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Sample records for aid early identification

  1. HIV/AIDS and Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.; Zimanyi, Louise, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development is increasingly concerned with the lack of attention to children affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This theme issue of "Coordinators' Notebook" examines issues related to ensuring that orphans and vulnerable children under 5 years receive attention in the international, national, and…

  2. Usng Information Processing Strategies for Early Identification of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vietze, Peter M.; Coates, Deborah

    1986-01-01

    Seven techniques for measuring information processing in infants are proposed to aid in the early identification of mental retardation. The techniques are based on conditioning, attentional, and manual exploration paradigms and could be combined into an assessment battery more valid than current infant IQ tests in predicting later disability.…

  3. Early identification of motor delay

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (HINT), an infant neuromotor test using Canadian norms published in 2010 that could be used to screen for motor delay during the first year of life. Quality of evidence Extensive research has been published on the intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability and the content, concurrent, predictive, and known-groups validity of the HINT, as well as on the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parental concerns, as assessed by the HINT. Most evidence is level II. Main message Diagnosing motor delays during the first year of life is important because these often indicate more generalized developmental delays or specific disabilities, such as cerebral palsy. Parental concerns about their children’s motor development are strongly predictive of subsequent diagnoses involving motor delay. Conclusion Only through early identification of developmental motor delays, initially with screening tools such as the HINT, is it possible to provide referrals for early intervention that could benefit both the infant and the family. PMID:27521388

  4. Early Childhood Teachers' Behavior Intention to Apply Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Chuen-Tzay

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the behavior intention of early childhood teachers to apply teaching aids. The survey method was used to collect data from 281 early childhood teachers currently working at early childhood education institutes. The data was analyzed by t-test, Chi-square analysis, and Pearson coefficient to examine the…

  5. Cultural identification in aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander AIDS education.

    PubMed

    Hill, P S; Murphy, G J

    1992-06-01

    The emergence of the disease AIDS in the early 1980s has resulted in a unique response. Medical, sociocultural, political, sexual, moral and racial issues have all been raised. This paper examines the way in which participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people has resulted in the culturally appropriate and distinctive approaches evident in health education materials produced in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Specific cultural issues relevant to AIDS education are considered, including the use of visual and narrative communication for AIDS education; the significance of the specific concepts related to communication on sexual issues; perceptions of AIDS as alien and genocidal; the use of the Dreaming in AIDS educational resources; and implications for AIDS education. PMID:1391156

  6. Achieving effective hearing aid fitting within one month after identification of childhood permanent hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Bastanza, G; Gallus, R; De Carlini, M; Picciotti, P M; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Orzan, E; Conti, G

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosis of child permanent hearing impairment (PHI) can be made with extreme timeliness compared to the past thanks to improvements in PHI identification through newborn hearing screening programmes. It now becomes essential to provide an effective amplification as quickly as possible in order to restore auditory function and favour speech and language development. The early fitting of hearing aids and possible later cochlear implantation indeed prompts the development of central auditory pathways, connections with secondary sensory brain areas, as well as with motor and articulatory cortex. The aim of this paper is to report the results of a strategic analysis that involves identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats regarding the process of achieving early amplification in all cases of significant childhood PHI. The analysis is focused on the Italian situation and is part of the Italian Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for Early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children". PMID:27054389

  7. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18-month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The…

  8. Early Identification of Ineffective Cooperative Learning Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, C .M.; Luo, L. F.; Chung, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning has many pedagogical benefits. However, if the cooperative learning teams become ineffective, these benefits are lost. Accordingly, this study developed a computer-aided assessment method for identifying ineffective teams at their early stage of dysfunction by using the Mahalanobis distance metric to examine the difference…

  9. Simultaneous Sketching Aids the Haptic Identification of Raised Line Drawings.

    PubMed

    Cecchetto, S; Lawson, R

    2015-01-01

    Haptically identifying raised line drawings is difficult. We investigated whether a major component of this difficulty lies in acquiring, integrating, and maintaining shape information from touch. Wijntjes, van Lienen, Verstijnen, and Kappers reported that drawings which participants had failed to identify by touch alone could often subsequently be named if they were sketched. Thus, people sometimes needed to externalize haptically acquired information by making a sketch in order to be able to use it. We extended Wijntjes et al.'s task and found that sketching while touching improved drawing identification even more than sketching after touching, but only if people could see their sketches. Our results suggest that the slow, serial nature of information acquisition seriously hampers the haptic identification of raised line drawings relative to visually identifying line drawings. Simultaneous sketching may aid identification by reducing the burden on working memory and by helping to guide haptic exploration. This conclusion is consistent with the finding reported by Lawson and Bracken that 3-D objects are much easier to identify haptically than raised line drawings since, unlike for vision, simultaneously extracting global shape information is much easier haptically for 3-D stimuli than for line drawings. PMID:26541052

  10. GC/IR computer-aided identification of anaerobic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hunian; Zhang, Feng S.; Yang, Hua; Li, Zhu; Ye, Song

    1993-09-01

    A new method was developed to identify anaerobic bacteria by using pattern recognition. The method is depended on GC / JR data. The system is intended for use as a precise rapid and reproduceable aid in the identification of unknown isolates. Key Words: Anaerobic bacteria Pattern recognition Computeraided identification GC / JR 1 . TNTRODUCTTON A major problem in the field of anaerobic bacteriology is the difficulty in accurately precisely and rapidly identifying unknown isolates. Tn the proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology C. M. Moss said: " Chromatographic analysis is a new future for clinical microbiology" . 12 years past and so far it seems that this is an idea whose time has not get come but it close. Now two major advances that have brought the technology forword in terms ofmaking it appropriate for use in the clinical laboratory can aldo be cited. One is the development and implementation of fused silica capillary columns. In contrast to packed columns and those of'' greater width these columns allow reproducible recovery of hydroxey fatty acids with the same carbon chain length. The second advance is the efficient data processing afforded by modern microcomputer systems. On the other hand the practical steps for sample preparation also are an advance in the clinical laboratory. Chromatographic Analysis means mainly of analysis of fatty acids. The most common

  11. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Catts, Hugh W; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-09-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension difficulties in third grade. A total of 366 children were administered a battery of screening measures at the beginning of kindergarten and progress monitoring probes across the school year. A subset of children also received a 26-week Tier 2 language intervention. Participants' achievement in word reading was assessed at the end of second grade, and their performance in reading comprehension was measured as the end of third grade. Results showed that measures of language ability in kindergarten significantly added to the prediction of reading comprehension difficulties over and above kindergarten word reading predictors and direct measures of word reading in second grade. Response to language intervention also proved to be a unique predictor of reading comprehension outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for the early identification of reading disabilities. PMID:25344060

  12. Modulation format identification aided hitless flexible coherent transceiver.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Meng; Zhuge, Qunbi; Qiu, Meng; Zhou, Xingyu; Zhang, Fangyuan; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming; Fu, Songnian; Plant, David V

    2016-07-11

    We propose a hitless flexible coherent transceiver enabled by a novel modulation format identification (MFI) scheme for dynamic agile optical networks. The modulation format transparent digital signal processing (DSP) is realized by a block-wise decision-directed least-mean-square (DD-LMS) equalizer for channel tracking, and a pilot symbol aided superscalar phase locked loop (PLL) for carrier phase estimation (CPE). For the MFI, the modulation format information is encoded onto the pilot symbols initially used for CPE. Therefore, the proposed MFI method does not require extra overhead. Moreover, it can identify arbitrary modulation formats including multi-dimensional formats, and it enables tracking of the format change for short data blocks. The performance of the proposed hitless flexible coherent transceiver is successfully evaluated with five modulation formats including QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, Hybrid QPSK/8QAM and set-partitioning (SP)-512-QAM. We show that the proposed MFI method induces a negligible performance penalty. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate that such a hitless transceiver can adapt to fast block-by-block modulation format switching. Finally, the performance improvement of the proposed MFI method is experimentally verified with respect to other commonly used MFI methods. PMID:27410837

  13. Early Identification of Reading Disabilities within an RTI Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi Syuan; Bontempo, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Early and accurate identification of children at risk for reading disabilities (RD) is critical for the prevention of RD within a response to intervention framework. In this study, we investigated the use of universal screening and progress monitoring for the early identification of RD in kindergarten children. A total of 366 children were…

  14. HIV/AIDS in Early Childhood Centers: The Ethical Dilemma of Confidentiality versus Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sandra M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the privacy dilemma encountered by early childhood practitioners when they find out that a child in their program or one of the child's family members has HIV/AIDS. Provides general and specific guidelines regarding HIV/AIDS, describes universal precautions in child care settings, and delineates myths and facts about HIV/AIDS. (KB)

  15. AIDS: What Early Childhood Educators Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spar, Ruth

    Noting that Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is expected to become the fifth leading cause of death for children ages 1 to 4, this paper provides relevant information on AIDS and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) to help educators understand that they can work with children and adults who are HIV positive or who have AIDS. The…

  16. Early Spectroscopic Identification of SN 2008D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Hjorth, J.; Leloudas, G.; Sollerman, J.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Watson, D. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Thöne, C. C.; Augusteijn, T.; Bersier, D.; Jakobsson, P.; Jaunsen, A. O.; Ledoux, C.; Levan, A. J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Rol, E.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K.; Xu, D.; Albert, L.; Bayliss, M.; Gall, C.; Grove, L. F.; Koester, B. P.; Leitet, E.; Pursimo, T.; Skillen, I.

    2009-02-01

    SN 2008D was discovered while following up an unusually bright X-ray transient (XT) in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2770. We present early optical spectra (obtained 1.75 days after the XT) which allowed the first identification of the object as a supernova (SN) at redshift z = 0.007. These spectra were acquired during the initial declining phase of the light curve, likely produced in the stellar envelope cooling after shock breakout, and rarely observed. They exhibit a rather flat spectral energy distribution with broad undulations, and a strong, W-shaped feature with minima at 3980 and 4190 Å (rest frame). We also present extensive spectroscopy and photometry of the SN during the subsequent photospheric phase. Unlike SNe associated with gamma-ray bursts, SN 2008D displayed prominent He features and is therefore of Type Ib. Partly based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program 080.D-0526, with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, and with the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, which is operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Science and Technology Council of the UK.

  17. Early Identification: Predicting School Problems Before They Become Disabling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senf, Gerald M.

    Screening for early identification of learning problems must be done through effective identification procedures which assure all children an equal opportunity for quality education. In order to do this, it is necessary to identify the essential characteristics of an effective screening program, the ways these characteristics might be implemented,…

  18. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 7: Top down functional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The functions are identified and described in chart form as a tree in which the basic functions, to 'Provide National Identification Service,' are shown at the top. The lower levels of the tree branch out to indicate functions and sub-functions. Symbols are used to indicate whether or not a function was automated in the AIDS 1 or 2 system or is planned to be automated in the AIDS 3 system. The tree chart is shown in detail.

  19. Infants and Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Early Identification and Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian A.; Odom, Samuel L.; Humphreys, Betsy P.; Sam, Ann M.

    2010-01-01

    The increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its detection during the first 3 years of life have substantial relevance for early intervention. The purpose of this article is to summarize current scientific and policy information on early identification and early intervention for infants and toddlers with ASD and their families.…

  20. Early identification systems for emerging foodborne hazards.

    PubMed

    Marvin, H J P; Kleter, G A; Prandini, A; Dekkers, S; Bolton, D J

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides a non-exhausting overview of early warning systems for emerging foodborne hazards that are operating in the various places in the world. Special attention is given to endpoint-focussed early warning systems (i.e. ECDC, ISIS and GPHIN) and hazard-focussed early warning systems (i.e. FVO, RASFF and OIE) and their merit to successfully identify a food safety problem in an early stage is discussed. Besides these early warning systems which are based on monitoring of either disease symptoms or hazards, also early warning systems and/or activities that intend to predict the occurrence of a food safety hazard in its very beginning of development or before that are described. Examples are trend analysis, horizon scanning, early warning systems for mycotoxins in maize and/or wheat and information exchange networks (e.g. OIE and GIEWS). Furthermore, recent initiatives that aim to develop predictive early warning systems based on the holistic principle are discussed. The assumption of the researchers applying this principle is that developments outside the food production chain that are either directly or indirectly related to the development of a particular food safety hazard may also provide valuable information to predict the development of this hazard. PMID:18272277

  1. Early Commitment Financial Aid Programs: Promises, Practices, and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2005-01-01

    Student financial assistance has long been a means to promote access to postsecondary education and attainment of college degrees. Numerous types of financial aid programs have proliferated over the years, including a relatively new concept that specifically targets high-risk, low-income students, focusing not just on getting them to go to college…

  2. Early Identification and Treatment of Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Frick, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Severe and persistent antisocial behavior is a prevalent, serious, and costly mental health problem. Individuals who are most likely to show persistent antisocial behavior through adolescence and into adulthood often show patterns of severe and varied conduct problems early in childhood. Treatments that intervene early in the development of these problems are most effective and least costly. Furthermore, there appear to be several common causal pathways that differ in their genetic, emotional, cognitive, and contextual characteristics. These pathways are differentiated by the level of callous-unemotional traits displayed by the individual. PMID:27565364

  3. 78 FR 25458 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services...

  4. Experimental studies of forensic odontology to aid in the identification process

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Susmita; Sharma, Preeti; Gupta, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    The importance of dental identification is on the increase year after year. With the passage of time, the role of forensic odontology has increased as very often teeth and dental restorations are the only means of identification. Forensic odontology has played a key role in identification of persons in mass disasters (aviation, earthquakes, Tsunamis), in crime investigations, in ethnic studies, and in identification of decomposed and disfigured bodies like that of drowned persons, fire victims, and victims of motor vehicle accidents. The various methods employed in forensic odontology include tooth prints, radiographs, photographic study, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy and molecular methods. Investigative methods applied in forensic odontology are reasonably reliable, yet the shortcomings must be accounted for to make it a more meaningful and relevant procedure. This paper gives an overview of the various experimental studies to aid in the identification processes, discussing their feasibilities and limitations in day-to-day practice. PMID:21731343

  5. Crop identification and area estimation by computer-aided analysis of Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.; Hixson, M. M.; Davis, B. J.; Etheridge, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study involving the use of computer-aided analysis techniques applied to Landsat MSS data for identification and area estimation of winter wheat in Kansas and corn and soybeans in Indiana. Key elements of the approach included use of aerial photography for classifier training, stratification of Landsat data and extension of training statistics to areas without training data, and classification of a systematic sample of pixels from each county. Major results and conclusions are: (1) Landsat data was adequate for accurate identification and area estimation of winter wheat in Kansas, but corn and soybean estimates for Indiana were less accurate; (2) computer-aided analysis techniques can be effectively used to extract crop identification information from Landsat MSS data, and (3) systematic sampling of entire counties made possible by computer classification methods resulted in very precise area estimates at county as well as district and state levels.

  6. A new computer-assisted technique to aid personal identification.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Sala, Remo; Cantatore, Angela; Grandi, Marco; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2009-07-01

    The paper describes a procedure aimed at identification from two-dimensional (2D) images (video-surveillance tapes, for example) by comparison with a three-dimensional (3D) facial model of a suspect. The application is intended to provide a tool which can help in analyzing compatibility or incompatibility between a criminal and a suspect's facial traits. The authors apply the concept of "geometrically compatible images". The idea is to use a scanner to reconstruct a 3D facial model of a suspect and to compare it to a frame extracted from the video-surveillance sequence which shows the face of the perpetrator. Repositioning and reorientation of the 3D model according to subject's face framed in the crime scene photo are manually accomplished, after automatic resizing. Repositioning and reorientation are performed in correspondence of anthropometric landmarks, distinctive for that person and detected both on the 2D face and on the 3D model. In this way, the superimposition between the original two-dimensional facial image and the three-dimensional one is obtained and a judgment is formulated by an expert on the basis of the fit between the anatomical facial districts of the two subjects. The procedure reduces the influence of face orientation and may be a useful tool in identification. PMID:19082838

  7. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 4: Economic feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the economic analysis of the AIDS 3 system design are presented. AIDS 3 evaluated a set of economic feasibility measures including life cycle cost, implementation cost, annual operating expenditures and annual capital expenditures. The economic feasibility of AIDS 3 was determined by comparing the evaluated measures with the same measures, where applicable, evaluated for the current system. A set of future work load scenarios was constructed using JPL's environmental evaluation study of the fingerprint identification system. AIDS 3 and the current system were evaluated for each of the economic feasibility measures for each of the work load scenarios. They were compared for a set of performance measures, including response time and accuracy, and for a set of cost/benefit ratios, including cost per transaction and cost per technical search. Benefit measures related to the economic feasibility of the system are also presented, including the required number of employees and the required employee skill mix.

  8. The Early Days of Computer Aided Newspaper Production Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enlund, Nils; Andersin, Hans E.

    During the years 1970-1973, the Laboratory of Information Processing Science at the Helsinki Uni versity of Technology carried out the Computer Graph ics Pro ject (CGP). The activities foc us ed on the problems of producing news paper text, ad vert isements, and com plete pages using inter act ive computer graphics. The project and its commercial spin-off, Typlan, as well as the BUNPAPS continuation project 1973-1975, cre ated a num ber of innovative, pioneering solutions for computer aided news pap er production, laying the found at ion for the digitalization of media production.

  9. Early Identification Guidelines: Suburban Model (Lucas County School District).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Educational Services.

    Developed by a suburban school district, this manual provides guidelines for the early identification of gifted preschool children and describes Project Unicorn, a project to conceptualize, plan, and implement a classroom curriculum model for gifted young children. Project activities were based on Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development and…

  10. Early Identification and Interventions for Dyslexia: A Contemporary View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews current proposals concerning the definition of dyslexia and contrasts it with reading comprehension impairment. We then discuss methods for early identification and review evidence that teacher assessments and ratings may be valid screening tools. Finally, we argue that interventions should be theoretically motivated and…

  11. Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

  12. Technology-Aided Assessment of Sensorimotor Function in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Allievi, Alessandro G.; Arichi, Tomoki; Gordon, Anne L.; Burdet, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing need for new techniques capable of providing accurate information about sensorimotor function during the first 2 years of childhood. Here, we review current clinical methods and challenges for assessing motor function in early infancy, and discuss the potential benefits of applying technology-assisted methods. We also describe how the use of these tools with neuroimaging, and in particular functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), can shed new light on the intra-cerebral processes underlying neurodevelopmental impairment. This knowledge is of particular relevance in the early infant brain, which has an increased capacity for compensatory neural plasticity. Such tools could bring a wealth of knowledge about the underlying pathophysiological processes of diseases such as cerebral palsy; act as biomarkers to monitor the effects of possible therapeutic interventions; and provide clinicians with much needed early diagnostic information. PMID:25324827

  13. Early core formation in Earth aided by shear deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromiley, G. D.; Berg, M.; Redfern, S. A.; Le Godec, Y.; Butler, I. B.

    2010-12-01

    Our understanding of how metallic cores formed in Earth and other terrestrial bodies is constrained by our knowledge of mechanisms for metal-silicate segregation. Equilibrium experiments conducted under conditions of core formation generally preclude that metallic melts segregated from a crystalline silicate mantle by grain percolation, and it is widely held that extensive silicate melting (formation of a magma ocean) was required to kick-start core formation in the Earth. By contrast, experiments conducted in dynamic systems suggest that deformation aids segregation of Fe-rich melts in a solid silicate matrix1. Deformation may have played an important role in young, vigorously convecting bodies undergoing rapid accretion, although the efficiency of deformation-aided percolation directly under conditions of core-formation in Earth remains largely untested. We present results of experiments performed at ESRF using the recently developed roPEC2, which allows in-situ investigation under high-PT conditions (currently up to 6 GPa, 2000K) during torsional deformation. Sample volumes in the roPEC are sufficient to permit detailed and statistically meaningful textural analysis of samples by high resolution X-ray microtomography (CT) and electron microscopy (SEM). Experiments in the system olivine-Fe3S are used to assess the efficiency of deformation-aided percolation under variable P/T conditions of core-formation and for variable strain rates. CT and SEM imaging clearly demonstrate that even small amounts of shear result in mobilisation of Fe-rich melts which would otherwise remain trapped in a silicate matrix. This process operates at much lower T than previously suggested; below the Fe3S liquidus deformation results in segregation of very low fraction S-rich melts, with compositions ranging from FeS to Fe3S with increasing T. Analysis of CT data provides clear evidence of melt ‘ponding’ in high-strain and high-T regions during deformation. We note no evidence for

  14. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 5: Current system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The performance, costs, organization and other characteristics of both the manual system and AIDS 2 were used to establish a baseline case. The results of the evaluation are to be used to determine the feasibility of the AIDS 3 System, as well as provide a basis for ranking alternative systems during the second phase of the JPL study. The results of the study were tabulated by subject, scope and methods, providing a descriptive, quantitative and qualitative analysis of the current operating systems employed by the FBI Identification Division.

  15. Family Aided Community Treatment for the Treatment of Early Psychosis: A Proof of Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Melton, Ryan P; Dykeman, Cass

    2016-08-01

    Major psychotic disorders are one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. If these conditions are identified early and treatment promptly implemented, the prognosis is improved. This study examined the impact of a yearlong family aided community treatment (FACT) intervention upon psychiatric symptoms. Psychiatric symptom scores improved with the FACT intervention. Improved training on early recognition for mental health clinicians, implementation of a specific treatment model in community settings and policy around treatment funding allocation are implications of this study. PMID:26738497

  16. Early Identification of Asperger Syndrome in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Wiebke; Konig, Udo; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Mattejat, Fritz; Becker, Katja; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify items of the ADI-R that allow an early and sensitive identification of children with possible Asperger syndrome (AS). The aim was to obtain an economic short interview suitable for screening purposes. The study was based on data from a clinical sample of 5-18-year-old children and adolescents (mean age 10.9…

  17. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... prevent a lapse in comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will...

  18. 78 FR 18989 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  19. 78 FR 31568 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  20. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... a lapse in comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will...

  1. 78 FR 10182 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  2. 78 FR 78976 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  3. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  4. Early Identification of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Youth: Universal Screening versus Teacher-Referral Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Katie; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Dowdy, Erin; Jimerson, Shane R.; Hart, Shelley R.; Jones, Camille N.; Earhart, James

    2009-01-01

    Universal screening is one strategy to enhance the early identification of behavioral and emotional problems among youth. Although it appears to be effective, it is unclear if universal screening is more or less effective than current teacher referral practices. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a teacher-rated,…

  5. Disseminated histoplasmosis and AIDS: clinical aspects and diagnostic methods for early detection.

    PubMed

    Corti, M E; Cendoya, C A; Soto, I; Esquivel, P; Trione, N; Villafañe, M F; Corbera, K M; Helou, S; Negroni, R

    2000-03-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS patients is the focus of this paper. Cutaneous lesions are reported as a frequent clinical sign. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, blood cultures (lysis-centrifugation technique), bronchoalveolar lavage, and skin lesion scrapings are the most effective diagnostic methods. The identification of a specific antigen in blood and urine may be a rapid means of evaluation and follow-up of patients with this disease. PMID:10763544

  6. The Role of Early Childhood Professionals in the Early Identification of Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Franklyn-Banton, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder defined by impaired social skills, impaired language development and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. The increasing prevalence of autism worldwide has made this an important condition among professionals working with young children, including those in Jamaica. Early identification and intervention…

  7. Early identification of alcohol abuse: 2: Clinical and laboratory indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, S; Skinner, H A; Israel, Y

    1981-01-01

    Despite awareness of the wide variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with alcohol abuse, drinking problems often remain undetected in hospital and in general medical practice. The diagnosis of alcohol abuse has been emphasized repeatedly in the literature but far less attention has been paid to indicators that would permit detection of excessive drinking at a stage when intervention might be more effective and less costly. The search for indicators of early alcohol abuse is complicated since many of the medical sequelae of alcoholism are nonspecific and may only be manifested after a number of years of excessive drinking. Part 2 of this two-part series considers various clinical and laboratory features related to alcohol abuse and highlights items that are potentially more sensitive for detecting early stages of problem drinking. Use by physicians of a composite profile of both biomedical and psychosocial indicators of excessive alcohol consumption is recommended for early identification of this problem. PMID:7016289

  8. Pathways to Identity. Using Visualization to Aid Law Enforcement in Identification Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, Joseph R.; Scholtz, Jean; Hodges, Duncan; Emanuel, Lia; Stanton Fraser, Danae; Creese, Sadie; Love, Oriana J.

    2014-09-18

    The nature of identity has changed dramatically in recent years and has grown in complexity. Identities are defined in multiple domains: biological and psychological elements strongly contribute, but biographical and cyber elements also are necessary to complete the picture. Law enforcement is beginning to adjust to these changes, recognizing identity’s importance in criminal justice. The SuperIdentity project seeks to aid law enforcement officials in their identification tasks through research of techniques for discovering identity traits, generation of statistical models of identity and analysis of identity traits through visualization. We present use cases compiled through user interviews in multiple fields, including law enforcement, and describe the modeling and visualization tools design to aid in those use cases.

  9. Pathways to Identity: Aiding Law Enforcement in Identification Tasks With Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, Joseph R.; Scholtz, Jean; Hodges, Duncan; Emanuel, Lia; Stanton-Fraser, Danae; Creese, Sadie; Love, Oriana J.

    2014-09-18

    The nature of identity has changed dramatically in recent years, and has grown in complexity. Identities are defined in multiple domains: biological and psychological elements strongly contribute, but also biographical and cyber elements are necessary to complete the picture. Law enforcement is beginning to adjust to these changes, recognizing its importance in criminal justice. The SuperIdentity project seeks to aid law enforcement officials in their identification tasks through research of techniques for discovering identity traits, generation of statistical models of identity and analysis of identity traits through visualization. We present use cases compiled through user interviews in multiple fields, including law enforcement, as well as the modeling and visualization tools design to aid in those use cases.

  10. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document. PMID:26443498

  11. Reuniting families: an online database to aid in the identification of undocumented immigrant remains.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lori E; Baker, Erich J

    2008-01-01

    The Reuniting Families project attempts to aid federal, state and local agencies currently working towards the identification of deceased undocumented immigrants. This initiative has created a distributed on-line database, accessible by public officials and private citizens interested in searching for missing individuals based on both phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. This broad effort includes the exhumation of individuals from geographically disparate pauper graves, the classification of their physical characteristics, and the cataloging of observed metric traits in a local relational database, to include associated articles of possession and related metadata. Concurrent with the documentation of physical forensic evidence is the analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences. Computational techniques and scoring parameters are applied to automate the process of discovery and identification as well at to preserve information on the missing. The result is a prototype knowledge base that may serve as a model for future efforts in international forensic science collaborations. PMID:18279239

  12. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Olga V C A; Andrade, Paulo E; Capellini, Simone A

    2014-01-01

    Current response to intervention models (RTIs) favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Non-responders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Non-responders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI's implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 7 years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words [alternative tools for educators (ATE)] and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile) showed good sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (true negatives) to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a classroom setting. PMID

  13. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Olga V. C. A.; Andrade, Paulo E.; Capellini, Simone A.

    2015-01-01

    Current response to intervention models (RTIs) favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Non-responders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Non-responders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI’s implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 7 years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words [alternative tools for educators (ATE)] and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile) showed good sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (true negatives) to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a classroom setting

  14. Early identification of reading disabilities within an RTI framework.

    PubMed

    Catts, Hugh W; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi Syuan; Bontempo, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    Early and accurate identification of children at risk for reading disabilities (RD) is critical for the prevention of RD within a response to intervention framework. In this study, we investigated the use of universal screening and progress monitoring for the early identification of RD in kindergarten children. A total of 366 children were administered a battery of screening measures at the beginning of kindergarten and progress-monitoring probes across the school year. A subset of children who showed initial risk for RD also received a 26-week Tier 2 intervention. Participants' achievement in word reading accuracy and/or fluency was assessed at the end of first grade. Results indicated that a screening battery containing measures of letter naming fluency, phonological awareness, rapid naming, or nonword repetition accurately identified good and poor readers at the end of first grade. Findings also showed that children's response to supplemental and/or classroom instruction measured in terms of growth in letter naming fluency added significantly to the prediction of reading outcomes. PMID:23945079

  15. Making the Case for Early Identification and Intervention for Young Children at Risk for Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2004-01-01

    The early identification of children with learning disabilities (LD) is difficult but can be accomplished. Observation of key behaviors which are indicators of LD by preschool and kindergarten teachers can assist in this process. This early identification facilitates the use of intervention strategies to provide a positive early experience for…

  16. Drought Risk Identification: Early Warning System of Seasonal Agrometeorological Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalecios, Nicolas; Spyropoulos, Nicos V.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    By considering drought as a hazard, drought types are classified into three categories, namely meteorological or climatological, agrometeorological or agricultural and hydrological drought and as a fourth class the socioeconomic impacts can be considered. This paper addresses agrometeorological drought affecting agriculture within the risk management framework. Risk management consists of risk assessment, as well as a feedback on the adopted risk reduction measures. And risk assessment comprises three distinct steps, namely risk identification, risk estimation and risk evaluation. This paper deals with the quantification and monitoring of agrometeorological drought, which constitute part of risk identification. For the quantitative assessment of agrometeorological or agricultural drought, as well as the computation of spatiotemporal features, one of the most reliable and widely used indices is applied, namely the Vegetation Health Index (VHI). The computation of VHI is based on satellite data of temperature and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The spatiotemporal features of drought, which are extracted from VHI are: areal extent, onset and end time, duration and severity. In this paper, a 20-year (1981-2001) time series of NOAA/AVHRR satellite data is used, where monthly images of VHI are extracted. Application is implemented in Thessaly, which is the major agricultural region of Greece characterized by vulnerable and drought-prone agriculture. The results show that every year there is a seasonal agrometeorological drought with a gradual increase in the areal extent and severity with peaks appearing usually during the summer. Drought monitoring is conducted by monthly remotely sensed VHI images. Drought early warning is developed using empirical relationships of severity and areal extent. In particular, two second-order polynomials are fitted, one for low and the other for high severity drought, respectively. The two fitted curves offer a seasonal

  17. Eye examination for early diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Heiden, David; Saranchuk, Peter; Keenan, Jeremy D; Ford, Nathan; Lowinger, Alan; Yen, Michael; McCune, Joseph; Rao, Narsing A

    2016-04-01

    Choroidal tuberculosis is present in 5-20% of patients with disseminated tuberculosis, and point-of-care dilated binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy eye examination can provide immediate diagnosis. In geographical areas of high tuberculosis prevalence and in susceptible patients (CD4 counts less than 200 cells per μL) detection of choroidal granulomas should be accepted as evidence of disseminated tuberculosis. With training and proper support, eye screening can be done by HIV/AIDS clinicians, allowing early tuberculosis treatment. In regions with a high burden of tuberculosis, we recommend that eye screening be a standard part of the initial assessment of susceptible patients, including at a minimum all patients with HIV/AIDS with CD4 less than 100 cells per μL with or without eye symptoms, and with or without suspicion of disseminated tuberculosis. PMID:26907735

  18. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 6: Environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the analysis of the external environment of the FBI Fingerprint Identification Division are presented. Possible trends in the future environment of the Division that may have an effect on the work load were projected to determine if future work load will lie within the capability range of the proposed new system, AIDS 3. Two working models of the environment were developed, the internal and external model, and from these scenarios the projection of possible future work load volume and mixture was developed. Possible drivers of work load change were identified and assessed for upper and lower bounds of effects. Data used for the study were derived from historical information, analysis of the current situation and from interviews with various agencies who are users of or stakeholders in the present system.

  19. Computer Aided Drug Design Approaches for Identification of Novel Autotaxin (ATX) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vrontaki, Eleni; Melagraki, Georgia; Kaffe, Eleanna; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Kokotos, George; Aidinis, Vassilis; Afantitis, Antreas

    2016-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) has become an attractive target with a huge pharmacological and pharmacochemical interest in LPA-related diseases and to date many small organic molecules have been explored as potential ATX inhibitors. As a useful aid in the various efforts of identifying novel effective ATX inhibitors, in silico methods can serve as an important and valuable tool. Especially, Virtual Screening (VS) has recently received increased attention due to the large datasets made available, the development of advanced VS techniques and the encouraging fact that VS has contributed to the discovery of several compounds that have either reached the market or entered clinical trials. Different techniques and workflows have been reported in literature with the goal to prioritize possible potent hits. In this review article several deployed virtual screening strategies for the identification of novel potent ATX inhibitors are described. PMID:26997151

  20. Early Identification for Special Education: Implications for Research and Development in the Pacific Rim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan; Gerber, Michael; Hong, Li-Yu; Mannan, Hasheem; Zhang, Weng-jing

    2012-01-01

    Early identification and intervention for children with disabilities can significantly improve longer term outcomes, but in developing nations like many in the Pacific Rim, such programs and practices can be expensive and must compete against other needs. We argue that early identification and intervention by schools leads not only to life…

  1. Letter and Numeral Identification: Their Relationship with Early Literacy and Numeracy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Hood, Michelle; Ford, Ruth M.; Neumann, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between letter and numeral identification is reviewed to determine whether early identification of these symbols impact upon both literacy and numeracy development. Numerals and letters share similar perceptual properties such as geometric features and arbitrary labels. Through early socio-cultural experiences with surrounding…

  2. Open-Set Word Identification by an Adult with Profound Hearing Impairment: Integration of Touch, Aided Hearing, and Speechreading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The ability of an adult with profound hearing impairment to integrate speech information from touch, aided hearing, and speechreading in identification of open-set words was investigated. Results indicated that the subject integrated speech information across modalities, with highest performance in the condition including speechreading plus aided…

  3. Medical versus surgical methods of early abortion: protocol for a systematic review and environmental scan of patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Kyla Z; Thompson, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Currently, we lack understanding of the content, quality and impact of patient decision aids to support decision-making between medical and surgical methods of early abortion. We plan to undertake a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to identify, appraise and describe the impact of early abortion method decision aids evaluated quantitatively (Part I), and an environmental scan to identify and appraise other early abortion method decision aids developed in the US (Part II). Methods and analysis For the systematic review, we will search PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases for articles describing experimental and observational studies evaluating the impact of an early abortion method decision aid on women's decision-making processes and outcomes. For the environmental scan, we will identify decision aids by supplementing the systematic review search with Internet-based searches and key informant consultation. The primary reviewer will assess all studies and decision aids for eligibility, and a second reviewer will also assess a subset of these. Both reviewers will independently assess risk of bias in the studies and abstract data using a piloted form. Finally, both reviewers will assess decision aid quality using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards criteria, ease of readability using Flesch/Flesch-Kincaid tests, and informational content using directed content analysis. Ethics and dissemination As this study does not involve human subjects, ethical approval will not be sought. We aim to disseminate the findings in a scientific journal, via academic and/or professional conferences and among the broader community to contribute knowledge about current early abortion method decision-making support. Trial registration number This protocol is registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42015016717). PMID:26173718

  4. Surveillance of medication use: early identification of poor adherence

    PubMed Central

    Jonikas, Magdalena A

    2011-01-01

    Background We sought to measure population-level adherence to antihyperlipidemics, antihypertensives, and oral hypoglycemics, and to develop a model for early identification of subjects at high risk of long-term poor adherence. Methods Prescription-filling data for 2 million subjects derived from a payor's insurance claims were used to evaluate adherence to three chronic drugs over 1 year. We relied on patterns of prescription fills, including the length of gaps in medication possession, to measure adherence among subjects and to build models for predicting poor long-term adherence. Results All prescription fills for a specific drug were sequenced chronologically into drug eras. 61.3% to 66.5% of the prescription patterns contained medication gaps >30 days during the first year of drug use. These interrupted drug eras include long-term discontinuations, where the subject never again filled a prescription for any drug in that category in the dataset, which represent 23.7% to 29.1% of all drug eras. Among the prescription-filling patterns without large medication gaps, 0.8% to 1.3% exhibited long-term poor adherence. Our models identified these subjects as early as 60 days after the first prescription fill, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81. Model performance improved as the predictions were made at later time-points, with AUC values increasing to 0.93 at the 120-day time-point. Conclusions Dispensed medication histories (widely available in real time) are useful for alerting providers about poorly adherent patients and those who will be non-adherent several months later. Efforts to use these data in point of care and decision support facilitating patient are warranted. PMID:22101969

  5. Early Identification of Patients at Risk of Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gajic, Ognjen; Dabbagh, Ousama; Park, Pauline K.; Adesanya, Adebola; Chang, Steven Y.; Hou, Peter; Anderson, Harry; Hoth, J. Jason; Mikkelsen, Mark E.; Gentile, Nina T.; Gong, Michelle N.; Talmor, Daniel; Bajwa, Ednan; Watkins, Timothy R.; Festic, Emir; Yilmaz, Murat; Iscimen, Remzi; Kaufman, David A.; Esper, Annette M.; Sadikot, Ruxana; Douglas, Ivor; Sevransky, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Accurate, early identification of patients at risk for developing acute lung injury (ALI) provides the opportunity to test and implement secondary prevention strategies. Objectives: To determine the frequency and outcome of ALI development in patients at risk and validate a lung injury prediction score (LIPS). Methods: In this prospective multicenter observational cohort study, predisposing conditions and risk modifiers predictive of ALI development were identified from routine clinical data available during initial evaluation. The discrimination of the model was assessed with area under receiver operating curve (AUC). The risk of death from ALI was determined after adjustment for severity of illness and predisposing conditions. Measurements and Main Results: Twenty-two hospitals enrolled 5,584 patients at risk. ALI developed a median of 2 (interquartile range 1–4) days after initial evaluation in 377 (6.8%; 148 ALI-only, 229 adult respiratory distress syndrome) patients. The frequency of ALI varied according to predisposing conditions (from 3% in pancreatitis to 26% after smoke inhalation). LIPS discriminated patients who developed ALI from those who did not with an AUC of 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.78–0.82). When adjusted for severity of illness and predisposing conditions, development of ALI increased the risk of in-hospital death (odds ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.9–5.7). Conclusions: ALI occurrence varies according to predisposing conditions and carries an independently poor prognosis. Using routinely available clinical data, LIPS identifies patients at high risk for ALI early in the course of their illness. This model will alert clinicians about the risk of ALI and facilitate testing and implementation of ALI prevention strategies. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00889772). PMID:20802164

  6. Demonstration of Benefits of Early Identification of Psychosocial Problems and Early Intervention Toward Rehabilitation of Cancer Patients. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diller, Leonard; And Others

    Early identification of psychosocial problems and early intervention with cancer patients can be beneficial to patient rehabilitation. This report focusses on: (1) developing and implementing an effective "model program" of psychosocial intervention for adult cancer patients; (2) evaluating the impact of intervention in ameliorating cancer…

  7. Identification of Special Educational Needs for Early Childhood Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Florence Akua; Badu-Shayar, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Early Childhood Education is a key element for the growth and development of every country. This paper, provides a summary of reviewing the impact of early childhood special educational assessment on children to be "at risk" of developing special educational needs. It was identified mainly that early identification of at-risk factors for…

  8. Inertial Aided Cycle Slip Detection and Identification for Integrated PPP GPS and INS

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shuang; Gao, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The recently developed integrated Precise Point Positioning (PPP) GPS/INS system can be useful to many applications, such as UAV navigation systems, land vehicle/machine automation and mobile mapping systems. Since carrier phase measurements are the primary observables in PPP GPS, cycle slips, which often occur due to high dynamics, signal obstructions and low satellite elevation, must be detected and repaired in order to ensure the navigation performance. In this research, a new algorithm of cycle slip detection and identification has been developed. With the aiding from INS, the proposed method jointly uses WL and EWL phase combinations to uniquely determine cycle slips in the L1 and L2 frequencies. To verify the efficiency of the algorithm, both tactical-grade and consumer-grade IMUs are tested by using a real dataset collected from two field tests. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can efficiently detect and identify the cycle slips and subsequently improve the navigation performance of the integrated system. PMID:23202164

  9. Inertial aided cycle slip detection and identification for integrated PPP GPS and INS.

    PubMed

    Du, Shuang; Gao, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The recently developed integrated Precise Point Positioning (PPP) GPS/INS system can be useful to many applications, such as UAV navigation systems, land vehicle/machine automation and mobile mapping systems. Since carrier phase measurements are the primary observables in PPP GPS, cycle slips, which often occur due to high dynamics, signal obstructions and low satellite elevation, must be detected and repaired in order to ensure the navigation performance. In this research, a new algorithm of cycle slip detection and identification has been developed. With the aiding from INS, the proposed method jointly uses WL and EWL phase combinations to uniquely determine cycle slips in the L1 and L2 frequencies. To verify the efficiency of the algorithm, both tactical-grade and consumer-grade IMUs are tested by using a real dataset collected from two field tests. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can efficiently detect and identify the cycle slips and subsequently improve the navigation performance of the integrated system. PMID:23202164

  10. Consistency of Hearing Aid Use in Infants with Early-Identified Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Mary Pat; Hoover, Brenda; Peterson, Barbara; Stelmachowicz, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine the consistency of hearing aid use by infants. A goal was to identify maternal, child and situational factors that affected consistency of device use. Method Maternal interviews were conducted using a non-validated structured interview (Amplification in Daily Life Questionnaire), which included five-point Likert scale items and open-ended questions. Participants were mothers of seven infants with mild to moderately-severe hearing loss, who were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Data were collected at four intervals (10.5–12, 16.5, 22.5 and 28.5 months of age). Results Consistency of amplification use was variable at early ages, but improved with age. By 28.5 months of age, toddlers used amplification regularly in most settings. Selected daily situations (e.g., car, outdoors) were more challenging for maintaining device use than contexts where the child was closely monitored. Only two families established early, consistent full time use across all contexts examined. Qualitative results were used to identify familial, developmental and situational variables that influenced the consistency of infant/toddler device use. Conclusion Families may benefit from audiological counseling that acknowledges the multi-faceted challenges that arise. Audiologists can work in partnership with families to promote consistent device use across a variety of daily situations. PMID:19029531

  11. Early Identification of Acute Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions: Realistic Implications for Best Practice in Patient Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Juliet Battard; Edwards, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Acute hemolytic transfusion reactions can result in severe complications and death. Through early identification and prompt intervention, nurses can reduce the risks associated with these serious reactions. Realistic evidence-based patient monitoring protocols can help guide identification of acute hemolytic transfusion reactions and facilitate lifesaving interventions to avert critical patient situations. PMID:27323466

  12. 75 FR 5603 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA),...

  13. A systematic review of decision aids for patients making a decision about treatment for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nicholas Zdenkowski; Butow, Phyllis; Tesson, Stephanie; Boyle, Frances

    2016-04-01

    Several complex treatment decisions may be offered to women with early stage breast cancer, about a range of treatments from different modalities including surgery, radiotherapy, and endocrine and chemotherapy. Decision aids can facilitate shared decision-making and improve decision-related outcomes. We aimed to systematically identify, describe and appraise the literature on treatment decision aids for women with early breast cancer, synthesise the data and identify breast cancer decisions that lack a decision aid. A prospectively developed search strategy was applied to MEDLINE, the Cochrane databases, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and abstract databases from major conferences. Data were extracted into a pre-piloted form. Quality and risk of bias were measured using Qualsyst criteria. Results were synthesised into narrative format. Thirty-three eligible articles were identified, evaluating 23 individual treatment decision aids, comprising 13 randomised controlled trial reports, seven non-randomised comparative studies, eight single-arm pre-post studies and five cross-sectional studies. The decisions addressed by these decision aids were: breast conserving surgery versus mastectomy (+/- reconstruction); use of chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy; radiotherapy; and fertility preservation. Outcome measures were heterogeneous, precluding meta-analysis. Decisional conflict decreased, and knowledge and satisfaction increased, without any change in anxiety or depression, in most studies. No studies were identified that evaluated decision aids for neoadjuvant systemic therapy, or contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. Decision aids are available and improved decision-related outcomes for many breast cancer treatment decisions including surgery, radiotherapy, and endocrine and chemotherapy. Decision aids for neoadjuvant systemic therapy and contralateral prophylactic mastectomy could not be found, and may be warranted. PMID:27017240

  14. The Impact of Early Design Phase Risk Identification Biases on Space System Project Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, John D., Jr.; Eveleigh, Tim; Holzer, Thomas; Sarkani, Shahryar

    2012-01-01

    Risk identification during the early design phases of complex systems is commonly implemented but often fails to result in the identification of events and circumstances that truly challenge project performance. Inefficiencies in cost and schedule estimation are usually held accountable for cost and schedule overruns, but the true root cause is often the realization of programmatic risks. A deeper understanding of frequent risk identification trends and biases pervasive during space system design and development is needed, for it would lead to improved execution of existing identification processes and methods.

