggest that modality-specific processing declines of older adults primarily determine temporal-order performance for rapid sequences. However, there is some evidence for a second amodal processing decline in older adults related to early sensory memory for final items in a sequence. This selective deficit was observed particularly for longer sequence lengths and was not accounted for by temporal masking. PMID:27199737

  17. Host Fish Identification and Early Life Thermal Requirements for the Federal Endangered Winged Mapleleaf Mussel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steingraeber, Mark; Newton, Teresa J.

    2005-01-01

    The winged mapleleaf mussel (Quadrula fragosa, WML) is a Federal endangered species historically inhabiting at least 34 river systems in 12 Midwestern states. Only four populations are currently known to exist, including one confirmed reproducing population in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway (NSR) bordering Minnesota and Wisconsin. Recovery efforts are limited by a lack of life history information, particularly which species of fish serve as host to the mussel's parasitic larvae (glochidia). Since 1997, biologists at the University of Minnesota have tried to identify host fish for the WML. Department of the Interior colleagues working in western Wisconsin at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's La Crosse Fishery Resources Office and Genoa National Fish Hatchery, the National Park Service's St. Croix NSR, and the U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) in La Crosse joined the team in 2001 to expand and accelerate the laboratory host fish identification program by making use of the well-equipped aquatic research facilities at UMESC. We report on several WML early life history investigations conducted at UMESC since autumn 2003 to identify suitable host fish species and evaluate thermal requisites for the development of glochidia into free-living juvenile mussels.

  18. Fetal programming and early identification of newborns at high risk of free radical-mediated diseases.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Serafina; Santacroce, Antonino; Picardi, Anna; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays metabolic syndrome represents a real outbreak affecting society. Paradoxically, pediatricians must feel involved in fighting this condition because of the latest evidences of developmental origins of adult diseases. Fetal programming occurs when the normal fetal development is disrupted by an abnormal insult applied to a critical point in intrauterine life. Placenta assumes a pivotal role in programming the fetal experience in utero due to the adaptive changes in structure and function. Pregnancy complications such as diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, and hypoxia are associated with placental dysfunction and programming. Many experimental studies have been conducted to explain the phenotypic consequences of fetal-placental perturbations that predispose to the genesis of metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In recent years, elucidating the mechanisms involved in such kind of process has become the challenge of scientific research. Oxidative stress may be the general underlying mechanism that links altered placental function to fetal programming. Maternal diabetes, prenatal hypoxic/ischaemic events, inflammatory/infective insults are specific triggers for an acute increase in free radicals generation. Early identification of fetuses and newborns at high risk of oxidative damage may be crucial to decrease infant and adult morbidity.

  19. Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Adding Visual Cues to Auditory Speech Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context. PMID:27317667

  20. Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Adding Visual Cues to Auditory Speech Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-06-17

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context.

  1. Early & Often: Designing a Comprehensive System of Financial Aid Information. A Report of the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Students and parents need ample time and accurate information to prepare for the financial burden of a college education--those who lack this knowledge base face a significant access barrier to higher education. This problem can be countered by the delivery of comprehensive, integrated financial aid information, an approach identified by the…

  2. 77 FR 57096 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, including primary adult HIV medical care, adult... referrals to specialty medical care. These funds will help to avoid a disruption of HIV clinical care to...: Critical funding for HIV medical care and treatment services to clients in the city of Nashville and...

  3. 78 FR 10182 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ..., Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The amount of the award to ensure ongoing HIV...., which represents a proportional share of the last award to HMHA. This funding will support HIV medical... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C...

  4. 75 FR 5603 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... order to ensure continuity of critical HIV medical and clinical care and treatment services to clients... June 30, 2011. Justification for the Exception to Competition: Critical funding for HIV medical care... Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA),...

  5. 76 FR 30951 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing... ensure continuity of critical HIV medical care and treatment services, and to avoid a disruption of HIV... to Competition Critical funding for HIV medical care and treatment services to clients in the...

  6. 75 FR 54898 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing, oral health care, outpatient mental... critical HIV medical care and treatment services, to clients in Marks, Mississippi, and the surrounding... to Competition: Critical funding for HIV medical care and treatment services to clients in the...

  7. Family Routines and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors among Early and Middle Adolescents Affected by Maternal HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Marelich, William D.; Herbeck, Diane M.; Payne, Diana L.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of parenting skills on adolescent outcomes among children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS (N = 118, M age = 13) was investigated. Among families with more frequent family routines, over time adolescents showed lower rates of aggression, anxiety, worry, depression, conduct disorder, binge drinking, and increased self-concept. Among…

  8. Critique of early models of the demographic impact of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa based on contemporary empirical data from Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Gregson, Simon; Nyamukapa, Constance; Lopman, Ben; Mushati, Phyllis; Garnett, Geoffrey P.; Chandiwana, Stephen K.; Anderson, Roy M.

    2007-01-01

    Early mathematical models varied in their predictions of the impact of HIV/AIDS on population growth from minimal impact to reductions in growth, in pessimistic scenarios, from positive to negative values over a period of 25 years. Models predicting negative rates of natural increase forecast little effect on the dependency ratio. Twenty years later, HIV prevalence in small towns, estates, and rural villages in eastern Zimbabwe, has peaked within the intermediate range predicted by the early models, but the demographic impact has been more acute than was predicted. Despite concurrent declines in fertility, fueled in part by HIV infections (total fertility is now 8% lower than expected without an epidemic), and a doubling of the crude death rate because of HIV/AIDS, the rate of natural population increase between 1998 and 2005 remained positive in each socioeconomic stratum. In the worst-affected areas (towns with HIV prevalence of 33%), HIV/AIDS reduced growth by two-thirds from 2.9% to 1.0%. The dependency ratio fell from 1.21 at the onset of the HIV epidemic to 0.78, the impact of HIV-associated adult mortality being outweighed by fertility decline. With the benefit of hindsight, the more pessimistic early models overestimated the demographic impact of HIV epidemics by overextrapolating initial HIV growth rates or not allowing for heterogeneity in key parameters such as transmissibility and sexual risk behavior. Data collected since the late 1980s show that there was a mismatch between the observed growth in the HIV epidemic and assumptions made about viral transmission. PMID:17761795

  9. Identification of Genes Whose Expression Profile Is Associated with Non-Progression towards AIDS Using eQTLs

    PubMed Central

    Le Clerc, Sigrid; van Manen, Daniëlle; Coulonges, Cédric; Ulveling, Damien; Laville, Vincent; Labib, Taoufik; Taing, Lieng; Delaneau, Olivier; Montes, Matthieu; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Zagury, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Background Many genome-wide association studies have been performed on progression towards the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and they mainly identified associations within the HLA loci. In this study, we demonstrate that the integration of biological information, namely gene expression data, can enhance the sensitivity of genetic studies to unravel new genetic associations relevant to AIDS. Methods We collated the biological information compiled from three databases of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) involved in cells of the immune system. We derived a list of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are functional in that they correlate with differential expression of genes in at least two of the databases. We tested the association of those SNPs with AIDS progression in two cohorts, GRIV and ACS. Tests on permuted phenotypes of the GRIV and ACS cohorts or on randomised sets of equivalent SNPs allowed us to assess the statistical robustness of this method and to estimate the true positive rate. Results Eight genes were identified with high confidence (p = 0.001, rate of true positives 75%). Some of those genes had previously been linked with HIV infection. Notably, ENTPD4 belongs to the same family as CD39, whose expression has already been associated with AIDS progression; while DNAJB12 is part of the HSP90 pathway, which is involved in the control of HIV latency. Our study also drew our attention to lesser-known functions such as mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and a zinc finger protein, ZFP57, which could be central to the effectiveness of HIV infection. Interestingly, for six out of those eight genes, down-regulation is associated with non-progression, which makes them appealing targets to develop drugs against HIV. PMID:26367535

  10. Health, ED use, and early identification of young children exposed to trauma

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Yvonne Humenay; Huang, Cindy Y.; Crusto, Cindy A.; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood trauma is an important public health problem with financial, physical health, and mental health repercussions. Emergency Departments are often the first point of contact for many young children affected by emotionally or psychologically traumatic events (e.g., neglect, separation from primary caregiver, maltreatment, witness to domestic violence within the family, natural disasters). Study Objectives Describe the prevalence of physical health symptoms, ED use and health related problems in young children (birth through 5 years) affected by trauma, and to predict whether or not children experiencing trauma are more likely to be affected by health related problems. Methods Community-based, cross-sectional survey of 208 young children. Traumatic events were assessed by the Traumatic Events Screening Inventory – Parent Report Revised. Child health symptoms and health related problems were measured using the Caregiver Information Questionnaire, developed by ORC Macro. Results Seventy-two percent of children had experienced at least one type of traumatic event. Children exposed to trauma were also experiencing recent health related events, including visits to the ED (32.2%) and the doctor (76.9%) for physical health symptoms, and recurring physical health problems (40.4%). Children previously exposed to high levels of trauma (4 or more types of events) were 2.9 times more likely to report having had recently visited the ED for health purposes. Conclusions Preventing recurrent trauma or recognizing early trauma exposure is difficult but essential if long-term negative consequences are to be mitigated or prevented. Within emergency departments, there are missed opportunities for identification and intervention for trauma-exposed children, as well as great potential for expanding primary and secondary prevention of maltreatment-associated illness, injury and mortality. PMID:24565881

  11. Early identification of cervical neoplasia with Raman spectroscopy and advanced methods for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jess, Phillip R. T.; Smith, Daniel D. W.; Mazilu, Michael; Cormack, Iain; Riches, Andrew C.; Herrington, C. Simon; Dholakia, Kishan

    2008-02-01

    Early detection of malignant tumours, or their precursor lesions, can dramatically improve patient outcome. High risk human Papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV16, infection can lead to the initiation and development of uterine cervical neoplasia. Bearing this in mind the identification of the effects of HPV infection may have clinical value. In this manuscript we investigate the application of Raman microspectroscopy to detect the presence of HPV in cultured cells when compared with normal cells. We also investigate the effect of sample fixation, which is a common clinical practice, on the ability of Raman spectroscopy to detect the presence of HPV. Raman spectra were acquired from Primary Human Keratinocytes (PHK), PHK expressing the E7 gene of HPV 16 (PHK E7) and CaSki cells, an HPV16 containing cervical carcinoma derived cell line. The average Raman spectra display variations, mostly in peaks relating to DNA and proteins, consistent with HPV gene expression and the onset of neoplasia in both live and fixed samples. Principle component analysis was used to objectively discriminate between the cells types giving sensitivities up to 100% for the comparison between PHK and CaSki. These results show that Raman spectroscopy can discriminate between cell lines representing different stages of cervical neoplasia. Furthermore Raman spectroscopy was able to identify cells expressing the HPV 16 E7 gene suggesting the approach may be of value in clinical practice. Finally this technique was also able to detect the effects of the virus in fixed samples demonstrating the compatibility of this technique with current cervical screening methods. However if Raman spectroscopy is to make a significant impact in clinical practice the long acquisition times must be addressed. In this report we examine the potential for beam shaping and advanced to improve the signal to noise ration hence subsequently facilitating a reduction in acquisition time.

  12. Retrospective Species Identification of Microsporidian Spores in Diarrheic Fecal Samples from Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS Patients by Multiplexed Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization▿

    PubMed Central

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Johansson, Michael A.; Tamang, Leena; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Moura, Laci S.; DaSilva, Alexandre J.; Girouard, Autumn S.; Matos, Olga

    2007-01-01

    In order to assess the applicability of multiplexed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for the clinical setting, we conducted retrospective analysis of 110 formalin-stored diarrheic stool samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients with intestinal microsporidiosis collected between 1992 and 2003. The multiplexed FISH assay identified microsporidian spores in 94 of 110 (85.5%) samples: 49 (52.1%) were positive for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, 43 (45.8%) were positive for Encephalitozoon intestinalis, 2 (2.1%) were positive for Encephalitozoon hellem, and 9 samples (9.6%) contained both E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis spores. Quantitative spore counts per ml of stool yielded concentration values from 3.5 × 103 to 4.4 × 105 for E. bieneusi (mean, 8.8 × 104/ml), 2.3 × 102 to 7.8 × 104 (mean, 1.5 × 104/ml) for E. intestinalis, and 1.8 × 102 to 3.6 × 102 for E. hellem (mean, 2.7 × 102/ml). Identification of microsporidian spores by multiplex FISH assay was more sensitive than both Chromotrope-2R and CalcoFluor White M2R stains; 85.5% versus 72.7 and 70.9%, respectively. The study demonstrated that microsporidian coinfection in HIV/AIDS patients with intestinal microsporidiosis is not uncommon and that formalin-stored fecal samples older than 10 years may not be suitable for retrospective analysis by techniques targeting rRNA. Multiplexed FISH assay is a reliable, quantitative fluorescence microscopy method for the simultaneous identification of E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis, and E. hellem, as well as Encephalitozoon cuniculi, spores in fecal samples and is a useful tool for assessing spore shedding intensity in intestinal microsporidiosis. The method can be used for epidemiological investigations and applied in clinical settings. PMID:17287331

  13. Normalization of immunoregulatory T-helper T-suppressor sublineages and cell-mediated immunity by isoprinosine in vitro in the early stages of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Tsang, P; Bekesi, J G

    1987-01-01

    Applying flow cytometric analysis and a panel of monoclonal antibodies that define functional subsets and stages of lymphocyte differentiation, we found both inducer and suppressor regulating subsets of helper T cells to be depressed with concurrent increase in the functionally active effector suppressor T cells in prodromal homosexuals and patients with AIDS. Concomitantly a broad spectrum of aberrations in all stages of B cell developments were observed. Failure of isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes from these subjects to respond to formalin-fixed Staphylococcus aureus cowan 1 (SAC) indicated intrinsic defects in their resting B cells, while impairment in pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced blastogenesis coupled with increased levels of Ig secretion signified regulatory defects in their mature B cells, which may be related to helper-suppressor dysfunctions. Based on these findings, a multifactorial immunodysfunction in AIDS was proposed. The antiviral biological modulator drug isoprinosine was shown to enhance PWM-induced, T-cell dependent, B-cell blastogenesis and normalize the spontaneous secretion of Ig while showing no modulative effects on SAC-induced (resting B-cell) transformations. It also modified, in a selective fashion, the phenotypic coexpression of both HLA-DR and Leu8 antigen on helper and suppressor T cells. Among prodromal subjects at risk to develop AIDS, isoprinosine augmented the expression of both helper T-cell subsets while reducing the number of suppressor effector cells and activated suppressor cells. These interferences with the helper-suppressor regulatory loop may explain the therapeutic efficacy of this drug in the early stages of AIDS. PMID:2446761

  14. Computer-aided generation of stimulation data and model identification for functional electrical stimulation (FES) control of lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Eom, G M; Watanabe, T; Futami, R; Hoshimiy, N; Handa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Standard stimulation data for unassisted standing up of paraplegic patients was generated by dynamic optimization linked with model simulation, to overcome the difficulties in the present electromyogram (EMG)-based method. The generated stimulation data were roughly in agreement with the normal subjects' EMG. From these, it is suggested that the 'model-based' method is useful as an alternative of the 'EMG-based method'. The same technique can be applied to generation of patient-specific stimulation data once the musculoskeletal system of a patient is properly identified. The musculoskeletal system must be identified from data taken from simple and noninvasive experiments for the identification method to be practically acceptable. We developed a musculoskeletal model and systematic identification protocols for this purpose. They were validated for the vastus lateralis muscle at the knee joint. The identification was successful and the predicted joint angle trajectories closely matched the experimental data. This implies that the model-based generation of patient-specific stimulation data is possible.

  15. Is re-creation of human identity possible using tooth prints? An experimental study to aid in identification.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Jadhav, Kiran; Ahmed Mujib, B R; Amberkar, Vikram S

    2009-11-20

    Enamel in teeth, as documented is the hardest substance in the entire human body. Tooth prints are the enamel rod end patterns on the tooth surface. Could this fact be a boon in utilizing it for an individual's identification in the hands of forensic experts? A study has been attempted towards the same. These tooth prints were recorded for 60 extracted tooth specimens after acid etching using a cellophane tape. Subsequently a digital image of the print was obtained which was subjected to biometric conversion using Verifinger standard SDK version 6.0 software followed by the use of Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) software for comparison of the tooth prints. In results we observed that tooth prints were composed of varied patterns and sub-patterns. A comparison was made between the tooth prints of different and the same individual and also between different classes of teeth (incisors, canines, premolars and molars). None of the patterns exhibited intra- and inter-individual similarity. Nor did any particular class of the tooth could be preferentially used over the other for an individual identification. This field demands a need for further exploration towards the use of tooth prints for establishing an individual's identity. PMID:19716244

  16. Identification of Stage-Specific Surface Markers in Early B Cell Development Provides Novel Tools for Identification of Progenitor Populations.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christina T; Lang, Stefan; Somasundaram, Rajesh; Soneji, Shamit; Sigvardsson, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    Whereas the characterization of B lymphoid progenitors has been facilitated by the identification of lineage- and stage-specific surface markers, the continued identification of differentially expressed proteins increases our capacity to explore normal and malignant B cell development. To identify novel surface markers with stage-specific expression patterns, we explored the reactivity of CD19(+) B cell progenitor cells to Abs targeted to 176 surface proteins. Markers with stage-specific expression were identified using a transgenic reporter gene system subdividing the B cell progenitors into four surface IgM(-) stages. This approach affirmed the utility of known stage-specific markers, as well as identifying additional proteins that selectively marked defined stages of B cell development. Among the stage-specific markers were the cell adhesion proteins CD49E, CD11A, and CD54 that are highly expressed selectively on the most immature progenitors. This work identifies a set of novel stage-specific surface markers that can be used as a complement to the classical staining protocols to explore B lymphocyte development. PMID:27456481

  17. Early identification of children likely to develop persistent asthma: atopy is an integral component of the high risk phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Sly, Peter D.; Boner, Attilio L.; Bjorksten, Bengt; Bush, Andy; Custovic, Adnan; Eigenmann, Philippe A.; Gern, James E.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Hamelmann, Eckard; Helms, Peter J; Lemanske, Robert F.; Martinez, Fernando; Pedersen, Soren; Renz, Harald; Sampson, Hugh; von Mutius, Erika; Wahn, Ulrich; Holt, Patrick G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is a growing consensus that the long term solution to the asthma epidemic lies in prevention and not in treatment of established disease. Atopic asthma arises from gene x environment interactions which most commonly occur during a relatively narrow window period in pre- and postnatal development. These interactions are incompletely understood, and hence the holy grail of primary prevention remains an elusive goal. We contend that a lack of understanding of the role of atopy in early life in the development of persistent asthma in children exists amongst primary care physicians, paediatricians and specialists. In this review we argue that early identification of high risk children is feasible based on currently available technology, and worthwhile in relation to potential benefits to the children so identified. Knowledge of an asthmatic child's atopic status in early life has practical clinical and prognostic implications, as well as forming the basis for future preventative strategies. PMID:18805338

  18. Examining Parents' Experiences and Information Needs Regarding Early Identification of Developmental Delays: Qualitative Research to Inform a Public Health Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Raspa, Melissa; Levis, Denise M.; Kish-Doto, Julia; Wallace, Ina; Rice, Catherine; Barger, Brian; Green, Katie K.; Wolf, Rebecca B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the approach and materials of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's “Learn the Signs. Act Early.” (LTSAE) health education campaign, which aims to improve awareness of developmental milestones and early warning signs of developmental delay among parents of young children. Methods We conducted 2 phases of qualitative research. Focus groups assessed the campaign's objectives by exploring the experiences of parents with children who have developmental delays or disabilities to determine facilitators of and barriers to identification. In-depth interviews were conducted with parents of typically developing children, who reviewed campaign materials and provided feedback on appropriateness, appeal, and clarity with regard to the campaign's objectives. Results Phase 1: Parents were typically the first to express concern about their child's development, and most talked with their child's health care provider. Two categories of health care providers emerged: those who proactively asked about a child's development, used tools to facilitate conversations, and made referrals, and those who did not ask about development, told parents to “wait and see,” and did not provide information about services and supports. Few parents knew about special education services before identification. Phase 2: Participants found the campaign materials appealing, but were unclear about how to act early and why acting early was important. Conclusions Results affirmed LTSAE's evidence-based approach to educating parents about child development. Additional campaign considerations include providing more information about how to act early and why acting early is important and enhancing outreach to providers to help them communicate with concerned parents. PMID:26414090

  19. [Different wavelengths selection methods for identification of early blight on tomato leaves by using hyperspectral imaging technique].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu-Xi; Xie, Chuan-Qi; Wang, Qiao-Nan; He, Yong; Shao, Yong-Ni

    2014-05-01

    Identification of early blight on tomato leaves by using hyperspectral imaging technique based on different effective wavelengths selection methods (successive projections algorithm, SPA; x-loading weights, x-LW; gram-schmidt orthogonaliza-tion, GSO) was studied in the present paper. Hyperspectral images of seventy healthy and seventy infected tomato leaves were obtained by hyperspectral imaging system across the wavelength range of 380-1023 nm. Reflectance of all pixels in region of interest (ROI) was extracted by ENVI 4. 7 software. Least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) model was established based on the full spectral wavelengths. It obtained an excellent result with the highest identification accuracy (100%) in both calibration and prediction sets. Then, EW-LS-SVM and EW-LDA models were established based on the selected wavelengths suggested by SPA, x-LW and GSO, respectively. The results showed that all of the EW-LS-SVM and EW-LDA models performed well with the identification accuracy of 100% in EW-LS-SVM model and 100%, 100% and 97. 83% in EW-LDA model, respectively. Moreover, the number of input wavelengths of SPA-LS-SVM, x-LW-LS-SVM and GSO-LS-SVM models were four (492, 550, 633 and 680 nm), three (631, 719 and 747 nm) and two (533 and 657 nm), respectively. Fewer input variables were beneficial for the development of identification instrument. It demonstrated that it is feasible to identify early blight on tomato leaves by using hyperspectral imaging, and SPA, x-LW and GSO were effective wavelengths selection methods.

  20. Early & Often: Designing a Comprehensive System of Financial Aid Information. Abridged Report of the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Students and parents need ample time and accurate information to prepare for the financial burden of a college education--those who lack this knowledge base face a significant access barrier to higher education. The early intervention community is calling for a method of delivering age-appropriate information in a timely manner as one means of…

  1. Supporting early career health investigators in Kenya: A qualitative study of HIV/AIDS research capacity building

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Joseph; Nduati, Ruth; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Strategies to transfer international health research training programs to sub-Saharan African institutions focus on developing cadres of local investigators who will lead such programs. Using a critical leadership theory framework, we conducted a qualitative study of one program to understand how collaborative training and research can support early career investigators in Kenya toward the program transfer goal. Methods We used purposive sampling methods and a semi-structured protocol to conduct in-depth interviews with US (N = 5) and Kenyan (N = 5) independent investigators. Transcripts were coded using a two-step process, and then compared with each other to identify major themes. Results A limited local research environment, funding needs and research career mentorship were identified as major influences on early career researchers. Institutional demands on Kenyan faculty to teach rather than complete research restricted investigators’ ability to develop research careers. This was coupled with lack of local funding to support research. Sustainable collaborations between Kenyan, US and other international investigators were perceived to mitigate these challenges and support early career investigators who would help build a robust local research environment for training. Conclusion Mutually beneficial collaborations between Kenyan and US investigators developed during training mitigate these challenges and build a supportive research environment for training. In these collaborations, early career investigators learn how to navigate the complex international research environment to build local HIV research capacity. Shared and mutually beneficial resources within international research collaborations are required to support early career investigators and plans to transfer health research training to African institutions. PMID:26113923

  2. A real-time PCR-based semi-quantitative breakpoint to aid in molecular identification of urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Wendy L J; van der Donk, Christina F M; Bruggeman, Cathrien A; Stobberingh, Ellen E; Wolffs, Petra F G

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel approach to aid in diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs). A real-time PCR assay was used to screen for culture-positive urinary specimens and to identify the causative uropathogen. Semi-quantitative breakpoints were used to screen for significant bacteriuria (presence of ≥ 10(5) CFU/ml of uropathogens) or low-level bacteriuria (containing between 10(3) and 10(4) CFU/ml of uropathogens). The 16S rDNA-based assay could identify the most prevalent uropathogens using probes for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species and Streptococcus species. 330 urinary specimens were analysed and results were compared with conventional urine culture. Using a PCR Ct value of 25 as semi-quantitative breakpoint for significant bacteriuria resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 97% and 80%, respectively. In 78% of the samples with monomicrobial infections the assay contained probes to detect the bacteria present in the urine specimens and 99% of these uropathogens was correctly identified. Concluding, this proof-of-concept approach demonstrates that the assay can distinguish bacteriuria from no bacteriuria as well as detect the involved uropathogen within 4 hours after sampling, allowing adequate therapy decisions within the same day as well as drastically reduce consequent urine culturing.

  3. Consensus Development Conference on Early Identification of Hearing Impairment in Infants and Young Children (Bethesda, Maryland, March 1-3, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This document compiles abstracts of papers that were presented at a 3-day conference of experts which developed a consensus statement on early identification of hearing impairment in infants and young children. Papers addressed taxonomy; epidemiology; developmental consequences of early hearing impairment; methodology, instrumentation, and…

  4. Identification of Patients With Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Catalina; Olsen, Nancy J.

    2006-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis that affects the adult population. Early diagnosis and treatment are the cornerstones to prevent joint damage and avoid long-term costs and disability. This article reviews the limitations of the currently available tools for the evaluation of patients with early arthritis, including clinical assessment, serologic markers and imaging modalities. It also discusses gene expression analysis, a newer and potentially promising approach to the early diagnosis of RA. PMID:17162371

  5. Identification of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Catalina; Olsen, Nancy J

    2006-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis that affects the adult population. Early diagnosis and treatment are the cornerstones to prevent joint damage and avoid long-term costs and disability. This article reviews the limitations of the currently available tools for the evaluation of patients with early arthritis, including clinical assessment, serologic markers and imaging modalities. It also discusses gene expression analysis, a newer and potentially promising approach to the early diagnosis of RA. PMID:17162371

  6. Exogenous ochronosis in a Chinese patient: use of dermoscopy aids early diagnosis and selection of biopsy site

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen Chun; Tey, Hong Liang; Lee, Joyce Siong See; Goh, Boon Kee

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of exogenous ochronosis is often challenging and requires a high index of suspicion. Herein, we report a case of exogenous ochronosis in a Chinese patient. The condition was caused by the use of bleaching agents, including creams containing hydroquinone. We demonstrate the use of dermoscopy as an invaluable tool for the early recognition of the condition, as well as in the selection of an appropriate site for a skin biopsy. PMID:24452981

  7. Computer aided identification of sodium channel blockers in the clinical treatment of epilepsy using molecular docking tools

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Uzma; Akka, Jyothy; Hinore, Jitendra Singh; Girdhar, Amandeep; Bandaru, Srinivas; Sumithnath, Tharaparambil Gangadharan; Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Munshi, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Phenytoin (PHT) and Carbamazepine (CBZ) are excellent sodium channel blockers administered in clinical treatment of epileptic seizures. However, the narrow therapeutic range and limited pharmacokinetics of these drugs have raised serious concerns in the proper management of epilepsy. To overcome this, the present study attempts to identify a candidate molecule with superior pharmacological profile than PHT and CBZ through In silico approaches. PHT and CBZ served as query small molecules for Tanimoto based similarity search with a threshold of 95% against PubChem database. Aided by MolDock algorithm, high affinity similar compound against each query was retrieved. PHT and CBZ and their respective similar were further tested for toxicity profiles, LC 50 values and biological activity. Compounds, NSC403438 and AGN-PC-0BPCBP respectively similar to PHT and CBZ demonstrated higher affinity to sodium channel protein than their respective leads. Of particular relevance, NSC403438 demonstrated highest binding affinity bestowed with least toxicity, better LC 50 values and optimal bioactivity. NSC403438 was further mapped for its structure based pharmacophoric features. In the study, we report NSC403438 as potential sodium channel blocker as a better candidate than PHT and CBZ which can be put forth for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies. Abbreviations AEDs - Antiepileptic drugs, BLAST - Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, CBZ - Carbamazepine, GEFS+ - Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus, GPCR - G Protein Coupled Receptor, Nav - Sodium channel with specific voltage conduction, PDB - Protein Data Bank, PHT - Phenytoin, PIR - Protein Information resources, SAVES - Structural Analysis and Verification Server, VGSC - Voltage-gated Sodium channels. PMID:25914447

  8. Development of a new approach to aid in visual identification of murine iPS colonies using a fuzzy logic decision support system.

