Science.gov

Sample records for aid future studies

  1. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  2. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  3. AIDS awareness study.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, B

    1989-01-01

    The Center for Disease Control was given the responsibility for developing and disseminating information about AIDS. To that end, the Center retained Ogilvy & Mather Advertising to prepare an extensive public service campaign on the subject. In order to develop the most effective communication, research was needed to establish the level of public awareness and to explore attitudes toward this disease. The study presented here deals with the attitudes of women. It was conducted by Blanka Eckstein of B. Eckstein Qualitative Research and by Paul Murdoch, Research Director of Ogilvy & Mather Atlanta. Findings from other population groups (i.e., teenage boys, gay men, parents of teens) were reported by other researchers. Address correspondence to Blanka Eckstein Social Science Applications, 251 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10016. PMID:10296128

  4. ABLE: The Future of Mechanical Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowell, Harvey; Finkelstein, Stan

    1989-01-01

    Advanced Bio-Mechanical Linkage Enablement (ABLE) technology constitutes a leap forward in physical aids for people with disabilities, as they integrate high technologies in rehabilitation to create individualized self-contained care systems. Described are the need for universal standards, barriers to acceptance of ABLE technologies, and ways to…

  5. Study Guide for First Aid Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thygerson, Alton L.

    This study guide is designed to accompany the American National Red Cross texts ADVANCED FIRST AID AND EMERGENCY CARE and STANDARD FIRST AID AND PERSONAL SAFETY. Part one serves as an introduction to first aid. The legal aspects of first aid are discussed along with a list of suggested first aid kit contents, and information on first aid books is…

  6. Future Spacelift Requirements Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses future space applications and the derived requirements these potential applications will have on future spacelift systems. This NASA sponsored activity is a comprehensive study of potential missions including those of the military, civil, and commercial users. The study objectively evaluated the key architectural requirements for future launch systems. The results of this study are technical, economic, and policy analyses of future spacelift systems. It is intended to assist NASA and DOD decision-makers in planning technical investments and establishing policy for future U.S. spacelift systems.

  7. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids: Status Quo and Future Predictions.

    PubMed

    Keidser, Gitte; Convery, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA) is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model. PMID:27072929

  8. Social ecological factors associated with future orientation of children affected by parental HIV infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Chi, Peilian; Heath, Melissa Allen; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Wenrui

    2016-07-01

    From a social ecological perspective, this study examined the effects of stigma (societal level), trusting relationships with current caregivers (familial level), and self-esteem (individual level) on future orientation of children affected by HIV infection and AIDS. Comparing self-report data from 1221 children affected by parental HIV infection and AIDS and 404 unaffected children, affected children reported greater stigma and lower future orientation, trusting relationships, and self-esteem. Based on structural equation modeling, stigma experiences, trusting relationships, and self-esteem had direct effects on future orientation, with self-esteem and trusting relationships partially mediating the effect of stigma experiences on children's future orientation. Implications are discussed. PMID:25370572

  9. The future of computer-aided sperm analysis.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Sharon T; van der Horst, Gerhard; Mortimer, David

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) technology was developed in the late 1980s for analyzing sperm movement characteristics or kinematics and has been highly successful in enabling this field of research. CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology. However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis. The authors review the improved capabilities of two modern CASA platforms (Hamilton Thorne CASA-II and Microptic SCA6) and consider their current and future applications with particular reference to directing our focus towards using this technology to assess functional rather than simple descriptive characteristics of spermatozoa. Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards. PMID:25926614

  10. The future of computer-aided sperm analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Sharon T; van der Horst, Gerhard; Mortimer, David

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) technology was developed in the late 1980s for analyzing sperm movement characteristics or kinematics and has been highly successful in enabling this field of research. CASA has also been used with great success for measuring semen characteristics such as sperm concentration and proportions of progressive motility in many animal species, including wide application in domesticated animal production laboratories and reproductive toxicology. However, attempts to use CASA for human clinical semen analysis have largely met with poor success due to the inherent difficulties presented by many human semen samples caused by sperm clumping and heavy background debris that, until now, have precluded accurate digital image analysis. The authors review the improved capabilities of two modern CASA platforms (Hamilton Thorne CASA-II and Microptic SCA6) and consider their current and future applications with particular reference to directing our focus towards using this technology to assess functional rather than simple descriptive characteristics of spermatozoa. Specific requirements for validating CASA technology as a semi-automated system for human semen analysis are also provided, with particular reference to the accuracy and uncertainty of measurement expected of a robust medical laboratory test for implementation in clinical laboratories operating according to modern accreditation standards. PMID:25926614

  11. [First-aid in France. Current situation and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri

    2010-06-01

    First-aid--treatment aimed at enabling a victim to survive pending the arrival of qualified medical support--is less well developed in France than in many other industrialized countries, especially among the general public. The current status of first-aid in France is paradoxical: schooling is free and obligatory, the ambulance service and emergency services are of the highest quality, but the general public are too often passive and unknowledgeable when faced with an emergency situation. This situation is due to several factors, including the complexity of first-aid training and regulations, the involvement of too many public bodies, the legal liability of the first-aider, and a lack of ongoing training. The French National Academy of Medicine recommends 8 measures to improve this situation: Provide a legal definition of first-aid: "a set of recognized measures aimed, in an emergency setting, at preserving the physical and psychological integrity of the victim of an accident or illness, notably pending the arrival of professional medical assistance". Waive, as in many other countries, civil and legal responsibility for the non professional first-aider, except in case of clear negligence. Reinforce the organization of first-aid in France in order to monitor the number and quality of first-aiders, and to ensure theoretical and pedagogic research; create a communications department capable of supporting and promoting first-aid. Improve access to first-aid training by increasing the number of situations in which it is obligatory (driving tuition, school and university examinations, group responsibility, at-risk practices), by providing financial assistance for certain groups, and by ensuring routine training at school, in the armed forces, and in the workplace. Create a progressive and integrated citizen first-aid training course with individual modules, ensuring that first-aiders update and perfect their knowledge throughout life. Soften pedagogic rules and shorten

  12. The Future of Financial Aid: Principles, Problems, Probable Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, D. Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Forces threatening the fundamental principles and practices of student financial aid are examined, and some advice to the profession is offered. A large dedicated profession has emerged that is skilled at bringing together students, colleges, and resources. (MLW)

  13. Future Directions: HIV/AIDS Education in the Nation's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sex Information and Education Council of the United States, Inc., New York, NY.

    While states have developed the infrastructure to support effective education programs on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), inadequacies exist in the content of curricula, guidelines, and program design. Many state programs fail to provide children with all the information they need in order to avoid and…

  14. Iowa College Student Aid Commission Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Rachel A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive case study was to trace the policy production process of a state agency, the Iowa College Student Aid Commission (Commission), to its function today. This case study relied on a review of federal and state statutes, a news article search, biennium reports of the Commission, and information obtained from the…

  15. AIDS COST AND SERVICE UTILIZATION STUDY (ACSUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AIDS Cost and Services Utilization Survey (ACSUS) was a longitudinal study of persons with HIV-related disease. In a combination of personal interviews and abstraction of medical and billing records spanning an 18-month period, information was collected on more than 1,900 HIV...

  16. Development of Future Curriculum via Futures Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj, Saedah; Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim

    2011-01-01

    Observation on best future choices is not something that happens by chance; in fact, it should be carried out through careful planning driven by research. Therefore, observation on future curriculum would also involve in-depth research on future possibilities and their impact. Policy makers and curriculum developers of institutions or even the…

  17. A Future of Satellite-Aided Search and Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Satellite technology has been an integral part of maritime search and rescue since the Cospas-Sarsat system began operation in 1984. This system, credited with more than eighty-six hundred lives saved, has recently been augmented to provide immediate response through geostationary satellites. The other satellite-based distress alerting system, INMARSAT, launched its emergency Standard C service in 1991 and Standard E in 1997. Current plans call for a continuation of service from both of these vital systems at least through the first decade of the next century. We are currently witnessing the construction of a number of new satellite systems that will have the potential for revolutionizing mobile communications. These systems will be capable of emergency communication, and must be given due consideration in any look at the future, This paper reviews existing systems using satellites for distress alerting, describes the plans in place for them, and discusses likely developments.

  18. Oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS in Asia: Systematic review and future research guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder-Singh; Vohra, Puneeta; Nagpal, Archna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The authors have conducted a systematic review of oral manifestations of HIV from studies conducted in Asia to establish the characteristics and prevalence of individual oral manifestations in Asia, and to assess the direction of future research studies on oral manifestations of HIV in Asia. Material and Methods The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE], EBSCO, and EMBASE. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period January 1995 to August 2014. The authors reached a final overall sample of 39 studies that were conducted in Asia. Results The median population size among all studies was 312.7 patients. Oral candidiasis [OC] was the most common oral manifestation [37.7%] in studies conducted in Asia. The overall prevalence of oral hairy leukoplakia and melanotic hyperpigmentation was computed to be 10.1% and 22.8% respectively. Thailand and India are primarily countries with maximum research on oral manifestations. Conclusions The research on oral manifestations of HIV in Asia has to upgrade to more interventional and therapeutic studies rather than the contemporary cross- sectional epidemiological descriptive studies. The authors have given suggestions and future directions for the implementation of clinical research of oral manifestations in HIV patients. Key words:Oral manifestations, HIV/AIDS, Asia, Systematic review. PMID:26330942

  19. Handbook for Conducting Future Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappa, Bloomington, IN.

    This handbook is designed to aid school administrators, policy-makers, and teachers in bringing a "futures orientation" to their schools. The first part of the book describes a "futuring process" developed as a tool for examining alternative future probabilities. It consists of a series of diverging and converging techniques that alternately…

  20. Signal Processing in High-End Hearing Aids: State of the Art, Challenges, and Future Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, V.; Chalupper, J.; Eggers, J.; Fischer, E.; Kornagel, U.; Puder, H.; Rass, U.

    2005-12-01

    The development of hearing aids incorporates two aspects, namely, the audiological and the technical point of view. The former focuses on items like the recruitment phenomenon, the speech intelligibility of hearing-impaired persons, or just on the question of hearing comfort. Concerning these subjects, different algorithms intending to improve the hearing ability are presented in this paper. These are automatic gain controls, directional microphones, and noise reduction algorithms. Besides the audiological point of view, there are several purely technical problems which have to be solved. An important one is the acoustic feedback. Another instance is the proper automatic control of all hearing aid components by means of a classification unit. In addition to an overview of state-of-the-art algorithms, this paper focuses on future trends.

  1. The Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance Program: lessons learned and future directions.

    PubMed

    Shiboski, C H; Webster-Cyriaque, J Y; Ghannoum, M; Dittmer, D P; Greenspan, J S

    2016-04-01

    The Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance (OHARA) was established in 2006 to provide the capacity to investigate the oral complications associated with HIV/AIDS within the ACTG infrastructure. Its goals were to explore the effects of potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the development of opportunistic infections, and variation and resistance of opportunistic pathogens in the context of immune suppression and long-term ART. The objectives of this talk, presented as part of a plenary session at the 7th World Workshop on Oral Health and Disease in AIDS, were to (i) provide an overview of OHARA's most recent research agenda, and how it evolved since OHARA's inception; (ii) describe OHARA's main accomplishments, including examples of research protocols completed and their key findings; and (iii) describe spin-off projects derived from OHARA, lessons learned, and future directions. OHARA has met its central goal and made key contributions to the field in several ways: (i) by developing/updating diagnostic criteria for oral disease endpoints commonly measured in OHARA protocols and in HIV/AIDS research in general and has creating standardized training modules, both for measuring these oral disease endpoints across clinical specialties, and for collecting oral fluid specimens; (ii) by implementing a total of nine protocols, six of which are completed. Three protocols involved domestic research sites, while three involved international research sites (in Africa, India, and South America); (iii) and by developing and validating a number of laboratory assays used in its protocols and in the field of oral HIV/AIDS research. PMID:27109281

  2. Student Aid Handbook, 1998-1999: Journey to a Successful Future...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Commission on Postsecondary Education, Juneau.

    This Student Aid Handbook presents suggestions for prospective applicants to consider when choosing a college or university which bet meets the candidate's needs and goals. The Handbook describes four areas to consider and related questions when researching a field of study or school: national accreditation or state authorizations, courses, costs,…

  3. Addressing Future Epidemics: Historical Human Rights Lessons from the AIDS Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ambar; Quinn, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Ebola epidemic in West Africa sparked many ethical and polarizing public health questions on how to adequately control transmission of the virus. These deliberations had and will continue to influence patients, healthcare workers, public perceptions of disease, and governmental responses. Such extensive and potential ramifications warranted an analysis of prior epidemics to sufficiently inform policy makers and prepare them and other authorities for future epidemics. We analyzed how the general public, medical institutions, federal government, and patients themselves responded during the early stages of the AIDS pandemic in two different countries and cultures, the United States and India. Discussion Our analysis identified four key findings pertaining to the human rights of patients and healthcare workers and to the crucial roles of the government and medical community. The first demands that authoritative officials acknowledge the presence of high-risk behaviors and properly educate the public without stigmatizing groups of individuals. For this task, the medical community and federal government must form and display to the public a respectful and collaborative partnership towards battling the epidemic. These two synergistic endeavors will then allow appropriate officials to implement effective, yet civil, interventions for limiting transmission. Finally, the same officials must ensure that their interventions maintain the human rights of high-risk populations and of healthcare workers. Conclusions Applying these findings to future epidemics of infectious diseases can aid policy makers in navigating complicated ethical and public health questions, and help prevent them from repeating past mistakes in handling epidemics. PMID:27284578

  4. The Effect of Student Aid on the Duration of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glocker, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I evaluate the effect of student aid on the success of academic studies. I focus on two dimensions, the duration of study and the probability of actually graduating with a degree. To determine the impact of financial student aid, I estimate a discrete-time duration model allowing for competing risks to account for different exit…

  5. The Energy Crisis -- Aids to Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Margaret, Comp.

    Over one-hundred citations, the majority of which are current works dating from the seventies, are provided in this annotated bibliography focusing on energy. Entries include books, pamphlets, reports, magazine articles, bibliographies, newsletters, and curriculum materials, such as audiovisual aids, guides and units, and simulations which will be…

  6. Over-the-counter sleep aids: widely used but rarely studied.

    PubMed

    Pillitteri, J L; Kozlowski, L T; Person, D C; Spear, M E

    1994-01-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) sleep aids are used in greater proportions than benzodiazepines for the treatment of sleep problems, yet limited research has focused on these nonprescription drugs. This article reports the results of two studies that examined the use of OTC sleep aids and alcohol for sleep problems by university students. Of those subjects in both studies who reported sleep problems 1 day per month or more, 6.4% of men and 11.4% of women reported using OTC sleep aids, however, a significantly greater percentage of men reported using alcohol to induce sleep (23.4% vs. 10.9%, p < .008). Future studies on OTC sleep aids are recommended to address a broader range of issues such as potential side effects and at-risk populations, tolerance effects, and individual differences in responsiveness and sensitivity to these drugs. PMID:7703708

  7. Future Studies and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jeanne

    1981-01-01

    Compares and discusses implications of future scenarios proposed by Herman Kahn and the Hudson River Institute and by the Club of Rome. Includes a decision-tree exercise appropriate for the classroom which involves five different future scenarios. (DC)

  8. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 4: Economic feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the economic analysis of the AIDS 3 system design are presented. AIDS 3 evaluated a set of economic feasibility measures including life cycle cost, implementation cost, annual operating expenditures and annual capital expenditures. The economic feasibility of AIDS 3 was determined by comparing the evaluated measures with the same measures, where applicable, evaluated for the current system. A set of future work load scenarios was constructed using JPL's environmental evaluation study of the fingerprint identification system. AIDS 3 and the current system were evaluated for each of the economic feasibility measures for each of the work load scenarios. They were compared for a set of performance measures, including response time and accuracy, and for a set of cost/benefit ratios, including cost per transaction and cost per technical search. Benefit measures related to the economic feasibility of the system are also presented, including the required number of employees and the required employee skill mix.

  9. Student Aid for the Eighties: Report of the Study of Financial Aid to Maritime Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission, Fredericton (New Brunswick).

    A research report on financial aid to maritime student (those in the Maritime Provinces) enrolled in postsecondary education in Canada is presented in English and French versions. The study was designed to: (1) prepare a historical perspective of and rationale for programs of financial assistance to students; (2) review and compare existing…

  10. NASA Aircraft Aids Earth-Mars Cave Detection Study

    NASA Video Gallery

    The most likely location for discovering potential primitive life forms on Mars to be in caves. A recent NASA-funded airborne and ground study designed to aid in detection of caves on the Earth, th...

  11. New, More Authentic Model for AIDS Will Accelerate Studies | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Researchers are working to develop a more authentic animal model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS that is expected to speed up studies of experimental treatments and vaccines.

  12. Resources for Gifted Students Studying the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallent-Runnels, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the rationale for studying futures education and resources and methods to support these studies. The author presents several reasons to study futures education, some good Web sites that teachers and students can use, and lists a few books about the future accompanied by brief descriptions. Some suggested activities and tips…

  13. Assessment of speech perception in children with cochlear implants and tactile aids: what should the future hold?

    PubMed

    Carney, A E

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a rationale for the future development of speech perception evaluation materials for children using either cochlear implants or vibrotactile aids as sensory prosthetic devices. It is suggested that future evaluation tools extend beyond the assessment of device efficacy. In particular, they should address issues of normal perceptual development in children, as well as the results of intervention with children using these sensory prosthetic devices. PMID:2069182

  14. Future Studies in the K-12 Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, John D.

    This guide is designed to help elementary and secondary school teachers and curriculum developers plan units on the future. It is presented in five sections. Section I discusses the origins of the modern futures movement and the concepts of future studies, time dimensions, global approach, self-fulfilling and self-defeating forecasts, and types of…

  15. A comparative study of two communication models in HIV/AIDS coverage in selected Nigerian newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Okidu, Onjefu

    2013-01-01

    The current overriding thought in HIV/AIDS communication in developing countries is the need for a shift from the cognitive model, which emphasises the decision-making of the individual, to the activity model, which emphasises the context of the individual. In spite of the acknowledged media shift from the cognitive to the activity model in some developing countries, some HIV/AIDS communication scholars have felt otherwise. It was against this background that this study examined the content of some selected Nigerian newspapers to ascertain the attention paid to HIV/AIDS cognitive and activity information. Generally, the study found that Nigerian newspapers had shifted from the cognitive to the activity model of communication in their coverage of HIV/AIDS issues. The findings of the study seem inconsistent with the theoretical argument of some scholars that insufficient attention has been paid by mass media in developing countries to the activity model of HIV/AIDS communication. It is suggested that future research replicate the study for Nigerian and other developing countries’ mass media. PMID:23394854

  16. Highlights from the Canada youth and AIDS study.

    PubMed

    King, A J; Beazley, R P; Warren, W K; Hankins, C A; Robertson, A S; Radford, J L

    1989-04-01

    The identification of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in 1981, and the subsequent isolation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1983, signaled the beginning of worldwide concern over the potential impact of the disease. As the global incidence of AIDS and HIV infection increased, Canadians expressed growing apprehension about the epidemic's affect on themselves. Because adolescents potentially are at risk for HIV infection, a special need existed to determine how Canadian youth were responding to the AIDS epidemic. During the summer of 1987, the Federal Centre for AIDS, in conjunction with the National Health Research and Development Program and the Canadian Public Health Association, commissioned a nationwide study. A national sample of more than 38,000 youth in grades 7, 9, 11, and the first year of college and university were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and behavior concerning AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Also included in the total sample were youth who had recently dropped out of school and those who lived on the streets of large cities. In this article, the authors summarize findings from the study and offer conclusions and recommendations for action. PMID:2716287

  17. Curriculum Aid to Indian Studies. Thornlea Secondary School, Thornhill, Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornlea Secondary School, Thornhill (Ontario).

    The product of an Indian Studies program developed at Thornlea Secondary School in 1969 for grades 10-13, this curriculum aid includes the following: (1) Native Studies educational objectives (9 objectives including such specifics as "to demonstrate that Indians are not the 'cowboy and Indian' stereotype as perpetuated by many Hollywood movies and…

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis in radiological imaging: current status and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Kunio

    2009-10-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. Many different types of CAD schemes are being developed for detection and/or characterization of various lesions in medical imaging, including conventional projection radiography, CT, MRI, and ultrasound imaging. Commercial systems for detection of breast lesions on mammograms have been developed and have received FDA approval for clinical use. CAD may be defined as a diagnosis made by a physician who takes into account the computer output as a "second opinion". The purpose of CAD is to improve the quality and productivity of physicians in their interpretation of radiologic images. The quality of their work can be improved in terms of the accuracy and consistency of their radiologic diagnoses. In addition, the productivity of radiologists is expected to be improved by a reduction in the time required for their image readings. The computer output is derived from quantitative analysis of radiologic images by use of various methods and techniques in computer vision, artificial intelligence, and artificial neural networks (ANNs). The computer output may indicate a number of important parameters, for example, the locations of potential lesions such as lung cancer and breast cancer, the likelihood of malignancy of detected lesions, and the likelihood of various diseases based on differential diagnosis in a given image and clinical parameters. In this review article, the basic concept of CAD is first defined, and the current status of CAD research is then described. In addition, the potential of CAD in the future is discussed and predicted.

  19. Exploring Your Sense of Smell. Science Study Aid No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeschen, John; And Others

    This Science Study Aid (SSA), structured for grade levels 7-9, is based on work of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) conducted at the Western Regional Research Center in Berkeley, California. It is concerned with food aroma, its intensity and character, and olfactory threshold determinations. The SSA provides…

  20. Cold Weather Protection for Seed. Science Study Aid No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valieant, Joan A.

    This science study aid, published by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and intended as a supplement to the regular science program, lists activities and experiments relating seed germination to various temperature changes and exposure to adverse temperature conditions for varying lengths of time. (CP)

  1. Torque meter aids study of hysteresis motor rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M.

    1967-01-01

    Torque meter, simulating hysteresis motor operation, allows rotor ring performance characteristics to be analyzed. The meter determines hysteresis motor torque and actual stresses of the ring due to its mechanical situation and rotation, aids in the study of asymmetries or defects in motor rings, and measures rotational hysteresis.

  2. Planning Future Strategies for Domestic and International NeuroAIDS Research, July 24-25, 2008.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jeymohan; Clifford, David; Douglas, Steven D; Fox, Howard; Gendelman, Howard E; Gonzalez-Scarano, Francisco; Grant, Igor; Major, Eugene; McArthur, Justin

    2009-09-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health in cooperation with the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke organized a meeting on July 24-25, 2008 to develop novel research directions for neuroAIDS research. The deliberations of this meeting are outlined in this brief report. Several critical research areas in neuroAIDS were identified as areas of emphasis. Opportunities for collaborations between large NIH-funded projects were also discussed. PMID:19455426

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.; Sandor, D.; Wiser, R.; Schneider, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  4. Exploring intentions to discriminate against patients living with HIV/AIDS among future healthcare providers in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Jin, Harry; Wickersham, Jeffrey; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; John, Jacob; Altice, Frederick L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Stigma towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is strong in Malaysia. Although stigma has been understudied, it may be a barrier to treating the approximately 81 000 Malaysian PLWHA. The current study explores correlates of intentions to discriminate against PLWHA among medical and dental students, the future healthcare providers of Malaysia. METHODS An online, cross-sectional survey of 1296 medical and dental students was conducted in 2012 at seven Malaysian universities; 1165 (89.9%) completed the survey and were analysed. Sociodemographic characteristics, stigma-related constructs and intentions to discriminate against PLWHA were measured. Linear mixed models were conducted, controlling for clustering by university. RESULTS The final multivariate model demonstrated that students who intended to discriminate more against PLWHA were female, less advanced in their training, and studying dentistry. They further endorsed more negative attitudes towards PLWHA, internalised greater HIV-related shame, reported more HIV-related fear and disagreed more strongly that PLWHA deserve good care. The final model accounted for 38% of the variance in discrimination intent, with 10% accounted for by sociodemographic characteristics and 28% accounted for by stigma-related constructs. CONCLUSIONS It is critical to reduce stigma among medical and dental students to eliminate intentions to discriminate and achieve equitable care for Malaysian PLWHA. Stigma-reduction interventions should be multipronged, addressing attitudes, internalised shame, fear and perceptions of deservingness of care. PMID:24666546

  5. Fertility Desires among Men and Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi Slums: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Wekesa, Eliud; Coast, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fertility desires require new understanding in a context of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper studies the fertility desires and their rationales, of slum-dwelling Kenyan men and women living with HIV/AIDS who know their serostatus, but have different antiretroviral therapy treatment statuses. It addresses two research questions: How do people living with HIV/AIDS consider their future fertility? What factors contribute to an explanation of fertility desires among people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods A mixed methods study (survey [n = 513] and in-depth interviews [n = 41]) with adults living with HIV/AIDS living in Nairobi slums was conducted in 2010. Regression analyses assess independent relationships between fertility desires and socio-demographic factors. Analyses of in-depth interviews are used to interpret the statistical analyses of fertility desires. Results Our analyses show that fertility desires are complex and ambivalent, reflecting tensions between familial and societal pressures to have children versus pressures for HIV (re-)infection prevention. More than a third (34%) of men and women living with HIV expressed future fertility desires; however, this is significantly lower than in the general population. Factors independently associated with desiring a child among people living with HIV/AIDS were age, sex, number of surviving children, social support and household wealth of the respondent. Discussion Increasing access to ART is changing the context of future childbearing for people living with HIV/AIDS. Prevailing values mean that, for many people living with HIV/AIDS, having children is seen as necessary for a “normal” and healthy adult life. However, the social rewards of childbearing conflict with moral imperatives of HIV prevention, presenting dilemmas about the “proper” reproductive behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS. The health policy and

  6. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  7. Future payload technology requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technology advances needed for an overall mission model standpoint as well as those for individual shuttle payloads are defined. The technology advances relate to the mission scientific equipment, spacecraft subsystems that functionally support this equipment, and other payload-related equipment, software, and environment necessary to meet broad program objectives. In the interest of obtaining commonality of requirements, the study was structured according to technology categories rather than in terms of individual payloads.

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures Study - Volume One

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hand, Maureen; Mai, Treui; Baldwin, Sam; Brinkman, Greg; Sandor, Debbie; Denholm, Paul; Heath, Garvin; Wiser, Ryan

    2016-06-01

    Renewable Electricity Futures Study - Volume One. This is part of a series of four volumes describing exploring a high-penetration renewable electricity future for the United States of America. This data set is provides data for the entire volume one document and includes all data for the charts and graphs included in the document.

  9. Methodology Report for the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, 1987. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    To establish a comprehensive national database on postsecondary student financial aid, the National Center for Education Statistics conducted the 1987 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS). Objectives were to: (1) determine the costs of postsecondary education for aided and non-aided students; (2) evaluate how students finance their…

  10. Prevention Interventions with Persons Living with HIV/AIDS: State of the Science and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Christopher M.; Forsyth, Andrew D.; Stall, Ron; Cheever, Laura W.

    2005-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH/NIMH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the HIV/AIDS Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) support the CDC's Serostatus Approach to Fighting the HIV Epidemic (SAFE; Janssen et al., 2001). One aim of the strategy is to help individuals living with HIV (and…

  11. Paradoxes and Prospects: Moving beyond the Study of Foreign Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundy, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In his article, "Aid, Development, and Education," Steve Klees tells two stories about foreign aid. The first is that foreign aid does not "work" to alleviate world poverty, no matter whether one takes a neo-Marxist or liberal approach to understanding it. Aid is more about self-interest and geopolitics than anything else--at best it is a form of…

  12. Oral Language Comprehension Using Hearing Aids and Tactile Aids: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Adele

    1990-01-01

    Three prelinguistic, profoundly deaf children (aged three to four) used a wearable, single channel, vibrotactile communication aid in conjunction with hearing aids during individual speech and language therapy at school. Subjects exhibited a faster than average rate of learning to understand spoken language after the onset of vibrotactile…

  13. Finding health and AIDS information in the mass media: an exploratory study among Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Walsh-Childers, K; Treise, D; Swain, K A; Dai, S

    1997-12-01

    Western health officials believe the incidence of HIV infection in the People's Republic of China is much higher than has been reported, but knowledge about the disease remains low. This paper describes a preliminary study of Chinese college students' AIDS knowledge and beliefs and of the acceptability of mass media for AIDS education. Focus group interviews of 73 Xiamen University students showed that the students used radio more consistently than any other media and viewed magazines as the best media source of health information. However, they expressed a general distrust of the health information media offer. They possessed quite a bit of accurate information about AIDS but also harbored many inaccurate beliefs. Most felt that their personal risk from AIDS was very low because they felt distanced--either geographically or morally--from those at risk. Disturbing numbers felt that fate, not individual behavior, determines whether or not a person contracts HIV. The paper discusses the study's implications for future research. PMID:9451483

  14. Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield Risk Management of Adenocarcinoma: The Future of Imaging?