  15. Collaborative Screening Program for Pre Schoolers: Early Identification of Mental Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loseth, Rick; Carlson, Sarah; Picard, Anine; King, Carly; Schmid, Chris Oldakowski; VanEngen, Rose

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the effectiveness of the Preschool and Early Childhood Functional Assessment Scale (PECFAS) Screener, an assessment designed to assist in the early identification of mental health concerns in preschool-aged children. Formed in 1993, the Putting All Communities Together 4 Families…

  16. Early Identification of Skill Needs in Europe. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Susanne Liane, Ed.; Schomann, Klaus, Ed.; Tessaring, Manfred, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers: "Early Recognition of Skill Needs in Europe: European Conference, Berlin, 30/31 May 2002" (Susanne Liane Schmidt, Klaus Schomann, Manfred Tessaring); "Welcome and Opening of the European Conference 'Early Recognition of Skill Needs in Europe,' 30 May 2002, Social Sciences Research Center Berlin"…

  17. A novel computer-aided detection system for pulmonary nodule identification in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hao; Li, Lihong; Wang, Huafeng; Zhang, Hao; Moore, William; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CADe) of pulmonary nodules from computer tomography (CT) scans is critical for assisting radiologists to identify lung lesions at an early stage. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for CADe of lung nodules using a two-stage vector quantization (VQ) scheme. The first-stage VQ aims to extract lung from the chest volume, while the second-stage VQ is designed to extract initial nodule candidates (INCs) within the lung volume. Then rule-based expert filtering is employed to prune obvious FPs from INCs, and the commonly-used support vector machine (SVM) classifier is adopted to further reduce the FPs. The proposed system was validated on 100 CT scans randomly selected from the 262 scans that have at least one juxta-pleural nodule annotation in the publicly available database - Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI). The two-stage VQ only missed 2 out of the 207 nodules at agreement level 1, and the INCs detection for each scan took about 30 seconds in average. Expert filtering reduced FPs more than 18 times, while maintaining a sensitivity of 93.24%. As it is trivial to distinguish INCs attached to pleural wall versus not on wall, we investigated the feasibility of training different SVM classifiers to further reduce FPs from these two kinds of INCs. Experiment results indicated that SVM classification over the entire set of INCs was in favor of, where the optimal operating of our CADe system achieved a sensitivity of 89.4% at a specificity of 86.8%.

  18. A Screening Method for Early Identification of Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coury, Janine P.; Nessa, Donald B.

    This study was conducted in order to develop and evaluate a systematic screening method which could be used by counselors and school psychologists in the identification of first graders showing characteristics generally associated with learning disabilities. The study was conducted within three Title I schools in a large sourthern metropolitan…

  19. Accuracy of injection site identification among children with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: a comparison of traditional and new visual aids.

    PubMed

    Monaco, L; Geffken, G; Silverstein, J H

    1996-04-01

    Children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) typically self-inject insulin twice daily. Injection sites must be rotated with each insulin administration to avoid lipohypertrophy. Lipohypertrophy results in erratic insulin release and threatens metabolic stability. To aid rotation, children are usually provided with a picture of a human figure with injection sites identified within a grid. Children often have difficulty using the charts or lack the skills necessary to identify injection sites. An alternative three-dimensional visual aid, a pair of "injection bears", simplifies injection site identification. Fifty-eight 6- to 11-year-old children with IDDM identified 10 injection sites using both the injection chart and the injection bears. Accuracy of injection site identification was compared on five subcomponents. Forty-four percent of informants recalled that their doctors recommended using injection charts. Of those recalling the recommendation, 81% never or rarely used charts at home. Thirty-nine percent of the informants reported a history of lipohypertrophy. Matched sample t-tests demonstrated that children committed significantly fewer identification errors on all subcomponents (P < or = .05) when using the injection bears. Chi square analyses indicated a significant preference (P < or = .05) for the injection bears, which may be a useful tool for insulin injection rotation with younger children. PMID:8665752

  20. The Price of Innocence: Teachers, Gender, Childhood Sexuality, HIV and AIDS in Early Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia

    2007-01-01

    Drawing from data collected during interviews with grade 2 teachers who work in a black working-class township school, this paper explores the meanings that teachers attach to HIV and AIDS education. It is argued that the relationship of many teachers to the subject of HIV and AIDS is inscribed within regulatory forces based on the notion of…

  1. Reorganization of auditory cortex in early-deaf people: functional connectivity and relationship to hearing aid use.

    PubMed

    Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-modal reorganization after sensory deprivation is a model for understanding brain plasticity. Although it is a well-documented phenomenon, we still know little of the mechanisms underlying it or the factors that constrain and promote it. Using fMRI, we identified visual motion-related activity in 17 early-deaf and 17 hearing adults. We found that, in the deaf, the posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) was responsive to visual motion. We compared functional connectivity of this reorganized cortex between groups to identify differences in functional networks associated with reorganization. In the deaf more than the hearing, the STG displayed increased functional connectivity with a region in the calcarine fissure. We also explored the role of hearing aid use, a factor that may contribute to variability in cross-modal reorganization. We found that both the cross-modal activity in STG and the functional connectivity between STG and calcarine cortex correlated with duration of hearing aid use, supporting the hypothesis that residual hearing affects cross-modal reorganization. We conclude that early auditory deprivation alters not only the organization of auditory regions but also the interactions between auditory and primary visual cortex and that auditory input, as indexed by hearing aid use, may inhibit cross-modal reorganization in early-deaf people. PMID:25000527

  2. Early Concerns of Mothers of Children Later Diagnosed with Autism: Implications for Early Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishore, M. Thomas; Basu, Anirban

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to identify early indicators in autism, particularly with reference to comorbid mental retardation and specific culture so that early intervention can be given. In this backdrop, this study aims to understand the early indicators of autism as perceived by the Indian mothers: the age of reporting and receiving diagnosis, and their…

  3. Early Identification of Minority Gifted: The State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amodeo, Luiza B.; Flores, Laura J.

    As early as 1958, respected educators pointed out that: traditional methods (standardized IQ tests, teacher recommendations, parent questionnaires) did not identify minority/culturally diverse children; the concept of gifted needed to include creativity; and creativity could be a strength of minority children. During the late 1960's in response to…

  4. Young Children with ADHD: Early Identification and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Kern, Lee

    2011-01-01

    The symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often begin early in life. In fact, many young children enter school with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that put them at a significant disadvantage compared with their typically-developing peers. Over the past several decades, researchers, psychologists and educators have devoted…

  5. Identification of the Social Development in Early Childhood in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…

  6. Limiting Cumulative HIV Viremia Copy-Years by Early Treatment Reduces Risk of AIDS and Death

    PubMed Central

    Walker, A. Sarah; Suthar, Amitabh B.; Sabin, Caroline; Bucher, Heiner C.; Jarrin, Inma; Moreno, Santiago; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Porter, Kholoud; Ford, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Viremia copy-years (VCY), a time-updated measure of cumulative HIV exposure, predicts AIDS/death; although its utility in deciding when to start combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains unclear. We aimed to assess the impact of initiating versus deferring cART on risk of AIDS/death by levels of VCY both independent of and within CD4 cell count strata ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter. Methods: Using Concerted Action on Seroconversion to AIDS and Death in Europe (CASCADE) data, we created a series of nested “trials” corresponding to consecutive months for individuals ≥16 years at seroconversion after 1995 who were cART-naive and AIDS-free. Pooling across all trials, time to AIDS/death by CD4, and VCY strata was compared in those initiating vs. deferring cART using Cox models adjusted for: country, sex, risk group, seroconversion year, age, time since last HIV-RNA, and current CD4, VCY, HIV-RNA, and mean number of previous CD4/HIV-RNA measurements/year. Results: Of 9353 individuals, 5312 (57%) initiated cART and 486 (5%) acquired AIDS/died. Pooling CD4 strata, risk of AIDS/death associated with initiating vs. deferring cART reduced as VCY increased. In patients with high CD4 cell counts, ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter, there was a trend for a greater reduction for those initiating vs. deferring with increasing VCY (P = 0.09), with the largest benefit in the VCY ≥100,000 copy-years/mL group [hazard ratio (95% CI) = 0.41 (0.19 to 0.87)]. Conclusions: For individuals with CD4 ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter, limiting the cumulative HIV burden to <100,000 copy-years/mL through cART may reduce the risk of AIDS/death. PMID:27116045

  7. Identification of Mytilus edulis genetic regulators during early development.

    PubMed

    Bassim, Sleiman; Tanguy, Arnaud; Genard, Bertrand; Moraga, Dario; Tremblay, Rejean

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that enable growth and survival of an organism while driving it to the full range of its adaptation is fundamental to the issues of biodiversity and evolution, particularly regarding global climatic changes. Here we report the Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and de novo assembly of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis transcriptome during early development. This study is based on high-throughput data, which associates genome-wide differentially expressed transcript (DET) patterns with early activation of developmental processes. Approximately 50,383 high-quality contigs were assembled. Over 8000 transcripts were associated with functional proteins from public databases. Coding and non-coding genes served to design customized microarrays targeting every developmental stage, which encompass major transitions in tissue organization. Consequently, multi-processing pattern exploration protocols applied to 3633 DETs helped discover 12 unique coordinated eigengenes supposedly implicated in various physiological and morphological changes that larvae undergo during early development. Moreover, dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs) provided key insights to understand stage-specific molecular mechanisms activated throughout ontogeny. In addition, delayed and contemporaneous interactions between DETs were coerced with 16 relevant regulators that interrelated in non-random genetic regulatory networks (GRNs). Genes associated with mechanisms of neural and muscular development have been characterized and further included in dynamic networks necessary in growth and functional morphology. This is the first large-scale study being dedicated to M. edulis throughout early ontogeny. Integration between RNA-seq and microarray data enabled a high-throughput exploration of hidden processes essential in growth and survival of microscopic mussel larvae. Our integrative approach will support a holistic understanding of systems biology and will help establish new links

  8. MutAid: Sanger and NGS Based Integrated Pipeline for Mutation Identification, Validation and Annotation in Human Molecular Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ram Vinay; Pabinger, Stephan; Kriegner, Albert; Weinhäusel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Sanger sequencing as well as Next-Generation Sequencing have been used for the identification of disease causing mutations in human molecular research. The majority of currently available tools are developed for research and explorative purposes and often do not provide a complete, efficient, one-stop solution. As the focus of currently developed tools is mainly on NGS data analysis, no integrative solution for the analysis of Sanger data is provided and consequently a one-stop solution to analyze reads from both sequencing platforms is not available. We have therefore developed a new pipeline called MutAid to analyze and interpret raw sequencing data produced by Sanger or several NGS sequencing platforms. It performs format conversion, base calling, quality trimming, filtering, read mapping, variant calling, variant annotation and analysis of Sanger and NGS data under a single platform. It is capable of analyzing reads from multiple patients in a single run to create a list of potential disease causing base substitutions as well as insertions and deletions. MutAid has been developed for expert and non-expert users and supports four sequencing platforms including Sanger, Illumina, 454 and Ion Torrent. Furthermore, for NGS data analysis, five read mappers including BWA, TMAP, Bowtie, Bowtie2 and GSNAP and four variant callers including GATK-HaplotypeCaller, SAMTOOLS, Freebayes and VarScan2 pipelines are supported. MutAid is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/mutaid. PMID:26840129

  9. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 2: Technical feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of this effort are presented in a manner for use by both the AIDS 3 Operational and Economic Feasibility subtasks as well as the Development of Alternative subtask. The approach taken was to identify the major functions that appear in AIDS 3 and then to determine which technologies would be needed for support. The technologies were then examined from the point of view of reliability, throughput, security, availability, cost and possible future trends. Whenever possible graphs are given to indicate projected costs of rapidly changing technologies.

  10. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 3: Operational feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation is presented which is defined as the adequacy of system design with known functional and performance requirements. The proposed Rockwell International AIDS 3 card, document and data flow are presented to summarize the concepts involved and the relationships between functions. The analysis and evaluation includes a study of system capability, processing rates, search requirements and response accuracy as well as a consideration of operational components and hardware integration. Results indicate that the AIDS 3 System concept is operationally feasible if production capacity is slightly enhanced but that operational complexity, hardware integration and a lack of conceptual data pertinent to some of the functions are areas of concern.

  11. Early Identification of Mental Health Problems in Schools: The Status of Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Jessica Mass; Saka, Noa; Romanelli, Lisa Hunter; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    When embedded within a continuum of mental health services including both prevention and treatment, school-based mental health identification programs can promote improved academic and mental health functioning among students. This article describes the scientific status of assessment instrumentation that may be used for early mental health…

  12. The Development of a Culturally Fair Model for the Early Identification and Selection of Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storlie, Theodore R.; And Others

    A two-stage model for early identification and selection of gifted children in kindergarden through grade 3 was successfully developed for the Walker Full-time Gifted Program in the Flint, Michigan Community Schools. Using the Nominative Group Process of interactive decision-making, project participants, school administrators, school…

  13. The Effects of Perceptual Similarity and Category Membership on Early Word-Referent Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Plunkett, Kim

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the impact of perceptual and categorical relatedness between a target and a distracter object on early referent identification in infants and adults. In an intermodal preferential looking (IPL) task, participants looked at a target object paired with a distracter object that could be perceptually similar or dissimilar and drawn…

  14. National and Racial-Ethnic Identification: What It Means to Be American among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Victoria C.; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Mistry, Rashmita S.; Brown, Christia Spears; Chow, Kirby A.; White, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explored early adolescents' national American identification, and meanings attached to being American. Participants (N = 102; 51% female; ages 10-12, [x-bar] = 11.45, SD = 0.70) were racially and ethnically diverse from primarily middle- to upper-middle class families (median household income = US$150,000-US$199,999; 75%…

  15. Floor Effects Associated with Universal Screening and Their Impact on the Early Identification of Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catts, Hugh W.; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Mendoza, Katherin

    2009-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) holds great promise for the early identification and prevention of reading disabilities. The success of RTI rests in part on the accuracy of universal screening tools used within this framework. Despite advancements, screening instruments designed to identify children at risk for reading disabilities continue to have…

  16. Monitoring Early Reading Development in First Grade: Word Identification Fluency Versus Nonsense Word Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    This study contrasts the validity of 2 early reading curriculum-based measurement (CBM) measures: word identification fluency and nonsense word fluency. At-risk children (n = 151) were assessed (a) on criterion reading measures in the fall and spring of first grade and (b) on the 2 CBM measures each week for 7 weeks and twice weekly for an…

  17. Organizational and Occupational Identification: Relations to Teacher Satisfaction and Intention to Early Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Murat; Hamarat, Bahattin; Colak, Ertugrul; Duran, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the effects of two work related identification (occupational and organizational) of school teachers on intention to early retirement (withdrawal) and satisfaction with the occupation and satisfaction with the school. It also seeks the influence of perceived external prestige on withdrawal and satisfaction.…

  18. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  19. Design space exploration for early identification of yield limiting patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Helen; Zou, Elain; Lee, Robben; Hong, Sid; Liu, Square; Wang, JinYan; Du, Chunshan; Zhang, Recco; Madkour, Kareem; Ali, Hussein; Hsu, Danny; Kabeel, Aliaa; ElManhawy, Wael; Kwan, Joe

    2016-03-01

    In order to resolve the causality dilemma of which comes first, accurate design rules or real designs, this paper presents a flow for exploration of the layout design space to early identify problematic patterns that will negatively affect the yield. A new random layout generating method called Layout Schema Generator (LSG) is reported in this paper, this method generates realistic design-like layouts without any design rule violation. Lithography simulation is then used on the generated layout to discover the potentially problematic patterns (hotspots). These hotspot patterns are further explored by randomly inducing feature and context variations to these identified hotspots through a flow called Hotspot variation Flow (HSV). Simulation is then performed on these expanded set of layout clips to further identify more problematic patterns. These patterns are then classified into design forbidden patterns that should be included in the design rule checker and legal patterns that need better handling in the RET recipes and processes.

  20. Subjective cognitive impairment: Towards early identification of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ptacek, S; Eriksdotter, M; Jelic, V; Porta-Etessam, J; Kåreholt, I; Manzano Palomo, S

    2013-04-16

    INTRODUCTION: Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD) begins decades before dementia and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) already demonstrate significant lesion loads. Lack of information about the early pathophysiology in AD complicates the search for therapeutic strategies.Subjective cognitive impairment is the description given to subjects who have memory-related complaints without pathological results on neuropsychological tests. There is no consensus regarding this heterogeneous syndrome, but at least some of these patients may represent the earliest stage in AD. METHOD: We reviewed available literature in order to summarise current knowledge on subjective cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Although they may not present detectable signs of disease, SCI patients as a group score lower on neuropsychological tests than the general population does, and they also have a higher incidence of future cognitive decline. Depression and psychiatric co-morbidity play a role but cannot account for all cognitive complaints. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in these patients reveal a pattern of hippocampal atrophy similar to that of amnestic mild cognitive impairment and functional MRI shows increased activation during cognitive tasks which might indicate compensation for loss of function. Prevalence of an AD-like pattern of beta-amyloid (Aβ42) and tau proteins in cerebrospinal fluid is higher in SCI patients than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Memory complaints are relevant symptoms and may predict AD. Interpatient variability and methodological differences between clinical studies make it difficult to assign a definition to this syndrome. In the future, having a standard definition and longitudinal studies with sufficient follow-up times and an emphasis on quantifiable variables may clarify aspects of early AD. PMID:23601758

  1. Identification of early cancerous lesion of esophagus with endoscopic images by hyperspectral image technique (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Shih-Hua; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a method to identify early esophageal cancer within endoscope using hyperspectral imaging technology. The research samples are three kinds of endoscopic images including white light endoscopic, chromoendoscopic, and narrow-band endoscopic images with different stages of pathological changes (normal, dysplasia, dysplasia - esophageal cancer, and esophageal cancer). Research is divided into two parts: first, we analysis the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images with different stages to know the spectral responses by pathological changes. Second, we identified early cancerous lesion of esophagus by principal component analysis (PCA) of the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images. The results of this study show that the identification of early cancerous lesion is possible achieve from three kinds of images. In which the spectral characteristics of NBI endoscopy images of a gray area than those without the existence of the problem the first two, and the trend is very clear. Therefore, if simply to reflect differences in the degree of spectral identification, chromoendoscopic images are suitable samples. The best identification of early esophageal cancer is using the NBI endoscopic images. Based on the results, the use of hyperspectral imaging technology in the early endoscopic esophageal cancer lesion image recognition helps clinicians quickly diagnose. We hope for the future to have a relatively large amount of endoscopic image by establishing a hyperspectral imaging database system developed in this study, so the clinician can take this repository more efficiently preliminary diagnosis.

  2. Floor effects associated with universal screening and their impact on the early identification of reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Catts, Hugh W; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Sittner Bridges, Mindy; Mendoza, Katherin

    2009-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) holds great promise for the early identification and prevention of reading disabilities. The success of RTI rests in part on the accuracy of universal screening tools used within this framework. Despite advancements, screening instruments designed to identify children at risk for reading disabilities continue to have limited predictive validity. In this study, the authors examined a common screening instrument for the presence of floor effects and investigated the impact that these effects have on the predictive validity of the instrument. Longitudinal data (kindergarten to third grade) from a large cohort of children were used. These data included children's performance on five measures from the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and two reading achievement outcome measures. The results showed that DIBELS measures were characterized by floor effects in their initial administrations and that these effects reduced the predictive validity of the measures. The implications of these findings for early identification are discussed. PMID:19098274

  3. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 9: Functional requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The current system and subsystem used by the Identification Division are described. System constraints that dictate the system environment are discussed and boundaries within which solutions must be found are described. The functional requirements were related to the performance requirements. These performance requirements were then related to their applicable subsystems. The flow of data, documents, or other pieces of information from one subsystem to another or from the external world into the identification system is described. Requirements and design standards for a computer based system are presented.

  4. Identification of Bacillus subtilis genes expressed early during sporulation.

    PubMed

    Mathiopoulos, C; Sonenshein, A L

    1989-08-01

    Labelled cDNA transcribed in vitro from early-sporulation RNA was enriched for sporulation-specific sequences by subtractive hybridization to an excess of vegetative RNA and used to probe libraries of Bacillus subtilis chromosomal DNA. From the initial collection of clones that coded for RNAs transcribed preferentially during sporulation, several were subcloned and studied in more detail. It was found that two clones contained sequences (dciA and dciB) that had an undetectable level of transcription during vegetative growth but had transcripts that started to appear no later than eight minutes after induction of sporulation. A third DNA segment (dciC) was expressed at a low level in vegetative cells and increased within four minutes after induction of sporulation. The effects of spoO mutations, i.e. mutations that prevent cells from reaching stage I of the sporulation process, were tested. Induction of the dciA and dciB transcripts was significantly reduced in strains carrying mutations in the spoOA and spoOH genes but not in a spoOB mutant strain. In addition, a product of the abrB locus, a locus in which mutations are known to partially overcome the pleiotropic effect of spoOA and spoOB mutations, seemed to be required for dciA and dciB expression. PMID:2481799

  5. Use of the Canterbury Child's Aid in Infancy and Early Childhood: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Leonard; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A blind infant used the Canterbury Child's Aid (a binaural spatial sensor) for such purposes as reaching, feeding, and walking. As a preschooler, she used it to explore novel environments and avoid objects in her path. Training increased her responsiveness to and action upon the environment. (CL)

  6. Computer-aided identification of the water diffusion coefficient for maize kernels dried in a thin layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawa, Sebastian; Weres, Jerzy; Olek, Wiesław

    2016-07-01

    Uncertainties in mathematical modelling of water transport in cereal grain kernels during drying and storage are mainly due to implementing unreliable values of the water diffusion coefficient and simplifying the geometry of kernels. In the present study an attempt was made to reduce the uncertainties by developing a method for computer-aided identification of the water diffusion coefficient and more accurate 3D geometry modelling for individual kernels using original inverse finite element algorithms. The approach was exemplified by identifying the water diffusion coefficient for maize kernels subjected to drying. On the basis of the developed method, values of the water diffusion coefficient were estimated, 3D geometry of a maize kernel was represented by isoparametric finite elements, and the moisture content inside maize kernels dried in a thin layer was predicted. Validation of the results against experimental data showed significantly lower error values than in the case of results obtained for the water diffusion coefficient values available in the literature.

  7. Longitudinal study of a school based HIV/AIDS early prevention program for Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Givaudan, Martha; Leenen, Iwin; Van de Vijver, Fons J R; Poortinga, Ype H; Pick, Susan

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-experimental study is reported with four measurement occasions to evaluate longer-term effects of a life-skills and HIV/AIDS school-based prevention program. Trained teachers administered the program promoting precursors of safer sex behavior to 2064 Mexican high-school students at an age before most were sexually active. The variables included in the study (knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention, attitudes towards use of condoms, subjective norms, intentions to use condoms and life skills as decision-making skills, partner communication and individual responsibility) have been reported as precursors of protective sexual behavior. The results demonstrate the stability of training effects and a positive impact on these precursors over 1 year of follow-up. PMID:18066923

  8. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of incinerated teeth: An aid to forensic identification

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Chetan A; Gosavi, Suchitra R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forensic dental identification of victims involved in fire accidents is often a complex and challenging endeavor. Knowledge of the charred human dentition and residues of restorative material can help in the recognition of bodies burned beyond recognition. Aim: To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures on healthy unrestored teeth and different restorative materials in restored teeth, by scanning electron microscope, for the purpose of identification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 135 extracted teeth, which were divided into four groups. Group 1-healthy unrestored teeth, group 2-teeth restored with all ceramic crowns, group 3-teeth restored with class I composite resin and group 4-teeth restored with class I glass ionomer cement (GIC). Results: The scanning electron microscope is useful in the analysis of burned teeth, as it gives fine structural details, requires only a small sample and does not destroy the already fragile specimen. Conclusion: Scanning electron microscope can be a useful tool for the characterization and study of severely burnt teeth for victim identification. PMID:24959034

  9. Dental materials as an aid for victim identification: examination of calcined remains by SEM/EDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Mary A.; Bush, Peter J.

    2010-06-01

    Detection and identification of human remains in situations in which they are calcined, disarticulated, and fragmented may be a challenging task. In such situations the non-biological materials that may be present in the dentition can provide the best evidence available for potential identification. Four human jaw segments were utilized. A known combination of dental resins was placed in each segment, when possible. Other restorations, pre-existing in the cadavers, were retained. The jaw segments were cremated in a commercial cremation oven for 2.5 hrs at 1010C. Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) was used to analyze the dentition and fragmented debris. Analysis with SEM/EDS demonstrated the ability to confirm brand of known dental resins placed in each cadaver. In addition, pre-existing materials in each jaw segment were profiled and a likely brand name suggested. It was shown that microscopic fragments of heat-altered materials could be identified and classified, adding another level of certainty in victim identification.

  10. A Genome-Wide Profiling Strategy as an Aid for Searching Unique Identification Biomarkers for Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Prasun; Koul, Shikha

    2016-03-01

    The use of rrs (16S rRNA) gene is widely regarded as the "gold standard" for identifying bacteria and determining their phylogenetic relationships. Nevertheless, multiple copies of this gene in a genome is likely to give an overestimation of the bacterial diversity. In each of the 50 Streptococcus genomes (16 species, 50 strains), 4-7 copies of rrs are present. The nucleotide sequences of these rrs genes show high similarity within and among genomes, which did not allow unambiguous identification. A genome-wide search revealed the presence of 27 gene sequences common to all the Streptococcus species. Digestion of these 27 gene sequences with 10 type II restriction endonucleases (REs) showed that unique RE digestion in purH gene is sufficient for clear cut identification of 30 genomes belonging to 16 species. Additional gene-RE combinations allowed identification of another 15 strains belonging to S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, and S. suis. For the rest 5 strains, a combination of 2 genes was required for identifying them. The proposed strategy is likely to prove helpful in proper detection of pathogens like Streptococcus. PMID:26843696

  11. Identification of early child and family risk factors for aggressive victim status in first grade.

    PubMed

    Burk, Linnea R; Park, Jong-hyo; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Klein, Marjorie H; Goldsmith, H Hill; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Essex, Marilyn J

    2008-05-01

    This prospective investigation sought to discriminate children who were both aggressive towards and victimized by peers in the first grade, from those who were only aggressive, only victimized, or neither (i.e., socially adjusted), using early child and family risk factors. Two hundred thirty-eight children, their mothers, and teachers participated in a longitudinal study since birth. All three aggressor/victim subgroups showed greater temperamental dysregulation than the socially adjusted children, but only aggressive victims had significantly poorer social perception skills. Aggressive victims were distinguished from aggressors by greater exposure to maternal depression and from victims by lower levels of early inhibition, but they shared the experiences of negative family emotional expressiveness with aggressors and greater mother-child negativity with victims. The identification of early risk factors is crucial to prevention and early intervention efforts that have the potential to attenuate the long term emotional, social, and academic problems associated with aggressive victim status. PMID:18092191

  12. Online Survey Examining Practitioners’ Perceived Preparedness in the Early Identification of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris A.; Schefkind, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived preparedness of practitioners in the early identification of children ages birth to 6 yr with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants were included in this survey study. The online survey instrument consisted of 29 questions within six sections capturing participant demographics, delivery of occupational therapy services, action when autism is suspected, service delivery experience, resource sharing, and barriers to conducting autism screening. The results of the study provide baseline information concerning identified skills, practices, and barriers among 1,396 practitioners. Additionally, opportunities are revealed for professional development necessary to support practitioners in the early identification of children at risk for ASD through surveillance and screening among children ages birth to 6 yr. PMID:24367965

  13. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 8: Measures of effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The development of both quantitative criteria that were used to evaluate conceptional systems for automating the functions for the FBI Identification Division is described. Specific alternative systems for automation were compared by using these developed criteria, defined as Measures of Effectiveness (MOE), to gauge system's performance in attempting to achieve certain goals. The MOE, essentially measurement tools that were developed through the combination of suitable parameters, pertain to each conceivable area of system operation. The methods and approaches used, both in selecting the parameters and in using the resulting MOE, are described.

  14. Effects of elevated temperatures on different restorative materials: An aid to forensic identification processes

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Chetan A.; Ghige, Suvarna K.; Gosavi, Suchitra R.; Hazarey, Vinay K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heat-induced alterations to dental and restorative materials can be of great interest to forensic dentistry. Knowing the specific optical behavior of dental materials can be of high importance as recognition of changes induced by high temperatures can lead to the determination of material which was used in a dental restoration, facilitating identification of burned human remains. Aim: To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures (200°C–400°C–600°C–800°C–1000°C) on unrestored teeth and different restorative materials macroscopically and then examine them under a stereomicroscope for the purpose of identification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 375 extracted teeth which were divided into five groups of 75 teeth each as follows: group 1- unrestored teeth, group 2- teeth restored with all-ceramic crowns, Group 3- with class I silver amalgam filling, group 4- with class I composite restoration, and group 5- with class I glass ionomer cement restoration. Results: Unrestored and restored teeth display a series of specific macroscopic & stereomicroscopic structural changes for each range of temperature. Conclusion: Dental tissues and restorative materials undergo a series of changes which correlate well with the various temperatures to which they were exposed. These changes are a consequence of the nature of the materials and their physicochemical characteristics. PMID:26005305

  15. Optimizing the Detection of Circulating Markers to Aid in Early Lung Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Murlidhar, Vasudha; Ramnath, Nithya; Nagrath, Sunitha; Reddy, Rishindra M.

    2016-01-01

    Improving early detection of lung cancer is critical to improving lung cancer survival. Studies have shown that computerized tomography (CT) screening can reduce mortality from lung cancer, but this involves risks of radiation exposure and can identify non-cancer lung nodules that lead to unnecessary interventions for some. There is a critical need to develop alternative, less invasive methods to identify patients who have early-stage lung cancer. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a promising area of research, but current technology is limited by a low yield of CTCs. Alternate studies are investigating circulating nucleic acids and proteins as possible tumor markers. It is critical to develop innovative methods for early lung cancer detection that may include CTCs or other markers that are low-risk and low-cost, yet specific and sensitive, to facilitate improved survival by diagnosing the disease when it is surgically curable. PMID:27367729

  16. Optimizing the Detection of Circulating Markers to Aid in Early Lung Cancer Detection.

    PubMed

    Murlidhar, Vasudha; Ramnath, Nithya; Nagrath, Sunitha; Reddy, Rishindra M

    2016-01-01

    Improving early detection of lung cancer is critical to improving lung cancer survival. Studies have shown that computerized tomography (CT) screening can reduce mortality from lung cancer, but this involves risks of radiation exposure and can identify non-cancer lung nodules that lead to unnecessary interventions for some. There is a critical need to develop alternative, less invasive methods to identify patients who have early-stage lung cancer. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a promising area of research, but current technology is limited by a low yield of CTCs. Alternate studies are investigating circulating nucleic acids and proteins as possible tumor markers. It is critical to develop innovative methods for early lung cancer detection that may include CTCs or other markers that are low-risk and low-cost, yet specific and sensitive, to facilitate improved survival by diagnosing the disease when it is surgically curable. PMID:27367729

  17. Identification of structural interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention: the concept mapping exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Quader, Abu S; Collins, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Structural interventions have been defined as those prevention interventions that include physical, social, cultural, organizational, community, economic, legal, and policy factors. In an effort to examine the feasibility, evaluability, and sustainability of structural interventions for HIV prevention, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented a project that involved asking experts in HIV prevention and other areas of public health-including injury and violence prevention, tobacco control, drug abuse, and nutrition-to provide input on the identification of structural interventions based on the aforementioned definition. The process resulted in a list of 123 interventions that met the definition. The experts were asked to group these interventions into categories based on similarity of ideas. They were also asked to rate these interventions in terms of impact they would have, if implemented, on reducing HIV transmission. The findings highlight the need for conducting further research on structural interventions, including feasibility of implementation and effectiveness of reducing HIV transmission risks. PMID:22043093

  18. Morphological Variations and Biometrics of Ear: An Aid to Personal Identification

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Harpreet Kaur; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Goyal, Sharry; Sudan, Madhu; Ladgotra, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The morphological characteristics and dimensions of external ear vary in different human ethnic races which can be utilized in forensics for personal identification of living or deceased. Aim To determine uniqueness of morphological and biometric variations of both ears for individualization among North East (NE) and North West (NW) subpopulation of India. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on randomly selected 80 students, 40 from each subgroup. Nine ear parameters were recorded twice using digital Vernier’s caliper by single investigator and two indices (Ear Index and Lobule Index) were calculated for both the ears. Morphological ear shapes and lobule attachment were also noted. Pearson’s coefficient correlation test was performed on cross-tabulations to evaluate significant relationship between different variables. Results Of the total 35% free and 65% attached ear lobes were noted in both population groups. Oval ear shape was most commonly noted followed by triangular, rectangular and round in both populations. On comparing anthropometric measurements of ears in two populations it was found that except the tragus length and lobule index all other values were noted more in NW population. No statistical difference was found in ear and lobular indices of males and females although the left ear index and lobule index were found to be higher than right in both populations except in NW females where right lobule index was recorded more than left. Conclusion The results obtained can be used in anthropological and forensic sciences for the inclusion and exclusion of persons for identification on the basis of ear variations. PMID:27437349

  19. Host-Fish Identification and Early Life Thermal Requisites of the Federal Endangered Winged Mapleleaf Mussel (Quadrula fragosa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steingraeber, M. T.; Hove, M. C.; Bartsch, M. R.; Kalas, J. A.; Newton, T. J.

    2005-05-01

    The winged mapleleaf mussel (Quadrula fragosa) is a federal endangered species with only one known reproducing population. Controlled propagation is needed to aid in recovering this species, but little is known of its specific early life-history requirements, including the identity of host-fish that facilitate transformation of its parasitic glochidia (larvae) into free-living juveniles. In autumn 2003, we initiated three winged mapleleaf host-fish identification tests that were each conducted in different thermal regimes. Results of the two shorter-term tests at warmer temperatures identified blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) and channel catfish (I. punctatus) as suitable host-fish species. Close examination of these test data allowed us to empirically estimate: the minimum daily mean water temperature (9.24°C) required for glochidia to grow and develop into juveniles; and the cumulative water temperature units of net daily growth (395°C•d)needed to initiate peak juvenile recovery. We applied these findings to the longer-term third test and predicted with great accuracy (±7 d) the initial date of peak juvenile mussel recovery after >8 months development in a colder, more natural thermal regime. Our final results also indicated a consistent daily temperature >17°C is needed to trigger the large-scale release of winged mapleleaf juveniles from the gills of host-fish.

  20. REDUCTION IN INCIDENCE OF HOSPITALIZATIONS FOR PSYCHOTIC EPISODES THROUGH EARLY IDENTIFICATION AND INTERVENTION

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, William R.; SUSSER, EZRA; McCleary, Richard; Verdi, Mary; Lynch, Sarah; Williams, Deanna; McKeague, Ian W

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study tested whether the incidence of hospitalization for psychosis was reduced by a community-wide system of early identification and intervention to prevent onset of psychosis. Method The Portland Identification and Early Referral (PIER) program was initiated in 2001. Youth and young adults ages 12-35 were identified by professionals in a wide variety of educational, health and mental health settings. PIER staff assessed, confirmed risk for psychosis and provided treatment for 24 months to eligible and consenting young people (N=148). The monthly rate of hospital admissions for first episode psychosis was the outcome measure for efficacy of identification and intervention. Admission rates before and after the program began accepting referrals were compared, both in the experimental area and in aggregated urban areas of Maine. ARIMA models were used to assess the effect. Results Based on ARIMA models, the rate of hospitalized psychosis decreased significantly by 26% (95% C.I., -64% to -11%) in the Greater Portland area. Conversely, it increased by 8% (95% C.I. -5% to +36%) in the Urban Control area. Including increases in the control area, the actual vs. expected difference (-26% -8%) was -34%. The change was largest for non-affective-non-schizophrenic Disorders. Conclusions PIER demonstrated that population-wide early identification is feasible. Preventive intervention can reduce rates of initial hospitalizations for psychosis in a mid-sized city. Clinical trial registration The study was reviewed and approved by the Maine Medical Center Institutional Review Board and registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01597141). All research subjects gave informed consent prior to participating. PMID:24632857

  1. Early identification of alcohol abuse: 1. Critical issues and psychosocial indicators for a composite index.

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, H A; Holt, S; Israel, Y

    1981-01-01

    Traditional approaches to the medical management of alcohol-related disorders have met with limited success in altering the prevalence of alcohol abuse. Evidence suggests that identifying early those who drink to excess and intervening with low-cost educational and motivational programs could significantly reduce the prevalence of alcohol-related disabilities. However, physicians must take systematic steps to detect alcohol abuse. Part 1 of this two-part series discusses the need for early identification of individuals who drink to excess and the factors that may either facilitate or hinder the development of effective programs for detecting alcohol abuse. A profile is given of important psychosocial indicators of alcohol abuse, including the classic signs of alcohol abuse, the early manifestations of heavy drinking, the predisposing or high-risk factors for alcohol abuse, and the precipitating events and correlated habits of excessive drinking. PMID:7016292

  2. The Effect of Language Background and Socio-Economic Status on Screening Procedures for the Early Identification of Learning Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershman, Janis; Kershaw, Joan

    This follow-up study investigated the accuracy of screening measures used to detect potential learning problems in kindergarten and Grade 1 children by the Toronto Early Identification and Developmental Program (EIDP). The effect of students' language background and socioeconomic status on the predictive validity of the identification procedure…

  3. Physiological Criteria and Mycotoxin Production as Aids in Identification of Common Asymmetric Penicillia

    PubMed Central

    Frisvad, Jens C.

    1981-01-01

    The taxonomy of the asymmetric (predominantly terverticillate) penicillia is based on morphological differences that leave identification difficult. The application of physiological criteria facilitated the identification of the common asymmetric penicillia investigated. Changes in the placement of some strains of these penicillia made the connection to mycotoxin-producing ability clearer. The classical criterion of conidium color was deemphasized and replaced by the following criteria: (i) growth on nitrite-sucrose agar and (ii) growth and acid (and subsequent base) production on creatine-sucrose agar (containing bromocresol purple). Other criteria used or developed were: (iii) growth on sorbic acid plus benzoic acid agar (50 + 50 ppm, pH 3.8), (iv) growth on an agar containing 1,000 ppm propionic acid (pH 3.8), (v) growth on an agar containing 0.5% acetic acid, (vi) growth at 37°C, (vii) growth rate on an agar containing 0.1% pentachloronitrobenzene, (viii) production of extracellular tricaproinase, and (ix) fasciculation on a medium containing 10 ppm botran (2,6-dichloro-4-nitroanilin). The pattern of extracellular metabolites after thin-layer chromatography was used as a chemotaxonomic criterion. The species investigated, the number of isolates investigated, and the toxins which some of these isolates produce were: Penicillium roqueforti (18) (patulin), P. citrinum (11) (citrinin), P. patulum (9) (patulin and griseofulvin), P. expansum (patulin and citrinin), P. hirsutum (13), P. brevicompactum (19), and P. chrysogenum (12). Widespread species of the P. cyclopium, P. viridicatum, and P. expansum series of Raper and Thom (A Manual of the Penicillia, 1949) were subdivided into four new groups: “P. crustosum pA” (29) (penitrem A), “P. melanochlorum” (29), “P. cyclopium p” (119) (penicillic acid and infrequently penitrem A), and “P. viridicatum o-c” (43) (ochratoxin A and citrinin). “P. viridicatum o-c” was separated from “P. cyclopium p

  4. Identification of WD40 repeats by secondary structure-aided profile-profile alignment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Dong, Xiaobao; Han, Lei; Su, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Ziding; Li, Jinyan; Song, Jiangning

    2016-06-01

    A WD40 protein typically contains four or more repeats of ~40 residues ended with the Trp-Asp dipeptide, which folds into β-propellers with four β strands in each repeat. They often function as scaffolds for protein-protein interactions and are involved in numerous fundamental biological processes. Despite their important functional role, the "velcro" closure of WD40 propellers and the diversity of WD40 repeats make their identification a difficult task. Here we develop a new WD40 Repeat Recognition method (WDRR), which uses predicted secondary structure information to generate candidate repeat segments, and further employs a profile-profile alignment to identify the correct WD40 repeats from candidate segments. In particular, we design a novel alignment scoring function that combines dot product and BLOSUM62, thereby achieving a great balance of sensitivity and accuracy. Taking advantage of these strategies, WDRR could effectively reduce the false positive rate and accurately identify more remote homologous WD40 repeats with precise repeat boundaries. We further use WDRR to re-annotate the Pfam families in the β-propeller clan (CL0186) and identify a number of WD40 repeat proteins with high confidence across nine model organisms. The WDRR web server and the datasets are available at http://protein.cau.edu.cn/wdrr/. PMID:27021623

  5. Survival of batch numbers within dental implants following incineration as an aid to identification.

    PubMed

    Berketa, J; James, H; Marino, V

    2010-12-01

    Dental implants have become a popular choice of treatment in replacing individual lost teeth or entire dentitions. The physical properties of high corrosion resistance, high structural strength and high melting point, suggest the retention of intact implants following most physical assaults. As the implants are machine made, they lack the individualisation required for their use as identifiers of the deceased, however the Straumann™ Company (Waldenburg, Switzerland) has recently released information that within the chamber of their implants they have laser etched batch numbers. The number of implants with the same batch number varies from 24 to 2400. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the batch number was still identifiable following intense heat exposure in a furnace. A Straumann™ Standard Plus 3.3 x 8 mm implant, with no healing cap nor abutment attached was incinerated to 1125 degrees Celsius. Another Straumann™ Standard Plus 3.3 x 8 mm implant was also incinerated in the same way as the first implant but with an abutment attached. The results indicated that the first implant had totally oxidised within the internal chamber whilst the second implant following the removal of the abutment revealed an intact identifiable batch number. If the companies constructing implants were to place individual serial numbers rather than batch numbers on these implants then the potential exists for a new approach to be established for the identification of the deceased. PMID:21239857

  6. Computer-aided identification of polymorphism sets diagnostic for groups of bacterial and viral genetic variants

    PubMed Central

    Price, Erin P; Inman-Bamber, John; Thiruvenkataswamy, Venugopal; Huygens, Flavia; Giffard, Philip M

    2007-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes that exhibit presence/absence variation have provided informative marker sets for bacterial and viral genotyping. Identification of marker sets optimised for these purposes has been based on maximal generalized discriminatory power as measured by Simpson's Index of Diversity, or on the ability to identify specific variants. Here we describe the Not-N algorithm, which is designed to identify small sets of genetic markers diagnostic for user-specified subsets of known genetic variants. The algorithm does not treat the user-specified subset and the remaining genetic variants equally. Rather Not-N analysis is designed to underpin assays that provide 0% false negatives, which is very important for e.g. diagnostic procedures for clinically significant subgroups within microbial species. Results The Not-N algorithm has been incorporated into the "Minimum SNPs" computer program and used to derive genetic markers diagnostic for multilocus sequence typing-defined clonal complexes, hepatitis C virus (HCV) subtypes, and phylogenetic clades defined by comparative genome hybridization (CGH) data for Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica and Clostridium difficile. Conclusion Not-N analysis is effective for identifying small sets of genetic markers diagnostic for microbial sub-groups. The best results to date have been obtained with CGH data from several bacterial species, and HCV sequence data. PMID:17672919

  7. Silylation of coal liquefaction products and an aid to phenol identification

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfson, A.C.; Farnum, S.A.; Miller, D.J.; Kongshaug, P.A.; Timpe, R.