    PubMed

    Bassaneze, Vinicius; Sacramento, Chester Bittencourt; Freire, Rodolfo; De Alencar, Patrícia Fernandes; Ortega, Neli Regina Siqueira; Krieger, Jose Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The a priori identification of induced pluripotent stem cells remains a challenge. Being able to quickly identify the most embryonic stem cell-similar induced pluripotent stem cells when validating results could help to reduce costs and save time. In this context, tools based on non-classic logic can be useful in creating aid-systems based on visual criteria. True colonies when viewed at 100x magnification have been found to have the following 3 characteristics: a high degree of border delineation, a more uniform texture, and the absence of a cracked texture. These visual criteria were used for fuzzy logic modeling. We investigated the possibility of predicting the presence of alkaline phosphatase activity, typical of true induced pluripotent stem cell colonies, after 25 individuals, with varying degrees of experience in working with murine iPS cells, categorized the images of 136 colonies based on visual criteria. Intriguingly, the performance evaluation by area under the ROC curve (16 individuals with satisfactory performance), Spearman correlation (all statistically significant), and Cohen's Kappa agreement analysis (all statistically significant) demonstrates that the discriminatory capacity of different evaluators are similar, even those who have never cultivated cells. Thus, we report on a new system to facilitate visual identification of murine- induced pluripotent stem cell colonies that can be useful for staff training and opens the possibility of exploring visual characteristics of induced pluripotent stem cell colonies with their functional peculiarities. The fuzzy model has been integrated as a web-based tool named "2see-iPS" which is freely accessed at http://genetica.incor.usp.br/2seeips/. PMID:23950970

  9. Development of a new approach to aid in visual identification of murine iPS colonies using a fuzzy logic decision support system.

    PubMed

    Bassaneze, Vinicius; Sacramento, Chester Bittencourt; Freire, Rodolfo; De Alencar, Patrícia Fernandes; Ortega, Neli Regina Siqueira; Krieger, Jose Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The a priori identification of induced pluripotent stem cells remains a challenge. Being able to quickly identify the most embryonic stem cell-similar induced pluripotent stem cells when validating results could help to reduce costs and save time. In this context, tools based on non-classic logic can be useful in creating aid-systems based on visual criteria. True colonies when viewed at 100x magnification have been found to have the following 3 characteristics: a high degree of border delineation, a more uniform texture, and the absence of a cracked texture. These visual criteria were used for fuzzy logic modeling. We investigated the possibility of predicting the presence of alkaline phosphatase activity, typical of true induced pluripotent stem cell colonies, after 25 individuals, with varying degrees of experience in working with murine iPS cells, categorized the images of 136 colonies based on visual criteria. Intriguingly, the performance evaluation by area under the ROC curve (16 individuals with satisfactory performance), Spearman correlation (all statistically significant), and Cohen's Kappa agreement analysis (all statistically significant) demonstrates that the discriminatory capacity of different evaluators are similar, even those who have never cultivated cells. Thus, we report on a new system to facilitate visual identification of murine- induced pluripotent stem cell colonies that can be useful for staff training and opens the possibility of exploring visual characteristics of induced pluripotent stem cell colonies with their functional peculiarities. The fuzzy model has been integrated as a web-based tool named "2see-iPS" which is freely accessed at http://genetica.incor.usp.br/2seeips/.

  10. Toward the Identification of Features of Effective Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators. Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha; Tout, Kathryn; Halle, Tamara; Whittaker, Jessica Vick; Lavelle, Bridget

    2010-01-01

    This review incorporates findings from research on four "targets" of early childhood professional development: 1) strengthening human or social capital; 2) strengthening practices at institutions or organizations providing professional development; 3) strengthening early educator practices related to specific child outcomes; and, 4) strengthening…

  11. Survival Outcomes and Effect of Early vs. Deferred cART Among HIV-Infected Patients Diagnosed at the Time of an AIDS-Defining Event: A Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mussini, Cristina; Johnson, Margaret; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Antinori, Andrea; Gill, M. John; Sighinolfi, Laura; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina; Borghi, Vanni; Sabin, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We analyzed clinical progression among persons diagnosed with HIV at the time of an AIDS-defining event, and assessed the impact on outcome of timing of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART). Methods Retrospective, European and Canadian multicohort study.. Patients were diagnosed with HIV from 1997–2004 and had clinical AIDS from 30 days before to 14 days after diagnosis. Clinical progression (new AIDS event, death) was described using Kaplan-Meier analysis stratifying by type of AIDS event. Factors associated with progression were identified with multivariable Cox regression. Progression rates were compared between those starting early (<30 days after AIDS event) or deferred (30–270 days after AIDS event) cART. Results The median (interquartile range) CD4 count and viral load (VL) at diagnosis of the 584 patients were 42 (16, 119) cells/µL and 5.2 (4.5, 5.7) log10 copies/mL. Clinical progression was observed in 165 (28.3%) patients. Older age, a higher VL at diagnosis, and a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (vs. other AIDS events) were independently associated with disease progression. Of 366 patients with an opportunistic infection, 178 (48.6%) received early cART. There was no significant difference in clinical progression between those initiating cART early and those deferring treatment (adjusted hazard ratio 1.32 [95% confidence interval 0.87, 2.00], p = 0.20). Conclusions Older patients and patients with high VL or NHL at diagnosis had a worse outcome. Our data suggest that earlier initiation of cART may be beneficial among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with clinical AIDS in our setting. PMID:22043301

  12. Adapting a SSKIN bundle for carers to aid identification of pressure damage and ulcer risks in the community.

    PubMed

    McCoulough, Siobhan

    2016-06-01

    If pressure damage is identified and addressed at an early stage, it may be reversed. Otherwise, it may quickly progress into a serious deep tissue injury. In the community, most daily skin care is undertaken by formal and informal carers. They therefore need to know how to identify signs that pressure ulcers may develop and what immediate actions to take. NICE guidance on pressure ulcer prevention is too extensive to be a simple tool for carers, so a SSKIN bundle was adapted for community use. This ensures carers know how to prevent and identify pressure damage, and includes skin care, repositioning and use of equipment. Carers need training. This is the responsibility of all involved with the patient, including health-care and local authority services.

  13. Adapting a SSKIN bundle for carers to aid identification of pressure damage and ulcer risks in the community.

    PubMed

    McCoulough, Siobhan

    2016-06-01

    If pressure damage is identified and addressed at an early stage, it may be reversed. Otherwise, it may quickly progress into a serious deep tissue injury. In the community, most daily skin care is undertaken by formal and informal carers. They therefore need to know how to identify signs that pressure ulcers may develop and what immediate actions to take. NICE guidance on pressure ulcer prevention is too extensive to be a simple tool for carers, so a SSKIN bundle was adapted for community use. This ensures carers know how to prevent and identify pressure damage, and includes skin care, repositioning and use of equipment. Carers need training. This is the responsibility of all involved with the patient, including health-care and local authority services. PMID:27297573

  14. Early Evolution of the Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process: Contributions from the USEPA Effluent Testing Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of its whole effluent testing program, the USEPA developed an effects-directed analysis (EDA) approach to identifying the cause of toxicity in toxic effluents or ambient waters, an EDA process termed a “Toxicity Identification Evaluation” (TIE), which is the focus of this...

  15. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  16. The detection of morphine and codeine in human teeth: an aid in the identification and study of human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Gigli, F; Lodi, F; Grandi, M

    2003-06-01

    When studying unidentified putrefied or skeletonised human remains it may be difficult to obtain information on drug habits which may prove important for the construction of a biological profile or lead to hypotheses on the manner of death. The detection of morphine and codeine in teeth from human remains may prove crucial in obtaining such information and thus give forensic odontology and anthropology a further tool for identification. Because teeth can be an important deposit of exogenous substances accumulated both in the pulp and in the calcified tissues, they are an invaluable source of data from a toxicological point of view. The authors therefore tested 3 groups of teeth for morphine and codeine: the first group consisted of artificially aged teeth from individuals known to have died of heroin overdose; the second, of teeth from individuals with no history of drug abuse; the third, of teeth from cases of burnt, putrefied and skeletonised remains found in conditions strongly suggestive of a drug-related death. Results showed that in groups 1 and 3 morphine and codeine could still be identified in the teeth, proving that these tissues may be a reliable source for toxicological information concerning the history of the individual. Further studies are needed to verify whether the substances detected reflect drugs in circulation in an acute phase (and therefore present in blood vessels in the pulp) or whether they represent drugs which have percolated and been stored in dentine and enamel and thus denote a history of drug abuse. Nonetheless this study shows that teeth may be an important source of toxicological information in the forensic scenario.

  17. Elution factors of synthetic oxotriacylglycerols as an aid in identification of peroxidized natural triacylglycerols by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sjövall, O; Kuksis, A; Marai, L; Myher, J J

    1997-11-01

    Selected elution factors were determined for model oxotriacylglycerols as an aid in identification of the peroxidation products of natural triacylglycerols by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/ES/MS). For this purpose synthetic triacylglycerols of known structure were converted to hydroperoxides, hydroxides, epoxides, and core aldehydes and their dinitrophenylhydrazones by published procedures. The oxotriacylglycerols were resolved by normal-phase thin-layer chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC, and the identities of the oxotriacylglycerols confirmed by LC/ES/MS. Elution factors of oxotriacylglycerols were determined in relation to a homologous series of saturated triacylglycerols, ranging from 24 to 54 acyl carbons, and analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC, using a gradient of 20-80% isopropanol in methanol as eluting solvent and an evaporative light-scattering detector. It was shown that the elution times varied with the nature of the functional group and its regiolocation in the triacylglycerol molecule. A total of 31 incremental elution factors were calculated from chromatography of 33 oxygenated and nonoxygenated triacylglycerol species, ranging in carbon number from 36 to 54 and in double-bond number from 0 to 6.

  18. Tracing the Early Development of Harmful Algal Blooms on the West Florida Shelf with the Aid of Lagrangian Coherent Structures

    PubMed Central

    Olascoaga, M. J.; Beron-Vera, F. J.; Brand, L. E.; Koçak, H.

    2008-01-01

    Several theories have been proposed to explain the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) produced by the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida Shelf. However, because the early stages of HAB development are usually not detected, these theories have been so far very difficult to verify. In this paper we employ simulated Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) to trace potential early locations of the development of a HAB in late 2004 before it was transported to a region where it could be detected by satellite imagery. The LCSs, which are extracted from surface ocean currents produced by a data-assimilative HYCOM (HYbrid-Coordinate Ocean Model) simulation, constitute material fluid barriers that demarcate potential pathways for HAB evolution. Using a simplified population dynamics model we infer the factors that could possibly lead to the development of the HAB in question. The population dynamics model determines nitrogen in two components, nutrients and phytoplankton, which are assumed to be passively advected by surface ocean currents produced by the above HYCOM simulation. Two nutrient sources are inferred for the HAB whose evolution is found to be strongly tied to the simulated LCSs. These nutrient sources are found to be located nearshore and possibly due to land runoff. PMID:19137076

  19. Tracing the Early Development of Harmful Algal Blooms on the West Florida Shelf with the Aid of Lagrangian Coherent Structures.

    PubMed

    Olascoaga, M J; Beron-Vera, F J; Brand, L E; Koçak, H

    2008-01-01

    Several theories have been proposed to explain the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) produced by the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida Shelf. However, because the early stages of HAB development are usually not detected, these theories have been so far very difficult to verify. In this paper we employ simulated Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) to trace potential early locations of the development of a HAB in late 2004 before it was transported to a region where it could be detected by satellite imagery. The LCSs, which are extracted from surface ocean currents produced by a data-assimilative HYCOM (HYbrid-Coordinate Ocean Model) simulation, constitute material fluid barriers that demarcate potential pathways for HAB evolution. Using a simplified population dynamics model we infer the factors that could possibly lead to the development of the HAB in question. The population dynamics model determines nitrogen in two components, nutrients and phytoplankton, which are assumed to be passively advected by surface ocean currents produced by the above HYCOM simulation. Two nutrient sources are inferred for the HAB whose evolution is found to be strongly tied to the simulated LCSs. These nutrient sources are found to be located nearshore and possibly due to land runoff.

  20. Use of Two Selective Media and a Broth Motility Test Can Aid in Identification or Exclusion of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Vicki A.; Peak, K. Kealy; Veguilla, William O.; Reeves, Frank; Heberlein-Larson, Lea; Cannons, Andrew C.; Amuso, Phil; Cattani, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    During the anthrax attack of 2001, the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) Bureau of Laboratories in Tampa received hundreds of isolates suspected of being Bacillus anthracis. None were confirmed to be B. anthracis since most isolates were motile and not even in the Bacillus cereus group. Although the sentinel laboratories now send fewer isolates to FDOH laboratories, should another attack occur the number of isolates submitted would likely increase dramatically, and this upsurge would seriously challenge personnel who are expected to be busy examining an increased number of environmental samples. We examined two selective and differential growth media and alternative motility methods that could be used to streamline the processing of suspicious isolates. Of 60 isolates previously sent to the FDOH laboratory, 56 were endospore-forming gram-positive rods and only 7 grew on mannitol-egg yolk-polymyxin B agar and/or the Anthracis chromogenic agar. Microscopic observation of early-log-phase growth (2 to 3 h) in a shaking broth was the best method to detect motility in 40 isolates that appeared nonmotile in the motility media investigated. One of these growth media and microscopic examination of shaken broth cultures can be used to show that an isolate is not B. anthracis before expensive molecular and antibody-based tests are performed. By doing so, costs could be reduced and analysis time shortened. PMID:16145074

  1. Current state of HIV/AIDS in Taiwan and reappraisal of early diagnostic value of serial and comparative analyses of western blot patterns of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mao-Yuan; Chuang, Che-Yen

    2002-02-01

    Since Taiwan is not a member of the World Health Organization (WHO), the problems of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Taiwan are not well known to the world. In this report we summarize the trend and current status of HIV/AIDS in Taiwan and also analyze Western blot (WB) patterns. The application of serial and comparative WB analyses is important in establishing an early diagnosis of neonatal HIV infection. These analyses will be useful as well in evaluating the clinical status of adults infected with HIV in developing countries. When there are "indeterminate" WBs in adults with recent HIV infection, it is imperative to perform a WB weekly to attain the earliest possible diagnosis and treatment. Usually anti-gag antibodies, most frequently the anti-p24, are followed by anti-env and anti-pol antibodies. When the set point is attained, WB studies may also be repeated if the clinical status changes or if the patients are receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In the advanced stages of HIV infection, usually the anti-gag antibodies will fade first and then disappear, this occurs next in the anti-pol and in the anti-env antibodies. During HAART, viral replication is usually controlled and there will thus be a partial restoration of the immunological function that will induce changes in the antigen-antibody ratio and, in the end, this will result in changes in the WB patterns. In the mid 1980s all the hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) used in Taiwan was anti-HIV positive. However, follow-up ELISA and WB studies of the HBIG injected newborns proved that HBIG was anti-HIV positive but that there was no replicable HIV in HBIG. Monthly WB tests of newborns and anti-HIV positive mothers were used to differentiate HIV infection from the passive placental transference by comparing their WB patterns. Comparative WB analyses was also done between blood donors and recipients, and also between husbands and wives

  2. Early identification and treatment of communication and swallowing deficits in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ciucci, Michelle R; Grant, Laura M; Rajamanickam, Eunice S Paul; Hilby, Breanna L; Blue, Katherine V; Jones, Corinne A; Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A

    2013-08-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a wide range of deficits including fine and gross sensorimotor impairment, autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, and cognitive decline. Traditionally, the focus for diagnosis and treatment has been on sensorimotor impairment related to dopamine depletion. It is now widely recognized, however, that PD-related pathology affects multiple central nervous system neurotransmitters and pathways. Communication and swallowing functions can be impaired even in the early stages, significantly affecting health and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on early intervention for communication and swallowing impairment in PD. Overarching themes were that (1) studies and interpretation of data from studies in early PD are limited; (2) best therapy practices have not been established, in part due to the heterogeneous nature of PD; and (3) as communication and swallowing problems are pervasive in PD, further treatment research is essential. PMID:24166192

  3. Early Identification and Treatment of Communication and Swallowing Deficits in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ciucci, Michelle R.; Grant, Laura M.; Paul Rajamanickam, Eunice S.; Hilby, Breanna L.; Blue, Katherine V.; Jones, Corinne A.; Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a wide range of deficits including fine and gross sensorimotor impairment, autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, and cognitive decline. Traditionally, the focus for diagnosis and treatment has been on sensorimotor impairment related to dopamine depletion. It is now widely recognized, however, that PD-related pathology affects multiple central nervous system neurotransmitters and pathways. Communication and swallowing functions can be impaired even in the early stages, significantly affecting health and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on early intervention for communication and swallowing impairment in PD. Overarching themes were that (1) studies and interpretation of data from studies in early PD are limited; (2) best therapy practices have not been established, in part due to the heterogeneous nature of PD; and (3) as communication and swallowing problems are pervasive in PD, further treatment research is essential. PMID:24166192

  4. The Way the Money Goes: An Investigation of Flows of Funding and Resources for Young Children Affected by HIV/AIDS. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development. Young Children and HIV/AIDS Sub-Series, No. 37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Alison

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses routes by which HIV/AIDS money is dispersed and received. It notes that capturing accurate data on actual spending patterns of large donors can be difficult, as there is no uniform tracking or reporting system and much HIV/AIDS money is spent under the broader category of sexual and reproductive health. Most of the information…

  5. The non-destructive identification of early Chinese porcelain by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H. S.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Zhang, B.; Yang, F. J.

    2004-06-01

    PIXE is used for the non-destructive differentiation of early precious Chinese blue and white porcelain made in Yuan (AD 1206-1368), Ming (AD 1368-1644) Dynasty in Jingdezhen from imitations. Also, ancient celadon made in Song Dynasty (AD 960-1279) is identified by measuring the trace elements contained in the glazes.

  6. Identification of zinc finger protein Bcl6 as a novel regulator of early adipose commitment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuanfei; Yang, Yang; Peng, Jie; Song, Tongxing; Xu, Tao; Wei, Hongkui; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a key determinant of whole-body metabolism and energy homeostasis. Unravelling the transcriptional regulatory process during adipogenesis is therefore highly relevant from a biomedical perspective. In these studies, zinc finger protein B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) was demonstrated to have a role in early adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Bcl6 is enriched in preadipose versus non-preadipose fibroblasts and shows upregulated expression in the early stage of adipogenesis. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that Bcl6 acts as a key regulator of adipose commitment and differentiation both in vitro and ex vivo RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bcl6 in C3H10T1/2 cells greatly inhibited adipogenic potential, whereas Bcl6 overexpression enhanced adipogenic differentiation. This transcription factor also directly or indirectly targets and controls the expression of some early and late adipogenic regulators (i.e. Zfp423, Zfp467, KLF15, C/EBPδ, C/EBPα and PPARγ). We further identified that Bcl6 transactivated the signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), which was determined as a required factor for adipogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of STAT1 rescued the impairment of adipogenic commitment and differentiation induced by Bcl6 knockdown in C3H10T1/2 cells, thereby confirming that STAT1 is a downstream direct target of Bcl6. This study identifies Bcl6 as a positive transcriptional regulator of early adipose commitment. PMID:27251748

  7. Early Identification of ADHD: Methods, Benefits, and a Standard Performance Metric for School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation as an executive position paper (EPP) will provide a thorough literature review and the most current and reliable data on Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) prevalence, show the high importance of early diagnosis and interventions, and provide a standard for a school district to…

  8. Cognitive Correlates of Learning Problems: Some Implications for Early Identification and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forer, Ruth; And Others

    This paper reviews studies on cognitive processes that may mediate the development of early learning problems. Topics covered include auditory and visual discrimination deficits, integration of information from different modalities, the significance of attentional factors, contributions of memory factors, and the importance of cognitive style…

  9. Identification of zinc finger protein Bcl6 as a novel regulator of early adipose commitment

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuanfei; Yang, Yang; Peng, Jie; Song, Tongxing; Xu, Tao; Wei, Hongkui; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a key determinant of whole-body metabolism and energy homeostasis. Unravelling the transcriptional regulatory process during adipogenesis is therefore highly relevant from a biomedical perspective. In these studies, zinc finger protein B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) was demonstrated to have a role in early adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Bcl6 is enriched in preadipose versus non-preadipose fibroblasts and shows upregulated expression in the early stage of adipogenesis. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that Bcl6 acts as a key regulator of adipose commitment and differentiation both in vitro and ex vivo. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bcl6 in C3H10T1/2 cells greatly inhibited adipogenic potential, whereas Bcl6 overexpression enhanced adipogenic differentiation. This transcription factor also directly or indirectly targets and controls the expression of some early and late adipogenic regulators (i.e. Zfp423, Zfp467, KLF15, C/EBPδ, C/EBPα and PPARγ). We further identified that Bcl6 transactivated the signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), which was determined as a required factor for adipogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of STAT1 rescued the impairment of adipogenic commitment and differentiation induced by Bcl6 knockdown in C3H10T1/2 cells, thereby confirming that STAT1 is a downstream direct target of Bcl6. This study identifies Bcl6 as a positive transcriptional regulator of early adipose commitment. PMID:27251748

  10. Identification of HHV8 in early Kaposi's sarcoma: implications for Kaposi's sarcoma pathogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, M M; Cooper, K; Howells, D D; Picton, S; Biddolph, S; Lucas, S B; McGee, J O; O'Leary, J J

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: Kaposi's sarcoma is a vascular tumour of uncertain pathogenesis possibly caused by an infectious agent, identified in high risk groups. Accumulating solution phase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and seroepidemiological data suggest that a previously undescribed herpes DNA virus (human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)) is the causative agent. Using a unique cohort of early Kaposi's sarcoma, the precise cell type infected with HHV8 in such lesions was identified to elucidate further the role of HHV8 in the pathobiology of Kaposi's sarcoma. METHODS: Sixteen cases of early Kaposi's sarcoma (derived from skin and lymph node) were assessed for the presence of HHV8 using both standard solution phase PCR and TaqMan PCR to the KS330 Bam region of HHV8. In situ amplification was also performed on a selected group in an attempt to identify the candidate infected cells. RESULTS: Using both conventional solution phase and TaqMan PCR, 87% of cases were positive. In addition, HHV8 amplicons were localised in situ to endothelial and spindle cell proliferations in early Kaposi's sarcoma. The HHV8 viral load varied from lesion to lesion. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of HHV8 in early lesions supports a role for HHV8 in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma. Coupled with recent seroepidemiological studies, these results suggest that HHV8 is the aetiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma. Its precise interaction with other factors known to be involved in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, including cytokines and anti-apoptosis genes, requires elucidation. PMID:9624414

  11. Removal of organic contaminant toxicity from sediments - Early work toward development of a toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lebo, J.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Ho, K.T.

    1999-01-01

    Work was performed to determine the feasibility of selectively detoxifying organic contaminants in sediments. The results of this research will be used to aid in the development of a scheme for whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs). The context in which the method will be used inherently restricts the treatments to which the sediments can be subjected: Sediments cannot be significantly altered physically or chemically and the presence and bioavailabilities of other toxicants must not be changed. The methodological problem is daunting because of the requirement that the detoxification method be relatively fast and convenient together with the stipulation that only innocuous and minimally invasive treatments be used. Some of the experiments described here dealt with degrees of decontamination (i.e., detoxification as predicted from instrumental measurements) of spiked sediments rather than with degrees of detoxification as gauged by toxicity tests (e.g., 48-h toxicity tests with amphipods). Although the larger TIE scheme itself is mostly outside the scope of this paper, theoretical aspects of bioavailability and of the desorption of organic contaminants from sediments are discussed.

  12. Identification and characterization of contrasting sunflower genotypes to early leaf senescence process combining molecular and physiological studies (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    López Gialdi, A I; Moschen, S; Villán, C S; López Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S; Paniego, N; Heinz, R A; Fernandez, P

    2016-09-01

    Leaf senescence is a complex mechanism ruled by multiple genetic and environmental variables that affect crop yields. It is the last stage in leaf development, is characterized by an active decline in photosynthetic rate, nutrients recycling and cell death. The aim of this work was to identify contrasting sunflower inbred lines differing in leaf senescence and to deepen the study of this process in sunflower. Ten sunflower genotypes, previously selected by physiological analysis from 150 inbred genotypes, were evaluated under field conditions through physiological, cytological and molecular analysis. The physiological measurement allowed the identification of two contrasting senescence inbred lines, R453 and B481-6, with an increase in yield in the senescence delayed genotype. These findings were confirmed by cytological and molecular analysis using TUNEL, genomic DNA gel electrophoresis, flow sorting and gene expression analysis by qPCR. These results allowed the selection of the two most promising contrasting genotypes, which enables future studies and the identification of new biomarkers associated to early senescence in sunflower. In addition, they allowed the tuning of cytological techniques for a non-model species and its integration with molecular variables.

  13. Identification and characterization of contrasting sunflower genotypes to early leaf senescence process combining molecular and physiological studies (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    López Gialdi, A I; Moschen, S; Villán, C S; López Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S; Paniego, N; Heinz, R A; Fernandez, P

    2016-09-01

    Leaf senescence is a complex mechanism ruled by multiple genetic and environmental variables that affect crop yields. It is the last stage in leaf development, is characterized by an active decline in photosynthetic rate, nutrients recycling and cell death. The aim of this work was to identify contrasting sunflower inbred lines differing in leaf senescence and to deepen the study of this process in sunflower. Ten sunflower genotypes, previously selected by physiological analysis from 150 inbred genotypes, were evaluated under field conditions through physiological, cytological and molecular analysis. The physiological measurement allowed the identification of two contrasting senescence inbred lines, R453 and B481-6, with an increase in yield in the senescence delayed genotype. These findings were confirmed by cytological and molecular analysis using TUNEL, genomic DNA gel electrophoresis, flow sorting and gene expression analysis by qPCR. These results allowed the selection of the two most promising contrasting genotypes, which enables future studies and the identification of new biomarkers associated to early senescence in sunflower. In addition, they allowed the tuning of cytological techniques for a non-model species and its integration with molecular variables. PMID:27457982

  14. Early identification of emotional and behavioral problems in a primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Hack, S; Jellinek, M S

    1998-06-01

    Adolescence is a time when many psychiatric disorders first manifest themselves. The challenge to pediatricians is to recognize early signs of behavioral problems in their adolescent patients. This review suggests several practical approaches to the detection, assessment, and treatment of emotional problems in adolescents within the time limits of a typical pediatric exam. The approaches presented range from general health supervision of all adolescents to more intensive evaluation of at-risk adolescents.

  15. Noninvasive prenatal testing for early sex identification: a few benefits and many concerns.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Audrey R; Benn, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    A new technology, noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), can identify fetal sex early in pregnancy, five weeks after conception, with a high degree of accuracy through analysis of maternal blood plasma. This article considers the possibility that NIPT will encourage greater sex selection in developed countries and discusses the implications. Sex selection raises serious social and ethical issues unless it is done for medical reasons. The article also assesses options to discourage sex-selective abortions, including the effectiveness of potential legal measures.