    PubMed

    Foley, Finbar; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Boland, Jennifer M; Karwoski, Ronald A; Maldonado, Fabien; Bartholmai, Brian J; Peikert, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Increased clinical use of chest high-resolution computed tomography results in increased identification of lung adenocarcinomas and persistent subsolid opacities. However, these lesions range from very indolent to extremely aggressive tumors. Clinically relevant diagnostic tools to noninvasively risk stratify and guide individualized management of these lesions are lacking. Research efforts investigating semiquantitative measures to decrease interrater and intrarater variability are emerging, and in some cases steps have been taken to automate this process. However, many such methods currently are still suboptimal, require validation and are not yet clinically applicable. The computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield software application represents a validated tool for the automated, quantitative, and noninvasive tool for risk stratification of adenocarcinoma lung nodules. Computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield correlates well with consensus histology and postsurgical patient outcomes, and therefore may help to guide individualized patient management, for example, in identification of nodules amenable to radiological surveillance, or in need of adjunctive therapy. PMID:27568149

  15. Recruiting Chinese American adolescents to HIV/AIDS-related research: a lesson learned from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Wang, Fan

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to report identified barriers and challenges experienced in the recruiting process of Chinese American adolescents to a cross-sectional HIV/AIDS-related study. Snowball sampling method was used to recruit Chinese American adolescents from Chinese American communities in a U.S. Midwestern state. Barriers and challenges to recruitment were reviewed and analyzed from Chinese cultural perspectives in the hope of aiding researchers and health care providers understand and facilitate future recruitment of Chinese Americans for HIV/AIDS prevention studies. Barriers to recruitment were found related to the taboo topic of sexual issues in Chinese culture, unawareness and denial of HIV/AIDS risks, authoritarian parenting style in Chinese culture, and the required active consents. Facilitating factors of recruiting Chinese American adolescents to future HIV/AIDS prevention research or intervention programs are discussed. Information provided in this article may increase nurses' awareness of various barriers that they might encounter when they conduct research or address HIV/AIDS-related topics of Chinese American adolescents. PMID:20974090

  16. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 6: Environmental analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the analysis of the external environment of the FBI Fingerprint Identification Division are presented. Possible trends in the future environment of the Division that may have an effect on the work load were projected to determine if future work load will lie within the capability range of the proposed new system, AIDS 3. Two working models of the environment were developed, the internal and external model, and from these scenarios the projection of possible future work load volume and mixture was developed. Possible drivers of work load change were identified and assessed for upper and lower bounds of effects. Data used for the study were derived from historical information, analysis of the current situation and from interviews with various agencies who are users of or stakeholders in the present system.

  17. EPA's future midwestern landscapes (FML) study

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's ecological research program is initiating research to characterize ecosystem services and enable their routine consideration in environmental management and policy. The "Future Midwestern Landscapes (FML) Study" is one of four place-based studies being planned. Over a 13-st...

  18. African-American sexuality and HIV/AIDS: recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Gail E; Williams, John K; Myers, Hector F

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to create a significant health crisis in African-American communities and health disparities within the United States. Understanding African-American sexuality within a culturally congruent and ethnocentric approach is critical to decreasing the HIV infection and transmission rates for African Americans. This brief discusses two major factors: 1) confusion about race-based stereotypes; and 2) historical health disparities and mistrust, which have influenced our understanding of African-American sexuality despite that fact that very little research has been conducted in this area. This paper discusses the limitations of what is known and makes recommendations for research surrounding sexuality and HIV/AIDS. Research trainings for new and established investigators and collaborations among health, community, religious, political organizations, and historically black colleges and universities are needed to disseminate relevant HIV prevention messages. Conducting research to better understand African-American sexuality will facilitate the development of behavioral interventions that address health, HIV and mental health risk reduction within the context of African-American life. PMID:18277807

  19. Back to a Future: One Man's AIDS Tale Shows How Quickly Epidemic Has Turned.

    PubMed

    Sanford

    1997-01-01

    WHEN IT WAS CALLED 'GRID': One year ago today, I told my colleagues that I was dying of AIDS. I had been fighting it for years-the illness and the telling. I had been taking AZT, and briefly even a drug given to lepers. But now I was gaunt, tired and rather sure I was losing the battle. I gave my boss an obituary I had written-I'm a features editor on Page One of The Wall Street Journal, so I certainly didn't want anybody else writing it-sent a note to my boss's boss and started saying my goodbyes. Last week, my doctor, Jerome E. Groopman, noticed that I am getting fat and said it wouldn't be a bad idea if I went on a modest diet. At age 53, I am going to the gym again. I need to buy some new clothes. I am planning to one day retire with my partner of 28 years, who is HIV-negative. What has happened in the past year, at least for me, is a miracle that couldn't have taken place at any other moment. The year 1996 is when everything changed, and very quickly, for people with AIDS. I have been grappling with this disease for nearly a decade and a half, almost since the beginning, when it was called Gay Related Immune Deficiency, or GRID. I've outlived friends and peers, and now I find myself in the unusual position of telling people how I've survived this scourge, something I never thought would happen. My condition could change for the worse tomorrow. But today I feel well again. Thanks to the arrival of the new drugs called protease inhibitors, I am probably more likely to be hit by a truck than to die of AIDS. In coming alive again, I've learned the value of a good doctor and good friends-and the importance of being honest with yourself, your co-workers and the people you love. My battle with AIDS, I'm certain, began in December 1982, at a bathhouse in Manhattan's East Village during a sexual encounter with a man whose name I didn't catch. Like other gay men, I had kept up with newspaper reports, beginning with a July 3, 1981, New York Times story with the fateful

  20. Working Memory and Hearing Aid Processing: Literature Findings, Future Directions, and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Souza, Pamela; Arehart, Kathryn; Neher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Working memory-the ability to process and store information-has been identified as an important aspect of speech perception in difficult listening environments. Working memory can be envisioned as a limited-capacity system which is engaged when an input signal cannot be readily matched to a stored representation or template. This "mismatch" is expected to occur more frequently when the signal is degraded. Because working memory capacity varies among individuals, those with smaller capacity are expected to demonstrate poorer speech understanding when speech is degraded, such as in background noise. However, it is less clear whether (and how) working memory should influence practical decisions, such as hearing treatment. Here, we consider the relationship between working memory capacity and response to specific hearing aid processing strategies. Three types of signal processing are considered, each of which will alter the acoustic signal: fast-acting wide-dynamic range compression, which smooths the amplitude envelope of the input signal; digital noise reduction, which may inadvertently remove speech signal components as it suppresses noise; and frequency compression, which alters the relationship between spectral peaks. For fast-acting wide-dynamic range compression, a growing body of data suggests that individuals with smaller working memory capacity may be more susceptible to such signal alterations, and may receive greater amplification benefit with "low alteration" processing. While the evidence for a relationship between wide-dynamic range compression and working memory appears robust, the effects of working memory on perceptual response to other forms of hearing aid signal processing are less clear cut. We conclude our review with a discussion of the opportunities (and challenges) in translating information on individual working memory into clinical treatment, including clinically feasible measures of working memory. PMID:26733899

  1. Working Memory and Hearing Aid Processing: Literature Findings, Future Directions, and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Pamela; Arehart, Kathryn; Neher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Working memory—the ability to process and store information—has been identified as an important aspect of speech perception in difficult listening environments. Working memory can be envisioned as a limited-capacity system which is engaged when an input signal cannot be readily matched to a stored representation or template. This “mismatch” is expected to occur more frequently when the signal is degraded. Because working memory capacity varies among individuals, those with smaller capacity are expected to demonstrate poorer speech understanding when speech is degraded, such as in background noise. However, it is less clear whether (and how) working memory should influence practical decisions, such as hearing treatment. Here, we consider the relationship between working memory capacity and response to specific hearing aid processing strategies. Three types of signal processing are considered, each of which will alter the acoustic signal: fast-acting wide-dynamic range compression, which smooths the amplitude envelope of the input signal; digital noise reduction, which may inadvertently remove speech signal components as it suppresses noise; and frequency compression, which alters the relationship between spectral peaks. For fast-acting wide-dynamic range compression, a growing body of data suggests that individuals with smaller working memory capacity may be more susceptible to such signal alterations, and may receive greater amplification benefit with “low alteration” processing. While the evidence for a relationship between wide-dynamic range compression and working memory appears robust, the effects of working memory on perceptual response to other forms of hearing aid signal processing are less clear cut. We conclude our review with a discussion of the opportunities (and challenges) in translating information on individual working memory into clinical treatment, including clinically feasible measures of working memory. PMID:26733899

  2. Future Development - The PHE Improvement Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmie, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    The results of this study will be usd by KSC to provide a basis for upgrades that will enhance user operability and safety in future versions of the Propellant Handlers Ensemble or implemented as "drop-in" improvements to the existing Propellant Handlers Ensemble inventory.

  3. Chernobyl team seeks aid for fallout cleanup studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    British nuclear experts have begun raising international aid agency interest in financing studies into cleaning up vast areas of the Ukraine still contaminated with fallout from the Chernobyl reactor explosion in April 1986. In a new 11-month investigation of the area outside an 18.6-mile radius of Chernobyl, the experts identified 80 necessary studies estimated to cost $62 million. [open quotes]That's just to get the system up and running. The total cost is much larger, but the authors don't yet know how much,[close quotes] says investigation coordinator Alan Eggleton of AEA Technology Ltd., Harwell, which led the study team. According to the report, radioactivity contaminated 19,000 sq miles of the Ukraine. The government is now spending some 12% of its income on mitigating the contamination, although most spending is for victim compensation and resettlement.

  4. First aid guidelines for psychosis in Asian countries: A Delphi consensus study

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, Anthony F; Minas, Harry; Langlands, Robyn L; Kelly, Claire M

    2008-01-01

    Background Guidelines for how a member of the public should give first aid to a person who is becoming psychotic have been developed for English-speaking countries. However, these guidelines may not be appropriate for use in other cultures. A study was therefore carried out to examine whether it was possible to achieve consensus on guidelines that could apply in a range of Asian countries. Methods A Delphi consensus study was carried out with a panel of 28 Asian mental health clinicians drawn from Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. The panel was given a 211 item questionnaire about possible first aid actions and asked to rate whether they thought these should be included in guidelines. Panel members were invited to propose additional items. Results After three Delphi rounds, there were 128 items that were rated as "essential" or "important" by 80% or more of the panel members. These items covered: recognition of psychosis, encouraging and assisting the person to seek help, how to interact with the person, responding to acute psychosis, responding to aggression, and what to do if the person refuses to get professional help. Conclusion Despite the diversity of the countries involved, there was consensus on a core set of first aid items that were considered as suitable for assisting a psychotic person. Future work is needed to develop guidelines for specific countries. PMID:18291042

  5. Comparative study viruses with computer-aided phase microscope AIRYSCAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Koufal, Georgy E.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Vyshenskaia, Tatiana V.

    1996-12-01

    Traditionally viruses are studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after complicated procedure of sample preparation without the possibility to study it under natural conditions. We obtained images of viruses (Vaccinia virus, Rotavirus) and rickettsias (Rickettsia provazekii, Coxiella burnetti) in native state with computer-aided phase microscope airyscan -- the interference microscope of Linnik layout with phase modulation of the reference wave with dissector image tube as coordinate-sensitive photodetector and computer processing of phase image. A light source was the He-Ne laser. The main result is coincidence of dimensions and shape of phase images with available information concerning their morphology obtained with SEM and other methods. The fine structure of surface and nuclei is observed. This method may be applied for virus recognition and express identification, investigation of virus structure and the analysis of cell-virus interaction.

  6. Urban phenological studies - Past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette

    2015-08-01

    Phenology is believed to be a suitable bio-indicator to track climate change. Based on the strong statistical association between phenology and temperature phenological observations provide an inexpensive means for the temporal and spatial analysis of the urban heat island. However, other environmental factors might also weaken this relationship. In addition, the investigation of urban phenology allows an estimation of future phenology from current information since cities with their amplified temperatures may serve as a proxy for future conditions. Nevertheless, the design of spatial compared to long-term studies might be influenced by different factors which should be taken into consideration when interpreting results from a specific study. In general, plants located in urban areas tend to flush and bloom earlier than in the countryside. What are the consequences of these urban-rural differences? This review will document existing findings on urban phenology and will highlight areas in which further research is needed. PMID:25624020

  7. A broadband characterisation of Martian soil analogues. Electrical properties as an aid for future Mars exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiegler, Alexander; Kargl, Guenter

    We report on laboratory investigations on the electrical properties of Martian soil analogue materials in a broadband frequency range (1 Hz -20 MHz) in comparison and complementary to previous work. The presented data were acquired with a high-precision impedance spectrometer and with a potential planetary mission instrument which covers a narrower frequency range. A profound knowledge of the electrical characteristics of Martian soil and sub-soil layers may provide a more comprehensive view on data collected in the past as well as data probably obtained in future. Therefore, we present the frequency dependent electrical properties of several Martian soil simulants, as e.g. JSC-Mars 1, Salten Skov, and suitable local materials. The broadband measurements were performed with a high-precision impedance spectrometer. Additional measurements with the Permittivity Probe (PP), a part of the HP3 instrument designed for the ExoMars/Humboldt Station, are presented. As a bore hole type instrument PP is intended to perform subsoil measurements during and after penetration into the ground. With a comparable wide frequency range of 4 -20000 Hz PP could provide huge information in future planetary space missions presenting ground truth for orbiting radar instruments. In the working frequency range of PP special interest will also be given to the electrical properties of water and dry-ice layers.

  8. Audio/Visual Aids: A Study of the Effect of Audio/Visual Aids on the Comprehension Recall of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavaro, Sandra

    A study investigated whether the use of audio/visual aids had an effect upon comprehension recall. Thirty fourth-grade students from an urban public school were randomly divided into two equal samples of 15. One group was given a story to read (print only), while the other group viewed a filmstrip of the same story, thereby utilizing audio/visual…

  9. AIDS Awareness of High School Students: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P.; Calvin, Richmond E.

    The Surgeon General's information material on the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), which was mailed to every household in the United States, was used to develop an AIDS Awareness Inventory. The inventory was designed for administration to 182 high school students enrolled in schools in three districts, which have adopted an AIDS…

  10. Mental Health and Resilience in HIV/AIDS-Affected Children: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, T.S.; Meyers-Ohki, S.E.; Charrow, A.; Hansen, N.

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, research on mental health in HIV-affected children (children who have an HIV-positive caregiver or live with the virus themselves) has focused on risk factors associated with the disease. However, simultaneous identification of factors that contribute to resilience in the face of risks is also needed. A greater understanding of modifiable protective processes that contribute to resilience in the mental health of children affected by HIV can inform the design of interventions that bolster naturally-occurring supports and contribute to early prevention or better management of risks. Methods We reviewed the recent literature on mental health and resilience in children and adolescents affected by HIV/AIDS. Literature searches of PsycInfo and PubMed were conducted during July-December 2011 consistent with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards. Qualitative and quantitative studies were included for review if primary research questions pertained to mental health and coping or protective processes in children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. All studies subject to full review were evaluated for quality using a modified Systematic Assessment of Quality in Observational Research (SAQOR) rating system. Results 171 unique studies were returned from online searches of the literature and bibliography mining. Of these, 29 were evaluated as pertaining directly to mental health and resilience in families and children living with HIV/AIDS. Eight studies presented qualitative analyses. Ten quantitative studies examined individual resources contributing to child resilience and four quantitative studies looked at family-level resources. Ten studies also investigated community-level interactions. Four presented findings from resilience-focused interventions. Conclusions There is a clear need for rigorous research on mental health and resilience in HIV-affected children and adolescents. The evidence base would greatly

  11. Medication compliance aids: a qualitative study of users' views

    PubMed Central

    Lecouturier, Jan; Cunningham, Bill; Campbell, David; Copeland, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the rapid rise in the use of multicompartmental compliance aids (MCAs), little is known about the role they play in self-management of medication. Aim To explore the perceived benefits of MCAs for people using them to manage their own or a relative's medication. Design of study Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting West Northumberland. Method Recruitment was via posters and leaflets in general practices and community pharmacies. In-depth interviews were conducted using a topic guide. Results Nineteen people were interviewed. Three overarching themes emerged in relation to medicine taking: disruption, organisation, and adherence, which impacted on control. The medication regime had caused disruption to their lives and this had led to the purchase of an MCA. The MCA enabled them to organise their medication, which they believed had improved the efficiency of medicine taking and saved time. Although the MCA did not prompt them to take their medication, they could see whether they had actually taken it or not, which alleviated their anxiety. To meet their individual needs and lifestyles, some had developed broader systems of medication management, incorporating the MCA. For a small cost – the initial outlay for the MCA and time spent loading it – they gained control over the management of their medication and their condition. Conclusion This group found the use of an MCA to be beneficial, but advice and support regarding how best to manage their medication and on the most appropriate design to suit their needs would be helpful. PMID:21276336

  12. [Implantable hearing aids].

    PubMed

    Luers, J C; Beutner, D; Hüttenbrink, K-B

    2011-10-01

    Strictly speaking, implantable hearing aids are technical systems that process audiological signals and convey these by direct mechanical stimulation of the ossicular chain or cochlea. They have certain benefits over conventional hearing aids in terms of wearing comfort and general acceptance. As current studies lack convincing audiological results, the indications for implantable hearing aids are primarily of medical or cosmetic nature. To date, three systems are available in Germany: Vibrant Soundbridge®, Carina®, and Esteem®. Because the performance of the different implantable and nonimplantable hearing systems together with various surgical procedures are currently undergoing major changes, audiological indications may also develop in the future. PMID:21956678

  13. Financing College in Hard Times: Work and Student Aid. The CSU Crisis and California's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports designed to analyze the impact of the fiscal cutbacks on opportunity for higher education in the California State University system, the huge network of 23 universities that provide the greatest amount of Bachelor of Arts (BA) level of education in the state. The first study, "Higher Tuition, More…

  14. A simplified surveillance case definition of AIDS derived from empirical clinical data. The Clinical AIDS Study Group, and the Working Group on AIDS case definition.

    PubMed

    Weniger, B G; Quinhões, E P; Sereno, A B; de Perez, M A; Krebs, J W; Ismael, C; Sion, F S; Ramos-Filho, C F; de Sá, C A; Byers, R H

    1992-12-01

    A clinical AIDS case definition is needed for surveillance in countries where the CDC case definition is not practical. To derive such a definition, we compared 110 HIV-seropositive and 135 randomly selected HIV-seronegative adult medical-ward inpatients in Brazil. Multivariate analysis of clinical signs and symptoms and simple diagnoses resulted in a discriminant function with sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 96% in predicting for AIDS. These data were the empirical basis for a clinical definition of AIDS in adults drafted in a Caracas, Venezuela, workshop sponsored by the Pan American Health Organization. The revised "Caracas" definition presented here requires a positive HIV serology, the absence of cancer or other cause of immunosuppression, plus > or = 10 cumulative points, as follows: Kaposi's sarcoma (10 points); extrapulmonary/noncavitary pulmonary tuberculosis (10); oral candidiasis or hairy leukoplakia (5); cavitary pulmonary/unspecified tuberculosis (5); herpes zoster < 60 years of age (5); CNS dysfunction (5); diarrhea > or = 1 month (2); fever > or = 1 month (2); cachexia or > 10% weight loss (2); asthenia > or = 1 month (2); persistent dermatitis (2); anemia, lymphopenia, or thrombocytopenia (2); persistent cough or any pneumonia except TB (2); and lymphadenopathy > or = 1 cm at > or = 2 noninguinal sites for > or = 1 month (2). This definition has a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 100% (91% without HIV serology) when applied to the Brazilian patients in this study. The Caracas definition has been adopted by Brazil, Honduras, and Surinam, and is in validation elsewhere. The use of a reasonably sensitive and specific case definition commensurate with available diagnostic resources should facilitate AIDS surveillance in developing countries. PMID:1453332

  15. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  16. Studying Stellar Halos with Future Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greggio, Laura; Falomo, Renato; Uslenghi, Michela

    2015-08-01

    Stellar halos around galaxies retain fundamental evidence of the processes which lead to their build up. Sophisticated models of galaxy formation in a cosmological context yield quantitative predictions about various observable characteristics, including the amount of substructure, the slope of radial mass profiles and three dimensional shapes, and the properties of the stellar populations in the galaxies halos. The comparison of such models with the observations leads to constraints on the general picture of galaxy formation in the hierarchical Universe, as well as on the physical processes taking place in the halos formation. With the current observing facilities, stellar halos can be effectively probed only for a limited number of nearby galaxies. In this contribution we illustrate the progress which we expect in this field with the future large aperture ground based telescopes (E-ELT and TNT), and with JWST. In particular we adress the following issues: (I) the characterization of the stellar populations in the halos innermost regions and substructures, (ii) the measurement of the halos profiles and shapes , and the halos mass content, (iii) the study of Globular Clusters inhabiting the halos of distant galaxies. In order to assess the expected capabilities of future facilities we present the results of a set of simulated images to evaluate to which level of accuracy it will be possible to probe the halos of distant galaxies.

  17. Forecasting future water levels to aid in flash flood risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. J.; Beven, K.; Marchandise, A.; Pappenberger, F.

    2012-04-01

    Flash floods are typically triggered by local intense rainfall in small catchments with short response times. The work presented explores the use of ensemble numerical weather prediction products coupled with a simplified hydrological model to forecast such floods, with up to 2 days lead time, when water level observations can be regularly assimilated. The techniques outlined are presented with reference to a case study, the Gardon d'Anduze basin in France. A Data Based Mechanistic time series model of the rainfall run-off dynamics of the catchment is constructed. The model formulated to address two common sources of observational errors, shifting baselines in the water level observation and incorrect characterisation of the magnitude of the precipitation. It is cast in a state space form shown to be an effective forecaster when driven by observed precipitation data. Substitution of ensemble precipitation forecasts the observed data is used to generate forecasts with with longer lead times. A simple adaptation of the hydrological model is used to represent the uncertainty in the forecasts that may result from incorrect characterisation of the magnitude of the forecast precipitation. Observed water levels are assimilated condition the model forecasts. They can be used both to condition the initial states to the hydrological model prior to being run with the ensemble NWP input but also to condition the hydrological forecasts generated by running the ensemble NWP inputs after they have been generated. The balance between using the hydrological forecasts of most recent NWP ensemble, or those of an older generated by an older ensemble which have undergone more data assimilation is considered.

  18. The study on computer aided peripheral visual field diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shuyi, Wang; Xingsan, Qian

    2005-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread adoption of automated perimetry, there is still a role for peripheral perimetry. So far there was no accurate quantitative analysis on the change of visual field, most analysis were qualitative and depend on doctor's experience. Method Computer aided diagnose system was designed to judge the accurate change in visual field. Tabu Seach technology was used to identify visual field from the result of Peripheral perimeter test, and accurate visual filed defect dimension can be concluded by compared with point to point. At the same time liable eye diseases were predicted by computer. Conclusion Computer aided peripheral visual field diagnose system can identify defect in visual field, and provide reliable clinical diagnosis. Key words peripheral visual field, Computer aided diagnose, tabu search. PMID:17282924

  19. RERF databases and implications for future studies.

    PubMed

    Katayama, H

    2012-10-01

    Many studies have been conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) to assess the radiation effects on human beings of atomic bombs, and numerous data have been collected, including records of medical examinations and questionnaires, analytical results, inventories of biosamples and published or unpublished documentation. Some of those data have been stored and analysed since the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (later reorganised as RERF) was established in 1947. RERF has made an effort to establish an archival database system so that an RERF researcher can access data at any time without difficulty. Under development is a new database system with the capability to handle a very large amount of data and permit future bioinformatics analyses of data, such as that required in genomics and proteomics analyses. PMID:22914332

  20. Satellite-aided mobile radio concepts study: Concept definition of a satellite-aided mobile and personal radio communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The satellite system requires the use of a large satellite antenna and spacecraft array power of about 12 kW or more depending on the operating frequency. Technology developments needed include large offset reflector multibeam antennas, satellite electrical power sybsystems providing greater than 12 kW of power, signal switching hardware, and linearized efficient solid state amplifiers for the satellite-aided mobile band. Presently there is no frequency assignment for this service, and it is recommended that an allocation be pursued. The satellite system appears to be within reasonable extrapolation of the state of the art. It is further recommended that the satellite-aided system spacecraft definition studies and supporting technology development be initiated.

  1. Futures markets and petroleum supply. A study of heating oil futures

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, R.D.

    1986-04-02

    The study evaluates the month-to-month performance of the wholesale heating oil market in the East Coast region over the past three winters as influenced by the price of heating oil futures traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) for New York Harbor delivery. The economic basis for the analysis is derived from a conceptual model of petroleum refiner and marketer behavior. In this model, futures trading and cash market plans are described as being jointly formulated to maximize profits and minimize risk. A comparison of price and inventory levels indicated by the model for a ''no futures'' and a ''futures'' case provides an indication of how the introduction of futures trading may have influenced petroleum markets. The study demonstrates that the ''no futures'' model provides a better explanation of actual cash market prices than does the ''futures'' model, but that the ''futures'' model provides a better explanation of inventory levels. Estimates of inventory change support a finding that petroleum suppliers are using futures to manage risk in a manner consistent with the ''futures'' model described in this paper. The fact that the ''no futures'' model provides a marginally better explanation of cash prices, however, suggests that risk attitudes still influence the petroleum supply and demand decisions of many market participants. The ''no futures'' model always performs best when the futures price is used to represent price expectations, underscoring the importance of the futures market as an information source, even to those businesses that do not trade in futures. At the same time, the magnitudes of the differences between the ''futures'' and the ''no futures'' estimates of cash prices and primary inventory change are very small, suggesting the overall influence of futures trading on petroleum supply has not been great. This conclusion is consistent with industry reports that refiners are only peripherally in the refined product futures markets.