    1984-01-01

    We have an ongoing program to identify phenols present in low-rank coal-derived liquids. We have developed a method for the conversion of the phenols to their trimethylsilyl ethers that facilitates the study of the phenols in liquefaction products. It has been reported that trimethylsilylation increases the volatility of phenols. This increase in volatility is very useful for gas chromatography (GC), permitting analysis of otherwise non-volatile phenols. An additional advantage of trimethylsilylation is that intermolecular hydrogen bonding of the phenols is diminished, thus reducing tailing on the gas chromatograms. Before attempting to silylate phenols in liquefaction products, we optimized the silylation conditions for a series of model compounds, which had previously been identified in our liquefaction products. Our liquefaction process yields three major liquid product types: a water fraction, a light oil, and a heavy oil. All three fractions have phenols present, but differ in the relative amounts of each type. The polar fraction of a pentane-soluble oil, obtained from silica gel column chromatography of a heavy oil, was silylated as shown in equation 1. Gas chromatographic analysis of the silylated product indicates an increase in volatility, as expected. The silylation appeared to be quantitative because there was no evidence of any underivatized phenols. We have found that trimethylsilylation of low-rank coal-derived liquids is a valuable addition to our present methods of phenol identification.

  8. Identification of Fusarium graminearum infection severity of wheat grains by digitally aided spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkai, Géza; Erostyák, János; Mesterházy, Ákos

    2013-05-01

    The Fusarium head blight caused mostly by Fusarium graminearum (F.g.) is the most important disease of wheat because it not only leads to yield loss, but the toxin contamination makes the yield harvested. First, visual assessment of the heads was made, then the ratio of Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK) becomes the attention, and since introduction of the toxin limits for wheat, the deoxynivalenol contamination has gained significance. However, the FDK has a greater practical significance, as the identification of Fusarium damaged kernels is the precondition of their separation.For this reason a more exact and more sensitive method was developed by using updated spectroscopy methods. The infection sensitive spectral index (ISSI) function has been developed to characterize spectral features of images of grains with different infection severities. The green and red color ranges could be best used in this analysis. It was also found that the way how different spectra from different grains or samples can be normalized and compared. This histogram analyzing method uses scanned images and it seems to be useful in describing the infection severity of heterogeneous samples better than available before.This might serve as scientific background to develop new instruments for rapid tests.

  9. Evaluation of a clinical tool for early etiology identification in status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Vincent; Westover, M. Brandon; Drislane, Frank W.; Dworetzky, Barbara A.; Curley, David

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives Because early etiologic identification is critical to select appropriate specific status epilepticus (SE) management, we aim to validate a clinical tool we developed that uses history and readily available investigations to guide prompt etiologic assessment. Methods This prospective multicenter study included all adult patients treated for SE of all but anoxic causes from four academic centers. The proposed tool is designed as a checklist covering frequent precipitating factors for SE. The study team completed the checklist at the time the patient was identified by electroencephalography (EEG) request. Only information available in the emergency department or at the time of in-hospital SE identification was used. Concordance between the etiology indicated by the tool and the determined etiology at hospital discharge was analyzed, together with interrater agreement. Results Two hundred twelve patients were included. Concordance between the etiology hypothesis generated using the tool and the finally determined etiology was 88.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 86.4–89.8) (κ = 0.88). Interrater agreement was 83.3% (95% CI 80.4–96) (κ = 0.81). Significance This tool is valid and reliable for identification early the etiology of an SE. Physicians managing patients in SE may benefit from using it to identify promptly the underlying etiology, thus facilitating selection of the appropriate treatment. PMID:25385281

  10. The alternative complement pathway aids in vascular regression during the early stages of a murine model of proliferative retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Clifford; Smith, Kaylee E.; Castillejos, Alexandra; Diaz-Aguilar, Daniel; Saint-Geniez, Magali; Connor, Kip M.

    2016-01-01

    Proliferative retinopathic diseases often progress in 2 phases: initial regression of retinal vasculature (phase 1) followed by subsequent neovascularization (NV) (phase 2). The immune system has been shown to aid in vascular pruning in such retinopathies; however, little is known about the role of the alternative complement pathway in the initial vascular regression phase. Using a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), we observed that alternative complement pathway–deficient mice (Fb−/−) exhibited a mild decrease in vascular loss at postnatal day (P)8 compared with age- and strain-matched controls (P = 0.035). Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate the retinal blood vessels. Expression of the complement inhibitors Cd55 and Cd59 was significantly decreased in blood vessels isolated from hyperoxic retinas compared with those from normoxic control mice. Vegf expression was measured at P8 and found to be significantly lower in OIR mice than in normoxic control mice (P = 0.0048). Further examination of specific Vegf isoform expression revealed a significant decrease in Vegf120 (P = 0.00032) and Vegf188 (P = 0.0092). In conjunction with the major modulating effects of Vegf during early retinal vascular development, our data suggest a modest involvement of the alternative complement pathway in targeting vessels for regression in the initial vaso-obliteration stage of OIR.—Kim, C., Smith, K. E., Castillejos, A., Diaz-Aguilar, D., Saint-Geniez, M., Connor, K. M. The alternative complement pathway aids in vascular regression during the early stages of a murine model of proliferative retinopathy. PMID:26631482

  11. A case for critical ethnography: rethinking the early years of the AIDS epidemic in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fassin, Didier

    2013-12-01

    The epidemic of AIDS in South Africa has been characterized not only by its rapid progression but also its impassioned controversies. Retrospectively examining a long-term anthropological project and discussing some reactions it elicited, the paper proposes a defense and illustration of a critical ethnography at three moments of the research. Ethnography is first discussed as fieldworks, proposing an alternative to the horizontal multi-sited approach via a vertical multi-layered method using various scales and locations, and thus connecting the disease endured by patients in townships and former homelands with the heated debates in scientific and political forums: this procedure substitutes a political economy of the disease for its cultural and behavioral interpretations. Ethnography is then discussed as writing, suggesting acknowledgment of the social intelligence of the agents as well as the need for a scientific distance: this principle allows the articulation of the objective historical condition of the individuals and their subjective experience of history, both revealed in the development of the epidemic. Ultimately ethnography is considered from the perspective of its afterlife, that is, the continuous process of its translation by readers and commentators, on the one hand, by the author trying to reach beyond the boundaries of the academic realm, on the other, the work of anthropology appearing as a living object open to public conversation and consequently a resource for knowledge and action. PMID:23973002

  12. Myocardial strain estimation from CT: towards computer-aided diagnosis on infarction identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ken C. L.; Tee, Michael; Chen, Marcus; Bluemke, David A.; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    Regional myocardial strains have the potential for early quantification and detection of cardiac dysfunctions. Although image modalities such as tagged and strain-encoded MRI can provide motion information of the myocardium, they are uncommon in clinical routine. In contrary, cardiac CT images are usually available, but they only provide motion information at salient features such as the cardiac boundaries. To estimate myocardial strains from a CT image sequence, we adopted a cardiac biomechanical model with hyperelastic material properties to relate the motion on the cardiac boundaries to the myocardial deformation. The frame-to-frame displacements of the cardiac boundaries are obtained using B-spline deformable image registration based on mutual information, which are enforced as boundary conditions to the biomechanical model. The system equation is solved by the finite element method to provide the dense displacement field of the myocardium, and the regional values of the three principal strains and the six strains in cylindrical coordinates are computed in terms of the American Heart Association nomenclature. To study the potential of the estimated regional strains on identifying myocardial infarction, experiments were performed on cardiac CT image sequences of ten canines with artificially induced myocardial infarctions. The leave-one-subject-out cross validations show that, by using the optimal strain magnitude thresholds computed from ROC curves, the radial strain and the first principal strain have the best performance.

  13. 32 CFR 643.22 - Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Public safety: Requirement for early... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.22 Policy—Public safety: Requirement for early identification of lands containing dangerous materials. (a) DA...

  14. Role of the dental surgeon in the early detection of adults with underlying HIV infection / AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Jorge; del Romero, Jorge; Hernando, Victoria; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    A review is made of the late diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, a subject of growing interest in public health. It has been estimated that in Europe 30% of all HIV-infected people are unaware of their seropositive condition, and this in turn is associated with a poorer long-term disease prognosis and an increased risk of transmission to other individuals. The role of the dental surgeon in this context could be of great importance, since there are many oral lesions that can suggest the existence of underlying infection. The study also addresses the controversial subject of rapid HIV testing, and whether these tests should be performed on a routine basis in the dental clinic, or whether it is preferable to refer the patient to a specialized center. Key words:HIV in Spain, HIV screening, early diagnosis. PMID:22143719

  15. Stop PC-aids from spreading through your PC—An early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uniyal, Parashu R.; Manglik, A.

    1993-02-01

    A new software system is presented that runs in an IBM PC/DOS environment immediately after the booting up stage, and provides an effective early warning of an infection by a virus. The system identifies all the users of a PC by their names, passwords, and booking codes. An authentication program performs characteristic diagnostic tests for the presence of boot and file viruses in addition to ensuring that access is provided only to authorized users. A record of login-logout times and results of viral diagnostics is appended to a log file. If there was a viral infection during a user session, access is denied at the time of next login with a display of the report on the last session. Thus corrective measures are prompted not only on the infected fixed disk, but also on that unwary user's floppies. The system includes programs that facilitate recovery from infection by viruses that are unknown to existing commercial scanners and therapy programs at an installation. The system has been effective in keeping the size of the virus epidemic under control at an installation with a minimum sacrifice of the comforts that a PC/DOS combination offers.

  16. 76 FR 30951 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Non-Competitive One-Time Program Expansion Supplement Award of Ryan White HIV/AIDS.../AIDS Program, Part C funds to the Tutwiler Clinic, Tutwiler, Mississippi, to support...

  17. 75 FR 73110 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of a non-competitive one-time replacement award from Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C... replacement award to support comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS,...

  18. 77 FR 57096 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, including primary adult HIV medical care, adult... the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program through a contractual agreement with the Comprehensive Care...

  19. 75 FR 28263 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS... with HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing, oral health care, outpatient mental... providing services after March 31, 2010. HRSA's HIV/AIDS Bureau identified the Rural Health Group as...

  20. 75 FR 54898 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA... The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program to support comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing, oral health care, outpatient...

  1. Young Children, HIV/AIDS and Gender: A Summary Review. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development. Young Children and HIV/AIDS Sub-Series, No. 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia; Brixen, Farhana Farook

    2006-01-01

    Studies point to the existence of a global HIV/AIDS emergency among young people. An estimated 6,000 youths a day become infected, an average of one new infection every 14 seconds. The most socially and economically disadvantaged young people appear to be especially at risk of infection, and young women in developing contexts are at the greatest…

  2. HIV/AIDS: What about Very Young Children? Working Papers in Early Childhood Development. Young Children and HIV/AIDS Sub-Series, No. 35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Alison

    2005-01-01

    The research reviewed and the current responses identified in this paper show that at local, national and international levels there are gaps in programming and policy to engage ideas and mobilise resources to address the needs and experiences of very young children infected/affected by HIV and AIDS. Chapter one identifies some key areas where the…

  3. The alternative complement pathway aids in vascular regression during the early stages of a murine model of proliferative retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Clifford; Smith, Kaylee E; Castillejos, Alexandra; Diaz-Aguilar, Daniel; Saint-Geniez, Magali; Connor, Kip M

    2016-03-01

    Proliferative retinopathic diseases often progress in 2 phases: initial regression of retinal vasculature (phase 1) followed by subsequent neovascularization (NV) (phase 2). The immune system has been shown to aid in vascular pruning in such retinopathies; however, little is known about the role of the alternative complement pathway in the initial vascular regression phase. Using a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), we observed that alternative complement pathway-deficient mice (Fb(-/-)) exhibited a mild decrease in vascular loss at postnatal day (P)8 compared with age- and strain-matched controls (P = 0.035). Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate the retinal blood vessels. Expression of the complement inhibitors Cd55 and Cd59 was significantly decreased in blood vessels isolated from hyperoxic retinas compared with those from normoxic control mice. Vegf expression was measured at P8 and found to be significantly lower in OIR mice than in normoxic control mice (P = 0.0048). Further examination of specific Vegf isoform expression revealed a significant decrease in Vegf120 (P = 0.00032) and Vegf188 (P = 0.0092). In conjunction with the major modulating effects of Vegf during early retinal vascular development, our data suggest a modest involvement of the alternative complement pathway in targeting vessels for regression in the initial vaso-obliteration stage of OIR. PMID:26631482

  4. Identification of Acoustically Similar and Dissimilar Vowels in Profoundly Deaf Adults Who Use Hearing Aids and/or Cochlear Implants: Some Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia J.; Peterson, Nathaniel R.; Rosado, Christian A.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined the effects of aging and residual hearing on the identification of acoustically similar and dissimilar vowels in adults with postlingual deafness who use hearing aids (HAs) and/or cochlear implants (CIs). Method The authors used two groups of acoustically similar and dissimilar vowels to assess vowel identification. Also, the Consonant–Nucleus–Consonant Word Recognition Test (Peterson & Lehiste, 1962) and sentences from the Hearing in Noise Test (Nilsson, Soli, & Sullivan, 1994) were administered. Forty CI recipients with postlingual deafness (ages 31–81 years) participated in the study. Results Acoustically similar vowels were more difficult to identify than acoustically dissimilar vowels. With increasing age, performance deteriorated when identifying acoustically similar vowels. Vowel identification was also affected by the use of a contralateral HA and the degree of residual hearing prior to implantation. Moderate correlations were found between speech perception and vowel identification performance. Conclusions Identification performance was affected by the acoustic similarity of the vowels. Older adults experienced more difficulty identifying acoustically similar confusable vowels than did younger adults. The findings might lend support to the ease of language understanding model (Ronnberg, Rudner, Foo, & Lunner, 2008), which proposes that the quality and perceptual robustness of acoustic input affects speech perception. PMID:23824440

  5. A Clinical Algorithm for Early Identification and Intervention of Cervical Muscular Torticollis.

    PubMed

    Nichter, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a common newborn pediatric muscular deformity of the neck. The purpose of this article is to suggest a clinical algorithm for pediatric clinicians to promote prompt identification and intervention for infants with CMT. Early intervention for a child with CMT at less than 1 month of age yields a 98% success rate by 2.5 months of age, with the infant achieving near normal range of motion. Intervention initiated at 6 months of age or later can require 9 to 10 months of therapy with less success in achieving full range of motion of the cervical musculature. The clinical algorithm proposed here incorporates the American Physical Therapy Association guideline for CMT to optimize outcomes for the child and reduce health care expenditures. Current evidence and guidelines demonstrate that primary care providers are the primary diagnostic clinicians, while physical therapists are the preferred provider for the treatment of CMT. PMID:26307184

  6. Gene Expression Analysis for the Identification of Genes Involved in Early Tumour Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, Stefano; Scarpulla, Salvatore; Lagana, Alessandro; Memeo, Lorenzo; Gulisano, Massimo

    Prostatic tissues can undergo to cancer insurgence and prostate cancer is one of the most common types of malignancies affecting adult men in the United States. Primary adenocarcinoma of the seminal vesi-cles (SVCA) is a very rare neoplasm with only 48 histologically confirmed cases reported in the European and United States literature. Prostatic tissues, seminal vesicles and epididymis belongs all to the same microenvironment, shows a very close morphology and share the same embryological origin. Despite these common features the rate of cancer occurrence is very different. The understanding of molecular differences between non neoplastic prostatic tissues and non neoplastic epididymis or seminal vesicles may suggest potential mechanisms of resistance to tumour occurrence. The comparison of expression patterns of non neoplastic prostatic and seminal vesicles tissues to identify differentially expressed genes can help researchers in the identification of biological actors involved in the early stages of the tumour development.

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) Scanning Facilitates Early Identification of Neonatal Cystic Fibrosis Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Antoine; Chevaleyre, Claire; Barc, Celine; Berri, Mustapha; Adriaensen, Hans; Lecompte, François; Villemagne, Thierry; Pezant, Jérémy; Delaunay, Rémi; Moënne-Loccoz, Joseph; Berthon, Patricia; Bähr, Andrea; Wolf, Eckhard; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Attucci, Sylvie; Ramphal, Reuben; Sarradin, Pierre; Buzoni-Gatel, Dominique; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Caballero, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most prevalent autosomal recessive disease in the Caucasian population. A cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout (CFTR-/-) pig that displays most of the features of the human CF disease has been recently developed. However, CFTR-/- pigs presents a 100% prevalence of meconium ileus that leads to death in the first hours after birth, requiring a rapid diagnosis and surgical intervention to relieve intestinal obstruction. Identification of CFTR-/- piglets is usually performed by PCR genotyping, a procedure that lasts between 4 to 6 h. Here, we aimed to develop a procedure for rapid identification of CFTR-/- piglets that will allow placing them under intensive care soon after birth and immediately proceeding with the surgical correction. Methods and Principal Findings Male and female CFTR+/- pigs were crossed and the progeny was examined by computed tomography (CT) scan to detect the presence of meconium ileus and facilitate a rapid post-natal surgical intervention. Genotype was confirmed by PCR. CT scan presented a 94.4% sensitivity to diagnose CFTR-/- piglets. Diagnosis by CT scan reduced the birth-to-surgery time from a minimum of 10 h down to a minimum of 2.5 h and increased the survival of CFTR-/- piglets to a maximum of 13 days post-surgery as opposed to just 66 h after later surgery. Conclusion CT scan imaging of meconium ileus is an accurate method for rapid identification of CFTR-/- piglets. Early CT detection of meconium ileus may help to extend the lifespan of CFTR-/- piglets and, thus, improve experimental research on CF, still an incurable disease. PMID:26600426

  8. An Early Warning System for Identification and Monitoring of Disturbances to Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Mills, R. T.

    2011-12-01

    Forest ecosystems are susceptible to damage due to threat events like wildfires, insect and disease attacks, extreme weather events, land use change, and long-term climate change. Early identification of such events is desired to devise and implement a protective response. The mission of the USDA Forest Service is to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the nation's forests. However, limited resources for aerial surveys and ground-based inspections are insufficient for monitoring the large areas covered by the U.S. forests. The USDA Forest Service, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and NASA Stennis Space Center are developing an early warning system for the continuous tracking and long-term monitoring of disturbances and responses in forest ecosystems using high resolution satellite remote sensing data. Geospatiotemporal data mining techniques were developed and applied to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) products derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD 13 data at 250 m resolution on eight day intervals. Representative phenologically similar regions, or phenoregions, were developed for the conterminous United States (CONUS) by applying a k-means clustering algorithm to the NDVI data spanning the full eight years of the MODIS record. Annual changes in the phenoregions were quantitatively analyzed to identify the significant changes in phenological behavior. This methodology was successfully applied for identification of various forest disturbance events, including wildfire, tree mortality due to Mountain Pine Beetle, and other insect infestation and diseases, as well as extreme events like storms and hurricanes in the United States. Where possible, the results were validated and quantitatively compared with aerial and ground-based survey data available from different agencies. This system was able to identify most of the disturbances reported by aerial and ground-based surveys, and it also identified

  9. Early identification and intervention services for children with autism in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Cong, Tran; Weiss, Bahr; Toan, Khuc Nang; Le Thu, Tran Thi; Trang, Nguyen Thi Nha; Hoa, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thuy, Dao Thi Thu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In high income countries in Europe and North America, early identification and intervention for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been linked to improved long-term outcomes. However, in most low and middle income countries (LMIC) little is known about use or availability of such services, which limits the ability of policy and development planning. The purpose of the present study was assess the use of ASD services in Vietnam, an Asian LMIC, in order to identify areas within the field that should be specifically targeted to improve ASD services in Vietnam. METHODS Surveys were conducted in six different cities across Vietnam with 90 parents/caregivers of children with ASD, 115 professionals working with children with ASD, and 10 directors of agencies providing ASD services. Parents/caregivers’ survey assessed demographics and information regarding their child’s symptoms and services the child received. Professionals’ survey assessed their demographic and professional background, the ASD services they provide, and their perspective on the quality of ASD services at their agency. Directors’ survey included these same questions as well as additional questions regarding the operation of the agency. RESULTS Early identification and intervention ASD services are available in Vietnam, at least in major cities. However, there is a lack of well-trained professionals, the tools used for evaluation and diagnosis are limited, outdated and unstandardized, and the quality of services is questionable. Most importantly, a scientific evidence base for services is absent, and the country lacks an official governmental policy for supporting children with ASD. CONCLUSIONS Research directly assessing the quality of ASD services in Vietnam is needed. Most centrally, efforts at facilitating governmental policy and support advocacy are needed to increase the likelihood that families and children with ASD will receive appropriate and effective services. PMID:27088123

  10. Early Commitment on Financial Aid and College Decision Making of Poor Students: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Wang, Xiaobing; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian; Adams, Jennifer; Shi, Yaojiang; Yue, Ai; Li, Hongbin; Glauben, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Many educational systems have struggled with the question about how best to give out financial aid. In particular, if students do not know the amount of financial aid that they can receive before they make a decision about where to go to college and what major to study, it may distort their decision. This study utilizes an experiment (implemented…

  11. Proteomic identification of early salicylate- and flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pei; Zhang, Huoming; Yu, Boying; Xiong, Liming; Xia, Yiji

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the early defense responses against pathogen infection in plants. The mechanism about the initial and direct regulation of the defense signaling pathway by ROS remains elusive. Perturbation of cellular redox homeostasis by ROS is believed to alter functions of redox-sensitive proteins through their oxidative modifications. Here we report an OxiTRAQ-based proteomic study in identifying proteins whose cysteines underwent oxidative modifications in Arabidopsis cells during the early response to salicylate or flg22, two defense pathway elicitors that are known to disturb cellular redox homeostasis. Among the salicylate- and/or flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins are those involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodeling, RNA processing, post-translational modifications, and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. The identification of the salicylate-/flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins provides a foundation from which further study can be conducted toward understanding biological significance of their oxidative modifications during the plant defense response. PMID:25720653

  12. Supernova 2012ec: identification of the progenitor and early monitoring with PESSTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maund, J. R.; Fraser, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Botticella, M. T.; Barbarino, C.; Childress, M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Inserra, C.; Pignata, G.; Reichart, D.; Schmidt, B.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Tomasella, L.; Valenti, S.; Yaron, O.

    2013-04-01

    We present the identification of the progenitor of the Type IIP SN 2012ec in archival pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel F814W images. The properties of the progenitor are further constrained by non-detections in pre-explosion WFPC2 F450W and F606W images. We report a series of early photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2012ec. The r'-band light curve shows a plateau with M_{r^' }}=-17.0. The early spectrum is similar to the Type IIP SN 1999em, with the expansion velocity measured at Hα absorption minimum of -11 700 km s-1 (at 1 d post-discovery). The photometric and spectroscopic evolution of SN 2012ec shows it to be a Type IIP SN, discovered only a few days post-explosion (<6 d). We derive a luminosity for the progenitor, in comparison with MARCS model spectral energy distributions, of log {L/L}_{⊙} = 5.15± 0.19, from which we infer an initial mass range of 14-22 M⊙. This is the first SN with an identified progenitor to be followed by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO).

  13. Assessment of quality of life in early stage HIV-infected persons: data from the AIDS Time-oriented Health Outcome Study (ATHOS).

    PubMed

    Lubeck, D P; Fries, J F

    1997-08-01

    The development of new pharmaceutical interventions for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has resulted in extended survival and a need for valid, reliable and responsive instruments to assess health-related QoL (HRQoL). This paper reviews the reliability and validity of an HRQoL instrument, the AIDS Health Assessment Questionnaire (AIDS-HAQ), among persons participating in an observational database of HIV infection. The AIDS-HAQ includes nine subscales: disability, energy, general health, pain, cognitive functioning, mental health, social functioning, health distress and symptoms. Individuals complete the AIDS-HAQ quarterly. Data are reported for 440 individuals entering the study with early HIV infection. Fifty-nine progressed to symptomatic disease and 109 to AIDS after 1 year. The subscales of the instrument resulted in high internal consistency reliability (range = 0.79-0.88). Concurrent validity data reflected the ability to distinguish between patients with increasing disease severity. In all domains, except cognitive functioning, individuals who progressed to AIDS had significant decrements (p < 0.01) in HRQoL compared with symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Significant decrements (p < 0.01) were observed for disability, general health, energy and symptoms for patients who progressed to symptomatic disease from an asymptomatic status. Individuals who had decreasing CD4+ counts also had significant declines (p < 0.001) in disability, general health, social functioning, pain and symptoms. The AIDS-HAQ is an instrument that can be used when comparing group differences and within group changes in observational databases, naturalistic studies and clinical trials. PMID:9330550

  14. Children Placed at Risk for Learning and Behavioral Difficulties: Implementing a School-Wide System of Early Identification and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Tam E.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Gresham, Frank M.; Beebe-Frankenberger, Margaret E.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a school-wide system of early identification and intervention for children recognized as being at risk for learning and behavior difficulties. Suggested guidelines for implementing such a program include: evaluating existing theory, knowledge, and practice; providing ongoing professional development; creating a school-wide…

  15. First S.T.E.P.: A Model for the Early Identification of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Koegel, Robert L.; Nefdt, Nicolette; Fredeen, Rosy; Klein, Eileen F.; Bruinsma, Yvonne E. M.

    2005-01-01

    Even though children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be reliably identified by autism experts at 18 months, and the majority of parents report symptoms before age 2, the average age of diagnosis for children with autism in the United States is 3 to 4 years of age. Early identification is especially vital given the growing amount of…

  16. Improving the Efficacy of First Grade Reading Screening: An Investigation of Word Identification Fluency with Other Early Literacy Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Nathan H.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of several early literacy measures that have been used in research and practice for first grade reading screening. A set of measures, Word Identification Fluency (WIF), Letter Naming Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency, and Nonsense Word Fluency, were administered as screening measures with 138 first grade…

  17. Early Identification of Delinquency Prone Youth. The Eau Claire County Youth Study, Phase IV, 1969-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhusen, John F.; And Others

    Procedures for early identification of delinquency-prone youth in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin, are described in this report of a 1961-1972 study designed to delineate the problems of aggressive and disruptive classroom behavior as related to delinquency. Data collection began in 1961, when each 3rd-, 6th-, and 9th-grade teacher in Eau Claire…

  18. Early Identification and Systemic Educational Intervention for Young Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandau, Hannes; Pretis, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the international experience with early identification and intervention for children with AD/HD. Much less is known about AD/HD in two- to five-year-old preschool children than is known for older school-aged youngsters. Despite this lack of knowledge, AD/HD is increasingly recognized in this population and stimulant…

  19. The master hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

    2013-06-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  20. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  1. Identification of inflections in T-cell counts among HIV-1-infected individuals and relationship with progression to clinical AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Gange, Stephen J.; Muñoz, Alvaro; Chmiel, Joan S.; Donnenberg, Albert D.; Kirstein, Lynn M.; Detels, Roger; Margolick, Joseph B.

    1998-01-01

    Studies of circulating T (CD3+) lymphocytes have shown that on a population basis T-cell numbers remain stable for many years after HIV-1 infection (blind T-cell homeostasis), but decline rapidly beginning approximately 1.5–2.5 years before the onset of clinical AIDS. We derived a general method for defining the loss of homeostasis on the individual level and for determining the prevalence of homeostasis loss according to HIV status and the occurrence of AIDS in more than 5,000 men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. We used a segmented regression model for log10 CD3+ cell counts that included separate T-cell trajectories before and after a time (the T-cell inflection point) where the loss of T-cell homeostasis was most likely to have occurred. The average slope of CD3+ lymphocyte counts before the inflection point was close to zero for HIV− and HIV+ men, consistent with blind T-cell homeostasis. After the inflection point, the HIV+ individuals who developed AIDS generally showed a dramatic decline in CD3+ cell counts relative to HIV− men and HIV+ men not developing AIDS. A CD3+ cell decline of greater than 10 percent per year was present in 77% of HIV+ men developing AIDS but in only 23% of HIV+ men with no onset of AIDS. Our findings at the individual level support the blind T-cell homeostasis hypothesis and provide strong evidence that the loss of homeostasis is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of the severe immunodeficiency that characterizes the late stages of HIV infection. PMID:9724793

  2. Proteomic profiling of cellulase-aid-extracted membrane proteins for functional identification of cellulose synthase complexes and their potential associated- components in cotton fibers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ao; Wang, Ruyi; Li, Xianliang; Liu, Mingyong; Fan, Jian; Guo, Kai; Luo, Bing; Chen, Tingting; Feng, Shengqiu; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Bingrui; Peng, Liangcai; Xia, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fibers are an excellent model for understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants. In this study, we determined a high cellulose biosynthesis activity in vitro by optimizing biochemical reaction conditions in cotton fibers. By adding a commercial cellulase enzyme into fibers extraction process, we extracted markedly higher levels of GhCESA1 and GhCESA8 proteins and observed an increase in β-1,4-glucan and β-1,3-glucan products in vitro. LC-MS/MS analysis of anti-GhCESA8-immunoprecipitated proteins showed that 19 proteins could be found in three independent experiments including four CESAs (GhCESA1,2,7,8), five well-known non-CESA proteins, one callose synthase (CALS) and nine novel proteins. Notably, upon the cellulase treatment, four CESAs, one CALS and four novel proteins were measured at relatively higher levels by calculating total peptide counts and distinct peptide numbers, indicating that the cellulase-aid-extracted proteins most likely contribute to the increase in β-glucan products in vitro. These results suggest that the cellulase treatment may aid to release active cellulose synthases complexes from growing glucan chains and make them more amenable to extraction. To our knowledge, it is the first time report about the functional identification of the potential proteins that were associated with plant cellulose and callose synthases complexes by using the cellulase-aided protein extraction. PMID:27192945

  3. Proteomic profiling of cellulase-aid-extracted membrane proteins for functional identification of cellulose synthase complexes and their potential associated- components in cotton fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ao; Wang, Ruyi; Li, Xianliang; Liu, Mingyong; Fan, Jian; Guo, Kai; Luo, Bing; Chen, Tingting; Feng, Shengqiu; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Bingrui; Peng, Liangcai; Xia, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fibers are an excellent model for understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants. In this study, we determined a high cellulose biosynthesis activity in vitro by optimizing biochemical reaction conditions in cotton fibers. By adding a commercial cellulase enzyme into fibers extraction process, we extracted markedly higher levels of GhCESA1 and GhCESA8 proteins and observed an increase in β-1,4-glucan and β-1,3-glucan products in vitro. LC-MS/MS analysis of anti-GhCESA8-immunoprecipitated proteins showed that 19 proteins could be found in three independent experiments including four CESAs (GhCESA1,2,7,8), five well-known non-CESA proteins, one callose synthase (CALS) and nine novel proteins. Notably, upon the cellulase treatment, four CESAs, one CALS and four novel proteins were measured at relatively higher levels by calculating total peptide counts and distinct peptide numbers, indicating that the cellulase-aid-extracted proteins most likely contribute to the increase in β-glucan products in vitro. These results suggest that the cellulase treatment may aid to release active cellulose synthases complexes from growing glucan chains and make them more amenable to extraction. To our knowledge, it is the first time report about the functional identification of the potential proteins that were associated with plant cellulose and callose synthases complexes by using the cellulase-aided protein extraction. PMID:27192945

  4. Optical elastic scattering for early label-free identification of clinical pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuer, Valentin; Gal, Olivier; Méteau, Jérémy; Marcoux, Pierre; Schultz, Emmanuelle; Lacot, Éric; Maurin, Max; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2016-03-01

    We report here on the ability of elastic light scattering in discriminating Gram+, Gram- and yeasts at an early stage of growth (6h). Our technique is non-invasive, low cost and does require neither skilled operators nor reagents. Therefore it is compatible with automation. It is based on the analysis of the scattering pattern (scatterogram) generated by a bacterial microcolony growing on agar, when placed in the path of a laser beam. Measurements are directly performed on closed Petri dishes. The characteristic features of a given scatterogram are first computed by projecting the pattern onto the Zernike orthogonal basis. Then the obtained data are compared to a database so that machine learning can yield identification result. A 10-fold cross-validation was performed on a database over 8 species (15 strains, 1906 scatterograms), at 6h of incubation. It yielded a 94% correct classification rate between Gram+, Gram- and yeasts. Results can be improved by using a more relevant function basis for projections, such as Fourier-Bessel functions. A fully integrated instrument has been installed at the Grenoble hospital's laboratory of bacteriology and a validation campaign has been started for the early screening of MSSA and MRSA (Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus) carriers. Up to now, all the published studies about elastic scattering were performed in a forward mode, which is restricted to transparent media. However, in clinical diagnostics, most of media are opaque, such as blood-supplemented agar. That is why we propose a novel scheme capable of collecting back-scattered light which provides comparable results.

  5. A Model for the Early Identification of Sources of Airborne Pathogens in an Outdoor Environment

    PubMed Central

    van Leuken, Jeroen P. G.; Havelaar, Arie H.; van der Hoek, Wim; Ladbury, Georgia A. F.; Hackert, Volker H.; Swart, Arno N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Source identification in areas with outbreaks of airborne pathogens is often time-consuming and expensive. We developed a model to identify the most likely location of sources of airborne pathogens. Methods As a case study, we retrospectively analyzed three Q fever outbreaks in the Netherlands in 2009, each with suspected exposure from a single large dairy goat farm. Model input consisted only of case residential addresses, day of first clinical symptoms, and human population density data. We defined a spatial grid and fitted an exponentially declining function to the incidence-distance data of each grid point. For any grid point with a fit significant at the 95% confidence level, we calculated a measure of risk. For validation, we used results from abortion notifications, voluntary (2008) and mandatory (2009) bulk tank milk sampling at large (i.e. >50 goats and/or sheep) dairy farms, and non-systematic vaginal swab sampling at large and small dairy and non-dairy goat/sheep farms. In addition, we performed a two-source simulation study. Results Hotspots – areas most likely to contain the actual source – were identified at early outbreak stages, based on the earliest 2–10% of the case notifications. Distances between the hotspots and suspected goat farms varied from 300–1500 m. In regional likelihood rankings including all large dairy farms, the suspected goat farms consistently ranked first. The two-source simulation study showed that detection of sources is most clear if the distance between the sources is either relatively small or relatively large. Conclusions Our model identifies the most likely location of sources in an airborne pathogen outbreak area, even at early stages. It can help to reduce the number of potential sources to be investigated by microbial testing and to allow rapid implementation of interventions to limit the number of human infections and to reduce the risk of source-to-source transmission. PMID:24324598

  6. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience. PMID:23372547

  7. Fetal programming and early identification of newborns at high risk of free radical-mediated diseases

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Serafina; Santacroce, Antonino; Picardi, Anna; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays metabolic syndrome represents a real outbreak affecting society. Paradoxically, pediatricians must feel involved in fighting this condition because of the latest evidences of developmental origins of adult diseases. Fetal programming occurs when the normal fetal development is disrupted by an abnormal insult applied to a critical point in intrauterine life. Placenta assumes a pivotal role in programming the fetal experience in utero due to the adaptive changes in structure and function. Pregnancy complications such as diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, and hypoxia are associated with placental dysfunction and programming. Many experimental studies have been conducted to explain the phenotypic consequences of fetal-placental perturbations that predispose to the genesis of metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In recent years, elucidating the mechanisms involved in such kind of process has become the challenge of scientific research. Oxidative stress may be the general underlying mechanism that links altered placental function to fetal programming. Maternal diabetes, prenatal hypoxic/ischaemic events, inflammatory/infective insults are specific triggers for an acute increase in free radicals generation. Early identification of fetuses and newborns at high risk of oxidative damage may be crucial to decrease infant and adult morbidity. PMID:27170927

  8. Fetal programming and early identification of newborns at high risk of free radical-mediated diseases.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Serafina; Santacroce, Antonino; Picardi, Anna; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays metabolic syndrome represents a real outbreak affecting society. Paradoxically, pediatricians must feel involved in fighting this condition because of the latest evidences of developmental origins of adult diseases. Fetal programming occurs when the normal fetal development is disrupted by an abnormal insult applied to a critical point in intrauterine life. Placenta assumes a pivotal role in programming the fetal experience in utero due to the adaptive changes in structure and function. Pregnancy complications such as diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, and hypoxia are associated with placental dysfunction and programming. Many experimental studies have been conducted to explain the phenotypic consequences of fetal-placental perturbations that predispose to the genesis of metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In recent years, elucidating the mechanisms involved in such kind of process has become the challenge of scientific research. Oxidative stress may be the general underlying mechanism that links altered placental function to fetal programming. Maternal diabetes, prenatal hypoxic/ischaemic events, inflammatory/infective insults are specific triggers for an acute increase in free radicals generation. Early identification of fetuses and newborns at high risk of oxidative damage may be crucial to decrease infant and adult morbidity. PMID:27170927

  9. Host Fish Identification and Early Life Thermal Requirements for the Federal Endangered Winged Mapleleaf Mussel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steingraeber, Mark; Newton, Teresa J.

    2005-01-01

    The winged mapleleaf mussel (Quadrula fragosa, WML) is a Federal endangered species historically inhabiting at least 34 river systems in 12 Midwestern states. Only four populations are currently known to exist, including one confirmed reproducing population in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway (NSR) bordering Minnesota and Wisconsin. Recovery efforts are limited by a lack of life history information, particularly which species of fish serve as host to the mussel's parasitic larvae (glochidia). Since 1997, biologists at the University of Minnesota have tried to identify host fish for the WML. Department of the Interior colleagues working in western Wisconsin at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's La Crosse Fishery Resources Office and Genoa National Fish Hatchery, the National Park Service's St. Croix NSR, and the U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) in La Crosse joined the team in 2001 to expand and accelerate the laboratory host fish identification program by making use of the well-equipped aquatic research facilities at UMESC. We report on several WML early life history investigations conducted at UMESC since autumn 2003 to identify suitable host fish species and evaluate thermal requisites for the development of glochidia into free-living juvenile mussels.

  10. Age-Related Declines in Early Sensory Memory: Identification of Rapid Auditory and Visual Stimulus Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fogerty, Daniel; Humes, Larry E.; Busey, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related temporal-processing declines of rapidly presented sequences may involve contributions of sensory memory. This study investigated recall for rapidly presented auditory (vowel) and visual (letter) sequences presented at six different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) that spanned threshold SOAs for sequence identification. Younger, middle-aged, and older adults participated in all tasks. Results were investigated at both equivalent performance levels (i.e., SOA threshold) and at identical physical stimulus values (i.e., SOAs). For four-item sequences, results demonstrated best performance for the first and last items in the auditory sequences, but only the first item for visual sequences. For two-item sequences, adults identified the second vowel or letter significantly better than the first. Overall, when temporal-order performance was equated for each individual by testing at SOA thresholds, recall accuracy for each position across the age groups was highly similar. These results suggest that modality-specific processing declines of older adults primarily determine temporal-order performance for rapid sequences. However, there is some evidence for a second amodal processing decline in older adults related to early sensory memory for final items in a sequence. This selective deficit was observed particularly for longer sequence lengths and was not accounted for by temporal masking. PMID:27199737

  11. The early identification of dyslexia: children with English as an additional language.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Jane M; Whiteley, Helen E; Smith, Chris D; Connors, Liz

    2004-08-01

    It is generally accepted that dyslexia should be identified early for interventions to have maximum effect. However, when children speak English as an additional language (EAL), diagnosis is more complex and there is concern that these children tend to be under-identified. This paper reports a longitudinal study following the development of phonological awareness skills in relation to progress in learning to read with a cohort of British Asian children learning EAL and their monolingual peers. It also sought to determine the usefulness of a measure of phonological skills for the identification of dyslexic-type difficulties in children learning EAL. Analysis revealed that both cohorts achieved similar levels of reading accuracy in school Years 2, 4 and 6, with higher levels of reading comprehension for the monolingual children and faster reading fluency for children learning EAL in each school year. There was a similar pattern of relationships between the reading measures and measures of phonological awareness for both groups of children. However, monolingual children achieved higher levels of rhyme detection and alliteration fluency whilst the children learning EAL achieved faster number naming times. Overall, a phonological assessment battery was useful in identifying reading accuracy related difficulties in both groups of children. However, concerns are raised about the sensitivity of such measures following the introduction of the Literacy Hour. PMID:15341197

  12. Taxonomy for Strengthening the Identification of Core Elements for Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for HIV/AIDS Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.; Whittier, David K.; Jones, Patricia L.; Smith, Bryce D.; Uhl, Gary; Fisher, Holly H.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of core elements was developed to denote characteristics of an intervention, such as activities or delivery methods, presumed to be responsible for the efficacy of evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBIs) for HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper describes the development of a taxonomy of core elements based on a literature review of…

  13. Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Adding Visual Cues to Auditory Speech Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context. PMID:27317667

  14. Early & Often: Designing a Comprehensive System of Financial Aid Information. A Report of the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Students and parents need ample time and accurate information to prepare for the financial burden of a college education--those who lack this knowledge base face a significant access barrier to higher education. This problem can be countered by the delivery of comprehensive, integrated financial aid information, an approach identified by the…

  15. ASSISTANT TEACHERS AND TEACHERS' AIDES--TRAINING AND ROLES OF AUXILIARY PERSONNEL FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOODALE, EUNICE C.; WEISZ, VERA C.

    THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER'S AIDE IN THE CLASSROOM HAS OFTEN BEEN DEFINED AS THAT OF A HELPER WITH ROUTINE DUTIES. WHEN PROPERLY PREPARED, HOWEVER, SUCH AUXILIARY PERSONNEL CAN ACTIVELY PARTICIPATE IN THE TEACHING-LEARNING SITUATION. THE TEACHER ASSISTANT PERFORMS MANY OF THE SAME DUTIES AS THE HEAD TEACHER BUT IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR THE OVERALL…

  16. Family Routines and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors among Early and Middle Adolescents Affected by Maternal HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Marelich, William D.; Herbeck, Diane M.; Payne, Diana L.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of parenting skills on adolescent outcomes among children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS (N = 118, M age = 13) was investigated. Among families with more frequent family routines, over time adolescents showed lower rates of aggression, anxiety, worry, depression, conduct disorder, binge drinking, and increased self-concept. Among…

  17. SIV Encephalitis Lesions Are Composed of CD163+ Macrophages Present in the Central Nervous System during Early SIV Infection and SIV-Positive Macrophages Recruited Terminally with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Nowlin, Brian T.; Burdo, Tricia H.; Midkiff, Cecily C.; Salemi, Marco; Alvarez, Xavier; Williams, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage recruitment to the central nervous system (CNS) during AIDS pathogenesis is poorly understood. We measured the accumulation of brain perivascular (CD163+) and inflammatory (MAC387+) macrophages in SIV-infected monkeys. Monocyte progenitors were 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeled in bone marrow, and CNS macrophages were labeled serially with fluorescent dextrans injected into the cisterna magna. MAC387+ macrophages accumulated in the meninges and choroid plexus in early inflammation and in the perivascular space and SIV encephalitis (SIVE) lesions late. CD163+ macrophages accumulated in the perivascular space and SIVE lesions with late inflammation. Most of the BrdU+ cells were MAC387+; however, CD163+BrdU+ macrophages were present in the meninges and choroid plexus with AIDS. Most (81.6% ± 1.8%) of macrophages in SIVE lesions were present in the CNS before SIVE lesion formation. There was a 2.9-fold increase in SIVp28+ macrophages entering the CNS late compared with those entering early (P < 0.05). The rate of CD163+ macrophage recruitment to the CNS inversely correlated with time to death (P < 0.03) and increased with SIVE. In SIVE animals, soluble CD163 correlated with CD163+ macrophage recruitment (P = 0.02). Most perivascular macrophages that comprise SIVE lesions and multinucleated giant cells are present in the CNS early, before SIVE lesions are formed. Most SIV-infected macrophages traffic to the CNS terminally with AIDS. PMID:25963554

  18. Critique of early models of the demographic impact of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa based on contemporary empirical data from Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Gregson, Simon; Nyamukapa, Constance; Lopman, Ben; Mushati, Phyllis; Garnett, Geoffrey P.; Chandiwana, Stephen K.; Anderson, Roy M.