  16. Role of Physical Evaluation in the Early Identification of Axial Spondyloarthritis: A Research Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Marcelo P; Stebbings, Simon M; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bussey, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a rationale to explore the use of clinical tests for the sacroiliac joints to detect early axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and to suggest a protocol to validate these clinical tests. Based on the European Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatments of Pelvic Girdle Pain, we propose a set of six clinical tests to identify the likely presence of inflammation in the sacroiliac joints associated with early axial SpA. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the current gold standard used to identify inflammation in the sacroiliac joints, the results of the proposed set of clinical tests are compared with those from the MRI examinations. We hypothesize that specific clinical tests, which combine pain provocation and functional tests, for assessing the sacroiliac joints will help to identify early active inflammation at the sacroiliac joints in axial SpA. If such tests prove to be sensitive and specific, they could add further value to the diagnostic classification criteria for axial SpA. PMID:26448694

  17. Identification of Novel Candidate Genes for Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Weren, Robbert D. A.; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Gilissen, Christian; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Kets, C. Marleen; Zhang, Junxiao; Venselaar, Hanka; Vreede, Lilian; Schubert, Nil; Tychon, Marloes; Derks, Ronny; Schackert, Hans K.; Geurts van Kessel, Ad; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; Kuiper, Roland P.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 25–30% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases are expected to result from a genetic predisposition, but in only 5–10% of these cases highly penetrant germline mutations are found. The remaining CRC heritability is still unexplained, and may be caused by a hitherto-undefined set of rare variants with a moderately penetrant risk. Here we aimed to identify novel risk factors for early-onset CRC using whole-exome sequencing, which was performed on a cohort of CRC individuals (n = 55) with a disease onset before 45 years of age. We searched for genes that were recurrently affected by rare variants (minor allele frequency ≤0.001) with potentially damaging effects and, subsequently, re-sequenced the candidate genes in a replication cohort of 174 early-onset or familial CRC individuals. Two functionally relevant genes with low frequency variants with potentially damaging effects, PTPN12 and LRP6, were found in at least three individuals. The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST, encoded by PTPN12, is a regulator of cell motility and LRP6 is a component of the WNT-FZD-LRP5-LRP6 complex that triggers WNT signaling. All variants in LRP6 were identified in individuals with an extremely early-onset of the disease (≤30 years of age), and two of the three variants showed increased WNT signaling activity in vitro. In conclusion, we present PTPN12 and LRP6 as novel candidates contributing to the heterogeneous susceptibility to CRC. PMID:26901136

  18. Enhancing Neurobehavioral Gains with the Aid of Games and Exercise (ENGAGE): Initial open trial of a novel early intervention fostering the development of preschoolers' self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Healey, Dione M; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Poor self-regulation during the preschool years predicts a wide array of adverse adult outcomes and, as such, is an important treatment target. We assessed the efficacy of a novel early intervention aimed at fostering the development of preschoolers' self-regulation. Enhancing Neurobehavioral Gains with the Aid of Games and Exercise (ENGAGE) involves parents and children playing a wide range of games targeting self-regulation on a daily basis over a 5-week period. Twenty-five New Zealand families, in whom parents identified their children as difficult to manage, took part in this study. Parent hyperactivity, aggression, and attention problems ratings on the BASC-2 were used to assess improvements in behavioral self-regulation, and subtests of the Stanford Binet-5 and NEPSY-2 were used to assess improvements in cognitive control. Improvements in parent-rated hyperactivity, aggression, and attention problems were maintained throughout the 12-month follow-up. In addition, improvements were found in two neurocognitive areas associated with self-regulation. While more rigorous randomized controlled trials are necessary, ENGAGE shows promise as a novel intervention for developing self-regulation in at-risk preschoolers.

  19. Enhancing Neurobehavioral Gains with the Aid of Games and Exercise (ENGAGE): Initial open trial of a novel early intervention fostering the development of preschoolers' self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Healey, Dione M; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Poor self-regulation during the preschool years predicts a wide array of adverse adult outcomes and, as such, is an important treatment target. We assessed the efficacy of a novel early intervention aimed at fostering the development of preschoolers' self-regulation. Enhancing Neurobehavioral Gains with the Aid of Games and Exercise (ENGAGE) involves parents and children playing a wide range of games targeting self-regulation on a daily basis over a 5-week period. Twenty-five New Zealand families, in whom parents identified their children as difficult to manage, took part in this study. Parent hyperactivity, aggression, and attention problems ratings on the BASC-2 were used to assess improvements in behavioral self-regulation, and subtests of the Stanford Binet-5 and NEPSY-2 were used to assess improvements in cognitive control. Improvements in parent-rated hyperactivity, aggression, and attention problems were maintained throughout the 12-month follow-up. In addition, improvements were found in two neurocognitive areas associated with self-regulation. While more rigorous randomized controlled trials are necessary, ENGAGE shows promise as a novel intervention for developing self-regulation in at-risk preschoolers. PMID:24735230

  20. Identification of Owl Monkey CD4 Receptors Broadly Compatible with Early-Stage HIV-1 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Nicholas R.; Sharma, Amit; Wilkerson, Gregory K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most HIV-1 variants isolated from early-stage human infections do not use nonhuman primate versions of the CD4 receptor for cellular entry, or they do so poorly. We and others have previously shown that CD4 has experienced strong natural selection over the course of primate speciation, but it is unclear whether this selection has influenced the functional characteristics of CD4 as an HIV-1 receptor. Surprisingly, we find that selection on CD4 has been most intense in the New World monkeys, animals that have never been found to harbor lentiviruses related to HIV-1. Based on this, we sampled CD4 genetic diversity within populations of individuals from seven different species, including five species of New World monkeys. We found that some, but not all, CD4 alleles found in Spix's owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) encode functional receptors for early-stage human HIV-1 isolates representing all of the major group M clades (A, B, C, and D). However, only some isolates of HIV-1 subtype C can use the CD4 receptor encoded by permissive Spix's owl monkey alleles. We characterized the prevalence of functional CD4 alleles in a colony of captive Spix's owl monkeys and found that 88% of surveyed individuals are homozygous for permissive CD4 alleles, which encode an asparagine at position 39 of the receptor. We found that the CD4 receptors encoded by two other species of owl monkeys (Aotus azarae and Aotus nancymaae) also serve as functional entry receptors for early-stage isolates of HIV-1. IMPORTANCE Nonhuman primates, particularly macaques, are used for preclinical evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates. However, a significant limitation of the macaque model is the fact that most circulating HIV-1 variants cannot use the macaque CD4 receptor to enter cells and have to be adapted to these species. This is particularly true for viral variants from early stages of infection, which represent the most relevant vaccine targets. In this study, we found that some individuals

  1. Identification of a type IV secretion substrate of Brucella abortus that participates in the early stages of intracellular survival

    PubMed Central

    Döhmer, Peter H.; Valguarnera, Ezequiel; Czibener, Cecilia; Ugalde, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Brucella abortus, the etiological agent of bovine brucellosis, is an intracellular pathogen whose virulence is completely dependent on a type IV secretion system. This secretion system translocates effector proteins into the host cell to modulate the intracellular fate of the bacterium in order to establish a secure niche were it actively replicates. Although much has been done in understanding how this secretion system participates in the virulence process, few effector proteins have been identified to date. We describe here the identification of a type IV secretion substrate (SepA) that is only present in Brucella spp. and has no detectable homology to known proteins. This protein is secreted in a virB dependent manner in a two-step process involving a periplasmic intermediate and secretion is necessary for its function. The deletion mutant showed a defect in the early stages of intracellular replication in professional and non-professional phagocytes although it invades the cells more efficiently than the wild type parental strain. Our results indicate that, even though the mutant was more invasive, it had a defect in excluding the lysosomal marker Lamp-1 and was inactivated more efficiently during the early phases of the intracellular life cycle. PMID:24119283

  2. Identification of morphological markers of sarcopenia at early stage of aging in skeletal muscle of mice.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Ramy K A; de Leonardis, Erika Chacin; Guerrero-Martínez, José A; Rahim, Ibtissem; Mokhtar, Doaa M; Saleh, Abdelmohaimen M; Abdalla, Kamal E H; Pozo, María J; Escames, Germaine; López, Luis C; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2016-10-01

    The gastrocnemius muscle (GM) of young (3months) and aged (12months) female wild-type C57/BL6 mice was examined by light and electron microscopy, looking for the presence of structural changes at early stage of the aging process. Morphometrical parameters including body and gastrocnemius weights, number and type of muscle fibers, cross section area (CSA), perimeter, and Feret's diameter of single muscle fiber, were measured. Moreover, lengths of the sarcomere, A-band, I-band, H-zone, and number and CSA of intermyofibrillar mitochondria (IFM), were also determined. The results provide evidence that 12month-old mice had significant changes on skeletal muscle structure, beginning with the reduction of gastrocnemius weight to body weight ratio, compatible with an early loss of skeletal muscle function and strength. Moreover, light microscopy revealed increased muscle fibers size, with a significant increase on their CSA, perimeter, and diameter of both type I and type II muscle fibers, and a reduction in the percentage of muscle area occupied by type II fibers. Enhanced connective tissue infiltrations, and the presence of centrally nucleated muscle fibers, were also found in aged mice. These changes may underlie an attempt to compensate the loss of muscle mass and muscle fibers number. Furthermore, electron microscopy discovered a significant age-dependent increase in the length of sarcomeres, I and H bands, and reduction on the overlapped actin/myosin length, supporting contractile force loss with age. Electron microscopy also showed an increased number and CSA of IFM with age, which may reveal more endurance at 12months of age. Together, mice at early stage of aging already show significant changes in gastrocnemius muscle morphology and ultrastructure that are suggestive of the onset of sarcopenia.

  3. Identification of morphological markers of sarcopenia at early stage of aging in skeletal muscle of mice.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Ramy K A; de Leonardis, Erika Chacin; Guerrero-Martínez, José A; Rahim, Ibtissem; Mokhtar, Doaa M; Saleh, Abdelmohaimen M; Abdalla, Kamal E H; Pozo, María J; Escames, Germaine; López, Luis C; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2016-10-01

    The gastrocnemius muscle (GM) of young (3months) and aged (12months) female wild-type C57/BL6 mice was examined by light and electron microscopy, looking for the presence of structural changes at early stage of the aging process. Morphometrical parameters including body and gastrocnemius weights, number and type of muscle fibers, cross section area (CSA), perimeter, and Feret's diameter of single muscle fiber, were measured. Moreover, lengths of the sarcomere, A-band, I-band, H-zone, and number and CSA of intermyofibrillar mitochondria (IFM), were also determined. The results provide evidence that 12month-old mice had significant changes on skeletal muscle structure, beginning with the reduction of gastrocnemius weight to body weight ratio, compatible with an early loss of skeletal muscle function and strength. Moreover, light microscopy revealed increased muscle fibers size, with a significant increase on their CSA, perimeter, and diameter of both type I and type II muscle fibers, and a reduction in the percentage of muscle area occupied by type II fibers. Enhanced connective tissue infiltrations, and the presence of centrally nucleated muscle fibers, were also found in aged mice. These changes may underlie an attempt to compensate the loss of muscle mass and muscle fibers number. Furthermore, electron microscopy discovered a significant age-dependent increase in the length of sarcomeres, I and H bands, and reduction on the overlapped actin/myosin length, supporting contractile force loss with age. Electron microscopy also showed an increased number and CSA of IFM with age, which may reveal more endurance at 12months of age. Together, mice at early stage of aging already show significant changes in gastrocnemius muscle morphology and ultrastructure that are suggestive of the onset of sarcopenia. PMID:27435496

  4. Identification of Predictive Early Biomarkers for Sterile-SIRS after Cardiovascular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Veseli, Kujtim; Stang, Katharina; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans Peter; Walker, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a common complication after cardiovascular surgery that in severe cases can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and even death. We therefore set out to identify reliable early biomarkers for SIRS in a prospective small patient study for timely intervention. 21 Patients scheduled for planned cardiovascular surgery were recruited in the study, monitored for signs of SIRS and blood samples were taken to investigate biomarkers at pre-assigned time points: day of admission, start of surgery, end of surgery, days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 post surgery. Stored plasma and cryopreserved blood samples were analyzed for cytokine expression (IL1β, IL2, IL6, IL8, IL10, TNFα, IFNγ), other pro-inflammatory markers (sCD163, sTREM-1, ESM-1) and response to endotoxin. Acute phase proteins CRP, PCT and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL6 and IL8 were significantly increased (p<0.001) at the end of surgery in all patients but could not distinguish between groups. Normalization of samples revealed significant increases in IL1β changes (p<0.05) and decreased responses to endotoxin (p<0.01) in the SIRS group at the end of surgery. Soluble TREM-1 plasma concentrations were significantly increased in patients with SIRS (p<0.01). This small scale patient study could show that common sepsis markers PCT, CRP, IL6 and TNFα had low predictive value for early diagnosis of SIRS after cardiovascular surgery. A combination of normalized IL1β plasma levels, responses to endotoxin and soluble TREM-1 plasma concentrations at the end of surgery are predictive markers of SIRS development in this small scale study and could act as an indicator for starting early therapeutic interventions. PMID:26263001

  5. Noninvasive prenatal testing for early sex identification: a few benefits and many concerns.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Audrey R; Benn, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    A new technology, noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), can identify fetal sex early in pregnancy, five weeks after conception, with a high degree of accuracy through analysis of maternal blood plasma. This article considers the possibility that NIPT will encourage greater sex selection in developed countries and discusses the implications. Sex selection raises serious social and ethical issues unless it is done for medical reasons. The article also assesses options to discourage sex-selective abortions, including the effectiveness of potential legal measures. PMID:24769746

  6. Recommendations of the NIDCD Working Group on Early Identification of Hearing Impairment on Acceptable Protocols for Use in State-Wide Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Deafness and Other Communications Disorders, Bethesda, MD.

    This document presents the consensus statement of a 2-day conference which addressed issues concerned with the early identification of hearing impairment. The conference resulted in the following consensus conclusions: (1) all infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit should be screened for hearing loss prior to discharge; (2) universal…

  7. 48 CFR 227.7103-3 - Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use, reproduction or disclosure. 227... on use, reproduction or disclosure. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2320 requires, to the maximum extent...

  8. 48 CFR 227.7103-3 - Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use, reproduction or disclosure. 227... on use, reproduction or disclosure. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2320 requires, to the maximum extent...

  9. 48 CFR 227.7103-3 - Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use, reproduction or disclosure. 227... on use, reproduction or disclosure. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2320 requires, to the maximum extent...

  10. 48 CFR 227.7103-3 - Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use, reproduction or disclosure. 227... on use, reproduction or disclosure. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2320 requires, to the maximum extent...

  11. 48 CFR 227.7103-3 - Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use, reproduction or disclosure. 227... on use, reproduction or disclosure. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2320 requires, to the maximum extent...

  12. USAID's HIV / AIDS strategy for Asia: promoting early intervention. An inverview with Kerri-Ann Jones of the U.S. Agency for International Development's Asia Bureau about the USAID HIV / AIDS Strategic Plan for Asia.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    Although the World Health Organization estimates that $1.5-2.9 billion is needed per year to adequately support global HIV/AIDS prevention efforts, less than $200 million/year is being spent to prevent the transmission of HIV in the developing world. Worse still, US Agency for International Development (USAID) resources are shrinking. Two factors make HIV/AIDS prevention action in Asia a particularly urgent priority: more than half of the world's population lives in the region and the AIDS epidemic is still in its formative stages there. Rapid urbanization, high levels of migration, and large commercial sex and transportation industries are also typical in most countries of the region. In this context, the Asia Bureau of USAID adopted a strategic plan against HIV/AIDS in June 1993. In so doing, the bureau plans to work with the AIDSCAP program to coordinate prevention efforts and maximize the use of all available resources against the epidemic. Strategy focuses upon policy dialogue, communication to promote behavior change, improving the management of sexually transmitted diseases, improving access to condoms, monitoring and evaluation, and behavioral research. Interventions recommended by the plan, USAID coordination with other donors in the region, coordination with other AIDS prevention efforts already underway in a country, mission response to the plan, the interest of Asian governments in AIDS prevention, and the mechanism by which the plan is carried out are discussed.

  13. Elman neural network for the early identification of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Bertè, Francesco; Lamponi, Giuseppe; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Bramanti, Placido

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of dementia can be useful to delay progression of the disease and to raise awareness of the condition. Alterations in temporal and spatial EEG markers have been found in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Herein, we propose an automatic recognition method of cognitive impairment evaluation based on EEG analysis using an artificial neural network (ANN) combined with a genetic algorithm (GA). The EEGs of 43 AD and MCI patients (aged between 62 and 88 years) were recorded, analyzed and correlated with their MMSE scores. Quantitative EEGs were calculated using discrete wavelet transform. The data obtained were analyzed by the means of the combined use of ANN and GA to determine the degree of cognitive impairment. The good recognition rate of ANN fed with these inputs suggests that the combined GA/ANN approach may be useful for early detection of AD and could be a valuable tool to support physicians in clinical practice. PMID:25014050

  14. Identification of candidate genes for an early-maturing soybean mutant by genome resequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Jin-Baek; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Kang, Si-Yong; Choi, Hong-Il; Ha, Bo-Keun

    2016-08-01

    Flowering is indicative of the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase, a critical event in the life cycle of plants. In this study, we performed whole genome resequencing by Illumina HiSeq to identify changes in flowering genes using an early-flowering phenotype of soybean mutant line Josaengserori (JS) derived from Korean landrace, Seoritae (SR), and we obtained mapped reads of 131,769,690 and 167,669,640 bp in JS and SR, respectively. From the whole genome sequencing results between JS and SR, we identified 332,821 polymorphic SNPs and 65,178 indels, respectively. Among these, 30 flowering genes were in SNPs and 25 were in indels. Among 30 flowering genes detected in SNPs, Glyma02g33040, Glyma06g22650, Glyma10g36600, Glyma13g01290, Glyma14g10530, Glyma16g01980, Glyma17g11040, Glyma18g53690, and Glyma20g29300 were non-synonymous substitutions between JS and SR. Changes in Glyma10g36600 (GI), Glya02g33040 (AGL18), Glyma17g11040 (TOC1), and Glyma14g10530 (ELF3) in JS affected the expression of GmFT2a and resulted in early flowering. These results provide insight into the regulatory pathways of flowering in soybean mutants and help to improve our knowledge of soybean mutation breeding.

  15. Identification of Circulating Tumor DNA for the Early Detection of Small-cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Cuesta, Lynnette; Perdomo, Sandra; Avogbe, Patrice H; Leblay, Noemie; Delhomme, Tiffany M; Gaborieau, Valerie; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Chanudet, Estelle; Olivier, Magali; Zaridze, David; Mukeria, Anush; Vilensky, Marta; Holcatova, Ivana; Polesel, Jerry; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina; Lagiou, Pagona; Brambilla, Christian; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Byrnes, Graham; Scelo, Ghislaine; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Foll, Matthieu; McKay, James D; Brennan, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is emerging as a key potential biomarker for post-diagnosis surveillance but it may also play a crucial role in the detection of pre-clinical cancer. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an excellent candidate for early detection given there are no successful therapeutic options for late-stage disease, and it displays almost universal inactivation of TP53. We assessed the presence of TP53 mutations in the cell-free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from the plasma of 51 SCLC cases and 123 non-cancer controls. We identified mutations using a pipeline specifically designed to accurately detect variants at very low fractions. We detected TP53 mutations in the cfDNA of 49% SCLC patients and 11.4% of non-cancer controls. When stratifying the 51 initial SCLC cases by stage, TP53 mutations were detected in the cfDNA of 35.7% early-stage and 54.1% late-stage SCLC patients. The results in the controls were further replicated in 10.8% of an independent series of 102 non-cancer controls. The detection of TP53 mutations in 11% of the 225 non-cancer controls suggests that somatic mutations in cfDNA among individuals without any cancer diagnosis is a common occurrence, and poses serious challenges for the development of ctDNA screening tests. PMID:27377626

  16. Identification of conserved antigens for early serodiagnosis of relapsing fever Borrelia

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Job E.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Hammer, Carl H.; Zhao, Ming; Robinson, Mary Ann; Schwan, Tom G.

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia hermsii is a blood-borne pathogen transmitted by the argasid tick Ornithodoros hermsi. Since spirochaete clearance in mice is associated with an IgM-mediated response, an immunoproteomic analysis was used to identify proteins reactive with IgM. We report that IgM from both mice and human patients infected with B. hermsii not only reacted with the previously identified variable membrane proteins but also identified candidate antigens including heat-shock proteins, an adhesin protein, ABC transporter proteins, flagellar proteins, housekeeping proteins, an immune evasion protein, and proteins with unknown function. Furthermore, IgM reactivity to recombinant glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase was detected during early spirochaete infection and prior to a detectable IgG response. Lastly, a conserved hypothetical protein was produced in Escherichia coli and tested with immune serum against B. hermsii and Borrelia recurrentis. These results identify a much larger set of immunoreactive proteins, and could help in the early serodiagnosis of this tick-borne infection. PMID:19443544

  17. The early identification of psychosis: can lessons be learnt from cardiac stress testing?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Swapnil; Ranganathan, Mohini; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Psychotic disorders including schizophrenia are amongst the most debilitating psychiatric disorders. There is an urgent need to develop methods to identify individuals at risk with greater precision and as early as possible. At present, a prerequisite for a diagnosis of schizophrenia is the occurrence of a psychotic episode. Therefore, attempting to detect schizophrenia on the basis of psychosis is analogous to diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD) after the occurrence of a myocardial infarction (MI). The introduction of cardiac stress testing (CST) has revolutionized the detection of CAD and the prevention and management of angina and MI. In this paper, we attempt to apply lessons learnt from CST to the early detection of psychosis by proposing the development of an analogous psychosis stress test. We discuss in detail the various parameters of a proposed psychosis stress test including the choice of a suitable psychological or psychopharmacological "stressor," target population, outcome measures, safety of the approach, and the necessary evolution of test to become clinically informative. The history of evolution of CST may guide the development of a similar approach for the detection and management of psychotic disorders. The initial development of a test to unmask latent risk for schizophrenia will require the selection of a suitable and safe stimulus and the development of outcome measures as a prelude to testing in populations with a range of risk to determine predictive value. The use of CST in CAD offers the intriguing possibility that a similar approach may be applied to the detection and management of schizophrenia.

  18. Identification of candidate genes for an early-maturing soybean mutant by genome resequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Jin-Baek; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Kang, Si-Yong; Choi, Hong-Il; Ha, Bo-Keun

    2016-08-01

    Flowering is indicative of the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase, a critical event in the life cycle of plants. In this study, we performed whole genome resequencing by Illumina HiSeq to identify changes in flowering genes using an early-flowering phenotype of soybean mutant line Josaengserori (JS) derived from Korean landrace, Seoritae (SR), and we obtained mapped reads of 131,769,690 and 167,669,640 bp in JS and SR, respectively. From the whole genome sequencing results between JS and SR, we identified 332,821 polymorphic SNPs and 65,178 indels, respectively. Among these, 30 flowering genes were in SNPs and 25 were in indels. Among 30 flowering genes detected in SNPs, Glyma02g33040, Glyma06g22650, Glyma10g36600, Glyma13g01290, Glyma14g10530, Glyma16g01980, Glyma17g11040, Glyma18g53690, and Glyma20g29300 were non-synonymous substitutions between JS and SR. Changes in Glyma10g36600 (GI), Glya02g33040 (AGL18), Glyma17g11040 (TOC1), and Glyma14g10530 (ELF3) in JS affected the expression of GmFT2a and resulted in early flowering. These results provide insight into the regulatory pathways of flowering in soybean mutants and help to improve our knowledge of soybean mutation breeding. PMID:27033554

  19. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  20. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  1. Sparse temporally dynamic resting-state functional connectivity networks for early MCI identification.

    PubMed

    Wee, Chong-Yaw; Yang, Sen; Yap, Pew-Thian; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-06-01

    In conventional resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) analysis, functional connectivity is assumed to be temporally stationary, overlooking neural activities or interactions that may happen within the scan duration. Dynamic changes of neural interactions can be reflected by variations of topology and correlation strength in temporally correlated functional connectivity networks. These connectivity networks may potentially capture subtle yet short neural connectivity disruptions induced by disease pathologies. Accordingly, we are motivated to utilize disrupted temporal network properties for improving control-patient classification performance. Specifically, a sliding window approach is firstly employed to generate a sequence of overlapping R-fMRI sub-series. Based on these sub-series, sliding window correlations, which characterize the neural interactions between brain regions, are then computed to construct a series of temporal networks. Individual estimation of these temporal networks using conventional network construction approaches fails to take into consideration intrinsic temporal smoothness among successive overlapping R-fMRI sub-series. To preserve temporal smoothness of R-fMRI sub-series, we suggest to jointly estimate the temporal networks by maximizing a penalized log likelihood using a fused sparse learning algorithm. This sparse learning algorithm encourages temporally correlated networks to have similar network topology and correlation strengths. We design a disease identification framework based on the estimated temporal networks, and group level network property differences and classification results demonstrate the importance of including temporally dynamic R-fMRI scan information to improve diagnosis accuracy of mild cognitive impairment patients.

  2. Identification of a three-biomarker panel in urine for early detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Radon, Tomasz P; Massat, Nathalie J; Jones, Richard; Alrawashdeh, Wasfi; Dumartin, Laurent; Ennis, Darren; Duffy, Stephen W; Kocher, Hemant M; Pereira, Stephen P; Nascimento, Cristiane M; Real, Francisco X; Malats, Núria; Neoptolemos, John; Costello, Eithne; Greenhalf, William; Lemoine, Nick R; Crnogorac-Jurcevic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Non-invasive biomarkers for early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are currently not available. Here, we aimed to identify a set of urine proteins able to distinguish patients with early stage PDAC from healthy individuals (H). Experimental design Proteomes of 18 urine samples from healthy controls, chronic pancreatitis and PDAC patients (six/group) were assayed using GeLC/MS/MS analysis. The selected biomarkers were subsequently validated using ELISA assays using multiple logistic regression applied to a training dataset in a multicentre cohort comprising 488 urine samples. Results LYVE-1, REG1A and TFF1 were selected as candidate biomarkers. When comparing PDAC (n=192) to healthy (n=87) urines, the resulting areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of the panel were 0.89 (95%CI 0.84-0.94) in the training (70% of the data), and 0.92 (95%CI 0.86-0.98) in the validation (30% of the data) datasets. When comparing PDAC stage I-II (n=71) to healthy urines, the panel achieved AUCs of 0.90 (95%CI 0.84-0.96) and 0.93 (95%CI 0.84-1.00) in the training and validation datasets, respectively. In PDAC stage I-II and healthy samples with matching plasma CA19.9 the panel achieved a higher AUC of 0.97 (95%CI 0.94-0.99) than CA19.9 (AUC=0.88, 95%CI 0.81-0.95, p=0.005). Adding plasma CA19.9 to the panel increased the AUC from 0.97 (95%CI 0.94-0.99) to 0.99 (95%CI 0.97-1.00, p=0.04) but did not improve the comparison of stage I-IIA PDAC (n=17) to healthy urine. Conclusion We have established a novel, three-protein biomarker panel that is able to detect patients with early stage pancreatic cancer in urine specimens. PMID:26240291

  3. Identification of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-associated genes in early stage cervical squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Liu, Y; Liu, C-B; Ling, Z-Q

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective study investigated gene expression in tumour samples from 38 patients with early stage human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of viral markers of HPV16 or HPV18 infection. Gene expression profiles of tumour samples and the corresponding normal cervical epithelium were analysed using cDNA microarrays. Several genes showed differential expression between the two groups of HPV-infected CSCC patients, although seven genes showed similar changes in both groups. The four genes encoding cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, matrix metallopeptidase 9, laminin γ-1, and epidermal growth factor receptor were up-regulated, and the three genes encoding transforming growth factor β receptor 1, interleukin-1α and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 6 were down-regulated, in both HPV16(+) and HPV18(+) CSCC. These proteins are involved in cell proliferation, cell structure and cell attachment, so their expression might be involved in the mechanism of HPV-induced carcino genesis. A clearer understanding of HPV type-specific gene expression might aid diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  5. Early Identification of Student Performance and Effort Using an Online Homework System: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdian, David C.

    2012-10-01

    Two distinct student groups, in terms of academic performance, were identified early in the semester as either being under-performing students or over-performing students using an online homework system. The students who are identified as under-performing received, on average, lower grades than their fellow students but spent more time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for targeted advertisement of student resources such as tutoring services. The students who are identified in the over-performing student population received higher grades than their fellow students, but spent less time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for honors programs, independent research projects, and peer-tutoring programs. Incorporating these evaluation criteria to online homework systems will allow instructors to quickly identify students in these academic student populations.

  6. Identification of Lichen Metabolism in an Early Devonian Terrestrial Fossil using Carbon Stable Isotope Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, S.; Jahren, H.

    2002-05-01

    The fossil organismSpongiophyton minutissimum is commonly found in early terrestrial assemblages (Devonian age, 430-340 Ma). Suites of morphological descriptions of this fossil have been published, starting in 1954, and have led to two competing hypotheses: 1.) that this early colonizer of land was a primitive bryophyte, and therefore a precursor to modern plant organisms, and 2.) thatS. minutissimum was a lichen: a close association between an alga and a fungus. Because the ultimate mechanisms for carbon supply to the carboxylating enzyme in bryophytes and lichens differ fundamentally, we expect these two types of organisms to exhibit separate ranges of δ 13Ctissue value. In bryophytes, gaseous carbon dioxide diffuses through perforations in cuticle (resulting in δ 13Catmosphere - δ 13Cbryophyte = ~20 ‰ ). Within the lichen, carbon is supplied to the carboxylating enzyme of the photobiont as carbon dioxide dissolved in fungal cell fluids (resulting in δ 13Catmosphere - δ 13Clichen = ~15 ‰ ). By comparing the δ 13Ctissue value ofS. minutissimum (mean = -23 ‰ ;n = 75) with δ 13Ctissue values in twenty-five lichens, representative of the four different phylogenetic clades (mean = -23 ‰ ;n = 25) and thirty different genera of bryophytes including mosses, liverworts, and hornworts (mean = -28 ‰ ;n = 30), we conclude thatS. minutissimum was cycling carbon via processes that much more closely resembled those of lichens, and not bryophytes. We discuss the general strategies associated with lichen biology, such as the ability to withstand dessication during reproduction, and how they may have contributed to the successful colonization of terrestrial environments.