  2. Multiple stressors in Southern Africa: the link between HIV/AIDS, food insecurity, poverty and children's vulnerability now and in the future

    PubMed Central

    Drimie, Scott; Casale, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    Several countries in Southern Africa now see large numbers of their population barely subsisting at poverty levels in years without shocks, and highly vulnerable to the vagaries of the weather, the economy and government policy. The combination of HIV/AIDS, food insecurity and a weakened capacity for governments to deliver basic social services has led to the region experiencing an acute phase of a long-term emergency. “Vulnerability” is a term commonly used by scientists and practitioners to describe these deteriorating conditions. There is particular concern about the “vulnerability” of children in this context and implications for children's future security. Through a review of literature and recent case studies, and using a widely accepted conceptualisation of vulnerability as a lens, we reflect on what the regional livelihoods crisis could mean for children's future wellbeing. We argue that an increase in factors determining the vulnerability of households — both through greater intensity and frequency of shocks and stresses (“external” vulnerability) and undermined resilience or ability to cope (“internal” vulnerability) — are threatening not only current welfare of children, but also their longer-term security. The two specific pathways we explore are (1) erosive coping strategies employed by families and individuals; and (2) their inability to plan for the future. We conclude that understanding and responding to this crisis requires looking at the complexity of these multiple stressors, to try to comprehend their interconnections and causal links. Policy and programme responses have, to date, largely failed to take into account the complex and multi-dimensional nature of this crisis. There is a misfit between the problem and the institutional response, as responses from national and international players have remained relatively static. Decisive, well-informed and holistic interventions are needed to break the potential negative cycle

  3. First Entry: Report on a Qualitative Exploratory Study of Novice User Experience with Online Finding Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheir, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Many of those now accessing archives through online finding aids are encountering primary materials (albeit virtually) for the first time. These users are often unfamiliar with finding aid structure, terminology, and principles. This article reports on a qualitative, exploratory study of a subset of these novice users. The study concentrated on…

  4. Experiences of adolescents seropositive for HIV/AIDS: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Galano, Eliana; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro; Delmas, Philippe; Côté, José; Gouvea, Aida de Fátima Thomé Barbosa; Succi, Regina Célia de Menezes; Machado, Daisy Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Explore the meanings attributed by young individuals about "living as an adolescent with HIV" in a group of patients that acquired the infection at birth and the elements involved with the adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Methods: Qualitative study, involving 20 subjects (aged 13-20 years), followed at services specialized in the treatment of pediatric AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were carried out of which script consisted of questions about their personal histories, experiences and difficulties they must face while living with HIV/AIDS. Results: Being "normal" and "different" were central issues voiced by the participants. However, a normal life situation is guaranteed by being responsible with one's health, the condition that the diagnosis be kept secret and concerns about HIV transmission and dissemination to a sexual partner. The answers about treatment show that adherence is a dynamic process and involves moments of greater or lesser interest in relation to care for one's health. The adolescents have plans and projects and although HIV is considered a stressor, positive perspectives for the future prevailed. Conclusions: To live as an adolescent with HIV involves subtle dimensions that need to be recognized and legitimized by professionals who follow the trajectory of these young individuals. It is necessary to allow a space in which the adolescents can reflect and find support regarding issues related to the construction of their sexuality and care of one's own body. PMID:26611887

  5. Student-Aid Offers May Be Too Generous, Study Suggests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    Colleges may frequently be overspending by offering students larger financial-aid offers than are actually necessary to entice them to enroll, according to a working paper released in May by three economists. In a detailed examination of the admissions practices of two selective private colleges, the economists found that the colleges generally…

  6. Knowledge-Based Aid: A Four Agency Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Simon; King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Part of the response of many development cooperation agencies to the challenges of globalisation, ICTs and the knowledge economy is to emphasise the importance of knowledge for development. This paper looks at the discourses and practices of ''knowledge-based aid'' through an exploration of four agencies: the World Bank, DFID, Sida and JICA. It…

  7. Status of the Future Circular Collider Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Following the 2013 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the international Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study has been launched by CERN as host institute, to design an energy frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new 80-100 km tunnel with a centre-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV, an order of magnitude beyond the LHC's, as a long-term goal. The FCC study also includes the design of a 90-350 GeV high-luminosity lepton collider (FCC-ee) installed in the same tunnel, serving as Higgs, top and Z factory, as a potential intermediate step, as well as an electron-proton collider option (FCC-he). The physics cases for such machines will be assessed and concepts for experiments will be developed in time for the next update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics by the end of 2018. The presentation will summarize the status of machine designs and parameters and discuss the essential technical components to be developed in the frame of the FCC study. Key elements are superconducting accelerator-dipole magnets with a field of 16 T for the hadron collider and high-power, high-efficiency RF systems for the lepton collider. In addition the unprecedented beam power presents special challenges for the hadron collider for all aspects of beam handling and machine protection. First conclusions of geological investigations and implementation studies will be presented. The status of the FCC collaboration and the further planning for the study will be outlined.

  8. Factors Influencing Hearing Aid Use in the Classroom: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Hilary; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.; Bess, Fred H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This pilot study examined factors influencing classroom hearing aid use in school-age children with hearing loss. Method The research team visited classrooms of 38 children with mild-to-moderate hearing loss (Grades 1–7) on 2 typical school days, twice per day, to document hearing aid use. In addition, parents reported the number of hours their children used hearing aids at school. Results Nearly 24% of children were observed not wearing their hearing aids in the classroom on either observation day. Both grade level and degree of hearing loss appeared to affect hearing aid use. Children in Grades 5–7 and those with milder hearing losses were less likely to wear hearing aids. Overall, parents accurately reported classroom hearing aid use; however, those with children in Grades 5–7 were less accurate than those with children in earlier grades. Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that children with milder hearing loss and those in Grades 5–7 are at increased risk for reduced hearing aid use in the classroom. Also, parents of school-age children in these later grades are less accurate reporters of classroom hearing aid use compared to parents of children in earlier grades. PMID:26650231

  9. Community College Students' Experiences with Financial Aid Policies and Practices: A Critical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes community college students' experiences with governmental financial aid policies and institutional financial aid processes at an urban community college campus in the Northeastern United States. Drawing from theories of social justice, conceptions of social capital, and institutionalist analyses of the community…

  10. In-School HIV & AIDS Counselling Services in Botswana: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefhedi, Sheila; Montsi, Mercy; Mpofu, Elias

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study describes the provision of HIV & AIDS counselling services in Botswana junior secondary schools as perceived by teachers. A total of 45 teachers (age range = 20-55; teaching experience range = 0-21 years) from three schools participated. The participants completed a questionnaire on the types of HIV & AIDS-related…

  11. A Study on the Level of the First Aid Knowledge of Educators Working in Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, Caglayan; Atakurt, Yildir; Simsek, Isil

    This questionnaire study examined the level of knowledge of first aid of 138 educators in private and state preschools in Turkey. Questionnaires were completed by educators between May and July 1997. The findings indicated that about 17 percent of the educators thought that they had sufficient first aid knowledge, with 62 percent indicating that…

  12. HIV/AIDS among American Indians/Alaska Natives Living in Montana: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondag, K. Ann; Strike, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the epidemiology of HIV among AI/ANs in Montana. Barriers to HIV testing and motivations to test also were explored. Analysis of data revealed that there were no significant changes in regard to HIV/AIDS case rates, demographic characteristics, or risk behaviors of AI/ANs infected with HIV/AIDS since reporting began in 1985.…

  13. Effects of first aid training in the kindergarten - a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Children can be the only persons present in an emergency situation. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a first aid course for 4-5-year-old kindergarten children given by a first aid instructor and kindergarten teachers. Methods A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to investigate the effects of teaching first aid in the kindergarten in the present study. 10 kindergarten children at the age of 4-5 years were included in a pilot-study, 5 girls and 5 boys. Three of them were four years and seven were five years old. Two months after completion of the first aid course children were tested in a scenario where the children had to provide first aid to an unconscious victim after a cycle accident. The next seven months the children were followed by participant observation. Results The findings suggest that 4-5-year-old children are able to learn and apply basic first aid. Tested two months after course completion 70% of the children assessed consciousness correctly and knew the correct emergency telephone number; 60% showed correct assessment of breathing and 40% of the participants accomplished the other tasks (giving correct emergency call information, knowledge of correct recovery position, correct airway management) correctly. Many of the children showed their capabilities to do so in a first aid scenario although some participants showed fear of failure in the test scenario. In an informal group testing most of these children could perform first aid measures, too. Teaching first aid also lead to more active helping behaviour and increased empathy in the children. Conclusion Kindergarten children aged 4-5 years can learn basic fist aid. First aid training should start in the kindergarten. PMID:21356047

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.; Baldwin, S.; DeMeo, E.; Reilly, J. M.; Mai, T.; Arent, D.; Porro, G.; Meshek, M.; Sandor, D.

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  15. People living with HIV /AIDS (PLWHA) and HIV/AIDS associated oral lesions; a study in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The continuous increase in number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) represents a serious health and economic burden. HIV positive individuals with oral lesions have significantly lower oral health-related quality of life than HIV positive individuals without oral lesions. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) within a cohort of HIV/AIDS positive patients towards HIV/AIDS associated oral lesions. Methods Two hundred seventy patients attending a national referral hospital of infectious disease in Malaysia were recruited for the study. The study involved the administration of a validated interview-based questionnaire designed to elicit knowledge, attitude and practices of these patients towards HIV associated oral lesions. The last part of the questionnaire assessed the training provided to the patients in relation to the oral lesions associated with the disease and the effectiveness of this training. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 18. Results Thirty seven percent of patients were reported as knowledgeable, while sixty four percent reported to have positive attitude towards the care of oral hygiene. Sixty six percent of the patients reported that they would seek professional care when experiencing oral lesion. Training was reported effective for 93% patients. Conclusions Patients were non-knowledgeable in relation to oral manifestations of the disease and one third of the participating patients showed negative attitudes towards oral health care and reported various measures to manage oral lesions rather than seeking professional care. Developing effective educational methodologies can empower patients with knowledge that may translate to positive attitudes and practices. PMID:23043358

  16. AIDS knowledge and attitudes in a Turkish population: an epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Ayranci, Unal

    2005-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate and present some pertinent comments concerning Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions among the general population in a city of west Turkey. This study was deemed important and relevant due to the increasing importance of AIDS in Turkey and the other countries. Methods Using a multistage area sampling method, a random sample of individuals aged 11–83 years, living in 65 different quarters in the city of Eskisehir, Turkey during September, October and November 2004 were interviewed. Results In all, 1048 respondents completed the survey. In most items, respondents displayed a fairly good to excellent degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Individuals with higher degrees of education indicated more correct responses in all items relating to knowledge of HIV/AIDS. In general, the respondents' attitudes towards AIDS and people with AIDS were found to be tolerant and positive, with one answer choice showing that the majority of the respondents agreed with the statement that those with HIV/AIDS must be supported, treated and helped (90.7%). Moreover, the proportions of the respondents' misconceptions were found to be significantly low for all the items. However, nearly one fourth of the respondents agreed with the misconceptions 'AIDS is a punishment by God' and 'One is not infected with HIV/AIDS if engaged in sport and well nourished'. Conclusion In general HIV/AIDS related knowledge was high and people showed positive attitudes. However, people continue to hold misconceptions about AIDS and these need to be addressed by health education programs targeting those at higher risk. PMID:16159400

  17. How does a decision aid help people decide whether to disclose a mental health problem to employers? Qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Lassman, F; Henderson, R Claire; Dockery, L; Clement, S; Murray, J; Bonnington, O; Farrelly, S; Thornicroft, G

    2015-06-01

    Background Decisions about whether to disclose mental health problems to employers are complex, with potential personal, employment and legal implications. Decision aids are evidence based tools, designed to help individuals make specific choices between treatment options. We previously developed a decision aid-Conceal Or ReveAL (CORAL)-to assist service users with decisions about disclosure to employers. As part of a mixed methods exploratory RCT, which demonstrated that the CORAL decision aid was effective in reducing decisional conflict, we aimed to explore its mechanism of action and to optimise the intervention for a future full scale trial. Methods In depth interviews were conducted with individuals receiving vocational support from a mental health trust and participating in the intervention arm of the pilot trial. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify the main themes relating to participants' perceptions of the CORAL decision aid. Results Thirteen participants were interviewed and five main themes were identified: sense of self and values; sense of control; anticipation of disclosure; experience of disclosure; and mechanism of action of the decision aid. Conclusions Data from our 13 participants suggest that the CORAL decision aid acts on several dimensions of decisional conflict: clarifying the pros and cons of different choices; increasing knowledge; structuring the decision making process; and clarifying needs and values. The current study indicated that it would be most effective when delivered by a professional well versed in employment and mental health matters such as a vocational adviser. The need for employers and policymakers to reduce the negative impact of disclosure is also highlighted. PMID:25427673

  18. [External memory aids for patients with dementia: a literature study on efficacy and applicability].

    PubMed

    Fritschy, E P; Kessels, R P C; Postma, A

    2004-12-01

    Memory problems are the most common cognitive deficits in dementia. In order to help these patients with their everyday activities and to increase their quality of life, a number of memory aids have been developed. This paper focuses on the efficacy and the applicability of three different types of external memory aids. The findings suggest that environmental adjustment is an easy and low-priced method. It is beneficial even for patients in the most severe stages of dementia, since only a limited amount of training is necessary. The non-electronic aids are also relatively cheap and easy to learn. The electronic aids are more expensive and, at this point, only a few studies have investigated the efficacy of this memory aid on the memory problems of patients with dementia. However, most published studies only investigated small samples. Hence, the current results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:15704603

  19. 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12): Student Financial Aid Estimates for 2011-12. First Look. NCES 2013-165

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radwin, David; Wine, Jennifer; Siegel, Peter; Bryan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This brief report presents selected findings about student financial aid during the 2011-12 academic year. These findings are based on data from the 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12), a nationally representative sample survey of undergraduate and graduate students enrolled any time between July 1, 2011, and June 30, 2012,…

  20. Seismic studies for Fermilab future collider projects

    SciTech Connect

    Lauh, J.; Shiltsev, V.

    1997-11-01

    Ground motion can cause significant beam emittance growth and orbit oscillations in large hadron colliders due to a vibration of numerous focusing magnets. Larger accelerator ring circumference leads to smaller revolution frequency and, e.g. for the Fermilab Very Large Hadron Collider(VLHC) 50-150 Hz vibrations are of particular interest as they are resonant with the beam betatron frequency. Seismic measurements at an existing large accelerator under operation can help to estimate the vibrations generated by the technical systems in future machines. Comparison of noisy and quiet microseismic conditions might be useful for proper choice of technical solutions for future colliders. This article presents results of wide-band seismic measurements at the Fermilab site, namely, in the tunnel of the Tevatron and on the surface nearby, and in two deep tunnels in the Illinois dolomite which is though to be a possible geological environment of the future accelerators.

  1. Airframe Noise Studies: Review and Future Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rackl, Robert G.; Miller, Gregory; Guo, Yueping; Yamamoto, Kingo

    2005-01-01

    This report contains the following information: 1) a review of airframe noise research performed under NASA's Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) program up to the year 2000, 2) a comparison of the year 1992 airframe noise predictions with those using a year 2000 baseline, 3) an assessment of various airframe noise reduction concepts as applied to the year 2000 baseline predictions, and 4) prioritized recommendations for future airframe noise reduction work. NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program was the software used for all noise predictions and assessments. For future work, the recommendations for the immediate future focus on the development of design tools sensitive to airframe noise treatment effects and on improving the basic understanding of noise generation by the landing gear as well as on its reduction.

  2. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 2: Technical feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of this effort are presented in a manner for use by both the AIDS 3 Operational and Economic Feasibility subtasks as well as the Development of Alternative subtask. The approach taken was to identify the major functions that appear in AIDS 3 and then to determine which technologies would be needed for support. The technologies were then examined from the point of view of reliability, throughput, security, availability, cost and possible future trends. Whenever possible graphs are given to indicate projected costs of rapidly changing technologies.

  3. Computer-aided target tracking in motion analysis studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdick, Dominic C.; Marcuse, M. L.; Mislan, J. D.

    1990-08-01

    Motion analysis studies require the precise tracking of reference objects in sequential scenes. In a typical situation, events of interest are captured at high frame rates using special cameras, and selected objects or targets are tracked on a frame by frame basis to provide necessary data for motion reconstruction. Tracking is usually done using manual methods which are slow and prone to error. A computer based image analysis system has been developed that performs tracking automatically. The objective of this work was to eliminate the bottleneck due to manual methods in high volume tracking applications such as the analysis of crash test films for the automotive industry. The system has proven to be successful in tracking standard fiducial targets and other objects in crash test scenes. Over 95 percent of target positions which could be located using manual methods can be tracked by the system, with a significant improvement in throughput over manual methods. Future work will focus on the tracking of clusters of targets and on tracking deformable objects such as airbags.

  4. A study of mercuric oxide and zinc-air battery life in hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, C; Lacey, N K

    1997-09-01

    The requirement to phase out mercuric oxide (mercury) batteries on environmental grounds has led to the widespread introduction of zinc-air technology. The possibility arises that high drain hearing aids may not be adequately catered for by zinc-air cells, leading to poor performance. This study investigated the hearing aid user's ability to perceive differences between zinc-air and mercury cells in normal everyday usage. The data was collected for 100 experienced hearing aid users in field trials. Users report 50 per cent greater life for zinc-air cells in high power aids and 28 per cent in low power aids. The average life of the zinc-air cells range from 15 days in high power to 34 days in low power aids. Users are able to perceive a difference in sound quality in favour of zinc-air cells for low and medium power aids. The hearing aid population is not disadvantaged by phasing out mercury cells. PMID:9373545

  5. Future Missions to Study Signposts of Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2011-01-01

    This talk will focus on debris disks, will compare ground and space and will discuss 2 proposed missions, Exoplanetary Circumstellar Environments And Disk Explorer (EXCEDE) and Zodiac II. At least 2 missions have been proposed for disk imaging. The technology is largely in hand today. A small mission would do excellent disk science, and would test technology for a future large mission for planets.

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  7. The Vancouver Lymphadenopathy-AIDS Study: 5. Antecedent behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings in patients with AIDS and HIV-seropositive controls.

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, W J; Schechter, M T; Craib, K J; Constance, P; Nitz, R; Fay, S; McLeod, A; O'Shaughnessy, M

    1986-01-01

    In a group of homosexual men in Vancouver studied prospectively since November 1982, 26 cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have arisen. To identify behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings that might predict the development of AIDS in people with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we compared data for 25 patients with AIDS with corresponding data for 80 controls serologically positive for HIV selected from the cohort. The clinical and laboratory data for the patients with AIDS preceded the diagnosis of the syndrome by a mean of 17.5 months. The controls had been both seropositive and AIDS-free for a mean of 16.7 months after acquisition of their data. We detected significant differences between the patients with AIDS and the controls in IgG and IgA levels, absolute number of helper T cells and ratio of helper to suppressor T cells but not in lifetime number of male sexual partners, frequency of receptive anal intercourse or receptive fisting, illicit drug use or history of infectious disease. We also detected an increased risk of AIDS among those who had an elevated number of sexual contacts in AIDS-endemic areas in the 5 years before enrollment. A history of increased early sexual contact in AIDS-endemic areas is likely to be associated with early infection and with an increased risk of AIDS among men with HIV infection of unknown duration. Thus, although our analysis had limited statistical power, we conclude that most lifestyle variables appear to act as exposure factors in HIV infection but not as cofactors in the development of AIDS. PMID:3463386

  8. The Vancouver Lymphadenopathy-AIDS Study: 5. Antecedent behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings in patients with AIDS and HIV-seropositive controls.

    PubMed

    Boyko, W J; Schechter, M T; Craib, K J; Constance, P; Nitz, R; Fay, S; McLeod, A; O'Shaughnessy, M

    1986-10-15

    In a group of homosexual men in Vancouver studied prospectively since November 1982, 26 cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have arisen. To identify behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings that might predict the development of AIDS in people with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we compared data for 25 patients with AIDS with corresponding data for 80 controls serologically positive for HIV selected from the cohort. The clinical and laboratory data for the patients with AIDS preceded the diagnosis of the syndrome by a mean of 17.5 months. The controls had been both seropositive and AIDS-free for a mean of 16.7 months after acquisition of their data. We detected significant differences between the patients with AIDS and the controls in IgG and IgA levels, absolute number of helper T cells and ratio of helper to suppressor T cells but not in lifetime number of male sexual partners, frequency of receptive anal intercourse or receptive fisting, illicit drug use or history of infectious disease. We also detected an increased risk of AIDS among those who had an elevated number of sexual contacts in AIDS-endemic areas in the 5 years before enrollment. A history of increased early sexual contact in AIDS-endemic areas is likely to be associated with early infection and with an increased risk of AIDS among men with HIV infection of unknown duration. Thus, although our analysis had limited statistical power, we conclude that most lifestyle variables appear to act as exposure factors in HIV infection but not as cofactors in the development of AIDS. PMID:3463386

  9. Chemical warfare, past and future. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Tzihor, A.

    1992-05-15

    World War I was arena for the first use of chemical warfare. The enormous tactical success brought about by this first time use of chemical weapons caused the continued development of more sophisticated tactics and weapons in this category of unconventional warfare. This phenomenon has carried through to today. However, at present, because of technological developments, the global economic situation, and political factors, coupled with the inability of the western world to control the proliferation of chemical weapons, a situation weapon of mass destruction. Recent use by Iraq against Kurdish civilian indicates that chemical warfare is no longer limited to the battlefield. The western nations have a need to understand the risk. This paper conducts an analysis of past lessons and the factors which will affect the use of chemical warfare in the future. From this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning the significant threat chemical weapons pose for the entire world in the not too distant future.

  10. Alternative medicines for AIDS in resource-poor settings: insights from exploratory anthropological studies in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Hardon, Anita; Desclaux, Alice; Egrot, Marc; Simon, Emmanuelle; Micollier, Evelyne; Kyakuwa, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of alternative medicines for AIDS in Asia and Africa was discussed at a satellite symposium and the parallel session on alternative and traditional treatments of the AIDSImpact meeting, held in Marseille, in July 2007. These medicines are heterogeneous, both in their presentation and in their geographic and cultural origin. The sessions focused on the role of these medications in selected resource poor settings in Africa and Asia now that access to anti-retroviral therapy is increasing. The aims of the sessions were to (1) identify the actors involved in the diffusion of these alternative medicines for HIV/AIDS, (2) explore uses and forms, and the way these medicines are given legitimacy, (3) reflect on underlying processes of globalisation and cultural differentiation, and (4) define priority questions for future research in this area. This article presents the insights generated at the meeting, illustrated with some findings from the case studies (Uganda, Senegal, Benin, Burkina Faso, China and Indonesia) that were presented. These case studies reveal the wide range of actors who are involved in the marketing and supply of alternative medicines. Regulatory mechanisms are weak. The efficacy claims of alternative medicines often reinforce a biomedical paradigm for HIV/AIDS, and fit with a healthy living ideology promoted by AIDS care programs and support groups. The AIDSImpact session concluded that more interdisciplinary research is needed on the experience of people living with HIV/AIDS with these alternative medicines, and on the ways in which these products interact (or not) with anti-retroviral therapy at pharmacological as well as psychosocial levels. PMID:18616794

  11. Comparative study of auxetic geometries by means of computer-aided design and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez Elipe, Juan Carlos; Díaz Lantada, Andrés

    2012-10-01

    Auxetic materials (or metamaterials) are those with a negative Poisson ratio (NPR) and display the unexpected property of lateral expansion when stretched, as well as an equal and opposing densification when compressed. Such geometries are being progressively employed in the development of novel products, especially in the fields of intelligent expandable actuators, shape morphing structures and minimally invasive implantable devices. Although several auxetic and potentially auxetic geometries have been summarized in previous reviews and research, precise information regarding relevant properties for design tasks is not always provided. In this study we present a comparative study of two-dimensional and three-dimensional auxetic geometries carried out by means of computer-aided design and engineering tools (from now on CAD-CAE). The first part of the study is focused on the development of a CAD library of auxetics. Once the library is developed we simulate the behavior of the different auxetic geometries and elaborate a systematic comparison, considering relevant properties of these geometries, such as Poisson ratio(s), maximum volume or area reductions attainable and equivalent Young’s modulus, hoping it may provide useful information for future designs of devices based on these interesting structures.

  12. AIDS knowledge gaps: results from the first decade of the epidemic and implications for future public information efforts.

    PubMed

    Salmon, C T; Wooten, K; Gentry, E; Cole, G E; Kroger, F

    1996-01-01

    Throughout the first decade of AIDS, certain populations have been disproportionately affected by its spread, particularly men, blacks, Hispanics, and the young. Just as there are population differences in the spread of the disease, there are differences in knowledge about the disease as well. This article applies the knowledge gap framework to examine the nature and magnitude of gaps in knowledge among different populations. The analysis shows that persons of low education lag behind other groups in true-transmission knowledge (i.e., knowledge about ways in which HIV/AIDS actually is transmitted) and false-transmission knowledge (i.e., misconceptions about how the disease is spread). PMID:10947357

  13. 2004 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:04) Full-Scale Methodology Report. Technical Report. NCES 2006-180

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cominole, Melissa; Siegel, Peter; Dudley, Kristin; Roe, David; Gilligan, Theresa

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the methods and procedures used for the 2004 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:04). NPSAS:04 is a comprehensive study of financial aid among postsecondary education students in the United States and Puerto Rico that provides information on trends in financial aid and on the ways in which families pay for…

  14. 46 Pct. of All Undergraduates Received Some Form of Financial Aid in Fall 1986, U.S. Study Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    1988-01-01

    The National Postsecondary Student Aid Study by the U.S. Department of Education examines the amount and types of aid students receive nationwide. The study covered aid distributed by the federal government, state governments, colleges and universities, and other sources. (MLW)

  15. Inadvertent insertion of hearing aid impression material into the middle ear: Case report and implications for future community hearing services☆

    PubMed Central

    Algudkar, Ashwin; Maden, Belma; Singh, Arvind; Tatla, Taran

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The creation of ear moulds for hearing aids is generally considered a safe and routine procedure for trained professionals. In the literature there are reports of otological complications caused by hearing aid mould impression material in the middle ear cavity but such complications are considered rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present the case of a patient in whom impression material entered the middle ear through a perforation of the tympanic membrane during the process of making a hearing aid mould and review how this was managed. DISCUSSION We discuss how many aspects of the British Society of Audiology guidelines were not followed during this procedure and make recommendations as to how independent community practitioners need to be closely supervised with regular review to minimise the risks of such complications. CONCLUSION Our report demonstrates how a serious otological complication from the creation of a hearing aid impression in a community based private hearing clinic was managed. The reporting of such complications is rare but the incidence is likely to be much higher than the literature would suggest. We recommend and advise how these adverse incidents may be minimised and managed through competency reviews and formal referral links from community centres to hospital otolaryngology/audiology departments. PMID:24262374

  16. The national- and international-wide prospects of future improvements of position location and time synchronization systems and aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouzhva, Yuri G.; Balyasnikov, Boris N.; Korniyenko, Vladimir V.; Pushkina, Irina G.; Shebshayevich, Valentin S.; Denisov, Vladimir I.; Reutov, Alexander P.

    1990-01-01

    The concept being designed by the Leningrad Scientific Research Radio Technical Institute (LSRRI) of united positioning and timing service on the basis of the utilization of long-range and global radionavigation and common time systems and aids for different users is described. The estimate of its utilization on the national as well as on international scale is given.