    2007-01-01

    Early mathematical models varied in their predictions of the impact of HIV/AIDS on population growth from minimal impact to reductions in growth, in pessimistic scenarios, from positive to negative values over a period of 25 years. Models predicting negative rates of natural increase forecast little effect on the dependency ratio. Twenty years later, HIV prevalence in small towns, estates, and rural villages in eastern Zimbabwe, has peaked within the intermediate range predicted by the early models, but the demographic impact has been more acute than was predicted. Despite concurrent declines in fertility, fueled in part by HIV infections (total fertility is now 8% lower than expected without an epidemic), and a doubling of the crude death rate because of HIV/AIDS, the rate of natural population increase between 1998 and 2005 remained positive in each socioeconomic stratum. In the worst-affected areas (towns with HIV prevalence of 33%), HIV/AIDS reduced growth by two-thirds from 2.9% to 1.0%. The dependency ratio fell from 1.21 at the onset of the HIV epidemic to 0.78, the impact of HIV-associated adult mortality being outweighed by fertility decline. With the benefit of hindsight, the more pessimistic early models overestimated the demographic impact of HIV epidemics by overextrapolating initial HIV growth rates or not allowing for heterogeneity in key parameters such as transmissibility and sexual risk behavior. Data collected since the late 1980s show that there was a mismatch between the observed growth in the HIV epidemic and assumptions made about viral transmission. PMID:17761795

  19. Health, ED use, and early identification of young children exposed to trauma

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Yvonne Humenay; Huang, Cindy Y.; Crusto, Cindy A.; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood trauma is an important public health problem with financial, physical health, and mental health repercussions. Emergency Departments are often the first point of contact for many young children affected by emotionally or psychologically traumatic events (e.g., neglect, separation from primary caregiver, maltreatment, witness to domestic violence within the family, natural disasters). Study Objectives Describe the prevalence of physical health symptoms, ED use and health related problems in young children (birth through 5 years) affected by trauma, and to predict whether or not children experiencing trauma are more likely to be affected by health related problems. Methods Community-based, cross-sectional survey of 208 young children. Traumatic events were assessed by the Traumatic Events Screening Inventory – Parent Report Revised. Child health symptoms and health related problems were measured using the Caregiver Information Questionnaire, developed by ORC Macro. Results Seventy-two percent of children had experienced at least one type of traumatic event. Children exposed to trauma were also experiencing recent health related events, including visits to the ED (32.2%) and the doctor (76.9%) for physical health symptoms, and recurring physical health problems (40.4%). Children previously exposed to high levels of trauma (4 or more types of events) were 2.9 times more likely to report having had recently visited the ED for health purposes. Conclusions Preventing recurrent trauma or recognizing early trauma exposure is difficult but essential if long-term negative consequences are to be mitigated or prevented. Within emergency departments, there are missed opportunities for identification and intervention for trauma-exposed children, as well as great potential for expanding primary and secondary prevention of maltreatment-associated illness, injury and mortality. PMID:24565881

  20. Transcript profiling and identification of molecular markers for early microspore embryogenesis in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Malik, Meghna R; Wang, Feng; Dirpaul, Joan M; Zhou, Ning; Polowick, Patricia L; Ferrie, Alison M R; Krochko, Joan E

    2007-05-01

    Isolated microspores of Brassica napus are developmentally programmed to form gametes; however, microspores can be reprogrammed through stress treatments to undergo appropriate divisions and form embryos. We are interested in the identification and isolation of factors and genes associated with the induction and establishment of embryogenesis in isolated microspores. Standard and normalized cDNA libraries, as well as subtractive cDNA libraries, were constructed from freshly isolated microspores (0 h) and microspores cultured for 3, 5, or 7 d under embryogenesis-inducing conditions. Library comparison tools were used to identify shifts in metabolism across this time course. Detailed expressed sequence tag analyses of 3 and 5 d cultures indicate that most sequences are related to pollen-specific genes. However, semiquantitative and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses at the initial stages of embryo induction also reveal expression of embryogenesis-related genes such as BABYBOOM1, LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), and LEC2 as early as 2 to 3 d of microspore culture. Sequencing results suggest that embryogenesis is clearly established in a subset of the microspores by 7 d of culture and that this time point is optimal for isolation of embryo-specific expressed sequence tags such as ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3, ATS1, LEC1, LEC2, and FUSCA3. Following extensive polymerase chain reaction-based expression profiling, 16 genes were identified as unequivocal molecular markers for microspore embryogenesis in B. napus. These molecular marker genes also show expression during zygotic embryogenesis, underscoring the common developmental pathways that function in zygotic and gametic embryogenesis. The quantitative expression values of several of these molecular marker genes are shown to be predictive of embryogenic potential in B. napus cultivars (e.g. 'Topas' DH4079, 'Allons,' 'Westar,' 'Garrison'). PMID:17384168

  1. Early identification of cervical neoplasia with Raman spectroscopy and advanced methods for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jess, Phillip R. T.; Smith, Daniel D. W.; Mazilu, Michael; Cormack, Iain; Riches, Andrew C.; Herrington, C. Simon; Dholakia, Kishan

    2008-02-01

    Early detection of malignant tumours, or their precursor lesions, can dramatically improve patient outcome. High risk human Papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV16, infection can lead to the initiation and development of uterine cervical neoplasia. Bearing this in mind the identification of the effects of HPV infection may have clinical value. In this manuscript we investigate the application of Raman microspectroscopy to detect the presence of HPV in cultured cells when compared with normal cells. We also investigate the effect of sample fixation, which is a common clinical practice, on the ability of Raman spectroscopy to detect the presence of HPV. Raman spectra were acquired from Primary Human Keratinocytes (PHK), PHK expressing the E7 gene of HPV 16 (PHK E7) and CaSki cells, an HPV16 containing cervical carcinoma derived cell line. The average Raman spectra display variations, mostly in peaks relating to DNA and proteins, consistent with HPV gene expression and the onset of neoplasia in both live and fixed samples. Principle component analysis was used to objectively discriminate between the cells types giving sensitivities up to 100% for the comparison between PHK and CaSki. These results show that Raman spectroscopy can discriminate between cell lines representing different stages of cervical neoplasia. Furthermore Raman spectroscopy was able to identify cells expressing the HPV 16 E7 gene suggesting the approach may be of value in clinical practice. Finally this technique was also able to detect the effects of the virus in fixed samples demonstrating the compatibility of this technique with current cervical screening methods. However if Raman spectroscopy is to make a significant impact in clinical practice the long acquisition times must be addressed. In this report we examine the potential for beam shaping and advanced to improve the signal to noise ration hence subsequently facilitating a reduction in acquisition time.

  2. Is re-creation of human identity possible using tooth prints? An experimental study to aid in identification.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Jadhav, Kiran; Ahmed Mujib, B R; Amberkar, Vikram S

    2009-11-20

    Enamel in teeth, as documented is the hardest substance in the entire human body. Tooth prints are the enamel rod end patterns on the tooth surface. Could this fact be a boon in utilizing it for an individual's identification in the hands of forensic experts? A study has been attempted towards the same. These tooth prints were recorded for 60 extracted tooth specimens after acid etching using a cellophane tape. Subsequently a digital image of the print was obtained which was subjected to biometric conversion using Verifinger standard SDK version 6.0 software followed by the use of Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) software for comparison of the tooth prints. In results we observed that tooth prints were composed of varied patterns and sub-patterns. A comparison was made between the tooth prints of different and the same individual and also between different classes of teeth (incisors, canines, premolars and molars). None of the patterns exhibited intra- and inter-individual similarity. Nor did any particular class of the tooth could be preferentially used over the other for an individual identification. This field demands a need for further exploration towards the use of tooth prints for establishing an individual's identity. PMID:19716244

  3. Identification of Stage-Specific Surface Markers in Early B Cell Development Provides Novel Tools for Identification of Progenitor Populations.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christina T; Lang, Stefan; Somasundaram, Rajesh; Soneji, Shamit; Sigvardsson, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    Whereas the characterization of B lymphoid progenitors has been facilitated by the identification of lineage- and stage-specific surface markers, the continued identification of differentially expressed proteins increases our capacity to explore normal and malignant B cell development. To identify novel surface markers with stage-specific expression patterns, we explored the reactivity of CD19(+) B cell progenitor cells to Abs targeted to 176 surface proteins. Markers with stage-specific expression were identified using a transgenic reporter gene system subdividing the B cell progenitors into four surface IgM(-) stages. This approach affirmed the utility of known stage-specific markers, as well as identifying additional proteins that selectively marked defined stages of B cell development. Among the stage-specific markers were the cell adhesion proteins CD49E, CD11A, and CD54 that are highly expressed selectively on the most immature progenitors. This work identifies a set of novel stage-specific surface markers that can be used as a complement to the classical staining protocols to explore B lymphocyte development. PMID:27456481

  4. Normalization of immunoregulatory T-helper T-suppressor sublineages and cell-mediated immunity by isoprinosine in vitro in the early stages of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Tsang, P; Bekesi, J G

    1987-01-01

    Applying flow cytometric analysis and a panel of monoclonal antibodies that define functional subsets and stages of lymphocyte differentiation, we found both inducer and suppressor regulating subsets of helper T cells to be depressed with concurrent increase in the functionally active effector suppressor T cells in prodromal homosexuals and patients with AIDS. Concomitantly a broad spectrum of aberrations in all stages of B cell developments were observed. Failure of isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes from these subjects to respond to formalin-fixed Staphylococcus aureus cowan 1 (SAC) indicated intrinsic defects in their resting B cells, while impairment in pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced blastogenesis coupled with increased levels of Ig secretion signified regulatory defects in their mature B cells, which may be related to helper-suppressor dysfunctions. Based on these findings, a multifactorial immunodysfunction in AIDS was proposed. The antiviral biological modulator drug isoprinosine was shown to enhance PWM-induced, T-cell dependent, B-cell blastogenesis and normalize the spontaneous secretion of Ig while showing no modulative effects on SAC-induced (resting B-cell) transformations. It also modified, in a selective fashion, the phenotypic coexpression of both HLA-DR and Leu8 antigen on helper and suppressor T cells. Among prodromal subjects at risk to develop AIDS, isoprinosine augmented the expression of both helper T-cell subsets while reducing the number of suppressor effector cells and activated suppressor cells. These interferences with the helper-suppressor regulatory loop may explain the therapeutic efficacy of this drug in the early stages of AIDS. PMID:2446761

  5. Family routines and parental monitoring as protective factors among early and middle adolescents affected by maternal HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Debra A; Marelich, William D; Herbeck, Diane M; Payne, Diana L

    2009-01-01

    The influence of parenting skills on adolescent outcomes among children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS (N = 118, M age = 13) was investigated. Among families with more frequent family routines, over time adolescents showed lower rates of aggression, anxiety, worry, depression, conduct disorder, binge drinking, and increased self-concept. Among families with higher levels of parental monitoring, adolescents showed significant declines in anxiety and depression, conduct disorder, and binge drinking, along with increased self-concept. Mothers' level of illness was associated with parenting. Greater variability in parental monitoring resulted in higher levels of problem behaviors. PMID:19930345

  6. Understanding the mechanisms leading to FSW property variations to aid in defect formation identification via post-weld data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doude, Haley Rubisoff

    The study of defect formation and identification is important to the further application of friction stir welding in industry. To better understand the topic, a systematic study was undertaken to describe material flow effects on the formation of defects, to list the various types of defects encountered across a parameter window, and to identify features in the weld force data that can then be used to recognize defects within the weld without destructive testing. Tracer studies were used to determine the impact of the material flow on defect formation with a determination that proper shoulder contact is necessary to obtain sufficient material flow to fully consolidate the weld. A series of welds across a range of rotational speeds was used to identify mechanisms that led to variations in the mechanical properties of the welded panels. A balance between the x- and y-forces on the tool is needed to produce robust welds that were defect free. UMF was shown to identify regions of changing material flow conditions; however, the identification of intermittent defects was not as successful.

  7. Preventing Reading Difficulties through the Early Identification of Children with Special Literacy Needs. PEER Literacy Resource Brief. PEER Project Literacy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searcy, L. Bill

    This booklet identifies factors that may interfere with literacy development in young children and discusses the early intervention services that may prevent reading difficulties. It begins by emphasizing the importance of early identification of children with literacy needs. Child-, family-, and school-based factors that may indicate a child is…

  8. Consensus Development Conference on Early Identification of Hearing Impairment in Infants and Young Children (Bethesda, Maryland, March 1-3, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This document compiles abstracts of papers that were presented at a 3-day conference of experts which developed a consensus statement on early identification of hearing impairment in infants and young children. Papers addressed taxonomy; epidemiology; developmental consequences of early hearing impairment; methodology, instrumentation, and…

  9. Genomic analysis of xCT-mediated regulatory network: identification of novel targets against AIDS-associated lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lu; Cao, Yueyu; Chen, Yihan; Kaleeba, Johnan A.R.; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Qin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), a rapidly progressing malignancy mostly arising in HIV-infected patients. Even under conventional chemotherapy, PEL continues to portend nearly 100% mortality within several months, which urgently requires novel therapeutic strategies. We have previously demonstrated that targeting xCT, an amino acid transporter for cystine/glutamate exchange, induces significant PEL cell apoptosis through regulation of multiple host and viral factors. More importantly, one of xCT selective inhibitors, Sulfasalazine (SASP), effectively prevents PEL tumor progression in an immune-deficient xenograft model. In the current study, we use Illumina microarray to explore the profile of genes altered by SASP treatment within 3 KSHV+ PEL cell-lines, and discover that many genes involved in oxidative stress/antioxidant defense system, apoptosis/anti-apoptosis/cell death, and cellular response to unfolded proteins/topologically incorrect proteins are potentially regulated by xCT. We further validate 2 downstream candidates, OSGIN1 (oxidative stress-induced growth inhibitor 1) and XRCC5 (X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 5), and evaluate their functional relationship with PEL cell survival/proliferation and chemoresistance, respectively. Together, our data indicate that targeting these novel xCT-regulated downstream genes may represent a promising new therapeutic strategy against PEL and/or other AIDS-related lymphoma. PMID:25860939

  10. Early & Often: Designing a Comprehensive System of Financial Aid Information. Abridged Report of the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Students and parents need ample time and accurate information to prepare for the financial burden of a college education--those who lack this knowledge base face a significant access barrier to higher education. The early intervention community is calling for a method of delivering age-appropriate information in a timely manner as one means of…

  11. Supporting early career health investigators in Kenya: A qualitative study of HIV/AIDS research capacity building

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Joseph; Nduati, Ruth; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Strategies to transfer international health research training programs to sub-Saharan African institutions focus on developing cadres of local investigators who will lead such programs. Using a critical leadership theory framework, we conducted a qualitative study of one program to understand how collaborative training and research can support early career investigators in Kenya toward the program transfer goal. Methods We used purposive sampling methods and a semi-structured protocol to conduct in-depth interviews with US (N = 5) and Kenyan (N = 5) independent investigators. Transcripts were coded using a two-step process, and then compared with each other to identify major themes. Results A limited local research environment, funding needs and research career mentorship were identified as major influences on early career researchers. Institutional demands on Kenyan faculty to teach rather than complete research restricted investigators’ ability to develop research careers. This was coupled with lack of local funding to support research. Sustainable collaborations between Kenyan, US and other international investigators were perceived to mitigate these challenges and support early career investigators who would help build a robust local research environment for training. Conclusion Mutually beneficial collaborations between Kenyan and US investigators developed during training mitigate these challenges and build a supportive research environment for training. In these collaborations, early career investigators learn how to navigate the complex international research environment to build local HIV research capacity. Shared and mutually beneficial resources within international research collaborations are required to support early career investigators and plans to transfer health research training to African institutions. PMID:26113923

  12. Computer aided identification of sodium channel blockers in the clinical treatment of epilepsy using molecular docking tools

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Uzma; Akka, Jyothy; Hinore, Jitendra Singh; Girdhar, Amandeep; Bandaru, Srinivas; Sumithnath, Tharaparambil Gangadharan; Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Munshi, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Phenytoin (PHT) and Carbamazepine (CBZ) are excellent sodium channel blockers administered in clinical treatment of epileptic seizures. However, the narrow therapeutic range and limited pharmacokinetics of these drugs have raised serious concerns in the proper management of epilepsy. To overcome this, the present study attempts to identify a candidate molecule with superior pharmacological profile than PHT and CBZ through In silico approaches. PHT and CBZ served as query small molecules for Tanimoto based similarity search with a threshold of 95% against PubChem database. Aided by MolDock algorithm, high affinity similar compound against each query was retrieved. PHT and CBZ and their respective similar were further tested for toxicity profiles, LC 50 values and biological activity. Compounds, NSC403438 and AGN-PC-0BPCBP respectively similar to PHT and CBZ demonstrated higher affinity to sodium channel protein than their respective leads. Of particular relevance, NSC403438 demonstrated highest binding affinity bestowed with least toxicity, better LC 50 values and optimal bioactivity. NSC403438 was further mapped for its structure based pharmacophoric features. In the study, we report NSC403438 as potential sodium channel blocker as a better candidate than PHT and CBZ which can be put forth for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies. Abbreviations AEDs - Antiepileptic drugs, BLAST - Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, CBZ - Carbamazepine, GEFS+ - Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus, GPCR - G Protein Coupled Receptor, Nav - Sodium channel with specific voltage conduction, PDB - Protein Data Bank, PHT - Phenytoin, PIR - Protein Information resources, SAVES - Structural Analysis and Verification Server, VGSC - Voltage-gated Sodium channels. PMID:25914447

  13. Development of a new approach to aid in visual identification of murine iPS colonies using a fuzzy logic decision support system.

    PubMed

    Bassaneze, Vinicius; Sacramento, Chester Bittencourt; Freire, Rodolfo; De Alencar, Patrícia Fernandes; Ortega, Neli Regina Siqueira; Krieger, Jose Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The a priori identification of induced pluripotent stem cells remains a challenge. Being able to quickly identify the most embryonic stem cell-similar induced pluripotent stem cells when validating results could help to reduce costs and save time. In this context, tools based on non-classic logic can be useful in creating aid-systems based on visual criteria. True colonies when viewed at 100x magnification have been found to have the following 3 characteristics: a high degree of border delineation, a more uniform texture, and the absence of a cracked texture. These visual criteria were used for fuzzy logic modeling. We investigated the possibility of predicting the presence of alkaline phosphatase activity, typical of true induced pluripotent stem cell colonies, after 25 individuals, with varying degrees of experience in working with murine iPS cells, categorized the images of 136 colonies based on visual criteria. Intriguingly, the performance evaluation by area under the ROC curve (16 individuals with satisfactory performance), Spearman correlation (all statistically significant), and Cohen's Kappa agreement analysis (all statistically significant) demonstrates that the discriminatory capacity of different evaluators are similar, even those who have never cultivated cells. Thus, we report on a new system to facilitate visual identification of murine- induced pluripotent stem cell colonies that can be useful for staff training and opens the possibility of exploring visual characteristics of induced pluripotent stem cell colonies with their functional peculiarities. The fuzzy model has been integrated as a web-based tool named "2see-iPS" which is freely accessed at http://genetica.incor.usp.br/2seeips/. PMID:23950970

  14. Toward the Identification of Features of Effective Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators. Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha; Tout, Kathryn; Halle, Tamara; Whittaker, Jessica Vick; Lavelle, Bridget

    2010-01-01

    This review incorporates findings from research on four "targets" of early childhood professional development: 1) strengthening human or social capital; 2) strengthening practices at institutions or organizations providing professional development; 3) strengthening early educator practices related to specific child outcomes; and, 4) strengthening…

  15. High resolution ECG-aided early prognostic model for comatose survivors of out of hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Rauber, Martin; Štajer, Dušan; Noč, Marko; Schlegel, Todd T; Starc, Vito

    2015-01-01

    Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has a high mortality despite modern treatment. Reliable early prognosis in OHCA could significantly improve clinical decision making. We explored prognostic utility of advanced ECG parameters, obtained from high-resolution ECG, in combination with clinical and OHCA-related parameters during treatment with mild induced hypothermia (MIH) and after rewarming in unconscious survivors of OHCA. Ninety-two patients during MIH and 66 after rewarming were included. During MIH, a score based on initial rhythm, QRS-upslope and systolic pressure resulted in an area under curve (AUC) of 0.82 and accuracy of 80% for survival. After rewarming, a score based on admission rhythm, sum of 12 lead QRS voltages, and mean lateral ST segment level in leads I and V6 resulted in an AUC of 0.88 and accuracy of 85% for survival. ECG can assist with early prognostication in unconscious survivors of OHCA during MIH and after rewarming. PMID:25911585

  16. Exogenous ochronosis in a Chinese patient: use of dermoscopy aids early diagnosis and selection of biopsy site

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen Chun; Tey, Hong Liang; Lee, Joyce Siong See; Goh, Boon Kee

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of exogenous ochronosis is often challenging and requires a high index of suspicion. Herein, we report a case of exogenous ochronosis in a Chinese patient. The condition was caused by the use of bleaching agents, including creams containing hydroquinone. We demonstrate the use of dermoscopy as an invaluable tool for the early recognition of the condition, as well as in the selection of an appropriate site for a skin biopsy. PMID:24452981

  17. Adapting a SSKIN bundle for carers to aid identification of pressure damage and ulcer risks in the community.

    PubMed

    McCoulough, Siobhan

    2016-06-01

    If pressure damage is identified and addressed at an early stage, it may be reversed. Otherwise, it may quickly progress into a serious deep tissue injury. In the community, most daily skin care is undertaken by formal and informal carers. They therefore need to know how to identify signs that pressure ulcers may develop and what immediate actions to take. NICE guidance on pressure ulcer prevention is too extensive to be a simple tool for carers, so a SSKIN bundle was adapted for community use. This ensures carers know how to prevent and identify pressure damage, and includes skin care, repositioning and use of equipment. Carers need training. This is the responsibility of all involved with the patient, including health-care and local authority services. PMID:27297573

  18. Early Evolution of the Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process: Contributions from the USEPA Effluent Testing Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of its whole effluent testing program, the USEPA developed an effects-directed analysis (EDA) approach to identifying the cause of toxicity in toxic effluents or ambient waters, an EDA process termed a “Toxicity Identification Evaluation” (TIE), which is the focus of this...

  19. The detection of morphine and codeine in human teeth: an aid in the identification and study of human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Gigli, F; Lodi, F; Grandi, M

    2003-06-01

    When studying unidentified putrefied or skeletonised human remains it may be difficult to obtain information on drug habits which may prove important for the construction of a biological profile or lead to hypotheses on the manner of death. The detection of morphine and codeine in teeth from human remains may prove crucial in obtaining such information and thus give forensic odontology and anthropology a further tool for identification. Because teeth can be an important deposit of exogenous substances accumulated both in the pulp and in the calcified tissues, they are an invaluable source of data from a toxicological point of view. The authors therefore tested 3 groups of teeth for morphine and codeine: the first group consisted of artificially aged teeth from individuals known to have died of heroin overdose; the second, of teeth from individuals with no history of drug abuse; the third, of teeth from cases of burnt, putrefied and skeletonised remains found in conditions strongly suggestive of a drug-related death. Results showed that in groups 1 and 3 morphine and codeine could still be identified in the teeth, proving that these tissues may be a reliable source for toxicological information concerning the history of the individual. Further studies are needed to verify whether the substances detected reflect drugs in circulation in an acute phase (and therefore present in blood vessels in the pulp) or whether they represent drugs which have percolated and been stored in dentine and enamel and thus denote a history of drug abuse. Nonetheless this study shows that teeth may be an important source of toxicological information in the forensic scenario. PMID:12793124

  20. Identification of early fumonisin biosynthetic intermediates by inactivation of the FUM6 gene in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are polyketide mycotoxins produced by the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and are associated with multiple human and animal diseases. A fumonisin biosynthetic pathway has been proposed, but structures of early pathway intermediates have not been demonstrated. The F. verticillioide...

  1. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  2. Tracing the early development of harmful algal blooms on the West Florida Shelf with the aid of Lagrangian coherent structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olascoaga, M. J.; Beron-Vera, F. J.; Brand, L. E.; KoçAk, H.

    2008-12-01

    Several theories have been proposed to explain the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) produced by the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida Shelf. However, because the early stages of HAB development are usually not detected, these theories have been so far very difficult to verify. In this paper we employ simulated Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) to trace potential early locations of the development of a HAB in late 2004 before it was transported to a region where it could be detected by satellite imagery. The LCSs, which are extracted from surface ocean currents produced by a data-assimilative HYCOM (HYbrid-Coordinate Ocean Model) simulation, constitute material fluid barriers that demarcate potential pathways for HAB evolution. Using a simplified population dynamics model we infer the factors that could possibly lead to the development of the HAB in question. The population dynamics model determines nitrogen in two components, nutrients and phytoplankton, which are assumed to be passively advected by surface ocean currents produced by the above HYCOM simulation. Two nutrient sources are inferred for the HAB whose evolution is found to be strongly tied to the simulated LCSs. These nutrient sources are found to be located nearshore and possibly due to land runoff.

  3. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  4. Computer aided graphics simulation modelling using seismogeologic approach in sequence stratigraphy of Early Cretaceous Punjab platform, Central Indus Basin, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, T.M.; Khan, K.A.

    1996-08-01

    Modelling stratigraphic sequence by using seismo-geologic approach, integrated with cyclic transgressive-regressive deposits, helps to identify a number of non-structural subtle traps. Most of the hydrocarbons found in Early Cretaceous of Central Indus Basin pertain to structural entrapments of upper transgressive sands. A few wells are producing from middle and basal regressive sands, but the massive regressive sands have not been tested so far. The possibility of stratigraphic traps like wedging or pinch-out, a lateral gradation, an uplift, truncation and overlapping of reservoir rocks is quite promising. The natural basin physiography at times has been modified by extensional episodic events into tectono-morphic terrain. Thus, seismo scanning of tectonically controlled sedimentation might delineate some subtle stratigraphic traps. Amplitude maps representing stratigraphic sequences are generated to identify the traps. Seismic expressions indicate the reservoir quality in terms of amplitude increase or decrease. The data is modelled on computer using graphics simulation techniques.

  5. Genetic Identification Is Critical for the Diagnosis of Parkinsonism: A Chinese Pedigree with Early Onset of Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Tang, Bei-sha; Weng, Ling; Li, Nan; Shen, Lu; Wang, Jian; Zuo, Chuan-tao; Yan, Xin-xiang; Xia, Kun; Guo, Ji-feng

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of hereditary neurological diseases display indistinguishable features at the early disease stage. Parkinsonian symptoms can be found in numerous diseases, making it difficult to get a definitive early diagnosis of primary causes for patients with onset of parkinsonism. The accurate and early diagnosis of the causes of parkinsonian patients is important for effective treatments of these patients. Methods We have identified a Chinese family (82 family members over four generations with 21 affected individuals) that manifested the characterized symptoms of parkinsonism and was initially diagnosed as Parkinson’s disease. We followed up with the family for two years, during which we carried out clinical observations, Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography neuroimaging analysis, and exome sequencing to correctly diagnose the case. Results During the two-year follow-up period, we performed comprehensive medical history collection, physical examination, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies of this Chinese family. We found that the patient exhibited progressive deteriorated parkinsonism with Parkinson disease-like neuropathology and also had a good response to the initial levodopa treatment. However, exome sequencing identified a missense mutation, N279K, in exon 10 of MAPT gene, verifying that the early parkinsonian symptoms in this family are caused by the genetic mutation for hereditary frontotemporal lobar dementia. Conclusions For the inherited parkinsonian patients who even show the neuropathology similar to that in Parkinson’s disease and have initial response to levodopa treatment, genetic identification of the molecular basis for the disease is still required for defining the early diagnosis and correct treatment. PMID:26295349

  6. Global Identification of SMAD2 Target Genes Reveals a Role for Multiple Co-regulatory Factors in Zebrafish Early Gastrulas*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoting; Lin, Xiwen; Cai, Zhaoping; Zhang, Zhuqiang; Han, Chunsheng; Jia, Shunji; Meng, Anming; Wang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Nodal and Smad2/3 signals play pivotal roles in mesendoderm induction and axis determination during late blastulation and early gastrulation in vertebrate embryos. However, Smad2/3 direct target genes during those critical developmental stages have not been systematically identified. Here, through ChIP-chip assay, we show that the promoter/enhancer regions of 679 genes are bound by Smad2 in the zebrafish early gastrulas. Expression analyses confirm that a significant proportion of Smad2 targets are indeed subjected to Nodal/Smad2 regulation at the onset of gastrulation. The co-existence of DNA-binding sites of other transcription factors in the Smad2-bound regions allows the identification of well known Smad2-binding partners, such as FoxH1 and Lef1/β-catenin, as well as many previously unknown Smad2 partners, including Oct1 and Gata6, during embryogenesis. We demonstrate that Oct1 physically associates with and enhances the transcription and mesendodermal induction activity of Smad2, whereas Gata6 exerts an inhibitory role in Smad2 signaling and mesendodermal induction. Thus, our study systemically uncovers a large number of Smad2 targets in early gastrulas and suggests cooperative roles of Smad2 and other transcription factors in controlling target gene transcription, which will be valuable for studying regulatory cascades during germ layer formation and patterning of vertebrate embryos. PMID:21669877

  7. Early Identification and Treatment of Communication and Swallowing Deficits in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ciucci, Michelle R.; Grant, Laura M.; Paul Rajamanickam, Eunice S.; Hilby, Breanna L.; Blue, Katherine V.; Jones, Corinne A.; Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a wide range of deficits including fine and gross sensorimotor impairment, autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, and cognitive decline. Traditionally, the focus for diagnosis and treatment has been on sensorimotor impairment related to dopamine depletion. It is now widely recognized, however, that PD-related pathology affects multiple central nervous system neurotransmitters and pathways. Communication and swallowing functions can be impaired even in the early stages, significantly affecting health and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on early intervention for communication and swallowing impairment in PD. Overarching themes were that (1) studies and interpretation of data from studies in early PD are limited; (2) best therapy practices have not been established, in part due to the heterogeneous nature of PD; and (3) as communication and swallowing problems are pervasive in PD, further treatment research is essential. PMID:24166192

  8. Thin layer microcolony culture associated with PCR for early identification of Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    do Rosário, Tatiana Reis; Dib, Cristina Corsi; Roxo, Eliana; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2014-01-01

    The initial growth of mycobacteria from 49 samples of cattle and buffalo organs collected in commercial slaughterhouses was compared between modified Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer microcolony culture and Stonebrink medium used in the isolation of Mycobacterium bovis. Aliquots were decontaminated by Petroff’s method, processed and cultured in both media. The identity of the acid-fast bacilli stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was confirmed by PCR. Optical microscopy showed that results of the early observation of Mycobacterium bovis colonies in thin layer culture were similar to those obtained in macroscopic observation of the colonies in Stonebrink medium. However, early observation of the colonies enabled early confirmation by PCR, given the shorter time to the visualization of colonies when thin layer culture was used (between the 12nd and 25th day of culture). PMID:24948936

  9. Cognitive Correlates of Learning Problems: Some Implications for Early Identification and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forer, Ruth; And Others

    This paper reviews studies on cognitive processes that may mediate the development of early learning problems. Topics covered include auditory and visual discrimination deficits, integration of information from different modalities, the significance of attentional factors, contributions of memory factors, and the importance of cognitive style…

  10. Early Identification of Middle School At-Risk Students with Learning and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Lisa J.

    2004-01-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse students with learning disorders (LD) and emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) have higher school dropout rates than their peers with and without disabilities. The primary purpose of this study was to determine how early potential dropouts could be identified. Research questions included the following: (a)…

  11. Identification of zinc finger protein Bcl6 as a novel regulator of early adipose commitment

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuanfei; Yang, Yang; Peng, Jie; Song, Tongxing; Xu, Tao; Wei, Hongkui; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a key determinant of whole-body metabolism and energy homeostasis. Unravelling the transcriptional regulatory process during adipogenesis is therefore highly relevant from a biomedical perspective. In these studies, zinc finger protein B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) was demonstrated to have a role in early adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Bcl6 is enriched in preadipose versus non-preadipose fibroblasts and shows upregulated expression in the early stage of adipogenesis. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that Bcl6 acts as a key regulator of adipose commitment and differentiation both in vitro and ex vivo. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bcl6 in C3H10T1/2 cells greatly inhibited adipogenic potential, whereas Bcl6 overexpression enhanced adipogenic differentiation. This transcription factor also directly or indirectly targets and controls the expression of some early and late adipogenic regulators (i.e. Zfp423, Zfp467, KLF15, C/EBPδ, C/EBPα and PPARγ). We further identified that Bcl6 transactivated the signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), which was determined as a required factor for adipogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of STAT1 rescued the impairment of adipogenic commitment and differentiation induced by Bcl6 knockdown in C3H10T1/2 cells, thereby confirming that STAT1 is a downstream direct target of Bcl6. This study identifies Bcl6 as a positive transcriptional regulator of early adipose commitment. PMID:27251748

  12. The non-destructive identification of early Chinese porcelain by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H. S.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Zhang, B.; Yang, F. J.

    2004-06-01

    PIXE is used for the non-destructive differentiation of early precious Chinese blue and white porcelain made in Yuan (AD 1206-1368), Ming (AD 1368-1644) Dynasty in Jingdezhen from imitations. Also, ancient celadon made in Song Dynasty (AD 960-1279) is identified by measuring the trace elements contained in the glazes.

  13. Identification and Prediction of Drinking Trajectories in Early and Mid-Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Vorst, Haske; Vermulst, Ad A.; Meeus, Wim H. J.; Dekovic, Maja; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of early and mid-adolescents with different drinking trajectories. In addition, we examined whether gender, parental, and peer factors predicted adolescents' membership of these drinking trajectories. We used longitudinal data of 428 families (fathers, mothers, mid-adolescents, and their younger…

  14. Early Identification of ADHD: Methods, Benefits, and a Standard Performance Metric for School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation as an executive position paper (EPP) will provide a thorough literature review and the most current and reliable data on Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) prevalence, show the high importance of early diagnosis and interventions, and provide a standard for a school district to…

  15. Identification of novel antiacetylated vimentin antibodies in patients with early inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Juarez, Maria; Bang, Holger; Hammar, Friederike; Reimer, Ulf; Dyke, Bernard; Sahbudin, Ilfita; Buckley, Christopher D; Fisher, Benjamin; Filer, Andrew; Raza, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate serum antibody reactivity against a panel of post-translationally modified vimentin peptides (PTMPs) in patients with early inflammatory arthritis. Methods A panel of PTMPs was developed. Microtitre plates were coated with peptides derived from vimentin that were identical in length and composition except at one amino acid that was changed to introduce one of three post-translational modifications (PTMs)—either a citrullinated, carbamylated or acetylated residue. Sera of 268 treatment-naive patients with early inflammatory arthritis and symptoms ≤3 months' duration were tested. Patients were assigned to one of three outcome categories at 18-month follow-up (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), persistent non-RA arthritis and resolving arthritis). Results Antibodies against citrullinated, carbamylated and acetylated vimentin peptides were detected in the sera of patients with early inflammatory arthritis. The proportion of patients seropositive for all antibody types was significantly higher in the RA group than in the other groups. Anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP)-positive patients with RA had higher numbers of peptides recognised and higher levels of antibodies against those peptides, representing a distinct profile compared with the other groups. Conclusions We show for the first time that antibodies against acetylated vimentin are present in the sera of patients with early RA and confirm and extend previous observations regarding anticitrullinated and anticarbamylated antibodies. PMID:26160441

  16. Identification of zinc finger protein Bcl6 as a novel regulator of early adipose commitment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuanfei; Yang, Yang; Peng, Jie; Song, Tongxing; Xu, Tao; Wei, Hongkui; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a key determinant of whole-body metabolism and energy homeostasis. Unravelling the transcriptional regulatory process during adipogenesis is therefore highly relevant from a biomedical perspective. In these studies, zinc finger protein B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) was demonstrated to have a role in early adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Bcl6 is enriched in preadipose versus non-preadipose fibroblasts and shows upregulated expression in the early stage of adipogenesis. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that Bcl6 acts as a key regulator of adipose commitment and differentiation both in vitro and ex vivo RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bcl6 in C3H10T1/2 cells greatly inhibited adipogenic potential, whereas Bcl6 overexpression enhanced adipogenic differentiation. This transcription factor also directly or indirectly targets and controls the expression of some early and late adipogenic regulators (i.e. Zfp423, Zfp467, KLF15, C/EBPδ, C/EBPα and PPARγ). We further identified that Bcl6 transactivated the signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), which was determined as a required factor for adipogenesis. Moreover, overexpression of STAT1 rescued the impairment of adipogenic commitment and differentiation induced by Bcl6 knockdown in C3H10T1/2 cells, thereby confirming that STAT1 is a downstream direct target of Bcl6. This study identifies Bcl6 as a positive transcriptional regulator of early adipose commitment. PMID:27251748

  17. Removal of organic contaminant toxicity from sediments - Early work toward development of a toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lebo, J.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Ho, K.T.

    1999-01-01

    Work was performed to determine the feasibility of selectively detoxifying organic contaminants in sediments. The results of this research will be used to aid in the development of a scheme for whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs). The context in which the method will be used inherently restricts the treatments to which the sediments can be subjected: Sediments cannot be significantly altered physically or chemically and the presence and bioavailabilities of other toxicants must not be changed. The methodological problem is daunting because of the requirement that the detoxification method be relatively fast and convenient together with the stipulation that only innocuous and minimally invasive treatments be used. Some of the experiments described here dealt with degrees of decontamination (i.e., detoxification as predicted from instrumental measurements) of spiked sediments rather than with degrees of detoxification as gauged by toxicity tests (e.g., 48-h toxicity tests with amphipods). Although the larger TIE scheme itself is mostly outside the scope of this paper, theoretical aspects of bioavailability and of the desorption of organic contaminants from sediments are discussed.

  18. Early identification of potentially salvageable tissue with MRI-based predictive algorithms after experimental ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bouts, Mark J R J; Tiebosch, Ivo A C W; van der Toorn, Annette; Viergever, Max A; Wu, Ona; Dijkhuizen, Rick M

    2013-01-01

    Individualized stroke treatment decisions can be improved by accurate identification of the extent of salvageable tissue. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approaches, including measurement of a ‘perfusion-diffusion mismatch' and calculation of infarction probability, allow assessment of tissue-at-risk; however, the ability to explicitly depict potentially salvageable tissue remains uncertain. In this study, five predictive algorithms (generalized linear model (GLM), generalized additive model, support vector machine, adaptive boosting, and random forest) were tested in their potency to depict acute cerebral ischemic tissue that can recover after reperfusion. Acute T2-, diffusion-, and perfusion-weighted MRI, and follow-up T2 maps were collected from rats subjected to right-sided middle cerebral artery occlusion without subsequent reperfusion, for training of algorithms (Group I), and with spontaneous (Group II) or thrombolysis-induced reperfusion (Group III), to determine infarction probability-based viability thresholds and prediction accuracies. The infarction probability difference between irreversible—i.e., infarcted after reperfusion—and salvageable tissue injury—i.e., noninfarcted after reperfusion—was largest for GLM (20±7%) with highest accuracy of risk-based identification of acutely ischemic tissue that could recover on subsequent reperfusion (Dice's similarity index=0.79±0.14). Our study shows that assessment of the heterogeneity of infarction probability with MRI-based algorithms enables estimation of the extent of potentially salvageable tissue after acute ischemic stroke. PMID:23571283

  19. The Way the Money Goes: An Investigation of Flows of Funding and Resources for Young Children Affected by HIV/AIDS. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development. Young Children and HIV/AIDS Sub-Series, No. 37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Alison

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses routes by which HIV/AIDS money is dispersed and received. It notes that capturing accurate data on actual spending patterns of large donors can be difficult, as there is no uniform tracking or reporting system and much HIV/AIDS money is spent under the broader category of sexual and reproductive health. Most of the information…

  20. Identification and characterization of contrasting sunflower genotypes to early leaf senescence process combining molecular and physiological studies (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    López Gialdi, A I; Moschen, S; Villán, C S; López Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S; Paniego, N; Heinz, R A; Fernandez, P

    2016-09-01

    Leaf senescence is a complex mechanism ruled by multiple genetic and environmental variables that affect crop yields. It is the last stage in leaf development, is characterized by an active decline in photosynthetic rate, nutrients recycling and cell death. The aim of this work was to identify contrasting sunflower inbred lines differing in leaf senescence and to deepen the study of this process in sunflower. Ten sunflower genotypes, previously selected by physiological analysis from 150 inbred genotypes, were evaluated under field conditions through physiological, cytological and molecular analysis. The physiological measurement allowed the identification of two contrasting senescence inbred lines, R453 and B481-6, with an increase in yield in the senescence delayed genotype. These findings were confirmed by cytological and molecular analysis using TUNEL, genomic DNA gel electrophoresis, flow sorting and gene expression analysis by qPCR. These results allowed the selection of the two most promising contrasting genotypes, which enables future studies and the identification of new biomarkers associated to early senescence in sunflower. In addition, they allowed the tuning of cytological techniques for a non-model species and its integration with molecular variables. PMID:27457982

  1. Anatomy and Cytogenetic Identification of a Wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng Line with Early Maturation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangming; Liu, Yang; Du, Wanli; Jing, Fan; Wang, Zhonghua; Wu, Jun; Chen, Xinhong

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, our research team successfully transferred the Ns genome from Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng into Triticum aestivum (common wheat cv. 7182) using embryo culture. In the present study, one of these lines, i.e., hybrid progeny 25-10-3, which matured about 10-14 days earlier than its wheat parent, was assessed using sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) analysis, EST-SSR and EST-STS molecular markers, and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). We found that this was a stable wheat-P. huashanica disomic addition line (2n = 44 = 22 II) and the results demonstrated that it was a 6Ns disomic chromosome addition line, but it exhibited many different features compared with previously characterized lines, i.e., a longer awn, early maturation, and no twin spikelets. It was considered to be an early-maturing variety based on the early stage of inflorescence initiation in field experiments and binocular microscope observations over three consecutive years. This characteristic was distinct, especially from the single ridge stage and double ridge stage until the glume stage. In addition, it had a higher photosynthesis rate and economic values than common wheat cv. 7182, i.e., more spikelets per spike, more florets per spikelet, more kernels per spike, and a higher thousand-grain weight. These results suggest that this material may comprise a genetic pool of beneficial genes or chromosome segments, which are suitable for introgression to improve the quality of common wheat. PMID:26461884

  2. Identification of an IFN-gamma-producing neutrophil early in the response to Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jiyi; Ferguson, Thomas A

    2009-06-01

    IFN-gamma plays a critical role during the immune response to infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Early in the innate response NK cells are thought to be a primary source of IFN-gamma; however, protection can be mediated by the presence of significant numbers of primed IFN-gamma-secreting CD8(+) T cells. In this report, we examined the early response to Listeria and found that 18 h after infection spleens contain CD11b(+), Gr-1(high), or Ly6G(+) cells that produce significant IFN-gamma. Morphological analysis of sorted Gr-1(high)IFN-gamma(+) and Gr-1(low)IFN-gamma(+) or Ly6G(+)IFN-gamma(+) cells confirmed that these cells were neutrophils. The importance of IFN-gamma production by these cells was further tested using adoptive transfer studies. Transfer of purified neutrophils from Ifng(+/+) mice led to increased bacterial clearance in Ifng(-/-) mice. Transfer of Ifng(-/-) neutrophils provided no such protection. We conclude that neutrophils are an early source of IFN-gamma during Listeria infection and are important in providing immune protection. PMID:19454704

  3. Anatomy and Cytogenetic Identification of a Wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng Line with Early Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wanli; Jing, Fan; Wang, Zhonghua; Wu, Jun; Chen, Xinhong

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, our research team successfully transferred the Ns genome from Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng into Triticum aestivum (common wheat cv. 7182) using embryo culture. In the present study, one of these lines, i.e., hybrid progeny 25-10-3, which matured about 10–14 days earlier than its wheat parent, was assessed using sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) analysis, EST-SSR and EST-STS molecular markers, and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). We found that this was a stable wheat-P. huashanica disomic addition line (2n = 44 = 22 II) and the results demonstrated that it was a 6Ns disomic chromosome addition line, but it exhibited many different features compared with previously characterized lines, i.e., a longer awn, early maturation, and no twin spikelets. It was considered to be an early-maturing variety based on the early stage of inflorescence initiation in field experiments and binocular microscope observations over three consecutive years. This characteristic was distinct, especially from the single ridge stage and double ridge stage until the glume stage. In addition, it had a higher photosynthesis rate and economic values than common wheat cv. 7182, i.e., more spikelets per spike, more florets per spikelet, more kernels per spike, and a higher thousand-grain weight. These results suggest that this material may comprise a genetic pool of beneficial genes or chromosome segments, which are suitable for introgression to improve the quality of common wheat. PMID:26461884

  4. Role of Physical Evaluation in the Early Identification of Axial Spondyloarthritis: A Research Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Marcelo P; Stebbings, Simon M; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bussey, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a rationale to explore the use of clinical tests for the sacroiliac joints to detect early axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and to suggest a protocol to validate these clinical tests. Based on the European Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatments of Pelvic Girdle Pain, we propose a set of six clinical tests to identify the likely presence of inflammation in the sacroiliac joints associated with early axial SpA. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the current gold standard used to identify inflammation in the sacroiliac joints, the results of the proposed set of clinical tests are compared with those from the MRI examinations. We hypothesize that specific clinical tests, which combine pain provocation and functional tests, for assessing the sacroiliac joints will help to identify early active inflammation at the sacroiliac joints in axial SpA. If such tests prove to be sensitive and specific, they could add further value to the diagnostic classification criteria for axial SpA. PMID:26448694

  5. Identification of Owl Monkey CD4 Receptors Broadly Compatible with Early-Stage HIV-1 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Nicholas R.; Sharma, Amit; Wilkerson, Gregory K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most HIV-1 variants isolated from early-stage human infections do not use nonhuman primate versions of the CD4 receptor for cellular entry, or they do so poorly. We and others have previously shown that CD4 has experienced strong natural selection over the course of primate speciation, but it is unclear whether this selection has influenced the functional characteristics of CD4 as an HIV-1 receptor. Surprisingly, we find that selection on CD4 has been most intense in the New World monkeys, animals that have never been found to harbor lentiviruses related to HIV-1. Based on this, we sampled CD4 genetic diversity within populations of individuals from seven different species, including five species of New World monkeys. We found that some, but not all, CD4 alleles found in Spix's owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) encode functional receptors for early-stage human HIV-1 isolates representing all of the major group M clades (A, B, C, and D). However, only some isolates of HIV-1 subtype C can use the CD4 receptor encoded by permissive Spix's owl monkey alleles. We characterized the prevalence of functional CD4 alleles in a colony of captive Spix's owl monkeys and found that 88% of surveyed individuals are homozygous for permissive CD4 alleles, which encode an asparagine at position 39 of the receptor. We found that the CD4 receptors encoded by two other species of owl monkeys (Aotus azarae and Aotus nancymaae) also serve as functional entry receptors for early-stage isolates of HIV-1. IMPORTANCE Nonhuman primates, particularly macaques, are used for preclinical evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates. However, a significant limitation of the macaque model is the fact that most circulating HIV-1 variants cannot use the macaque CD4 receptor to enter cells and have to be adapted to these species. This is particularly true for viral variants from early stages of infection, which represent the most relevant vaccine targets. In this study, we found that some individuals

  6. Use of polymerase chain reaction for early identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in positive cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Cormican, M. G.; Barry, T.; Gannon, F.; Flynn, J.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To develop a readily applicable polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based technique which would permit the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from Bactec phials at an earlier stage than currently available methods. METHODS: Mycobacterial cells cultured in Bactec 12B medium were harvested by centrifugation. The cells were lysed by heating in distilled water. Oligonucleotide primers based on the sequence of the gene coding for the immunogenic protein MPB64 were then used to amplify a 240 base pair fragment of DNA directly from the crude cell lysate. The PCR product was visualised under ultraviolet light following electrophoresis of an aliquot in an agarose gel containing ethidium bromide. The sensitivity of the PCR was adjusted so that about 600 cfu of M tuberculosis gave a positive result. The lowest growth index at which this method of identification might be applied to Bactec phials was determined and a number of routine cultures giving a positive growth index examined. RESULTS: M tuberculosis was positively identified at the lowest growth index, as determined by the Bactec system. Of 45 routine cultures examined, with growth indexes ranging from 6 to 999, the 15 confirmed by conventional means to contain M tuberculosis were correctly identified from 1 ml of culture medium. CONCLUSIONS: The method described can be used to identify M tuberculosis isolates cultured in the Bactec system at the earliest detectable rise in growth index. It may therefore allow cultured mycobacteria to be identified at an earlier stage than conventional methods or the commercially available DNA probes adapted for use with the Bactec system. Images PMID:1517460

  7. Identification of a type IV secretion substrate of Brucella abortus that participates in the early stages of intracellular survival.