  7. Genetic mapping and identification of QTL for earliness in the globe artichoke/cultivated cardoon complex

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Asteraceae species Cynara cardunculus (2n = 2x = 34) includes the two fully cross-compatible domesticated taxa globe artichoke (var. scolymus L.) and cultivated cardoon (var. altilis DC). As both are out-pollinators and suffer from marked inbreeding depression, linkage analysis has focussed on the use of a two way pseudo-test cross approach. Results A set of 172 microsatellite (SSR) loci derived from expressed sequence tag DNA sequence were integrated into the reference C. cardunculus genetic maps, based on segregation among the F1 progeny of a cross between a globe artichoke and a cultivated cardoon. The resulting maps each detected 17 major linkage groups, corresponding to the species’ haploid chromosome number. A consensus map based on 66 co-dominant shared loci (64 SSRs and two SNPs) assembled 694 loci, with a mean inter-marker spacing of 2.5 cM. When the maps were used to elucidate the pattern of inheritance of head production earliness, a key commercial trait, seven regions were shown to harbour relevant quantitative trait loci (QTL). Together, these QTL accounted for up to 74% of the overall phenotypic variance. Conclusion The newly developed consensus as well as the parental genetic maps can accelerate the process of tagging and eventually isolating the genes underlying earliness in both the domesticated C. cardunculus forms. The largest single effect mapped to the same linkage group in each parental maps, and explained about one half of the phenotypic variance, thus representing a good candidate for marker assisted selection. PMID:22621324

  8. Systematic genomic identification of colorectal cancer genes delineating advanced from early clinical stage and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. The initial assessment of colorectal cancer involves clinical staging that takes into account the extent of primary tumor invasion, determining the number of lymph nodes with metastatic cancer and the identification of metastatic sites in other organs. Advanced clinical stage indicates metastatic cancer, either in regional lymph nodes or in distant organs. While the genomic and genetic basis of colorectal cancer has been elucidated to some degree, less is known about the identity of specific cancer genes that are associated with advanced clinical stage and metastasis. Methods We compiled multiple genomic data types (mutations, copy number alterations, gene expression and methylation status) as well as clinical meta-data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We used an elastic-net regularized regression method on the combined genomic data to identify genetic aberrations and their associated cancer genes that are indicators of clinical stage. We ranked candidate genes by their regression coefficient and level of support from multiple assay modalities. Results A fit of the elastic-net regularized regression to 197 samples and integrated analysis of four genomic platforms identified the set of top gene predictors of advanced clinical stage, including: WRN, SYK, DDX5 and ADRA2C. These genetic features were identified robustly in bootstrap resampling analysis. Conclusions We conducted an analysis integrating multiple genomic features including mutations, copy number alterations, gene expression and methylation. This integrated approach in which one considers all of these genomic features performs better than any individual genomic assay. We identified multiple genes that robustly delineate advanced clinical stage, suggesting their possible role in colorectal cancer metastatic progression. PMID:24308539

  9. Identification of Ohnolog Genes Originating from Whole Genome Duplication in Early Vertebrates, Based on Synteny Comparison across Multiple Genomes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Param Priya; Arora, Jatin; Isambert, Hervé

    2015-07-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGD) have now been firmly established in all major eukaryotic kingdoms. In particular, all vertebrates descend from two rounds of WGDs, that occurred in their jawless ancestor some 500 MY ago. Paralogs retained from WGD, also coined 'ohnologs' after Susumu Ohno, have been shown to be typically associated with development, signaling and gene regulation. Ohnologs, which amount to about 20 to 35% of genes in the human genome, have also been shown to be prone to dominant deleterious mutations and frequently implicated in cancer and genetic diseases. Hence, identifying ohnologs is central to better understand the evolution of vertebrates and their susceptibility to genetic diseases. Early computational analyses to identify vertebrate ohnologs relied on content-based synteny comparisons between the human genome and a single invertebrate outgroup genome or within the human genome itself. These approaches are thus limited by lineage specific rearrangements in individual genomes. We report, in this study, the identification of vertebrate ohnologs based on the quantitative assessment and integration of synteny conservation between six amniote vertebrates and six invertebrate outgroups. Such a synteny comparison across multiple genomes is shown to enhance the statistical power of ohnolog identification in vertebrates compared to earlier approaches, by overcoming lineage specific genome rearrangements. Ohnolog gene families can be browsed and downloaded for three statistical confidence levels or recompiled for specific, user-defined, significance criteria at http://ohnologs.curie.fr/. In the light of the importance of WGD on the genetic makeup of vertebrates, our analysis provides a useful resource for researchers interested in gaining further insights on vertebrate evolution and genetic diseases. PMID:26181593

  10. Identification of Ohnolog Genes Originating from Whole Genome Duplication in Early Vertebrates, Based on Synteny Comparison across Multiple Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Param Priya; Arora, Jatin; Isambert, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGD) have now been firmly established in all major eukaryotic kingdoms. In particular, all vertebrates descend from two rounds of WGDs, that occurred in their jawless ancestor some 500 MY ago. Paralogs retained from WGD, also coined ‘ohnologs’ after Susumu Ohno, have been shown to be typically associated with development, signaling and gene regulation. Ohnologs, which amount to about 20 to 35% of genes in the human genome, have also been shown to be prone to dominant deleterious mutations and frequently implicated in cancer and genetic diseases. Hence, identifying ohnologs is central to better understand the evolution of vertebrates and their susceptibility to genetic diseases. Early computational analyses to identify vertebrate ohnologs relied on content-based synteny comparisons between the human genome and a single invertebrate outgroup genome or within the human genome itself. These approaches are thus limited by lineage specific rearrangements in individual genomes. We report, in this study, the identification of vertebrate ohnologs based on the quantitative assessment and integration of synteny conservation between six amniote vertebrates and six invertebrate outgroups. Such a synteny comparison across multiple genomes is shown to enhance the statistical power of ohnolog identification in vertebrates compared to earlier approaches, by overcoming lineage specific genome rearrangements. Ohnolog gene families can be browsed and downloaded for three statistical confidence levels or recompiled for specific, user-defined, significance criteria at http://ohnologs.curie.fr/. In the light of the importance of WGD on the genetic makeup of vertebrates, our analysis provides a useful resource for researchers interested in gaining further insights on vertebrate evolution and genetic diseases. PMID:26181593

  11. Identification of Ohnolog Genes Originating from Whole Genome Duplication in Early Vertebrates, Based on Synteny Comparison across Multiple Genomes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Param Priya; Arora, Jatin; Isambert, Hervé

    2015-07-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGD) have now been firmly established in all major eukaryotic kingdoms. In particular, all vertebrates descend from two rounds of WGDs, that occurred in their jawless ancestor some 500 MY ago. Paralogs retained from WGD, also coined 'ohnologs' after Susumu Ohno, have been shown to be typically associated with development, signaling and gene regulation. Ohnologs, which amount to about 20 to 35% of genes in the human genome, have also been shown to be prone to dominant deleterious mutations and frequently implicated in cancer and genetic diseases. Hence, identifying ohnologs is central to better understand the evolution of vertebrates and their susceptibility to genetic diseases. Early computational analyses to identify vertebrate ohnologs relied on content-based synteny comparisons between the human genome and a single invertebrate outgroup genome or within the human genome itself. These approaches are thus limited by lineage specific rearrangements in individual genomes. We report, in this study, the identification of vertebrate ohnologs based on the quantitative assessment and integration of synteny conservation between six amniote vertebrates and six invertebrate outgroups. Such a synteny comparison across multiple genomes is shown to enhance the statistical power of ohnolog identification in vertebrates compared to earlier approaches, by overcoming lineage specific genome rearrangements. Ohnolog gene families can be browsed and downloaded for three statistical confidence levels or recompiled for specific, user-defined, significance criteria at http://ohnologs.curie.fr/. In the light of the importance of WGD on the genetic makeup of vertebrates, our analysis provides a useful resource for researchers interested in gaining further insights on vertebrate evolution and genetic diseases.

  12. Spectral identification of abiotic O2 buildup from early runaways and rarefied atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, Edward; Meadows, Victoria; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Arney, Giada; Robinson, Tyler D.; Luger, Rodrigo; Barnes, Rory

    2016-01-01

    The spectral detection of oxygen (O2) in a planetary atmosphere has been considered a robust signature of life because O2 is highly reactive on planets with Earth-like redox buffers and because significant continuous abiotic sources were thought to be implausible. However, recent work has revealed the possibility that significant O2 may build-up in terrestrial atmospheres through (1) photochemical channels or (2) through the escape of hydrogen. We focus on the latter category here. Significant amounts of abiotic O2 could remain in the atmospheres of planets in the habitable zones of late type stars, where an early runaway greenhouse and massive hydrogen escape during the pre-main-sequence phase could have irreversibly oxidized the crust and mantle (Luger & Barnes 2015). Additionally, it has been hypothesized that O2 could accumulate in the atmospheres of planets with sufficiently low abundances of non-condensable gases such as N2 where water would not be cold trapped in the troposphere, leading to H-escape from UV photolysis in a wet stratosphere (Wordsworth & Pierrehumbert 2014). We self-consistently model the climate, photochemistry, and spectra of both rarefied and post-runaway, high-O2 atmospheres. Because an early runaway might not have lasted long enough for the entire water inventory to escape, we explore both completely desiccated scenarios and cases where a surface ocean remains. We find "habitable" surface conditions for a wide variety of oxygen abundances, atmospheric masses, and CO2 mixing ratios. If O2 builds up from massive or sustained H escape, the O2 abundance should be very high, and could be spectrally indicated by the presence of O2-O2 (O4) collisionally-induced absorption (CIA) features. We generate synthetic direct-imaging and transit transmission spectra of these atmospheres and calculate the strength of the UV/Visible and NIR O4 features. We find that while both the UV/Visible and NIR O4 features are strong in the radiance spectra of very

  13. Spectral identification of abiotic O2 buildup from early runaways and rarefied atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, Edward; Meadows, Victoria; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Arney, Giada; Luger, Rodrigo; Barnes, Rory

    2015-11-01

    The spectral detection of oxygen (O2) in a planetary atmosphere has been considered a robust signature of life because O2 is highly reactive on planets with Earth-like redox buffers and because significant continuous abiotic sources were thought to be implausible. However, recent work has revealed the possibility that significant O2 may build-up in terrestrial planet atmospheres through (1) photochemical channels or (2) through massive hydrogen escape. We focus on the latter category here. Significant amounts of abiotic O2 could remain in the atmospheres of planets in the habitable zones of late type stars, where an early runaway greenhouse and massive hydrogen escape during the pre-main-sequence phase could have irreversibly oxidized the crust and mantle (Luger & Barnes 2015). Additionally, it has been hypothesized that O2 could accumulate in the atmospheres of planets with sufficiently low abundances of noncondensable gases such as N2 where water would not be cold trapped in the troposphere, leading to H-escape from UV photolysis in a wet stratosphere (Wordsworth & Pierrehumbert 2014). We self-consistently model the climate, photochemistry, and spectra of both rarefied and post-runaway, high-O2 atmospheres. Because an early runaway might not have lasted long enough for the entire water inventory to have escaped, we explore both completely desiccated scenarios and cases where a surface ocean remains. We find “habitable” surface conditions for a wide variety of oxygen abundances, atmospheric masses, and CO2 mixing ratios. If O2 builds up from H escape, the O2 abundance should be very high, and could be spectrally indicated by the presence of O2 collisionally-induced absorption (CIA) features. We generate synthetic direct-imaging and transit transmission spectra of these atmospheres and calculate the strength of the UV/Visible and NIR O2 CIA features. We find that while both the UV/Visible and NIR O2 CIA features are strong in the direct-imaging spectra of very

  14. [The NETWASS prevention model for early identification and assessment of adolescents in psychosocial crisis].

    PubMed

    Sommer, Friederike; Fiedler, Nora; Leuschner, Vincenz; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research-based NETWASS prevention model aims to enable school staff to identify students experiencing a psychosocial crisis that could lead to severe targeted school violence and to initiate appropriate support measures. A detailed analysis of the adolescent psychosocial crisis is conducted at an early stage by evaluating possible warning behaviors, crisis symptoms, a student’s individual and social background, and resources. The model was implemented in 98 schools. During the project duration of seven months staff from 59 schools reported 99 cases of a student’s psychosocial crisis. Three experts conducted a content analysis of the reported qualitative data focusing on crisis symptoms of the students as well as the initiated measures. Results show a broad spectrum of risk factors, whereas aggressive behavior of students was reported most frequently. On the basis of theoretical assumptions, the reported cases were divided into three distinct risk groups. A total of eight high-risk cases were observed and reported by the school staff. The school staff mostly reacted to the student crisis by initiating resource-orientated measures, the expertise of child and youth therapists was mostly requested for the high risk cases. By describing the impact of cases and choice of measures undertaken, the study aims to give an overview of incidents schools as well as clinical psychologists and therapists are confronted with. PMID:27216326

  15. Role of text mining in early identification of potential drug safety issues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Hu, Yong; Tang, Buzhou

    2014-01-01

    Drugs are an important part of today's medicine, designed to treat, control, and prevent diseases; however, besides their therapeutic effects, drugs may also cause adverse effects that range from cosmetic to severe morbidity and mortality. To identify these potential drug safety issues early, surveillance must be conducted for each drug throughout its life cycle, from drug development to different phases of clinical trials, and continued after market approval. A major aim of pharmacovigilance is to identify the potential drug-event associations that may be novel in nature, severity, and/or frequency. Currently, the state-of-the-art approach for signal detection is through automated procedures by analyzing vast quantities of data for clinical knowledge. There exists a variety of resources for the task, and many of them are textual data that require text analytics and natural language processing to derive high-quality information. This chapter focuses on the utilization of text mining techniques in identifying potential safety issues of drugs from textual sources such as biomedical literature, consumer posts in social media, and narrative electronic medical records.

  16. [The NETWASS prevention model for early identification and assessment of adolescents in psychosocial crisis].

    PubMed

    Sommer, Friederike; Fiedler, Nora; Leuschner, Vincenz; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research-based NETWASS prevention model aims to enable school staff to identify students experiencing a psychosocial crisis that could lead to severe targeted school violence and to initiate appropriate support measures. A detailed analysis of the adolescent psychosocial crisis is conducted at an early stage by evaluating possible warning behaviors, crisis symptoms, a student’s individual and social background, and resources. The model was implemented in 98 schools. During the project duration of seven months staff from 59 schools reported 99 cases of a student’s psychosocial crisis. Three experts conducted a content analysis of the reported qualitative data focusing on crisis symptoms of the students as well as the initiated measures. Results show a broad spectrum of risk factors, whereas aggressive behavior of students was reported most frequently. On the basis of theoretical assumptions, the reported cases were divided into three distinct risk groups. A total of eight high-risk cases were observed and reported by the school staff. The school staff mostly reacted to the student crisis by initiating resource-orientated measures, the expertise of child and youth therapists was mostly requested for the high risk cases. By describing the impact of cases and choice of measures undertaken, the study aims to give an overview of incidents schools as well as clinical psychologists and therapists are confronted with.

  17. Identification of early vascular calcification with (18)F-sodium fluoride: potential clinical application.

    PubMed

    Doris, Mhairi K; Newby, David E

    2016-06-01

    Vascular calcification plays a prominent role in cardiovascular disease. Once considered to be a passive consequence of aging, this pathological process is now accepted to be dynamic and tightly regulated, its onset triggered by inflammation and necrosis and its progression bearing key similarities to osteogenesis. A major potential advance in our ability to understand the natural history and clinical implications of vascular calcification is the detection of its early and dynamic stages through the use of the positron-emitting radiotracer, (18)F-sodium fluoride. Alongside anatomical information gained from computed tomography, hybrid positron emission and computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging with (18)F-sodium fluoride has, for the first time, enabled the non-invasive detection of microcalcification within the aortic valve, great vessels, and vulnerable coronary plaque. This has raised promise that exploring this process may allow improved risk prediction, better application of current therapies and ultimately the development of novel treatments to target this widespread pathology. PMID:26854119

  18. Identification of the ISWI Chromatin Remodeling Complex of the Early Branching Eukaryote Trypanosoma brucei*

    PubMed Central

    Stanne, Tara; Narayanan, Mani Shankar; Ridewood, Sophie; Ling, Alexandra; Witmer, Kathrin; Kushwaha, Manish; Wiesler, Simone; Wickstead, Bill; Wood, Jennifer; Rudenko, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    ISWI chromatin remodelers are highly conserved in eukaryotes and are important for the assembly and spacing of nucleosomes, thereby controlling transcription initiation and elongation. ISWI is typically associated with different subunits, forming specialized complexes with discrete functions. In the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which causes African sleeping sickness, TbISWI down-regulates RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-transcribed variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene expression sites (ESs), which are monoallelically expressed. Here, we use tandem affinity purification to determine the interacting partners of TbISWI. We identify three proteins that do not show significant homology with known ISWI-associated partners. Surprisingly, one of these is nucleoplasmin-like protein (NLP), which we had previously shown to play a role in ES control. In addition, we identify two novel ISWI partners, regulator of chromosome condensation 1-like protein (RCCP) and phenylalanine/tyrosine-rich protein (FYRP), both containing protein motifs typically found on chromatin proteins. Knockdown of RCCP or FYRP in bloodstream form T. brucei results in derepression of silent variant surface glycoprotein ESs, as had previously been shown for TbISWI and NLP. All four proteins are expressed and interact with each other in both major life cycle stages and show similar distributions at Pol I-transcribed loci. They are also found at Pol II strand switch regions as determined with ChIP. ISWI, NLP, RCCP, and FYRP therefore appear to form a single major ISWI complex in T. brucei (TbIC). This reduced complexity of ISWI regulation and the presence of novel ISWI partners highlights the early divergence of trypanosomes in evolution. PMID:26378228

  19. Early identification of non-responding locally advanced breast tumors receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Giessen, Martijn; Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Charehbili, Ayoub; Smit, Vincent T. H. B. M.; Kroep, Judith R.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Chan, Alan; Löwik, Clemens W. G. M.; Dijkstra, Jouke; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Wasser, Martin N. J. M.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) may be advantageous for monitoring tumor response during chemotherapy treatment, particularly in the early treatment stages. In this paper we perform a second analysis on the data of a clinical trial with 25 breast cancer patients that received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients were monitored using delayed contrast enhanced MRI and additionally with diffuse optical spectroscopy at baseline, after 1 cycle of chemotherapy, halfway therapy and before surgery. In this analysis hemoglobin content between tumor tissue and healthy tissue of the same breast is compared on all four monitoring time points. Furthermore, the predictive power of the tumor-healthy tissue difference of HbO2 for non-responder prediction is assessed. The difference in HbO2 content between tumor and healthy tissue was statistically significantly higher in responding tumors than in non-responding tumors at baseline (10.88 vs -0.57 μM, P=0.014) and after one cycle of chemotherapy (6.45 vs -1.31 μM, P=0.048). Before surgery this difference had diminished. In the data of this study, classification on the HbO2 difference between tumor and healthy tissue was able to predict tumor (non-)response at baseline and after 1 cycle with an area-under-curve of 0.95 and 0.88, respectively. While this result suggests that tumor response can be predicted before chemotherapy onset, one should be very careful with interpreting these results. A larger patient population is needed to confirm this finding.

  20. Identification of ocular dominance domains in New World owl monkeys by immediate-early gene expression.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Toru; Miyashita, Masanobu; Tanaka, Shigeru; Kaas, Jon H

    2014-03-18

    Ocular dominance columns (ODCs) have been well studied in the striate cortex (V1) of macaques, as well defined arrays of columnar structure that receive inputs from one eye or the other, whereas ODC expression seems more obscure in some New World primate species. ODCs have been identified by means of eye injections of transneuronal transporters and examination of cytochrome oxidase (CO) activity patterns after monocular enucleation. More recently, live-imaging techniques have been used to reveal ODCs. Here, we used the expression of immediate-early genes (IEGs), protooncogene, c-Fos, and zinc finger protein, Zif268, after monocular inactivation (MI) to identify ODCs in V1 of New World owl monkeys. Because IEG expression is more sensitive to activity changes than CO expression, it is capable of revealing activity maps in all layers throughout V1 and demonstrating brief activity changes within a couple of hours. Using IEGs, we not only revealed apparent ODCs in owl monkeys but also discovered a number of unique features of their ODCs. Distinct from those in macaques, these ODCs sometimes bridged to other columns in layer 4 (Brodmann layer 4C). CO blobs straddled ODC borders in the central visual field, whereas they centered ODC patches in the peripheral visual field. In one case, the ODC pattern continued into V2. Finally, an elevation of IEG expression in layer 4 (4C) was observed along ODC borders after only brief MI. Our data provide insights into the structure and variability of ODCs in primates and revive debate over the functions and development of ODCs.

  1. Identification of candidate genes for familial early-onset essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinmin; Hernandez, Nora; Kisselev, Sergey; Floratos, Aris; Sawle, Ashley; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; Ottman, Ruth; Louis, Elan D; Clark, Lorraine N

    2016-07-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common causes of tremor in humans. Despite its high heritability and prevalence, few susceptibility genes for ET have been identified. To identify ET genes, whole-exome sequencing was performed in 37 early-onset ET families with an autosomal-dominant inheritance pattern. We identified candidate genes for follow-up functional studies in five ET families. In two independent families, we identified variants predicted to affect function in the nitric oxide (NO) synthase 3 gene (NOS3) that cosegregated with disease. NOS3 is highly expressed in the central nervous system (including cerebellum), neurons and endothelial cells, and is one of three enzymes that converts l-arginine to the neurotransmitter NO. In one family, a heterozygous variant, c.46G>A (p.(Gly16Ser)), in NOS3, was identified in three affected ET cases and was absent in an unaffected family member; and in a second family, a heterozygous variant, c.164C>T (p.(Pro55Leu)), was identified in three affected ET cases (dizygotic twins and their mother). Both variants result in amino-acid substitutions of highly conserved amino-acid residues that are predicted to be deleterious and damaging by in silico analysis. In three independent families, variants predicted to affect function were also identified in other genes, including KCNS2 (KV9.2), HAPLN4 (BRAL2) and USP46. These genes are highly expressed in the cerebellum and Purkinje cells, and influence function of the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic system. This is in concordance with recent evidence that the pathophysiological process in ET involves cerebellar dysfunction and possibly cerebellar degeneration with a reduction in Purkinje cells, and a decrease in GABA-ergic tone. PMID:26508575

  2. Identification of the ISWI Chromatin Remodeling Complex of the Early Branching Eukaryote Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Stanne, Tara M; Narayanan, Mani Shankar; Ridewood, Sophie; Ling, Alexandra; Witmer, Kathrin; Kushwaha, Manish; Wiesler, Simone; Wickstead, Bill; Wood, Jennifer; Rudenko, Gloria

    2015-11-01

    ISWI chromatin remodelers are highly conserved in eukaryotes and are important for the assembly and spacing of nucleosomes, thereby controlling transcription initiation and elongation. ISWI is typically associated with different subunits, forming specialized complexes with discrete functions. In the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which causes African sleeping sickness, TbISWI down-regulates RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-transcribed variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene expression sites (ESs), which are monoallelically expressed. Here, we use tandem affinity purification to determine the interacting partners of TbISWI. We identify three proteins that do not show significant homology with known ISWI-associated partners. Surprisingly, one of these is nucleoplasmin-like protein (NLP), which we had previously shown to play a role in ES control. In addition, we identify two novel ISWI partners, regulator of chromosome condensation 1-like protein (RCCP) and phenylalanine/tyrosine-rich protein (FYRP), both containing protein motifs typically found on chromatin proteins. Knockdown of RCCP or FYRP in bloodstream form T. brucei results in derepression of silent variant surface glycoprotein ESs, as had previously been shown for TbISWI and NLP. All four proteins are expressed and interact with each other in both major life cycle stages and show similar distributions at Pol I-transcribed loci. They are also found at Pol II strand switch regions as determined with ChIP. ISWI, NLP, RCCP, and FYRP therefore appear to form a single major ISWI complex in T. brucei (TbIC). This reduced complexity of ISWI regulation and the presence of novel ISWI partners highlights the early divergence of trypanosomes in evolution.

  3. Identification of the ISWI Chromatin Remodeling Complex of the Early Branching Eukaryote Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Stanne, Tara M; Narayanan, Mani Shankar; Ridewood, Sophie; Ling, Alexandra; Witmer, Kathrin; Kushwaha, Manish; Wiesler, Simone; Wickstead, Bill; Wood, Jennifer; Rudenko, Gloria

    2015-11-01

    ISWI chromatin remodelers are highly conserved in eukaryotes and are important for the assembly and spacing of nucleosomes, thereby controlling transcription initiation and elongation. ISWI is typically associated with different subunits, forming specialized complexes with discrete functions. In the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which causes African sleeping sickness, TbISWI down-regulates RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-transcribed variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene expression sites (ESs), which are monoallelically expressed. Here, we use tandem affinity purification to determine the interacting partners of TbISWI. We identify three proteins that do not show significant homology with known ISWI-associated partners. Surprisingly, one of these is nucleoplasmin-like protein (NLP), which we had previously shown to play a role in ES control. In addition, we identify two novel ISWI partners, regulator of chromosome condensation 1-like protein (RCCP) and phenylalanine/tyrosine-rich protein (FYRP), both containing protein motifs typically found on chromatin proteins. Knockdown of RCCP or FYRP in bloodstream form T. brucei results in derepression of silent variant surface glycoprotein ESs, as had previously been shown for TbISWI and NLP. All four proteins are expressed and interact with each other in both major life cycle stages and show similar distributions at Pol I-transcribed loci. They are also found at Pol II strand switch regions as determined with ChIP. ISWI, NLP, RCCP, and FYRP therefore appear to form a single major ISWI complex in T. brucei (TbIC). This reduced complexity of ISWI regulation and the presence of novel ISWI partners highlights the early divergence of trypanosomes in evolution. PMID:26378228

  4. Improving theatre efficiency and utilisation through early identification of trauma patients and enhanced communication between teams.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Simon; Saithna, Adnan; Bethune, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Surgical departments are increasingly put under pressure to improve services, cut waiting lists, increase efficiency and save money. At a district general hospital in the west-midlands we approached the challenge of improving efficiency and optimising the services available in our orthopaedic theatres. Data was collected on: anaesthetic start times, operation start and finish times, and reasons for delay in our trauma theatre over a period from October 2014 to January 2015. During this period a change was implemented to improve the start time of the first operation of each day in the trauma theatre. Through adaptation of a method developed by Javed S et al, a patient was pre-selected by the on-call team and given the name the "golden patient" the day before they were due to be operated upon. This nominated patient would then be fixed at the start of the trauma theatre list the following day. The list would only then change if a "life or limb threatening" case was admitted overnight. The on-call team would prioritise that this patient was optimised for theatre and the theatre staff would ensure the surgical instruments were prepared. A PDSA cycle method was used, collecting data on 80 orthopaedic trauma cases during the period, and demonstrated a 59 minute (95% CI 45-72) improvement in start times from 10:49 AM to 9:50 AM with a p-value of 0.00024 with the intervention of early allocation of the first patient on the trauma list. A relatively simple intervention tool designed to improve communication within and between health-care teams can have a significant impact on the efficiency of a complex environment such as a trauma theatre.