  17. A Pilot Study Evaluating the Feasibility of Psychological First Aid for Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lisa M.; Bruce, Martha L.; Hyer, Kathryn; Mills, Whitney L.; Vongxaiburana, Elizabeth; Polivka-West, LuMarie

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of the pilot study were to modify existing psychological first aid (PFA) materials so they would be appropriate for use with institutionalized elders, evaluate the feasibility of using nursing home staff to deliver the intervention to residents, and solicit feedback from residents about the intervention. The STORM Study, an acronym for “services for treating older residents’ mental health”, is the first step in the development of an evidence-based disaster mental health intervention for this vulnerable and underserved population. Method Demographic characteristics were collected on participating residents and staff. Program evaluation forms were completed by staff participants during the pilot test and nurse training session. Staff and resident discussion groups were conducted during the pilot test to collect qualitative data on the use of PFA in nursing homes. Results Results demonstrate the feasibility of the PFA program to train staff to provide residents with PFA during disasters. Conclusions Future research should focus on whether PFA improves coping and reduces stress in disaster exposed nursing home residents. PMID:20592947

  18. The perspectives of iranian physicians and patients towards patient decision aids: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient preference is one of the main components of clinical decision making, therefore leading to the development of patient decision aids. The goal of this study was to describe physicians’ and patients’ viewpoints on the barriers and limitations of using patient decision aids in Iran, their proposed solutions, and, the benefits of using these tools. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2011 in Iran by holding in-depth interviews with 14 physicians and 8 arthritis patient. Interviewees were selected through purposeful and maximum variation sampling. As an example, a patient decision aid on the treatment of knee arthritis was developed upon literature reviews and gathering expert opinion, and was presented at the time of interview. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the data by using the OpenCode software. Results The results were summarized into three categories and ten codes. The extracted categories were the perceived benefits of using the tools, as well as the patient-related and physician-related barriers in using decision aids. The following barriers in using patient decision aids were identified in this study: lack of patients and physicians’ trainings in shared decision making, lack of specialist per capita, low treatment tariffs and lack of an exact evaluation system for patient participation in decision making. Conclusions No doubt these barriers demand the health authorities’ special attention. Hence, despite patients and physicians’ inclination toward using patient decision aids, these problems have hindered the practical usage of these tools in Iran - as a developing country. PMID:24066792

  19. Core indicators evaluation of effectiveness of HIV-AIDS preventive-control programmes carried out by nongovernmental organizations. A mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The number of nongovernmental organizations working on AIDS has grown. There is great diversity in the type of activities and population groups that have been targeted. The purposes of this study are: to describe and analyze the objectives and HIV-AIDS preventive activities that are carried out by the AIDS-NGOs that work with AIDS in Catalonia and that receive subsidies from the Department of Health; and to develop a comprehensive proposal for measurable and agreed upon core quality evaluation indicators to monitor and assess those objectives and activities that can have an impact on the fight against inequalities and stigmatization, and incorporate the perspectives of the service providers and users. Methods A mixed method study has been carried out with professionals from the 36 NGOs that work with HIV/AIDS in Catalonia, as well as their users. This study achieved the completeness model using the following phases: 1. A systematic review of AIDS-NGOs annual reports and preparation of a catalogue of activities grouped by objectives, level of prevention and AIDS-NGOs target population; 2. A transversal study through an ad-hoc questionnaire administered to the AIDS-NGOs representatives; 3. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach through focus groups, individual interviews and observations; 4. Consensus meetings between AIDS-NGOs professionals and the research team using Haddon matrices in order to establish a proposal of evaluation indicators. Results The information was classified according to level of prevention and level of intervention. A total of 248 objectives and 258 prevention activities were identified. 1564 evaluation indicators, addressed to 7 target population groups, were produced. Thirty core activities were selected. The evaluation indicators proposed for these activities were: 76 indicators for 15 primary prevention activities, 43 for 5 secondary prevention activities and 68 for 10 tertiary prevention activities. Conclusions

  20. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  1. "Hanging in" with HIV/AIDS in the rural north of Thailand: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Klunklin, Areewan; Greenwood, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A study was undertaken in 1997 through 2000 in the rural north of Thailand to describe and theorize the HIV/AIDS experiences of wives and widows there. Participants confronted four causally interrelated problems in their struggle to survive with HIV/ AIDS: physical, economic, psychoemotional, and sociocultural, and they used two social processes to manage them: namely, "hiding out" and "hanging in" with HIV/AIDS. This report describes and discusses the second of these basic social processes through which wives and widows in the rural north of Thailand cope with their HIV/AIDS infection. Hanging in involves a range of very active strategies derived from both traditional Thai culture and Western medicine and aimed at allowing participants to make the best of their predicament. In addition, this report renders explicit what is typically left implicit in grounded theory research; that is, that culture is the source both of the problems participants experienced and the means to their effective amelioration. PMID:16536262

  2. A comparative study of the audiological outcomes with Retro-X (semi-implantable hearing aid system) and conventional open fitting hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Lenarz, Minoo; Lenarz, Thomas; Stieve, Martin; Winter, Mark

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the results of hearing augmentation with the Retro-X semi-implantable hearing aid to a conventional non-implantable open canal hearing aid using the same software technology (Titan-X, auric Hearing Systems, HiKaNo.:13.20.03.0047). Nineteen subjects (20 ears) with mild to moderate high-frequency sensory-neural hearing loss were included in this clinical study. All the subjects were first fitted with a conventional open canal hearing aid (Titan-X). After a period of 4-6 weeks audiological evaluations were performed using standardized speech tests in quiet and noise. Subjective evaluation was performed with the help of standardized questionnaires. After this phase the patients received the semi-implantable Retro-X device under local anaesthesia and 4 weeks later were fitted with a hearing module with the same software technology as the conventional Titan-X hearing aid. Four weeks following the first fitting the same audiological evaluations were performed under similar conditions and the patients were evaluated again using the same questionnaires in order to compare the results of the Retro-X semi-implantable system with the conventional open canal hearing aid. Audiological evaluations revealed better results with the semi-implantable Retro-X in the adaptive speech in noise test; however, the results of the monosyllabic word test in quiet were similar for the Retro-X and conventional open canal hearing aid. The patients subjectively preferred the improved wearing comfort of the semi-implantable device. The Retro-X semi-implantable hearing aid provides better speech perception in noise and higher wearing comfort in comparison to the conventional open canal hearing aids. Considering the simple implantation procedure under local anaesthesia with low complication rate, Retro-X is an alternative to the conventional open canal hearing aids in patients with mild to moderate high frequency sensory-neural hearing loss. PMID:18365229

  3. Political will, traditional leaders and the fight against HIV/AIDS: a South African case study.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    "Political will" and leadership are increasingly considered key contextual influences on the outcomes of HIV/AIDS programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. Such debates tend to focus on the role of national leadership in shaping responses to the epidemic, with little attention to local leaders. Yet many of the settings in which HIV/AIDS flourishes are geographically distant from the reach of national leadership and policies. Furthermore, local leaders often play a key role in shaping how national policies and decisions are interpreted and implemented in local areas. Against this background, we present a case study of the impact of the leadership style of a traditional Chief on a community-based AIDS programme in a South African rural community, which sought to build community-level "AIDS competence", using the "empowerment via participation" approach. The case study involved 134 interviews and 57 focus groups conducted over three years. Thematic content analysis revealed a number of direct and indirect ways in which his leadership style impacted on project outcomes. Despite his strong support for the programme, the Chief's "traditional" attitudes towards women and youth, his celebration of polygamy, and his authoritarian governance style undermined the project's "empowerment via participation" agenda - especially the programme's attempts to reduce AIDS stigma, to build female and youth capacity to control their sexual health, and to encourage men to take responsibility for their role in tackling AIDS. PMID:21161769

  4. Increasing HIV/AIDS awareness among African-American women: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ludella; Tabi, Marian M

    2013-07-01

    This exploratory study was conducted to assess the effect of an HIV/AIDS prevention program on producing positive changing attitudes among African-American women in Southeast Georgia. This study used a faith-based approach. Data were collected from 23 respondents recruited from a local African-American church. HIV training was conducted over four 1-hour sessions using web-based interactive videos and lectures on HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory comprised the framework upon which the women received HIV/AIDS prevention training. Participants completed a 25-item pre- and post-intervention questionnaire to measure any changes that occurred in their attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS. Results showed a statistically significant difference in mean scores of individual knowledge and attitudes about HIV. The difference in mean scores for the remaining items was found to be statistically insignificant. The overall change in attitudes was also statistically significant, t = 2.27, df = 22, p < 0.05, which provided further evidence that when peers educate their communities on HIV/AIDS, it makes a significant difference in changing their attitudes about this disease. Although findings were positive, further data is needed to substantiate and validate the use of community peers to increase knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS among the African-American population. PMID:24218873

  5. Genome-wide Association Study Implicates PARD3B-based AIDS Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, George W.; Lautenberger, James A.; Chinn, Leslie; McIntosh, Carl; Johnson, Randall C.; Sezgin, Efe; Kessing, Bailey; Malasky, Michael; Hendrickson, Sher L.; Pontius, Joan; Tang, Minzhong; An, Ping; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Limou, Sophie; Le Clerc, Sigrid; Delaneau, Olivier; Zagury, Jean-François; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; van Manen, Daniëlle; Bream, Jay H.; Gomperts, Edward D.; Buchbinder, Susan; Goedert, James J.; Kirk, Gregory D.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Host genetic variation influences human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and progression to AIDS. Here we used clinically well-characterized subjects from 5 pretreatment HIV/AIDS cohorts for a genome-wide association study to identify gene associations with rate of AIDS progression. Methods.  European American HIV seroconverters (n = 755) were interrogated for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (n = 700,022) associated with progression to AIDS 1987 (Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, co-dominant model). Results.  Association with slower progression was observed for SNPs in the gene PARD3B. One of these, rs11884476, reached genome-wide significance (relative hazard = 0.3; P =3. 370 × 10−9) after statistical correction for 700,022 SNPs and contributes 4.52% of the overall variance in AIDS progression in this study. Nine of the top-ranked SNPs define a PARD3B haplotype that also displays significant association with progression to AIDS (hazard ratio, 0.3; P = 3.220 × 10−8). One of these SNPs, rs10185378, is a predicted exonic splicing enhancer; significant alteration in the expression profile of PARD3B splicing transcripts was observed in B cell lines with alternate rs10185378 genotypes. This SNP was typed in European cohorts of rapid progressors and was found to be protective for AIDS 1993 definition (odds ratio, 0.43, P = .025). Conclusions. These observations suggest a potential unsuspected pathway of host genetic influence on the dynamics of AIDS progression. PMID:21502085

  6. A social epidemiological study on HIV/AIDS in a village of Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Zhou, Liang; Tang, Yong; Xu, Guangming; Luo, Dan; Yi, Qifeng

    2013-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic caused by commercial blood donation in rural Henan Province of China in the early- to mid-1990s is the largest known cohort in the world related to blood donation but is not fully described. The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemic, epidemiology, and social epidemiology of commercial blood donation and HIV/AIDS. Both qualitative and quantitative mixed methods were used. A village was randomly selected from the 38 key HIV/AIDS pandemic villages in Henan Province. "Demographic Data Form" was applied to collect demographic information of each resident. Focus groups were held for the managers, some residents, members of "HIV/AIDS Work-Team" (organized by the Henan Provincial Government) in the village. Every village physician, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), school header, and other stakeholders were interviewed individually. The social epidemiology of HIV/AIDS was analyzed under three perspectives of the framework: individual, social, and structural perspectives. In this village, there were 2335 residents, 484 (20.3%) were former donors, 107 (4.6%) were PLWHA, and 96.3% of PLWHA were infected through commercial blood donation. Individually, low education and plasma donation were the risky factors of HIV/AIDS infection. Socially, the epidemic was geography-, kinship-, and conformity-related. Structurally, the related macrostructure factor was policy endorsement of national blood products. The microstructure factors were poverty and value belief on male child in passing down generations. It is concluded that commercial blood donation and HIV/AIDS epidemic in the village are symbiotically related. The epidemic is temporary and socially determined. PMID:22835156

  7. A systematic review of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in India: current understanding and future needs.

    PubMed

    Bharat, Shalini

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS-related stigma is recognised as a major barrier to HIV prevention efforts and an impediment to mitigating its impact on individuals and communities. This paper reviews the existing research literature on AIDS stigma in India with the objective of documenting the current status of research, highlighting major findings and identifying key gaps remaining. Thirty publications were identified through a careful search of which a majority focused on stigma assessment and very few on stigma measurement, conceptual aspects of stigma or stigma reduction interventions. A few standardised stigma measures are available but more are required to assess causes of stigma among general population and compounded and internalised stigma among positive people. Research exploring linkages between stigma and HIV services uptake or the effect of HIV care and treatment programs on stigma levels are largely missing and need to be prioritised. In addition, more research is needed to advance conceptual understanding of stigma within the cultural context of the country including research on the neglected groups such as, transgender people. Context-specific (health care, community) interventions are needed to address various forms of stigma - enacted, perceived, internalised and layered - including structural approaches besides inter-personal and information-based approaches. A major gap relates to meager research on developing and evaluating stigma reduction interventions and needs priority focus. Overall, the review recommends developing a national agenda on AIDS stigma research and interventions to help realise the government's goal of stigma reduction. PMID:23237728

  8. Black Studies: "Swaggering into the Future"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    The author talks about a new generation of Ph.D.'s that is advancing the field with a multidisciplinary approach. Like their predecessors who worked to establish black studies as a respected academic discipline, today's Ph.D. students are also attracted to the social mission of the field. But younger black-studies scholars are willing to work with…

  9. The Future of American Indian Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apodaca, Paul

    2011-01-01

    American Indian studies celebrates forty years at a conference in conjunction with a campuswide effort to recognize the development of interdisciplinary studies programs in the second half of the twentieth century. Interdisciplinary programs (IDPs) are a major aspect of the progress of academics in the United States. The author's point at the…

  10. The changing donor landscape of health sector aid to Vietnam: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Khuat, Thi Hai Oanh; Le, Quang Duong; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-05-01

    The study objective was to identify how donors and government agencies in Vietnam responded to donor proliferation in health sector aid between 1995 and 2012. Interviews were conducted with key informants from donor agencies, central government, and civil society in Hanoi in 2012 (n = 34 interviews), identified through OECD Creditor Reporting System data, internet research, and snowball sampling. Interview transcripts were coded for key themes using the constant comparative method. Documentary materials were used in triangulation and validation of key informant accounts. The study identified a timeline of key events and key themes. The number of donors providing health sector aid to Vietnam increased sharply during the late 1990s and early 2000s, then leveled off and declined between 2008 and 2012. Reasons for donor entry included Vietnam's health needs, perceptions of health as less politically sensitive, and donor interests in facilitating market access. Reasons for donor withdrawal included Vietnam's achievement of middle-income status, the global financial crisis, and donors' shifting global priorities. Key themes included high competition among donors, strategic actions by government to increase its control over aid, and the multiplicity of government units involved with health sector aid. The study concludes that central government and donor agencies in Vietnam responded to donor proliferation in health sector aid by endorsing aid effectiveness policies but implementing these policies inconsistently in practice. Whereas previous literature has emphasized donor proliferation's transaction costs, this study finds that the benefits of a large number of less coordinated donors may outweigh the increased administrative costs under certain conditions. In Vietnam, these conditions included relatively high capacity within government, low government dependence on aid, and government interest in receiving diverse donor recommendations. Vietnam's experience of donor

  11. Future manned systems advanced avionics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawamura, Bob; Radke, Kathie

    1992-01-01

    COTS+ was defined in this study as commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products, ruggedized and militarized components, and COTS technology. This study cites the benefits of integrating COTS+ in space, postulates a COTS+ integration methodology, and develops requirements and an architecture to achieve integration. Developmental needs and concerns were identified throughout the study; these needs, concerns, and recommendations relative to their abatement are subsequently presented for further action and study. The COTS+ concept appears workable in part or in totality. No COTS+ technology gaps were identified; however, radiation tolerance was cited as a concern, and the deferred maintenance issue resurfaced. Further study is recommended to explore COTS+ cost-effectiveness, maintenance philosophy, needs, concerns, and utility metrics. The generation of a development plan to further investigate and integrate COTS+ technology is recommended. A COTS+ transitional integration program is recommended. Sponsoring and establishing technology maturation programs and COTS+ engineering and standards committees are deemed necessary and are recommended for furthering COTS+ integration in space.

  12. Earth Matters: Studies for Our Global Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Pamela; Doyle, Andrea

    Through 12 readings and 32 activities this curriculum material introduces high school students to issues of the global environment and society, while both challenging them to critically evaluate the issues and motivating them to develop solutions. The materials are cited as being applicable to social studies, science, math, language arts, and…

  13. Rural perspectives on HIV/AIDS prevention: a comparative study of Thailand and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aheto, Denis Worlanyo; Gbesemete, Kwame Prosper

    2005-04-01

    The paper compares rural perspectives in Thailand and Ghana on the level of condom acceptance in sexual relations, willingness to test oneself for HIV before and in marriage and sources of information on HIV/AIDS. We also compared the policy approaches to combating HIV/AIDS in both countries. The results indicates that in the villages studied in Thailand, all single men and the majority of the single women were in favour of using condoms in sexual relations. This group also showed a positive attitude to HIV/AIDS test before and in marriage. However, married men in rural Thailand disapproved of the use of condoms with their wives but married women in the sample population were open to the possibility of using condoms. Both married men and women were strongly against HIV/AIDS test in marriage. In contrast to Thailand, most single men in the communities studied in Ghana showed a disapproval to the use of condoms in sexual relations. However, they condoned HIV test before marriage. Married men and women in rural Ghana were against the use of condoms in sexual relations as well as HIV/AIDS test in marriage. In order to mitigate mother-to-child transmission, the Thais applied anti-retroviral drug care for HIV positive pregnant women during pregnancy and after delivery. In Ghana on the other hand, pregnant women were subject to HIV test and counselling. The mode of information acquisition on HIV/AIDS in both countries were through the media, campaigns and village volunteers. Finally, we observed that fighting poverty is a sine qua non for the success of any HIV/AIDS eradication programme. PMID:15760696

  14. Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study. Results from Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Phil Patterson, Phil; Singh, Margaret; Plotkin, Steve; Moore, Jim

    2007-03-09

    Presentation reporting Phase 1 results, 3/9/2007. Projecting the future role of advanced drivetrains and fuels in the light vehicle market is inherently difficult, given the uncertainty (and likely volatility) of future oil prices, inadequate understanding of likely consumer response to new technologies, the relative infancy of several important new technologies with inevitable future changes in their performance and costs, and the importance — and uncertainty — of future government marketplace interventions (e.g., new regulatory standards or vehicle purchase incentives). The Multi-Path Transportation Futures (MP) Study has attempted to improve our understanding of this future role by examining several scenarios of vehicle costs, fuel prices, government subsidies, and other key factors. These are projections, not forecasts, in that they try to answer a series of “what if” questions without assigning probabilities to most of the basic assumptions.

  15. Studies of the Future Aged. An International Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friis, Henning; Sheppard, Harold L., Ed.

    These six papers report on future-oriented studies of the situation of the elderly. "Changing Elderly in a Changing Society: Danish Elderly in the Next Century" (Henning Friis) reports on research dealing with preferences of the future elderly for their life when they grow older. "Aging Effectively: Meeting the Challenge of an Aging World" (J.…

  16. HIV/AIDS among American Indians/Alaska Natives living in Montana: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Sondag, K Ann; Strike, Carrie C

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the epidemiology of HIV among AI/ANs in Montana. Barriers to HIV testing and motivations to test also were explored. Analysis of data revealed that there were no significant changes in regard to HIV/AIDS case rates, demographic characteristics, or risk behaviors of AI/ANs infected with HIV/AIDS since reporting began in 1985. Barriers to testing included low perception of risk and fear of people finding out about the test. Despite major barriers to testing identified in this study, AI/ANs appeared to be testing at a higher rate than Whites. PMID:21866497

  17. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 5: Current system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The performance, costs, organization and other characteristics of both the manual system and AIDS 2 were used to establish a baseline case. The results of the evaluation are to be used to determine the feasibility of the AIDS 3 System, as well as provide a basis for ranking alternative systems during the second phase of the JPL study. The results of the study were tabulated by subject, scope and methods, providing a descriptive, quantitative and qualitative analysis of the current operating systems employed by the FBI Identification Division.

  18. A Qualitative Study of the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Agricultural Households in Southeastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dawn C.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Komwa, Maction K.

    2009-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic threatens economic, social, and environmental sustainability throughout sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports on a qualitative study exploring interrelationships between HIV/AIDS, labor availability, agricultural productivity, household resources, food consumption, and health status in rural southeastern Uganda. Respondents reported an increase in widow-and-orphan-headed households; labor shortages due to illness and caretaking; degradation of household resources from health-related expenses; loss of land tenure and assets following deaths, especially for widows and orphans; and changes in agricultural practices and productivity. Our study highlights a potential downward spiral of livelihood degradation for vulnerable households and suggests targeted interventions to improve sustainability. PMID:19742210

  19. Living with death in a time of AIDS: A rural South African case study1

    PubMed Central

    POSEL, DEBORAH; KAHN, KATHLEEN; WALKER, LIZ

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine how a rural community profoundly affected by escalating rates of largely AIDS-related deaths of young and middle-aged people makes sense of this phenomenon and its impact on their everyday lives. Methods Data were collected in Agincourt subdistrict, Limpopo Province. Twelve focus groups were constituted according to age and gender and met three times (a total of 36 focus-group discussions [FGDs]). The FGDs explored sequentially people’s expectations of their lives in the “new” South Africa, their interpretations of the acceleration of death amongst the young and middle-aged, and their understandings of HIV/AIDS. Discussions were recorded, fully transcribed, and thematically analysed. Results Respondents acknowledged escalating death rates in their community, yet few referred directly to HIV/AIDS as the cause. Rather, respondents focused on the social and cultural causes of death, including the erosion of cultural norms and traditions such as cultural taboos on sex. There are many competing versions of what HIV/AIDS is, what causes it and how it is spread, ranging from scientific explanations to conspiracy theories. Findings highlight the relationship between AIDS and other traditional diseases with some respondents suggesting that AIDS is a new form of other longstanding illnesses. Conclusions This study points to the centrality of cultural explanations in understanding “bad death” (AIDS death) in the Agincourt area. Physical illness is understood to be a symptom of “cultural damage”. Implications of this for public health practice and research are outlined. PMID:17676515

  20. Creating an advance-care-planning decision aid for high-risk surgery: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-risk surgery patients may lose decision-making capacity as a result of surgical complications. Advance care planning prior to surgery may be beneficial, but remains controversial and is hindered by a lack of appropriate decision aids. This study sought to examine stakeholders’ views on the appropriateness of using decision aids, in general, to support advance care planning among high-risk surgery populations and the design of such a decision aid. Methods Key informants were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by phone until data collected reached theoretical saturation. Key informants were asked to discuss their thoughts about advance care planning and interventions to support advance care planning, particularly for this population. Researchers took de-identified notes that were analyzed for emerging concordant, discordant, and recurrent themes using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results Key informants described the importance of initiating advance care planning preoperatively, despite potential challenges present in surgical settings. In general, decision aids were viewed as an appropriate approach to support advance care planning for this population. A recipe emerged from the data that outlines tools, ingredients, and tips for success that are needed to design an advance care planning decision aid for high-risk surgical settings. Conclusions Stakeholders supported incorporating advance care planning in high-risk surgical settings and endorsed the appropriateness of using decision aids to do so. Findings will inform the next stages of developing the first advance care planning decision aid for high-risk surgery patients. PMID:25067908

  1. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study: 1995-96. Public Use Data File. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This CD-ROM presents datasets from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, the National Study of Postsecondary Faculty, the High School and Beyond Survey (1980-1992), the Beginning Postsecondary Students "Second Follow-up," the Baccalaureate and Beyond Survey, the National Longitudinal Survey of 1972, the National Education Longitudinal…

  2. An In-Depth Study of Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA) Schools: 1974-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellisch, Jean B.; And Others

    The 1974-75 in-depth study was designed and conducted as an exploratory investigation of program and contextual factors related to achievement. The study was conducted in conjunction with the National Evaluation of the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA). The analysis of school success was guided by a conceptual model that identified four key…

  3. Hearing Aids: Expectations and Satisfaction of People with an Intellectual Disability, a Descriptive Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuwese-Jongejeugd, A.; Verschuure, H.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In spite of an increased risk of hearing impairment in persons with an intellectual disability (ID), rehabilitation with hearing aids often fails. We performed a descriptive pilot study with the following study questions: (1) Do comparable elements as in the general population contribute to expectations of and satisfaction with hearing…

  4. Computer-aided space shuttle orbiter wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. P.; Decker, J. P.; Rau, T. R.; Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been made to provide a space shuttle orbiter wing design that met the guideline requirements of landing performance, stability, and hypersonic trim for a specified center-of-gravity envelope. The analytical study was facilitated by the use of the Optimal Design Integration system (ODIN) and the experimental part of the investigation was conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel and the Langley continuous-flow hypersonic tunnel.

  5. Phytolith aided paleoenvironmental studies from the Dutch Neolithic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persaits, Gergő; Gulyás, Sándor; Náfrádi, Katalin; Sümegi, Pál; Szalontai, Csaba

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing evidence for crop cultivation at sites of the Neolithic Swifterbant culture from ca. 4300 B.C. onwards. Presence of cereal fields at the Swifterbant S2, S3 and S4 sites has been corroborated from micro morphological studies of soil samples. Swifterbant sites with evidence for cultivated plants are still scarce though and only emerging, and have produced very low numbers of charred cereals only. The major aim of our work was to elucidate the environmental background of the Dutch Neolithic site Swifterbant S4 based on the investigation of phytolith remains retrieved from soil samples. In addition to find evidence for crop cultivation independently from other studies. Samples were taken at 1 cm intervals vertically from the soil section at the central profile of site S4. Additional samples were taken from pocket-like structures and adjacent horizons above and below. Pig coprolites yielded an astonishing phytolith assemblage which was compared to that of the soil samples. A pig tooth also yielded evaluable material via detailed investigation using SEM. The evaluation of phytolith assemblages retrieved from the soil horizons plus those ending up in the droppings of pigs feasting in the area enabled to draw a relatively reliable environmental picture of the area. All these refer to the presence of a Neolithic horticulture (cereal cultivation) under balanced micro-climatic conditions as a result of the vicinity of the nearby floodplain. These findings corroborate those of previous soil micro-morphological studies.

  6. Tracking skill of a deaf person with long-term tactile aid experience: a case study.

    PubMed

    Cholewiak, R W; Sherrick, C E

    1986-04-01

    This paper describes a case study of a single deaf individual who has been using a vibrotactile aid for approximately 13 years. He has acquired the ability to lip-read speakers in three languages, using the speech-analyzing device that he and his collaborators have developed. The report describes his communicative abilities with and without the aid in his native language, which is Russian, and in English and Hebrew. When he was tested with the De Filippo-Scott connected-discourse tracking technique, the aid produced a considerable improvement in performance over that for unaided lipreading. The amount of improvement was a function of several factors, in particular his unaided lipreading rates for the different languages. PMID:3723423

  7. HIV/AIDS prisoners: a case study on quality of life in Roumieh, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Diala F; El Zein, Heyam L; El Jor, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Prisons often lack the basic health services required by HIV/AIDS patients. As with many other chronic illnesses, the treatment of HIV is expensive in terms of medication, hygiene, testing and staff training. Strategies to combat the disease have been thoroughly developed, particularly in Europe (WHO/UNAIDS, 2006). The purpose of this study was to assess quality of life (QOL) of the only 5 reported cases of HIV/AIDS patients in Roumieh prison (the country's largest male top-security prison) using the WHOQOL and the WHO guidelines on HIV infection and AIDS in prison. Virtually all prisoners reported that their rights had been violated. Isolation measures were taken to prevent the spread of the disease. According to UNAIDS, this particular measure has been proven ineffective. In conclusion, other approaches should be implemented to respect inmates' rights and reduce transmission of the virus. PMID:23237684

  8. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 3: Operational feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation is presented which is defined as the adequacy of system design with known functional and performance requirements. The proposed Rockwell International AIDS 3 card, document and data flow are presented to summarize the concepts involved and the relationships between functions. The analysis and evaluation includes a study of system capability, processing rates, search requirements and response accuracy as well as a consideration of operational components and hardware integration. Results indicate that the AIDS 3 System concept is operationally feasible if production capacity is slightly enhanced but that operational complexity, hardware integration and a lack of conceptual data pertinent to some of the functions are areas of concern.

  9. Study Towards Human Aided Construction of Large Lunar Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    vanSusante, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    than 0,03 mm during operation. It would be possible for astronauts to maintain, repair and upgrade the telescope much in the same way that the Hubble Space Telescope has been maintained. When the telescope is built, an infrastructure will also have been created for energy supply and communications that can be used in subsequent missions. The total mission can be achieved by launching 3 Ariane 5 rockets in the year 2006 configuration that can launch 20,000 kg into GTO. New studies of the construction of even larger telescopes have also been undertaken.. One additional aspect that will be very important is the synergy between humans and robots and their role in transport, construction, operation, maintenance, etc. is addressed in these new studies. Also an attempt will be made to make a parametric cost model for different scenario's as well as the technology readiness levels for the techniques necessary to build a telescope with the capacity of the 'planet finder', equivalent up to 1000 sq m of photon collecting surface. Part of the scenario definition and conceptual design of a large lunar telescope has also been done in the lunar base design workshop, held from 10-21 of June at ESTEC, NL. After the conceptual phase there will be a more engineering oriented workshop, which will be held in the concurrent design facility at ESTEC. This paper includes discussion of recent progress on these studies.

  10. Do Ancillary Studies Aid Detection and Classification of Barrett Esophagus?

    PubMed

    Panarelli, Nicole C; Yantiss, Rhonda K

    2016-08-01

    Barrett esophagus is a preneoplastic condition defined by the presence of intestinal metaplasia (ie, goblet cells) in an endoscopically apparent columnar-lined esophagus. Dysplasia is the most important risk factor for cancer development among patients with Barrett esophagus; approximately 6% of patients with high-grade dysplasia progress to adenocarcinoma within 1 year. Surgical pathologists are generally expected to address 2 clinical concerns when evaluating mucosal biopsy samples from patients with suspected Barrett esophagus; they should note the presence, or absence, of goblet cells and comment on the grade of dysplasia when it is identified. Biopsy samples from patients with Barrett esophagus are categorized as negative for dysplasia, indefinite for dysplasia, or positive for dysplasia; in the latter situation, the severity of dysplasia is classified as low or high grade. Several histochemical stains, immunohistochemical stains, and molecular techniques can be used to facilitate detection of goblet cells and classify dysplasia in patients with Barrett esophagus, although their added value to routine morphologic assessment is not entirely clear. The purpose of this review is to discuss the state of the art regarding application of ancillary studies to esophageal samples from patients with a columnar-lined esophagus. PMID:27096258

  11. The impact of HIV and AIDS research: a case study from Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Swaziland is experiencing the world’s worst HIV and AIDS epidemic. Prevalence rose from four percent of antenatal clinic attendees in 1992 to 42.6 percent in 2004. The Report ‘Reviewing ‘Emergencies’ for Swaziland: Shifting the Paradigm in a New Era’ published in 2007 bought together social and economic indicators. It built a picture of the epidemic as a humanitarian emergency, requiring urgent action from international organisations, donors, and governments. Following a targeted communications effort, the report was believed to have raised the profile of the issue and Swaziland - a success story for HIV and AIDS research. Methods Keen to understand how, where and why the report had an impact, Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division commissioned an assessment to track and evaluate the influence of the research. This tapped into literature on the significance of understanding the research-to-policy interface. This paper outlines the report and its impact. It explores key findings from the assessment and suggests lessons for future research projects. Results The paper demonstrates that, although complex, and not without methodological issues, impact assessment of research can be of real value to researchers in understanding the research-to-policy interface. Conclusion Only by gaining insight into this process can researchers move forward in delivering effective research. PMID:21679390

  12. The Impact of Residency Training on Physicians' AIDS-Related Treatment Practices: A Longitudinal Panel Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yedidia, Michael J.; Berry, Carolyn A.