    PubMed

    Döhmer, Peter H; Valguarnera, Ezequiel; Czibener, Cecilia; Ugalde, Juan E

    2014-03-01

    Brucella abortus, the aetiological agent of bovine brucellosis, is an intracellular pathogen whose virulence is completely dependent on a type IV secretion system. This secretion system translocates effector proteins into the host cell to modulate the intracellular fate of the bacterium in order to establish a secure niche were it actively replicates. Although much has been done in understanding how this secretion system participates in the virulence process, few effector proteins have been identified to date. We describe here the identification of a type IV secretion substrate (SepA) that is only present in Brucella spp. and has no detectable homology to known proteins. This protein is secreted in a virB-dependent manner in a two-step process involving a periplasmic intermediate and secretion is necessary for its function. The deletion mutant showed a defect in the early stages of intracellular replication in professional and non-professional phagocytes although it invades the cells more efficiently than the wild-type parental strain. Our results indicate that, even though the mutant was more invasive, it had a defect in excluding the lysosomal marker Lamp-1 and was inactivated more efficiently during the early phases of the intracellular life cycle. PMID:24119283

  8. Identification and testing of early indicators for N leaching from urine patches.

    PubMed

    Vogeler, Iris; Cichota, Rogerio; Snow, Val

    2013-11-30

    Nitrogen leaching from urine patches has been identified as a major source of nitrogen loss under intensive grazing dairy farming. Leaching is notoriously variable, influenced by management, soil type, year-to-year variation in climate and timing and rate of urine depositions. To identify early indicators for the risk of N leaching from urine patches for potential usage in a precision management system, we used the simulation model APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems SIMulator) to produce an extensive N leaching dataset for the Waikato region of New Zealand. In total, nearly forty thousand simulation runs with different combinations of soil type and urine deposition times, in 33 different years, were done. The risk forecasting indicators were chosen based on their practicality: being readily measured on farm (soil water content, temperature and pasture growth) or that could be centrally supplied to farms (such as actual and forecast weather data). The thresholds of the early indicators that are used to forecast a period for high risk of N leaching were determined via classification and regression tree analysis. The most informative factors were soil temperature, pasture dry matter production, and average soil water content in the top soil over the two weeks prior to the urine N application event. Rainfall and air temperature for the two weeks following urine deposition were also important to fine-tune the predictions. The identified early indicators were then tested for their potential to predict the risk of N leaching in two typical soils from the Waikato region in New Zealand. The accuracy of the predictions varied with the number of indicators, the soil type and the risk level, and the number of correct predictions ranged from about 45 to over 90%. Further expansion and fine-tuning of the indicators and the development of a practical N risk tool based on these indicators is needed. PMID:24064140

  9. Identification of morphological markers of sarcopenia at early stage of aging in skeletal muscle of mice.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Ramy K A; de Leonardis, Erika Chacin; Guerrero-Martínez, José A; Rahim, Ibtissem; Mokhtar, Doaa M; Saleh, Abdelmohaimen M; Abdalla, Kamal E H; Pozo, María J; Escames, Germaine; López, Luis C; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2016-10-01

    The gastrocnemius muscle (GM) of young (3months) and aged (12months) female wild-type C57/BL6 mice was examined by light and electron microscopy, looking for the presence of structural changes at early stage of the aging process. Morphometrical parameters including body and gastrocnemius weights, number and type of muscle fibers, cross section area (CSA), perimeter, and Feret's diameter of single muscle fiber, were measured. Moreover, lengths of the sarcomere, A-band, I-band, H-zone, and number and CSA of intermyofibrillar mitochondria (IFM), were also determined. The results provide evidence that 12month-old mice had significant changes on skeletal muscle structure, beginning with the reduction of gastrocnemius weight to body weight ratio, compatible with an early loss of skeletal muscle function and strength. Moreover, light microscopy revealed increased muscle fibers size, with a significant increase on their CSA, perimeter, and diameter of both type I and type II muscle fibers, and a reduction in the percentage of muscle area occupied by type II fibers. Enhanced connective tissue infiltrations, and the presence of centrally nucleated muscle fibers, were also found in aged mice. These changes may underlie an attempt to compensate the loss of muscle mass and muscle fibers number. Furthermore, electron microscopy discovered a significant age-dependent increase in the length of sarcomeres, I and H bands, and reduction on the overlapped actin/myosin length, supporting contractile force loss with age. Electron microscopy also showed an increased number and CSA of IFM with age, which may reveal more endurance at 12months of age. Together, mice at early stage of aging already show significant changes in gastrocnemius muscle morphology and ultrastructure that are suggestive of the onset of sarcopenia. PMID:27435496

  10. Noninvasive prenatal testing for early sex identification: a few benefits and many concerns.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Audrey R; Benn, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    A new technology, noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), can identify fetal sex early in pregnancy, five weeks after conception, with a high degree of accuracy through analysis of maternal blood plasma. This article considers the possibility that NIPT will encourage greater sex selection in developed countries and discusses the implications. Sex selection raises serious social and ethical issues unless it is done for medical reasons. The article also assesses options to discourage sex-selective abortions, including the effectiveness of potential legal measures. PMID:24769746

  11. 48 CFR 227.7103-3 - Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use, reproduction or disclosure. 227... on use, reproduction or disclosure. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2320 requires, to the maximum extent...

  12. 48 CFR 227.7103-3 - Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use, reproduction or disclosure. 227... on use, reproduction or disclosure. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2320 requires, to the maximum extent...

  13. 48 CFR 227.7103-3 - Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use, reproduction or disclosure. 227... on use, reproduction or disclosure. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2320 requires, to the maximum extent...

  14. 48 CFR 227.7103-3 - Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use, reproduction or disclosure. 227... on use, reproduction or disclosure. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2320 requires, to the maximum extent...

  15. 48 CFR 227.7103-3 - Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Early identification of technical data to be furnished to the Government with restrictions on use, reproduction or disclosure. 227... on use, reproduction or disclosure. (a) 10 U.S.C. 2320 requires, to the maximum extent...

  16. Identification of Circulating Tumor DNA for the Early Detection of Small-cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Cuesta, Lynnette; Perdomo, Sandra; Avogbe, Patrice H; Leblay, Noemie; Delhomme, Tiffany M; Gaborieau, Valerie; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Chanudet, Estelle; Olivier, Magali; Zaridze, David; Mukeria, Anush; Vilensky, Marta; Holcatova, Ivana; Polesel, Jerry; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina; Lagiou, Pagona; Brambilla, Christian; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Byrnes, Graham; Scelo, Ghislaine; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Foll, Matthieu; McKay, James D; Brennan, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is emerging as a key potential biomarker for post-diagnosis surveillance but it may also play a crucial role in the detection of pre-clinical cancer. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an excellent candidate for early detection given there are no successful therapeutic options for late-stage disease, and it displays almost universal inactivation of TP53. We assessed the presence of TP53 mutations in the cell-free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from the plasma of 51 SCLC cases and 123 non-cancer controls. We identified mutations using a pipeline specifically designed to accurately detect variants at very low fractions. We detected TP53 mutations in the cfDNA of 49% SCLC patients and 11.4% of non-cancer controls. When stratifying the 51 initial SCLC cases by stage, TP53 mutations were detected in the cfDNA of 35.7% early-stage and 54.1% late-stage SCLC patients. The results in the controls were further replicated in 10.8% of an independent series of 102 non-cancer controls. The detection of TP53 mutations in 11% of the 225 non-cancer controls suggests that somatic mutations in cfDNA among individuals without any cancer diagnosis is a common occurrence, and poses serious challenges for the development of ctDNA screening tests. PMID:27377626

  17. Identification of conserved antigens for early serodiagnosis of relapsing fever Borrelia

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Job E.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Hammer, Carl H.; Zhao, Ming; Robinson, Mary Ann; Schwan, Tom G.

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia hermsii is a blood-borne pathogen transmitted by the argasid tick Ornithodoros hermsi. Since spirochaete clearance in mice is associated with an IgM-mediated response, an immunoproteomic analysis was used to identify proteins reactive with IgM. We report that IgM from both mice and human patients infected with B. hermsii not only reacted with the previously identified variable membrane proteins but also identified candidate antigens including heat-shock proteins, an adhesin protein, ABC transporter proteins, flagellar proteins, housekeeping proteins, an immune evasion protein, and proteins with unknown function. Furthermore, IgM reactivity to recombinant glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase was detected during early spirochaete infection and prior to a detectable IgG response. Lastly, a conserved hypothetical protein was produced in Escherichia coli and tested with immune serum against B. hermsii and Borrelia recurrentis. These results identify a much larger set of immunoreactive proteins, and could help in the early serodiagnosis of this tick-borne infection. PMID:19443544

  18. Identification of candidate genes for an early-maturing soybean mutant by genome resequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Jin-Baek; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Kang, Si-Yong; Choi, Hong-Il; Ha, Bo-Keun

    2016-08-01

    Flowering is indicative of the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase, a critical event in the life cycle of plants. In this study, we performed whole genome resequencing by Illumina HiSeq to identify changes in flowering genes using an early-flowering phenotype of soybean mutant line Josaengserori (JS) derived from Korean landrace, Seoritae (SR), and we obtained mapped reads of 131,769,690 and 167,669,640 bp in JS and SR, respectively. From the whole genome sequencing results between JS and SR, we identified 332,821 polymorphic SNPs and 65,178 indels, respectively. Among these, 30 flowering genes were in SNPs and 25 were in indels. Among 30 flowering genes detected in SNPs, Glyma02g33040, Glyma06g22650, Glyma10g36600, Glyma13g01290, Glyma14g10530, Glyma16g01980, Glyma17g11040, Glyma18g53690, and Glyma20g29300 were non-synonymous substitutions between JS and SR. Changes in Glyma10g36600 (GI), Glya02g33040 (AGL18), Glyma17g11040 (TOC1), and Glyma14g10530 (ELF3) in JS affected the expression of GmFT2a and resulted in early flowering. These results provide insight into the regulatory pathways of flowering in soybean mutants and help to improve our knowledge of soybean mutation breeding. PMID:27033554

  19. Identification of ICF categories relevant for nursing in the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Martin; Boldt, Christine; Grill, Eva; Strobl, Ralf; Stucki, Gerold

    2008-01-01

    Background The recovery of patients after an acute episode of illness or injury depends both on adequate medical treatment and on the early identification of needs for rehabilitation care. The process of early beginning rehabilitation requires efficient communication both between health professionals and the patient in order to effectively address all rehabilitation goals. The currently used nursing taxonomies, however, are not intended for interdisciplinary use and thus may not contribute to efficient rehabilitation management and an optimal patient outcome. The ICF might be the missing link in this communication process. The objective of this study was to identify the categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories relevant for nursing care in the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation. Methods First, in a consensus process, "Leistungserfassung in der Pflege" (LEP) nursing interventions relevant for the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation were selected. Second, in an integrated two-step linking process, two nursing experts derived goals of LEP nursing interventions from their practical knowledge and selected corresponding ICF categories most relevant for patients in acute and post-acute rehabilitation (ICF Core Sets). Results Eighty-seven percent of ICF Core Set categories could be linked to goals of at least one nursing intervention variable of LEP. The ICF categories most frequently linked with LEP nursing interventions were respiration functions, experience of self and time functions and focusing attention. Thirteen percent of ICF Core Set categories could not be linked with LEP nursing interventions. The LEP nursing interventions which were linked with the highest number of different ICF-categories of all were "therapeutic intervention", "patient-nurse communication/information giving" and "mobilising". Conclusion The ICF Core Sets for the acute hospital and early post

  20. Sparse temporally dynamic resting-state functional connectivity networks for early MCI identification.

    PubMed

    Wee, Chong-Yaw; Yang, Sen; Yap, Pew-Thian; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-06-01

    In conventional resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) analysis, functional connectivity is assumed to be temporally stationary, overlooking neural activities or interactions that may happen within the scan duration. Dynamic changes of neural interactions can be reflected by variations of topology and correlation strength in temporally correlated functional connectivity networks. These connectivity networks may potentially capture subtle yet short neural connectivity disruptions induced by disease pathologies. Accordingly, we are motivated to utilize disrupted temporal network properties for improving control-patient classification performance. Specifically, a sliding window approach is firstly employed to generate a sequence of overlapping R-fMRI sub-series. Based on these sub-series, sliding window correlations, which characterize the neural interactions between brain regions, are then computed to construct a series of temporal networks. Individual estimation of these temporal networks using conventional network construction approaches fails to take into consideration intrinsic temporal smoothness among successive overlapping R-fMRI sub-series. To preserve temporal smoothness of R-fMRI sub-series, we suggest to jointly estimate the temporal networks by maximizing a penalized log likelihood using a fused sparse learning algorithm. This sparse learning algorithm encourages temporally correlated networks to have similar network topology and correlation strengths. We design a disease identification framework based on the estimated temporal networks, and group level network property differences and classification results demonstrate the importance of including temporally dynamic R-fMRI scan information to improve diagnosis accuracy of mild cognitive impairment patients. PMID:26123390

  1. Early Identification of Student Performance and Effort Using an Online Homework System: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdian, David C.

    2012-10-01

    Two distinct student groups, in terms of academic performance, were identified early in the semester as either being under-performing students or over-performing students using an online homework system. The students who are identified as under-performing received, on average, lower grades than their fellow students but spent more time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for targeted advertisement of student resources such as tutoring services. The students who are identified in the over-performing student population received higher grades than their fellow students, but spent less time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for honors programs, independent research projects, and peer-tutoring programs. Incorporating these evaluation criteria to online homework systems will allow instructors to quickly identify students in these academic student populations.

  2. High risk register--an economical tool for early identification of hearing loss.

    PubMed

    D'Mello, J

    1995-01-01

    Deafness needs to be dignified nearly as its adverse effects increase with the degree and age of onset. The high risk register helps to alert the professional to suspect the presence of this hidden handicap. Histories of 281 hearing impaired children and 158 normal children was collected and analysed. Risk items that appeared significant were--rashes with fever during pregnancy, family history of childhood deafness, asphyxia at birth or blue baby, prematurity (less than 32-34 gestational weeks), low birth weight (less than 1200 gm), hyperbilirubinemia, birth defects of ear nose, throat and head, consanguineous marriage (cousin), parental concerns about their child's hearing. These high risk factors could help in identifying hearing impairment early and in envisaging quality habilitation programs. PMID:10829952

  3. Identification of a bioactive Bowman-Birk inhibitor from an insect-resistant early maize inbred.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric T; Skory, Christopher; Dowd, Patrick F

    2014-06-18

    Breeding of maize, Zea mays, has improved insect resistance, but the genetic and biochemical basis of many of these improvements is unknown. Maize oligonucleotide microarrays were utilized to identify differentially expressed genes in leaves of three maize inbreds, parents Oh40B and W8 and progeny Oh43, developed in the 1940s. Oh43 had enhanced leaf resistance to corn earworm larvae, Helicoverpa zea, and fall armyworm larvae, Spodoptera frugiperda, compared to one or both parents. Among ca. 100 significantly differentially expressed genes, expression of a Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor (BBI) gene was at least ca. 8-fold higher in Oh43 than in either parent. The Oh43 BBI gene was expressed as a recombinant protein. Purified BBI inhibited trypsin and the growth of fall armyworm larvae when added to insect diet. These experiments indicate that comparative gene expression analysis combined with insect resistance measurements of early inbreds can identify previously unrecognized resistance genes. PMID:24869634

  4. Identification of the development mechanisms of an explosive cyclone in the central Mediterranean with the aid of the MSG satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouroutzoglou, John; Flocas, Helena A.; Hatzaki, Maria; Keay, Kevin; Simmonds, Ian; Mavroudis, Anastasios

    2013-08-01

    The development mechanisms of an explosive cyclone over Central Mediterranean are examined, by relating the cloud patterns in the infrared, water vapour and visible channels of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite images, to the surface-upper air operational analyses and thermodynamic parameters, including potential and geostrophic vorticity analyses, potential and equivalent potential temperature, static stability and thermal heat fluxes. The specific case study derived from an updated climatology of Mediterranean explosive cyclones for the 2002-2010 period, being performed with the aid of the University of Melbourne Cyclone Tracking scheme (MS algorithm) and ERA-INTERIM datasets. It was found that during the ordinary cyclogenesis the increased mid-upper level relative humidity over Northern Algeria along with the enhanced moisture gradient in the area between Portugal and Spain; indicate the existence of a jet -streak, with the dry zone to be located on the cold side of the jet axis. The descent of the dry air is more pronounced within the left exit region of the jet streak in the poleward portion of an upper confluence zone. Six hours later, the eastward movement of the cloud pattern in the Northern African coasts significantly resembles the structure of a baroclinic leaf, being related to the early stages of surface frontogenesis, due to the deformation process within a strong wind field. During the time of rapid deepening, when the surface cyclone propagated from the Northern African coasts towards the area of Sicily - Gulf of Taranto, the development is characterised by the transition from the baroclinic leaf structure to the comma cloud one and finally the formation of a bent-back occlusion.

  5. Identification of Lichen Metabolism in an Early Devonian Terrestrial Fossil using Carbon Stable Isotope Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, S.; Jahren, H.

    2002-05-01

    The fossil organismSpongiophyton minutissimum is commonly found in early terrestrial assemblages (Devonian age, 430-340 Ma). Suites of morphological descriptions of this fossil have been published, starting in 1954, and have led to two competing hypotheses: 1.) that this early colonizer of land was a primitive bryophyte, and therefore a precursor to modern plant organisms, and 2.) thatS. minutissimum was a lichen: a close association between an alga and a fungus. Because the ultimate mechanisms for carbon supply to the carboxylating enzyme in bryophytes and lichens differ fundamentally, we expect these two types of organisms to exhibit separate ranges of δ 13Ctissue value. In bryophytes, gaseous carbon dioxide diffuses through perforations in cuticle (resulting in δ 13Catmosphere - δ 13Cbryophyte = ~20 ‰ ). Within the lichen, carbon is supplied to the carboxylating enzyme of the photobiont as carbon dioxide dissolved in fungal cell fluids (resulting in δ 13Catmosphere - δ 13Clichen = ~15 ‰ ). By comparing the δ 13Ctissue value ofS. minutissimum (mean = -23 ‰ ;n = 75) with δ 13Ctissue values in twenty-five lichens, representative of the four different phylogenetic clades (mean = -23 ‰ ;n = 25) and thirty different genera of bryophytes including mosses, liverworts, and hornworts (mean = -28 ‰ ;n = 30), we conclude thatS. minutissimum was cycling carbon via processes that much more closely resembled those of lichens, and not bryophytes. We discuss the general strategies associated with lichen biology, such as the ability to withstand dessication during reproduction, and how they may have contributed to the successful colonization of terrestrial environments.

  6. Identification of early breast cancer patient cohorts who may benefit from lapatinib therapy.

    PubMed

    Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Horick, Nora; Smith, Ian E; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce; Ejlertsen, Bent; Boyle, Frances; Buzdar, Aman U; Fumoleau, Pierre; Gradishar, William; Martin, Miguel; Moy, Beverly; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Lindquist, Deborah; Rappold, Erica; Finkelstein, Dianne M; Goss, Paul E

    2016-03-01

    In resource-constrained environments many patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ early breast cancer are currently not offered adjuvant anti-HER2 therapy. For patients who might be able to receive the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) lapatinib (e.g. after patent expiration), it is important to identify subgroups of patients for whom anti-HER2 TKI therapy could be beneficial. To do this, we used data from 2489 patients with centrally confirmed HER2+ disease enrolled in the adjuvant Tykerb Evaluation After Chemotherapy (TEACH) trial, investigating the effect of lapatinib in patients with HER2+ early breast cancer not treated with trastuzumab. We performed subgroup analyses and number-needed-to-treat (NNT) calculations using patient and tumour associated predictors. Hormone receptor negative (HR-) patients on lapatinib had a significantly prolonged disease-free survival (DFS) compared to HR- patients on placebo (hazard ratio 0.64, P=0.003). For patients with HR- disease, starting treatment with lapatinib ≤1 year from diagnosis improved DFS by 12.1% [2.1-22.1] at 2 years and 15.7% [4.1-27.2] at 5 years. Depending on lymph node status and time since diagnosis the NNT for recurrence (at 5 years) was between 5.9 (node positive patients <1 year from diagnosis) and 15.9. These numbers are in range with numbers reported for up-front adjuvant trastuzumab for HR unselected patients (e.g. 15.6 for DFS at 4 years in HERA). In a subgroup analysis of the adjuvant TEACH trial, we show that anti-HER2 monotherapy with a TKI is beneficial as adjuvant therapy in a subgroup of patients. NNT in HER2+ HR- patients are in range with those reported from up-front adjuvant trastuzumab trials. PMID:26829011

  7. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  8. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  9. Systematic genomic identification of colorectal cancer genes delineating advanced from early clinical stage and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. The initial assessment of colorectal cancer involves clinical staging that takes into account the extent of primary tumor invasion, determining the number of lymph nodes with metastatic cancer and the identification of metastatic sites in other organs. Advanced clinical stage indicates metastatic cancer, either in regional lymph nodes or in distant organs. While the genomic and genetic basis of colorectal cancer has been elucidated to some degree, less is known about the identity of specific cancer genes that are associated with advanced clinical stage and metastasis. Methods We compiled multiple genomic data types (mutations, copy number alterations, gene expression and methylation status) as well as clinical meta-data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We used an elastic-net regularized regression method on the combined genomic data to identify genetic aberrations and their associated cancer genes that are indicators of clinical stage. We ranked candidate genes by their regression coefficient and level of support from multiple assay modalities. Results A fit of the elastic-net regularized regression to 197 samples and integrated analysis of four genomic platforms identified the set of top gene predictors of advanced clinical stage, including: WRN, SYK, DDX5 and ADRA2C. These genetic features were identified robustly in bootstrap resampling analysis. Conclusions We conducted an analysis integrating multiple genomic features including mutations, copy number alterations, gene expression and methylation. This integrated approach in which one considers all of these genomic features performs better than any individual genomic assay. We identified multiple genes that robustly delineate advanced clinical stage, suggesting their possible role in colorectal cancer metastatic progression. PMID:24308539

  10. Identification of Ohnolog Genes Originating from Whole Genome Duplication in Early Vertebrates, Based on Synteny Comparison across Multiple Genomes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Param Priya; Arora, Jatin; Isambert, Hervé

    2015-07-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGD) have now been firmly established in all major eukaryotic kingdoms. In particular, all vertebrates descend from two rounds of WGDs, that occurred in their jawless ancestor some 500 MY ago. Paralogs retained from WGD, also coined 'ohnologs' after Susumu Ohno, have been shown to be typically associated with development, signaling and gene regulation. Ohnologs, which amount to about 20 to 35% of genes in the human genome, have also been shown to be prone to dominant deleterious mutations and frequently implicated in cancer and genetic diseases. Hence, identifying ohnologs is central to better understand the evolution of vertebrates and their susceptibility to genetic diseases. Early computational analyses to identify vertebrate ohnologs relied on content-based synteny comparisons between the human genome and a single invertebrate outgroup genome or within the human genome itself. These approaches are thus limited by lineage specific rearrangements in individual genomes. We report, in this study, the identification of vertebrate ohnologs based on the quantitative assessment and integration of synteny conservation between six amniote vertebrates and six invertebrate outgroups. Such a synteny comparison across multiple genomes is shown to enhance the statistical power of ohnolog identification in vertebrates compared to earlier approaches, by overcoming lineage specific genome rearrangements. Ohnolog gene families can be browsed and downloaded for three statistical confidence levels or recompiled for specific, user-defined, significance criteria at http://ohnologs.curie.fr/. In the light of the importance of WGD on the genetic makeup of vertebrates, our analysis provides a useful resource for researchers interested in gaining further insights on vertebrate evolution and genetic diseases. PMID:26181593

  11. Identification of Ohnolog Genes Originating from Whole Genome Duplication in Early Vertebrates, Based on Synteny Comparison across Multiple Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Param Priya; Arora, Jatin; Isambert, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGD) have now been firmly established in all major eukaryotic kingdoms. In particular, all vertebrates descend from two rounds of WGDs, that occurred in their jawless ancestor some 500 MY ago. Paralogs retained from WGD, also coined ‘ohnologs’ after Susumu Ohno, have been shown to be typically associated with development, signaling and gene regulation. Ohnologs, which amount to about 20 to 35% of genes in the human genome, have also been shown to be prone to dominant deleterious mutations and frequently implicated in cancer and genetic diseases. Hence, identifying ohnologs is central to better understand the evolution of vertebrates and their susceptibility to genetic diseases. Early computational analyses to identify vertebrate ohnologs relied on content-based synteny comparisons between the human genome and a single invertebrate outgroup genome or within the human genome itself. These approaches are thus limited by lineage specific rearrangements in individual genomes. We report, in this study, the identification of vertebrate ohnologs based on the quantitative assessment and integration of synteny conservation between six amniote vertebrates and six invertebrate outgroups. Such a synteny comparison across multiple genomes is shown to enhance the statistical power of ohnolog identification in vertebrates compared to earlier approaches, by overcoming lineage specific genome rearrangements. Ohnolog gene families can be browsed and downloaded for three statistical confidence levels or recompiled for specific, user-defined, significance criteria at http://ohnologs.curie.fr/. In the light of the importance of WGD on the genetic makeup of vertebrates, our analysis provides a useful resource for researchers interested in gaining further insights on vertebrate evolution and genetic diseases. PMID:26181593

  12. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  13. Spectral identification of abiotic O2 buildup from early runaways and rarefied atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, Edward; Meadows, Victoria; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Arney, Giada; Luger, Rodrigo; Barnes, Rory

    2015-11-01

    The spectral detection of oxygen (O2) in a planetary atmosphere has been considered a robust signature of life because O2 is highly reactive on planets with Earth-like redox buffers and because significant continuous abiotic sources were thought to be implausible. However, recent work has revealed the possibility that significant O2 may build-up in terrestrial planet atmospheres through (1) photochemical channels or (2) through massive hydrogen escape. We focus on the latter category here. Significant amounts of abiotic O2 could remain in the atmospheres of planets in the habitable zones of late type stars, where an early runaway greenhouse and massive hydrogen escape during the pre-main-sequence phase could have irreversibly oxidized the crust and mantle (Luger & Barnes 2015). Additionally, it has been hypothesized that O2 could accumulate in the atmospheres of planets with sufficiently low abundances of noncondensable gases such as N2 where water would not be cold trapped in the troposphere, leading to H-escape from UV photolysis in a wet stratosphere (Wordsworth & Pierrehumbert 2014). We self-consistently model the climate, photochemistry, and spectra of both rarefied and post-runaway, high-O2 atmospheres. Because an early runaway might not have lasted long enough for the entire water inventory to have escaped, we explore both completely desiccated scenarios and cases where a surface ocean remains. We find “habitable” surface conditions for a wide variety of oxygen abundances, atmospheric masses, and CO2 mixing ratios. If O2 builds up from H escape, the O2 abundance should be very high, and could be spectrally indicated by the presence of O2 collisionally-induced absorption (CIA) features. We generate synthetic direct-imaging and transit transmission spectra of these atmospheres and calculate the strength of the UV/Visible and NIR O2 CIA features. We find that while both the UV/Visible and NIR O2 CIA features are strong in the direct-imaging spectra of very

  14. Spectral identification of abiotic O2 buildup from early runaways and rarefied atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, Edward; Meadows, Victoria; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Arney, Giada; Robinson, Tyler D.; Luger, Rodrigo; Barnes, Rory

    2016-01-01

    The spectral detection of oxygen (O2) in a planetary atmosphere has been considered a robust signature of life because O2 is highly reactive on planets with Earth-like redox buffers and because significant continuous abiotic sources were thought to be implausible. However, recent work has revealed the possibility that significant O2 may build-up in terrestrial atmospheres through (1) photochemical channels or (2) through the escape of hydrogen. We focus on the latter category here. Significant amounts of abiotic O2 could remain in the atmospheres of planets in the habitable zones of late type stars, where an early runaway greenhouse and massive hydrogen escape during the pre-main-sequence phase could have irreversibly oxidized the crust and mantle (Luger & Barnes 2015). Additionally, it has been hypothesized that O2 could accumulate in the atmospheres of planets with sufficiently low abundances of non-condensable gases such as N2 where water would not be cold trapped in the troposphere, leading to H-escape from UV photolysis in a wet stratosphere (Wordsworth & Pierrehumbert 2014). We self-consistently model the climate, photochemistry, and spectra of both rarefied and post-runaway, high-O2 atmospheres. Because an early runaway might not have lasted long enough for the entire water inventory to escape, we explore both completely desiccated scenarios and cases where a surface ocean remains. We find "habitable" surface conditions for a wide variety of oxygen abundances, atmospheric masses, and CO2 mixing ratios. If O2 builds up from massive or sustained H escape, the O2 abundance should be very high, and could be spectrally indicated by the presence of O2-O2 (O4) collisionally-induced absorption (CIA) features. We generate synthetic direct-imaging and transit transmission spectra of these atmospheres and calculate the strength of the UV/Visible and NIR O4 features. We find that while both the UV/Visible and NIR O4 features are strong in the radiance spectra of very

  15. Metabolomics Profiling for Identification of Novel Potential Markers in Early Prediction of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Kuc, Sylwia; Koster, Maria P. H.; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Berger, Ruud; Harms, Amy C.; Dane, Adrie D.; Schielen, Peter C. J. I.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Vreeken, Rob J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The first aim was to investigate specific signature patterns of metabolites that are significantly altered in first-trimester serum of women who subsequently developed preeclampsia (PE) compared to healthy pregnancies. The second aim of this study was to examine the predictive performance of the selected metabolites for both early onset [EO-PE] and late onset PE [LO-PE]. Methods This was a case-control study of maternal serum samples collected between 8+0 and 13+6 weeks of gestation from 167 women who subsequently developed EO-PE n = 68; LO-PE n = 99 and 500 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Metabolomics profiling analysis was performed using two methods. One has been optimized to target eicosanoids/oxylipins, which are known inflammation markers and the other targets compounds containing a primary or secondary biogenic amine group. Logistic regression analyses were performed to predict the development of PE using metabolites alone and in combination with first trimester mean arterial pressure (MAP) measurements. Results Two metabolites were significantly different between EO-PE and controls (taurine and asparagine) and one in case of LO-PE (glycylglycine). Taurine appeared the most discriminative biomarker and in combination with MAP predicted EO-PE with a detection rate (DR) of 55%, at a false-positive rate (FPR) of 10%. Conclusion Our findings suggest a potential role of taurine in both PE pathophysiology and first trimester screening for EO-PE. PMID:24873829

  16. Identification of early vascular calcification with (18)F-sodium fluoride: potential clinical application.

    PubMed

    Doris, Mhairi K; Newby, David E

    2016-06-01

    Vascular calcification plays a prominent role in cardiovascular disease. Once considered to be a passive consequence of aging, this pathological process is now accepted to be dynamic and tightly regulated, its onset triggered by inflammation and necrosis and its progression bearing key similarities to osteogenesis. A major potential advance in our ability to understand the natural history and clinical implications of vascular calcification is the detection of its early and dynamic stages through the use of the positron-emitting radiotracer, (18)F-sodium fluoride. Alongside anatomical information gained from computed tomography, hybrid positron emission and computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging with (18)F-sodium fluoride has, for the first time, enabled the non-invasive detection of microcalcification within the aortic valve, great vessels, and vulnerable coronary plaque. This has raised promise that exploring this process may allow improved risk prediction, better application of current therapies and ultimately the development of novel treatments to target this widespread pathology. PMID:26854119

  17. GPR identification of an early monument at Los Morteros in the Peruvian coastal desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandweiss, Daniel H.; Kelley, Alice R.; Belknap, Daniel F.; Kelley, Joseph T.; Rademaker, Kurt; Reid, David A.

    2010-05-01

    Los Morteros (8˚39'54″S, 78˚42 '00″W) is located in coastal, northern Peru, one of the six original centers of world civilization. The site consists of a large, sand-covered, isolated prominence situated on a Mid-Holocene shoreline, ˜ 5 km from the present coast. Preceramic archaeological deposits (4040 ± 75 to 4656 ± 60 14C yr BP or ˜ 3600-5500 cal yr BP) cap this feature, which has been identified by prior researchers as a sand-draped, bedrock-cored landform or a relict dune deposit. Because neither explanation is geomorphologically probable, we used ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and high-resolution mapping to assess the mound's interior structure. Our results indicate an anthropogenic origin for Los Morteros, potentially placing it among the earliest monumental structures in prehistoric South America. The extremely arid setting raises new questions about the purpose and the logistics of early mound construction in this region. This work demonstrates the value of an integrated Quaternary sciences approach to assess long-term landscape change and to understand the interaction between humans and the environment.

  18. Identification of candidate genes for chicken early- and late-feathering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Yao, J; Li, F; Yang, Z; Sun, Z; Qu, L; Wang, K; Su, Y; Zhang, A; Montgomery, S A; Geng, T; Cui, H

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that prolactin receptor (Prlr) is a potential causative gene for chicken early- (EF) and late-feathering (LF) phenotypes. In this study, we evaluated candidate genes for this trait and determined the expression of 3 genes, including Prlr, sperm flagellar protein 2 (Spef2), and their fusion gene, in the skins of one-day-old EF and LF chicks using RT-qPCR. Data indicated that Prlr expression in the skin did not show significant difference between EF and LF chicks, suggesting Prlr may not be a suitable candidate gene. In contrast, Spef2 expression in the skin displayed a significant difference between EF and LF chicks (P < 0.01), suggesting that Spef2 may be a good candidate gene for chicken feathering. Moreover, dPrlr/dSpef2, the fusion gene, was also a good candidate gene as it was expressed only in LF chicks. However, the expression of the fusion gene was much lower than that of Prlr Additionally, using strand-specific primers, we found that the fusion gene was transcribed in 2 directions (one from dPrlr promoter, another from dSpef2 promoter), which could result in the formation of a double strand RNA. In conclusion, both Spef2 and the fusion gene are good candidate genes for chicken feathering, but Prlr is not. The research on the function and regulation of the candidate genes will help elucidate the molecular basis of the chicken feathering trait. PMID:27081197

  19. [The NETWASS prevention model for early identification and assessment of adolescents in psychosocial crisis].