  5. Improving theatre efficiency and utilisation through early identification of trauma patients and enhanced communication between teams

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Simon; Saithna, Adnan; Bethune, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Surgical departments are increasingly put under pressure to improve services, cut waiting lists, increase efficiency and save money. At a district general hospital in the west-midlands we approached the challenge of improving efficiency and optimising the services available in our orthopaedic theatres. Data was collected on: anaesthetic start times, operation start and finish times, and reasons for delay in our trauma theatre over a period from October 2014 to January 2015. During this period a change was implemented to improve the start time of the first operation of each day in the trauma theatre. Through adaptation of a method developed by Javed S et al, a patient was pre-selected by the on-call team and given the name the “golden patient” the day before they were due to be operated upon. This nominated patient would then be fixed at the start of the trauma theatre list the following day. The list would only then change if a “life or limb threatening” case was admitted overnight. The on-call team would prioritise that this patient was optimised for theatre and the theatre staff would ensure the surgical instruments were prepared. A PDSA cycle method was used, collecting data on 80 orthopaedic trauma cases during the period, and demonstrated a 59 minute (95% CI 45-72) improvement in start times from 10:49 AM to 9:50 AM with a p-value of 0.00024 with the intervention of early allocation of the first patient on the trauma list. A relatively simple intervention tool designed to improve communication within and between health-care teams can have a significant impact on the efficiency of a complex environment such as a trauma theatre. PMID:26734340

  6. Early identification and management of psychological risk factors ("yellow flags") in patients with low back pain: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Michael K; Linton, Steven J; Watson, Paul J; Main, Chris J

    2011-05-01

    Originally the term "yellow flags" was used to describe psychosocial prognostic factors for the development of disability following the onset of musculoskeletal pain. The identification of yellow flags through early screening was expected to prompt the application of intervention guidelines to achieve secondary prevention. In recent conceptualizations of yellow flags, it has been suggested that their range of applicability should be confined primarily to psychological risk factors to differentiate them from other risk factors, such as social and environmental variables. This article addresses 2 specific questions that arise from this development: (1) Can yellow flags influence outcomes in people with acute or subacute low back pain? and (2) Can yellow flags be targeted in interventions to produce better outcomes? Consistent evidence has been found to support the role of various psychological factors in prognosis, although questions remain about which factors are the most important, both individually and in combination, and how they affect outcomes. Published early interventions have reported mixed results, but, overall, the evidence suggests that targeting yellow flags, particularly when they are at high levels, does seem to lead to more consistently positive results than either ignoring them or providing omnibus interventions to people regardless of psychological risk factors. Psychological risk factors for poor prognosis can be identified clinically and addressed within interventions, but questions remain in relation to issues such as timing, necessary skills, content of treatments, and context. In addition, there is still a need to elucidate mechanisms of change and better integrate this understanding into the broader context of secondary prevention of chronic pain and disability.

  7. 33 CFR 62.54 - Ownership identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 62.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.54 Ownership identification. Ownership identification on private or state aids to navigation is permitted so long as it...

  8. 33 CFR 62.54 - Ownership identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 62.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.54 Ownership identification. Ownership identification on private or state aids to navigation is permitted so long as it...

  9. 33 CFR 62.54 - Ownership identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 62.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.54 Ownership identification. Ownership identification on private or state aids to navigation is permitted so long as it...

  10. 33 CFR 62.54 - Ownership identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 62.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.54 Ownership identification. Ownership identification on private or state aids to navigation is permitted so long as it...

  11. 33 CFR 62.54 - Ownership identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 62.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.54 Ownership identification. Ownership identification on private or state aids to navigation is permitted so long as it...

  12. Identification and Validation of Novel Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers for Staging Early Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Malone, James P.; Shah, Aarti R.; Gilmore, Petra; Davis, Alan E.; Roe, Catherine M.; Peskind, Elaine R.; Li, Ge; Galasko, Douglas R.; Clark, Christopher M.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Morris, John C.; Holtzman, David M.; Townsend, R. Reid; Fagan, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ideally, disease modifying therapies for Alzheimer disease (AD) will be applied during the ‘preclinical’ stage (pathology present with cognition intact) before severe neuronal damage occurs, or upon recognizing very mild cognitive impairment. Developing and judiciously administering such therapies will require biomarker panels to identify early AD pathology, classify disease stage, monitor pathological progression, and predict cognitive decline. To discover such biomarkers, we measured AD-associated changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteome. Methods and Findings CSF samples from individuals with mild AD (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 1) (n = 24) and cognitively normal controls (CDR 0) (n = 24) were subjected to two-dimensional difference-in-gel electrophoresis. Within 119 differentially-abundant gel features, mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identified 47 proteins. For validation, eleven proteins were re-evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Six of these assays (NrCAM, YKL-40, chromogranin A, carnosinase I, transthyretin, cystatin C) distinguished CDR 1 and CDR 0 groups and were subsequently applied (with tau, p-tau181 and Aβ42 ELISAs) to a larger independent cohort (n = 292) that included individuals with very mild dementia (CDR 0.5). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses using stepwise logistic regression yielded optimal biomarker combinations to distinguish CDR 0 from CDR>0 (tau, YKL-40, NrCAM) and CDR 1 from CDR<1 (tau, chromogranin A, carnosinase I) with areas under the curve of 0.90 (0.85–0.94 95% confidence interval [CI]) and 0.88 (0.81–0.94 CI), respectively. Conclusions Four novel CSF biomarkers for AD (NrCAM, YKL-40, chromogranin A, carnosinase I) can improve the diagnostic accuracy of Aβ42 and tau. Together, these six markers describe six clinicopathological stages from cognitive normalcy to mild dementia, including stages defined by increased risk of cognitive decline. Such a panel

  13. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  14. Identification of a New Hesperornithiform from the Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk and Implications for Ecologic Diversity among Early Diving Birds

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Alyssa; Chiappe, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    The Smoky Hill Member of the Niobrara Chalk in Kansas (USA) has yielded the remains of numerous members of the Hesperornithiformes, toothed diving birds from the late Early to Late Cretaceous. This study presents a new taxon of hesperornithiform from the Smoky Hill Member, Fumicollis hoffmani, the holotype of which is among the more complete hesperornithiform skeletons. Fumicollis has a unique combination of primitive (e.g. proximal and distal ends of femur not expanded, elongate pre-acetabular ilium, small and pyramidal patella) and derived (e.g. dorsal ridge on metatarsal IV, plantarly-projected curve in the distal shaft of phalanx III:1) hesperornithiform characters, suggesting it was more specialized than small hesperornithiforms like Baptornis advenus but not as highly derived as the larger Hesperornis regalis. The identification of Fumicollis highlights once again the significant diversity of hesperornithiforms that existed in the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway. This diversity points to the existence of a complex ecosystem, perhaps with a high degree of niche partitioning, as indicated by the varying degrees of diving specializations among these birds. PMID:26580402

  15. Identification and Characterization of Early Solar system Organic Matter Preserved in Chondritic Porous Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, George; Wirick, Sue; Keller, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    The chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs), collected by NASA from the Earth's stratosphere, have experienced minimal aqueous or thermal alteration since their formation. These CP IDPs are the best preserved samples of the minerals and organic matter that was present in the primitive Solar Nebula that are currently available for laboratory analysis [1]. The ~10 μm CP IDPs are aggregates of tens-of-thousands of mostly sub-micron grains of diverse compositions and mineralogies. Many of the individual mineral grains are coated by a 50 to 200 nm thick rims of carbonaceous material, and other carbonaceous material occurs as larger, discrete subunits within the particles [2]. We characterize this carbonaceous material using two high-resolution, synchrotron-based instruments: a Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (STXM) to locate and map the carbon and to identify its major functional groups by X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and a micro-Fourier Transform Infrared (μ-FTIR) spectrometer to further characterize the functional groups by mid-infrared spectroscopy. Carbon-XANES spectroscopy identifies the rims coating the individual grains in CP IDPs as organic matter, dominated by the C=C, likely C-rings, and the C=O functional groups [3]. This structure, with the organic rims being the contact surfaces between the grains, implies a 3-step formation sequence: grain condensation, organic rim emplacement, and, finally, aggregation of the grains to form the dust particles. This suggests these organic rims formed very early in the evolution of the Solar Nebula, after grain condensation but before grain aggregation [3]. These organic rims coat grains of diverse compositions, including silicates, sulfides, and carbonates, which is inconsistent with formation by Fischer-Tropsch-like, mineral-specific catalysis, one of the mechanisms suggested for the formation of primitive organic matter. Our observations are consistent with an

  16. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009,. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were

  17. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were

  18. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  19. Teaching AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonks, Douglas

    This book presents a curriculum to educate students about the risk of AIDS and HIV infection. The opening chapters of the book presents a discussion of: how teachers can create an environment of support for an AIDS education program; the political and educational implications of winning principal, district, and parental support for an AIDS…

  20. Identification of human adenovirus early region 1 products by using antisera against synthetic peptides corresponding to the predicted carboxy termini.

    PubMed Central

    Yee, S P; Rowe, D T; Tremblay, M L; McDermott, M; Branton, P E

    1983-01-01

    Synthetic peptides were prepared which corresponded to the carboxy termini of the human adenovirus type 5 early region 1B (E1B) 58,000-molecular-weight (58K) protein (Tyr-Ser-Asp-Glu-Asp-Thr-Asp) and of the E1A gene products (Tyr-Gly-Lys-Arg-Pro-Arg-Pro). Antisera raised against these peptides precipitated polypeptides from adenovirus type 5-infected KB cells; serum raised against the 58K carboxy terminus was active against the E1B 58K phosphoprotein, whereas serum raised against the E1A peptide immunoprecipitated four major and at least two minor polypeptides. These latter proteins migrated with apparent molecular weights of 52K, 50K, 48.5K, 45K, 37.5K, and 35K, and all were phosphoproteins. By using tryptic phosphopeptide analysis, the four major species (52K, 50K, 48.5K, and 45K) were found to be related, as would be expected if all were products of the E1A region. The ability of the antipeptide sera to precipitate these viral proteins thus confirmed that the previously proposed sequence of E1 DNA and mRNA and the reading frame of the mRNA are correct. Immunofluorescent-antibody staining with the antipeptide sera indicated that the 58K E1B protein was localized both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm, especially in the perinuclear region. The E1A-specific serum also stained both discrete patches in the nucleus and diffuse areas of the cytoplasm. These data suggest that both the 58K protein and the E1A proteins may function in or around the nucleus. These highly specific antipeptide sera should allow for a more complete identification and characterization of these important viral proteins. Images PMID:6343626

  1. THE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) RECOVERED FROM LOS ANGELES POTABLE WATER, A POSSIBLE SOURCE OF INFECTION IN AIDS PATIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Los Angeles water was investigated as a possible source of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in patients with AIDS. MAC consists of M.avium (MA), M. intracellulare (MI) and Mycobacterium X (MX)(positive for MAC by DNA probe but not MA or MI). The study included 13 reser...

  2. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship. This study investigated the moderating role of…

  3. Trajectories of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors: The Role of Other Maltreatment, Witnessed Violence, and Child Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.; Wiley, Tisha; English, Diana E.; Proctor, Laura J.; Jones, Bobby L.; Nagin, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV/AIDS risk behavior; however, much of this work is retrospective and focuses on women. The current study used semi-parametric mixture modeling with youth (n = 844; 48.8% boys) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine the link between trajectories of CSA…

  4. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  5. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  6. Contextual variation in young children’s observed disruptive behavior on the DB-DOS: implications for early identification

    PubMed Central

    Petitclerc, Amélie; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L.; Anderson, Erica L.; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2015-01-01

    -deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Conclusions The DB-DOS showed clinical utility in a community sample for identifying contextual variation that maps onto reported oppositional-defiant behavior and functioning across contexts. Elucidating the implications of contextual variation for early identification and targeted prevention is an important area for future research. PMID:26095766

  7. Is early detection of abused children possible?: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of the identification of abused children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early detection of abused children could help decrease mortality and morbidity related to this major public health problem. Several authors have proposed tools to screen for child maltreatment. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence on accuracy of tools proposed to identify abused children before their death and assess if any were adapted to screening. Methods We searched in PUBMED, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, FRANCIS and PASCAL for studies estimating diagnostic accuracy of tools identifying neglect, or physical, psychological or sexual abuse of children, published in English or French from 1961 to April 2012. We extracted selected information about study design, patient populations, assessment methods, and the accuracy parameters. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS criteria. Results A total of 2 280 articles were identified. Thirteen studies were selected, of which seven dealt with physical abuse, four with sexual abuse, one with emotional abuse, and one with any abuse and physical neglect. Study quality was low, even when not considering the lack of gold standard for detection of abused children. In 11 studies, instruments identified abused children only when they had clinical symptoms. Sensitivity of tests varied between 0.26 (95% confidence interval [0.17-0.36]) and 0.97 [0.84-1], and specificity between 0.51 [0.39-0.63] and 1 [0.95-1]. The sensitivity was greater than 90% only for three tests: the absence of scalp swelling to identify children victims of inflicted head injury; a decision tool to identify physically-abused children among those hospitalized in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit; and a parental interview integrating twelve child symptoms to identify sexually-abused children. When the sensitivity was high, the specificity was always smaller than 90%. Conclusions In 2012, there is low-quality evidence on the accuracy of instruments for identifying abused children. Identified tools were not adapted to screening because of

  8. Identification of isolated and early prostatic adenocarcinoma in radical prostatectomy specimens with correlation to biopsy cores: clinical and pathogenetic significance.

    PubMed

    Mai, Kien T; Landry, Denise C; Yazdi, Hossein M; Stinson, William A; Perkins, D Garth; Morash, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) is a multifocal disease. In this study, we identified isolated and small foci of PAC (ISPAC) in radical prostatectomy specimens, described the histopathologic features, investigated their zonal distribution in the prostate and their relationship with large tumor nodules, and correlated the findings with those of preceding biopsy cores. One hundred and thirty radical prostatectomy specimens performed for PAC or for urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder with incidental PAC were reviewed for identification of ISPAC. Prostates were serially sectioned in the horizontal plane and submitted in toto for microscopic examination. ISPAC were defined as foci of PAC measuring less than 3 mm in maximum diameter. There were 461 ISPAC identified in 114 cases. They were distributed in the transitional zone (TZ) (18 foci), the apex (73 foci), the anterior horn of the non-TZ (NTZ) (118 foci), the base (8 foci), and the remaining NTZ (244 foci). ISPAC usually consisted of groups of small acini with a GS ranging from 2 to 7 (3 + 4). GSs of ISPAC consisted of single grade or two consecutive grades equal to or lower than those of the main PAC. ISPAC were more often located in close proximity to large tumor nodules. The number of ISPAC increased with the tumor volume up to 3 cm3, then decreased as the PAC became more extensive (p value = 0.02, statistically significant). Prostates with NTZ PAC <1.5 cm3 and TZ PAC or prostates containing 4 or more than 4 ISPAC tended to be frequently associated with small foci of PAC in biopsy cores In this study, we identified ISPAC that likely represent foci of PAC in early development and account for the multicentricity and heterogeneity of PAC. ISPAC in the NTZ were common and may account for small foci of PAC or atypia in biopsy cores. Although these small foci of PAC or atypia in biopsy cores without accompanying higher GS PAC were often associated with significant PAC, they may also occasionally represent

  9. AIDS lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Middleton, G W; Lau, R K

    1992-01-01

    Chronically immunosuppressed individuals are susceptible to lymphoreticular tumors. Up to 15% of patients with congenital deficiencies such as ataxia=telangiectasia may develop malignancies, mainly high-grade B cell non=Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). AIDS lymphomas are comprised of NHLs including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and primary cerebral lymphomas (PCLs). Almost 3% of all AIDS patients (2824 of 97,258 cases) developed NHL. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a co-factor in AIDS lymphomagenesis has been studied: in 12 cases of 24 AIDS lymphomas EBV by DNA in situ hybridization was found. In an analysis of 6 primary cerebral lymphomas, .5 were positive for EBV DNA by Southern blotting. In Burkitt's lymphoma the characteristic genetic alteration affects the c-myc oncogene. In 1/3 of BL p53 mutations were found but none in the 43 NHLs suggesting that p53 mutations and c-myc activation act synergistically in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Cytotoxic agents dideoxyinosine, dideoxycytosine, and zidovudine may cause secondary neoplasia. 8 of 55 AIDS patients under zidovudine treatment developed high-grade lymphoma 23.8 months subsequently; recently doses were reduced. PCL was found in 21 of 90 patients. A 5.2 months survival was associated with combined treatment with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin (vincristine), methotrexate, etoposide, and cytosine arabinoside compared with 11.3 months with chemotherapy. Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) alleviate drug-induced myelotoxicity and zidovudine-induced neutropenia, however, l8 of 11 patients receiving granulocyte-macrophage CSF developed hematological toxicity. Interleukine-2 produced by T-helper cells enhancing tumor cells cytotoxicity has been used in AIDS-associated cryptosporidial diarrhea and in 4 patients with AIDS lymphoma with modest response, but its stimulation of the HIV-infected substrate may increase viral proliferation.

  10. Trajectories of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors: The Role of Other Maltreatment, Witnessed Violence, and Child Gender

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.; Wiley, Tisha; English, Diana E.; Proctor, Laura J.; Jones, Bobby L.; Nagin, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV/AIDS risk behavior; however, much of this work is retrospective and focuses on women. The current study used semiparametric mixture modeling with youth (n = 844; 48.8% boys) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine the link between trajectories of CSA (2 to 12 y.o.) and HIV/AIDS risk behavior at age 14 (i.e., sexual intercourse & alcohol use). Trajectory analyses revealed a link between a history of CSA and the development of risky behavior. In addition, trajectories for physical and emotional abuse, but not neglect or witnessed violence, contributed to risky behavior over and above the role of CSA. Child gender did not moderate the findings. Findings highlight the signficance of CSA histories, as well as the broader context of maltreatment, for better understanding the development of risk behaviors in both girls and boys. PMID:20706919

  11. An evaluation of the early effects of a combination antiretroviral therapy programme on the management of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mosam, A; Uldrick, T S; Shaik, F; Carrara, H; Aboobaker, J; Coovadia, H

    2011-11-01

    Roll-out of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in South Africa should impact on AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Government provision began in 2003, with 23% coverage for World Health Organization (WHO) stage IV AIDS in 2006. To assess the effect of cART availability on KS management, we evaluated records from 701 KS patients seen at a tertiary oncology centre in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, from 1995 to 2006. Associations between cART use and measures of KS care were evaluated. cART availability was 0% prior to 2001, 9.6% (2001-2003) and 44% (2004-2006). Documentation of HIV status increased incrementally from 65% to 92%. cART was associated with chemotherapy administration: 56% on cART versus 17% not on cART (P < 0.001); and less loss to follow-up, 13% on cART versus 38% not on cART (P < 0.001). cART availability improves the care of AIDS-associated KS. Further increases in cART availability for this population are needed in South Africa. PMID:22096054

  12. Confronting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-03-01

    By 2020, HIV/AIDS will be the leading infectious killer of young and middle-aged adults in the developing world. Past gains in life expectancy are already being eroded in some countries. Millions of lives can, however, be saved if developing country governments, the international community, and nongovernmental organizations act now. Although more than 11 million people have already died of AIDS, 2.3 billion people live in developing countries in which the disease has not yet spread beyond certain risk groups. If the spread of HIV is checked, the quality of care available to people who are infected with HIV will probably be better than it would be in the context of a full-blown AIDS epidemic. However, while governments need to respond urgently to HIV/AIDS, using resources to help people with AIDS will reduce the resources available for other investments, such as child education, providing safe drinking water, and building roads. Economics can help governments set priorities as they decide how best to allocate their available resources. Externalities, public goods, and redistribution are discussed. All countries will need to use some combination of preventive and coping measures. PMID:12293445

  13. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A hearing aid is wearable sound-amplifying device that is intended to compensate for impaired hearing....

  17. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A hearing aid is wearable sound-amplifying device that is intended to compensate for impaired hearing....

  18. Epigenetic regulation of HIV, AIDS, and AIDS-related malignancies.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Although epigenetics is not a new field, its implications for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) research have not been explored fully. To develop therapeutic and preventive approaches against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of interaction between the virus and the host, involvement of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, characterization of viral reservoirs, and factors influencing the latency of the virus. Both methylation of viral genes and histone modifications contribute to initiating and maintaining latency and, depending on the context, triggering viral gene repression or expression. This chapter discusses progress made at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), recommendations from the International AIDS Society Scientific Working Group on HIV Cure, and underlying epigenetic regulation. A number of epigenetic inhibitors have shown potential in treating AIDS-related malignancies. Epigenetic drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and their implications for the eradication of HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related malignancies also are discussed.Past and current progress in developing treatments and understanding the molecular mechanisms of AIDS and HIV infection has greatly improved patient survival. However, increased survival has been coupled with the development of cancer at higher rates than those observed among the HIV/AIDS-negative population. During the early days of the AIDS epidemic, the most frequent AIDS-defining malignancies were Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Now, with increased survival as the result of widespread use in the developed world of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), non-AIDS defining cancers (i.e., anal, skin, and lung cancers, and Hodgkin disease) are on the increase in HIV-infected populations. The current status of AIDS-related malignancies also is discussed.

  19. A multiplex real-time PCR assay for identification of Pneumocystis jirovecii, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii in samples from AIDS patients with opportunistic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gago, Sara; Esteban, Cristina; Valero, Clara; Zaragoza, Oscar; Puig de la Bellacasa, Jorge; Buitrago, María José

    2014-04-01

    A molecular diagnostic technique based on real-time PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of three of the most frequent causative agents of fungal opportunistic pneumonia in AIDS patients: Pneumocystis jirovecii, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii. This technique was tested in cultured strains and in clinical samples from HIV-positive patients. The methodology used involved species-specific molecular beacon probes targeted to the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA. An internal control was also included in each assay. The multiplex real-time PCR assay was tested in 24 clinical strains and 43 clinical samples from AIDS patients with proven fungal infection. The technique developed showed high reproducibility (r(2) of >0.98) and specificity (100%). For H. capsulatum and Cryptococcus spp., the detection limits of the method were 20 and 2 fg of genomic DNA/20 μl reaction mixture, respectively, while for P. jirovecii the detection limit was 2.92 log10 copies/20 μl reaction mixture. The sensitivity in vitro was 100% for clinical strains and 90.7% for clinical samples. The assay was positive for 92.5% of the patients. For one of the patients with proven histoplasmosis, P. jirovecii was also detected in a bronchoalveolar lavage sample. No PCR inhibition was detected. This multiplex real-time PCR technique is fast, sensitive, and specific and may have clinical applications.

  20. Sensitive non-isotopic DNA hybridisation assay or immediate-early antigen detection for rapid identification of human cytomegalovirus in urine.

    PubMed

    Kimpton, C P; Morris, D J; Corbitt, G

    1991-04-01

    A sensitive non-radioactive DNA hybridisation assay employing digoxigenin-labelled probes was compared with immediate-early antigen detection and conventional virus isolation for the identification of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in 249 urine samples. Of 44 specimens yielding HCMV by virus isolation, more were positive by DNA hybridisation (32; 73%) than by immediate-early antigen detection (25; 52%) (P = 0.05). The specificity of the hybridisation assay in 45 apparently falsely positive specimens was supported by detection of HCMV DNA in 40 of these specimens using the polymerase chain reaction. Many urine specimens may thus contain large amounts of non-viable virus or free viral DNA. Evaluation of various protocols for the extraction and denaturation of virus DNA prior to hybridisation showed that proteinase K digestion with phenol/chloroform extraction was the most sensitive and reliable procedure. We conclude that the non-radioactive DNA hybridisation assay described is a potentially valuable routine diagnostic test.

  1. Downgrading BIRADS 3 to BIRADS 2 category using a computer-aided microcalcification analysis and risk assessment system for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulou, Georgia; Spyrou, George M; Antaraki, Argyro; Andreadis, Ioannis; Koulocheri, Dimitra; Zagouri, Flora; Nonni, Afroditi; Filippakis, George M; Nikita, Konstantina S; Ligomenides, Panos A; Zografos, George C

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of a computer-aided diagnosis system to discriminate the real benign microcalcifications among a specific subset of 109 patients with BIRADS 3 mammograms who had undergone biopsy, thus making it possible to downgrade them to BIRADS 2 category. The system detected and quantified critical features of microcalcifications and classified them on a risk percentage scale for malignancy. The system successfully detected all cancers. Nevertheless, it suggested biopsy for 11/15 atypical lesions. Finally, the system characterized as definitely benign (BIRADS 2) 29/88 benign lesions, previously assigned to BIRADS 3, and thus achieved a reduction of 33% in unnecessary biopsies.

  2. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  3. Dietitian Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the dietitian aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with health care facilities personnel, this course was prepared by teachers and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested,…

  4. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  5. Observation of Early Cleavage in Animal Development: A Simple Technique for Obtaining the Eggs of Rhabditis (Nematoda)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the advantages of using the readily available eggs of the nematode Rhabditis in studying the early cleavage stages of animal development. Discusses the identification and life history of Rhabditis, how to culture and examine the organism, the cleavage stages and cell lineage, and sources of visual aids. (JR)

  6. The Link between Emotion Identification Skills and Socio-Emotional Functioning in Early Adolescence: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Supavadeeprasit, Sunila

    2008-01-01

    Amongst adults, low emotion identification skill (EIS) relates to poor emotion regulation strategies, higher rates of anxiety and depression, and higher rates of somatic illness and disease [Taylor, G. J., & Bagby, R. M. (2004). New trends in alexithymia research. "Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics", 73, 68-77]. Little research has examined EIS in…

  7. An Ontario initiative to enhance the effectiveness of AIDS Service Organizations: Community-Linked Evaluation of AIDS Resources.

    PubMed

    Browne, Gina; Browne, Joseph A; McGee, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the rationale, process, and early outcomes of establishing a community-based research unit. The AIDS Bureau of the Ontario Provincial Government established the Community-Linked Evaluation of AIDS Resources Unit (CLEAR), which works in partnership with the AIDS Bureau and 31 of 74 AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) in Ontario.

  8. Cryptococcus gattii VGIII Isolates Causing Infections in HIV/AIDS Patients in Southern California: Identification of the Local Environmental Source as Arboreal

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Deborah J.; Billmyre, R. Blake; Filler, Elan E.; Voelz, Kerstin; Pursall, Rhiannon; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Larsen, Robert A.; Dietrich, Fred S.; May, Robin C.; Filler, Scott G.; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing Cryptococcus gattii outbreaks in the Western United States and Canada illustrate the impact of environmental reservoirs and both clonal and recombining propagation in driving emergence and expansion of microbial pathogens. C. gattii comprises four distinct molecular types: VGI, VGII, VGIII, and VGIV, with no evidence of nuclear genetic exchange, indicating these represent distinct species. C. gattii VGII isolates are causing the Pacific Northwest outbreak, whereas VGIII isolates frequently infect HIV/AIDS patients in Southern California. VGI, VGII, and VGIII have been isolated from patients and animals in the Western US, suggesting these molecular types occur in the environment. However, only two environmental isolates of C. gattii have ever been reported from California: CBS7750 (VGII) and WM161 (VGIII). The incongruence of frequent clinical presence and uncommon environmental isolation suggests an unknown C. gattii reservoir in California. Here we report frequent isolation of C. gattii VGIII MATα and MATa isolates and infrequent isolation of VGI MATα from environmental sources in Southern California. VGIII isolates were obtained from soil debris associated with tree species not previously reported as hosts from sites near residences of infected patients. These isolates are fertile under laboratory conditions, produce abundant spores, and are part of both locally and more distantly recombining populations. MLST and whole genome sequence analysis provide compelling evidence that these environmental isolates are the source of human infections. Isolates displayed wide-ranging virulence in macrophage and animal models. When clinical and environmental isolates with indistinguishable MLST profiles were compared, environmental isolates were less virulent. Taken together, our studies reveal an environmental source and risk of C. gattii to HIV/AIDS patients with implications for the >1,000,000 cryptococcal infections occurring annually for which the causative

  9. Integrating early detection with DNA barcoding: species identification of a non-native monitor lizard (Squamata: Varanidae) carcass in Mississippi, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Robert N.; Hopken, Matthew W.; Steen, David A.; Falk, Bryan G.; Piaggio, Antoinette J.

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of invasive species is critical to increasing the probability of successful management. At the primary stage of an invasion, invasive species are easier to control as the population is likely represented by just a few individuals. Detection of these first few individuals can be challenging, particularly if they are cryptic or otherwise characterized by low detectability. The engagement of members of the public may be critical to early detection as there are far more citizen s on the landscape than trained biologists. However, it can be difficult to assess the credibility of public reporting, especially when a diagnostic digital image or a physical specimen in good condition are lacking. DNA barcoding can be used for verification when morphological identification of a specimen is not possible or uncertain (i.e., degraded or partial specimen). DNA barcoding relies on obtaining a DNA sequence from a relatively small fragment of mitochondrial DNA and comparing it to a database of sequences containing a variety of expertly identified species. He rein we report the successful identification of a degraded specimen of a non-native, potentially invasive reptile species (Varanus niloticus) via DNA barcoding, after discovery and reporting by a member of the public.