    1999-01-01

    Study of 394 physicians graduating in 1989 from six New York medical schools found that certain residency-training factors had sustained effects on physician behavior in caring for AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) patients, but not on the number of patients treated. Determinants of treatment practice included residency environment,…

  13. Student Aid for Postsecondary Education: Undergraduate Studies. An LR390 Staff Report to the Education Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buntain, Anne; Munroe, Damon

    This study reports on: available student financial aid, unmet student needs, and alternative mechanisms for funding Nebraska college students. A survey gathered information on direct and indirect state awards, federal awards, and institutional and private sector assistance for the 1987-88 school year. Estimated unmet student need was determined…

  14. Colorado Community College System Financial Aid Services: Cost Analyses and Cost Efficiency Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Dale

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted in two phases. One, the Cost Analysis, reports on inventory and analysis of actual estimated costs for delivering financial aid services to students and potential students in thirteen Colorado Community College System (CCCS) community colleges in Fiscal Year 2003. Additionally, an assessment of services and functions is…

  15. Evaluation of Computer-Aided Instruction in a Gross Anatomy Course: A Six-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNulty, John A.; Sonntag, Beth; Sinacore, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Web-based computer-aided instruction (CAI) has become increasingly important to medical curricula. This multi-year study investigated the effectiveness of CAI and the factors affecting level of individual use. Three CAI were tested that differed in specificity of applicability to the curriculum and in the level of student interaction with the CAI.…

  16. Study of the Cost to Deliver Student Financial Aid on Campus. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touche Ross and Co., Washington, DC.

    The administrative costs of the student financial aid delivery process at postsecondary institutions were analyzed. After reviewing the literature and interviewing selected experts, 1982 cost data at nine institutions were studied: three public and two private colleges, two community colleges, and two proprietary institutions. Costs were…

  17. Aid to Families with Dependent Children 1975 Recipient Characteristics Study: Part I. Demographic and Program Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberheu, Howard D.

    This report, Part I of a three-part study, provides information on the demographic and program characteristics of families who received assistance payments in May, 1975, under the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, including the unemployed father segment. The data were derived from a sample survey which included all states and…

  18. A Multimedia Approach for Providing Financial Aid Information in Higher Education: An Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Millions of current and prospective college students fail to complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) annually for a number of reasons. One common obstacle students face is the complexity of the FAFSA which prevents students from completing the federal application. This study examined whether or not a multimedia tutorial can…

  19. Aid to Families with Dependent Children 1975 Recipient Characteristics Study: Part 4. Social Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberheu, Howard D.

    This report on social services to families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in May 1975 is Part IV of a broad study of AFDC recipient characteristics. The background of the AFDC social service program as mandated by Title XX of the Social Security Act is delineated briefly and a one-page prose summary of the statistics…

  20. The Family Context of Care in HIV/AIDS: A Study of Mumbai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Cruz, Premilla

    2004-01-01

    Though the continuum of care model has been adopted in HIV/AIDS intervention, there is little empirical work documenting the experiences of caregiving families. Addressing this gap, a study on family caregiving and care receiving was undertaken in Mumbai, India. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven seropositive caregivers, seven…

  1. Feasibility of Producing Synchronized Video Tapes as Instructional Aids in the Study of Music; Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skapski, George J.

    As an innovative aid to the study of music, recordings were made of musical performances and later synchronized with musical notations. To make the structures of the music more readily visible, and after experimenting with the use of staff notation, the author-developed "Nota-Graph" notation system was used. In this notation, there are three…

  2. The bacteriological examination of urine: a computer-aided study

    PubMed Central

    Meers, P. D.

    1974-01-01

    For 6 months details of every patient who had his or her urine sent to a laboratory for bacteriological examination and the result of such examination were entered on a computer-card. A total of 15,606 cards were completed with information in code recording the sex and age of a patient, the origin of the request, the presence or absence in the urine of an excess of protein or cells, the culture result and the name of any significant organism isolated together with its sensitivity to various antimicrobial drugs. This information was interrelated in a computer, and in some cases the resulting numerical details were expressed as rates so as to eliminate the effect of uneven sex and age distribution. In this way the occurrence of urinary tract infection and the type of infecting organism in persons of either sex at various ages was examined according to whether the patient was in hospital or general practice. The sensitivity pattern of each type of significant organism isolated was established according to its source. The association between patients of either sex and various ages who had, or did not have, bacteriologically evident infections and the presence in their urine of an inflammatory exudate was investigated. Finally, the capacity of each type of infecting organism to produce such an exudate was estimated. It was shown that hospital and general practice experience of urinary tract infections differed widely, with regard both to the age and sex distribution of those suffering from it, and to the causative organisms concerned and their sensitivities to antimicrobial drugs. It is suggested that these differences were so great that conclusions drawn from any study of this subject conducted in one of the two areas cannot be applied to the other, and that those derived from a mixture of the two will vary according to the relative sizes of each of the components. PMID:4595089

  3. Study of Mothers' Anxieties Related to Their Children's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgar, Sengul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to study anxieties of mothers related to their children's future. Qualitative method was used in order to study anxieties of mothers from different socio-economic levels. Sample of the study participants are 129 mothers living in Istanbul. 32 of those mothers are from upper socio-economic level, 57, from middle…

  4. A laboratory study on a capacitive displacement sensor as an implant microphone in totally implant cochlear hearing aid systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Guo, Jun; Megerian, Cliff A; Young, Darrin J; Ko, Wen H

    2007-01-01

    A totally implant cochlear hearing aids system, integrating an implant microphone, interface electronics, a speech processor, a stimulator, and cochlear electrodes, can overcome the uncomfortable, inconvenient, and stigma problems associated with the conventional and semi-implantable hearing aids. This paper presents a laboratory feasibility study on the use of an electret condenser microphone (ECM) displacement sensor, serving as an implant microphone, and combined with a spring coupler to directly sense the umbo acoustic vibration. The umbo vibration characteristics were extracted from literature to determine the coupler and sensor requirements. A laboratory model was built to simulate the vibration source and experimentally study the transmission coefficient. Experimental data demonstrate that by using a 5 N/m stiffness spring, the umbo vibration amplitude as high as 67% can be transmitted to the sensor. Measurement of the sensor system on the temporal bone was also made. The minimum detectable sound pressure level (SPL) at 1 kHz is 41 and 67 dB for laboratory and 38 and 64 dB for temporal bone measurement for 1 and 388 Hz bandwidth, respectively. Better performance was achieved in a higher frequency. Results and analysis of this study can be used as a guideline for the future design of displacement sensors as implant microphones. PMID:18003304

  5. Challenging Futures Studies To Enhance Participatory River Basin Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Helm, R.

    Can the field of futures research help advance participatory management of river basins? This question is supposed to be answered by the present study of which this paper will mainly address the theoretical and conceptual point of view. The 2000 EU Framework directive on water emphasises at least two aspects that will mark the future management of river basins: the need for long-term planning, and a demand for participation. Neither the former nor the latter are new concepts as such, but its combination is in some sense revolutionary. Can long-term plans be made (and implemented) in a participative way, what tools could be useful in this respect, and does this lead to a satisfactory situation in terms of both reaching physical targets and enhancing social-institutional manageability? A possibly rich way to enter the discussion is to challenge futures research as a concept and a practice for enabling multiple stakeholders to design appropriate policies. Futures research is the overall field in which several methods and techniques (like scenario analysis) are mobilised to systematically think through and/or design the future. As such they have proven to be rich exercises to trigger ideas, stimulate debate and design desirable futures (and how to get there). More importantly these exercises have the capability to reconstitute actor relations, and by nature go beyond the institutional boundaries. Arguably the relation between futures research and the planning process is rather distant. Understandably commitments on the direct implementation of the results are hardly ever made, but its impact on changes in the capabilities of the network of actors involved may be large. As a hypothesis we consider that the distant link between an image of the future and the implementation in policy creates sufficient distance for actors to participate (in terms of responsibilities, legal constraints, etc.) and generate potentials, and enough degrees of freedom needed for a successful

  6. "Contagious Love": A Qualitative Study of the Couple Relationships of Ten AIDS Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Doron, Hadas; Teichner, Noa; Grey, Adi; Goldstein, Yehudit

    2008-01-01

    The qualitative study in this article portrays the couple relationship among AIDS carriers, based on Sternberg's triangular love theory (involving domains of intimacy, passion and commitment). The central study hypothesis is that certain components of the Sternberg model will be more significant than others among the AIDS carrier population. The study was conducted on ten AIDS carriers aged 21-37 who had experienced a couple relationship. Six men and four women participated; most of them were in a romantic couple relationship of homosexual orientation. The interviewees answered a questionnaire that included the three domains-- intimacy, passion and commitment--in the personal interview technique. The interview focused on interviewee's attitude towards his/her relationship with a partner, as he/she understood it. The findings of the study focus on relevant content that was gathered from the interviews and these portray a limited view of couple patterns in the world of AIDS carriers. The study reveals two major findings regarding the carrier's desires: On the one hand, the carrier describes a powerful need for a stable, permanent relationship--from the diagnosis of AIDS and throughout the subsequent years. On the other hand, the carrier also expresses powerful sexual desires that are not necessarily limited to a permanent partner. Thus passion is the dominant among the three domains. The intimacy domain is mainly affected by disclosure of the disease and the joint coping that follows. The findings are discussed in the context of the romantic internalized model theory and Sternberg's triangular love theory. PMID:18923698

  7. "Contagious love": a qualitative study of the couple relationships of ten AIDS carriers.

    PubMed

    Hadas, Doron; Noa, Teichner; Adi, Grey; Yehudit, Goldstein

    2008-01-01

    The qualitative study in this article portrays the couple relationship among AIDS carriers, based on Sternberg's triangular love theory (involving domains of intimacy, passion and commitment). The central study hypothesis is that certain components of the Sternberg model will be more significant than others among the AIDS carrier population. The study was conducted on ten AIDS carriers aged 21-37 who had experienced a couple relationship. Six men and four women participated; most of them were in a romantic couple relationship of homosexual orientation.The interviewees answered a questionnaire that included the three domains-- intimacy, passion and commitment--in the personal interview technique. The interview focused on interviewee's attitude towards his/her relationship with a partner, as he/she understood it. The findings of the study focus on relevant content that was gathered from the interviews and these portray a limited view of couple patterns in the world of AIDS carriers. The study reveals two major findings regarding the carrier's desires: On the one hand, the carrier describes a powerful need for a stable, permanent relationship--from the diagnosis of AIDS and throughout the subsequent years. On the other hand, the carrier also expresses powerful sexual desires that are not necessarily limited to a permanent partner. Thus passion is the dominant among the three domains.The intimacy domain is mainly affected by disclosure of the disease and the joint coping that follows.The findings are discussed in the context of the romantic internalized model theory and Sternberg's triangular love theory. PMID:18923698

  8. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 to 1972: Implications for HIV Education and AIDS Risk Education Programs in the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen B.; Quinn, Sandra Crouse

    1991-01-01

    The Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis in black males caused distrust by blacks of the public health system that has implications for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) studies. AIDS prevention among blacks may require openness about the Tuskegee study to allay fears of repetition. (SLD)

  9. Assessing physician/patient relationships in the presence of HIV/AIDS: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S A; Madrigal, C

    1998-01-01

    The following study investigates the nature of the relationship between physicians and HIV/AIDS patients within the context of the rapidly evolving services/relationship marketing literatures. The emerging evidence suggests that service providers generally play a critical role in the development of positive consumer attitudes and behaviors, and that relationship marketing practices can contribute to the delivery of health services. However, to date, there appears little evidence supporting the efficacy of employing relationship marketing practices in relation to a target market of HIV/AIDS patients. This exploratory study contributes to the body of knowledge by more closely investigating the nature of the patient-physician relationship relative to HIV/AIDS patients' attitudes, marketing-related behaviors, and overall quality-of-life/life satisfaction judgments. The results of this study first suggest that HIV/AIDS patients use the expectancy disconfirmation model when evaluating the performance of their physician. A reliance on expectancy disconfirmation suggests the likely prevalent role of service quality perceptions and satisfaction judgments in evaluating their relationship with their physician. Second, the results appear to support the conclusion that the patient's evaluation of their physician relationship and subsequent behaviors (e.g., word-of-mouth) are directly related to the patient's general perception of received health services. Thus, the patient/physician relationship may play a particularly powerful role in determining patient (marketing related) outcomes relative to other health service settings. Third, a direct influence is supported between negative affective reactions by patients and subsequent outcome behaviors. This finding lends support for the potential efficacy of service recovery efforts when rendering treatment to HIV/AIDS patients. Finally, evidence is presented demonstrating the effect of positive perceptions of the patient

  10. A future without health? Health dimension in global scenario studies.

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Pim; Huynen, Maud

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the health dimension and sociocultural, economic, and ecological determinants of health in existing global scenario studies. Not even half of the 31 scenarios reviewed gave a good description of future health developments and the different scenario studies did not handle health in a consistent way. Most of the global driving forces of health are addressed adequately in the selected scenarios, however, and it therefore would have been possible to describe the future developments in health as an outcome of these multiple driving forces. To provide examples on how future health can be incorporated in existing scenarios, we linked the sociocultural, economic, and environmental developments described in three sets of scenarios (special report on emission scenarios (SRES), global environmental outlook-3 (GEO3), and world water scenarios (WWS)) to three potential, but imaginary, health futures ("age of emerging infectious diseases", "age of medical technology", and "age of sustained health"). This paper provides useful insights into how to deal with future health in scenarios and shows that a comprehensive picture of future health evolves when all important driving forces and pressures are taken into account. PMID:14997242

  11. Family Aided Community Treatment for the Treatment of Early Psychosis: A Proof of Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Melton, Ryan P; Dykeman, Cass

    2016-08-01

    Major psychotic disorders are one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. If these conditions are identified early and treatment promptly implemented, the prognosis is improved. This study examined the impact of a yearlong family aided community treatment (FACT) intervention upon psychiatric symptoms. Psychiatric symptom scores improved with the FACT intervention. Improved training on early recognition for mental health clinicians, implementation of a specific treatment model in community settings and policy around treatment funding allocation are implications of this study. PMID:26738497

  12. Future Directions for Business Education: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesten, Cyril A.; Lambrecht, Judith J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to synthesize perceptions from the field about current issues and to propose future directions for the field of business education. Method: A modified three-stage Delphi study was carried out with business educators who attended national conferences and/or belonged to national professional organizations.…

  13. The Albuquerque Story. Future Schools Study Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Robert L.; And Others

    This report summarizes chronologically a three-year ESEA Title III project to study the types of schools needed for the future. The major recommendation of the study was that an educational park should be established in the downtown area to provide enriched opportunities for pupils from widely different backgrounds and to serve as an experimental…

  14. Shift in HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Southeastern China: A Longitudinal Study from 1987 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yansheng; Wu, Shouli; Chen, Liang; Yan, Pingping; Qiu, Yuefeng; Xie, Meirong; Wang, Zhenghua; Lin, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the shift in the epidemiological features of HIV/AIDS during the last three decades in Fujian Province, southeastern China, so as to provide evidence for the development of novel HIV/AIDS control strategies. Methods: Data pertaining to the conventional surveillance, sentinel surveillance and epidemiological survey in Fujian Province during the period from 1987 to 2015 were collected. The epidemiological trends were described, and the subtypes of HIV strain were genotyped. In addition, the response to antiretroviral therapy was evaluated, and HIV genotypic resistance was assayed. Results: There was an increasing trend observed in the reported cases of HIV/AIDS in Fujian Province. From 1987 to the end of 2015, a total of 8651 HIV/AIDS cases were reported across the province, with totally 1557 deaths found. Among the total cases, the ratio of male/female cases was 3.7:1, which appeared to be an increasing trend; 77.1% cases were detected in young and middle-aged populations aged 19 to 50 years, however, the new HIV infections recently tended to occur in young people aged 15 to 18 years and in populations aged 50 years and older. Among all infected individuals, 49.3% were married, however, the percentage of unmarried cases increased from 6.67% before 1994 to 40.1% in 2015; 64.8% had junior high school education or lower, however, the proportion of HIV/AIDS cases with junior college education or above gradually increased from 6.5% in 2009 to 21.4% in 2015. The reported HIV/AIDS cases were predominantly found in coastal regions; however, a rapidly increasing trend was seen in the number of HIV/AIDS cases in inland regions, and the geographical variation of the cases gradually reduced. There were multiple routes of HIV transmission found in Fujian Province, and 94.2% infections were sexually transmitted, with a large increase in the percentage of male homosexual transmission. A variety of HIV-1 subtypes were genotyped in

  15. Study of Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors in Patients with HIV/AIDS and Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Terra Junior, Orlando Nascimento; Maldonado, Gabriel de Carvalho; Alfradique, Guilherme Rohem; Lisboa, Vinicius da Cunha; Arnóbio, Adriano; de Lima, Dirce Bonfim; Diamond, Hilda Rachel; de Souza, Maria Helena Faria Ornellas

    2016-01-01

    The NCR receptors play a fundamental role in the cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells against tumor cells. In the current study, we investigated possible HIV/AIDS-related changes in the expression of the NCR receptors comparing healthy donors, HIV/AIDS patients, and HIV/AIDS patients with cancer (HIV/AIDSWC). The NCRs were quantified in NK cells (NKdim and NKbright) and T lymphocytes from peripheral blood samples by flow cytometry. We found a significant decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp46 in HIV/AIDS group (p = 0.0012). There was a decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp46 in the HIV/AIDSWC group; however, this was not statistically significant. We found a significant decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp30 in the HIV/AIDS group (p = 0.0144). There was a decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp30 and in the HIV/AIDSWC group, but this was not statistically significant. There were no changes in the distribution of NK cells and their subtypes in both groups. PMID:27382604

  16. Study of Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors in Patients with HIV/AIDS and Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Terra Junior, Orlando Nascimento; Maldonado, Gabriel de Carvalho; Alfradique, Guilherme Rohem; Lisboa, Vinicius da Cunha; Arnóbio, Adriano; de Lima, Dirce Bonfim; Diamond, Hilda Rachel; de Souza, Maria Helena Faria Ornellas

    2016-01-01

    The NCR receptors play a fundamental role in the cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells against tumor cells. In the current study, we investigated possible HIV/AIDS-related changes in the expression of the NCR receptors comparing healthy donors, HIV/AIDS patients, and HIV/AIDS patients with cancer (HIV/AIDSWC). The NCRs were quantified in NK cells (NK(dim) and NK(bright)) and T lymphocytes from peripheral blood samples by flow cytometry. We found a significant decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp46 in HIV/AIDS group (p = 0.0012). There was a decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp46 in the HIV/AIDSWC group; however, this was not statistically significant. We found a significant decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp30 in the HIV/AIDS group (p = 0.0144). There was a decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp30 and in the HIV/AIDSWC group, but this was not statistically significant. There were no changes in the distribution of NK cells and their subtypes in both groups. PMID:27382604

  17. Prospective study of attitudinal and relationship predictors of sexual risk in the multicenter AIDS cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ostrow, David G; Silverberg, Michael J; Cook, Robert L; Chmiel, Joan S; Johnson, Lisette; Li, Xiuhong; Jacobson, Lisa P

    2008-01-01

    We examined the influence of attitudes concerning HIV transmission, safe sex, and sexual sensation seeking, as well as negotiated risk reduction with primary partners, on the proportion of unprotected sexual partners (%UASP) among men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants were 263 HIV-seropositive and 238 HIV-seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study between 1999 and 2003 who completed a 20-item attitude survey twice. Behavioral data were collected concurrently and 6-12 months after each survey. Among seropositives, decreased HIV concern and increased safer sex fatigue were associated with higher %UASP at 6 and 12 months. Among seronegatives, increased %UASP at 12 months was associated with safer sex fatigue. At 6 months and 12 months, risk reduction agreements were associated with increased %UASP among seronegatives in seroconcordant monogamous relationships, reflecting their abandonment of condoms in such partnerships. We conclude that HIV prevention efforts should target modifiable attitudes (reduced concern about HIV and safer sex fatigue) and increases in sexual risk-taking of MSM, particularly among HIV+ men having sex with serodiscordant partners. PMID:17410419

  18. Longitudinal study of a school based HIV/AIDS early prevention program for Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Givaudan, Martha; Leenen, Iwin; Van de Vijver, Fons J R; Poortinga, Ype H; Pick, Susan

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-experimental study is reported with four measurement occasions to evaluate longer-term effects of a life-skills and HIV/AIDS school-based prevention program. Trained teachers administered the program promoting precursors of safer sex behavior to 2064 Mexican high-school students at an age before most were sexually active. The variables included in the study (knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention, attitudes towards use of condoms, subjective norms, intentions to use condoms and life skills as decision-making skills, partner communication and individual responsibility) have been reported as precursors of protective sexual behavior. The results demonstrate the stability of training effects and a positive impact on these precursors over 1 year of follow-up. PMID:18066923

  19. Seeking information about HIV/AIDS: a qualitative study of health literacy among people living with HIV/AIDS in a low prevalence context.

    PubMed

    Zukoski, Ann P; Thorburn, Sheryl; Stroud, Josh

    2011-11-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS in rural and low HIV prevalence areas face a number of challenges including stigma, limited access to specialized medical care, lack of an HIV/AIDS specialist and fear which may interfere with their ability to find and use information to manage their health. With a large number of HIV cases located in non-metropolitan and rural areas in the US, more research is needed to better understand the health seeking behaviors of individuals living in this context. This study examined how 16 individuals living with HIV sought out information to meet their health needs. In qualitative semi-structured interviews, we explored participants' primary sources of information, types of information sought, and barriers to accessing information. The sample was comprised of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who resided in a predominantly rural area with low HIV prevalence. The majority of participants relied on a combination of sources including their HIV/AIDS physician, the Internet, a Ryan-White caseworker and a staff member of a community-based support organization to meet their informational needs. Information sought focused primarily on drug regimens, drug side effects, or drug research. Participants shared barriers to accessing information including stigma, fear, concern about disclosure, and feelings of futility and anger. Findings point to a need to expand health literacy research and interventions to address broader social and structural barriers to health improvement for PLWHA, especially among those living in rural and low HIV prevalence areas. PMID:22022854

  20. Global Health Initiatives and aid effectiveness: insights from a Ugandan case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence of Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) has been a major feature of the aid environment of the last decade. This paper seeks to examine in depth the behaviour of two prominent GHIs in the early stages of their operation in Uganda as well as the responses of the government. Methods The study adopted a qualitative and case study approach to investigate the governance of aid transactions in Uganda. Data sources included documentary review, in-depth and semi-structured interviews and observation of meetings. Agency theory guided the conceptual framework of the study. Results The Ugandan government had a stated preference for donor funding to be channelled through the general or sectoral budgets. Despite this preference, two large GHIs opted to allocate resources and deliver activities through projects with a disease-specific approach. The mixed motives of contributor country governments, recipient country governments and GHI executives produced incentive regimes in conflict between different aid mechanisms. Conclusion Notwithstanding attempts to align and harmonize donor activities, the interests and motives of the various actors (GHIs and different parts of the government) undermine such efforts. PMID:21726431

  1. Chinese College Student Aid Policy: A Case Study of "H" University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Guoxing

    2008-01-01

    The research findings have made it clear that Chinese college student aid policy has several characteristics. Generally speaking, student financial aid is increasing up to some extent. The government financial aids focus mostly on improving equality of educational opportunity in higher education. However, aids from the government are inadequate,…

  2. Ocean Studies Board annual report 1989 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The major activities of the Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council for 1989 are reviewed. The following are discussed: the Navy Panel, the CO2 Panel, the Committee on the Ocean's Role in Global Change, the Committee on the Coastal Ocean, the Workshop on Issues of U.S. Marine Fisheries, and the Continental Margins Workshop Committee. Future plans are covered.

  3. Future Orientation, School Contexts, and Problem Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  4. Future Midwestern Landscapes Study: Introduction and Solicitation for Collaboration

    EPA Science Inventory

    An introduction to the U.S. EPA Future Midwest Landscape Study was given to the Great Lakes Aquatic Gap group to seek input on development of fish-related ecosystem service indicators for FML, and to seek collaborators and access to data sets being compiled by the Aquatic Gap pro...

  5. Use of Cardiac CT Angiography Imaging in an Epidemiology Study – the Methodology of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Cardiovascular Disease Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Hacıoğlu, Yalçın; Gupta, Mohit; Choi, Tae-Young; George, Richard T.; Deible, Christopher R.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Witt, Mallory D.; Palella, Frank J.; Post, Wendy S.; Budoff, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The methodology for use of cardiac CT angiography (CTA) in low risk populations is not well defined. In order to present a reference for future studies, we present CTA methodology that is being used in an epidemiology study- the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Methods The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is an on-going multicenter prospective, observational cohort study. The MACS Cardiovascular Disease substudy plans to enroll 800 men (n= 575 HIV seropositive and n= 225 HIV seronegative) age 40-75 years for coronary atherosclerosis imaging using cardiac CTA. The protocol includes heart rate (HR) optimization with beta blockers; use of proper field of view; scan length limitation; prospective ECG-gating using the lowest beam voltage possible. All scans are evaluated for presence, extent, and composition of coronary atherosclerosis, left atrial volumes, left ventricular volume and mass and non-coronary cardiac pathology. Results The first 498 participants had an average radiation dose of 2.5±1.6 milliSieverts (mSv) for the cardiac CTA study. Overall quality of scans was fair to excellent in 98.6% of studies. There were three significant adverse events- two allergic reactions to contrast and one subcutaneous contrast extravasation. Conclusion Cardiac CTA was safe and afforded a low effective radiation exposure to these asymptomatic research participants and provides valuable cardiovascular endpoints for scientific analysis. The cardiac CTA methodology described here may serve as a reference for use in future epidemiology studies aiming to assess coronary atherosclerosis and cardiac anatomy in low risk populations while minimizing radiation exposure. PMID:23376648

  6. Study of Enteromorpha polysaccharides as a new-style coagulant aid in dye wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuang; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Wang, Yan; Li, Qian; Dong, Hongyu; Yan, Han

    2014-03-15

    Enteromorpha is one of the common fouling green algae, which has brought serious environmental problems in past years. This study was aimed to apply it in water treatment process. Enteromorpha polysaccharides (Ep) were used as a new-style coagulant aid to assess its effect on coagulation behavior and floc characteristics. Color removal was used to evaluate coagulation effects and floc properties were investigated by Photometric Dispersion Analyzer (PDA). Results showed that when Ep was used in combination with aluminum chloride (AC), color removal could be apparently improved, and the optimal solution pH ranged 6.0-8.0. The growth rate and average size of flocs formed by AC-Ep were larger than those by AC in steady-state after floc growth phase, and meanwhile the distribution of floc size had a wider range. Besides, floc recoverability could be significantly improved when Ep was used as coagulant aid. PMID:24528717

  7. Weather Avoidance Using Route Optimization as a Decision Aid: An AWIN Topical Study. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The aviation community is faced with reducing the fatal aircraft accident rate by 80 percent within 10 years. This must be achieved even with ever increasing, traffic and a changing National Airspace System. This is not just an altruistic goal, but a real necessity, if our growing level of commerce is to continue. Honeywell Technology Center's topical study, "Weather Avoidance Using Route Optimization as a Decision Aid", addresses these pressing needs. The goal of this program is to use route optimization and user interface technologies to develop a prototype decision aid for dispatchers and pilots. This decision aid will suggest possible diversions through single or multiple weather hazards and present weather information with a human-centered design. At the conclusion of the program, we will have a laptop prototype decision aid that will be used to demonstrate concepts to industry for integration into commercialized products for dispatchers and/or pilots. With weather a factor in 30% of aircraft accidents, our program will prevent accidents by strategically avoiding weather hazards in flight. By supplying more relevant weather information in a human-centered format along with the tools to generate flight plans around weather, aircraft exposure to weather hazards can be reduced. Our program directly addresses the NASA's five year investment areas of Strategic Weather Information and Weather Operations (simulation/hazard characterization and crew/dispatch/ATChazard monitoring, display, and decision support) (NASA Aeronautics Safety Investment Strategy: Weather Investment Recommendations, April 15, 1997). This program is comprised of two phases, Phase I concluded December 31, 1998. This first phase defined weather data requirements, lateral routing algorithms, an conceptual displays for a user-centered design. Phase II runs from January 1999 through September 1999. The second phase integrates vertical routing into the lateral optimizer and combines the user

  8. Water First Aid Is Beneficial In Humans Post-Burn: Evidence from a Bi-National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Fiona M.; Phillips, Michael; Jovic, Tom; Cassidy, John T; Cameron, Peter; Edgar, Dale W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reported first aid application, frequency and practices around the world vary greatly. Based primarily on animal and observational studies, first aid after a burn injury is considered to be integral in reducing scar and infection, and the need for surgery. The current recommendation for optimum first aid after burn is water cooling for 20 minutes within three hours. However, compliance with this guideline is reported as poor to moderate at best and evidence exists to suggest that overcooling can be detrimental. This prospective cohort study of a bi-national burn patient registry examined data collected between 2009 and 2012. The aim of the study was to quantify the magnitude of effects of water cooling first aid after burn on indicators of burn severity in a large human cohort. Method The data for the analysis was provided by the Burn Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ). The application of first aid cooling prior to admission to a dedicated burn service, was analysed for its influence on four outcomes related to injury severity. The patient related outcomes were whether graft surgery occurred, and death while the health system (cost) outcomes included total hospital length of stay and admission to ICU. Robust regression analysis using bootstrapped estimation adjusted using a propensity score was used to control for confounding and to estimate the strength of association with first aid. Dose-response relationships were examined to determine associations with duration of first aid. The influence of covariates on the impact of first aid was assessed. Results Cooling was provided before Burn Centre admission for 68% of patients, with at least twenty minutes duration for 46%. The results indicated a reduction in burn injury severity associated with first aid. Patients probability for graft surgery fell by 0.070 from 0.537 (13% reduction) (p = 0.014). The probability for ICU admission fell by 0.084 from 0.175 (48% reduction) (p<0.001) and hospital

  9. Future Multiwavelength Studies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2011-01-01

    With two and a half years of experience, Fermi LAT contributions to multiwavelength studies have become an integral part of many astrophysical research projects. Future efforts will benefit from (1) Deeper LAT exposures} resulting in more sources; (2) More high-energy, high-angular resolution photons, giving better source locations and imaging; (3) Faster analysis of variability and announcements to the community; and (4) Longer time series for studies of variable source properties in comparison to other wavelengths.