    PubMed

    Sommer, Friederike; Fiedler, Nora; Leuschner, Vincenz; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research-based NETWASS prevention model aims to enable school staff to identify students experiencing a psychosocial crisis that could lead to severe targeted school violence and to initiate appropriate support measures. A detailed analysis of the adolescent psychosocial crisis is conducted at an early stage by evaluating possible warning behaviors, crisis symptoms, a student’s individual and social background, and resources. The model was implemented in 98 schools. During the project duration of seven months staff from 59 schools reported 99 cases of a student’s psychosocial crisis. Three experts conducted a content analysis of the reported qualitative data focusing on crisis symptoms of the students as well as the initiated measures. Results show a broad spectrum of risk factors, whereas aggressive behavior of students was reported most frequently. On the basis of theoretical assumptions, the reported cases were divided into three distinct risk groups. A total of eight high-risk cases were observed and reported by the school staff. The school staff mostly reacted to the student crisis by initiating resource-orientated measures, the expertise of child and youth therapists was mostly requested for the high risk cases. By describing the impact of cases and choice of measures undertaken, the study aims to give an overview of incidents schools as well as clinical psychologists and therapists are confronted with. PMID:27216326

  20. Identification of the microRNA transcriptome during the early phases of mammalian fracture repair.

    PubMed

    Hadjiargyrou, Michael; Zhi, Jizu; Komatsu, David E

    2016-06-01

    Fracture repair is a complex process that involves multiple biological processes requiring spatiotemporal expression of thousands of genes. The molecular regulation of this process is not completely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation or blocking translation. To identify miRNAs expressed during fracture repair, we generated murine bone fractures and isolated miRNA-enriched RNA from intact and post-fracture day (PFD) 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, and 14 femurs. RNA samples were individually hybridized to mouse miRNA microarrays. Results indicated that 959 (51%) miRNAs were absent while 922 (49%) displayed expression in at least one sample. Of the 922 miRNAs, 306 (33.2%) and 374 (40.6%) were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in the calluses in comparison to intact bone. Additionally, 20 (2.2%) miRNAs displayed combined up- and down-regulated expression within the time course and the remaining 222 (24%) miRNAs did not exhibit any changes between calluses and intact bone. Quantitative-PCR validated the expression of several miRNAs. Further, we identified 2048 and 4782 target genes that were unique to the up- and down-regulated miRNAs, respectively. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses indicated relevant biological processes. These data provide the first complete analysis of the miRNA transcriptome during the early phases of fracture repair. PMID:27058875

  1. Making hard choices easier: a prospective, multicentre study to assess the efficacy of a fertility-related decision aid in young women with early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peate, M; Meiser, B; Cheah, B C; Saunders, C; Butow, P; Thewes, B; Hart, R; Phillips, K-A; Hickey, M; Friedlander, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fertility is a priority for many young women with breast cancer. Women need to be informed about interventions to retain fertility before chemotherapy so as to make good quality decisions. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the efficacy of a fertility-related decision aid (DA). Methods: A total of 120 newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer patients from 19 Australian oncology clinics, aged 18–40 years and desired future fertility, were assessed on decisional conflict, knowledge, decision regret, and satisfaction about fertility-related treatment decisions. These were measured at baseline, 1 and 12 months, and were examined using linear mixed effects models. Results: Compared with usual care, women who received the DA had reduced decisional conflict (β=−1.51; 95%CI: −2.54 to 0.48; P=0.004) and improved knowledge (β=0.09; 95%CI: 0.01–0.16; P=0.02), after adjusting for education, desire for children and baseline uncertainty. The DA was associated with reduced decisional regret at 1 year (β=−3.73; 95%CI: −7.12 to −0.35; P=0.031), after adjusting for education. Women who received the DA were more satisfied with the information received on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility (P<0.001), fertility options (P=0.005), and rated it more helpful (P=0.002), than those who received standard care. Conclusion: These findings support widespread use of this DA shortly after diagnosis (before chemotherapy) among younger breast cancer patients who have not completed their families. PMID:22415294

  2. Identification of candidate genes for familial early-onset essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinmin; Hernandez, Nora; Kisselev, Sergey; Floratos, Aris; Sawle, Ashley; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; Ottman, Ruth; Louis, Elan D; Clark, Lorraine N

    2016-07-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common causes of tremor in humans. Despite its high heritability and prevalence, few susceptibility genes for ET have been identified. To identify ET genes, whole-exome sequencing was performed in 37 early-onset ET families with an autosomal-dominant inheritance pattern. We identified candidate genes for follow-up functional studies in five ET families. In two independent families, we identified variants predicted to affect function in the nitric oxide (NO) synthase 3 gene (NOS3) that cosegregated with disease. NOS3 is highly expressed in the central nervous system (including cerebellum), neurons and endothelial cells, and is one of three enzymes that converts l-arginine to the neurotransmitter NO. In one family, a heterozygous variant, c.46G>A (p.(Gly16Ser)), in NOS3, was identified in three affected ET cases and was absent in an unaffected family member; and in a second family, a heterozygous variant, c.164C>T (p.(Pro55Leu)), was identified in three affected ET cases (dizygotic twins and their mother). Both variants result in amino-acid substitutions of highly conserved amino-acid residues that are predicted to be deleterious and damaging by in silico analysis. In three independent families, variants predicted to affect function were also identified in other genes, including KCNS2 (KV9.2), HAPLN4 (BRAL2) and USP46. These genes are highly expressed in the cerebellum and Purkinje cells, and influence function of the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic system. This is in concordance with recent evidence that the pathophysiological process in ET involves cerebellar dysfunction and possibly cerebellar degeneration with a reduction in Purkinje cells, and a decrease in GABA-ergic tone. PMID:26508575

  3. Identification of the ISWI Chromatin Remodeling Complex of the Early Branching Eukaryote Trypanosoma brucei*

    PubMed Central

    Stanne, Tara; Narayanan, Mani Shankar; Ridewood, Sophie; Ling, Alexandra; Witmer, Kathrin; Kushwaha, Manish; Wiesler, Simone; Wickstead, Bill; Wood, Jennifer; Rudenko, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    ISWI chromatin remodelers are highly conserved in eukaryotes and are important for the assembly and spacing of nucleosomes, thereby controlling transcription initiation and elongation. ISWI is typically associated with different subunits, forming specialized complexes with discrete functions. In the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which causes African sleeping sickness, TbISWI down-regulates RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-transcribed variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene expression sites (ESs), which are monoallelically expressed. Here, we use tandem affinity purification to determine the interacting partners of TbISWI. We identify three proteins that do not show significant homology with known ISWI-associated partners. Surprisingly, one of these is nucleoplasmin-like protein (NLP), which we had previously shown to play a role in ES control. In addition, we identify two novel ISWI partners, regulator of chromosome condensation 1-like protein (RCCP) and phenylalanine/tyrosine-rich protein (FYRP), both containing protein motifs typically found on chromatin proteins. Knockdown of RCCP or FYRP in bloodstream form T. brucei results in derepression of silent variant surface glycoprotein ESs, as had previously been shown for TbISWI and NLP. All four proteins are expressed and interact with each other in both major life cycle stages and show similar distributions at Pol I-transcribed loci. They are also found at Pol II strand switch regions as determined with ChIP. ISWI, NLP, RCCP, and FYRP therefore appear to form a single major ISWI complex in T. brucei (TbIC). This reduced complexity of ISWI regulation and the presence of novel ISWI partners highlights the early divergence of trypanosomes in evolution. PMID:26378228

  4. Identification of the ISWI Chromatin Remodeling Complex of the Early Branching Eukaryote Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Stanne, Tara M; Narayanan, Mani Shankar; Ridewood, Sophie; Ling, Alexandra; Witmer, Kathrin; Kushwaha, Manish; Wiesler, Simone; Wickstead, Bill; Wood, Jennifer; Rudenko, Gloria

    2015-11-01

    ISWI chromatin remodelers are highly conserved in eukaryotes and are important for the assembly and spacing of nucleosomes, thereby controlling transcription initiation and elongation. ISWI is typically associated with different subunits, forming specialized complexes with discrete functions. In the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which causes African sleeping sickness, TbISWI down-regulates RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-transcribed variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene expression sites (ESs), which are monoallelically expressed. Here, we use tandem affinity purification to determine the interacting partners of TbISWI. We identify three proteins that do not show significant homology with known ISWI-associated partners. Surprisingly, one of these is nucleoplasmin-like protein (NLP), which we had previously shown to play a role in ES control. In addition, we identify two novel ISWI partners, regulator of chromosome condensation 1-like protein (RCCP) and phenylalanine/tyrosine-rich protein (FYRP), both containing protein motifs typically found on chromatin proteins. Knockdown of RCCP or FYRP in bloodstream form T. brucei results in derepression of silent variant surface glycoprotein ESs, as had previously been shown for TbISWI and NLP. All four proteins are expressed and interact with each other in both major life cycle stages and show similar distributions at Pol I-transcribed loci. They are also found at Pol II strand switch regions as determined with ChIP. ISWI, NLP, RCCP, and FYRP therefore appear to form a single major ISWI complex in T. brucei (TbIC). This reduced complexity of ISWI regulation and the presence of novel ISWI partners highlights the early divergence of trypanosomes in evolution. PMID:26378228

  5. Early identification of cognitive impairment and dementia: Results from four years of the community consultation center.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Akiko; Kitamura, Shin; Nomura, Toshiaki; Nemoto, Rumi; Ishii, Chika; Wakamatsu, Naoki; Katayama, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    The community consultation center was established as the core facility for a project entitled "Community Support Network for Citizens with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Dementia." This study reports on our center's activity and user outcomes. Users consulted with medical staff regarding their memory problems and were self-screened using a touch-panel computer assisted screening tool (TPST). Dementia was suspected when the TPST score was 12 points or below, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was conducted by our onsite clinical psychologists, which served as the gold standard. All reports were provided to user's primary care physicians, or a nearby medical institute if users did not have a primary care physician. Patient outcomes were obtained from participating medical institutes. Informed consent was obtained for all users. In the four-year period, 2802 users visited the center. Of them, 1565 registered (men/women=519/1046; mean age, 74 years). Of 1354 people who used TPST, 622 (45.9%) scored 12 points or below. 409 confirmed diagnoses from the medical institutes revealed MCI in 11.2%, Alzheimer's disease in 37.1%, and vascular dementia in 8.0%. Among the 207 users who had no primary care physicians at consultation, 43 (20.8%) were diagnosed with MCI or dementia. Approximately half of the users who took the TPST were suspected of dementia following interview by a clinical psychologist. Both MCI and dementia were confirmed by the medical institutes in 59.6% of users. We conclude that our consultation center plays a pivotal role in early diagnosis of MCI and dementia. PMID:25022712

  6. Early identification of non-responding locally advanced breast tumors receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Giessen, Martijn; Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Charehbili, Ayoub; Smit, Vincent T. H. B. M.; Kroep, Judith R.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Chan, Alan; Löwik, Clemens W. G. M.; Dijkstra, Jouke; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Wasser, Martin N. J. M.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) may be advantageous for monitoring tumor response during chemotherapy treatment, particularly in the early treatment stages. In this paper we perform a second analysis on the data of a clinical trial with 25 breast cancer patients that received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients were monitored using delayed contrast enhanced MRI and additionally with diffuse optical spectroscopy at baseline, after 1 cycle of chemotherapy, halfway therapy and before surgery. In this analysis hemoglobin content between tumor tissue and healthy tissue of the same breast is compared on all four monitoring time points. Furthermore, the predictive power of the tumor-healthy tissue difference of HbO2 for non-responder prediction is assessed. The difference in HbO2 content between tumor and healthy tissue was statistically significantly higher in responding tumors than in non-responding tumors at baseline (10.88 vs -0.57 μM, P=0.014) and after one cycle of chemotherapy (6.45 vs -1.31 μM, P=0.048). Before surgery this difference had diminished. In the data of this study, classification on the HbO2 difference between tumor and healthy tissue was able to predict tumor (non-)response at baseline and after 1 cycle with an area-under-curve of 0.95 and 0.88, respectively. While this result suggests that tumor response can be predicted before chemotherapy onset, one should be very careful with interpreting these results. A larger patient population is needed to confirm this finding.

  7. Identification of synthetic dyes in early colour photographs using capillary electrophoresis and electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López-Montes, Ana Ma; Dupont, Anne-Laurence; Desmazières, Bernard; Lavédrine, Bertrand

    2013-09-30

    Capillary electrophoresis with photodiode array detection (CE-PDA) and with electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) was used for the separation and the identification of 23 synthetic organic dyes, among those used in early 20th century colour photographs such as autochromes. Both cationic and anionic dyes could be separated within 15min using a single CE-PDA method. The method was used as the basis to develop a CE-ESI-MS methodology through the optimisation of the relevant ESI and MS parameters. Sheath liquid composition, nebulising gas pressure, drying gas flow rate and drying gas temperature were found to influence the sensitivity of the detection. These parameters were optimised in positive and negative ion modes for cationic dyes and anionic dyes, respectively. The two analyses could be carried out successively on a single sample. In view of the application to cultural heritage objects, the CE-ESI-MS analytical procedure was applied to identify the dyes in a Filmcolor artefact, late version of the autochrome. The results complemented and enhanced current knowledge as four cationic dyes and three anionic dyes were identified. Four additional dyes are proposed as possibly present as traces. PMID:23953463

  8. Identification of a New Hesperornithiform from the Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk and Implications for Ecologic Diversity among Early Diving Birds

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Alyssa; Chiappe, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    The Smoky Hill Member of the Niobrara Chalk in Kansas (USA) has yielded the remains of numerous members of the Hesperornithiformes, toothed diving birds from the late Early to Late Cretaceous. This study presents a new taxon of hesperornithiform from the Smoky Hill Member, Fumicollis hoffmani, the holotype of which is among the more complete hesperornithiform skeletons. Fumicollis has a unique combination of primitive (e.g. proximal and distal ends of femur not expanded, elongate pre-acetabular ilium, small and pyramidal patella) and derived (e.g. dorsal ridge on metatarsal IV, plantarly-projected curve in the distal shaft of phalanx III:1) hesperornithiform characters, suggesting it was more specialized than small hesperornithiforms like Baptornis advenus but not as highly derived as the larger Hesperornis regalis. The identification of Fumicollis highlights once again the significant diversity of hesperornithiforms that existed in the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway. This diversity points to the existence of a complex ecosystem, perhaps with a high degree of niche partitioning, as indicated by the varying degrees of diving specializations among these birds. PMID:26580402

  9. Toward Early Identification of Sensory Over-Responsivity (SOR): A Construct for Predicting Difficulties With Sleep and Feeding in Infants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Simone; Bundy, Anita C; Black, Deborah; Lane, Shelly J

    2015-07-01

    Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) is a type of sensory modulation disorder in which heightened sensitivity to non-noxious sensations interrupts daily life. In this preliminary study within a larger investigation, we used infants with sleep/feeding difficulties as a proxy for later development of SOR. We tested evidence for construct validity and internal reliability of preand perinatal factors that, together, could predict infant sleep/feeding difficulties. We obtained retrospective data on 360 mother-infant dyads on 38 pre- and perinatal variables and linked the data with infant referral for sleep/feeding difficulties. We analyzed the data with Rasch analysis to examine evidence for a unidimensional construct. Our results show good evidence for a construct comprising 18 of the 38 pre- and perinatal variables examined. This construct may represent a step toward early identification of SOR and provide therapists with evidence to support the use of pre- and perinatal information as predictors of infant sleep/feeding difficulties. PMID:26594740

  10. 33 CFR 62.54 - Ownership identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 62.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.54 Ownership identification. Ownership identification on private or state aids to navigation is permitted so long as it...

  11. 33 CFR 62.54 - Ownership identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 62.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.54 Ownership identification. Ownership identification on private or state aids to navigation is permitted so long as it...

  12. 33 CFR 62.54 - Ownership identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 62.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.54 Ownership identification. Ownership identification on private or state aids to navigation is permitted so long as it...

  13. 33 CFR 62.54 - Ownership identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 62.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.54 Ownership identification. Ownership identification on private or state aids to navigation is permitted so long as it...

  14. 33 CFR 62.54 - Ownership identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 62.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.54 Ownership identification. Ownership identification on private or state aids to navigation is permitted so long as it...

  15. Identification and Characterization of Early Solar system Organic Matter Preserved in Chondritic Porous Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, George; Wirick, Sue; Keller, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    The chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs), collected by NASA from the Earth's stratosphere, have experienced minimal aqueous or thermal alteration since their formation. These CP IDPs are the best preserved samples of the minerals and organic matter that was present in the primitive Solar Nebula that are currently available for laboratory analysis [1]. The ~10 μm CP IDPs are aggregates of tens-of-thousands of mostly sub-micron grains of diverse compositions and mineralogies. Many of the individual mineral grains are coated by a 50 to 200 nm thick rims of carbonaceous material, and other carbonaceous material occurs as larger, discrete subunits within the particles [2]. We characterize this carbonaceous material using two high-resolution, synchrotron-based instruments: a Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (STXM) to locate and map the carbon and to identify its major functional groups by X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and a micro-Fourier Transform Infrared (μ-FTIR) spectrometer to further characterize the functional groups by mid-infrared spectroscopy. Carbon-XANES spectroscopy identifies the rims coating the individual grains in CP IDPs as organic matter, dominated by the C=C, likely C-rings, and the C=O functional groups [3]. This structure, with the organic rims being the contact surfaces between the grains, implies a 3-step formation sequence: grain condensation, organic rim emplacement, and, finally, aggregation of the grains to form the dust particles. This suggests these organic rims formed very early in the evolution of the Solar Nebula, after grain condensation but before grain aggregation [3]. These organic rims coat grains of diverse compositions, including silicates, sulfides, and carbonates, which is inconsistent with formation by Fischer-Tropsch-like, mineral-specific catalysis, one of the mechanisms suggested for the formation of primitive organic matter. Our observations are consistent with an

  16. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  17. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009,. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were

  18. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were

  19. Transcript Profiling and Identification of Molecular Markers for Early Microspore Embryogenesis in Brassica napus1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Meghna R.; Wang, Feng; Dirpaul, Joan M.; Zhou, Ning; Polowick, Patricia L.; Ferrie, Alison M.R.; Krochko, Joan E.

    2007-01-01

    Isolated microspores of Brassica napus are developmentally programmed to form gametes; however, microspores can be reprogrammed through stress treatments to undergo appropriate divisions and form embryos. We are interested in the identification and isolation of factors and genes associated with the induction and establishment of embryogenesis in isolated microspores. Standard and normalized cDNA libraries, as well as subtractive cDNA libraries, were constructed from freshly isolated microspores (0 h) and microspores cultured for 3, 5, or 7 d under embryogenesis-inducing conditions. Library comparison tools were used to identify shifts in metabolism across this time course. Detailed expressed sequence tag analyses of 3 and 5 d cultures indicate that most sequences are related to pollen-specific genes. However, semiquantitative and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses at the initial stages of embryo induction also reveal expression of embryogenesis-related genes such as BABYBOOM1, LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), and LEC2 as early as 2 to 3 d of microspore culture. Sequencing results suggest that embryogenesis is clearly established in a subset of the microspores by 7 d of culture and that this time point is optimal for isolation of embryo-specific expressed sequence tags such as ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3, ATS1, LEC1, LEC2, and FUSCA3. Following extensive polymerase chain reaction-based expression profiling, 16 genes were identified as unequivocal molecular markers for microspore embryogenesis in B. napus. These molecular marker genes also show expression during zygotic embryogenesis, underscoring the common developmental pathways that function in zygotic and gametic embryogenesis. The quantitative expression values of several of these molecular marker genes are shown to be predictive of embryogenic potential in B. napus cultivars (e.g. ‘Topas’ DH4079, ‘Allons,’ ‘Westar,’ ‘Garrison’). PMID:17384168

  20. Identification of human adenovirus early region 1 products by using antisera against synthetic peptides corresponding to the predicted carboxy termini.

    PubMed Central

    Yee, S P; Rowe, D T; Tremblay, M L; McDermott, M; Branton, P E

    1983-01-01

    Synthetic peptides were prepared which corresponded to the carboxy termini of the human adenovirus type 5 early region 1B (E1B) 58,000-molecular-weight (58K) protein (Tyr-Ser-Asp-Glu-Asp-Thr-Asp) and of the E1A gene products (Tyr-Gly-Lys-Arg-Pro-Arg-Pro). Antisera raised against these peptides precipitated polypeptides from adenovirus type 5-infected KB cells; serum raised against the 58K carboxy terminus was active against the E1B 58K phosphoprotein, whereas serum raised against the E1A peptide immunoprecipitated four major and at least two minor polypeptides. These latter proteins migrated with apparent molecular weights of 52K, 50K, 48.5K, 45K, 37.5K, and 35K, and all were phosphoproteins. By using tryptic phosphopeptide analysis, the four major species (52K, 50K, 48.5K, and 45K) were found to be related, as would be expected if all were products of the E1A region. The ability of the antipeptide sera to precipitate these viral proteins thus confirmed that the previously proposed sequence of E1 DNA and mRNA and the reading frame of the mRNA are correct. Immunofluorescent-antibody staining with the antipeptide sera indicated that the 58K E1B protein was localized both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm, especially in the perinuclear region. The E1A-specific serum also stained both discrete patches in the nucleus and diffuse areas of the cytoplasm. These data suggest that both the 58K protein and the E1A proteins may function in or around the nucleus. These highly specific antipeptide sera should allow for a more complete identification and characterization of these important viral proteins. Images PMID:6343626

  1. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  2. Emphasis: Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyne, Roger

    A potential program for dealing with the identification of kindergarteners with potential learning disabilities is discussed. The subject is dealt with on the level of prediction. It is pointed out that as children learn in different ways, different methods of educating them must be devised. Early identification of disabilities lessens the chances…

  3. THE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) RECOVERED FROM LOS ANGELES POTABLE WATER, A POSSIBLE SOURCE OF INFECTION IN AIDS PATIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Los Angeles water was investigated as a possible source of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in patients with AIDS. MAC consists of M.avium (MA), M. intracellulare (MI) and Mycobacterium X (MX)(positive for MAC by DNA probe but not MA or MI). The study included 13 reser...

  4. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship. This study investigated the moderating role of…

  5. AIDS and economic disruption.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G S

    1996-10-01

    Child and adult mortality increases in Cameroon due to AIDS will cause life expectancy to fall by as many as 8 years, from just over 50 to just over 40 years. The social consequences of AIDS include grieving, stigmatizing, and the large-scale disruption of family and community structures. Widows and widowers due to AIDS mortality are affected differently from each other, with the widows of men who have died from AIDS facing potential sociocultural and economic hardship. The economic consequences of AIDS in Bamenda and elsewhere in Cameroon will occur mainly through the epidemic's impact upon the size and quality of the labor force. By killing a significant number of male and female workers aged 15-60 years, AIDS will reduce the size and growth rate of the labor force. Despite, rapid population growth, labor is a relatively scarce factor of agricultural production in Cameroon. The spread of HIV in rural areas, combined with the intensity and scarcity of agricultural labor, suggests that AIDS will have an impact upon production and per capita incomes, and increase the already high rates of hunger and absolute poverty. In the context of HIV/AIDS, young people must be empowered to make informed decisions about sex. Adolescents are most at risk because they tend to experiment more than married couples and have many sex partners. Sexual activity begins as early as age 8 years and penetrative sex at age 13 or earlier. The author considers the factors which encourage adolescents to engage in sexual activities. PMID:12293251

  6. Trajectories of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors: The Role of Other Maltreatment, Witnessed Violence, and Child Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.; Wiley, Tisha; English, Diana E.; Proctor, Laura J.; Jones, Bobby L.; Nagin, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV/AIDS risk behavior; however, much of this work is retrospective and focuses on women. The current study used semi-parametric mixture modeling with youth (n = 844; 48.8% boys) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine the link between trajectories of CSA…

  7. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  8. Is early detection of abused children possible?: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of the identification of abused children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early detection of abused children could help decrease mortality and morbidity related to this major public health problem. Several authors have proposed tools to screen for child maltreatment. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence on accuracy of tools proposed to identify abused children before their death and assess if any were adapted to screening. Methods We searched in PUBMED, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, FRANCIS and PASCAL for studies estimating diagnostic accuracy of tools identifying neglect, or physical, psychological or sexual abuse of children, published in English or French from 1961 to April 2012. We extracted selected information about study design, patient populations, assessment methods, and the accuracy parameters. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS criteria. Results A total of 2 280 articles were identified. Thirteen studies were selected, of which seven dealt with physical abuse, four with sexual abuse, one with emotional abuse, and one with any abuse and physical neglect. Study quality was low, even when not considering the lack of gold standard for detection of abused children. In 11 studies, instruments identified abused children only when they had clinical symptoms. Sensitivity of tests varied between 0.26 (95% confidence interval [0.17-0.36]) and 0.97 [0.84-1], and specificity between 0.51 [0.39-0.63] and 1 [0.95-1]. The sensitivity was greater than 90% only for three tests: the absence of scalp swelling to identify children victims of inflicted head injury; a decision tool to identify physically-abused children among those hospitalized in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit; and a parental interview integrating twelve child symptoms to identify sexually-abused children. When the sensitivity was high, the specificity was always smaller than 90%. Conclusions In 2012, there is low-quality evidence on the accuracy of instruments for identifying abused children. Identified tools were not adapted to screening because of

  9. Identification of isolated and early prostatic adenocarcinoma in radical prostatectomy specimens with correlation to biopsy cores: clinical and pathogenetic significance.

    PubMed

    Mai, Kien T; Landry, Denise C; Yazdi, Hossein M; Stinson, William A; Perkins, D Garth; Morash, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) is a multifocal disease. In this study, we identified isolated and small foci of PAC (ISPAC) in radical prostatectomy specimens, described the histopathologic features, investigated their zonal distribution in the prostate and their relationship with large tumor nodules, and correlated the findings with those of preceding biopsy cores. One hundred and thirty radical prostatectomy specimens performed for PAC or for urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder with incidental PAC were reviewed for identification of ISPAC. Prostates were serially sectioned in the horizontal plane and submitted in toto for microscopic examination. ISPAC were defined as foci of PAC measuring less than 3 mm in maximum diameter. There were 461 ISPAC identified in 114 cases. They were distributed in the transitional zone (TZ) (18 foci), the apex (73 foci), the anterior horn of the non-TZ (NTZ) (118 foci), the base (8 foci), and the remaining NTZ (244 foci). ISPAC usually consisted of groups of small acini with a GS ranging from 2 to 7 (3 + 4). GSs of ISPAC consisted of single grade or two consecutive grades equal to or lower than those of the main PAC. ISPAC were more often located in close proximity to large tumor nodules. The number of ISPAC increased with the tumor volume up to 3 cm3, then decreased as the PAC became more extensive (p value = 0.02, statistically significant). Prostates with NTZ PAC <1.5 cm3 and TZ PAC or prostates containing 4 or more than 4 ISPAC tended to be frequently associated with small foci of PAC in biopsy cores In this study, we identified ISPAC that likely represent foci of PAC in early development and account for the multicentricity and heterogeneity of PAC. ISPAC in the NTZ were common and may account for small foci of PAC or atypia in biopsy cores. Although these small foci of PAC or atypia in biopsy cores without accompanying higher GS PAC were often associated with significant PAC, they may also occasionally represent

  10. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  11. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  12. Human glucokinase gene: isolation, characterization, and identification of two missense mutations linked to early-onset non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Stoffel, M; Froguel, P; Takeda, J; Zouali, H; Vionnet, N; Nishi, S; Weber, I T; Harrison, R W; Pilkis, S J; Lesage, S

    1992-01-01

    DNA polymorphisms in the glucokinase gene have recently been shown to be tightly linked to early-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in approximately 80% of French families with this form of diabetes. We previously identified a nonsense mutation in exon 7 in one of these families and showed that it was the likely cause of glucose intolerance in this dominantly inherited disorder. Here we report the isolation and partial sequence of the human glucokinase gene and the identification of two missense mutations in exon 7, Thr-228----Met and Gly-261----Arg, that cosegregate with early-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. To assess the molecular mechanism by which mutations at these two sites may affect glucokinase activity, the crystal structure of the related yeast hexokinase B was used as a simple model for human beta-cell glucokinase. Computer-assisted modeling suggests that mutation of Thr-228 affects affinity for ATP and mutation of Gly-261 may alter glucose binding. The identification of mutations in glucokinase, a protein that plays an important role in hepatic and beta-cell glucose metabolism, indicates that early-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus may be primarily a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. Images PMID:1502186

  13. [Color Doppler identification of early diastolic turbulence in the left atrium in patients with mitral valve insufficiency: persistence of regurgitation or inertia phenomenon?].

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, G; Moro, E; Nicolosi, G L; Dall'Aglio, V; Mimo, R; Mangano, S; Zanuttini, D

    1990-08-01

    Color Doppler flow mapping represents the most recent non invasive diagnostic tool for the visualization of intracardiac blood flow. By using the color Doppler flow mapping technique, two independent observers identified the persistence of turbulence in early diastole inside the left atrium in a selected group of 8 patients (3 F and 5 M) with mitral insufficiency. All the patients had moderate or severe mitral insufficiency, due to dilated cardiomyopathy and/or ischemic cardiomyopathy and/or valvular disease. The persistence of early diastolic turbulence inside the left atrium was documented and confirmed by using 30 degrees color sector images, which show the highest possible frame rate. The frame by frame analysis facilitated the identification of two simultaneous flow velocities during early diastole, after the mitral valve was open. The first flow was anterograde and was coded as a red signal; it flowed from the mitral valve into the left ventricle and represented early diastolic left ventricular filling. The second flow was retrograde, and was coded as a blue mosaic signal, due to turbulent aliased jet, extending from the mitral valve into the left atrium, away from the transducer. The interpretation of these two dimensional color Doppler findings is uncertain. We believe, however, that these turbulent velocity signals which persist in early diastole and flow from the mitral valve into the left atrium are probably caused by inertial blood flow due to the impact of regurgitant mitral jets during the previous systole. PMID:2272415

  14. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A...

  19. A Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Identification of Pneumocystis jirovecii, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii in Samples from AIDS Patients with Opportunistic Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Gago, Sara; Esteban, Cristina; Valero, Clara; Zaragoza, Óscar; Puig de la Bellacasa, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    A molecular diagnostic technique based on real-time PCR was developed for the simultaneous detection of three of the most frequent causative agents of fungal opportunistic pneumonia in AIDS patients: Pneumocystis jirovecii, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii. This technique was tested in cultured strains and in clinical samples from HIV-positive patients. The methodology used involved species-specific molecular beacon probes targeted to the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA. An internal control was also included in each assay. The multiplex real-time PCR assay was tested in 24 clinical strains and 43 clinical samples from AIDS patients with proven fungal infection. The technique developed showed high reproducibility (r2 of >0.98) and specificity (100%). For H. capsulatum and Cryptococcus spp., the detection limits of the method were 20 and 2 fg of genomic DNA/20 μl reaction mixture, respectively, while for P. jirovecii the detection limit was 2.92 log10 copies/20 μl reaction mixture. The sensitivity in vitro was 100% for clinical strains and 90.7% for clinical samples. The assay was positive for 92.5% of the patients. For one of the patients with proven histoplasmosis, P. jirovecii was also detected in a bronchoalveolar lavage sample. No PCR inhibition was detected. This multiplex real-time PCR technique is fast, sensitive, and specific and may have clinical applications. PMID:24478409

  20. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  1. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  2. Observation of Early Cleavage in Animal Development: A Simple Technique for Obtaining the Eggs of Rhabditis (Nematoda)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the advantages of using the readily available eggs of the nematode Rhabditis in studying the early cleavage stages of animal development. Discusses the identification and life history of Rhabditis, how to culture and examine the organism, the cleavage stages and cell lineage, and sources of visual aids. (JR)

  3. The Link between Emotion Identification Skills and Socio-Emotional Functioning in Early Adolescence: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Supavadeeprasit, Sunila

    2008-01-01

    Amongst adults, low emotion identification skill (EIS) relates to poor emotion regulation strategies, higher rates of anxiety and depression, and higher rates of somatic illness and disease [Taylor, G. J., & Bagby, R. M. (2004). New trends in alexithymia research. "Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics", 73, 68-77]. Little research has examined EIS in…

  4. 48 CFR 227.7203-3 - Early identification of computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... use, reproduction or disclosure. 227.7203-3 Section 227.7203-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... restrictions on use, reproduction or disclosure. (a) Use the provision at 252.227-7017, Identification and... for which restrictions, other than copyright, on use, modification, reproduction, release,...

  5. 48 CFR 227.7203-3 - Early identification of computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... use, reproduction or disclosure. 227.7203-3 Section 227.7203-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... restrictions on use, reproduction or disclosure. (a) Use the provision at 252.227-7017, Identification and... for which restrictions, other than copyright, on use, modification, reproduction, release,...

  6. 48 CFR 227.7203-3 - Early identification of computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... use, reproduction or disclosure. 227.7203-3 Section 227.7203-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... restrictions on use, reproduction or disclosure. (a) Use the provision at 252.227-7017, Identification and... for which restrictions, other than copyright, on use, modification, reproduction, release,...

  7. 48 CFR 227.7203-3 - Early identification of computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... use, reproduction or disclosure. 227.7203-3 Section 227.7203-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... restrictions on use, reproduction or disclosure. (a) Use the provision at 252.227-7017, Identification and... for which restrictions, other than copyright, on use, modification, reproduction, release,...

  8. 48 CFR 227.7203-3 - Early identification of computer software or computer software documentation to be furnished to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... use, reproduction or disclosure. 227.7203-3 Section 227.7203-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... restrictions on use, reproduction or disclosure. (a) Use the provision at 252.227-7017, Identification and... for which restrictions, other than copyright, on use, modification, reproduction, release,...

  9. Cryptococcus gattii VGIII Isolates Causing Infections in HIV/AIDS Patients in Southern California: Identification of the Local Environmental Source as Arboreal

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Deborah J.; Billmyre, R. Blake; Filler, Elan E.; Voelz, Kerstin; Pursall, Rhiannon; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Larsen, Robert A.; Dietrich, Fred S.; May, Robin C.; Filler, Scott G.; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing Cryptococcus gattii outbreaks in the Western United States and Canada illustrate the impact of environmental reservoirs and both clonal and recombining propagation in driving emergence and expansion of microbial pathogens. C. gattii comprises four distinct molecular types: VGI, VGII, VGIII, and VGIV, with no evidence of nuclear genetic exchange, indicating these represent distinct species. C. gattii VGII isolates are causing the Pacific Northwest outbreak, whereas VGIII isolates frequently infect HIV/AIDS patients in Southern California. VGI, VGII, and VGIII have been isolated from patients and animals in the Western US, suggesting these molecular types occur in the environment. However, only two environmental isolates of C. gattii have ever been reported from California: CBS7750 (VGII) and WM161 (VGIII). The incongruence of frequent clinical presence and uncommon environmental isolation suggests an unknown C. gattii reservoir in California. Here we report frequent isolation of C. gattii VGIII MATα and MATa isolates and infrequent isolation of VGI MATα from environmental sources in Southern California. VGIII isolates were obtained from soil debris associated with tree species not previously reported as hosts from sites near residences of infected patients. These isolates are fertile under laboratory conditions, produce abundant spores, and are part of both locally and more distantly recombining populations. MLST and whole genome sequence analysis provide compelling evidence that these environmental isolates are the source of human infections. Isolates displayed wide-ranging virulence in macrophage and animal models. When clinical and environmental isolates with indistinguishable MLST profiles were compared, environmental isolates were less virulent. Taken together, our studies reveal an environmental source and risk of C. gattii to HIV/AIDS patients with implications for the >1,000,000 cryptococcal infections occurring annually for which the causative

  10. Use of mental health telemetry to enhance identification and predictive value of early changes during augmentation treatment of major depression.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Ayal; Kreindler, David; Reis, Catherine; Levitt, Anthony J

    2013-12-01

    Standard clinical trial methodology in depression does not allow for careful examination of early changes in symptom intensity. The purpose of this study was to use daily "Mental Health Telemetry" (MHT) to prospectively record change in depressive and anxiety symptoms for depressed patients receiving augmentation treatment, and determine the extent and predictive capacity of early changes. We report results of a 6-week, open-label study of the addition of quetiapine XR (range, 50-300 mg) for adult patients (n = 26) with major depressive disorder who were nonresponsive to antidepressant treatment. In addition to regular study visits, all participants completed daily, wirelessly transmitted self-report ratings of symptoms on a Smartphone. Daily and 3-day moving average mean scores were calculated, and associations between early symptom change and eventual response to treatment were determined. Improvement in depressive and anxiety symptoms was identified as early as day 1 of treatment. Of the total decline in depression severity over 6 weeks, 9% was present at day 1, 28% at day 2, 39% at days 3 and 4, 65% at day 7, and 80% at day 10. Self-report rating of early improvement (≥20%) in depressive symptoms at day 7 significantly predicted responder status at week 6 (P = 0.03). Clinician-rated depressive and anxiety symptoms only became significantly associated with responder status at day 14. In conclusion, very early changes in depressive symptoms were identified using MHT, early changes accounted for most of total change, and MHT-recorded improvement as early as day 7 significantly predicted response to treatment at study end point. PMID:24100787

  11. Computer-Aided Identification of Trypanosoma brucei Uridine Diphosphate Galactose 4′-Epimerase Inhibitors: Toward the Development of Novel Therapies for African Sleeping Sickness

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis, affects tens of thousands of sub-Saharan Africans. As current therapeutics are inadequate due to toxic side effects, drug resistance, and limited effectiveness, novel therapies are urgently needed. UDP-galactose 4′-epimerase (TbGalE), an enzyme of the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism, is one promising T. brucei drug target. We here use the relaxed complex scheme, an advanced computer-docking methodology that accounts for full protein flexibility, to identify inhibitors of TbGalE. An initial hit rate of 62% was obtained at 100 μM, ultimately leading to the identification of 14 low-micromolar inhibitors. Thirteen of these inhibitors belong to a distinct series with a conserved binding motif that may prove useful in future drug design and optimization. PMID:20527952

  12. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  13. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  14. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  15. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  16. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  17. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  18. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  19. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  20. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  1. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  2. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  3. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  4. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Image intensification vision aid. 886.5910 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5910 Image intensification vision aid. (a) Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended...

  5. 21 CFR 886.5915 - Optical vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optical vision aid. 886.5915 Section 886.5915 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5915 Optical vision aid. (a) Identification. An optical vision aid is a device that consists of a magnifying lens with an accompanying AC-powered...

  6. 21 CFR 886.5900 - Electronic vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic vision aid. 886.5900 Section 886.5900...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5900 Electronic vision aid. (a) Identification. An electronic vision aid is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that consists of...

  7. My sister, myself: a culture- and gender-based approach to HIV/AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Shambley-Ebron, Donna Z

    2009-01-01

    African American women are bearing an excess burden of HIV/AIDS, becoming infected at a rate 25 times that of White American women. This places African American girls at the highest risk for becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. Culturally appropriate prevention strategies are indicated to suppress this trend. Two qualitative research methods were used to evaluate a culture- and gender-based HIV prevention intervention: My Sister, Myself. Community action participatory research was used to engage the community in the development of the intervention for early-adolescent girls. Eight girls participated in the 8-week intervention. Data were collected about culture and gender identification, sexual health knowledge, and future intentions throughout the intervention. Focus groups and observation participation data revealed three major themes: "high aspirations," "needing to know the truth," and "internal, external, and eternal resources." Findings indicate promise for intervention strategies that utilize culture- and gender-based strategies for HIV/AIDS prevention with young girls. PMID:18955506

  8. Early Outbreak of 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) in Mexico Prior to Identification of pH1N1 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Ma, Stefan; Velasco Hernandez, Jorge X.; Lee, Vernon J.; Lim, Wei Yen

    2011-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of the global spread of 2009 influenza A (pH1N1) virus, still very little is known of the early stages of the outbreak in Mexico during the early months of the year, before the virus was identified. Methodology/Main Findings We fit a simple mathematical model, the Richards model, to the number of excess laboratory-confirmed influenza cases in Mexico and Mexico City during the first 15 weeks in 2009 over the average influenza case number of the previous five baseline years of 2004-2008 during the same period to ascertain the turning point (or the peak incidence) of a wave of early influenza infections, and to estimate the transmissibility of the virus during these early months in terms of its basic reproduction number. The results indicate that there may have been an early epidemic in Mexico City as well as in all of Mexico during February/March. Based on excess influenza cases, the estimated basic reproduction number R0 for the early outbreak was 1.59 (0.55 to 2.62) for Mexico City during weeks 5–9, and 1.25 (0.76, 1.74) for all of Mexico during weeks 5–14. Conclusions We established the existence of an early epidemic in Mexico City and in all of Mexico during February/March utilizing the routine influenza surveillance data, although the location of seeding is unknown. Moreover, estimates of R0 as well as the time of peak incidence (the turning point) for Mexico City and all of Mexico indicate that the early epidemic in Mexico City in February/March had been more transmissible (larger R0) and peaked earlier than the rest of the country. Our conclusion lends support to the possibility that the virus could have already spread to other continents prior to the identification of the virus and the reporting of lab-confirmed pH1N1 cases in North America in April. PMID:21909366

  9. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  10. Identification of cytoplasms using the polymerase chain reaction to aid in the extraction of maintainer lines from open-pollinated populations of onion.

    PubMed

    Havey, M J

    1995-02-01

    S-cytoplasm is the most common source of cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) used to produce hybrid-onion seed. Identification of the cytoplasm of a single plant takes from 4 to 8 years and is complicated by the segregation of a nuclear gene that restores fertility. Although CMS in onion may be due to an incompatibility between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, Southern analyses of DNA from individual plants from crosses of S- and N-cytoplasmic plants supported maternal inheritance of the chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA and, therefore, polymorphisms in the chloroplast DNA may be used to classify cytoplasms. Amplification by the polymerase chain reaction of a fragment that carries an autapomorphic 100-bp insertion in the chloroplast DNA of N-cytoplasm offers a significantly quicker and cheaper alternative to crossing or Southern analysis. Molecular characterization of N- and S-cytoplasms and frequencies of the nuclear non-restoring allele allow onion breeders to determine the proportion of plants in open-pollinated populations that maintain CMS and can significantly reduce the investment required to identify individual maintainer plants. PMID:24173901

  11. Age-at-death diagnosis and determination of life-history parameters by incremental lines in human dental cementum as an identification aid.

    PubMed

    Kagerer, P; Grupe, G

    2001-04-15

    Incremental lines in acellular extrinsic fiber cementum of 91 roots from 80 freshly extracted teeth have been investigated for a verification of the suitability of pathological teeth for a valid age-at-death diagnosis. Independent from tooth type, the accuracy of histological age-at-death diagnosis is clearly a function of a tooth's pathological state. Various periodontal diseases lead to a reduced number of incremental lines, while teeth with a sufficient nutritional support of their root showed a deviation of the histological age from the known actual age of 2-3 years only. For all patients, a detailed query concerning a variety of life-history parameters was established. We are able to show that especially previous pregnancies, skeletal traumata and renal diseases which all have a marked influence on the calcium metabolism result in hypomineralized incremental lines. The year of production of these hypomineralized lines could be dated precisely. Differential quality of incremental lines can, therefore, serve as a valuable tool in identification cases. PMID:11343858

  12. Early Warning Indicator System: Supporting K-12 Educators in the Identification, Support, and Monitoring of At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A rise in data availability gives educators the opportunity to tailor instructional practices and interventions to student needs and invest resources in areas where students require the most support. Massachusetts developed the Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS), which synthesizes the wealth of student data available in the state, including…

  13. Implications of Nubian-Like Core Reduction Systems in Southern Africa for the Identification of Early Modern Human Dispersals

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Lithic technologies have been used to trace dispersals of early human populations within and beyond Africa. Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups. Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations. Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with early human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in southern Africa during early MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence. The timing and spatial distribution of their appearance in southern and northern Africa implies technological convergence, rather than diffusion or dispersal. While lithic technologies can be a critical guide to human population flux, their utility in tracing early human dispersals at large spatial and temporal scales with stone artefact types remains questionable. PMID:26125972

  14. Screening and Early Identification of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Updated. Queries: An Occasional Paper Compiling States' Approaches to Current Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Hatton, Deborah, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    In response to interest from the National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders (NPDC-ASD), National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC) queried state Part C and Section 619 coordinators regarding screening measures, diagnostic instruments and procedures, and trends in identifying young children with ASD…

  15. Screening and Early Identification of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Queries: An Occasional Paper Compiling States' Approaches to Current Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Hatton, Deborah, Comp.

    2009-01-01

    In response to interest from the National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders (NPDC-ASD), NECTAC (National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center) queried Part C and Section 619 Coordinators regarding screening measures, diagnostic instruments and procedures, and trends in identifying young children with ASD under the…

  16. Evaluation of the Siemens Minifonator vibrotactile aid.

    PubMed

    Weisenberger, J M

    1989-03-01

    The Siemens Hearing Instruments Minifonator, a single-channel, wrist-worn vibrotactile aid, was evaluated in a laboratory setting with hearing-impaired adults. Eight subjects, with hearing loss greater than 70 dB in the better ear, were administered a test battery including sound-field detection, speech awareness threshold, environmental sound identification, syllable rhythm and stress categorization, and sentence identification subtests. Performance on each subtest was compared for hearing-aided and tactile-aided conditions. Mean performance levels for the two conditions were comparable for all but one subtest. However, closer inspection revealed that the data for the hearing-aided condition were bimodal: some subjects proved to be good hearing aid users and other performed at chance levels with their hearing aids. Performance in the tactile-aided conditions did not show such variability and mean levels fell between the hearing-aided levels for "good" and "poor" hearing aid users. The effects of training with the device were assessed for two normal-hearing subjects, who were trained in 1-hour daily sessions over a several week period on the environmental sounds and syllable rhythm and stress subtests. Results indicated substantial improvements in performance over the course of training. The implications of these results for long-term use of the device are discussed. PMID:2704198

  17. Identification of the PS1 Thr147Ile Variant in a Family with Very Early Onset Dementia and Expressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Denvir, James; Neitch, Shirley; Fan, Jun; Niles, Richard M.; Boskovic, Goran; Schreurs, Bernard G.; Primerano, Donald A.; Alkon, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Early onset dementias have variable clinical presentations and are often difficult to diagnose. We established a family pedigree that demonstrated consistent recurrence of very early onset dementia in successive generations. Objective and Method: In order to refine the diagnosis in this family, we sequenced the exomes of two affected family members and relied on discrete filtering to identify disease genes and the corresponding causal variants. Results: Among the 720 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shared by two affected members, we found a C to T transition that gives rise to a Thr147Ile missense substitution in the presenilin 1 (PS1) protein. The presence of this same mutation in a French early-onset Alzheimer’s disease family, other affected members of the family, and the predicted high pathogenicity of the substitution strongly suggest that it is the causal variant. In addition to exceptionally young age of onset, we also observed significant limb spasticity and early loss of speech, concurrent with progression of dementia in affected family members. These findings extend the clinical presentation associated with the Thr147Ile variant. Lastly, one member with the Thr147Ile variant was treated with the PKC epsilon activator, bryostatin, in a compassionate use trial after successful FDA review. Initial improvements with this treatment were unexpectedly clear, including return of some speech, increased attentional focus, ability to swallow, and some apparent decrease in limb spasticity. Conclusions: Our findings confirm the role of the PS1 Thr147Ile substitution in Alzheimer’s disease and expand the clinical phenotype to include expressive aphasia and very early onset of dementia. PMID:25812849

  18. 33 CFR 62.49 - Intracoastal Waterway identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.49 Intracoastal Waterway identification. (a) In addition to the conventional signals, aids to navigation marking the Intracoastal Waterway exhibit unique yellow symbols to distinguish them from aids marking...

  19. 33 CFR 62.49 - Intracoastal Waterway identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.49 Intracoastal Waterway identification. (a) In addition to the conventional signals, aids to navigation marking the Intracoastal Waterway exhibit unique yellow symbols to distinguish them from aids marking...

  20. 33 CFR 62.49 - Intracoastal Waterway identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.49 Intracoastal Waterway identification. (a) In addition to the conventional signals, aids to navigation marking the Intracoastal Waterway exhibit unique yellow symbols to distinguish them from aids marking...

  1. 33 CFR 62.49 - Intracoastal Waterway identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.49 Intracoastal Waterway identification. (a) In addition to the conventional signals, aids to navigation marking the Intracoastal Waterway exhibit unique yellow symbols to distinguish them from aids marking...

  2. 33 CFR 62.49 - Intracoastal Waterway identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.49 Intracoastal Waterway identification. (a) In addition to the conventional signals, aids to navigation marking the Intracoastal Waterway exhibit unique yellow symbols to distinguish them from aids marking...

  3. Integrating earth observations and model results provides earlier Famine Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Funk, C. C.; Galu, G.; Choularton, R.

    2007-12-01

    Remote sensing allows us to detect slowly evolving natural hazards such as agricultural drought. Famine early warning systems transform this data into actionable policy information, enabling humanitarian organizations to respond in a timely and appropriate manner. These life saving responses are increasingly important. In 2006, 1 out of 8 people did not have enough to eat, 22 million more people became undernourished, and 22 countries provided 6.5 billion dollars in food aid. The motivation is strong, therefore, to increase the effectiveness of every dollar of food aid provided, ensuring that the assistance arrives sufficiently early to ward off human and economic catastrophe. Properly interpreted remote sensing information reduces the influence of politics in determining the amount and location of aid delivered. In this talk we will review three recent contributions that earth observations have provided to famine early warning: trend identification, increasingly accurate forecasts of food security conditions, and enhanced integration of biophysical and socio-economic data.