  10. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  11. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  12. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  13. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  14. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  15. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  16. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  17. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  18. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  19. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  20. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  1. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  2. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  3. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  4. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a) Identification. A master hearing aid is an electronic device intended to simulate a hearing aid during...

  6. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a) Identification. A master hearing aid is an electronic device intended to simulate a hearing aid during...

  7. Early Outbreak of 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) in Mexico Prior to Identification of pH1N1 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Ma, Stefan; Velasco Hernandez, Jorge X.; Lee, Vernon J.; Lim, Wei Yen

    2011-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of the global spread of 2009 influenza A (pH1N1) virus, still very little is known of the early stages of the outbreak in Mexico during the early months of the year, before the virus was identified. Methodology/Main Findings We fit a simple mathematical model, the Richards model, to the number of excess laboratory-confirmed influenza cases in Mexico and Mexico City during the first 15 weeks in 2009 over the average influenza case number of the previous five baseline years of 2004-2008 during the same period to ascertain the turning point (or the peak incidence) of a wave of early influenza infections, and to estimate the transmissibility of the virus during these early months in terms of its basic reproduction number. The results indicate that there may have been an early epidemic in Mexico City as well as in all of Mexico during February/March. Based on excess influenza cases, the estimated basic reproduction number R0 for the early outbreak was 1.59 (0.55 to 2.62) for Mexico City during weeks 5–9, and 1.25 (0.76, 1.74) for all of Mexico during weeks 5–14. Conclusions We established the existence of an early epidemic in Mexico City and in all of Mexico during February/March utilizing the routine influenza surveillance data, although the location of seeding is unknown. Moreover, estimates of R0 as well as the time of peak incidence (the turning point) for Mexico City and all of Mexico indicate that the early epidemic in Mexico City in February/March had been more transmissible (larger R0) and peaked earlier than the rest of the country. Our conclusion lends support to the possibility that the virus could have already spread to other continents prior to the identification of the virus and the reporting of lab-confirmed pH1N1 cases in North America in April. PMID:21909366

  8. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  9. Screening for AIDS.

    PubMed

    1985-03-29

    Tests to detect serum antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses whole disrupted HTLV-III virus antigens, are now commercially available in the US. Recent surveys of groups at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have found that 22-65% of homosexual men, 87% of active intravenous drug users, 56-72% of hemophiliacs, and 35% of women who were sexual partners of men with AIDS have had postitive ELISA tests compared with fewer than 1% of those with no known risk factors. A positive ELISA test could be due to subclinical infection, immunity, or cross-reactivity with other viral antigens. Laboratory error can also produce false positive results. Thus, it is recommended that the ELISA test be repeated at least once on all seropositive specimens before the result is reported to the patient. The western blot test appears to be more specific and less sensitive than the ELISA. Studies of asymptomatic seropositive homosexual men followed for 2-5 years have found that over 50% remain asymptomatic, 5-19% develop full blown AIDS, and 25% develop signs suggestive of the AIDS-related complex. Asymptomatic patients with positive ELISA tests should be made aware of early signs and symptoms of AIDS. Other data suggest that seropositive patients have the HTLV-III virus in their blood, semen, and/or saliva and can transmit the infection. Precautions to prevent transmission, such as the use of condoms, should be taken by such patients. Physicians should be sensitive to the fear and anxiety that a positive ELISA test will create.

  10. Integrating earth observations and model results provides earlier Famine Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Funk, C. C.; Galu, G.; Choularton, R.

    2007-12-01

    Remote sensing allows us to detect slowly evolving natural hazards such as agricultural drought. Famine early warning systems transform this data into actionable policy information, enabling humanitarian organizations to respond in a timely and appropriate manner. These life saving responses are increasingly important. In 2006, 1 out of 8 people did not have enough to eat, 22 million more people became undernourished, and 22 countries provided 6.5 billion dollars in food aid. The motivation is strong, therefore, to increase the effectiveness of every dollar of food aid provided, ensuring that the assistance arrives sufficiently early to ward off human and economic catastrophe. Properly interpreted remote sensing information reduces the influence of politics in determining the amount and location of aid delivered. In this talk we will review three recent contributions that earth observations have provided to famine early warning: trend identification, increasingly accurate forecasts of food security conditions, and enhanced integration of biophysical and socio-economic data.

  11. 33 CFR 62.49 - Intracoastal Waterway identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.49 Intracoastal Waterway identification. (a) In addition to the conventional signals, aids to navigation marking the Intracoastal Waterway exhibit unique yellow symbols to distinguish them from aids marking...

  12. 33 CFR 62.49 - Intracoastal Waterway identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.49 Intracoastal Waterway identification. (a) In addition to the conventional signals, aids to navigation marking the Intracoastal Waterway exhibit unique yellow symbols to distinguish them from aids marking...

  13. 33 CFR 62.49 - Intracoastal Waterway identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.49 Intracoastal Waterway identification. (a) In addition to the conventional signals, aids to navigation marking the Intracoastal Waterway exhibit unique yellow symbols to distinguish them from aids marking...

  14. 33 CFR 62.49 - Intracoastal Waterway identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.49 Intracoastal Waterway identification. (a) In addition to the conventional signals, aids to navigation marking the Intracoastal Waterway exhibit unique yellow symbols to distinguish them from aids marking...

  15. 33 CFR 62.49 - Intracoastal Waterway identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.49 Intracoastal Waterway identification. (a) In addition to the conventional signals, aids to navigation marking the Intracoastal Waterway exhibit unique yellow symbols to distinguish them from aids marking...

  16. Age-at-death diagnosis and determination of life-history parameters by incremental lines in human dental cementum as an identification aid.

    PubMed

    Kagerer, P; Grupe, G

    2001-04-15

    Incremental lines in acellular extrinsic fiber cementum of 91 roots from 80 freshly extracted teeth have been investigated for a verification of the suitability of pathological teeth for a valid age-at-death diagnosis. Independent from tooth type, the accuracy of histological age-at-death diagnosis is clearly a function of a tooth's pathological state. Various periodontal diseases lead to a reduced number of incremental lines, while teeth with a sufficient nutritional support of their root showed a deviation of the histological age from the known actual age of 2-3 years only. For all patients, a detailed query concerning a variety of life-history parameters was established. We are able to show that especially previous pregnancies, skeletal traumata and renal diseases which all have a marked influence on the calcium metabolism result in hypomineralized incremental lines. The year of production of these hypomineralized lines could be dated precisely. Differential quality of incremental lines can, therefore, serve as a valuable tool in identification cases. PMID:11343858

  17. The harmonised data model for assessing Land Parcel Identification Systems compliance with requirements of direct aid and agri-environmental schemes of the CAP.

    PubMed

    Sagris, Valentina; Wojda, Piotr; Milenov, Pavel; Devos, Wim

    2013-03-30

    The EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) subsidies to farmers are administered through dedicated information systems, a part of which is the GIS-based Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS). The requirement to map and record land eligible for payments has led to a situation where the agricultural administrations have acquired a large amount of geographic data. As the geospatial community of data producers, custodians and users has grown during the last decades, so has the need to assess the quality and consistency of the LPIS towards the EU regulations on the CAP as well as for cross compliance with environmental legislation. In view of this, a LPIS Conceptual Model (LCM) is presented in this paper in order to address harmonisation and data quality needs. The ISO 19100 series standards on geoinformatics were used for LCM development, including an UML modelling approach and the handling of the quality of geographical information. This paper describes the core elements of the LCM and their integration with data supporting management of agri-environment schemes. Later, the paper shows how the LCM is used for conformity and quality checks of the member states' LPIS system; an Abstract Test Suite (ATS) for mapping the LCM model against existing system implementations was developed and tested in collaboration with several member states. PMID:23391811

  18. The harmonised data model for assessing Land Parcel Identification Systems compliance with requirements of direct aid and agri-environmental schemes of the CAP.

    PubMed

    Sagris, Valentina; Wojda, Piotr; Milenov, Pavel; Devos, Wim

    2013-03-30

    The EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) subsidies to farmers are administered through dedicated information systems, a part of which is the GIS-based Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS). The requirement to map and record land eligible for payments has led to a situation where the agricultural administrations have acquired a large amount of geographic data. As the geospatial community of data producers, custodians and users has grown during the last decades, so has the need to assess the quality and consistency of the LPIS towards the EU regulations on the CAP as well as for cross compliance with environmental legislation. In view of this, a LPIS Conceptual Model (LCM) is presented in this paper in order to address harmonisation and data quality needs. The ISO 19100 series standards on geoinformatics were used for LCM development, including an UML modelling approach and the handling of the quality of geographical information. This paper describes the core elements of the LCM and their integration with data supporting management of agri-environment schemes. Later, the paper shows how the LCM is used for conformity and quality checks of the member states' LPIS system; an Abstract Test Suite (ATS) for mapping the LCM model against existing system implementations was developed and tested in collaboration with several member states.

  19. Early osteological development of white perch and striped bass with emphasis on identification of their larvae. [Morone saxatilis; Morone americana

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzsche, R.A.; Johnson, G.D.

    1980-07-01

    A cartilage and bone straining technique was employed to study the developmental osteology of the striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white perch (Morone americana). Special attention was given to those osteological characters that appeared to be unique to the larvae of each species. Larval striped bass and white perch exhibited diagnostic differences in the position and shape of the median ethmoid, predorsal bones, dorsal- and anal-fin pterygiophores, vertebral column, and caudal skeleton. These differences were discernible at the earliest appearance of these elements as cartilage, and allow identification of striped bass and white perch larvae above a length of about 7.5 mm.

  20. Implications of Nubian-Like Core Reduction Systems in Southern Africa for the Identification of Early Modern Human Dispersals.

    PubMed

    Will, Manuel; Mackay, Alex; Phillips, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Lithic technologies have been used to trace dispersals of early human populations within and beyond Africa. Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups. Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations. Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with early human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in southern Africa during early MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence. The timing and spatial distribution of their appearance in southern and northern Africa implies technological convergence, rather than diffusion or dispersal. While lithic technologies can be a critical guide to human population flux, their utility in tracing early human dispersals at large spatial and temporal scales with stone artefact types remains questionable. PMID:26125972

  1. Early Warning Indicator System: Supporting K-12 Educators in the Identification, Support, and Monitoring of At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A rise in data availability gives educators the opportunity to tailor instructional practices and interventions to student needs and invest resources in areas where students require the most support. Massachusetts developed the Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS), which synthesizes the wealth of student data available in the state, including…

  2. Interracial Families and the Racial Identification of Mixed-Race Children: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsma, David L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a nationally-representative sample of kindergarten-aged children is used from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to explore the structure of parental racial designation of mixed-race children. The variation in these parental designations of a variety of mixed-race children is described. Parental racial designations in the…

  3. Implications of Nubian-Like Core Reduction Systems in Southern Africa for the Identification of Early Modern Human Dispersals

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Lithic technologies have been used to trace dispersals of early human populations within and beyond Africa. Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups. Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations. Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with early human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in southern Africa during early MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence. The timing and spatial distribution of their appearance in southern and northern Africa implies technological convergence, rather than diffusion or dispersal. While lithic technologies can be a critical guide to human population flux, their utility in tracing early human dispersals at large spatial and temporal scales with stone artefact types remains questionable. PMID:26125972

  4. Phosphohistone H3 expression correlates with manual mitotic counts and aids in identification of "hot spots" in fibroepithelial tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Paula S; Shin, Sandra J; Liu, Yifang; Chen, Zhengming; D'Alfonso, Timothy M

    2016-03-01

    Classification of mammary fibroepithelial tumors (FETs) relies on assessment of mitotic activity, among other histopathologic parameters. Routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) mitotic counts can be subjective and time consuming. Difficulty may arise in identifying "true" mitoses for a variety of reasons. Phosphorylation of histone H3 protein (PHH3) is correlated with mitotic chromatin condensation. The utility of PHH3 immunohistochemical staining to identify mitoses has been demonstrated in multiple organ systems. In this study, we examined the utility of PHH3 in assessing mitotic activity in FETs and compared PHH3- with H&E-determined mitotic counts. PHH3-stained mitoses were readily identifiable at ×10 magnification and allowed for rapid identification of mitotic "hot spots." Median mitotic counts/10 high-power fields for fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes tumor, borderline phyllodes tumor (BlnPT), and malignant phyllodes tumor (MPT) were 0, 0.5, 4.25, and 9, respectively on H&E, and 0, 0.75, 4.5, and 8, respectively for PHH3. Among all FETs, there was a strong positive correlation between H&E- and PHH3-determined mitotic counts (r=0.91, P<.001). Using PHH3, 2 cases would be reclassified, both from BlnPT to MPT. PHH3-determined counts correlated with H&E-determined counts in FETs. Using PHH3, a small number of cases were reclassified from BlnPT to MPT, for which treatment is similar. Although H&E-determined counts remain the criterion standard for assessing mitotic activity in FETs, PHH3 may be a useful adjunctive tool in some cases and is helpful in identifying mitotic hot spots. PMID:26826415

  5. A History of Financial Aid to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    Colleges, universities, and the communities they serve have always been concerned about students' abilities to pay and the systems of aid to support students' learning. This article reviews the history of aiding student in higher education. Early student- and institutionally-led programs are discussed along with initial philanthropic and…

  6. SPECT functional neuroimaging in patients with AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.L.; Eastman, G.R. )

    1989-09-01

    This is the third in a four-part article series on AIDS. Upon completion of this article, the technologist will have an understanding of the neurological complications of the AIDS virus and how nuclear medicine techniques can be used for early detection of CNS disorders.

  7. An Arabidopsis and tomato mesophyll protoplast system for fast identification of early MAMP-triggered immunity-suppressing effectors.

    PubMed

    Fraiture, Malou; Zheng, Xiangzi; Brunner, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Transient expression in plant mesophyll protoplasts allows rapid characterisation of gene functions in vivo in a simplified and synchronized manner without bias due to the use of bacteria-based gene or protein delivery systems. It offers the possibility to test whether microbial effectors can subvert early events of plant immune signaling that are activated upon recognition of Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs), the so-called MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI). Here, we describe the isolation and transfection with effector genes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanum lycopersicum mesophyll protoplasts, the use of a non-invasive luciferase reporter assay and a simple method to detect activated Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) to identify and study, in a medium-throughput manner, new effectors suppressing early signal transduction events of MTI.

  8. Identification of early induced genes upon water deficit in potato cell cultures by cDNA-AFLP.

    PubMed

    Ambrosone, Alfredo; Di Giacomo, Michele; Leone, Antonella; Grillo, M Stefania; Costa, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    For plant cells in the early phases of water stress exposure, the genes induced under such conditions play a key role in detecting and responding to water deficit. In this study, potato cell suspensions were used as a simplified model system to dissect early molecular changes upon low water potential. In particular, the cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism approach was used to capture genes rapidly activated in potato cell cultures in response to water deficit induced by short-term exposure (up to 1 h) to polyethylene glycol. Selective amplifications with 38 primer combinations allowed the visualization of about 167 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) differentially expressed upon exposure to low water potential. The gene expression pattern of 18 up-regulated genes was further investigated by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Sequencing and similarity analysis revealed that TDFs present homologies chiefly with proteins involved in chaperone activity and protein degradation (hsps, proteinase precursor), in protein synthesis (elongation factor, ribosomal proteins) and in the ROS scavenging pathway (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase). Our findings might contribute to describe the potential role of genes activated in the early phases of plant response to drought.

  9. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

  10. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  11. Suitability of electronic mini-boluses for the early identification of goat kids and effects on growth performance and development of the reticulorumen.

    PubMed

    Castro, N; Martín, D; Castro-Alonso, A; Argüello, A; Capote, J; Caja, G

    2010-10-01

    the electronic identification of growing kids from early ages (wk 2 to 5 of age and 5 to 6 kg of BW) and did not produce negative effects on their growth performances or on reticulorumen development. These results support the use of properly designed boluses as a unique identification device for the entire lifespan of goats.

  12. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes. PMID:1867668

  13. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes.

  14. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements.

    PubMed

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  15. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  16. Identification of c-Yes expression in the nuclei of hepatocellular carcinoma cells: involvement in the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nonomura, Takako; Masaki, Tsutomu; Morishita, Asahiro; Jian, Gong; Uchida, Naohito; Himoto, Takashi; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Iwama, Hisakazu; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Seishiro; Kurokohchi, Kazutaka; Kuriyama, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    It is thought that the subcellular distribution of Src-family tyrosine kinases, including c-Yes binding to the cellular membrane, is membranous and/or cytoplasmic. c-Yes protein tyrosine kinase is known to be related to malignant transformation. However, the expression patterns of c-Yes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In the present study, we report that c-Yes is expressed not only in the membrane and cytoplasm, but also in the nuclei of cancer cells in some human HCC tissues and in a human HCC cell line. We examined the expression and localization of c-Yes in human HCC cell lines (HLE, HLF, PLC/PRF/5 and Hep 3B) by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses; we also examined the expression of c-Yes by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting in the tissues of various liver diseases, including 39 samples from HCC patients. We used an antibody array to detect proteins that bind to nuclear c-Yes in PLC/PRF/5 cell line. c-Yes was found to be expressed in the membranes and cytoplasm of HLE, HLF and Hep 3B HCC cells; it was also detected in the nuclei in addition to the membranes and cytoplasm of PLC/PRF/5 HCC cells. HCC with nuclear c-Yes was detected in 5 of 39 cases (13.0%), and nuclear c-Yes expression was not detected in normal, chronic hepatitis or cirrhotic livers. All HCCs with nuclear c-Yes expression were well-differentiated, small tumors at the early stages. In the PLC/PRF/5 cell line, the nuclear localization of c-Yes with cyclin-dependent kinase 1 was confirmed by a protein antibody array. In conclusion, nuclear c-Yes expression was found in cancer cells at the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis, suggesting that nucleus-located c-Yes may be a useful marker to detect early-stage HCC.

  17. Early identification of young children at risk for poor academic achievement: preliminary development of a parent-report prediction tool

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Early school success is clearly related to later health. A prediction index that uses parent report to assess children's risk for poor academic achievement could potentially direct targeted service delivery to improve child outcomes. Methods We obtained risk factors through literature review and used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Child Files to examine the predictive associations of these factors with academic achievement scores. Results Twenty predictors were identified including four strong predictors (maternal education, child gender, family income, and low birth weight). Significantly, 12 predictors explained 17-24% of score variance. Conclusions Parent-reported factors provide predictive accuracy for academic achievement. PMID:21851586

  18. Exploring the predictive value of the evoked potentials score in MS within an appropriate patient population: a hint for an early identification of benign MS?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prognostic value of evoked potentials (EPs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been fully established. The correlations between the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) at First Neurological Evaluation (FNE) and the duration of the disease, as well as between EDSS and EPs, have influenced the outcome of most previous studies. To overcome this confounding relations, we propose to test the prognostic value of EPs within an appropriate patient population which should be based on patients with low EDSS at FNE and short disease duration. Methods We retrospectively selected a sample of 143 early relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients with an EDSS < 3.5 from a larger database spanning 20 years. By means of bivariate logistic regressions, the best predictors of worsening were selected among several demographic and clinical variables. The best multivariate logistic model was statistically validated and prospectively applied to 50 patients examined during 2009–2011. Results The Evoked Potentials score (EP score) and the Time to EDSS 2.0 (TT2) were the best predictors of worsening in our sample (Odds Ratio 1.10 and 0.82 respectively, p=0.001). Low EP score (below 15–20 points), short TT2 (lower than 3–5 years) and their interaction resulted to be the most useful for the identification of worsening patterns. Moreover, in patients with an EP score at FNE below 6 points and a TT2 greater than 3 years the probability of worsening was 10% after 4–5 years and rapidly decreased thereafter. Conclusions In an appropriate population of early RRMS patients, the EP score at FNE is a good predictor of disability at low values as well as in combination with a rapid buildup of disability. Interestingly, an EP score at FNE under the median together with a clinical stability lasting more than 3 years turned out to be a protective pattern. This finding may contribute to an early identification of benign patients, well before the term required to diagnose Benign MS

  19. Learning Disabilities and Early Intervention Strategies: How To Reform the Special Education Referral and Identification Process. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on Education Reform concerning learning disabilities and early intervention strategies, specifically possible reforms of the special education referral and identification process as part of the reauthorization process of the Individuals with Disabilities Education…

  20. Identification of positional candidates for bovine placental genes responsible for early embryonic death during cloning-attempted pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takahisa; Muramatsu, Youji; Taniguchi, Yukio; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    Our previous study detected 291 and 77 genes showing early embryonic death-associated elevation and reduction of expression, respectively, in the fetal placenta of the cow carrying somatic nuclear transfer-derived cloned embryo. In this study, we mapped the 10 genes showing the elevation and the 10 genes doing the reduction most significantly, using somatic cell hybrid and bovine draft genome sequence. We then compared the mapped positions for these genes with the genomic locations of bovine quantitative trait loci for still-birth and/or abortion. Among the mapped genes, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), spectrin, beta, nonerythrocytic 1 (SPTBNI), and an unknown novel gene containing AU277832 expressed sequence tag were intriguing, in that the mapped positions were consistent with the genomic locations of bovine still-birth and/or abortion quantitative trait loci, and thus identified as positional candidates for bovine placental genes responsible for the early embryonic death during the pregnancy attempted by somatic nuclear transfer-derived cloning.

  1. Identification of Risk Factors for Vascular Thrombosis May Reduce Early Renal Graft Loss: A Review of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Anna Krarup; Jorgensen, Troels Munch; Jespersen, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Renal graft survival has improved over the past years, mainly owing to better immunosuppression. Vascular thrombosis, though rare, therefore accounts for up to one third of early graft loss. We assess current literature on transplantation, identify thrombosis risk factors, and discuss means of avoiding thrombotic events and saving thrombosed grafts. The incidence of arterial thrombosis was reported to 0.2–7.5% and venous thrombosis 0.1–8.2%, with the highest incidence among children and infants, and the lowest in living donor reports. The most significant risk factors for developing thrombosis were donor-age below 6 or above 60 years, or recipient-age below 5-6 years, per- or postoperative hemodynamic instability, peritoneal dialysis, diabetic nephropathy, a history of thrombosis, deceased donor, or >24 hours cold ischemia. Multiple arteries were not a risk factor, and a right kidney graft was most often reported not to be. Given the thrombosed kidney graft is diagnosed in time, salvage is possible by urgent reoperation and thrombectomy. Despite meticulous attentions to reduce thrombotic risk factors, thrombosis cannot be entirely prevented and means to an early detection of this complication is desirable in order to save the kidneys through prompt reoperation. Microdialysis may be a new tool for this. PMID:22701162

  2. Identification of PSEN2 mutation p.N141I in Argentine pedigrees with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Muchnik, Carolina; Olivar, Natividad; Dalmasso, María Carolina; Azurmendi, Pablo Javier; Liberczuk, Cynthia; Morelli, Laura; Brusco, Luis Ignacio

    2015-10-01

    Presenilin 2 gene (PSEN2) mutations account for <5% of all early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD) cases and only 13 have strong evidence for pathogenicity. We aimed to investigate the presence of PSEN2 mutation p.N141I and characterize the clinical phenotypes in 2 Argentine pedigrees (AR2 and AR3) with clinical symptoms of EOFAD. Detailed clinical assessments and genetic screening for PSEN2 and APOE genes were carried out in 19 individuals of AR2 and AR3 families. The p.N141I mutation was identified in all affected subjects and was associated with prominent early onset, rapidly progressive dementia, neurologic, and behavioral symptoms. AR2 and AR3 families share the same Volga German ancestry as all the families reported presenting this mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PSEN2 mutation p.N141I in Argentina and even more, in South America. Our contribution increases the total number of described families carrying this mutation and help to improve the characterization of clinical phenotype in EOFAD associated to PSEN2 mutations.

  3. Identification of recurrent and novel mutations in TULP1 in Pakistani families with early-onset retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Ajmal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Micheal, Shazia; Ahmed, Waqas; Shah, Ashfa; Venselaar, Hanka; Bokhari, Habib; Azam, Aisha; Waheed, Nadia Khalida; Collin, Rob W.J.; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Qamar, Raheel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To identify the genetic defects underlying retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in Pakistani families. Methods Genome-wide high-density single-nucleotide-polymorphism microarray analysis was performed using the DNA of nine affected individuals from two large families with multiple consanguineous marriages. Data were analyzed to identify homozygous regions that are shared by affected sibs in each family. Sanger sequencing was performed for genes previously implicated in autosomal recessive RP and allied retinal dystrophies that resided in the identified homozygous regions. Probands from both families underwent fundus examination and electroretinogram measurements. Results The tubby-like protein 1 gene (TULP1) was present in the largest homozygous region in both families. Sequence analysis identified a previously reported mutation (c.1138A>G; p.Thr380Ala) in one family and a novel pathogenic variant (c.1445G>A; p.Arg482Gln) in the other family. Both variants were found to be present in a homozygous state in all affected individuals, were heterozygous present in the unaffected parents, and heterozygous present or absent in normal individuals. Affected individuals of both families showed an early-onset form of RP. Conclusions Homozygosity mapping, combined with candidate-gene analysis, successfully identified genetic defects in TULP1 in two large Pakistani families with early-onset retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:22665969

  4. Identification of nitrogenous organic species in Titan aerosols analogs: Implication for prebiotic chemistry on Titan and early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Smith, Mark A.

    2014-08-01

    Titan has a significant atmosphere composed primarily of nitrogen and methane with a significant organic haze component. Its nitrogen-rich atmosphere, abundant organics, and liquid surface make this moon of interest as a prebiotic laboratory at the planetary scale and one of the best targets for studying prebiotic planetary organic chemistry. In our previous work, we have investigated the chemical composition of Titan aerosol analogs (tholins) and identified a variety of nitrogenous organic molecules. Here we continue our structural investigation and identify four important prebiotic molecules in Titan tholins using NMR, GC-MS and standard sample comparison, including aminoacetonitrile, succinonitrile, acetoguanamine and adenine. On the basis of their structural characteristics, we suggest their formation pathways via simple precursors including methanimine (CH2NH), HCN, NH3, CH3CN and C2H2 in laboratory N2sbnd CH4 plasma or potentially in Titan’s atmosphere. Among these molecules, aminoacetonitrile is a potential precursor of amino acids and peptides, while adenine is a necessary ingredient for DNA and RNA. The identification of these molecules in Titan’s organic aerosol analogs increases our knowledge of Titan’s organic chemistry and its prebiotic implications.

  5. Non-invasive Presymptomatic Detection of Cercospora beticola Infection and Identification of Early Metabolic Responses in Sugar Beet

    PubMed Central

    Arens, Nadja; Backhaus, Andreas; Döll, Stefanie; Fischer, Sandra; Seiffert, Udo; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cercospora beticola is an economically significant fungal pathogen of sugar beet, and is the causative pathogen of Cercospora leaf spot. Selected host genotypes with contrasting degree of susceptibility to the disease have been exploited to characterize the patterns of metabolite responses to fungal infection, and to devise a pre-symptomatic, non-invasive method of detecting the presence of the pathogen. Sugar beet genotypes were analyzed for metabolite profiles and hyperspectral signatures. Correlation of data matrices from both approaches facilitated identification of candidates for metabolic markers. Hyperspectral imaging was highly predictive with a classification accuracy of 98.5–99.9% in detecting C. beticola. Metabolite analysis revealed metabolites altered by the host as part of a successful defense response: these were L-DOPA, 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid 12-O-β-D-glucoside, pantothenic acid, and 5-O-feruloylquinic acid. The accumulation of glucosylvitexin in the resistant cultivar suggests it acts as a constitutively produced protectant. The study establishes a proof-of-concept for an unbiased, presymptomatic and non-invasive detection system for the presence of C. beticola. The test needs to be validated with a larger set of genotypes, to be scalable to the level of a crop improvement program, aiming to speed up the selection for resistant cultivars of sugar beet. Untargeted metabolic profiling is a valuable tool to identify metabolites which correlate with hyperspectral data. PMID:27713750

  6. Facing AIDS in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mata, L

    1988-03-01

    The 1st AIDS case was diagnosed in Costa Rica in 1985. By January 1988, 47 cases were recorded. Most cases are in hemophiliacs and homosexuals; one is in the heterosexual partner of a hemophiliac. 55% of hemophiliacs in Costa Rica are infected with HIV -- one of the highest levels in the world. 10 women, including 2 prostitutes, are known to be HIV-positive. The number of new cases is expected to nearly double every year, and deaths from AIDS may come to exceed deaths from diarrhea and all other infectious diseases. Since 1985, all donated blood has been screened. A national education campaign began in 1985, using television, talks, workshops, and pamphlets, and coordinated by the National AIDS Commission. AIDS education is included in secondary and high school curricula, and condoms have been distributed in gay discotheques and other public places since 1987. Failure to recognize the problem early enough resulted in fear of and discrimination against AIDS patients by health workers as well as failure to provide enough funds for AIDS prevention and control. PMID:12315654

  7. Organization of early region 1B of human adenovirus type 2: identification of four differentially spliced mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, A; Pettersson, U

    1985-01-01

    The mRNAs from early region 1B of adenovirus type 2 have been studied by Northern blot, S1 nuclease, and cDNA analysis. Two novel mRNAs, designated 14S and 14.5S, have been observed in addition to the previously identified 9S, 13S, and 22S mRNAs. They are 1.26 and 1.31 kilobases long and differ from the 13S and 22S mRNAs in being composed of three exons instead of two. Their two terminal exons are the same as those present in the 13S mRNA, whereas the middle exon is unique to each of the two novel mRNA species. The structures of the 14S and 14.5S mRNAs allow the prediction of their coding capacities: both mRNA species, like the 22S and 13S mRNAs, contain an uninterrupted translational reading frame encoding a 21,000-molecular-weight (21K) polypeptide. The 14S mRNA can, in addition, encode a 16.5K polypeptide which shares N-terminal and C-terminal sequences with the 55K polypeptide, known to be encoded by the 22S mRNA. The 14.5S mRNA species encodes a hypothetical 9.2K polypeptide which has the same N terminus as the 55K polypeptide but a unique C terminus. The two mRNAs differ in their kinetics of appearance; the 14.5S mRNA is preferentially expressed late after infection in contrast to the 14S mRNA, which is present in approximately equal amounts early and late after infection. Taken together with previously published information the results suggest that early region 1B of adenovirus type 2 encodes five proteins in addition to virion polypeptide IX. These have predicted molecular weights of 55,000, 21,000, 16,500, 9,200, and 8,100. Images PMID:3989911

  8. Identification of children with and without cleft palate from tape-recorded samples of early vocalizations and speech.