  10. Cost effectiveness and delivery study for future HIV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barth-Jones, D C; Cheng, H; Kang, L Y; Kenya, Patrick R; Odera, D; Mosqueira, N R; Mendoza, W; Portela, M C; Brito, C; Tangcharoensathien, V; Akaleephan, C; Supantamart, S; Patcharanarumol, W; de Macedo Brigido, L F; Fonseca, M G P; Sanchez, M; Chang, M-L; Osmanov, S; Avrett, S; Esparza, J; Griffiths, U

    2005-09-01

    Research teams from five countries, Brazil, China, Kenya, Peru and Thailand, have initiated a policy-maker survey on vaccine delivery, cost studies for future HIV vaccination programmes, and associated simulation modeling exercises analysing the relative cost-effectiveness of potential HIV vaccination strategies. The survey assesses challenges and opportunities for future country-level HIV vaccination strategies, providing data on the vaccine characteristics (e.g. vaccine efficacies for susceptibility, infectiousness and disease progression) and vaccination programme strategies to be considered in the cost-effectiveness modeling analyses. The study will provide decision-makers with modeling data on vaccination policy considerations that will assist in developing country-level capacities for future HIV vaccine policy adoption and effective delivery systems, and will help delineate the long-term financial requirements for sustainable HIV vaccination programmes. The WHO-UNAIDS HIV Vaccine Initiative and the collaborating researchers welcome comments or questions from policy makers, health professionals and other stakeholders in the public and private sectors about this effort to help advance policy and capacity related to future potential HIV vaccines. PMID:16103763

  11. Adherence to HIV/AIDS antiretroviral therapy among drug users: A qualitative study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Zahra; Eftkhar, Hasan; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ebadi, Abbas; Abbasian, Ladan; Zamani, Fereshte; Aghamollaei, Teamur; Shojaeizade, Davood

    2016-01-01

    Background: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy has caused a remarkable decrease in the occurrence of diseases and mortality among HIV-positive patients, while this success has not been achieved among injection addicts due to a low adherence to antiretroviral medicine. This study aims at clarifying the important factors affecting adherence to treatment in addicts suffering from HIV. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative research, data were gathered through in-depth interviews and field notes, and were interpreted through content analysis in the form of constant comparison. The participants were 16 drug addicts living with HIV/AIDS. Most of them had records of imprisonment and were receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) drug treatments in the AIDS center of Imam Khomeini Hospital complex, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Sampling was started in a purposive method and was continued until data were saturated. Results: Four main categories including psychological reactions, contradictory beliefs, perceived support, and individual and environmental barriers were extracted from the data, each having some sub-categories. Conclusions: The obtained results indicated that adherence to the treatment of HIV is not constant and mono-dimensional, but is a function of different factors. Hence, an individual having feeble adherence in a specific time and under specific circumstances may show desirable adherence under a different circumstance. Thus, treatment of addicts living with HIV/AIDS requires physical, psychological, and social attention along with drug treatments. PMID:26985220

  12. Do Thai parents discuss sex and AIDS with young adolescents? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Meechamnan, Chutima; Fongkaew, Warunee; Chotibang, Jutamas; McGrath, Barbara Burns

    2014-03-01

    This qualitative study explored parents' and young adolescents' perceptions of communication related to sex and HIV/AIDS. Focus group discussions and group discussion were conducted among 67 adolescents and 30 parents. For the adolescents, group discussion using participatory activities was conducted, followed by five focus group discussions. Group discussions using participatory activities were conducted among parents. Thematic analysis indicated that the adolescents received inadequate information about sex and AIDS from their parents, whom they feared as providing negative judgment, and this represented a key barrier to such discussions. Their parents, on the other hand, reported that they believed their children were still too young to learn about and engage in sexual activities. The parents perceived barriers to communication included a lack of confidence and feelings of embarrassment. Nevertheless, they also recognized their important role in their child's sexual education. Collectively, these results draw attention to the need for a culturally appropriate program to strengthen parent-child communication skills for the topics of sex and HIV/AIDS. PMID:23692292

  13. Evaluation of Speech-Perception Training for Hearing Aid Users: A Multisite Study in Progress.

    PubMed

    Miller, James D; Watson, Charles S; Dubno, Judy R; Leek, Marjorie R

    2015-11-01

    Following an overview of theoretical issues in speech-perception training and of previous efforts to enhance hearing aid use through training, a multisite study, designed to evaluate the efficacy of two types of computerized speech-perception training for adults who use hearing aids, is described. One training method focuses on the identification of 109 syllable constituents (45 onsets, 28 nuclei, and 36 codas) in quiet and in noise, and on the perception of words in sentences presented in various levels of noise. In a second type of training, participants listen to 6- to 7-minute narratives in noise and are asked several questions about each narrative. Two groups of listeners are trained, each using one of these types of training, performed in a laboratory setting. The training for both groups is preceded and followed by a series of speech-perception tests. Subjects listen in a sound field while wearing their hearing aids at their usual settings. The training continues over 15 to 20 visits, with subjects completing at least 30 hours of focused training with one of the two methods. The two types of training are described in detail, together with a summary of other perceptual and cognitive measures obtained from all participants. PMID:27587914

  14. HIV/AIDS: Risk & Protective Behaviors among American Young Adults, 2004-2008. Monitoring the Future. NIH Publication No. 10-7586

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. The study is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research…

  15. Effects of pediatric first aid training on preschool teachers: a longitudinal cohort study in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Unintentional injuries are a major cause of death among children. Data suggest that the retention of knowledge and skills about first aid declined over time. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of pediatric first aid training among teachers. Methods A stratified random sampling method was used to select 1,067 teachers. The selected trainees received pediatric first aid training. Follow-up assessments were conducted 6 months, 9 months and 4 years following the training. A standardized collection of demographics was performed, and participants were given a questionnaire to indicate knowledge of and emotions about first aid. Results In the pretest, 1067 people responded with a mean of 21.0 correct answers to 37 questions, whereas in the post-test period, the mean score increased to 32.2 correct answers of 37 questions (P <0.001). There was a decrease in scores from post-test to 6 months, 9 months and 4 years after the training. However, the mean at the 6-month, 9-month and 4-year marks were higher than the pretest mean (P < 0.001). A total of 82.8% of the participants achieved a pass mark of 80% or above; 42.8% of participants achieved the pass mark at 6 months, 41.7% at 9 months and 11.7% at 4 years (compared with pre-test, P < 0.001). The mean score of the subjects’ emotions in the post-test period increased to 81 (P < 0.001). The mean scores of emotions at 9 months or 4 years were higher than the pretest mean (P < 0.001). At the 4-year mark, the majority of preschool staff (>70%) had administered correct first aid for injuries. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the acquisition of knowledge, both short and long term, significantly improves. Despite appreciable decreases in knowledge long term, knowledge retention was modest but stable. PMID:25152013

  16. Decision Aid to Technologically Enhance Shared decision making (DATES): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinicians face challenges in promoting colorectal cancer screening due to multiple competing demands. A decision aid that clarifies patient preferences and improves decision quality can aid shared decision making and be effective at increasing colorectal cancer screening rates. However, exactly how such an intervention improves shared decision making is unclear. This study, funded by the National Cancer Institute, seeks to provide detailed understanding of how an interactive decision aid that elicits patient’s risks and preferences impacts patient-clinician communication and shared decision making, and ultimately colorectal cancer screening adherence. Methods/Design This is a two-armed single-blinded randomized controlled trial with the target of 300 patients per arm. The setting is eleven community and three academic primary care practices in Metro Detroit. Patients are men and women aged between 50 and 75 years who are not up to date on colorectal cancer screening. ColoDATES Web (intervention arm), a decision aid that incorporates interactive personal risk assessment and preference clarification tools, is compared to a non-interactive website that matches ColoDATES Web in content but does not contain interactive tools (control arm). Primary outcomes are patient uptake of colorectal cancer screening; patient decision quality (knowledge, preference clarification, intent); clinician’s degree of shared decision making; and patient-clinician concordance in the screening test chosen. Secondary outcome incorporates a Structural Equation Modeling approach to understand the mechanism of the causal pathway and test the validity of the proposed conceptual model based on Theory of Planned Behavior. Clinicians and those performing the analysis are blinded to arms. Discussion The central hypothesis is that ColoDATES Web will improve colorectal cancer screening adherence through improvement in patient behavioral factors, shared decision making between the

  17. Mini-Sosie high-resolution seismic method aids hazards studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, W.J.; Odum, J.; Shedlock, K.M.; Pratt, T.L.; Williams, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Mini-Sosie high-resolution seismic method has been effective in imaging shallow-structure and stratigraphic features that aid in seismic-hazard and neotectonic studies. The method is not an alternative to Vibroseis acquisition for large-scale studies. However, it has two major advantages over Vibroseis as it is being used by the USGS in its seismic-hazards program. First, the sources are extremely portable and can be used in both rural and urban environments. Second, the shifting-and-summation process during acquisition improves the signal-to-noise ratio and cancels out seismic noise sources such as cars and pedestrians. -from Authors

  18. Study of future world markets for agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Assarabowski, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The future world market for US-manufactured agricultural aircraft was studied and the technology needs for foreign markets were identified. Special emphasis was placed on the developing country market, but the developed countries and the communist group were also included in the forecasts. Aircraft needs were projected to the year 2000 by a method which accounted for field size, crop production, treated area, productivity, and attrition of the fleet. A special scenario involving a significant shift toward aerial fertilization was also considered. An operations analysis was conducted to compare the relative application costs of various existing and hypothetical future aircraft. A case study was made of Colombia as an example of a developing country in which aviation is emerging as an important industry.

  19. Conceptual Study of Intelligent Data Archives of the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Kempler, Steve; Lynnes, Chris; McConaughy, Gail; McDonald, Ken; Kiang, Richard; Calvo, Sherri; Harberts, Robert; Roelofs, Larry; Sun, Donglian; Clemence, Lara (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual architecture study is under way to address the problem of getting the most scientific value from the large volumes of Earth and space science data that NASA expects to accumulate in the future. This involves efficient storage and access, but goes beyond that to facilitate intelligent data understanding and utilization through modeling realistic virtual entities with predictive capabilities. The objective of the study is to formulate ideas and concepts and to provide recommendations that lead to prototyping and implementation in the period from 2010 to 2020. The approach consists of the definition of future scenarios and needs for data usage in applications (in consultation with scientific and applications users), projection of advances in technologies, and an abstraction of an intelligent archive architecture. Strategic evolution is considered in various areas such as storage, data, information and knowledge management, data ingest and mining, user interfaces, and advances in intelligent data understanding algorithms.

  20. Ocean Studies Board annual report 1989 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The major activities of the Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council for 1989 are reviewed. The following are discussed: the Navy Panel, the CO2 Panel, the Committee on the Ocean`s Role in Global Change, the Committee on the Coastal Ocean, the Workshop on Issues of U.S. Marine Fisheries, and the Continental Margins Workshop Committee. Future plans are covered.

  1. Multi-path transportation futures study: Results from Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Phil; Singh, Margaret; Plotkin, Steve; Moore, Jim

    2007-03-09

    This PowerPoint briefing provides documentation and details for Phase 1 of the Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study, which compares alternative ways to make significant reductions in oil use and carbon emissions from U.S. light vehicles to 2050. Phase I, completed in 2006, was a scoping study, aimed at identifying key analytic issues and constructing a study design. The Phase 1 analysis included an evaluation of several pathways and scenarios; however, these analyses were limited in number and scope and were designed to be preliminary.

  2. Adolescents' attitudes towards AIDS precautions and intention to use condoms.

    PubMed

    Barling, N R; Moore, S M

    1990-12-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward AIDS precautions of 370 15- and 16-yr.-old secondary school students. Attitudes reflected levels of apathy, denial, and confusion high enough to lead to concern for this potentially high-risk group. Intention to use condoms in future sexual encounters was related to sex, conflict and confusion about AIDS precautions, plus other attitudinal variables. PMID:2287679

  3. History and future of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS).

    PubMed

    Emerson, Amy; Ponté, Linnae; Jerome, Lisa; Doblin, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the teenage vision of the founder of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) that humanity's future would be aided by the therapeutic and spiritual potential of psychedelic substances. The article traces the trajectory of MAPS from inception in 1986 to its present, noting future goals with respect to research, outreach, and harm reduction. MAPS was created as a non-profit psychedelic pharmaceutical company in response to the 1985 scheduling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Overcoming many hurdles, MAPS developed the first double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and plans for FDA prescription approval in 2021. MAPS' program of research expanded to include a trial of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety when facing life-threatening illness, observational studies of ibogaine in the treatment of addiction, and studies of MDMA for social anxiety in people with autism spectrum disorders. MAPS meets the challenges of drug development through a clinical research team led by a former Novartis drug development professional experienced in the conduct, monitoring, and analysis of clinical trials. MAPS' harm-reduction efforts are intended to avoid backlash and build a post-prohibition world by assisting non-medical users to transform difficult psychedelic experiences into opportunities for growth. PMID:24830183

  4. A single-blind randomised controlled trial of the effects of a web-based decision aid on self-testing for cholesterol and diabetes. study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-tests, tests on body materials to detect medical conditions, are widely available to the general public. Self-testing does have advantages as well as disadvantages, and the debate on whether self-testing should be encouraged or rather discouraged is still ongoing. One of the concerns is whether consumers have sufficient knowledge to perform the test and interpret the results. An online decision aid (DA) with information on self-testing in general, and test specific information on cholesterol and diabetes self-testing was developed. The DA aims to provide objective information on these self-tests as well as a decision support tool to weigh the pros and cons of self-testing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the online decision aid on knowledge on self-testing, informed choice, ambivalence and psychosocial determinants. Methods/Design A single blind randomised controlled trial in which the online decision aid 'zelftestwijzer' is compared to short, non-interactive information on self-testing in general. The entire trial will be conducted online. Participants will be selected from an existing Internet panel. Consumers who are considering doing a cholesterol or diabetes self-test in the future will be included. Outcome measures will be assessed directly after participants have viewed either the DA or the control condition. Weblog files will be used to record participants' use of the decision aid. Discussion Self-testing does have important pros and cons, and it is important that consumers base their decision whether they want to do a self-test or not on knowledge and personal values. This study is the first to evaluate the effect of an online decision aid for self-testing. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register: NTR3149 PMID:22216905

  5. HIV/AIDS, beersellers and critical community health psychology in Cambodia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lubek, Ian; Lee, Helen; Kros, Sarath; Wong, Mee Lian; Van Merode, Tiny; Liu, James; McCreanor, Tim; Idema, Roel; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This case study illustrates a participatory framework for confronting critical community health issues using 'grass-roots' research-guided community-defined interventions. Ongoing work in Cambodia has culturally adapted research, theory and practice for particular, local health-promotion responses to HIV/AIDS, alcohol abuse and other challenges in the community of Siem Reap. For resource-poor communities in Cambodia, we recycle such 'older' concepts as 'empowerment' and 'action research'. We re-imagine community health psychology, when confronted with 'critical', life-and-death issues, as adjusting its research and practices to local, particular ontological and epistemological urgencies of trauma, morbidity and mortality. PMID:24058105

  6. The Vancouver Lymphadenopathy-AIDS Study: 2. Seroepidemiology of HTLV-III antibody.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, E; Willoughby, B; Boyko, W J; Schechter, M T; Wiggs, B; Fay, S; O'Shaughnessy, M

    1985-06-15

    Testing for antibody to human T-lymphotropic retrovirus (HTLV-III) was carried out in 448 participants in the Vancouver Lymphadenopathy-AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) Study. The overall prevalence rate of seropositivity was 34%. Of 130 seronegative subjects followed for an average of 8.5 months, 14 became seropositive; thus, the approximate annual seroconversion rate was 15%. More than 100 male sexual partners in one's lifetime, frequent receptive anal intercourse, fisting, a history of gonorrhea or hepatitis, and frequent sexual contact in clubs were found to be independent risk factors for HTLV-III seropositivity. PMID:2988729

  7. Recent results and future prospects for asteroseismic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglio, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade the study and interpretation of global oscillations in stars has undergone a dramatic development thanks to the advent of space-based telescopes such as CoRoT and Kepler. In this contribution I will review our endeavours towards a detailed understanding of stellar structure and evolution and I will discuss the symbiosis between stellar seismology and both exoplanetary and Galactic science. I will then emphasise the wider significance of asteroseismology as a tool for testing stellar physics, with examples on how seismic predictions depend on our (often poor) knowledge of the relevant physics. Future prospects in the light of future ambitious space missions such as NASA-TESS and ESA-Plato will also be briefly presented.

  8. The Use of Audio-Visual Aids in Teaching: A Study in the Saudi Girls Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharhan, Jamal A.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of faculty in girls colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, investigated teaching experience, academic rank, importance of audiovisual aids, teacher training, availability of audiovisual centers, and reasons for not using audiovisual aids. Proposes changes to increase use of audiovisual aids: more training courses, more teacher release time,…

  9. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  10. Mission to the Moon: An ESA study on future exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing worldwide interest in the continuation of lunar exploration has convinced ESA to carry out an investigation of the motivations to return to the Moon to establish a permanent or a semi-permanent manned lunar base. This study also considers the possible role Europe could play in the future exploration and possible utilization of the Moon. The study concentrated in this first phase mainly on scientific questions, leaving technological issues such as transportation, the role of humans, infrastructure, and policy matters to a later phase. It only partially considered questions relating to the exploitation of lunar resources and the impact of human activities on science.

  11. Acute Pancreatitis: Landmark Studies, Management Decisions, and the Future.

    PubMed

    Banks, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the last 50 years in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis. Many landmark studies have been published and have focused on the classification of acute pancreatitis, markers of severity, important roles of imaging and endoscopy, and improvements in our treatment. This report will review several landmark studies, describe ongoing controversies in management decisions including standards of early fluid resuscitation and appropriate use of enteral feeding, and outline what will be required in the future to improve the care of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:27077712

  12. EFFECTS OF SYNDEMICS ON HIV VIRAL LOAD AND MEDICATION ADHERENCE IN THE MULTICENTER AIDS COHORT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    FRIEDMAN, M. Reuel; STALL, Ron; PLANKEY, Michael; WEI, Chongyi; SHOPTAW, Steve; HERRICK, Amy; SURKAN, Pamela J.; TEPLIN, Linda; SILVESTRE, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine associations between intertwining epidemics (syndemics) and HIV medication adherence and viral load levels among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM); and to test whether adherence mediates the relationship between syndemics and viral load. DESIGN We analyzed participant data collected between 2003—2009 from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, a prospective HIV/AIDS cohort study in four U.S. cities. METHODS We conducted longitudinal analyses (repeated measures mixed models) to assess if differences in viral load levels, undetectable viral load, and self-reported HIV medication adherence were associated with count of syndemic conditions (substance use, depression symptoms, and sexual risk behavior, range 0 to 3), adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, and income. Mediation analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling and the SAS %mediate macro. RESULTS Syndemics count was associated with higher viral loads (p<.0001) and lower adherence (p<.0001). Increased counts of concomitant syndemics were associated with viral load (p <.01), detectable viral load (p <.05), and adherence (p <.001). Black MSM experienced worse outcomes across domains than White MSM (p <.0001) and experienced higher overall rates of syndemics (p<.01). Adherence significantly mediated the relationship between syndemics and viral load, accounting for an estimated 32.3% of the effect (p<.05). CONCLUSIONS Effectively lowering viral load levels among MSM has implications for both HIV/AIDS prevention and care. Our findings suggest that integrating substance use interventions, mental health care, and sexual risk prevention into standard HIV care may be necessary to optimize treatment and Treatment as Prevention (TasP) models. PMID:25870981

  13. WWC Review of the Report "Freshman Year Financial Aid Nudges: An Experiment to Increase FAFSA Renewal and College Persistence." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 study, Freshman Year Financial Aid Nudges: An Experiment to Increase FAFSA Renewal and College Persistence, measured the impact of sending text message reminders regarding annual Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) renewal to first-year college students who were already receiving financial aid. The study sample included 808…

  14. Factors associated with prevalent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chmiel, J S; Detels, R; Kaslow, R A; Van Raden, M; Kingsley, L A; Brookmeyer, R

    1987-10-01

    Interviews regarding medical history, life-style, specific drug taking and sexual activities, and physical examinations were administered to 4,955 homosexual men who volunteered for the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study in Baltimore, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Pittsburgh. Overall, the prevalence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in these men was 38.0%. The factor most strongly associated with prevalent HIV infection according to a multiple logistic regression model was rectal trauma, a composite variable which included receptive anal fisting, enemas before sex, reporting of blood around the rectum, and the observation of scarring, fissures or fistulas on rectal examination. Receptive anal intercourse also was strongly associated with HIV infection in the model. The multivariate relative odds for HIV antibody positivity was 7.72 for the highest level of rectal trauma and 3.04 for receptive anal intercourse. Symptoms reported to occur in some persons who subsequently develop acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were frequent among HIV seropositive men (12.9%) but were reported in 8.4% of seronegative men as well. Generalized lymphadenopathy was observed significantly more often in seropositive men (48.8%) compared with seronegative men (11.4%). The prevalence of HIV antibodies was inversely related to the number of T-helper cells and directly related (to a lesser extent) to the number of T-suppressor cells. The results suggest that disruption of the rectal mucosa provides access by HIV to the blood stream and to specific immunologic cells. Since symptoms and generalized lymphadenopathy were often reported among seronegative men, they probably also occur among some seropositive men not currently progressing to AIDS. PMID:3651095

  15. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY DUE TO AIDS: A STUDY OF BURDEN OF DISEASE AT A MUNICIPAL LEVEL

    PubMed Central

    SILVA, Jane DA; RAMOS, Victoria; SILVA, Helena Caetano Gonçalves DA; TRAEBERT, Jefferson

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of measuring the burden of disease involves aggregating morbidity and mortality components into a single indicator, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY), to measure how much and how people live and suffer the impact of a disease. Objective: To estimate the global burden of disease due to AIDS in a municipality of southern Brazil. Methods: An ecological study was conducted in 2009 to examine the incidence and AIDS-related deaths among the population residing in the city of Tubarao, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Data from the Mortality Information System in the National Health System was used to calculate the years of life lost (YLL) due to premature mortality. The calculation was based on the difference between a standardized life expectancy and age at death, with a discount rate of 3% per year. Data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases were used to calculate the years lived with disability (YLD). The DALY was estimated by the sum of YLL and YLD. Indicator rates were estimated per 100,000 inhabitants, distributed by age and gender. Results: A total of 131 records were examined, and a 572.5 DALYs were estimated, which generated a rate of 593.1 DALYs/100,000 inhabitants. The rate among men amounted to 780.7 DALYs/100,000, whereas among women the rate was 417.1 DALYs/100,000. The most affected age groups were 30-44 years for men and 60-69 years for women. Conclusion: The burden of disease due to AIDS in the city of Tubarao was relatively high when considering the global trend. The mortality component accounted for more than 90% of the burden of disease. PMID:26603227

  16. Khat Use and Neurobehavioral Functions: Suggestions for Future Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Richard; al’Absi, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a rich body of research available regarding the effect of acute and chronic khat dosing in animal models, research on the behavioral and cognitive effects of khat in human subjects is not extensive and several of the available studies have been done only in the context of observational and single-case studies. In light of the absence of a substantial literature on the neurobehavioral deficits associated with khat use and to provide a context that could be used to identify themes for future research we review previous research that has focused on other stimulant drugs. This review highlights multiple areas of neurocognitive deficit that have been identified in previous studies of individuals who have been chronic users of stimulants, such as amphetamines and methamphetamines. The review highlights a substantial body of evidence demonstrating a wide range of learning and memory impairments including deficits that persist during abstinence from active drug use. This review does not imply a similar khat effect, but due to some similarities pharmacologically between the active components of khat (cathinone and cathine) and amphetamines, future studies examining these same domains of cognitive functioning in chronic khat users and abstinent khat users appears to be warranted, if possible using some of the same or similar laboratory measures. PMID:20553832

  17. Competing for ideal bodies: a study of exergames used as teaching aids in schools

    PubMed Central

    Öhman, Marie; Almqvist, Jonas; Meckbach, Jane; Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Since the development of the welfare state, the Swedish school subject Health and Physical Education (HPE) has been regarded as an important site for public health work, and still assumes a central role in promoting the health of the coming generation. A specific type of health intervention, promoted by researchers in recent years, is the use of so-called exergames. In some countries, these fitness games are used as teaching aids in physical education classes and can be seen as examples of how public health issues and popular culture are shaping HPE in schools. The aim of the study reported in this paper is to examine which messages about health and body are offered, and how these are expressed in some of the fitness games used as teaching aids in school. The results of the study highlight the dangers of using exergames in the teaching of HPE in schools. The messages communicated by the games have a number of potentially harmful consequences, particularly with regard to the creation of specific health and bodily norms based on a measurable ideal. The use of this tool in education is thus far from value free, and the problems that might be solved when using the games are not necessarily the ones that education should privilege. PMID:26740738

  18. Computer-aided ergonomics: a case study of incorporating ergonomics analyses into workplace design.

    PubMed

    Feyen, R; Liu, Y; Chaffin, D; Jimmerson, G; Joseph, B

    2000-06-01

    One of the primary goals of computer-aided ergonomics is to develop software tools that allow ergonomics information to be accessed at the earliest stages of design. This case study discusses a PC-based software program that allows a designer to quantify a worker's biomechanical risk for injury based on a proposed workplace design. The program couples an established software tool for biomechanical analysis, the Three-Dimensional Static Strength Prediction Program (3DSSPP), with a widely used computer-aided design software package, AutoCAD. The use of this "3DSSPP/AutoCAD interface" in the proactive analysis of an automotive assembly task is described and the results compared with an independent assessment using observations of workers performing the same task. Both studies yield similar conclusions, suggesting that proactive use of software such as the 3DSSPP/AutoCAD interface may be a valid tool in evaluating proposed workplace designs. In this context, issues in the analysis of workplace designs regarding the use of supporting ergonomic tools, assumptions, and posture selection are discussed. PMID:10855452

  19. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  20. 1996 elections are critical to people of color--the future of HIV/AIDS and human services will be determined at the polls.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, M; Owens, M B

    1996-01-01

    The outcome of the 1996 elections will have significant ramifications for people of color, including those living with HIV and AIDS. This group traditionally has one of the lowest voting levels. Community-based AIDS organizations can help address this issue by actively recruiting people to register and to vote. Several programs are suggested for increasing voter turnout. PMID:11367429

  1. SOFIA: A Promising Resource for Future Nova Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, L. A.; Sofia Science Team

    2014-12-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a 2.5-m telescope carried on board a Boeing 747-SP aircraft. Optimized for observations from infrared through sub-mm wavelengths, SOFIA observes from an altitude of 37,000 - 45,000 feet, above 99% of the atmospheric water vapor. The Observatory's complement of instruments possesses a broad range of capabilities, many of which are especially well suited for observations of classical novae, recurrent novae, and other cataclysmic variables. Here we present a selection of the instruments available on board SOFIA that may prove to be very useful for future novae studies.