  4. Immunohistochemistry for 2-Succinocysteine (2SC) and Fumarate Hydratase (FH) in Cutaneous Leiomyomas May Aid in Identification of Patients With HLRCC (Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Buelow, Benjamin; Cohen, Jarish; Nagymanyoki, Zoltan; Frizzell, Norma; Joseph, Nancy M; McCalmont, Timothy; Garg, Karuna

    2016-07-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome (HLRCC) is caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene and predisposes to cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). HLRCC-associated renal tumors are clinically aggressive, and patients would benefit from surveillance and early detection. Cutaneous leiomyomas that occur in association with HLRCC typically present early and are multiple. Thus far, the presence of certain morphologic features (large eosinophilic macronucleoli surrounded by halos and eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions) in RCC and uterine leiomyomas has been shown to correlate with FH mutations. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for 2-succinocysteine (2SC) and FH has also been shown to correlate well with FH gene mutation status in RCC and uterine leiomyomas. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of morphologic features and IHC at predicting FH gene mutations in cutaneous leiomyomas. We identified 22 patients with multiple cutaneous leiomyomas (40 total MCLs) and 25 patients with single leiomyomas (25 SCLs). Mutations in the FH gene were detected in 11 of 13 (85%) sequenced MCLs and 1 of 11 (9%) SCLs. A strong association was observed between 2SC positivity by IHC and presence of FH gene mutation (P=0.0028 for 2SC) but not with FH loss by IHC (P=0.4 for FH). All 11 MCLs with an FH mutation showed positive staining for 2SC, whereas 6 of 11 showed complete loss of FH staining. Our study suggests that the presence of MCLs should raise the possibility of HLRCC. IHC for FH and 2SC is helpful in detection of FH gene mutations and should be considered in all newly diagnosed cutaneous leiomyomas. PMID:26945337

  5. Early identification of brain injury in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy at high risk for severe impairments: accuracy of MRI performed in the first days of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite therapeutic hypothermia 30-70% of newborns with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy will die or survive with significant long-term impairments. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the first days of life is being used for early identification of these infants and end of life decisions are relying more and more on it. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how MRI performed around day 4 of life correlates with the ones obtained in the second week of life in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated with hypothermia. Methods Prospective observational cohort study between April 2009 and July 2011. Consecutive newborns with HIE evaluated for therapeutic hypothermia were included. Two sequential MR studies were performed: an •early’ study around the 4th day of life and a •late’ study during the second week of life. MRI were assessed and scored by two neuroradiologists who were blinded to the clinical condition of the infants. Results Forty-eight MRI scans were obtained in the 40 newborns. Fifteen infants underwent two sequential MR scans. The localization, extension and severity of hypoxic-ischemic injury in early and late scans were highly correlated. Hypoxic-ischemic injury scores from conventional sequences (T1/T2) in the early MRI correlated with the scores of the late MRI (Spearman ρ = 0.940; p < .001) as did the scores between diffusion-weighted images in early scans and conventional images in late MR studies (Spearman ρ = 0.866; p < .001). There were no significant differences in MR images between the two sequential scans. Conclusions MRI in the first days of life may be a useful prognostic tool for clinicians and can help parents and neonatologist in medical decisions, as it highly depicts hypoxic-ischemic brain injury seen in scans performed around the second week of life. PMID:25005267

  6. Phosphohistone H3 expression correlates with manual mitotic counts and aids in identification of "hot spots" in fibroepithelial tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Paula S; Shin, Sandra J; Liu, Yifang; Chen, Zhengming; D'Alfonso, Timothy M

    2016-03-01

    Classification of mammary fibroepithelial tumors (FETs) relies on assessment of mitotic activity, among other histopathologic parameters. Routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) mitotic counts can be subjective and time consuming. Difficulty may arise in identifying "true" mitoses for a variety of reasons. Phosphorylation of histone H3 protein (PHH3) is correlated with mitotic chromatin condensation. The utility of PHH3 immunohistochemical staining to identify mitoses has been demonstrated in multiple organ systems. In this study, we examined the utility of PHH3 in assessing mitotic activity in FETs and compared PHH3- with H&E-determined mitotic counts. PHH3-stained mitoses were readily identifiable at ×10 magnification and allowed for rapid identification of mitotic "hot spots." Median mitotic counts/10 high-power fields for fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes tumor, borderline phyllodes tumor (BlnPT), and malignant phyllodes tumor (MPT) were 0, 0.5, 4.25, and 9, respectively on H&E, and 0, 0.75, 4.5, and 8, respectively for PHH3. Among all FETs, there was a strong positive correlation between H&E- and PHH3-determined mitotic counts (r=0.91, P<.001). Using PHH3, 2 cases would be reclassified, both from BlnPT to MPT. PHH3-determined counts correlated with H&E-determined counts in FETs. Using PHH3, a small number of cases were reclassified from BlnPT to MPT, for which treatment is similar. Although H&E-determined counts remain the criterion standard for assessing mitotic activity in FETs, PHH3 may be a useful adjunctive tool in some cases and is helpful in identifying mitotic hot spots. PMID:26826415

  7. The (1,3){beta}-D-glucan test as an aid to early diagnosis of invasive fungal infections following lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Barbara D; Smith, P Brian; Davis, R Duane; Perfect, John R; Reller, L Barth

    2010-11-01

    The Fungitell assay for (1,3)β-D-glucan (BG) detection in serum has been evaluated in patients with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and healthy controls and for the early diagnosis of IFI in cancer patients. We evaluated the BG assay for the detection of IFI in lung transplant recipients. Serial serum samples were prospectively collected from patients undergoing lung transplants at Duke Hospital. Fungal infections were classified according to revised European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was generated; possible causes for false-positive and false-negative tests were investigated by linear regression analysis. Seven hundred fifty-six serum specimens from 59 subjects without IFI and 41 specimens from 14 patients with proven or probable IFI were tested. The area under the ROC curve was 0.69. Based on a 60-pg/ml positive cutoff, per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 64%, 9%, 14%, and 50%, respectively; per-test estimates were 71%, 59%, 9%, and 97%, respectively. The majority (92%) of patients not diagnosed with an IFI had at least one BG level of ≥60 pg/ml, and 90% had at least one BG level of ≥80 pg/ml. Respiratory colonization with mold and hemodialysis significantly affected mean BG levels. In conclusion, the accuracy of the BG test is marginal and its utility as a tool for the early diagnosis of IFI is questionable in the lung transplant population. Although the NPV of the BG test is high, the low PPV limits its utility as a screening tool for early diagnosis of IFI. PMID:20720025

  8. Early transcriptomic response of Arabidopsis thaliana to polymetallic contamination: implications for the identification of potential biomarkers of metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Barrutia, Oihana; Ribas, Griselda; Garbisu, Carlos; Becerril, José M

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal contaminated sites are frequently characterized by the simultaneous presence of several heavy metals. However, many studies report metal-induced plant responses after long-term exposure to just one metal. By contrast, whole genome expression microarrays were employed here to investigate the early (3 h) transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to polymetallic treatment (Pb, Hg, Cu, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, and Mn) at low (L) and high (H) concentrations. After 3 h of exposure to polymetallic treatment, a total of 1315 noticeably (≥2-fold) and significantly (P < 0.05) differentially expressed genes were identified: 656 and 351 upregulated and 314 and 200 downregulated genes in L and H treatments, respectively. Functional analysis revealed that many genes involved in oxidative stress and perception/signalling/regulation systems were activated. Genes encoding proteins involved in hormone regulation (jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, ethylene, and auxins), glucosinolate metabolism and sulphur and nitrogen transport were also modulated. RT-qPCR analysis of four downregulated (AOP2, SAUR16, BBX31, and MTPC3) and upregulated genes (ASN1, DIN2, BT2, and EXL5), markedly responsive to both L and H treatments, validated our microarray data and suggested the potential of some of these genes (AOP2, SAUR16, ASN1, and DIN2) as early biomarkers of metal exposure. Relevant changes in gene expression occur as early as 3 h after exposure to polymetallic treatment. Four genes deserve further studies as novel putative biomarkers of early metal exposure and also owing to their potential implications in stress-related mechanisms: sulphur balance (AOP2), phytohormone regulation of plant growth and development (SAUR16), ammonium detoxification (ASN1) and senescence (DIN2). PMID:27118254

  9. Identification of early diagnostic antigens from major excretory-secretory proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae using immunoproteomics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) come mainly from the excretory granules of the stichosome and the cuticles (membrane proteins), are directly exposed to the host’s immune system, and are the main target antigens, which induce the immune responses. Although the ES proteins are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, their main disadvantage are the false negative results during the early stage of infection. The aim of this study was to identify early specific diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. Methods Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with Western blot were used to screen the early diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. The protein spots recognized by the sera from BALB/c mice infected with T. spiralis at 18 days post-infection (dpi) were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and putatively annotated using GO terms obtained from the InterPro databases. Results The ES proteins were analyzed by 2-DE, and more than 33 protein spots were detected with molecular weight varying from 40 to 60 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) from 4 to 7. When probed with the sera from infected mice at 18 dpi, 21 protein spots were recognized and then identified, and they were characterized to correlate with five different proteins of T. spiralis, including two serine proteases, one deoxyribonuclease (DNase) II, and two kinds of trypsin. The five proteins were functionally categorized into molecular function and biological process according to GO hierarchy. Conclusions 2-DE and Western blot combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS were used to screen the diagnostic antigens from the main components of T. spiralis muscle larval ES proteins. The five proteins of T. spiralis identified (two serine proteases, DNase II and two kinds of trypsin) might be the early specific diagnostic antigens of trichinellosis. PMID

  10. Plasmodium falciparum Gametocyte Development 1 (Pfgdv1) and Gametocytogenesis Early Gene Identification and Commitment to Sexual Development

    PubMed Central

    Eksi, Saliha; Morahan, Belinda J.; Haile, Yoseph; Furuya, Tetsuya; Jiang, Hongying; Ali, Omar; Xu, Huichun; Kiattibutr, Kirakorn; Suri, Amreena; Czesny, Beata; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Myers, Timothy G.; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Su, Xin-zhuan; Williamson, Kim C.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria transmission requires the production of male and female gametocytes in the human host followed by fertilization and sporogonic development in the mosquito midgut. Although essential for the spread of malaria through the population, little is known about the initiation of gametocytogenesis in vitro or in vivo. Using a gametocyte-defective parasite line and genetic complementation, we show that Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte development 1 gene (Pfgdv1), encoding a peri-nuclear protein, is critical for early sexual differentiation. Transcriptional analysis of Pfgdv1 negative and positive parasite lines identified a set of gametocytogenesis early genes (Pfge) that were significantly down-regulated (>10 fold) in the absence of Pfgdv1 and expression was restored after Pfgdv1 complementation. Progressive accumulation of Pfge transcripts during successive rounds of asexual replication in synchronized cultures suggests that gametocytes are induced continuously during asexual growth. Comparison of Pfge gene transcriptional profiles in patient samples divided the genes into two groups differing in their expression in mature circulating gametocytes and providing candidates to evaluate gametocyte induction and maturation separately in vivo. The expression profile of one of the early gametocyte specific genes, Pfge1, correlated significantly with asexual parasitemia, which is consistent with the ongoing induction of gametocytogenesis during asexual growth observed in vitro and reinforces the need for sustained transmission-blocking strategies to eliminate malaria. PMID:23093935

  11. Genome-wide identification and analysis of rice genes preferentially expressed in pollen at an early developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tien Dung; Moon, Sunok; Nguyen, Van Ngoc Tuyet; Gho, Yunsil; Chandran, Anil Kumar Nalini; Soh, Moon-Soo; Song, Jong Tae; An, Gynheung; Oh, Sung Aeong; Park, Soon Ki; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2016-09-01

    Microspore production using endogenous developmental programs has not been well studied. The main limitation is the difficulty in identifying genes preferentially expressed in pollen grains at early stages. To overcome this limitation, we collected transcriptome data from anthers and microspore/pollen and performed meta-expression analysis. Subsequently, we identified 410 genes showing preferential expression patterns in early developing pollen samples of both japonica and indica cultivars. The expression patterns of these genes are distinguishable from genes showing pollen mother cell or tapetum-preferred expression patterns. Gene Ontology enrichment and MapMan analyses indicated that microspores in rice are closely linked with protein degradation, nucleotide metabolism, and DNA biosynthesis and regulation, while the pollen mother cell or tapetum are strongly associated with cell wall metabolism, lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, and RNA biosynthesis and regulation. We also generated transgenic lines under the control of the promoters of eight microspore-preferred genes and confirmed the preferred expression patterns in plants using the GUS reporting system. Furthermore, cis-regulatory element analysis revealed that pollen specific elements such as POLLEN1LELAT52, and 5659BOXLELAT5659 were commonly identified in the promoter regions of eight rice genes with more frequency than estimation. Our study will provide new sights on early pollen development in rice, a model crop plant. PMID:27356912

  12. Computer-aided drug designing.

    PubMed

    Gore, Mohini; Desai, Neetin S

    2014-01-01

    Computer-aided drug designing has emerged as a cost-effective and rapid tool for the discovery of newer therapeutic agents. Several algorithms have been developed to analyze protein structure and function, to identify interacting ligands, active site residues, and to study protein-ligand interactions, which can eventually lead to the identification of new drugs. In silico drug designing involves identification of the target protein which is responsible for the development of the disease under study. The three-dimensional structure of the protein can be predicted using homology modeling, while molecular docking is applied to study the interaction of a drug molecule with the protein. The best orientation of the ligand-protein docked structure which has overall minimum energy needs to be obtained. In silico methods can be used to identify potential drugs for various diseases. Thus, computer-aided drug designing has become an indispensible and integral part of the drug discovery process. PMID:24870144

  13. A History of Financial Aid to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    Colleges, universities, and the communities they serve have always been concerned about students' abilities to pay and the systems of aid to support students' learning. This article reviews the history of aiding student in higher education. Early student- and institutionally-led programs are discussed along with initial philanthropic and…

  14. Public Health Nursing for People with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Dena; And Others

    Individuals with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related conditions (ARC) need continual care and support, at a level which can severely tax the health resources of a community. Public health nursing should have a central role in the effective and efficient response to this devastating problem. Since the early stages of the AIDS…

  15. SPECT functional neuroimaging in patients with AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.L.; Eastman, G.R. )

    1989-09-01

    This is the third in a four-part article series on AIDS. Upon completion of this article, the technologist will have an understanding of the neurological complications of the AIDS virus and how nuclear medicine techniques can be used for early detection of CNS disorders.

  16. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

  17. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  18. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements.

    PubMed

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  19. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  20. Identification and characterization of an Egr ortholog as a neural immediate early gene in the European honeybee (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Ugajin, Atsushi; Kunieda, Takekazu; Kubo, Takeo

    2013-10-01

    To date, there are only few reports of immediate early genes (IEGs) available in insects. Aiming at identifying a conserved IEG in insects, we characterized an Egr homolog of the honeybee (AmEgr: Apis mellifera Egr). AmEgr was transiently induced in whole worker brains after seizure induction. In situ hybridization for AmEgr indicated that neural activity of a certain mushroom body (a higher brain center) neuron subtype, which is the same as that we previously identified using another non-coding IEG, termed kakusei, is more enhanced in forager brains. These findings suggest that Egr can be utilized as an IEG in insects. PMID:23994532

  1. Early identification of young children at risk for poor academic achievement: preliminary development of a parent-report prediction tool

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Early school success is clearly related to later health. A prediction index that uses parent report to assess children's risk for poor academic achievement could potentially direct targeted service delivery to improve child outcomes. Methods We obtained risk factors through literature review and used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Child Files to examine the predictive associations of these factors with academic achievement scores. Results Twenty predictors were identified including four strong predictors (maternal education, child gender, family income, and low birth weight). Significantly, 12 predictors explained 17-24% of score variance. Conclusions Parent-reported factors provide predictive accuracy for academic achievement. PMID:21851586

  2. Exploring the predictive value of the evoked potentials score in MS within an appropriate patient population: a hint for an early identification of benign MS?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prognostic value of evoked potentials (EPs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been fully established. The correlations between the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) at First Neurological Evaluation (FNE) and the duration of the disease, as well as between EDSS and EPs, have influenced the outcome of most previous studies. To overcome this confounding relations, we propose to test the prognostic value of EPs within an appropriate patient population which should be based on patients with low EDSS at FNE and short disease duration. Methods We retrospectively selected a sample of 143 early relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients with an EDSS < 3.5 from a larger database spanning 20 years. By means of bivariate logistic regressions, the best predictors of worsening were selected among several demographic and clinical variables. The best multivariate logistic model was statistically validated and prospectively applied to 50 patients examined during 2009–2011. Results The Evoked Potentials score (EP score) and the Time to EDSS 2.0 (TT2) were the best predictors of worsening in our sample (Odds Ratio 1.10 and 0.82 respectively, p=0.001). Low EP score (below 15–20 points), short TT2 (lower than 3–5 years) and their interaction resulted to be the most useful for the identification of worsening patterns. Moreover, in patients with an EP score at FNE below 6 points and a TT2 greater than 3 years the probability of worsening was 10% after 4–5 years and rapidly decreased thereafter. Conclusions In an appropriate population of early RRMS patients, the EP score at FNE is a good predictor of disability at low values as well as in combination with a rapid buildup of disability. Interestingly, an EP score at FNE under the median together with a clinical stability lasting more than 3 years turned out to be a protective pattern. This finding may contribute to an early identification of benign patients, well before the term required to diagnose Benign MS

  3. Myths about AIDS in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Nariddh, M C

    1994-08-01

    HIV has been reported in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, as well as in the northwestern provinces of Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, and Kompong Chhnang. Unofficial reports indicate the presence of HIV in three northeastern provinces. According to World Health Organization data, 382 people were infected with HIV in Cambodia as of March 1994, but the national AIDS program estimates that 2000-4000 Cambodians may be HIV-seropositive. Small surveys in 1992 identified HIV infection rates to be 4.5% among patients of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and 9.2% among prostitutes. A seroprevalence rate of 4.3% was found in 1993 among clients of STD clinics and others requesting HIV testing. These rather marked levels of infection exist in Cambodia even though HIV was first identified in the country as recently as 1991 among screened blood from volunteer donors. By December 1993, the rate of positive results from blood donors had increased to 1.97%.; the rate of infection among blood donors is expected to double to approximately 4% in 1994. People in Cambodia variously believe that AIDS is nonexistent, AIDS is a problem of other countries, can be transmitted by mosquitoes, healthy people do not have AIDS, a cure exists for AIDS, AIDS can be contracted only from prostitutes, AIDS is the most severe state of syphilis, and AIDS is only a propaganda ploy of condom producers to market their products. It is therefore proving extremely difficult to convince people that AIDS is a truly threatening disease against which they should protect themselves, especially when symptoms are rarely present during the early stage of infection. Health education campaigns, videos, posters, and accurate reporting in the media will, however, help change minds and hopefully induce HIV-preventive behaviors. Of interest, the article notes that virtually every prostitute in Cambodia has at least two-three STDs. PMID:12345639

  4. Learning Disabilities and Early Intervention Strategies: How To Reform the Special Education Referral and Identification Process. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on Education Reform concerning learning disabilities and early intervention strategies, specifically possible reforms of the special education referral and identification process as part of the reauthorization process of the Individuals with Disabilities Education…

  5. Genome-wide identification of microRNAs responding to early stages of phosphate deficiency in maize.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhi; Ren, Zhiyong; Wang, Libo; Su, Shunzong; Wei, Xuan; Zhang, Xiao; Wu, Ling; Liu, Dan; Tang, Haitao; Liu, Hailan; Zhang, Suzhi; Gao, Shibin

    2016-06-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element involved in numerous biochemical reactions. In plants, stress responses, such as the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs), are induced to help them adapt to low phosphate (Pi) concentrations. In this study, deep sequencing was performed using the roots and leaves of maize seedlings grown under low Pi concentrations to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed during the early stages of Pi deficiency. Eight small RNA libraries were constructed, and 159 known miRNAs representing 32 miRNA families and 10 novel miRNAs. Members of the miR396 family were extremely abundant. Further, 28 Pi-responsive miRNAs were identified (27 known and 1 novel) of which 8 and 7 were significantly expressed exclusively in leaf and root tissues, respectively. The analysis of Pi-responsive miRNAs target genes suggested that most target genes functioning as transcription factors were involved in root and leaf development. The expression profiles of selected Pi-responsive miRNAs and target genes were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, we discuss the significance of the differences in expression patterns of these miRNAs during the early and later stages of Pi starvation. This study provides useful information concerning the role of miRNAs in response to Pi starvation and will further our understanding of the mechanisms governing Pi homeostasis in maize. PMID:26572939

  6. Identification of key performance indicators for on-farm animal welfare incidents: possible tools for early warning and prevention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to describe aspects of case study herds investigated by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (DAFF) in which animal welfare incidents occurred and to identify key performance indicators (KPIs) that can be monitored to enhance the Early Warning System (EWS). Despite an EWS being in place for a number of years, animal welfare incidents continue to occur. Questionnaires regarding welfare incidents were sent to Superintending Veterinary Inspectors (SVIs), resulting in 18 herds being chosen as case study herds, 12 of which had a clearly defined welfare incident date. For each study herd, data on six potential KPIs were extracted from DAFF databases. The KPIs for those herds with a clearly defined welfare incident date were studied for a consecutive four year window, with the fourth year being the 'incident year', when the welfare incident was disclosed. For study herds without a clearly defined welfare incident date, the KPIs were determined on a yearly basis between 2001 and 2009. Results We found that the late registration of calves, the use of on-farm burial as a method of carcase disposal, an increasing number of moves to knackeries over time and records of animals moved to 'herd unknown' were notable on the case farms. Conclusion Four KPIs were prominent on the case study farms and warrant further investigation in control herds to determine their potential to provide a framework for refining current systems of early warning and prevention. PMID:21982340

  7. Identification of ABCC8 as a contributory gene to impaired early-phase insulin secretion in NZO mice.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Fam, Barbara C; Holdsworth, Anita; Visinoni, Sherley; Ruan, Zheng; Stathopoulos, Maria; Thorburn, Anne W; Joannides, Christos N; Cancilla, Michael; Balmer, Lois; Proietto, Joseph; Morahan, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with defective insulin secretion, which in turn contributes to worsening glycaemic control and disease progression. The genetic cause(s) associated with impaired insulin secretion in T2D are not well elucidated. Here we used the polygenic New Zealand Obese (NZO) mouse model, which displays all the cardinal features of T2D including hyperglycaemia to identify genes associated with β-cell dysfunction. A genome-wide scan identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 7 associated with defective glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Using congenic strains, the locus was narrowed to two candidate genes encoding the components of the KATP channel: Abcc8 (SUR1) and Kcnj11 (Kir6.2). The NZO Abcc8 allele was associated with a ∼211 bp deletion in its transcript and reduced expression of SUR1. Transgenic NZO mice were generated that expressed the WT Abcc8/Kcnj11 genes and displayed significant improvements in early-phase glucose-mediated insulin secretion and glucose tolerance, confirming Abcc8 as a causative gene. Importantly, we showed that despite improving β-cell function in the NZO transgenic mice, there was no enhancement of insulin sensitivity or body weight. This study provides evidence for a role of Abcc8 in early-phase glucose-mediated insulin secretion and validates this gene as a contributor to β-cell dysfunction in T2D. PMID:26493453

  8. Identification of miRNAs and differentially expressed genes in early phase non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wen; Liu, Jie; Pei, Baojing; Wang, Xiaobo; Guo, Yu; Yuan, Lin

    2016-04-01

    To explore the potential therapeutic targets of early‑stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), gene microarray analysis was conducted. The microarray data of NSCLC in stage IA, IB, IIA, and IIB (GSE50081), were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in IB vs. IA, IIA vs. IB, IIB vs. IIA were screened out via R. ToppGene Suite was used to get the enriched Gene Ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of the DEGs. The GeneCoDis3 database and Cytoscape software were used to construct the transcriptional regulatory network. In total, 25, 17 and 14 DEGs were identified in IB vs. IA, IIA vs. IB, IIB vs. IIA of NSCLC, respectively. Some GO terms and pathways (e.g., extracellular space, alveolar lamellar body, bioactivation via cytochrome P450 pathway) were found significantly enriched in DEGs. Genes S100P, ALOX15B, CCL11, NLRP2, SERPINA3, FoxO4 and hsa-miR-491 may play important roles in the development of early-stage NSCLC. Thus, by bioinformatics analysis the key genes and biological processes involving in the development of early-stage NSCLC could be established, providing more potential references for the therapeutic targets. PMID:26781349

  9. Identification of recurrent and novel mutations in TULP1 in Pakistani families with early-onset retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Ajmal, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Micheal, Shazia; Ahmed, Waqas; Shah, Ashfa; Venselaar, Hanka; Bokhari, Habib; Azam, Aisha; Waheed, Nadia Khalida; Collin, Rob W.J.; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Qamar, Raheel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To identify the genetic defects underlying retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in Pakistani families. Methods Genome-wide high-density single-nucleotide-polymorphism microarray analysis was performed using the DNA of nine affected individuals from two large families with multiple consanguineous marriages. Data were analyzed to identify homozygous regions that are shared by affected sibs in each family. Sanger sequencing was performed for genes previously implicated in autosomal recessive RP and allied retinal dystrophies that resided in the identified homozygous regions. Probands from both families underwent fundus examination and electroretinogram measurements. Results The tubby-like protein 1 gene (TULP1) was present in the largest homozygous region in both families. Sequence analysis identified a previously reported mutation (c.1138A>G; p.Thr380Ala) in one family and a novel pathogenic variant (c.1445G>A; p.Arg482Gln) in the other family. Both variants were found to be present in a homozygous state in all affected individuals, were heterozygous present in the unaffected parents, and heterozygous present or absent in normal individuals. Affected individuals of both families showed an early-onset form of RP. Conclusions Homozygosity mapping, combined with candidate-gene analysis, successfully identified genetic defects in TULP1 in two large Pakistani families with early-onset retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:22665969

  10. Identification of Risk Factors for Vascular Thrombosis May Reduce Early Renal Graft Loss: A Review of Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Anna Krarup; Jorgensen, Troels Munch; Jespersen, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Renal graft survival has improved over the past years, mainly owing to better immunosuppression. Vascular thrombosis, though rare, therefore accounts for up to one third of early graft loss. We assess current literature on transplantation, identify thrombosis risk factors, and discuss means of avoiding thrombotic events and saving thrombosed grafts. The incidence of arterial thrombosis was reported to 0.2–7.5% and venous thrombosis 0.1–8.2%, with the highest incidence among children and infants, and the lowest in living donor reports. The most significant risk factors for developing thrombosis were donor-age below 6 or above 60 years, or recipient-age below 5-6 years, per- or postoperative hemodynamic instability, peritoneal dialysis, diabetic nephropathy, a history of thrombosis, deceased donor, or >24 hours cold ischemia. Multiple arteries were not a risk factor, and a right kidney graft was most often reported not to be. Given the thrombosed kidney graft is diagnosed in time, salvage is possible by urgent reoperation and thrombectomy. Despite meticulous attentions to reduce thrombotic risk factors, thrombosis cannot be entirely prevented and means to an early detection of this complication is desirable in order to save the kidneys through prompt reoperation. Microdialysis may be a new tool for this. PMID:22701162

  11. AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes. PMID:1867668

  12. [AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Bolin, H

    1987-12-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is believed to have begun in Rwanda with the transmission of green monkey virus to humans; the virus spread among prostitutes and truck drivers along the highways and then to the cities. In the most threatened areas, for example, Kinshasa in Zaire, 20% of the inhabitants are infected. 8% of pregnant women are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. Social conditions are important. In Kenya prostitutes who work along the highways are carriers of socially transmitted diseases and genital sores. They are 60-80% HIV-positive. The better-off prostitutes at bars and hotels enjoy better health and fewer contacts and are 30% HIV-positive. It should be possible to develop a vaccine against the AIDS virus, but only a few virologists believe that this can be done within 10 years. Because HIV virus mutates rapidly, many different vaccines would have to be prepared. About 80 countries are cooperating with the World Health Organization to combat HIV and AIDS in Africa. Traveling and working abroad is beginning to be a problem. 15 countries have introduced restrictions on foreign visitors. Swedish midwives have an important role to play in fighting HIV. Their youth counseling activities can spread information about HIV and AIDS. Children who are in early stages of sexuality are probably the most important group to be influenced. It is already too late to begin informing 15-17 year olds about the disease. Midwives should probably be starting much sooner, perhaps even with 10-year olds. PMID:3692943

  13. Identification of nitrogenous organic species in Titan aerosols analogs: Implication for prebiotic chemistry on Titan and early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Smith, Mark A.

    2014-08-01

    Titan has a significant atmosphere composed primarily of nitrogen and methane with a significant organic haze component. Its nitrogen-rich atmosphere, abundant organics, and liquid surface make this moon of interest as a prebiotic laboratory at the planetary scale and one of the best targets for studying prebiotic planetary organic chemistry. In our previous work, we have investigated the chemical composition of Titan aerosol analogs (tholins) and identified a variety of nitrogenous organic molecules. Here we continue our structural investigation and identify four important prebiotic molecules in Titan tholins using NMR, GC-MS and standard sample comparison, including aminoacetonitrile, succinonitrile, acetoguanamine and adenine. On the basis of their structural characteristics, we suggest their formation pathways via simple precursors including methanimine (CH2NH), HCN, NH3, CH3CN and C2H2 in laboratory N2sbnd CH4 plasma or potentially in Titan’s atmosphere. Among these molecules, aminoacetonitrile is a potential precursor of amino acids and peptides, while adenine is a necessary ingredient for DNA and RNA. The identification of these molecules in Titan’s organic aerosol analogs increases our knowledge of Titan’s organic chemistry and its prebiotic implications.

  14. Organization of early region 1B of human adenovirus type 2: identification of four differentially spliced mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, A; Pettersson, U

    1985-01-01

    The mRNAs from early region 1B of adenovirus type 2 have been studied by Northern blot, S1 nuclease, and cDNA analysis. Two novel mRNAs, designated 14S and 14.5S, have been observed in addition to the previously identified 9S, 13S, and 22S mRNAs. They are 1.26 and 1.31 kilobases long and differ from the 13S and 22S mRNAs in being composed of three exons instead of two. Their two terminal exons are the same as those present in the 13S mRNA, whereas the middle exon is unique to each of the two novel mRNA species. The structures of the 14S and 14.5S mRNAs allow the prediction of their coding capacities: both mRNA species, like the 22S and 13S mRNAs, contain an uninterrupted translational reading frame encoding a 21,000-molecular-weight (21K) polypeptide. The 14S mRNA can, in addition, encode a 16.5K polypeptide which shares N-terminal and C-terminal sequences with the 55K polypeptide, known to be encoded by the 22S mRNA. The 14.5S mRNA species encodes a hypothetical 9.2K polypeptide which has the same N terminus as the 55K polypeptide but a unique C terminus. The two mRNAs differ in their kinetics of appearance; the 14.5S mRNA is preferentially expressed late after infection in contrast to the 14S mRNA, which is present in approximately equal amounts early and late after infection. Taken together with previously published information the results suggest that early region 1B of adenovirus type 2 encodes five proteins in addition to virion polypeptide IX. These have predicted molecular weights of 55,000, 21,000, 16,500, 9,200, and 8,100. Images PMID:3989911

  15. Identification of the glycerol kinase gene and its role in diapause embryo restart and early embryo development of Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Yao, Feng; Chu, Bing; Li, Xuejie; Liu, Yan; Wu, Yang; Mei, Yanli; Wang, Peisheng; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2014-03-01

    Glycerol kinase (GK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycerol utilization by transferring a phosphate from ATP to glycerol, yielding glycerol 3-phosphate, which is an important intermediate for both energy metabolism and glycerolipid production. Artemia sinica has an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity, low temperature and lack of food. In the process, diapause embryos of A. sinica (brine shrimp) accumulate high concentrations of glycerol as a cryoprotectant to prevent low temperature damage to embryos. Upon embryo restart, glycerol is converted into glucose and other carbohydrates. Therefore, GK plays an important role in the diapause embryo restart process. However, the role of GK in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. In the present study, a 2096 bp full-length cDNA of gk from A. sinica (As-gk) was obtained, encoding putative 551 amino acids, 60.6 kDa protein. As a crucial enzyme in glycerol uptake and metabolism, GK has been conserved structurally and functionally during evolution. The expression pattern of As-gk was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Expression locations of As-gk were analyzed using in situ hybridization. As-gk was widely distributed in the early embryo and several main parts of Artemia after differentiation. The expression of As-GK was also induced by stresses such as cold exposure and high salinity. This initial research into the expression pattern and stress response of GK in Artemia provides a sound basis for further understanding of the function and regulation of genes in early embryonic development in A. sinica and the stress response. PMID:24365596

  16. Computational Identification Raises a Riddle for Distribution of Putative NACHT NTPases in the Genome of Early Green Plants

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Preeti; Acharya, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    NACHT NTPases and AP-ATPases belongs to STAND (signal transduction ATPases with numerous domain) P-loop NTPase class, which are known to be involved in defense signaling pathways and apoptosis regulation. The AP-ATPases (also known as NB-ARC) and NACHT NTPases are widely spread throughout all kingdoms of life except in plants, where only AP-ATPases have been extensively studied in the scenario of plant defense response against pathogen invasion and in hypersensitive response (HR). In the present study, we have employed a genome-wide survey (using stringent computational analysis) of 67 diverse organisms viz., archaebacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, animalia and plantae to revisit the evolutionary history of these two STAND P-loop NTPases. This analysis divulged the presence of NACHT NTPases in the early green plants (green algae and the lycophyte) which had not been previously reported. These NACHT NTPases were known to be involved in diverse functional activities such as transcription regulation in addition to the defense signaling cascades depending on the domain association. In Chalmydomonas reinhardtii, a green algae, WD40 repeats found to be at the carboxyl-terminus of NACHT NTPases suggest probable role in apoptosis regulation. Moreover, the genome of Selaginella moellendorffii, an extant lycophyte, intriguingly shows the considerable number of both AP-ATPases and NACHT NTPases in contrast to a large repertoire of AP-ATPases in plants and emerge as an important node in the evolutionary tree of life. The large complement of AP-ATPases overtakes the function of NACHT NTPases and plausible reason behind the absence of the later in the plant lineages. The presence of NACHT NTPases in the early green plants and phyletic patterns results from this study raises a quandary for the distribution of this STAND P-loop NTPase with the apparent horizontal gene transfer from cyanobacteria. PMID:26930396

  17. Computational Identification Raises a Riddle for Distribution of Putative NACHT NTPases in the Genome of Early Green Plants.

    PubMed

    Arya, Preeti; Acharya, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    NACHT NTPases and AP-ATPases belongs to STAND (signal transduction ATPases with numerous domain) P-loop NTPase class, which are known to be involved in defense signaling pathways and apoptosis regulation. The AP-ATPases (also known as NB-ARC) and NACHT NTPases are widely spread throughout all kingdoms of life except in plants, where only AP-ATPases have been extensively studied in the scenario of plant defense response against pathogen invasion and in hypersensitive response (HR). In the present study, we have employed a genome-wide survey (using stringent computational analysis) of 67 diverse organisms viz., archaebacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, animalia and plantae to revisit the evolutionary history of these two STAND P-loop NTPases. This analysis divulged the presence of NACHT NTPases in the early green plants (green algae and the lycophyte) which had not been previously reported. These NACHT NTPases were known to be involved in diverse functional activities such as transcription regulation in addition to the defense signaling cascades depending on the domain association. In Chalmydomonas reinhardtii, a green algae, WD40 repeats found to be at the carboxyl-terminus of NACHT NTPases suggest probable role in apoptosis regulation. Moreover, the genome of Selaginella moellendorffii, an extant lycophyte, intriguingly shows the considerable number of both AP-ATPases and NACHT NTPases in contrast to a large repertoire of AP-ATPases in plants and emerge as an important node in the evolutionary tree of life. The large complement of AP-ATPases overtakes the function of NACHT NTPases and plausible reason behind the absence of the later in the plant lineages. The presence of NACHT NTPases in the early green plants and phyletic patterns results from this study raises a quandary for the distribution of this STAND P-loop NTPase with the apparent horizontal gene transfer from cyanobacteria. PMID:26930396

  18. Identification of Cellular Proteins that Interact with Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early Protein 1 by Protein Array Assay

    PubMed Central

    Puerta Martínez, Francisco; Tang, Qiyi

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene expression during infection is characterized as a sequential process including immediate-early (IE), early (E), and late (L)-stage gene expression. The most abundantly expressed gene at the IE stage of infection is the major IE (MIE) gene that produces IE1 and IE2. IE1 has been the focus of study because it is an important protein, not only for viral gene expression but also for viral replication. It is believed that IE1 plays important roles in viral gene regulation by interacting with cellular proteins. In the current study, we performed protein array assays and identified 83 cellular proteins that interact with IE1. Among them, seven are RNA-binding proteins that are important in RNA processing; more than half are nuclear proteins that are involved in gene regulations. Tumorigenesis-related proteins are also found to interact with IE1, implying that the role of IE1 in tumorigenesis might need to be reevaluated. Unexpectedly, cytoplasmic proteins, such as Golgi autoantigen and GGA1 (both related to the Golgi trafficking protein), are also found to be associated with IE1. We also employed a coimmunoprecipitation assay to test the interactions of IE1 and some of the proteins identified in the protein array assays and confirmed that the results from the protein array assays are reliable. Many of the proteins identified by the protein array assay have not been previously reported. Therefore, the functions of the IE1-protein interactions need to be further explored in the future. PMID:24385082

  19. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Cristina; Macêdo, Jéssica Kele A.; Feoli, Andrés; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W.

    2016-01-01

    The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM) and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms. PMID:27035343

  20. Entamoeba histolytica: differential gene expression during programmed cell death and identification of early pro- and anti-apoptotic signals.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Virginia Sánchez; Flores, Ma Olivia Medel; Villalba-Magdaleno, José D'Artagnan; Garcia, Consuelo Gómez; Ishiwara, David Guillermo Pérez

    2010-12-01

    We have demonstrated that programmed cell death (PCD) in Entamoeba histolytica is induced in vitro by G418 aminoglycoside antibiotic. To ascertain if biochemical and morphological changes previously observed are paired to molecular changes that reflect a genetic program, we looked here for early differential gene expression during the induction of PCD. Using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and in silico derived analysis we showed in E. histolytica a differential gene expression during PCD induced by G418. The genes identified encoded for proteins homologous to Glutaminyl-tRNA synthase, Ribosomal Subunit Proteins 40S and 18S, Saposin-like, Silent Information Regulator-2 (Sir-2), and Grainins 1 and 2. Using real-time quantitative PCR (RT Q-PCR), we found that glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, sir-2, grainins and saposin-like genes were strongly overexpressed after 30min of PCD induction, while its expression dramatically decreased up to 60min. On the other hand, overexpression of ribosomal genes increased only 7-fold of basal expression, showing a progressive down-regulation up to 90min. glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, sir-2 and grainins could act as negative regulators of PCD, trying to control the biochemical changes related to PCD activation. Overexpression of saposin-like gene could act as up-regulator of some cell death pathways. Our results give evidence of the first genes identified during the early stage of PCD in E. histolytica that could be implicated in regulation of apoptotic pathways. PMID:20515683

  1. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Cristina; Macêdo, Jéssica Kele A; Feoli, Andrés; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W

    2016-04-01

    The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM) and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms. PMID:27035343

  2. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  3. Cloning of a Vibrio cholerae vibriobactin gene cluster: identification of genes required for early steps in siderophore biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Wyckoff, E E; Stoebner, J A; Reed, K E; Payne, S M

    1997-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae secretes the catechol siderophore vibriobactin in response to iron limitation. Vibriobactin is structurally similar to enterobactin, the siderophore produced by Escherichia coli, and both organisms produce 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) as an intermediate in siderophore biosynthesis. To isolate and characterize V. cholerae genes involved in vibriobactin biosynthesis, we constructed a genomic cosmid bank of V. cholerae DNA and isolated clones that complemented mutations in E. coli enterobactin biosynthesis genes. V. cholerae homologs of entA, entB, entC, entD, and entE were identified on overlapping cosmid clones. Our data indicate that the vibriobactin genes are clustered, like the E. coli enterobactin genes, but the organization of the genes within these clusters is different. In this paper, we present the organization and sequences of genes involved in the synthesis and activation of DHBA. In addition, a V. cholerae strain with a chromosomal mutation in vibA was constructed by marker exchange. This strain was unable to produce vibriobactin or DHBA, confirming that in V. cholerae VibA catalyzes an early step in vibriobactin biosynthesis. PMID:9371453

  4. First identification of direct collapse black hole candidates in the early Universe in CANDELS/GOODS-S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea; Grazian, Andrea; Fiore, Fabrizio; Giallongo, Emanuele; Puccetti, Simonetta

    2016-06-01

    The first black hole seeds, formed when the Universe was younger than ˜500 Myr, are recognized to play an important role for the growth of early (z ˜ 7) supermassive black holes. While progresses have been made in understanding their formation and growth, their observational signatures remain largely unexplored. As a result, no detection of such sources has been confirmed so far. Supported by numerical simulations, we present a novel photometric method to identify black hole seed candidates in deep multiwavelength surveys. We predict that these highly obscured sources are characterized by a steep spectrum in the infrared (1.6-4.5 μm), i.e. by very red colours. The method selects the only two objects with a robust X-ray detection found in the CANDELS/GOODS-S survey with a photometric redshift z ≳ 6. Fitting their infrared spectra only with a stellar component would require unrealistic star formation rates (≳2000 M⊙ yr-1). To date, the selected objects represent the most promising black hole seed candidates, possibly formed via the direct collapse black hole scenario, with predicted mass >105 M⊙. While this result is based on the best photometric observations of high-z sources available to date, additional progress is expected from spectroscopic and deeper X-ray data. Upcoming observatories, like the JWST, will greatly expand the scope of this work.

  5. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  6. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  7. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  8. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  9. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... has a change in mental status, follow these first aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . ...

  10. Talent identification and early development of elite water-polo players: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Falk, Bareket; Lidor, Ronnie; Lander, Yael; Lang, Benny

    2004-04-01

    The processes of talent detection and early development are critical in any sport programme. However, not much is known about the appropriate strategies to be implemented during these processes, and little scientific inquiry has been conducted in this area. The aim of this study was to identify variables of swimming, ball handling and physical ability, as well as game intelligence, which could assist in the selection process of young water-polo players. Twenty-four players aged 14-15 years underwent a battery of tests three times during a 2-year period, before selection to the junior national team. The tests included: freestyle swim for 50, 100, 200 and 400 m, 100-m breast-stroke, 100-m 'butterfly' (with breast-stroke leg motion), 50-m dribbling, throwing at the goal, throw for distance in the water, vertical 'jump' from the water, and evaluation of game intelligence by two coaches. A comparison of those players eventually selected to the team and those not selected demonstrated that, 2 years before selection, selected players were already superior on most of the swim tasks (with the exception of breast-stroke and 50-m freestyle), as well as dribbling and game intelligence. This superiority was maintained throughout the 2 years. Two-way tabulation revealed that, based on baseline scores, the prediction for 67% of the players was in agreement with the final selection to the junior national team. We recommend that fewer swim events be used in the process of selecting young water-polo players, and that greater emphasis should be placed on evaluation of game intelligence. PMID:15161108

  11. Phosphorus Redox on the Early Earth: First Identification of Low-Oxidation State Phosphorus Compounds in Terrestrial Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, K. M.; Pasek, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Phosphorus is one of the key elements in biochemical systems, playing an important role in metabolism as ATP and other coenzymes, in replication as DNA and RNA, and in cellular structure as phospholipids. The geochemical cycling of phosphorus on the Earth is usually confined to the rock cycle- redox reactions of phosphorus are never considered. However, it has been proposed that redox reactions of phosphorus were important on the early Earth (Pasek, PNAS 2008). Indeed, such a suggestion is buttressed by the discovery of condensed phosphate formation linked to the oxidation of reduced P compounds. However, prior to the present work, there has been no report of these P compounds in geologic samples. Here we report the first occurrence of reduced P in samples of fulgurites, the glassy material resulting from the fusion of sand, soil, or rock during a lightning strike. On average, lightning strikes the Earth's surface at a rate of approximately 65 times per second (Krider et al., J. Geophys. Res.,1968) exposing target areas to extreme energy dissipation and temperatures. Through electron microprobe analyses and NMR we have identified naturally formed metal droplets containing Fe and P within several fulgurite samples and Ca-phosphite compounds. These droplets are highly reduced compared to the original material and are not naturally present in the target area, rather they were formed through the rapid, intense heating and quenching experienced during fulgurite formation. This process provides a natural means to create localized environments with greater than normal abundances of reduced Fe and P, less commonly found on Earth's surface than their oxidized counterparts. In particular, small areas that receive repeated lightning strikes due to topography or local weather patterns (e.g. hilltops) could potentially house unique microhabitats with reduced elements available for biological use.