    PubMed

    Van Demark, D R; Hardin-Jones, M A; O'Gara, M M; Logemann, J A; Chapman, K L

    1993-11-01

    Thirty judges (5 speech pathologists, 10 mothers of children with cleft palate, and 15 mothers of noncleft children) listened to 90 tape-recorded samples of early vocalizations/speech obtained from noncleft babies and babies with cleft palate. Each sample was classified by the judges as normal or abnormal. As a group, the speech pathologists classified only 60% of the cleft samples as abnormal and 59% of the normal samples as normal. The cleft and noncleft mother groups, on the other hand, classified 37% and 25% of the cleft samples as abnormal and 59% and 73% of the normal samples as normal. Poor interjudge agreement was evident within and across the three groups of judges. The poor reliability demonstrated by the speech pathologists in identifying babies with unrepaired clefts appeared related more to a difference in interpretation of the perceptual data than an inability to hear salient information.

  9. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  10. Global change ecotoxicology: Identification of early life history bottlenecks in marine invertebrates, variable species responses and variable experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Byrne, M

    2012-05-01

    Climate change is a threat to marine biota because increased atmospheric CO₂ is causing ocean warming, acidification, hypercapnia and decreased carbonate saturation. These stressors have toxic effects on invertebrate development. The persistence and success of populations requires all ontogenetic stages be completed successfully and, due to their sensitivity to environmental stressors, developmental stages may be a population bottleneck in a changing ocean. Global change ecotoxicology is being used to identify the marine invertebrate developmental stages vulnerable to climate change. This overview of research, and the methodologies used, shows that most studies focus on acidification, with few studies on ocean warming, despite a long history of research on developmental thermotolerance. The interactive effects of stressors are poorly studied. Experimental approaches differ among studies. Fertilization in many species exhibits a broad tolerance to warming and/or acidification, although different methodologies confound inter-study comparisons. Early development is susceptible to warming and most calcifying larvae are sensitive to acidification/increased pCO₂. In multistressor studies moderate warming diminishes the negative impact of acidification on calcification in some species. Development of non-calcifying larvae appears resilient to near-future ocean change. Although differences in species sensitivities to ocean change stressors undoubtedly reflect different tolerance levels, inconsistent handling of gametes, embryos and larvae probably influences different research outcomes. Due to the integrative 'developmental domino effect', life history responses will be influenced by the ontogenetic stage at which experimental incubations are initiated. Exposure to climate change stressors from early development (fertilization where possible) in multistressor experiments is needed to identify ontogenetic sensitivities and this will be facilitated by more consistent

  11. Identification of an epigenetic signature of early mouse liver regeneration that is disrupted by Zn-HDAC inhibition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiansheng; Schriefer, Andrew E; Yang, Wei; Cliften, Paul F; Rudnick, David A

    2014-11-01

    Liver regeneration has been well studied with hope of discovering strategies to improve liver disease outcomes. Nevertheless, the signals that initiate such regeneration remain incompletely defined, and translation of mechanism-based pro-regenerative interventions into new treatments for hepatic diseases has not yet been achieved. We previously reported the isoform-specific regulation and essential function of zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (Zn-HDACs) during mouse liver regeneration. Those data suggest that epigenetically regulated anti-proliferative genes are deacetylated and transcriptionally suppressed by Zn-HDAC activity or that pro-regenerative factors are acetylated and induced by such activity in response to partial hepatectomy (PH). To investigate these possibilities, we conducted genome-wide interrogation of the liver histone acetylome during early PH-induced liver regeneration in mice using acetyL-histone chromatin immunoprecipitation and next generation DNA sequencing. We also compared the findings of that study to those seen during the impaired regenerative response that occurs with Zn-HDAC inhibition. The results reveal an epigenetic signature of early liver regeneration that includes both hyperacetylation of pro-regenerative factors and deacetylation of anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic genes. Our data also show that administration of an anti-regenerative regimen of the Zn-HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) not only disrupts gene-specific pro-regenerative changes in liver histone deacetylation but also reverses PH-induced effects on histone hyperacetylation. Taken together, these studies offer new insight into and suggest novel hypotheses about the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate liver regeneration.

  12. Identification of the glycerol kinase gene and its role in diapause embryo restart and early embryo development of Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Yao, Feng; Chu, Bing; Li, Xuejie; Liu, Yan; Wu, Yang; Mei, Yanli; Wang, Peisheng; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2014-03-01

    Glycerol kinase (GK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycerol utilization by transferring a phosphate from ATP to glycerol, yielding glycerol 3-phosphate, which is an important intermediate for both energy metabolism and glycerolipid production. Artemia sinica has an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity, low temperature and lack of food. In the process, diapause embryos of A. sinica (brine shrimp) accumulate high concentrations of glycerol as a cryoprotectant to prevent low temperature damage to embryos. Upon embryo restart, glycerol is converted into glucose and other carbohydrates. Therefore, GK plays an important role in the diapause embryo restart process. However, the role of GK in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. In the present study, a 2096 bp full-length cDNA of gk from A. sinica (As-gk) was obtained, encoding putative 551 amino acids, 60.6 kDa protein. As a crucial enzyme in glycerol uptake and metabolism, GK has been conserved structurally and functionally during evolution. The expression pattern of As-gk was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Expression locations of As-gk were analyzed using in situ hybridization. As-gk was widely distributed in the early embryo and several main parts of Artemia after differentiation. The expression of As-GK was also induced by stresses such as cold exposure and high salinity. This initial research into the expression pattern and stress response of GK in Artemia provides a sound basis for further understanding of the function and regulation of genes in early embryonic development in A. sinica and the stress response. PMID:24365596

  13. Genome-wide identification of novel genes involved in early Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lund, Riikka J; Löytömäki, Maritta; Naumanen, Tiina; Dixon, Craig; Chen, Zhi; Ahlfors, Helena; Tuomela, Soile; Tahvanainen, Johanna; Scheinin, Joonas; Henttinen, Tiina; Rasool, Omid; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2007-03-15

    Th cell subtypes, Th1 and Th2, are involved in the pathogenesis or progression of many immune-mediated diseases, such as type 1 diabetes and asthma, respectively. Defining the molecular networks and factors that direct Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation will help to understand the pathogenic mechanisms causing these diseases. Some of the key factors regulating this differentiation have been identified, however, they alone do not explain the process in detail. To identify novel factors directing the early differentiation, we have studied the transcriptomes of human Th1 and Th2 cells after 2, 6, and 48 h of polarization at the genome scale. Based on our current and previous studies, 288 genes or expressed sequence tags, representing approximately 1-1.5% of the human genome, are regulated in the process during the first 2 days. These transcriptional profiles revealed genes coding for components of certain pathways, such as RAS oncogene family and G protein-coupled receptor signaling, to be differentially regulated during the early Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation. Importantly, numerous novel genes with unknown functions were identified. By using short-hairpin RNA knockdown, we show that a subset of these genes is regulated by IL-4 through STAT6 signaling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that one of the IL-4 regulated genes, NDFIP2, promotes IFN-gamma production by the polarized human Th1 lymphocytes. Among the novel genes identified, there may be many factors that play a crucial role in the regulation of the differentiation process together with the previously known factors and are potential targets for developing therapeutics to modulate Th1 and Th2 responses. PMID:17339462

  14. Computational Identification Raises a Riddle for Distribution of Putative NACHT NTPases in the Genome of Early Green Plants.

    PubMed

    Arya, Preeti; Acharya, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    NACHT NTPases and AP-ATPases belongs to STAND (signal transduction ATPases with numerous domain) P-loop NTPase class, which are known to be involved in defense signaling pathways and apoptosis regulation. The AP-ATPases (also known as NB-ARC) and NACHT NTPases are widely spread throughout all kingdoms of life except in plants, where only AP-ATPases have been extensively studied in the scenario of plant defense response against pathogen invasion and in hypersensitive response (HR). In the present study, we have employed a genome-wide survey (using stringent computational analysis) of 67 diverse organisms viz., archaebacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, animalia and plantae to revisit the evolutionary history of these two STAND P-loop NTPases. This analysis divulged the presence of NACHT NTPases in the early green plants (green algae and the lycophyte) which had not been previously reported. These NACHT NTPases were known to be involved in diverse functional activities such as transcription regulation in addition to the defense signaling cascades depending on the domain association. In Chalmydomonas reinhardtii, a green algae, WD40 repeats found to be at the carboxyl-terminus of NACHT NTPases suggest probable role in apoptosis regulation. Moreover, the genome of Selaginella moellendorffii, an extant lycophyte, intriguingly shows the considerable number of both AP-ATPases and NACHT NTPases in contrast to a large repertoire of AP-ATPases in plants and emerge as an important node in the evolutionary tree of life. The large complement of AP-ATPases overtakes the function of NACHT NTPases and plausible reason behind the absence of the later in the plant lineages. The presence of NACHT NTPases in the early green plants and phyletic patterns results from this study raises a quandary for the distribution of this STAND P-loop NTPase with the apparent horizontal gene transfer from cyanobacteria.

  15. Computational Identification Raises a Riddle for Distribution of Putative NACHT NTPases in the Genome of Early Green Plants

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Preeti; Acharya, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    NACHT NTPases and AP-ATPases belongs to STAND (signal transduction ATPases with numerous domain) P-loop NTPase class, which are known to be involved in defense signaling pathways and apoptosis regulation. The AP-ATPases (also known as NB-ARC) and NACHT NTPases are widely spread throughout all kingdoms of life except in plants, where only AP-ATPases have been extensively studied in the scenario of plant defense response against pathogen invasion and in hypersensitive response (HR). In the present study, we have employed a genome-wide survey (using stringent computational analysis) of 67 diverse organisms viz., archaebacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, animalia and plantae to revisit the evolutionary history of these two STAND P-loop NTPases. This analysis divulged the presence of NACHT NTPases in the early green plants (green algae and the lycophyte) which had not been previously reported. These NACHT NTPases were known to be involved in diverse functional activities such as transcription regulation in addition to the defense signaling cascades depending on the domain association. In Chalmydomonas reinhardtii, a green algae, WD40 repeats found to be at the carboxyl-terminus of NACHT NTPases suggest probable role in apoptosis regulation. Moreover, the genome of Selaginella moellendorffii, an extant lycophyte, intriguingly shows the considerable number of both AP-ATPases and NACHT NTPases in contrast to a large repertoire of AP-ATPases in plants and emerge as an important node in the evolutionary tree of life. The large complement of AP-ATPases overtakes the function of NACHT NTPases and plausible reason behind the absence of the later in the plant lineages. The presence of NACHT NTPases in the early green plants and phyletic patterns results from this study raises a quandary for the distribution of this STAND P-loop NTPase with the apparent horizontal gene transfer from cyanobacteria. PMID:26930396

  16. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Cristina; Macêdo, Jéssica Kele A.; Feoli, Andrés; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W.

    2016-01-01

    The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM) and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms. PMID:27035343

  17. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  18. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  19. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  20. Ergogenic aids.

    PubMed

    Coyle, E F

    1984-07-01

    The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant. This effect is most obvious in subjects under laboratory conditions and is less evident in athletes who are highly motivated prior to competition. Fatigue is associated with acidosis in the working musculature when attempts are made to maximize work output during a 4 to 15-minute period. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion may act to buffer the acid produced, provided that blood flow to the muscle is adequate. Prolonged intense exercise can be maintained for approximately two hours before carbohydrate stores become depleted. Carbohydrate feedings delay fatigue during prolonged exercise, especially in subjects who display a decline in blood glucose during exercise in the fasting state. Caffeine ingestion prior to an endurance bout has been reported to allow an individual to exercise somewhat more intensely than he or she would otherwise. Its effect may be mediated by augmenting fat metabolism or by altering the perception of effort. Amphetamines may act in a similar manner. Water ingestion during prolonged exercise that results in dehydration and hyperthermia can offset fluid losses and allow an individual to better maintain work output while substantially reducing the risk of heat-related injuries. PMID:6100848

  1. Rapid identification of pneumococci, enterococci, beta-haemolytic streptococci and S. aureus from positive blood cultures enabling early reports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic tests in order to introduce a diagnostic strategy to identify the most common gram-positive bacteria (pneumococci, enterococci, β-haemolytic streptococci and S. aureus) found in blood cultures within 6 hours after signalling growth. Methods The tube coagulase test was optimized and several latex agglutination tests were compared and evaluated before a validation period of 11 months was performed on consecutive positive blood culture patient samples from Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden. Results During the validation period 150 (91%) of a total of 166 gram-positive cocci (119 in clusters, 45 in chains or pairs and 2 undefined morphology) were correctly identified as S. aureus, CoNS, Pneumococci, Enterococci or group A streptococci (GAS), group B streptococci (GBS), group G streptococci (GGS) within 6 hours with a minimal increase in work-load and costs. The remaining samples (9%) were correctly identified during the next day. No samples were incorrectly grouped with this diagnostic strategy and no patient came to risk by early reporting. Conclusion A simple strategy gives reliable and cost-effective reporting of >90% of the most common gram-positive cocci within 6 hours after a blood cultures become positive. The high specificity of the tests used makes preliminary reports reliable. The reports can be used to indicate the focus of infection and not the least, support faster administration of proper antimicrobial treatment for patients with serious bacterial infections. PMID:24645982

  2. Identification of mouse itih-4 encoding a glycoprotein with two EF-hand motifs from early embryonic liver.

    PubMed

    Cai, T; Yu, P; Monga, S P; Mishra, B; Mishra, L

    1998-05-29

    An essential feature of cell differentiation is the specificity of signal transduction events from extracellular cues, which are considered to be conferred by scaffold, anchoring and adaptor proteins. Our aim was to identify important scaffolding proteins required for liver development. Utilizing subtraction hybridization of embryonic liver cDNA libraries, here we report the full length cDNA sequence for mouse itih-4 (Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor H4). Itih-4 encodes a 942 amino acid protein containing two EF-hand (helix-loop-helix) motifs with an unique short loop, with a potential calcium-binding function. Itih-4 is expressed as a strong 3.1-kb transcript in liver, to a lesser extent in lung and heart tissue. RT-PCR demonstrates itih-4 mRNAs abundantly in liver, less in heart and brain, during mid-embryonic gestation. These results suggest that itih-4 is a potential regulator for extracellular matrix proteins and plays a role during early embryonic liver development. PMID:9602042

  3. Identification of an immediate-early salicylic acid-inducible tobacco gene and characterization of induction by other compounds.

    PubMed

    Horvath, D M; Chua, N H

    1996-08-01

    Tobacco genes that are induced in response to salicylic acid (SA) treatment with immediate-early kinetics were identified by differential mRNA display. Detailed analysis of IS10a, one cDNA clone identified by this method, revealed induction within 30 min of treatment, with a peak of expression at 3 h, that decayed rapidly thereafter. Treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), also caused induction of IS10a mRNA to comparable levels, but the IS10a mRNA continued to accumulate after 3 h of induction. In combination, CHX and SA led to a superinduction of IS10a mRNA levels that was also sustained. Half-maximal induction was evident at ca. 100-150 microM SA. In addition to SA, induction of IS10a occurred to varying degrees upon treatment with acetylsalicylic acid, benzoic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, methyl jasmonate, and hydrogen peroxide, whereas treatment with other compounds had no effect. The proteins encoded by IS10a and a second highly homologous cDNA show sequence similarity to UDP-glucose: flavonoid glucosyltransferases.

  4. First identification of direct collapse black hole candidates in the early Universe in CANDELS/GOODS-S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea; Grazian, Andrea; Fiore, Fabrizio; Giallongo, Emanuele; Puccetti, Simonetta

    2016-06-01

    The first black hole seeds, formed when the Universe was younger than ˜500 Myr, are recognized to play an important role for the growth of early (z ˜ 7) supermassive black holes. While progresses have been made in understanding their formation and growth, their observational signatures remain largely unexplored. As a result, no detection of such sources has been confirmed so far. Supported by numerical simulations, we present a novel photometric method to identify black hole seed candidates in deep multiwavelength surveys. We predict that these highly obscured sources are characterized by a steep spectrum in the infrared (1.6-4.5 μm), i.e. by very red colours. The method selects the only two objects with a robust X-ray detection found in the CANDELS/GOODS-S survey with a photometric redshift z ≳ 6. Fitting their infrared spectra only with a stellar component would require unrealistic star formation rates (≳2000 M⊙ yr-1). To date, the selected objects represent the most promising black hole seed candidates, possibly formed via the direct collapse black hole scenario, with predicted mass >105 M⊙. While this result is based on the best photometric observations of high-z sources available to date, additional progress is expected from spectroscopic and deeper X-ray data. Upcoming observatories, like the JWST, will greatly expand the scope of this work.

  5. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James; Kuper, Phillip; Prados, Donald; Russell, Jeffrey; Ross, Kenton; Gasser, Gerald; Sader, Steven; McKellip, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    This report details one of three experiments performed during FY 2007 for the NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) at Stennis Space Center. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). The intent of the RPC experiment was to assess the degree to which VIIRS data can provide forest disturbance monitoring information as an input to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) as compared to the level of information that can be obtained from MODIS data. The USDA Forest Service (USFS) plans to use MODIS products for generating broad-scaled, regional monitoring products as input to an EWS for forest health threat assessment. NASA SSC is helping the USFS to evaluate and integrate currently available satellite remote sensing technologies and data products for the EWS, including the use of MODIS products for regional monitoring of forest disturbance. Gypsy moth defoliation of the mid-Appalachian highland region was selected as a case study. Gypsy moth is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003; the gypsy moth threatens eastern U.S. hardwood forests, which are also a concern highlighted in the HFRA of 2003. This region was selected for the project because extensive gypsy moth defoliation occurred there over multiple years during the MODIS operational period. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including agricultural efficiency, coastal management, ecological forecasting, disaster management, and carbon management. In this experiment, MODIS data and VIIRS data simulated from MODIS were assessed for their ability to contribute broad, regional geospatial information on gypsy moth defoliation. Landsat and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission

  6. Effect of sulphur deprivation on osmotic potential components and nitrogen metabolism in oilseed rape leaves: identification of a new early indicator.

    PubMed

    Sorin, Elise; Etienne, Philippe; Maillard, Anne; Zamarreño, Angel-Mari; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Arkoun, Mustapha; Jamois, Frank; Cruz, Florence; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2015-10-01

    Identification of early sulphur (S) deficiency indicators is important for species such as Brassica napus, an S-demanding crop in which yield and the nutritional quality of seeds are negatively affected by S deficiency. Because S is mostly stored as SO4 (2-) in leaf cell vacuoles and can be mobilized during S deficiency, this study investigated the impact of S deprivation on leaf osmotic potential in order to identify compensation processes. Plants were exposed for 28 days to S or to chlorine deprivation in order to differentiate osmotic and metabolic responses. While chlorine deprivation had no significant effects on growth, osmotic potential and nitrogen metabolism, Brassica napus revealed two response periods to S deprivation. The first one occurred during the first 13 days during which plant growth was maintained as a result of vacuolar SO4 (2-) mobilization. In the meantime, leaf osmotic potential of S-deprived plants remained similar to control plants despite a reduction in the SO4 (2-) osmotic contribution, which was fully compensated by an increase in NO3 (-), PO4 (3-) and Cl(-) accumulation. The second response occurred after 13 days of S deprivation with a significant reduction in growth, leaf osmotic potential, NO3 (-) uptake and NO3 (-) reductase activity, whereas amino acids and NO3 (-) were accumulated. This kinetic analysis of S deprivation suggested that a ([Cl(-)]+[NO3 (-)]+[PO4 (3-)]):[SO4 (2-)] ratio could provide a relevant indicator of S deficiency, modified nearly as early as the over-expression of genes encoding SO4 (2-) tonoplastic or plasmalemmal transporters, with the added advantage that it can be easily quantified under field conditions. PMID:26139826

  7. Effect of sulphur deprivation on osmotic potential components and nitrogen metabolism in oilseed rape leaves: identification of a new early indicator.

    PubMed

    Sorin, Elise; Etienne, Philippe; Maillard, Anne; Zamarreño, Angel-Mari; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Arkoun, Mustapha; Jamois, Frank; Cruz, Florence; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2015-10-01

    Identification of early sulphur (S) deficiency indicators is important for species such as Brassica napus, an S-demanding crop in which yield and the nutritional quality of seeds are negatively affected by S deficiency. Because S is mostly stored as SO4 (2-) in leaf cell vacuoles and can be mobilized during S deficiency, this study investigated the impact of S deprivation on leaf osmotic potential in order to identify compensation processes. Plants were exposed for 28 days to S or to chlorine deprivation in order to differentiate osmotic and metabolic responses. While chlorine deprivation had no significant effects on growth, osmotic potential and nitrogen metabolism, Brassica napus revealed two response periods to S deprivation. The first one occurred during the first 13 days during which plant growth was maintained as a result of vacuolar SO4 (2-) mobilization. In the meantime, leaf osmotic potential of S-deprived plants remained similar to control plants despite a reduction in the SO4 (2-) osmotic contribution, which was fully compensated by an increase in NO3 (-), PO4 (3-) and Cl(-) accumulation. The second response occurred after 13 days of S deprivation with a significant reduction in growth, leaf osmotic potential, NO3 (-) uptake and NO3 (-) reductase activity, whereas amino acids and NO3 (-) were accumulated. This kinetic analysis of S deprivation suggested that a ([Cl(-)]+[NO3 (-)]+[PO4 (3-)]):[SO4 (2-)] ratio could provide a relevant indicator of S deficiency, modified nearly as early as the over-expression of genes encoding SO4 (2-) tonoplastic or plasmalemmal transporters, with the added advantage that it can be easily quantified under field conditions.

  8. AIDS and family planning.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training. PMID:12159262

  9. Identification of Rapeseed MicroRNAs Involved in Early Stage Seed Germination under Salt and Drought Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Hongju; Wang, Jia; Wang, Tengyue; Wei, Lijuan; Li, Jiana; Liu, Liezhao

    2016-01-01

    Drought and salinity are severe and wide-ranging abiotic stresses that substantially affect crop germination, development and productivity, and seed germination is the first critical step in plant growth and development. To comprehensively investigate small-RNA targets and improve our understanding of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation networks during Brassica napus seed imbibition under drought and salt stresses, we constructed three small-RNA libraries from B. napus variety ZS11 embryos exposed to salt (200 mM NaCl, denoted “S”), drought (200 g L−1 PEG-6000, denoted “D”), and distilled water (denoted “CK”) during imbibition and sequenced them using an Illumina Genome Analyzer. A total of 11,528,557, 12,080,081, and 12,315,608 raw reads were obtained from the CK, D, and S libraries, respectively. Further analysis identified 85 known miRNAs belonging to 31 miRNA families and 882 novel miRNAs among the three libraries. Comparison of the D and CK libraries revealed significant down-regulation of six miRNA families, miR156, miR169, miR860, miR399, miR171, and miR395, whereas only miR172 was significantly up-regulated. In contrast, comparison of the S library with the CK library showed significant down-regulation of only two miRNA families: miRNA393 and miRNA399. Putative targets for 336, 376, and 340 novel miRNAs were successfully predicted in the CK, D, and S libraries, respectively, and 271 miRNA families and 20 target gene families [including disease resistance protein (DIRP), drought-responsive family protein (DRRP), early responsive to dehydration stress protein (ERD), stress-responsive alpha-beta barrel domain protein (SRAP), and salt tolerance homolog2 (STH2)] were confirmed as being core miRNAs and genes involved in the seed imbibition response to salt and drought stresses. The sequencing results were partially validated by quantitative RT-PCR for both conserved and novel miRNAs as well as the predicted target genes. Our data suggest

  10. Identification of Rapeseed MicroRNAs Involved in Early Stage Seed Germination under Salt and Drought Stresses.

    PubMed

    Jian, Hongju; Wang, Jia; Wang, Tengyue; Wei, Lijuan; Li, Jiana; Liu, Liezhao

    2016-01-01

    Drought and salinity are severe and wide-ranging abiotic stresses that substantially affect crop germination, development and productivity, and seed germination is the first critical step in plant growth and development. To comprehensively investigate small-RNA targets and improve our understanding of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation networks during Brassica napus seed imbibition under drought and salt stresses, we constructed three small-RNA libraries from B. napus variety ZS11 embryos exposed to salt (200 mM NaCl, denoted "S"), drought (200 g L(-1) PEG-6000, denoted "D"), and distilled water (denoted "CK") during imbibition and sequenced them using an Illumina Genome Analyzer. A total of 11,528,557, 12,080,081, and 12,315,608 raw reads were obtained from the CK, D, and S libraries, respectively. Further analysis identified 85 known miRNAs belonging to 31 miRNA families and 882 novel miRNAs among the three libraries. Comparison of the D and CK libraries revealed significant down-regulation of six miRNA families, miR156, miR169, miR860, miR399, miR171, and miR395, whereas only miR172 was significantly up-regulated. In contrast, comparison of the S library with the CK library showed significant down-regulation of only two miRNA families: miRNA393 and miRNA399. Putative targets for 336, 376, and 340 novel miRNAs were successfully predicted in the CK, D, and S libraries, respectively, and 271 miRNA families and 20 target gene families [including disease resistance protein (DIRP), drought-responsive family protein (DRRP), early responsive to dehydration stress protein (ERD), stress-responsive alpha-beta barrel domain protein (SRAP), and salt tolerance homolog2 (STH2)] were confirmed as being core miRNAs and genes involved in the seed imbibition response to salt and drought stresses. The sequencing results were partially validated by quantitative RT-PCR for both conserved and novel miRNAs as well as the predicted target genes. Our data suggest that diverse

  11. Identification of Rapeseed MicroRNAs Involved in Early Stage Seed Germination under Salt and Drought Stresses.

    PubMed

    Jian, Hongju; Wang, Jia; Wang, Tengyue; Wei, Lijuan; Li, Jiana; Liu, Liezhao

    2016-01-01

    Drought and salinity are severe and wide-ranging abiotic stresses that substantially affect crop germination, development and productivity, and seed germination is the first critical step in plant growth and development. To comprehensively investigate small-RNA targets and improve our understanding of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation networks during Brassica napus seed imbibition under drought and salt stresses, we constructed three small-RNA libraries from B. napus variety ZS11 embryos exposed to salt (200 mM NaCl, denoted "S"), drought (200 g L(-1) PEG-6000, denoted "D"), and distilled water (denoted "CK") during imbibition and sequenced them using an Illumina Genome Analyzer. A total of 11,528,557, 12,080,081, and 12,315,608 raw reads were obtained from the CK, D, and S libraries, respectively. Further analysis identified 85 known miRNAs belonging to 31 miRNA families and 882 novel miRNAs among the three libraries. Comparison of the D and CK libraries revealed significant down-regulation of six miRNA families, miR156, miR169, miR860, miR399, miR171, and miR395, whereas only miR172 was significantly up-regulated. In contrast, comparison of the S library with the CK library showed significant down-regulation of only two miRNA families: miRNA393 and miRNA399. Putative targets for 336, 376, and 340 novel miRNAs were successfully predicted in the CK, D, and S libraries, respectively, and 271 miRNA families and 20 target gene families [including disease resistance protein (DIRP), drought-responsive family protein (DRRP), early responsive to dehydration stress protein (ERD), stress-responsive alpha-beta barrel domain protein (SRAP), and salt tolerance homolog2 (STH2)] were confirmed as being core miRNAs and genes involved in the seed imbibition response to salt and drought stresses. The sequencing results were partially validated by quantitative RT-PCR for both conserved and novel miRNAs as well as the predicted target genes. Our data suggest that diverse

  12. SpeX spectroscopy of unresolved very low mass binaries. II. Identification of 14 candidate binaries with late-M/early-L and T dwarf components

    SciTech Connect

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Nicholls, Christine P.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Looper, Dagny L.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Cruz, Kelle; West, Andrew A.; Gizis, John E.; Metchev, Stanimir

    2014-10-20

    Multiplicity is a key statistic for understanding the formation of very low mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs. Currently, the separation distribution of VLM binaries remains poorly constrained at small separations (≤1 AU), leading to uncertainty in the overall binary fraction. We approach this problem by searching for late-M/early-L plus T dwarf spectral binaries whose combined light spectra exhibit distinct peculiarities, allowing for separation-independent identification. We define a set of spectral indices designed to identify these systems, and we use a spectral template fitting method to confirm and characterize spectral binary candidates from a library of 815 spectra from the SpeX Prism Spectral Libraries. We present 11 new binary candidates, confirm 3 previously reported candidates, and rule out 2 previously identified candidates, all with primary and secondary spectral types in the range M7-L7 and T1-T8, respectively. We find that subdwarfs and blue L dwarfs are the primary contaminants in our sample and propose a method for segregating these sources. If confirmed by follow-up observations, these systems may add to the growing list of tight separation binaries, whose orbital properties may yield further insight into brown dwarf formation scenarios.