  2. Development of problem-oriented software packages for numerical studies and computer-aided design (CAD) of gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damyanova, M.; Sabchevski, S.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Vasileva, E.; Balabanova, E.; Dankov, P.; Malinov, P.

    2016-03-01

    Gyrotrons are the most powerful sources of coherent CW (continuous wave) radiation in the frequency range situated between the long-wavelength edge of the infrared light (far-infrared region) and the microwaves, i.e., in the region of the electromagnetic spectrum which is usually called the THz-gap (or T-gap), since the output power of other devices (e.g., solid-state oscillators) operating in this interval is by several orders of magnitude lower. In the recent years, the unique capabilities of the sub-THz and THz gyrotrons have opened the road to many novel and future prospective applications in various physical studies and advanced high-power terahertz technologies. In this paper, we present the current status and functionality of the problem-oriented software packages (most notably GYROSIM and GYREOSS) used for numerical studies, computer-aided design (CAD) and optimization of gyrotrons for diverse applications. They consist of a hierarchy of codes specialized to modelling and simulation of different subsystems of the gyrotrons (EOS, resonant cavity, etc.) and are based on adequate physical models, efficient numerical methods and algorithms.

  3. Experimental studies of forensic odontology to aid in the identification process

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Susmita; Sharma, Preeti; Gupta, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    The importance of dental identification is on the increase year after year. With the passage of time, the role of forensic odontology has increased as very often teeth and dental restorations are the only means of identification. Forensic odontology has played a key role in identification of persons in mass disasters (aviation, earthquakes, Tsunamis), in crime investigations, in ethnic studies, and in identification of decomposed and disfigured bodies like that of drowned persons, fire victims, and victims of motor vehicle accidents. The various methods employed in forensic odontology include tooth prints, radiographs, photographic study, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy and molecular methods. Investigative methods applied in forensic odontology are reasonably reliable, yet the shortcomings must be accounted for to make it a more meaningful and relevant procedure. This paper gives an overview of the various experimental studies to aid in the identification processes, discussing their feasibilities and limitations in day-to-day practice. PMID:21731343

  4. [I-THOU Eternal relationship in the life of caregivers of children with AIDS: study based on Martin Buber philosophy].

    PubMed

    Schaurich, Diego

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study aimed at understanding, in the light of Martin Buber's philosophy, what is to be a caregiver of children with AIDS. The phenomenological interview guided the meeting with seven caregivers of children with AIDS, selected in a teaching hospital of Porto Alegre-RS, southern of Brazil. The data were interpreted in the light of hermeneutics, emerging the unit of meaning Dialogues 'between' the familiar I and the Eternal THOU. The dialogues take place in the search for answers that allow the understanding of the significance of the impact and challenges they face while living with AIDS. As well, they reveal hope in changes, in the cure and in a vaccine development. We believe that knowing the importance of dialogue in the context of HIV/AIDS epidemic provide the development of a nursing care that brings together the technical-scientific and humanistic aspects. PMID:22378509

  5. Avenues of access to future science teachers: An interview study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Richard

    2007-12-01

    This research study explored the experiences of individuals who chose careers in secondary science education by examining two cohorts of science education students in a teacher credential program and a group of current secondary science teachers in their first five years of teaching. Issues of how these individuals became interested in science education and the characteristics common among them were examined. This study explored the educational experiences that appeared to contribute to people becoming science teachers. This study also explored the participants' motivation and key turning point moments that appeared to contribute to their choice to pursue a career in science education. The research design used in this study was a two-year, semi-structured interview protocol. Research was conducted at one main university site and within one local unified school district. During the 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 academic years, twenty-five secondary science pre-service teacher candidates at a University of California were interviewed, and during the 2005-2006 academic year, twenty-five current practicing science teachers within a Southern California unified school district were also interviewed. Data collection consisted of interviews with the fifty participants typically between 30-45 minutes in length. The EZ-Text software program was employed to aid in the analysis of the transcribed interview data. This study found that much of the previous research on the characteristics of entrants to teaching in general was supported, but that some specific differences exist among science teachers and the general population of teachers. The majority of the participants had exposure to internships or tutoring experiences and indicated that this made them more willing to pursue science teaching as a profession. This study found that high achieving female students constituted the entire female portion of the sample and cited teaching as a friendly avenue for females in science. Teacher

  6. Study of highly integrated payload architectures for future planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Stefan; Moorhouse, Joseph; Mieremet, Arjan L.; Collon, Maximilien; Montella, Jarno; Beijersbergen, Marco; Harris, J.; van den Berg, Marcel L.; Atzei, Alessandro; Lyngvi, Aleksander; Renton, Daniel; Erd, Christian; Falkner, Peter

    2004-11-01

    Future planetary missions will require advanced, smart, low resource payloads and satellites to enable the exploration of our solar system in a more frequent, timely and multi-mission manner. A viable route towards low resource science instrumentation is the concept of Highly Integrated Payload Suites (HIPS), which was introduced during the re-assessment of the payload of the BepiColombo (BC) Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). Considerable mass and power savings were demonstrated throughout the instrumentation by improved definition of the instrument design, a higher level of integration, and identification of resource drivers. The higher integration and associated synergy effects permitted optimisation of the payload performance at minimum investment while still meeting the demanding science requirements. For the specific example of the BepiColombo MPO, the mass reduction by designing the instruments towards a Highly Integrated Payload Suite was found to be about 60%. This has endorsed the acceptance of a number of additional instruments as core payload of the BC MPO thereby enhancing the scientific return. This promising strategic approach and concept is now applied to a set of planetary mission studies for future exploration of the solar system. Innovative technologies, miniaturised electronics and advanced remote sensing technologies are the baseline for a generic approach to payload integration, which is here investigated also in the context of largely differing mission requirements. A review of the approach and the implications to the generic concept as found from the applications to the mission studies are presented.

  7. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and information behaviour: an ethnographic study in the UK.

    PubMed

    Namuleme, Robinah Kalemeera

    2015-03-01

    This feature explores the information behaviour of people infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS. It investigates specifically the difficult issue of stigma and how this shapes the ways in which people interact with vital information. The study adopted an ethnographic whereby the researcher worked as a part-time volunteer at an HIV support centre in the North of England for over a year. This is the first time that such an approach has been reported in this feature and is interesting from this perspective alone. The very rich data which was gathered as a result of the approach is also instructive. The study formed part of a PhD thesis, which Robinah Kalemeera Namuleme completed at the University of Sheffield in March 2013. PMID:25684027

  8. Human Robotic Study at Houghton Crater - virtual reality study from NASA Ames (FFC) Future Fight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Human Robotic Study at Houghton Crater - virtual reality study from NASA Ames (FFC) Future Fight Central simulator tower L-R: Dr Geoffrey Briggs; Jen Jasper (seated); Dr Jan Akins and Mr. Tony Gross, Ames

  9. Studying inflation with future space-based gravitational wave detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Jinno, Ryusuke; Moroi, Takeo; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: moroi@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by recent progress in our understanding of the B-mode polarization of cosmic microwave background (CMB), which provides important information about the inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), we study the possibility to acquire information about the early universe using future space-based gravitational wave (GW) detectors. We perform a detailed statistical analysis to estimate how well we can determine the reheating temperature after inflation as well as the amplitude, the tensor spectral index, and the running of the inflationary gravitational waves. We discuss how the accuracies depend on noise parameters of the detector and the minimum frequency available in the analysis. Implication of such a study on the test of inflation models is also discussed.

  10. BIBLIOGRAPHIC AND RESEARCH AIDS IN SOVIET STUDIES--A SUMMARY REPORT OF THE GREYSTON CONFERENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BUIST, ELEANOR

    IN AN ATTEMPT TO REVIEW THE CURRENT STATE OF LIBRARY AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENTS IN SOVIET STUDIES, TO ASSESS MAJOR DEFICIENCIES AND NEEDS, AND TO RECOMMEND NEW SOLUTIONS AND PROGRAMS FOR THE FUTURE, 40 ACADEMIC AND GOVERNMENT SPECIALISTS, LIBRARIANS, AND FOUNDATION OFFICIALS WERE BROUGHT TOGETHER IN A CONFERENCE IN NEW YORK IN NOVEMBER, 1966.…

  11. First Aid and Transportation Course Contents Based on Experience gained in the Iran-Iraq War: a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sarhangi, Forogh; Gholami, Hamid Reza; Khaghanizade, Morteza; Najafi Mehri, Soheil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Effective first aid and transportation influences injury-induced mortality. But few qualitative studies have been conducted so far in this area. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the content of the first aid and patient transportation course based on experience gained from the Iran-Iraq war. Patients and Methods: This was a conventional qualitative content analysis study; a purposeful sample of 14 first aid and transportation experts who had worked during the Iran-Iraq war was recruited. We collected and analyzed the study data by using the semi-structured interview method and the conventional content analysis approach respectively. Each interview transcript was reviewed several times. Words, sentences, and paragraphs were labeled with codes. Codes were compared with each other and categorized according to their similarities. Similar sub-categories and categories were also grouped together and formed themes. Results: Study participants’ experiences of wartime first aid and transportation (FAT) education fell into two main themes including ‘the congruence of education and educational needs’ and ‘managers’ engagement in FAT education. The four main categories of these two themes were use of appropriate educational facilities, adopting effective teaching strategies, universal FAT education and specialized training skills. Conclusions: The two key requirements of the first aid and transportation courses are practicality and managerial engagement. We developed and provided specific guidance of FAT curriculum by using the study findings. This curriculum is recommended for educating FAT staffs, paramedics, emergency technicians, and military nurses. PMID:25825700

  12. Real cases study through computer applications for futures Agricultural Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moratiel, R.; Durán, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    One of the huge concerns on the higher engineer education is the lag of real cases study that the future professionals need in the work and corporation market. This concern was reflected in Bologna higher education system including recommendations in this respect. The knowhow as why this or other methodology is one of the keys to resolve this problem. In the last courses given in Department of Crop Production, at the Agronomy Engineer School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, UPM) we have developed more than one hundred applications in Microsoft Excel®. Our aim was to show different real scenarios which the future Agronomic Engineers can be found in their professional life and with items related to crop production field. In order to achieve our target, each application in Excel presents a file text in which is explained the theoretical concepts and the objectives, as well as some resources used from Excel syntax. In this way, the student can understand and use of such application, even they can modify and customize it for a real case presented in their context and/or master project. This electronic monograph gives an answer to the need to manage data in several real scenarios showed in lectures, calculus resolution, information analysis and manage worksheets in a professional and student level.

  13. A review of studies of parent-child communication about sexuality and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Parent-child sexuality communication has been identified as a protective factor for adolescent sexual and reproductive health, including HIV infection. The available literature on this topic in sub-Saharan Africa is increasing; however a systematic review of studies has not been conducted. This article reviews the literature in the area of parental or caregiver and child communication about sexuality and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. A review of peer reviewed literature published between 1980 and April 2011 was conducted. Communication process studies investigating the frequency, content, style, tone of discussions, preferences, as well as associations with and barriers to sexuality communication are reviewed. In addition, studies which examine behavioral associations with parent-child sexuality communication, and intervention studies to improve parent-child sexuality communication are examined. The findings from process studies suggest wide variation in terms of frequency of discussions, with a range of socio-demographic and other factors associated with sexuality communication. Overall, findings demonstrate that discussions tend to be authoritarian and uni-directional, characterized by vague warnings rather than direct, open discussion. Moreover, parents and young people report a number of barriers to open dialogue, including lack of knowledge and skills, as well as cultural norms and taboos. Findings are less clear when it comes to associations between parental communication and adolescent sexual activity and contraception use. However, nascent indications from intervention research suggest positive findings with increases in frequency and comfort of discussions, among other outcomes. Gaps in the research are identified and discussed with implications for future studies. PMID:21943095

  14. Genetic studies of Crohn's disease: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jimmy Z.; Anderson, Carl A.

    2014-01-01

    The exact aetiology of Crohn's disease is unknown, though it is clear from early epidemiological studies that a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors contributes to an individual's disease susceptibility. Here, we review the history of gene-mapping studies of Crohn's disease, from the linkage-based studies that first implicated the NOD2 locus, through to modern-day genome-wide association studies that have discovered over 140 loci associated with Crohn's disease and yielded novel insights into the biological pathways underlying pathogenesis. We describe on-going and future gene-mapping studies that utilise next generation sequencing technology to pinpoint causal variants and identify rare genetic variation underlying Crohn's disease risk. We comment on the utility of genetic markers for predicting an individual's disease risk and discuss their potential for identifying novel drug targets and influencing disease management. Finally, we describe how these studies have shaped and continue to shape our understanding of the genetic architecture of Crohn's disease. PMID:24913378

  15. LIFESPAN: A tool for the computer-aided design of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596

  16. LIFESPAN: A tool for the computer-aided design of longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Brandmaier, Andreas M; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596

  17. Tensile behavior of TRIP-aided multi-phase steels studied by in situ neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Tomota, Y. . E-mail: tomota@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp; Tokuda, H.; Adachi, Y.; Wakita, M.; Minakawa, N.; Moriai, A.; Morii, Y.

    2004-12-01

    TRIP-aided multi-phase steels were made by thermo-mechanically controlled process, where the ferrite grain size and the amount of the retained austenite were changed by controlling process conditions. The tensile behavior of four steels was studied by in situ neutron diffraction. It is found that the retained austenite bearing about 1.0 wt% C is plastically harder than the ferrite matrix. The steel with a ferrite grain size of {approx}2.0 {mu}m showed tensile strength of 1.1 GPa and a uniform elongation of 18.4%, in which stress-induced martensitic transformation occurs during plastic deformation but a considerable amount of austenite remains even after the onset of necking. It is concluded that the enhancement of uniform elongation is caused mainly by the work-hardening due to the hard austenite and martensite, where the contribution of the transformation strain is negligible.

  18. User acceptance of intelligent avionics: A study of automatic-aided target recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Curtis A.; Hayes, Brian C.; Gorman, Patrick C.

    1991-01-01

    User acceptance of new support systems typically was evaluated after the systems were specified, designed, and built. The current study attempts to assess user acceptance of an Automatic-Aided Target Recognition (ATR) system using an emulation of such a proposed system. The detection accuracy and false alarm level of the ATR system were varied systematically, and subjects rated the tactical value of systems exhibiting different performance levels. Both detection accuracy and false alarm level affected the subjects' ratings. The data from two experiments suggest a cut-off point in ATR performance below which the subjects saw little tactical value in the system. An ATR system seems to have obvious tactical value only if it functions at a correct detection rate of 0.7 or better with a false alarm level of 0.167 false alarms per square degree or fewer.

  19. Globalization and its methodological discontents: Contextualizing globalization through the study of HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There remains considerable discontent between globalization scholars about how to conceptualize its meaning and in regards to epistemological and methodological questions concerning how we can come to understand how these processes ultimately operate, intersect and transform our lives. This article argues that to better understand what globalization is and how it affects issues such as global health, we must take a differentiating approach, which focuses on how the multiple processes of globalization are encountered and informed by different social groups and with how these encounters are experienced within particular contexts. The article examines the heuristic properties of qualitative field research as a means to help better understand how the intersections of globalization are manifested within particular locations. To do so, the article focuses on three recent case studies conducted on globalization and HIV/AIDS and explores how these cases can help us to understand the contextual permutations involved within the processes of globalization. PMID:21861895

  20. Mixed Membership Trajectory Models of Cognitive Impairment in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Molsberry, Samantha A.; Lecci, Fabrizio; Kingsley, Lawrence; Junker, Brian; Reynolds, Sandra; Goodkin, Karl; Levine, Andrew J.; Martin, Eileen; Miller, Eric N.; Munro, Cynthia A.; Ragin, Ann; Sacktor, Ned; Becker, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The longitudinal trajectories that individuals may take from a state of normal cognition to HIV-associated dementia are unknown. We applied a novel statistical methodology to identify trajectories to cognitive impairment, and factors that affected the “closeness” of an individual to one of the canonical trajectories. Design The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is a four-site longitudinal study of the natural and treated history of HIV Disease among gay and bisexual men. Methods Using data from 3,892 men (both HIV-infected and uninfected) enrolled in the neuropsychology substudy of the MACS, a Mixed Membership Trajectory Model (MMTM) was applied to capture the pathways from normal cognitive function to mild impairment to severe impairment. MMTMs allow the data to identify canonical pathways and to model the effects of risk factors on an individual’s “closeness” to these trajectories. Results We identified three distinct trajectories to cognitive impairment – one “normal aging” (low probability of mild impairment until age 60), one “premature aging” (mild impairment starting at age 45–50), and one “unhealthy” (mild impairment in 20s and 30s) profile. Second, clinically defined AIDS and not simply HIV Disease, was associated with closeness to the premature aging trajectory. And, third, Hepatitis-C infection, Depression, Race, Recruitment Cohort and Confounding Conditions all affected individual’s closeness to these trajectories. Conclusions These results provide new insight into the natural history of cognitive dysfunction in HIV disease and provide evidence for a potential difference in the pathophysiology of the development of cognitive impairment based on trajectories to impairment. PMID:25565498

  1. [Health economic evaluation of AIDS response].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiangping

    2015-06-01

    During the past over 20 years of AIDS response in China, different fields from the international society and domestic sources provide significant amounts of resources for China's AIDS response. The investment, distribution and use of these resources and their effect has become the concern of the society. The health economic evaluation method is used to scientifically answer these questions, which is also the motivation of the evaluation studies. Based on several studies on health economic evaluation of AIDS response in this issue, concepts and issues related to this area are summarized. It is important for the readers to make a point of health economics evaluation, and it is also of great importance to know its limitations to provide the basis for future proper use of AIDS health economic evaluation results. PMID:26310326

  2. Ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS and correlation with CD4+ cells count among adult HIV/AIDS patients in Jimma town, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS is one of twenty first century’s challenges to human being with protean manifestation affecting nearly all organs of our body. It is causing high morbidity and mortality especially in sub-Saharan Africa with numerous ocular complications and blindness. The purpose of this study was to determine the patterns of ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS and their correlation with CD4+Tcells count. Methods A cross-sectional study was done on 348 HIV-positive patients presented to Anti-Retroviral Therapy clinics. Data were collected using face-to-face interview, clinical examination and laboratory investigation, and analyzed using SPSS version 13 software. Statistical association test was done and p<0.05 was considered significant. Other statistical tests like student t-test and logistic regression were also done. Results Of 348 patients, 175 were on antiretroviral therapy and 173 were not on therapy. The mean duration of therapy was 27 months. The overall prevalence of ocular manifestations was 25.3%. The commonest ocular manifestation was keratoconjunctivitis sicca (11.3%) followed by blepharitis (3.2%), molluscum contagiosum (2.6%), conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (2.3%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (2.3%), cranial nerve palsies (2%), herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) (1.2%), and HIV retinopathy (0.6%). HIV retinopathy and conjunctival microvasculopathy were common in patient with CD4+ count of <200 cells/μl while HZO and molluscum contagiosum were common in patients with CD4+ count of 200–499 cells/μl. Prevalence of ocular manifestation was higher among patients on HAART (32.6%) than those patients not on HAART (17.9%) (p<0.05). There was statistically significant association between ocular manifestation and sex, CD4+Tcells count, and age (p<0.05). CD4+ count, <200 cells/μl and age >35 years were independent risk factors for ocular manifestations. Conclusion The study showed that the prevalence of ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS is

  3. The Biology of HIV/AIDS: A Case Study in Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caccavo, Frank, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a project for the Biology of HIV/AIDS course for undergraduate biology majors. This project challenged science students to engage the community on two different levels. They first had to interact directly and personally with HIV/AIDS activists. The proposal then encouraged them to think about and describe ways of engaging a…

  4. "And the Band Played on": Developing Ethical Leadership through a Case Study of the AIDS Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Sarah; Sathe, Laurie Anderson

    2008-01-01

    Randy Shilts (1987), author of "And the Band Played On: Politics, People and the AIDS Epidemic," uses the analogy of the sinking ship and the "band playing on" to draw attention to America's false sense of security in the midst of the growing AIDS crisis. We describe a doctoral curriculum in which students examine the conflicts inherent in their…

  5. Marketing Need-Based Financial Aid Programs: An Institutional Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities represent one of the most utilized sources of need-based financial aid information for students and families, and yet most research in access marketing is focused at the national and state levels. There is sparse published information about the effects of financial aid marketing observed through quantitative analysis, in…

  6. HIV/AIDS in Dance Education: A Pilot Study in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug; Thompson, Shara

    2005-01-01

    A pilot research project was conducted to address issues related to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in dance in higher education. The primary goals were to summarize the impact of HIV/AIDS on dance and dance education, to document the profession's response (research, curricula, programs,…

  7. Projecting the range of potential future climate change as an aid in the assessment of the effectiveness of the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, K.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program was organized to develop an in-place disposal capability for low-level nuclear waste for the US Department of Energy at the Hanford Site in south-eastern Washington. Layered earthen and engineered barriers are being developed by Westinghouse Hanford Company and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory that will function in what is presently a semiarid environment (annual precipitation 150 mm) for at least 1,000 yr by limiting the infiltration of water through the waste. The Long-Term Climate Change Task is one of several key barrier tasks. Based on the recommendation of a panel of internationally recognized climate and modeling experts, climatic data for this task is being acquired in a step-wise and multi-disciplinary manner. The specific research strategy includes literature review and specialized studies to obtain pollen-derived climatic reconstruction, documented historic weather patterns, and Global Circulation Model output of potential future climate changes related to both the greenhouse effect and the cycling into the next ice age. The specific goals of the task are to: (1) obtain defensible probabilistic projections of the long-term climate variability in the Hanford Site region at many different time scales into the future, (2) develop several test case climate scenarios that bracket the range of potential future climate, and (3) use the climate scenarios both to test and to model protective barrier performance.

  8. How funding structures for HIV/AIDS research shape outputs and utilization: a Swiss case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Research policy in the field of HIV has changed substantially in recent decades in Switzerland. Until 2004, social science research on HIV/AIDS was funded by specialized funding agencies. After 2004, funding of such research was “normalized” and integrated into the Swiss National Science Foundation as the main funding agency for scientific research in Switzerland. This paper offers a longitudinal analysis of the relationship between the changing nature of funding structures on the one hand and the production and communication of policy-relevant scientific knowledge in the field of HIV on the other hand. Methods The analysis relies on an inventory of all social sciences research projects on HIV in Switzerland that were funded between 1987 and 2010, including topics covered and disciplines involved, as well as financial data. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 stakeholders. Results The analysis highlights that the pre-2004 funding policy ensured good coverage of important social science research themes. Specific incentives and explicit promotion of social science research related to HIV gave rise to a multidisciplinary, integrative and health-oriented approach. The abolition of a specific funding policy in 2004 was paralleled by a drastic reduction in the number of social science research projects submitted for funding, and a decline of public money dedicated to such research. Although the public administration in charge of HIV policy still acknowledges the relevance of findings from social sciences for the development of prevention, treatment and care, HIV-related social science research does not flourish under current funding conditions. Conclusions The Swiss experience sheds light on the difficulties of sustaining social science research and multidisciplinary approaches related to HIV without specialized funding agencies. Future funding policy might not necessarily require specialized agencies, but should better take into

  9. Mental Health First Aid guidelines for helping a suicidal person: a Delphi consensus study in India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop guidelines for how a member of the Indian public should provide mental health first aid to a person who is suicidal. Methods The guidelines were produced by developing a questionnaire containing possible first aid actions and asking an expert panel of Indian mental health clinicians to rate whether each action should be included in the guidelines. The content of the questionnaire was based on a systematic search of the relevant evidence and claims made by authors of consumer and carer guides and websites. Experts were recruited by SC, EC and HM. The panel members were asked to complete the questionnaire by web survey. Three rounds of the rating were carried and, at the end of each round, items that reached the consensus criterion were selected for inclusion in the guidelines. During the first round, panel members were also asked to suggest any additional actions that were not covered in the original questionnaire (to include items that are relevant to local cultural circumstances, values, and social norms.). Responses to the open-ended questions were used to generate new items. Results The output from the Delphi process was a set of agreed upon action statements. The Delphi process started with 138 statements, 30 new items were written based on suggestions from panel members and, of these 168 items, 71 met the consensus criterion. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this paper. Translated versions of the guidelines will be produced and used for training. Conclusions There are a number of actions that are considered to be useful for members of the public when they encounter someone who is experiencing suicidal thoughts or engaging in suicidal behaviour. Although the guidelines are designed for members of the public, they may also be helpful to non-mental health professionals working in health and welfare settings. PMID:20167125

  10. Mental Health First Aid guidelines for helping a suicidal person: a Delphi consensus study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop guidelines for how a member of the Japanese public should provide mental health first aid to a person who is suicidal. Methods The guidelines were produced by developing a questionnaire containing possible first aid actions and asking an expert panel of 32 Japanese mental health professionals to rate whether each action should be included in the guidelines. The content of the questionnaire was based on a systematic search of the relevant evidence and claims made by authors of consumer and carer guides and websites. The panel members were asked to complete the questionnaire by web survey. Three rounds of the rating were carried and, at the end of each round, items that reached the consensus criterion were selected for inclusion in the guidelines. During the first round, panel members were also asked to suggest any additional actions that were not covered in the original questionnaire (to include items that are relevant to local cultural circumstances, values, and social norms). Responses to these open-ended questions were used to generate new items. Results The output from the Delphi process was a set of agreed upon action statements. The Delphi process started with 138 statements, 38 new items were written based on suggestions from panel members and, of these 176 items, 56 met the consensus criterion. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this article. Conclusions There are a number of actions that are considered to be useful for members of the Japanese public when they encounter someone who is experiencing suicidal thoughts or engaging in suicidal behaviour. Although the guidelines are designed for members of the public, they may also be helpful to health professionals working in health and welfare settings who do not have clinical mental health training. PMID:21592409

  11. Coupled Climate Model Appraisal a Benchmark for Future Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T J; AchutaRao, K; Bader, D; Covey, C; Doutriaux, C M; Fiorino, M; Gleckler, P J; Sperber, K R; Taylor, K E

    2005-08-22

    The Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) has produced an extensive appraisal of simulations of present-day climate by eleven representative coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (OAGCMs) which were developed during the period 1995-2002. Because projections of potential future global climate change are derived chiefly from OAGCMs, there is a continuing need to test the credibility of these predictions by evaluating model performance in simulating the historically observed climate. For example, such an evaluation is an integral part of the periodic assessments of climate change that are reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The PCMDI appraisal thus provides a useful benchmark for future studies of this type. The appraisal mainly analyzed multi-decadal simulations of present-day climate by models that employed diverse representations of climate processes for atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land, as well as different techniques for coupling these components (see Table). The selected models were a subset of those entered in phase 2 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP2, Covey et al. 2003). For these ''CMIP2+ models'', more atmospheric or oceanic variables were provided than the minimum requirements for participation in CMIP2. However, the appraisal only considered those climate variables that were supplied from most of the CMIP2+ models. The appraisal focused on three facets of the simulations of current global climate: (1) secular trends in simulation time series which would be indicative of a problematical ''coupled climate drift''; (2) comparisons of temporally averaged fields of simulated atmospheric and oceanic climate variables with available observational climatologies; and (3) correspondences between simulated and observed modes of climatic variability. Highlights of these climatic aspects manifested by different CMIP2+ simulations are briefly discussed here.