  12. Sensitivity to temporal fine structure and hearing-aid outcomes in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Elvira; McCormack, Abby; Edmonds, Barrie A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS) on subjective measures of hearing aid outcome. Design: Prior to receiving hearing aids, participants completed a test to assess sensitivity to TFS and two self-assessment questionnaires; the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile (GHABP), and the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of hearing (SSQ-A). Follow-up appointments, comprised three self-assessment questionnaires; the GHABP, the SSQ-B, and the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aid Outcomes (IOI-HA). Study sample: 75 adults were recruited from direct referral clinics. Results: Two thirds of participants were found to have good sensitivity to TFS; listeners with good sensitivity to TFS rated their hearing abilities higher at pre-fitting (SSQ-A) than those with poor sensitivity to TFS. At follow-up, participants with good sensitivity to TFS showed a smaller improvement on SSQ-B over listeners with poor sensitivity to TFS. Among the questionnaires, only the SSQ showed greater sensitivity to measure subjective differences between listeners with good and poor sensitivity to TFS. Conclusions: The clinical identification of a patient's ability to process TFS information at an early stage in the treatment pathway could prove useful in managing expectations about hearing aid outcomes. PMID:24550769

  13. The serrated neoplasia pathway of colorectal tumors: Identification of MUC5AC hypomethylation as an early marker of polyps with malignant potential.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Florence; Mariette, Christophe; Vincent, Audrey; Wacrenier, Agnès; Maunoury, Vincent; Leclerc, Julie; Coppin, Lucie; Crépin, Michel; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Buisine, Marie-Pierre

    2016-03-15

    The serrated neoplasia pathway accounts for 20-30% of colorectal cancers (CRC), which are characterized by extensive methylation (CpG island methylation phenotype, CIMP), frequent BRAF mutation and high microsatellite instability (MSI). We recently identified MUC5AC mucin gene hypomethylation as a specific marker of MSI CRC. The early identification of preneoplastic lesions among serrated polyps is currently challenging. Here, we performed a detailed pathological and molecular analysis of a large series of colorectal serrated polyps and evaluated the usefulness of mucin genes MUC2 and MUC5AC to differentiate serrated polyps and to identify lesions with malignant potential. A series of 330 colorectal polyps including 218 serrated polyps [42 goblet cell-rich hyperplastic polyps (GCHP), 68 microvesicular hyperplastic polyps (MVHP), 100 sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) and eight traditional serrated adenoma (TSA)] and 112 conventional adenomas was analyzed for BRAF/KRAS mutations, MSI, CIMP, MLH1 and MGMT methylation, and MUC2 and MUC5AC expression and methylation. We show that MUC5AC hypomethylation is an early event in the serrated neoplasia pathway, and specifically detects MVHP and SSA, arguing for a filiation between MVHP, SSA and CIMP-H/MSI CRC, whereas GCHP and TSA arise from a distinct pathway. Moreover, MUC5AC hypomethylation specifically identified serrated lesions with BRAF mutation, CIMP-H or MSI, suggesting that it may be useful to identify serrated neoplasia pathway-related precursor lesions. Our data suggest that MVHP should be recognized among HP and require particular attention. PMID:26476272

  14. SuperSAGE analysis of the Nicotiana attenuata transcriptome after fatty acid-amino acid elicitation (FAC): identification of early mediators of insect responses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plants trigger and tailor defense responses after perception of the oral secretions (OS) of attacking specialist lepidopteran larvae. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in the OS of the Manduca sexta larvae are necessary and sufficient to elicit the herbivory-specific responses in Nicotiana attenuata, an annual wild tobacco species. How FACs are perceived and activate signal transduction mechanisms is unknown. Results We used SuperSAGE combined with 454 sequencing to quantify the early transcriptional changes elicited by the FAC N-linolenoyl-glutamic acid (18:3-Glu) and virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) to examine the function of candidate genes in the M. sexta-N. attenuata interaction. The analysis targeted mRNAs encoding regulatory components: rare transcripts with very rapid FAC-elicited kinetics (increases within 60 and declines within 120 min). From 12,744 unique Tag sequences identified (UniTags), 430 and 117 were significantly up- and down-regulated ≥ 2.5-fold, respectively, after 18:3-Glu elicitation compared to wounding. Based on gene ontology classification, more than 25% of the annotated UniTags corresponded to putative regulatory components, including 30 transcriptional regulators and 22 protein kinases. Quantitative PCR analysis was used to analyze the FAC-dependent regulation of a subset of 27 of these UniTags and for most of them a rapid and transient induction was confirmed. Six FAC-regulated genes were functionally characterized by VIGS and two, a putative lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) and a protein of unknown function, were identified as important mediators of the M. sexta-N. attenuata interaction. Conclusions The analysis of the early changes in the transcriptome of N. attenuata after FAC elicitation using SuperSAGE/454 has identified regulatory genes involved in insect-specific mediated responses in plants. Moreover, it has provided a foundation for the identification of additional novel regulators associated with this

  15. Effect of sulphur deprivation on osmotic potential components and nitrogen metabolism in oilseed rape leaves: identification of a new early indicator.

    PubMed

    Sorin, Elise; Etienne, Philippe; Maillard, Anne; Zamarreño, Angel-Mari; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Arkoun, Mustapha; Jamois, Frank; Cruz, Florence; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2015-10-01

    Identification of early sulphur (S) deficiency indicators is important for species such as Brassica napus, an S-demanding crop in which yield and the nutritional quality of seeds are negatively affected by S deficiency. Because S is mostly stored as SO4 (2-) in leaf cell vacuoles and can be mobilized during S deficiency, this study investigated the impact of S deprivation on leaf osmotic potential in order to identify compensation processes. Plants were exposed for 28 days to S or to chlorine deprivation in order to differentiate osmotic and metabolic responses. While chlorine deprivation had no significant effects on growth, osmotic potential and nitrogen metabolism, Brassica napus revealed two response periods to S deprivation. The first one occurred during the first 13 days during which plant growth was maintained as a result of vacuolar SO4 (2-) mobilization. In the meantime, leaf osmotic potential of S-deprived plants remained similar to control plants despite a reduction in the SO4 (2-) osmotic contribution, which was fully compensated by an increase in NO3 (-), PO4 (3-) and Cl(-) accumulation. The second response occurred after 13 days of S deprivation with a significant reduction in growth, leaf osmotic potential, NO3 (-) uptake and NO3 (-) reductase activity, whereas amino acids and NO3 (-) were accumulated. This kinetic analysis of S deprivation suggested that a ([Cl(-)]+[NO3 (-)]+[PO4 (3-)]):[SO4 (2-)] ratio could provide a relevant indicator of S deficiency, modified nearly as early as the over-expression of genes encoding SO4 (2-) tonoplastic or plasmalemmal transporters, with the added advantage that it can be easily quantified under field conditions. PMID:26139826

  16. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James; Kuper, Phillip; Prados, Donald; Russell, Jeffrey; Ross, Kenton; Gasser, Gerald; Sader, Steven; McKellip, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    This report details one of three experiments performed during FY 2007 for the NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) at Stennis Space Center. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). The intent of the RPC experiment was to assess the degree to which VIIRS data can provide forest disturbance monitoring information as an input to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) as compared to the level of information that can be obtained from MODIS data. The USDA Forest Service (USFS) plans to use MODIS products for generating broad-scaled, regional monitoring products as input to an EWS for forest health threat assessment. NASA SSC is helping the USFS to evaluate and integrate currently available satellite remote sensing technologies and data products for the EWS, including the use of MODIS products for regional monitoring of forest disturbance. Gypsy moth defoliation of the mid-Appalachian highland region was selected as a case study. Gypsy moth is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003; the gypsy moth threatens eastern U.S. hardwood forests, which are also a concern highlighted in the HFRA of 2003. This region was selected for the project because extensive gypsy moth defoliation occurred there over multiple years during the MODIS operational period. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including agricultural efficiency, coastal management, ecological forecasting, disaster management, and carbon management. In this experiment, MODIS data and VIIRS data simulated from MODIS were assessed for their ability to contribute broad, regional geospatial information on gypsy moth defoliation. Landsat and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission

  17. Identification of Putative Biomarkers for the Early Stage of Porcine Spermatogonial Stem Cells Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won-Young; Do, Jeong Tae; Park, Chankyu; Kim, Jin Hoi; Chung, Hak-Jae; Kim, Kyung-Woon; Gil, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Song, Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    To identify putative biomarkers of porcine spermatogonial stem cells (pSSCs), total RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was performed on 5- and 180-day-old porcine testes and on pSSC colonies that were established under low temperature culture conditions as reported previously. In total, 10,184 genes were selected using Cufflink software, followed by a logarithm and quantile normalization of the pairwise scatter plot. The correlation rates of pSSCs compared to 5- and 180-day-old testes were 0.869 and 0.529, respectively and that between 5- and 180-day-old testes was 0.580. Hierarchical clustering data revealed that gene expression patterns of pSSCs were similar to 5-day-old testis. By applying a differential expression filter of four fold or greater, 607 genes were identified between pSSCs and 5-day-old testis, and 2118 genes were identified between the 5- and 180-day-old testes. Among these differentially expressed genes, 293 genes were upregulated and 314 genes were downregulated in the 5-day-old testis compared to pSSCs, and 1106 genes were upregulated and 1012 genes were downregulated in the 180-day-old testis compared to the 5-day-old testis. The following genes upregulated in pSSCs compared to 5-day-old testes were selected for additional analysis: matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), CD14, CD209, and Kruppel-like factor 9 (KLF9). Expression levels of these genes were evaluated in pSSCs and in 5- and 180-day-old porcine testes. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed their germ cell-specific expression in 5- and 180-day-old testes. These finding may not only be useful in facilitating the enrichment and sorting of porcine spermatogonia, but may also be useful in the study of the early stages of spermatogenic meiosis. PMID:26800048

  18. Identification of Rapeseed MicroRNAs Involved in Early Stage Seed Germination under Salt and Drought Stresses.

    PubMed

    Jian, Hongju; Wang, Jia; Wang, Tengyue; Wei, Lijuan; Li, Jiana; Liu, Liezhao

    2016-01-01

    Drought and salinity are severe and wide-ranging abiotic stresses that substantially affect crop germination, development and productivity, and seed germination is the first critical step in plant growth and development. To comprehensively investigate small-RNA targets and improve our understanding of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation networks during Brassica napus seed imbibition under drought and salt stresses, we constructed three small-RNA libraries from B. napus variety ZS11 embryos exposed to salt (200 mM NaCl, denoted "S"), drought (200 g L(-1) PEG-6000, denoted "D"), and distilled water (denoted "CK") during imbibition and sequenced them using an Illumina Genome Analyzer. A total of 11,528,557, 12,080,081, and 12,315,608 raw reads were obtained from the CK, D, and S libraries, respectively. Further analysis identified 85 known miRNAs belonging to 31 miRNA families and 882 novel miRNAs among the three libraries. Comparison of the D and CK libraries revealed significant down-regulation of six miRNA families, miR156, miR169, miR860, miR399, miR171, and miR395, whereas only miR172 was significantly up-regulated. In contrast, comparison of the S library with the CK library showed significant down-regulation of only two miRNA families: miRNA393 and miRNA399. Putative targets for 336, 376, and 340 novel miRNAs were successfully predicted in the CK, D, and S libraries, respectively, and 271 miRNA families and 20 target gene families [including disease resistance protein (DIRP), drought-responsive family protein (DRRP), early responsive to dehydration stress protein (ERD), stress-responsive alpha-beta barrel domain protein (SRAP), and salt tolerance homolog2 (STH2)] were confirmed as being core miRNAs and genes involved in the seed imbibition response to salt and drought stresses. The sequencing results were partially validated by quantitative RT-PCR for both conserved and novel miRNAs as well as the predicted target genes. Our data suggest that diverse

  19. Identification of Rapeseed MicroRNAs Involved in Early Stage Seed Germination under Salt and Drought Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Hongju; Wang, Jia; Wang, Tengyue; Wei, Lijuan; Li, Jiana; Liu, Liezhao

    2016-01-01

    Drought and salinity are severe and wide-ranging abiotic stresses that substantially affect crop germination, development and productivity, and seed germination is the first critical step in plant growth and development. To comprehensively investigate small-RNA targets and improve our understanding of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation networks during Brassica napus seed imbibition under drought and salt stresses, we constructed three small-RNA libraries from B. napus variety ZS11 embryos exposed to salt (200 mM NaCl, denoted “S”), drought (200 g L−1 PEG-6000, denoted “D”), and distilled water (denoted “CK”) during imbibition and sequenced them using an Illumina Genome Analyzer. A total of 11,528,557, 12,080,081, and 12,315,608 raw reads were obtained from the CK, D, and S libraries, respectively. Further analysis identified 85 known miRNAs belonging to 31 miRNA families and 882 novel miRNAs among the three libraries. Comparison of the D and CK libraries revealed significant down-regulation of six miRNA families, miR156, miR169, miR860, miR399, miR171, and miR395, whereas only miR172 was significantly up-regulated. In contrast, comparison of the S library with the CK library showed significant down-regulation of only two miRNA families: miRNA393 and miRNA399. Putative targets for 336, 376, and 340 novel miRNAs were successfully predicted in the CK, D, and S libraries, respectively, and 271 miRNA families and 20 target gene families [including disease resistance protein (DIRP), drought-responsive family protein (DRRP), early responsive to dehydration stress protein (ERD), stress-responsive alpha-beta barrel domain protein (SRAP), and salt tolerance homolog2 (STH2)] were confirmed as being core miRNAs and genes involved in the seed imbibition response to salt and drought stresses. The sequencing results were partially validated by quantitative RT-PCR for both conserved and novel miRNAs as well as the predicted target genes. Our data suggest

  20. SpeX spectroscopy of unresolved very low mass binaries. II. Identification of 14 candidate binaries with late-M/early-L and T dwarf components

    SciTech Connect

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Nicholls, Christine P.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Looper, Dagny L.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Cruz, Kelle; West, Andrew A.; Gizis, John E.; Metchev, Stanimir

    2014-10-20

    Multiplicity is a key statistic for understanding the formation of very low mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs. Currently, the separation distribution of VLM binaries remains poorly constrained at small separations (≤1 AU), leading to uncertainty in the overall binary fraction. We approach this problem by searching for late-M/early-L plus T dwarf spectral binaries whose combined light spectra exhibit distinct peculiarities, allowing for separation-independent identification. We define a set of spectral indices designed to identify these systems, and we use a spectral template fitting method to confirm and characterize spectral binary candidates from a library of 815 spectra from the SpeX Prism Spectral Libraries. We present 11 new binary candidates, confirm 3 previously reported candidates, and rule out 2 previously identified candidates, all with primary and secondary spectral types in the range M7-L7 and T1-T8, respectively. We find that subdwarfs and blue L dwarfs are the primary contaminants in our sample and propose a method for segregating these sources. If confirmed by follow-up observations, these systems may add to the growing list of tight separation binaries, whose orbital properties may yield further insight into brown dwarf formation scenarios.

  1. Measuring interference of drug-like molecules with the respiratory chain: toward the early identification of mitochondrial uncouplers in lead finding.

    PubMed

    Stock, Ursula; Matter, Hans; Diekert, Kerstin; Dörner, Wolfgang; Dröse, Stefan; Licher, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The electron transport chain (ETC) couples electron transfer between donors and acceptors with proton transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The resulting electrochemical proton gradient is used to generate chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Proton transfer is based on the activity of complex I-V proteins in the ETC. The overall electrical activity of these proteins can be measured by proton transfer using Solid Supported Membrane technology. We tested the activity of complexes I, III, and V in a combined assay, called oxidative phosphorylation assay (oxphos assay), by activating each complex with the corresponding substrate. The oxphos assay was used to test in-house substances from different projects and several drugs currently available on the market that have reported effects on mitochondrial functions. The resulting data were compared to the influence of the respective compounds on mitochondria as determined by oxygen consumption and to data generated with an ATP depletion assay. The comparison shows that the oxidative phosphorylation assay provides both a rapid approach for detecting interaction of compounds with respiratory chain proteins and information on their mode of interaction. Therefore, the oxphos assay is a useful tool to support structure activity relationship studies by allowing early identification of mitotoxicity and for analyzing the outcome of phenotypic screens that are susceptible to the generation of mitotoxicity-related artifacts. PMID:23992120

  2. Measuring Interference of Drug-Like Molecules with the Respiratory Chain: Toward the Early Identification of Mitochondrial Uncouplers in Lead Finding

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Hans; Diekert, Kerstin; Dörner, Wolfgang; Dröse, Stefan; Licher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The electron transport chain (ETC) couples electron transfer between donors and acceptors with proton transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The resulting electrochemical proton gradient is used to generate chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Proton transfer is based on the activity of complex I–V proteins in the ETC. The overall electrical activity of these proteins can be measured by proton transfer using Solid Supported Membrane technology. We tested the activity of complexes I, III, and V in a combined assay, called oxidative phosphorylation assay (oxphos assay), by activating each complex with the corresponding substrate. The oxphos assay was used to test in-house substances from different projects and several drugs currently available on the market that have reported effects on mitochondrial functions. The resulting data were compared to the influence of the respective compounds on mitochondria as determined by oxygen consumption and to data generated with an ATP depletion assay. The comparison shows that the oxidative phosphorylation assay provides both a rapid approach for detecting interaction of compounds with respiratory chain proteins and information on their mode of interaction. Therefore, the oxphos assay is a useful tool to support structure activity relationship studies by allowing early identification of mitotoxicity and for analyzing the outcome of phenotypic screens that are susceptible to the generation of mitotoxicity-related artifacts. PMID:23992120

  3. Comparison of Oral Microbial Profiles between Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries and Caries-Free Children Using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yifei; Sun, Xiangyu; Tong, Peiyuan; Si, Yan; Zheng, Shuguo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Early childhood caries (ECC) has become a prevalent public health problem among Chinese preschool children. The bacterial microflora is considered to be an important factor in the formation and progress of dental caries. However, high-throughput and large-scale studies of the primary dentition are lacking. The present study aimed to compare oral microbial profiles between children with severe ECC (SECC) and caries-free children. Methods Both saliva and supragingival plaque samples were obtained from children with SECC (n = 20) and caries-free children (n = 20) aged 3 to 4 years. The samples were assayed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Results A total of 379 bacterial species were detected in both the saliva and supragingival plaque samples from all children. Thirteen (including Streptococcus) and two (Streptococcus and Actinomyces) bacterial species in supragingival plaque and saliva, respectively, showed significant differences in prevalence between the two groups. Of these, the frequency of Streptococcus mutans detection was significantly higher in both saliva (p = 0.026) and plaque (p = 0.006) samples from the SECC group than in those from the caries-free group. Conclusions The findings of our study revealed differences in the oral microbiota between the SECC and caries-free groups Several genera, including Streptococcus, Porphyromonas, and Actinomyces, are strongly associated with SECC and can be potential biomarkers of dental caries in the primary dentition. PMID:25821962

  4. AIDS and family planning.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training. PMID:12159262

  5. Penicillium marneffei Infection in AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Stephenie Y. N.; Wong, K. F.

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei is a dimorphic fungus which is endemic in Southeast Asia. It is an opportunistic pathogen which has emerged to become an AIDS-defining illness in the endemic areas. Early diagnosis with prompt initiation of treatment is crucial for its management. Prompt diagnosis can often be established through careful cytological and histological examination of clinical specimens although microbiological culture remains the gold standard for its diagnosis. Standard antifungal treatment for AIDS patients with penicilliosis is well established. Highly active antiretroviral therapy should be started early together with the antifungal treatment. Special attention should be paid to potential drug interaction between antiretroviral and antifungal treatments. Secondary prophylaxis may be discontinued with a low risk of relapse of the infection once the immune dysfunction has improved. PMID:21331327

  6. AIDS: Education's New Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, D. Kay; Faber, Charles F.

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an incurable, fatal disease that is caused by a virus that eventually destroys the body's immune system. While AIDS is contagious, the risk of contracting AIDS through casual contact is said to be negligible. A review of the court cases involving students with AIDS reveals that the precedent has…

  7. New Diagnostic Aides for Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Laura K.; Harris, Ryan J.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Detection of melanoma at an early stage is crucial to improving survival rates in melanoma. Accurate diagnosis by current techniques including dermatoscopy remains difficult, and new tools are needed to improve our diagnostic abilities. This article discusses recent advances in diagnostic techniques including confocal scanning laser microscopy, MelaFind, Siascopy, noninvasive genomic detection, as well as other future possibilities to aid in diagnosing melanoma. Advantages and barriers to implementation of the various technologies are discussed as well. PMID:22800557

  8. Computer-aided drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Computational approaches are an integral part of interdisciplinary drug discovery research. Understanding the science behind computational tools, their opportunities, and limitations is essential to make a true impact on drug discovery at different levels. If applied in a scientifically meaningful way, computational methods improve the ability to identify and evaluate potential drug molecules, but there remain weaknesses in the methods that preclude naïve applications. Herein, current trends in computer-aided drug discovery are reviewed, and selected computational areas are discussed. Approaches are highlighted that aid in the identification and optimization of new drug candidates. Emphasis is put on the presentation and discussion of computational concepts and methods, rather than case studies or application examples. As such, this contribution aims to provide an overview of the current methodological spectrum of computational drug discovery for a broad audience. PMID:26949519

  9. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra Tridentata), River Lampreys (L. Ayresi) and Western Brook Lampreys (L. Richardson) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys : Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwig, Michael H.

    2003-02-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). In particular: (1) we examined the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics in identification of larval lampreys, specifically pigmentation patterns, and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stages of lampreys, and (2) we examined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stages of Columbia River Basin lampreys.

  10. Protecting the Rights of Young Children Affected and Infected by HIV/AIDS in Africa: Updating Strategies and Reinforcing Existing Networks. Action Research in Family and Early Childhood Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Early Childhood and Family Education Unit.

    This monograph summarizes the issues discussed at an international workshop convened to identify strategies, lines of action, and innovative approaches to respond to the needs of young children faced by the African HIV/AIDS pandemic. The monograph provides background information on the HIV/AIDS pandemic; describes current initiatives and results…

  11. Identification of adenovirus type 2 early region 1B proteins that share the same amino terminus as do the 495R and 155R proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, J B; Anderson, C W

    1987-01-01

    Adenovirus type 2 early region 1B (E1B) proteins synthesized in vitro were fractionated chromatographically and characterized by peptide and sequence analysis and by reaction with peptide-specific antisera targeted to either the N or C terminus of either of two overlapping E1B reading frames (175 or 495 codons). In addition to the previously identified E1B-495R, E1B-175R, and E1B-155R species, two other E1B proteins of similar electrophoretic mobility to the 175R protein were identified. E1B-82R is an abundant product in vitro and in vivo that has the same N terminus as that of the 495R and 155R proteins but a different C terminus. The structure of 82R is predicted by the structure of the abundant 13S (1.02-kilobase) E1B mRNA. E1B-168R is a novel minor species consisting of the 24 amino-terminal residues of the 495R protein fused to the entire polypeptide IX sequence. An additional, minor 16,000-molecular-weight polypeptide was detected that may correspond to a predicted 92R E1B protein, but definitive identification was not possible. These observations establish that the leftmost portion (78 codons) of the 495-codon reading frame, which overlaps the right half of the 175-codon reading frame, is expressed as an abundant protein that does not contain other 495R sequences. This region, which may participate in the regulation of region E1A expression, may thus constitute a functional domain distinct from the rightward portion of the 495R protein. Images PMID:2960832

  12. Early Identification and Infant Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintz, Brenda

    1976-01-01

    This article describes the Zucker Center's program in Toledo, Ohio which identifies children with developmental delays and enrolls them in a demonstration infant stimulation program. The center provides educational programs in neonatal care, nutrition, general stimulation, and parenting techniques. Available from: PS 504 969. (JMB)

  13. Home-use cancer detecting band aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Rudnitsky, Arkady; Sheinman, Victor; Tzoy, Andrey; Toktosunov, Aitmamat; Adashov, Arkady

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel concept in which special band aid is developed for early detection of cancer. The band aid contains an array of micro needles with small detection array connected to each needle which inspects the color of the surface of the skin versus time after being pinched with the needles. We were able to show in pre-clinical trials that the color varies differently if the skin is close to tumor tissue.

  14. Financial Aid's Role in Meeting State College Completion Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This brief utilizes the most recent and rigorous financial aid research to inform state higher education leaders about innovative and effective financial aid practices. By simplifying aid eligibility requirements, improving the aid application process, and engaging in early awareness efforts, states could improve the effectiveness of existing aid…

  15. Social, cultural and demographic aspects of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sabatier, R C

    1987-12-01

    Both on national and international levels, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) represents a formidable challenge to social institutions and to cultural assumptions. Its effect thus far, in what must be considered the very early stages of a protracted and unprecedented epidemic, has been to exacerbate existing social tensions and divisions over a surprisingly wide field. Though international leadership by the World Health Organization has been met with an unusually high degree of multinational cooperation, AIDS has also stimulated a degree of xenophobia and racial friction that, if allowed to grow, could handicap global AIDS control and prevention efforts. PMID:3433754

  16. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  17. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  18. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  19. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ... cancers. When that happens, the illness is called AIDS. Once a person has the virus, it stays ...

  20. Frostbite, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  1. Poisoning first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  2. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  3. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  4. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  5. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  6. Bruises, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  7. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  8. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  9. MICROFICHE AIDS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death.

  10. In Jamaica, Community Aides for Disabled Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Marigold J.

    1981-01-01

    One of the major goals of the Jamaican Early Stimulation Project is to develop a low cost model for providing early identification of disability and intervention services. Journal availability: see EC 133 861. (Author)

  11. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  12. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  13. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  14. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  15. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  16. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  17. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  18. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  19. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  20. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  1. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  2. Children with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessee, Peggy O; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the prevalence of pediatric Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases in the United States, the quality of life of children with AIDS, and concerns that parents and the community have about the disease. Suggests some responses for educational institutions and teachers to help confront AIDS and help children with the disease. (MDM)

  3. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  4. Speech intelligibility of children with cochlear implants, tactile aids, or hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Osberger, M J; Maso, M; Sam, L K

    1993-02-01

    Speech intelligibility was measured in 31 children who used the 3M/House single-channel implant (n = 12), the Nucleus 22-Channel Cochlear Implant System (n = 15), or the Tactaid II + two-channel vibrotactile aid (n = 4). The subjects were divided into subgroups based on age at onset of deafness (early or late). The speech intelligibility of the experimental subjects was compared to that of children who were profoundly hearing impaired who used conventional hearing aids (n = 12) or no sensory aid (n = 2). The subjects with early onset of deafness who received their single- or multichannel cochlear implant before age 10 demonstrated the highest speech intelligibility, whereas subjects who did not receive their device until after age 10 had the poorest speech intelligibility. There was no obvious difference in the speech intelligibility scores of these subjects as a function of type of device (implant or tactile aid). On the average, the postimplant or tactile aid speech intelligibility of the subjects with early onset of deafness was similar to that of hearing aid users with hearing levels between 100 and 110 dB HL and limited hearing in the high frequencies. The speech intelligibility of subjects with late onset of deafness showed marked deterioration after the onset of deafness with relatively large improvements by most subjects after they received a single- or multichannel implant. The one subject with late onset of deafness who used a tactile aid showed no improvement in speech intelligibility. PMID:8450658

  5. Determination of value of bovine respiratory disease control using a remote early disease identification system compared with conventional methods of metaphylaxis and visual observations.

    PubMed

    White, B J; Amrine, D E; Goehl, D R

    2015-08-01

    Mitigation of the deleterious effects of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an important issue in the cattle industry. Conventional management of calves at high risk for BRD often includes mass treatment with antimicrobials at arrival followed by visual observation for individual clinical cases. These methods have proven effective; however, control program efficacy is influenced by the accuracy of visual observation. A remote early disease identification (REDI) system has been described that monitors cattle behavior to identify potential BRD cases. The objective of this research was to compare health and performance outcomes using either traditional BRD control (visual observation and metaphylaxis) or REDI during a 60-d postarrival phase in high-risk beef calves. The randomized controlled clinical trial was performed in 8 replicates at 3 different facilities over a 19-mo period. In each replicate, a single load of calves was randomly allocated to receive either conventional management (CONV; total = 8) or REDI (total = 8) as the method for BRD control. Cattle were monitored with each diagnostic method for the first 30 d on feed and performance variables were collected until approximately 60 d after arrival. Statistical differences ( < 0.10) were not identified in common performance (ADG) or health (morbidity, first treatment success, and mortality risk) among the treatment groups. Calves in the REDI pens had a lower ( < 0.01) average number of days on feed at first treatment (9.1 ± 1.2 d) compared with CONV pens (15.8 ± 1.2 d). There were no statistical differences ( > 0.10) in risk of BRD treatment and REDI calves were not administered antimicrobials at arrival; therefore, REDI calves had a lower ( < 0.01) average number of doses of antimicrobials/calf (0.75 ± 0.1 doses) compared with CONV calves (1.67 ± 0.1 doses). In this trial, the REDI system was comparable to conventional management with the potential advantages of earlier BRD diagnosis and decreased use

  6. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  7. AIDS, risk and social governance.

    PubMed

    Brown, T

    2000-05-01

    This paper considers the discursive properties of public health literature produced around AIDS in the 1980s and early 1990s. Attention is focused upon the role of health promotion in the UK government's response to the epidemic and on the language used in the educational campaigns conducted by the Health Education Council and its replacement the Health Education Authority. Using an analytical approach influenced by the work of Michel Foucault, the paper argues that the knowledges of AIDS produced by these various public health institutions constructed discursive boundaries between the idea of 'normal' and 'abnormal' behavioural practices. The notion of risk, produced as it is from epidemiological knowledge, is a central mechanism in this process. It is through the production, articulation and normalisation of 'at risk' groups that society is fragmented and hence subject to the governance strategies of late-modern liberal economies. PMID:10728847

  8. Using a GeneticFuzzy Algorithm as a Computer Aided Breast Cancer Diagnostic Tool.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Abir; Tchier, F; Rashidi, Mm

    2016-01-01

    Computeraided diagnosis of breast cancer is an important medical approach. In this research paper, we focus on combining two major methodologies, namely fuzzy base systems and the evolutionary genetic algorithms and on applying them to the Saudi Arabian breast cancer diagnosis database, to aid physicians in obtaining an earlycomputerized diagnosis and hence prevent the development of cancer through identification and removal or treatment of premalignant abnormalities; early detection can also improve survival and decrease mortality by detecting cancer at an early stage when treatment is more effective. Our hybrid algorithm, the geneticfuzzy algorithm, has produced optimized systems that attain high classification performance, with simple and readily interpreted rules and with a good degree of confidence. PMID:27510026

  9. One Mann against AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stocker, C

    1990-11-30

    This article features Jonathan Mann, director of the International AIDS Center of the Harvard AIDS Institute and his efforts to combat AIDS in the global context. Mann built the largest program in the history of the World Health Organization specifically in fighting AIDS. He helped originate the World AIDS Day observed annually throughout the world. As the director of the International AIDS Center at Harvard, Mann is launching a new role for himself concerning with research and ideas related to AIDS issue. According to him, AIDS pandemic offers "opportunities" to speed up research and spur people around the globe to address longstanding social problems with new energy. Mann hopes to get involved with local AIDS efforts. He foresees AIDS as an escalating problem that will continue to persist in one or two generations, which could rise as high as tenfold in the 1990s. He believes a vaccine will be available in the middle to late 1990s but to purge the virus from those positive persons is impossible. If the World AIDS Day can bring about attitude change, Mann hopes it will able be to foster a feeling of unity among people and countries. PMID:12349354

  10. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  11. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  12. Cell Cycle Regulates Nuclear Stability of AID and Determines the Cellular Response to AID

    PubMed Central

    Le, Quy; Maizels, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    AID (Activation Induced Deaminase) deaminates cytosines in DNA to initiate immunoglobulin gene diversification and to reprogram CpG methylation in early development. AID is potentially highly mutagenic, and it causes genomic instability evident as translocations in B cell malignancies. Here we show that AID is cell cycle regulated. By high content screening microscopy, we demonstrate that AID undergoes nuclear degradation more slowly in G1 phase than in S or G2-M phase, and that mutations that affect regulatory phosphorylation or catalytic activity can alter AID stability and abundance. We directly test the role of cell cycle regulation by fusing AID to tags that destabilize nuclear protein outside of G1 or S-G2/M phases. We show that enforced nuclear localization of AID in G1 phase accelerates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, and is well-tolerated; while nuclear AID compromises viability in S-G2/M phase cells. We identify AID derivatives that accelerate somatic hypermutation with minimal impact on viability, which will be useful tools for engineering genes and proteins by iterative mutagenesis and selection. Our results further suggest that use of cell cycle tags to regulate nuclear stability may be generally applicable to studying DNA repair and to engineering the genome. PMID:26355458

  13. Psychotherapy with AIDS Patients: Countertransference Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilk, Carole A.

    This paper provides a personal account of the process of psychotherapy for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients, as seen from both the client's and the psychotherapist's perspective, with a focus on countertransference issues found in the early phases of treatment. Based on case material, the discussion explores themes presented by…

  14. Taking Care of Young Children with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federlein, Anne Cairns

    This booklet provides an overview of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and guidelines for child care administrators and caregivers. It is argued that reason must overcome fear about the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in early childhood centers. Discussion addresses such questions as: (1) Can child caregivers get AIDS…

  15. AIDS: the first decade.

    PubMed

    Turk, H N

    1989-01-01

    AIDS has had a profound effect on society and the workplace and has raised legal and social problems for which society was not prepared. This article will chronicle the evolution of federal, state and local law concerning AIDS and the workplace. Although there are some clear-cut answers and guidelines that address the relationship of employer and employee to the AIDS epidemic, current legislation and enforcement of those laws does not adequately address the AIDS victim as a handicapped individual. Emphasis is also placed on the problems peculiar to the health care industry, the constitutionality of present legislation, and the AIDS victim's right to privacy versus the employer's need to know. Finally, some practical solutions and guidelines will be presented that will help the employer deal with the AIDS victim and his or her co-worker. PMID:10295811

  16. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  17. Marking parts to aid robot vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, J. W.; Barker, L. K.

    1981-01-01

    The premarking of parts for subsequent identification by a robot vision system appears to be beneficial as an aid in the automation of certain tasks such as construction in space. A simple, color coded marking system is presented which allows a computer vision system to locate an object, calculate its orientation, and determine its identity. Such a system has the potential to operate accurately, and because the computer shape analysis problem has been simplified, it has the ability to operate in real time.

  18. Hurricane Aid Is on the Way to Districts, Private Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.; Davis, Michelle R.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education in early January of 2006 sent out the first installment--more than $250 million--in education aid to states affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, just days after President Bush signed the measure into law. The $1.6 billion relief package has drawn fire from some education groups because it provides aid not just…

  19. Counselors and Mentors Handbook on Federal Student Aid: A Guide for Those Advising Students about Financial Aid for Postsecondary Education. 2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Many students are unaware that they might be eligible for financial aid to attend college or trade school. High school, TRIO, and GEAR UP (Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs) counselors are an important source of information about financial aid from private, school, state, and federal student aid programs. This…

  20. HIV / AIDS Network.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  1. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  2. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  3. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  4. Identification of Relevant Phytochemical Constituents for Characterization and Authentication of Tomatoes by General Linear Model Linked to Automatic Interaction Detection (GLM-AID) and Artificial Neural Network Models (ANNs)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Suárez, Marcos; Astray Dopazo, Gonzalo; Larios López, Dina; Espinosa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    There are a large number of tomato cultivars with a wide range of morphological, chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics. Many factors are known to affect the nutrient content of tomato cultivars. A complete understanding of the effect of these factors would require an exhaustive experimental design, multidisciplinary scientific approach and a suitable statistical method. Some multivariate analytical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Factor Analysis (FA) have been widely applied in order to search for patterns in the behaviour and reduce the dimensionality of a data set by a new set of uncorrelated latent variables. However, in some cases it is not useful to replace the original variables with these latent variables. In this study, Automatic Interaction Detection (AID) algorithm and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were applied as alternative to the PCA, AF and other multivariate analytical techniques in order to identify the relevant phytochemical constituents for characterization and authentication of tomatoes. To prove the feasibility of AID algorithm and ANN models to achieve the purpose of this study, both methods were applied on a data set with twenty five chemical parameters analysed on 167 tomato samples from Tenerife (Spain). Each tomato sample was defined by three factors: cultivar, agricultural practice and harvest date. General Linear Model linked to AID (GLM-AID) tree-structured was organized into 3 levels according to the number of factors. p-Coumaric acid was the compound the allowed to distinguish the tomato samples according to the day of harvest. More than one chemical parameter was necessary to distinguish among different agricultural practices and among the tomato cultivars. Several ANN models, with 25 and 10 input variables, for the prediction of cultivar, agricultural practice and harvest date, were developed. Finally, the models with 10 input variables were chosen with fit’s goodness between 44 and

  5. Identification of RtGST-1, a novel germ cell-specific mRNA-like transcript predominantly expressed in early previtellgenic oocytes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noncoding mRNA-like transcripts play important roles in a wide range of biological events such as cell differentiation and organogenesis. We report here the identification of a novel germ cell-specific mRNA-like transcript (RtGST-1) from a rainbow trout oocyte cDNA library. The novel transcript of 1...

  6. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  7. AIDS and student attitudes.

    PubMed

    Merrill, J M; Laux, L; Thornby, J I

    1989-04-01

    When recently polled, one half of 4,100 physicians believed they had the right not to treat patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 15% said they would actually refuse to care for them. To assure medical care for the 365,000 AIDS patients projected for the US by 1992, it is imperative to know whether there is something unique about AIDS patients that produces aversion among physicians. We hypothesized that the desire to avoid AIDS patients derived from three fears: fear of contagion, homophobia, and a desire to avoid dying patients. To identify the extent to which these three fears affect the attitudes that students hold toward AIDS patients, we conducted three studies. In our first study, we discovered that students' views about a patient with a terminal illness are the same whether the illness is leukemia or AIDS. In the second study, we found that the patient's sexual preference was not the major reason students would avoid an AIDS patients. In a third study, we confirmed that fear of contagion is the principal cause of students' desire to avoid an AIDS patient. In the course of these studies, we found important differences between the attitudes of male and female students. Female students scored lower on the homophobic scale than male students, and they had less antipathy toward AIDS patients. Helping health care professionals understand their fears toward patients with AIDS will in the long run improve medical care. Since the origins of these fears are for the most part well hidden in our unconscious, dissemination of facts alone will not do the job. Interventions are needed to help health care professionals acknowledge and overcome their negative feelings about AIDS. PMID:2705068

  8. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  9. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  10. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  11. Health Aides Serve...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huscher, John

    1976-01-01

    The student health aide program of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln is a paid, auxiliary, trained health position in dorms, co-ops, and Greek houses, with personnel evaluated on the assistance provided for any physical, personal, social, or environmental health concerns students may have in accordance with the aide's training. (MB)

  12. [Oral hygiene aids].

    PubMed

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  13. A New AIDS Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Thousands of young people are affected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). An effective AIDS education program must address functional knowledge, relevant skills, and motivation. The program must be comprehensive and taught by trained teachers. Lists a source of an annotated…

  14. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  15. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  16. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  17. What about AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Katharine R.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Suggests ways in which camp directors can establish procedures for making appropriate decisions about accepting campers/staff workers with AIDS. Reviews aspects of environmental sanitation, physical health, confidentiality, camper/staff drug use and sexual behavior, medical…

  18. Cutaneous acanthamoebiasis in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Torno, M S; Babapour, R; Gurevitch, A; Witt, M D

    2000-02-01

    Acanthamoeba is a recognized pathogen in the immunocompromised patient, commonly presenting as chronic or subacute encephalitis. However, cutaneous disease in the absence of CNS involvement is increasingly recognized, especially in the setting of chronic, nonhealing skin lesions in the patient with AIDS. We describe a patient with AIDS and cutaneous acanthamoebiasis and review our experience with treatment and diagnosis. PMID:10640931

  19. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  20. AIDS PUBLIC INFORMATION DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AIDS Public Information Data Set is computer software designed to run on a Microsoft Windows microcomputer, and contains information abstracted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases reported in the United States. The data set is created by the Division of HIV/A...

  1. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  2. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  3. Games and Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    This document is filled with suggestions for inexpensive teacher-made classroom aids that can be used for concept reinforcement with the total class, a small group, or individual students. The games and teaching aids provided, allow instructors to provide the motivational drill to develop speed and accuracy for basic computational skills. The…

  4. Teaching Children about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koop, C. Everett

    1987-01-01

    Calls for more education as the immediate preventative measure against acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Discusses the known ways that AIDS is transmitted and cautions that many innocent people may also contract the disease. Promotes the presentation of accurate and personally sensitive information to children. (TW)

  5. AIDS: Children Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…

  6. Trends in Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

    This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance available to postsecondary students in the form of grants, loans, and work-study. The data cover virtually all federal aid and most state and institutional assistance; not included in the study is financial aid in the form of indirect subsidies, students' wages, employer-paid…

  7. Identification techniques for SARSAT signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Naga, S.; Carter, C. R.

    1987-03-01

    A process for the identification of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) signals related to search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) is presented. The ELT identification process is particularly important in order to increase the probability of detection and eliminate sources of interference from the data set. A set of ELT signal parameters is introduced and methods for estimating these parameters are developed. A theoretical analysis and performance evaluation of these methods is provided.

  8. Cognitive hearing aids? Insights and possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Eline Borch; Lunner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The working memory plays an important role in successfully overcoming adverse listening conditions and should consequently be considered when designing and testing hearing aids. A number of studies have established the relationship between hearing in noise and working memory involvement, but with the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall (SWIRL) test, it is possible to show that working memory is also involved in listening under favorable conditions and that noise reduction has a positive influence in situation with very little noise. Although the capacity of the working memory is a finite individual size, its involvement can differ with fatigue and other factors and individualization of hearing aids should take this into account to obtain the best performance. A way of individually adapting hearing aids is based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids. Such an adaptation could be done based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids.

  9. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  10. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  11. Only Your Calamity: The Beginnings of Activism by and for People With AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The invention of AIDS activism came soon after the AIDS epidemic emerged in gay communities in the United States in the early 1980s. AIDS activism by and for people with AIDS, distinct from gay activism responding to the threat of AIDS on the behalf of the whole community, started as a way of resisting the phenomenon of social death. Social death, in which people are considered “as good as dead” and denied roles in community life, posed a unique threat to people with AIDS. An organized political response to AIDS began among gay men with AIDS in San Francisco, California, and New York, New York, formalized in a foundational document later called the Denver Principles. The ideas and language of these first people with AIDS influenced later AIDS activism movements. They also help to illustrate the importance of considering an epidemic from the point of view of people with the disease. PMID:23948013

  12. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  13. American Foundation for AIDS Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Press Corporate Support amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research Research Overview Research Grants Research Accomplishments Scientific ... Archive TREAT Asia TREAT Asia About TREAT Asia AIDS in Asia Research and Treatment Education and AIDS ...

  14. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  15. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  16. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  17. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  18. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  19. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  20. [Implantable hearing aids].

    PubMed

    Luers, J C; Beutner, D; Hüttenbrink, K-B

    2011-10-01

    Strictly speaking, implantable hearing aids are technical systems that process audiological signals and convey these by direct mechanical stimulation of the ossicular chain or cochlea. They have certain benefits over conventional hearing aids in terms of wearing comfort and general acceptance. As current studies lack convincing audiological results, the indications for implantable hearing aids are primarily of medical or cosmetic nature. To date, three systems are available in Germany: Vibrant Soundbridge®, Carina®, and Esteem®. Because the performance of the different implantable and nonimplantable hearing systems together with various surgical procedures are currently undergoing major changes, audiological indications may also develop in the future. PMID:21956678