  13. Multiplex PCR and RFLP approaches for identification of rabbitfish (Siganus) species using mitochondrial gene regions.

    PubMed

    Ravago-Gotanco, R G; Manglicmot, M T; Pante, M J R

    2010-07-01

    Molecular assays are described for the identification of six rabbitfish (Siganus) species. A multiplex PCR assay using primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b region simultaneously identifies four species: Siganus canaliculatus, S. fuscescens, S. javus, and S. spinus. Subsequent RFLP assays of multiplex amplicons differentiate between S. virgatus and S. corallinus based on diagnostic fragments from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I region. Assays were validated with known specimens demonstrating accuracy of the molecular identification. Applied to morphologically indistinguishable early developmental stages, these assays can facilitate studies on species-specific spatio-temporal patterns of larval dispersal and population connectivity to aid fishery management.

  14. [AIDS information in Zimbabwe].

    PubMed

    Meyer, L

    1993-11-20

    The difficulties of health education concerning AIDs prevention in Zimbabwe include communicating simple information about complicated processes, resistance to the information because of status or tradition, and lack of experience with translating material that was produced in the West. The beliefs in ghosts and witch doctors are still part of the tradition in Zimbabwe, providing cultural diversity and a sense of identification. Traditional medicine is characterized by Westerners as often irrational behavior that is deleterious to one's health. However, even in the allegedly educated part of the world compliance is often lacking and alternative treatment forms are actively pursued in tandem with formal medicine. When there is a short time period between harmful behavior and infection, most people realize that there is a causative connection. On the other hand, it is a more complicated mental exercise to fathom that intercourse can result in HIV infection that 5 years later may lead to death from tuberculosis. No other disease is known by these people that has a corresponding delay from the time of infection to disease or death. It is also confusing that a sexually transmitted disease does not produce symptoms such as discharge or genital sores. It is difficult to comprehend that a sole causative agent, HIV, can lead to so many different diseases and symptoms. When a young man died after having been hospitalized with protracted cough and TB as a result of HIV infection that he had contracted from a girlfriend, the father told the folks at home that his son had died of TB. These conflicting pieces of information make AIDS prevention education wrought with difficulties, which adds to the rapid spread of the disease, although the authorities and international organizations have responded with strategies, informational materials, and educational courses. PMID:8273086

  15. Computer-aided drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Computational approaches are an integral part of interdisciplinary drug discovery research. Understanding the science behind computational tools, their opportunities, and limitations is essential to make a true impact on drug discovery at different levels. If applied in a scientifically meaningful way, computational methods improve the ability to identify and evaluate potential drug molecules, but there remain weaknesses in the methods that preclude naïve applications. Herein, current trends in computer-aided drug discovery are reviewed, and selected computational areas are discussed. Approaches are highlighted that aid in the identification and optimization of new drug candidates. Emphasis is put on the presentation and discussion of computational concepts and methods, rather than case studies or application examples. As such, this contribution aims to provide an overview of the current methodological spectrum of computational drug discovery for a broad audience. PMID:26949519

  16. AIDS: today's vital challenge to dentistry.

    PubMed

    Thompson, E O

    1985-01-01

    This article suggests precautions that should be taken if dentists are to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Dentists are considered to be at higher risk of contracting AIDS than physicians. AIDS patients often present at dental offices seeking treatment for the oral symptoms sometimes associated with the virus. Identification of patients who may have AIDS is a critical factor in establishing treatment and protective guidelines; however, such identification is hindered by the prolonged incubation period. It is suggested that questions identifying symptoms of AIDS should be added to the Medical-Dental History Form (a sample form is included with the article). If responses to this form raise suspicion that a patient might have AIDS, the patient should be referred to his physician before an oral examination is scheduled. There is good evidence that AIDS patients can be safely treated in the dental office if the following precaustions are observed: 1) faithful use of an updated medical-dental history form with the follow-up measures suggested, 2) limitation to an absolute minimum of any dental operations; and 3) control of splashback. It is reasonable to assume that liquids that come from the mouth contain blood, infected fluids, saliva, sputum, and mucus that can act as carriers for the AIDS virus if they become droplets and/or aerosols and are transmitted to others through the mucuous membranes of the mouth or eyes. The use of face masks, washed-field dentistry, the rubber dam, protective eyeglasses, rubber gloves, disposable needles, autocleavable instruments, and disposable cap and gown is advocated to protect dentists from the AIDS virus.

  17. Protecting the Rights of Young Children Affected and Infected by HIV/AIDS in Africa: Updating Strategies and Reinforcing Existing Networks. Action Research in Family and Early Childhood Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Early Childhood and Family Education Unit.

    This monograph summarizes the issues discussed at an international workshop convened to identify strategies, lines of action, and innovative approaches to respond to the needs of young children faced by the African HIV/AIDS pandemic. The monograph provides background information on the HIV/AIDS pandemic; describes current initiatives and results…

  18. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra Tridentata), River Lampreys (L. Ayresi) and Western Brook Lampreys (L. Richardson) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys : Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwig, Michael H.

    2003-02-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). In particular: (1) we examined the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics in identification of larval lampreys, specifically pigmentation patterns, and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stages of lampreys, and (2) we examined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stages of Columbia River Basin lampreys.

  19. New psychopathologic findings in AIDS: case report.

    PubMed

    Kermani, E J; Borod, J C; Brown, P H; Tunnell, G

    1985-06-01

    A 33-year-old male homosexual AIDS patient was initially admitted to a psychiatric hospital for treatment of a manic episode. Over a 2-month hospitalization, the patient developed progressively severe memory and cognitive impairments which were documented by neuropsychologic testing and were consistent with abnormal EEG and CT scan findings. This case illustrates that major psychiatric symptoms can be profoundly involved early in the natural course of AIDS. PMID:3997789

  20. Home-use cancer detecting band aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Rudnitsky, Arkady; Sheinman, Victor; Tzoy, Andrey; Toktosunov, Aitmamat; Adashov, Arkady

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel concept in which special band aid is developed for early detection of cancer. The band aid contains an array of micro needles with small detection array connected to each needle which inspects the color of the surface of the skin versus time after being pinched with the needles. We were able to show in pre-clinical trials that the color varies differently if the skin is close to tumor tissue.

  1. Identification of adenovirus type 2 early region 1B proteins that share the same amino terminus as do the 495R and 155R proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, J B; Anderson, C W

    1987-01-01

    Adenovirus type 2 early region 1B (E1B) proteins synthesized in vitro were fractionated chromatographically and characterized by peptide and sequence analysis and by reaction with peptide-specific antisera targeted to either the N or C terminus of either of two overlapping E1B reading frames (175 or 495 codons). In addition to the previously identified E1B-495R, E1B-175R, and E1B-155R species, two other E1B proteins of similar electrophoretic mobility to the 175R protein were identified. E1B-82R is an abundant product in vitro and in vivo that has the same N terminus as that of the 495R and 155R proteins but a different C terminus. The structure of 82R is predicted by the structure of the abundant 13S (1.02-kilobase) E1B mRNA. E1B-168R is a novel minor species consisting of the 24 amino-terminal residues of the 495R protein fused to the entire polypeptide IX sequence. An additional, minor 16,000-molecular-weight polypeptide was detected that may correspond to a predicted 92R E1B protein, but definitive identification was not possible. These observations establish that the leftmost portion (78 codons) of the 495-codon reading frame, which overlaps the right half of the 175-codon reading frame, is expressed as an abundant protein that does not contain other 495R sequences. This region, which may participate in the regulation of region E1A expression, may thus constitute a functional domain distinct from the rightward portion of the 495R protein. Images PMID:2960832

  2. Identification of Early Nuclear Target Genes of Plastidial Redox Signals that Trigger the Long-Term Response of Arabidopsis to Light Quality Shifts.

    PubMed

    Dietzel, Lars; Gläßer, Christine; Liebers, Monique; Hiekel, Stefan; Courtois, Florence; Czarnecki, Olaf; Schlicke, Hagen; Zubo, Yan; Börner, Thomas; Mayer, Klaus; Grimm, Bernhard; Pfannschmidt, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Natural illumination conditions are highly variable and because of their sessile life style, plants are forced to acclimate to them at the cellular and molecular level. Changes in light intensity or quality induce changes in the reduction/oxidation (redox) state of the photosynthetic electron chain that acts as a trigger for compensatory acclimation responses comprising functional and structural adjustments of photosynthesis and metabolism. Such responses include redox-controlled changes in plant gene expression in the nucleus and organelles. Here we describe a strategy for the identification of early redox-regulated genes (ERGs) in the nucleus of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana that respond significantly 30 or 60 min after the generation of a reduction signal in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. By comparing the response of wild-type plants with that of the acclimation mutant stn7, we could specifically identify ERGs. The results reveal a significant impact of chloroplast redox signals on distinct nuclear gene groups including genes for the mitochondrial electron transport chain, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and signaling lipid synthesis. These expression profiles are clearly different from those observed in response to the reduction of photosynthetic electron transport by high light treatments. Thus, the ERGs identified are unique to redox imbalances in photosynthetic electron transport and were then used for analyzing potential redox-responsive cis-elements, trans-factors, and chromosomal regulatory hot spots. The data identify a novel redox-responsive element and indicate extensive redox control at transcriptional and chromosomal levels that point to an unprecedented impact of redox signals on epigenetic processes.

  3. Financial Aid's Role in Meeting State College Completion Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This brief utilizes the most recent and rigorous financial aid research to inform state higher education leaders about innovative and effective financial aid practices. By simplifying aid eligibility requirements, improving the aid application process, and engaging in early awareness efforts, states could improve the effectiveness of existing aid…

  4. Answering the AIDS denialists: is AIDS real?

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    2000-12-01

    This article looks at theories that say AIDS does not exist, or is not a new disease but only a collection of old ones--and explains some of the history behind earlier changes in the official definition of AIDS in the U.S., changes which caused some public confusion. PMID:12171004

  5. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  6. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  7. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  8. Students with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadwell, Cathy Allen; Strope, John L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the law as it pertains to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in public elementary and secondary schools. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 has been used successfully in the majority of the AIDS cases discussed. (MLF)

  9. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... person is unconscious and: Does not return to consciousness quickly (within a minute) Has fallen down or ...

  10. Frostbite, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  11. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  12. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  13. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  14. Bruises, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  15. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  16. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  17. Rapid identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures by testing early growth on solid media using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mark D; Weber, Carol J; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2016-06-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of a simple modification to MALDI-TOF MS for microorganism identification to accurately improve the turnaround time (TAT) for identification of Enterobacteriaceae recovered in blood cultures. Relative to standard MALDI-TOF MS procedures, we reduced TAT from 28.3 (n=90) to 21.2h (n=107).

  18. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Conduction Hearing Aid System (TACHAS); Guidance for Industry and FDA.” See § 874.1 for the availability of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing...

  19. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  20. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  1. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  2. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  3. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  4. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  5. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  6. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  7. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  8. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  9. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  10. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  11. In Jamaica, Community Aides for Disabled Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Marigold J.

    1981-01-01

    One of the major goals of the Jamaican Early Stimulation Project is to develop a low cost model for providing early identification of disability and intervention services. Journal availability: see EC 133 861. (Author)

  12. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  13. Using a GeneticFuzzy Algorithm as a Computer Aided Breast Cancer Diagnostic Tool.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Abir; Tchier, F; Rashidi, Mm

    2016-01-01

    Computeraided diagnosis of breast cancer is an important medical approach. In this research paper, we focus on combining two major methodologies, namely fuzzy base systems and the evolutionary genetic algorithms and on applying them to the Saudi Arabian breast cancer diagnosis database, to aid physicians in obtaining an earlycomputerized diagnosis and hence prevent the development of cancer through identification and removal or treatment of premalignant abnormalities; early detection can also improve survival and decrease mortality by detecting cancer at an early stage when treatment is more effective. Our hybrid algorithm, the geneticfuzzy algorithm, has produced optimized systems that attain high classification performance, with simple and readily interpreted rules and with a good degree of confidence. PMID:27510026

  14. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  15. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  16. Cell Cycle Regulates Nuclear Stability of AID and Determines the Cellular Response to AID.

    PubMed

    Le, Quy; Maizels, Nancy

    2015-09-01

    AID (Activation Induced Deaminase) deaminates cytosines in DNA to initiate immunoglobulin gene diversification and to reprogram CpG methylation in early development. AID is potentially highly mutagenic, and it causes genomic instability evident as translocations in B cell malignancies. Here we show that AID is cell cycle regulated. By high content screening microscopy, we demonstrate that AID undergoes nuclear degradation more slowly in G1 phase than in S or G2-M phase, and that mutations that affect regulatory phosphorylation or catalytic activity can alter AID stability and abundance. We directly test the role of cell cycle regulation by fusing AID to tags that destabilize nuclear protein outside of G1 or S-G2/M phases. We show that enforced nuclear localization of AID in G1 phase accelerates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, and is well-tolerated; while nuclear AID compromises viability in S-G2/M phase cells. We identify AID derivatives that accelerate somatic hypermutation with minimal impact on viability, which will be useful tools for engineering genes and proteins by iterative mutagenesis and selection. Our results further suggest that use of cell cycle tags to regulate nuclear stability may be generally applicable to studying DNA repair and to engineering the genome.

  17. A Quarter of a Century with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Cerdeira, C; Cruces, M.J; Taboada, J.A

    2011-01-01

    In Northwestern Spain (NWS), the annual incidence of AIDS diagnoses increased from 1984 (when the first case was diagnosed) until 1996. However, since 1996, this incidence has reduced considerably, including a notable 40% reduction between 1997 and 1998. The Galician Register of AIDS supplies information on the evolution of AIDS pathology in NWS. This report compiles data on patients who were diagnosed with AIDS in NWS between 1984 and 2008. From 1981, when the first case of AIDS was described, until December 31, 2008, a total of 3,766 AIDS cases were registered in NWS. Of these, 2,085 cases (55.4%) resulted in death. Examining data from individual provinces revealed that the highest number of cases was in A Coruña (1,548 cases) followed by Pontevedra (1,485 cases). For almost half of the new cases of AIDS diagnosed between 2003 and 2008 (44%), less than six months passed between the diagnosis of infection and manifestations of the disease. Thus, the number of patients that do not receive early diagnosis of HIV infection has remained high. With regard to the transmission mechanism, 64% of the cases occurring during these years resulted from needle-sharing among injected drug users (IDUs). Unprotected heterosexual and homosexual practices were responsible for 20% and 17% of the cases, respectively. PMID:21629502

  18. Psychotherapy with AIDS Patients: Countertransference Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilk, Carole A.

    This paper provides a personal account of the process of psychotherapy for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients, as seen from both the client's and the psychotherapist's perspective, with a focus on countertransference issues found in the early phases of treatment. Based on case material, the discussion explores themes presented by…

  19. Taking Care of Young Children with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federlein, Anne Cairns

    This booklet provides an overview of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and guidelines for child care administrators and caregivers. It is argued that reason must overcome fear about the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in early childhood centers. Discussion addresses such questions as: (1) Can child caregivers get AIDS…

  20. 1,2,4-Triazolyl 5-Azaspiro[2.4]heptanes: Lead Identification and Early Lead Optimization of a New Series of Potent and Selective Dopamine D3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Fabrizio; Bacchi, Alessia; Braggio, Simone; Castelletti, Laura; Cavallini, Palmina; Cavanni, Paolo; Cremonesi, Susanna; Dal Cin, Michele; Feriani, Aldo; Gehanne, Sylvie; Kajbaf, Mahmud; Marchió, Luciano; Nola, Selena; Oliosi, Beatrice; Pellacani, Annalisa; Perdonà, Elisabetta; Sava, Anna; Semeraro, Teresa; Tarsi, Luca; Tomelleri, Silvia; Wong, Andrea; Visentini, Filippo; Zonzini, Laura; Heidbreder, Christian

    2016-09-22

    A novel series of 1,2,4-triazolyl 5-azaspiro[2.4]heptanes with high affinity and selectivity at the dopamine (DA) D3 receptor (D3R) is described. Some of these compounds also have high selectivity over the hERG channel and were characterized with respect to their pharmacokinetic properties both in vitro and in vivo during lead identification and early lead optimization phases. A few derivatives with overall favorable developability characteristics were selected for further late lead optimization studies.

  1. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  2. Pediatric AIDS: psychosocial impact.

    PubMed

    Mangos, J A; Doran, T; Aranda-Naranjo, B; Rodriguez-Escobar, Y; Scott, A; Setzer, J R

    1990-06-01

    There is no question that the domain of the American family has been invaded by the HIV infection/AIDS epidemic. The disease, and particularly its form affecting children (pediatric AIDS), has had marked psychosocial impact on patients and families (intellectual/cognitive, emotional/behavioral, spiritual, and financial) and on our society in general (adverse or favorable). These impacts of pediatric AIDS are discussed in the present communication. PMID:2371699

  3. Hurricane Aid Is on the Way to Districts, Private Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.; Davis, Michelle R.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education in early January of 2006 sent out the first installment--more than $250 million--in education aid to states affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, just days after President Bush signed the measure into law. The $1.6 billion relief package has drawn fire from some education groups because it provides aid not just…

  4. Marking parts to aid robot vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, J. W.; Barker, L. K.

    1981-01-01

    The premarking of parts for subsequent identification by a robot vision system appears to be beneficial as an aid in the automation of certain tasks such as construction in space. A simple, color coded marking system is presented which allows a computer vision system to locate an object, calculate its orientation, and determine its identity. Such a system has the potential to operate accurately, and because the computer shape analysis problem has been simplified, it has the ability to operate in real time.

  5. Counselors and Mentors Handbook on Federal Student Aid: A Guide for Those Advising Students about Financial Aid for Postsecondary Education. 2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Many students are unaware that they might be eligible for financial aid to attend college or trade school. High school, TRIO, and GEAR UP (Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs) counselors are an important source of information about financial aid from private, school, state, and federal student aid programs. This…

  6. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  7. HIV / AIDS Network.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  8. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  9. AIDS and civil disobedience.

    PubMed

    Spiers, H R

    1989-01-01

    Members of groups such as ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) risk arrest and criminal charges to protest laws and policies they view as unjust to persons with AIDS. Spiers, a founding member of ACT UP, discusses the rationale behind the tactics of civil disobedience employed by AIDS activists. He argues that civil disobedience is justified by American political and legal traditions, and by the federal government's lack of response to the needs of its citizens. Spiers warns that while AIDS protests have been nonviolent and characterized by conscientious planning and execution, violence cannot be ruled out as a "political act born of desperation."

  10. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  11. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  12. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  13. Identification of Relevant Phytochemical Constituents for Characterization and Authentication of Tomatoes by General Linear Model Linked to Automatic Interaction Detection (GLM-AID) and Artificial Neural Network Models (ANNs)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Suárez, Marcos; Astray Dopazo, Gonzalo; Larios López, Dina; Espinosa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    There are a large number of tomato cultivars with a wide range of morphological, chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics. Many factors are known to affect the nutrient content of tomato cultivars. A complete understanding of the effect of these factors would require an exhaustive experimental design, multidisciplinary scientific approach and a suitable statistical method. Some multivariate analytical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Factor Analysis (FA) have been widely applied in order to search for patterns in the behaviour and reduce the dimensionality of a data set by a new set of uncorrelated latent variables. However, in some cases it is not useful to replace the original variables with these latent variables. In this study, Automatic Interaction Detection (AID) algorithm and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were applied as alternative to the PCA, AF and other multivariate analytical techniques in order to identify the relevant phytochemical constituents for characterization and authentication of tomatoes. To prove the feasibility of AID algorithm and ANN models to achieve the purpose of this study, both methods were applied on a data set with twenty five chemical parameters analysed on 167 tomato samples from Tenerife (Spain). Each tomato sample was defined by three factors: cultivar, agricultural practice and harvest date. General Linear Model linked to AID (GLM-AID) tree-structured was organized into 3 levels according to the number of factors. p-Coumaric acid was the compound the allowed to distinguish the tomato samples according to the day of harvest. More than one chemical parameter was necessary to distinguish among different agricultural practices and among the tomato cultivars. Several ANN models, with 25 and 10 input variables, for the prediction of cultivar, agricultural practice and harvest date, were developed. Finally, the models with 10 input variables were chosen with fit’s goodness between 44 and

  14. The New Merit Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Merit aid, a discount to college costs contingent upon academic performance, is nothing new. Colleges and private organizations have long rewarded high-achieving, college-bound high school students with scholarships. While merit aid has a long history in the private sector, it has not played a major role in the public sector. At the state level,…

  15. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  16. What about AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Katharine R.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Suggests ways in which camp directors can establish procedures for making appropriate decisions about accepting campers/staff workers with AIDS. Reviews aspects of environmental sanitation, physical health, confidentiality, camper/staff drug use and sexual behavior, medical…

  17. Detecting Student Aid Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Describes the varied kinds of student aid fraud found to be occurring within and outside colleges and universities, and examines implications for public policy on student aid programs. Discusses specific fraud cases and their outcomes, and makes suggestions for institutional action if student fraud is suspected. (MSE)

  18. Teachers with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strope, John L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the application of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as a legal theory available to an employee of a public school system who faces isolation, transfer, suspension, or termination because of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Addresses AIDS in the workplace and the law. (MLF)

  19. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  20. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  1. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  2. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  3. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  4. AIDS: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-08-01

    Each country currently experiencing an AIDS epidemic did not believe that the epidemics would develop, but they did and more than 6 million people have since died. However, if the governments of the approximately 2.3 billion people who live in developing countries where HIV/AIDS has not yet spread to the general population, together with the international community and nongovernmental organizations, act promptly, many lives will be saved. The World Bank publication "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" brings, for the first time, an economic perspective to the problem of AIDS. The author considers how developing country governments should respond to the AIDS epidemic when they also face so many other major and pressing problems related to raising more than 1 billion people out of severe poverty. While AIDS is an important problem which must be immediately addressed, using resources to help people with AIDS will come at the expense of other objectives such as sending children to school, providing safe drinking water, and building infrastructure. The serious nature of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and what governments should do are considered. PMID:12294026

  5. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  6. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  7. Community responses to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S

    1994-01-01

    Some examples of care in the community for people with HIV/AIDS are reported from Africa. Members of communities committed to fighting the AIDS epidemic cannot do so alone and should be given every possible help. Inadequate care favours the spread of HIV, as does the stigmatization of people with HIV infection and their families.

  8. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  9. AIDS -- a modern hydra.

    PubMed

    Chen, D W

    1988-10-01

    So far, AIDS has not been a major problem in Taiwan. Only 79 people have tested HIV-seropositive, and only 6 have been stricken by the disease. The government has allocated money for AIDS research; blood screening is mandatory in all hospitals; confidential AIDS testing is widely available; and doctors are advised to administer azidothymidine to anyone who tests positive. Azidothymidine is not a cure, but it can prevent the virus from destroying more cells. Nevertheless, a climate of irrational fear of and ignorance about AIDS pervades Taiwan. Many people believe that AIDS can be transmitted by casual contact, and people who are HIV-seropositive are treated as social outcasts. One student at the University of Taipei, only a few credits from graduation, has been refused readmission to the university because he tested HIV-positive. Sex education in the schools is not a good route for AIDS education because sex and especially homosexuality are simply not mentioned in public in Taiwan. Activists, including gay-rights representative, Chi Chia-Wei, have turned to the mass media, especially television as a vehicle for AIDS education, and several programs on AIDS have been shown since 1986.

  10. Cognitive hearing aids? Insights and possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Eline Borch; Lunner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The working memory plays an important role in successfully overcoming adverse listening conditions and should consequently be considered when designing and testing hearing aids. A number of studies have established the relationship between hearing in noise and working memory involvement, but with the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall (SWIRL) test, it is possible to show that working memory is also involved in listening under favorable conditions and that noise reduction has a positive influence in situation with very little noise. Although the capacity of the working memory is a finite individual size, its involvement can differ with fatigue and other factors and individualization of hearing aids should take this into account to obtain the best performance. A way of individually adapting hearing aids is based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids. Such an adaptation could be done based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids.

  11. Only Your Calamity: The Beginnings of Activism by and for People With AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The invention of AIDS activism came soon after the AIDS epidemic emerged in gay communities in the United States in the early 1980s. AIDS activism by and for people with AIDS, distinct from gay activism responding to the threat of AIDS on the behalf of the whole community, started as a way of resisting the phenomenon of social death. Social death, in which people are considered “as good as dead” and denied roles in community life, posed a unique threat to people with AIDS. An organized political response to AIDS began among gay men with AIDS in San Francisco, California, and New York, New York, formalized in a foundational document later called the Denver Principles. The ideas and language of these first people with AIDS influenced later AIDS activism movements. They also help to illustrate the importance of considering an epidemic from the point of view of people with the disease. PMID:23948013

  12. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  13. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways. PMID:12349153

  14. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  15. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways.

  16. Solidarity and AIDS: introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N

    1991-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival.

  17. [AIDS research and prevention strategies in Thailand].

    PubMed

    Leisch, H

    1997-04-01

    The first case of AIDS was registered in Thailand in 1984; this syndrome was deemed to be mainly a disease affecting homosexuals and foreigners. However, soon thereafter its incidence among prostitutes and intravenous drug users increased. According to 1995 data, the number of AIDS patients was about 20,000 and there were approximately 800,000 HIV-positive people. A 1991 map of the AIDS incidence showed that, after the Bangkok metropolitan area, the province of Chiang Mai in the north exhibited a particularly high rate of infection. According to a medium-range forecast, by the year 2010 there will be close to 2.3 million cumulative HIV infection cases and 1.2 million AIDS cases in Thailand. This corresponds to an infection rate of about 3.2% vs. the present 2%. It is estimated that about 20% of all mortality in the age range of 20-48 years in the year 2000 will be caused by AIDS. In 1995, the prime minister predicted that AIDS would cause a 20% drop of the GDP by 2000. The boom of the economy in the 1980s and the early 1990s led to migration to the cities, where prostitution and drug use are rampant, as well as to the emergence of sex tourism, mainly from Germany (40,000-60,000 Germans traveled to Thailand in 1990). The age-old tradition among married men of seeking out the services of prostitutes, lack of condom use (only 20% of men intend to use it, according to recent studies), and disregard for the AIDS problem among the populace are other factors contributing to the rapid spread of AIDS. UNAIDS has undertaken sex education and other information campaigns to counter the epidemic.

  18. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  19. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  20. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...