  12. A Quantitative Study of Teacher Readiness to Teach School-Based HIV/AIDS Education in Kenyan Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang'at, Edwin K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' self-perceived readiness to teach school-based HIV/AIDS Awareness and Prevention education in Kenyan primary schools based on their knowledge, attitudes and instructional confidence. This research utilized a non-experimental quantitative approach with a…

  13. 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12). Data File Documentation. NCES 2014-182

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer; Bryan, Michael; Siegel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methods and results for the 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12), conducted for the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), Washington, DC. The following legislation authorizes this and previous cycles of NPSAS, as well as two longitudinal studies deriving…

  14. Very Young Children Affected and Infected by HIV/AIDS: How are they Living?: A Case Study from Namibia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Otaala, Barnabas

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a recent study conducted jointly by the authors in the Khomas Region of Namibia. The study developed and trialled research and documentation methods regarding very young children who had been infected or affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Because of the stigma attached to the disease, effective methods for assessing "real"…

  15. Nurse Aide. D.O.T. No. 355.674-014. Student's Individualized Study Packet. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Developed for students in a cooperative training program in health occupations education, this study guide is designed for individualized study of competencies for nurse aides, orderlies, and attendants. It follows the general responsibilities outlined in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The occupational outlook and job description are first…

  16. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  17. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  18. International Scoping Study of a Future Accelerator NeutrinoComplex

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-06-21

    The International Scoping Study (ISS), launched at NuFact05 to evaluate the physics case for a future neutrino facility, along with options for the accelerator complex and detectors, is laying the foundations for a subsequent conceptual-design study. It is hosted by Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) and organized by the international community, with participants from Europe, Japan, and the U.S. Here we cover the work of the Accelerator Working Group. For the 4-MW proton driver, linacs, synchrotrons, and Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) rings are considered. For targets, issues of both liquid-metal and solid materials are examined. For beam conditioning, (phase rotation, bunching, and ionization cooling), we evaluate schemes both with and without cooling, the latter based on scaling-FFAG rings. For acceleration, we examine scaling FFAGs and hybrid systems comprising linacs, dogbone RLAs, and non-scaling FFAGs. For the decay ring, we consider racetrack and triangular shapes, the latter capable of simultaneously illuminating two different detectors at different long baselines. Comparisons are made between various technical approaches to identify optimum design choices.

  19. Requirement sensitivity studies for a future Landsat sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhaoyu; Montanaro, Matthew; Gerace, Aaron; Schott, John R.; Markham, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The Landsat program has collected imagery of the Earth for the past 40 years. Although both Landsat 7 and 8 are currently operating on-orbit, the next generation Landsat mission is already being planned. Concept studies for this mission include reproducing the Landsat 8 design (mainly push-broom imaging architecture). The definition of science requirements is an important step towards the development of instrument specifications. At this early stage, a re-evaluation of the Landsat requirements is beneficial since they might be flexible enough to relax in some areas to possibly save on manufacturing costs or may need to be tightened in other areas to produce better science products. The investigations presented here focused on spatial aliasing and spectral banding effects. The specifications of these two key performance requirements were taken from the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor as a starting point for the analyses. They were then adjusted to determine their effects on the final image products through the use of standard radiometry equations and synthetic Earth scene data. The results of the modeling efforts for these two requirements concepts are presented here and could be used as a template for future instrument studies.

  20. Feasibility study of an image slicer for future space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcines, A.; Ichimoto, K.

    2014-08-01

    This communication presents the feasibility study of an image slicer for future space missions, especially for the integral field unit (IFU) of the SUVIT (Solar UV-Visible-IR telescope) spectro-polarimeter on board the Japanese-led solar space mission Solar-C as a backup option. The MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera) image slicer concept, originally developed for the European Solar Telescope, has been adapted to the SUVIT requirements. The IFU will reorganizes a 2-D field of view of 10 x 10 arcsec2 into three slits of 0.18 arcsec width by 185.12 arcsec length using flat slicer mirrors of 100 μm width. The layout of MuSICa for Solar-C is telecentric and offers an optical quality limited by diffraction. The entrance for the SUVIT spectro-polarimeter is composed by the three IFU slits and one ordinal long slit to study, using high resolution spectro-polarimetry, the solar atmosphere (Photosphere and Chromosphere) within a spectral range between 520 nm (optionally 280 nm) and 1,100 nm.

  1. Federal Student Aid: Highlights of a Study Group on Simplifying the Free Application for Federal Student Aid. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Federal student aid is intended to play an integral part in fulfilling the promise of greater academic access and success for less affluent students. However, many experts have expressed concern about the length and complexity of the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) and the statutory need analysis formula used to determine aid…

  2. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  3. Future volcanic lake research: revealing secrets from poorly studied lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouwet, D.; Tassi, F.; Mora-Amador, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanic lake research boosted after the 1986 Lake Nyos lethal gas burst, a limnic rather than volcanic event. This led to the formation of the IAVCEI-Commission on Volcanic Lakes, which grew out into a multi-disciplinary scientific community since the 1990's. At Lake Nyos, a degassing pipe is functional since 2001, and two additional pipes were added in 2011, aimed to prevent further limnic eruption events. There are between 150 and 200 volcanic lakes on Earth. Some acidic crater lakes topping active magmatic-hydrothermal systems are monitored continuously or discontinuously. Such detailed studies have shown their usefulness in volcanic surveillance (e.g. Ruapehu, Yugama-Kusatsu-Shiran, Poás). Others are "Nyos-type" lakes, with possible gas accumulation in bottom waters and thus potentially hazardous. "Nyos-type" lakes tend to remain stably stratified in tropical and sub-tropical climates (meromictic), leading to long-term gas build-up and thus higher potential risk. In temperate climates, such lakes tend to turn over in winter (monomictic), and thus liberating its gas charge yearly. We line out research strategies for the different types of lakes. We believe a complementary, multi-disciplinary approach (geochemistry, geophysics, limnology, biology, statistics, etc.) will lead to new insights and ideas, which can be the base for future following-up and monitoring. After 25 years of pioneering studies on rather few lakes, the scientific community should be challenged to study the many poorly studied volcanic lakes, in order to better constrain the related hazard, based on probabilistic approaches.

  4. Left ventricular systolic function in Nigerian children infected with HIV/AIDS: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Arodiwe, Ijeoma; Anthony, Ikefuna; Egbuna, Obidike; Ngozi, Ibeziako; Arodiwe, Ejikeme; Anisuba, Bennedict; Omokoidion, Sunday; Okoroma, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Cardiac complications contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in children with HIV/AIDS. These rates have been under-reported in sub-Saharan African children. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional Doppler echocardiographic study of ventricular systolic function, performed at a tertiary clinic on children with HIV/AIDS. Results Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was present in 27.0% of the children with HIV infection and 81.2% of those with AIDS. The mean fractional shortening in the AIDS group (31.6 ± 9.5%) was significantly lower than in the HIV-infected group (35.3 ± 10.5%, p = 0.001). A significant correlation was found with CD4+ cell count and age, and these were the best predictors of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in the stepwise multiple regression analysis (r = 0.396, p = 0.038; r = –0.212, p = 0.025, respectively). Conclusion Left ventricular systolic dysfunction is common in Nigerian children with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26956496

  5. APPLICATION OF COMPUTER AIDED TOMOGRAPHY (CAT) TO THE STUDY OF MARINE BENTIC COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores were imaged using a Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) scanner at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Procedures were developed, using the attenuation of X-rays, to differentiate between sediment and the water contained in macrobenthic...

  6. Nuclear Structure Studies at the Future FAIR facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, Berta

    2010-04-26

    This article is intended to be an introduction to studies of nuclear structure at the future FAIR facility. It addresses interested readers not necessarily expert in the field. It outlines the physics aims and experiments to be carried out at FAIR in the field of nuclear structure and astrophysics. Starting with a brief description of what can be achieved in experiments with intense, high quality stable beams the article leads the reader to how beams of unstable radioactive nuclei will be produced and exploited at FAIR. The characteristics of the beams from the main separation device, the Super-FRS, are outlined and the limitations they impose on experiment are discussed. The various setups at the three experimental branches associated with the Super-FRS are described. The aims of the various experimental setups, how they complement each other and the physics they will address are all explained. The concept of the r-process of nucleosynthesis is outlined at the beginning and used as a running example of how useful it will be to be able to carry out experiments with beams of short-lived, exotic ions.

  7. Future X-ray Missions to Study Relativistic Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2011-09-01

    In order to revolutionize the current understanding of the high energy universe, a number of new X-ray missions are being developed and planned. Among them, e-ROSITA/SRG, NuSTAR, ASTROSAT, GEMS and ASTRO-H will be realized in the next decade. And then, much larger missions, such as IXO, have been proposed for the 2020's. NuSTAR and ASTRO-H will open up completely new field of spatial studies of non-thermal emission above 10 keV by hard X-ray telescopes. They will also uniquely allow mapping of the spatial extent of the hard X-ray emission in diffuse sources, thus tracing the sites of particle acceleration in structures ranging in size from clusters of galaxies down to supernova remnants. Multi-wavelength spectra by ASTROSAT and ASTRO-H are indispensable to understand physical processes in high energy phenomena, such as particle acceleration in the Universe. Imaging spectroscopy with an energy resolution <5-7 eV brought by the micro-calorimeter onboard ASTRO-H can reveal line broadening and Doppler shifts due to turbulent or bulk velocities in extended sources. GEMS will perform the first sensitive X-ray polarization survey of several classes of X-ray emitting sources characterized by strong gravitational or magnetic fields. Here we present the key science goals for future X-ray missions designed to address a number of fundamental questions in contemporary astrophysics.

  8. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Study Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postman, Marc; Thronson, Harley A.; Feinberg, Lee; Redding, David; Stahl, H. Philip

    2015-01-01

    The scientific drivers for very high angular resolution coupled with very high sensitivity and wavefront stability in the UV and optical wavelength regime have been well established. These include characterization of exoplanets in the habitable zones of solar type stars, probing the physical properties of the circumgalactic medium around z < 2 galaxies, and resolving stellar populations across a broad range of galactic environments. The 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the 2013 NASA Science Mission Directorate 30-Year Roadmap identified a large-aperture UVOIR observatory as a priority future space mission. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI team has extended several earlier studies of the technology and engineering requirements needed to design and build a single filled aperture 10-meter class space-based telescope that can enable these ambitious scientific observations. We present here an overview of our new technical work including a brief summary of the reference science drivers as well as in-depth investigations of the viable telescope architectures, the requirements on thermal control and active wavefront control systems, and the range of possible launch configurations.

  9. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 7: Top down functional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The functions are identified and described in chart form as a tree in which the basic functions, to 'Provide National Identification Service,' are shown at the top. The lower levels of the tree branch out to indicate functions and sub-functions. Symbols are used to indicate whether or not a function was automated in the AIDS 1 or 2 system or is planned to be automated in the AIDS 3 system. The tree chart is shown in detail.

  10. Social representation of hearing aids: cross-cultural study in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Danermark, Berth; Vinay; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Tomé, David; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Germundsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study was aimed at understanding the social representation of hearing aids in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. We also compared these results to explore the cross-cultural differences and similarities among these countries. Methods The study involved a cross-sectional design, and the data were collected from four different countries using the snowball sampling method. Data were analyzed using a content analysis to identify the most-similar categories of responses reported, a co-occurrences analysis to see which of these categories are reported commonly, and a chi-square analysis to study if there was any association between positive, neutral, and negative connotations among participants in different countries. Results The current study revealed four different social representations of hearing aids from India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom, and also a global index. Conclusion The study results provide very useful insights into how hearing aids are represented in the society. These findings may have important implications for public education and also for manufacturers from the viewpoint of designing and marketing hearing aids in different countries. PMID:26504376

  11. Cohort Profile: Recruitment cohorts in the neuropsychological substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Becker, James T; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Molsberry, Samantha; Reynolds, Sandra; Aronow, Aaron; Levine, Andrew J; Martin, Eileen; Miller, Eric N; Munro, Cynthia A; Ragin, Ann; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola A

    2015-10-01

    The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is one of the largest and longest running studies of the natural and treated history of HIV disease. The Neuropsychological (NP) substudy was begun in 1988 following reports of significant adverse neurological consequences of HIV disease, including dementia. The goal was to characterize the neuropsychological deficits among individuals with HIV disease, and track the natural history of the neurological complications over time. There were three distinct MACS recruitment stages that focused on different groups of HIV-infected men, or men at risk for infection. Initially, a subcohort was evaluated semi-annually with NP tests but, beginning in 2005, the entire group of MACS participants have had NP examinations biannually, unless closer follow-up was warranted. The participants complete a battery of NP tests, and are classified as either normal, mildly or severely impaired using the Antinori criteria for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND). Additional behavioural data, including mood state and psychoactive substance use, are recorded as part of the main MACS data collection. The MACS public data set (PDS) has been available since 1994 and includes baseline and 6-monthly follow-up data. Beginning in October 1995, the PDS has been released annually with new releases superseding previous versions. PMID:24771276

  12. Disclosure Pattern of Self-Labeled People Living with HIV/AIDS on Chinese Social Networking Site: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin; Tian, Xianyun; Yu, Guang; He, Fang

    2016-08-01

    HIV/AIDS is an important public health issue in China. The number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has been increasing since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. PLWHA's life quality is becoming an important issue, with lack of research in China. In this study, a group of PLWHA (n = 663) was identified using HIV/AIDS relevant usernames on a Chinese social networking site (Weibo) to study their daily living situations. We found that more than 99.10% of PLWHA were male, among whom 90.80% turned out to be homosexual. They had significantly more fans and followees, but fewer postings compared to the general population. The mean age of the PLWHA was 28.96 (SD = 5.05) years old, and southwest and northwest China had a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. In addition, PLWHA's postings were coded and we found that more than half of the postings (n = 769, 51.03%) contained strong emotions. Less than one-fifth of the postings were directly related to HIV/AIDS topics (n = 269, 17.85%), while seeking emotional support, such as looking for stable partnership, was ranked as the first priority of support seeking. In summary, we found that the majority of the self-labeled PLWHA were likely to be men who have sex with men. They used Weibo to share their daily life events and seek emotional support. Implications for promoting HIV/AIDS education and prevention through Chinese social networking sites were also discussed. PMID:27494331

  13. Proceedings of the International Conference on AIDS and Homeless Youth: An Agenda for the Future (1st, San Francisco, California, June 25, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, G. Cajetan; And Others

    This proceedings of the first international conference on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and homeless youth included over 125 delegates from 32 countries. There was strong consensus among delegates that street youth are often in high and multiple Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk situations, and programmatic responses are needed.…

  14. Design Study of Wafer Seals for Future Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H.; Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; DeMange, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Future hypersonic vehicles require high temperature, dynamic seals in advanced hypersonic engines and on the vehicle airframe to seal the perimeters of movable panels, flaps, and doors. Current seals do not meet the demanding requirements of these applications, so NASA Glenn Research Center is developing improved designs to overcome these shortfalls. An advanced ceramic wafer seal design has shown promise in meeting these needs. Results from a design of experiments study performed on this seal revealed that several installation variables played a role in determining the amount of leakage past the seals. Lower leakage rates were achieved by using a tighter groove width around the seals, a higher seal preload, a tighter wafer height tolerance, and a looser groove length. During flow testing, a seal activating pressure acting behind the wafers combined with simulated vibrations to seat the seals more effectively against the sealing surface and produce lower leakage rates. A seal geometry study revealed comparable leakage for full-scale wafers with 0.125 and 0.25 in. thicknesses. For applications in which lower part counts are desired, fewer 0.25-in.-thick wafers may be able to be used in place of 0.125-in.-thick wafers while achieving similar performance. Tests performed on wafers with a rounded edge (0.5 in. radius) in contact with the sealing surface resulted in flow rates twice as high as those for wafers with a flat edge. Half-size wafers had leakage rates approximately three times higher than those for full-size wafers.

  15. Paraprofessional Teacher Aide to Teacher: An Oral History Study of Five Alumnae of the Career Opportunities Program (COP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Annette

    2010-01-01

    This oral history study addressed the problem of under-representation of minority teachers through the voices and perspectives of five African American female paraprofessional teacher aides who entered the teaching profession through participation in the Career Opportunities Program in Erie, Pennsylvania from 1970 through 1974. Two theoretical…

  16. Striving toward Self-Sufficiency: A Qualitative Study of Mutual Aid in an Old Order Mennonite Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingrich, Luann Good; Lightman, Ernie

    2006-01-01

    Most contemporary groups limit attempts of mutuality to specific instances of need. This paper reports on a qualitative study of the structures and systems of mutual aid in a traditional, closed ethnoreligious Old Order Mennonite community in Ontario. We examine the structural characteristics, systems of mutuality, tensions, and conflicts that…

  17. Grief-Processing-Based Psychological Intervention for Children Orphaned by AIDS in Central China: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Wenrui; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2014-01-01

    A group of 124 children orphaned by AIDS (COA), who resided in two orphanages funded by the Chinese government, participated in a study investigating the efficacy of a grief-processing-based psychological group intervention. This psychological intervention program was designed to specifically help COA process their grief and reduce their…

  18. Teaching Our Teachers To Teach: A SIECUS Study On Training and Preparation for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Sexuality Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Monica; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study looked at whether teacher education programs at 169 institutions offered courses designed to prepare preservice teachers to teach health education, sex education, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency System (HIV/AIDS) prevention education. Using course catalogs to allow for a systematic comparison of programs,…

  19. AIDS-Related Stigmas and Safe-Sex Practices of African-American College Students: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Donald S., Jr.

    This study examined the safe-sex practices of African-American colleges students in light of culturally-specific beliefs that stigmatize Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the African-American community. A total of 21 self-selected, sexually-active African-American students (15 females and 6 males) aged 18-22 completed the AIDS…

  20. [First-aid training at work on interpersonal development: exploratory study on employees in integration into the workplace centres].

    PubMed

    Lafitte, Pascale; Bridot, Michel; Semedo, Luis; Gagnayre, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Research and Security and the “CHANTIER Ecole” network have developed first-aid training for employees of integration into the workplace centres. Specifically geared towards workplace safety, but similar in its content to home first-aid and rescue training, this training is also designed to enhance individual and collective responsibility and citizenship. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the personal and interpersonal effects of first-aid training of these employees by considering their social and professional difficulties in terms of psychosocial skills, such as empowerment, stress and emotions management, and decision-making capacity. A descriptive-inductive study was conducted over 18 months based on the grounded theory approach. Five integration into the work-place centres participated in the study and 34 interviews were conducted. These results raise several questions concerning: a) the characteristics of this public targeted by this training and their perception of integration into the workplace; b) the suitability of this training to working conditions and the link with other types of training such as family health education; c) the relationship between citizenship training and first-aid training at work, as it is more applicable to family training than workplace training. A quantitative study is considered to confirm these observations in other integration into the workplace centres. PMID:27392050

  1. 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12). Data File Documentation. NCES 2014-182

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer; Bryan, Michael; Siegel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methods and results for the 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12), conducted for the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), Washington, DC. The following legislation authorizes this and previous cycles of NPSAS, as well as two longitudinal studies…

  2. 2004 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:04) Field Test Methodology Report. Working Paper Series. NCES 2005-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccobono, J.; Siegel, P.; Cominole, M.; Dudley, K.; Charleston, S.; Link, M.

    2005-01-01

    The 2004 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:04), conducted for the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), collected comprehensive data regarding how students and their families pay for postsecondary education. The primary objective of NPSAS:04 is to produce reliable national estimates of…

  3. A State-of-the-Art Review of the Real-Time Computer-Aided Study of the Writing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M.

    2008-01-01

    Writing researchers have developed various methods for investigating the writing process since the 1970s. The early 1980s saw the occurrence of the real-time computer-aided study of the writing process that relies on the protocols generated by recording the computer screen activities as writers compose using the word processor. This article…

  4. Comparing the effect of a decision aid plus patient navigation with usual care on colorectal cancer screening completion in vulnerable populations: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Screening can reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. However, screening is underutilized in vulnerable patient populations, particularly among Latinos. Patient-directed decision aids can increase CRC screening knowledge, self-efficacy, and intent; however, their effect on actual screening test completion tends to be modest. This is probably because decision aids do not address some of the patient-specific barriers that prevent successful completion of CRC screening in these populations. These individual barriers might be addressed though patient navigation interventions. This study will test a combined decision aid and patient navigator intervention on screening completion in diverse populations of vulnerable primary care patients. Methods/Design We will conduct a multisite, randomized controlled trial with patient-level randomization. Planned enrollment is 300 patients aged 50 to 75 years at average CRC risk presenting for appointments at two primary clinics in North Carolina and New Mexico. Intervention participants will view a video decision aid immediately before the clinic visit. The 14 to 16 minute video presents information about fecal occult blood tests and colonoscopy and will be viewed on a portable computer tablet in English or Spanish. Clinic-based patient navigators are bilingual and bicultural and will provide both face-to-face and telephone-based navigation. Control participants will view an unrelated food safety video and receive usual care. The primary outcome is completion of a CRC screening test at six months. Planned subgroup analyses include examining intervention effectiveness in Latinos, who will be oversampled. Secondarily, the trial will evaluate the intervention effects on knowledge of CRC screening, self-efficacy, intent, and patient-provider communication. The study will also examine whether patient ethnicity, acculturation, language preference, or health insurance status moderate the intervention effect on

  5. Understanding the effects of PEMFC contamination from balance of plant assembly aids materials: In situ studies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Opu, Md.; Bender, G.; Macomber, Clay S.; Van Zee, J. W.; Dinh, Huyen N.

    2015-06-29

    In this study, in situ performance data were measured to assess the degree of contamination from leachates of five families of balance of plant (BOP) materials (i.e., 2-part adhesive, grease, thread lock/seal, silicone adhesive/seal and urethane adhesive/seal) broadly classified as assembly aids that may be used as adhesives and lubricants in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. Leachate solutions, derived from soaking the materials in deionized (DI) water at elevated temperature, were infused into the fuel cell to determine the effect of the leachates on fuel cell performance. During the contamination phase of the experiments, leachate solution was introducedmore » through a nebulizer into the cathode feed stream of a 50 cm2 PEMFC operating at 0.2 A/cm2 at 80°C and 32%RH. Voltage loss and high frequency resistance (HFR) were measured as a function of time and electrochemical surface area (ECA) before and after contamination were compared. Two procedures of recovery, one self-induced recovery with DI water and one driven recovery through cyclic voltammetry (CV) were investigated. Finally, performance results measured before and after contamination and after CV recovery are compared and discussed.« less

  6. Understanding the effects of PEMFC contamination from balance of plant assembly aids materials: In situ studies

    SciTech Connect

    Opu, Md.; Bender, G.; Macomber, Clay S.; Van Zee, J. W.; Dinh, Huyen N.

    2015-06-29

    In this study, in situ performance data were measured to assess the degree of contamination from leachates of five families of balance of plant (BOP) materials (i.e., 2-part adhesive, grease, thread lock/seal, silicone adhesive/seal and urethane adhesive/seal) broadly classified as assembly aids that may be used as adhesives and lubricants in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. Leachate solutions, derived from soaking the materials in deionized (DI) water at elevated temperature, were infused into the fuel cell to determine the effect of the leachates on fuel cell performance. During the contamination phase of the experiments, leachate solution was introduced through a nebulizer into the cathode feed stream of a 50 cm2 PEMFC operating at 0.2 A/cm2 at 80°C and 32%RH. Voltage loss and high frequency resistance (HFR) were measured as a function of time and electrochemical surface area (ECA) before and after contamination were compared. Two procedures of recovery, one self-induced recovery with DI water and one driven recovery through cyclic voltammetry (CV) were investigated. Finally, performance results measured before and after contamination and after CV recovery are compared and discussed.

  7. Role of computer aided detection (CAD) integration: case study with meniscal and articular cartilage CAD applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdar, Nabile; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Saiprasad, Ganesh; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    Knee-related injuries involving the meniscal or articular cartilage are common and require accurate diagnosis and surgical intervention when appropriate. With proper techniques and experience, confidence in detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage abnormalities can be quite high. However, for radiologists without musculoskeletal training, diagnosis of such abnormalities can be challenging. In this paper, the potential of improving diagnosis through integration of computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms for automatic detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries of the knees is studied. An integrated approach in which the results of algorithms evaluating either meniscal tears or articular cartilage injuries provide feedback to each other is believed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the individual CAD algorithms due to the known association between abnormalities in these distinct anatomic structures. The correlation between meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries is exploited to improve the final diagnostic results of the individual algorithms. Preliminary results from the integrated application are encouraging and more comprehensive tests are being planned.

  8. Revegetation of extremely acid mine soils based on aided phytostabilization: A case study from southern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Liao, Bin; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Chai, Li-Yuan; Li, Jin-Tian

    2016-08-15

    Acidification is a major constraint for revegetation of sulphidic metal-contaminated soils, as exemplified by the limited literature reporting the successful phytostabilization of mine soils associated with pH<3 and high acidification potential. In this study, a combination of ameliorants (lime and chicken manure) and five acid-tolerant plant species has been employed in order to establish a self-sustaining vegetation cover on an extremely acid (pH<3) polymetallic pyritic mine waste heap in southern China exhibiting high acidification potential. The results from the first two-year data showed that the addition of the amendments and the establishment of a plant cover were effective in preventing soil acidification. Net acid-generating potential of the mine soil decreased steadily, whilst pH and acid neutralization capacity increased over time. All the five acid-tolerant plants colonized successfully in the acidic metal-contaminated soil and developed a good vegetation cover within six months, and subsequent vegetation development enhanced organic matter accumulation and nutrient element status in the mine soil. The two-year remediation program performed on this extremely acid metalliferous soil indicated that aided phytostabilization can be a practical and effective restoration strategy for such extremely acid mine soils. PMID:27100018

  9. Cognitive Aids for Role Definition (CARD) to improve interprofessional team crisis resource management: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Renna, Tania Di; Crooks, Simone; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann; Clarkin, Chantalle; Fraser, Amy B; Bunting, Alexandra C; Bould, M Dylan; Boet, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the perceived value of the Cognitive Aids for Role Definition (CARD) protocol for simulated intraoperative cardiac arrests. Sixteen interprofessional operating room teams completed three consecutive simulated intraoperative cardiac arrest scenarios: current standard, no CARD; CARD, no CARD teaching; and CARD, didactic teaching. Each team participated in a focus group interview immediately following the third scenario; data were transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analysed. After 6 months, participants formed eight new teams randomised to two groups (CARD or no CARD) and completed a retention intraoperative cardiac arrest simulation scenario. All simulation sessions were video recorded and expert raters assessed team performance. Qualitative analysis of the 16 focus group interviews revealed 3 thematic dimensions: role definition in crisis management; logistical issues; and the "real life" applicability of CARD. Members of the interprofessional team perceived CARD very positively. Exploratory quantitative analysis found no significant differences in team performance with or without CARD (p > 0.05). In conclusion, qualitative data suggest that the CARD protocol clarifies roles and team coordination during interprofessional crisis management and has the potential to improve the team performance. The concept of a self-organising team with defined roles is promising for patient safety. PMID:27294389

  10. Ab initio study of the O4H(+) novel species: spectroscopic fingerprints to aid its observation.

    PubMed

    Xavier, F George D; Hernández-Lamoneda, Rámon

    2015-06-28

    A detailed ab initio characterization of the structural, energetic and spectroscopic properties of the novel O4H(+) species is presented. The equilibrium structures and relative energies of all multiplet states have been determined systematically by analyzing static and dynamical correlation effects. The two and three body dissociation processes have been studied and indicate the presence of conical intersections in various states including the ground state. Comparison with available thermochemical data is very good, supporting the applied methodology. The reaction, H3(+) + O4→ O4H(+) + H2, was found to be exothermic ΔH = -19.4 kcal mol(-1) and therefore, it is proposed that the product in the singlet state could be formed in the interstellar medium (ISM) via collision processes. To aid in its laboratory or radioastronomy detection in the interstellar medium we determined spectroscopic fingerprints. It is estimated for the most stable geometry of O4H(+) dipole allowed electronic transitions in the visible region at 429 nm and 666 nm, an intense band at 1745 cm(-1) in the infrared and signals at 40.6, 81.2 and 139.2 GHz in the microwave region at 10, 50 and 150 K respectively, relevant for detection in the ISM. PMID:26028209

  11. Machine-Aided Indexing for NASA STI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of machine aided indexing as part of NASA's information systems. The discussion covers reasons for incorporating machine aided indexing, the lexical dictionary used, subject switching, natural language processing, benefits to the system, and possible future developments. (CLB)

  12. Trends in Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

    This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance available to postsecondary students in the form of grants, loans, and work-study. The data cover virtually all federal aid and most state and institutional assistance; not included in the study is financial aid in the form of indirect subsidies, students' wages, employer-paid…

  13. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Cuervo-Rojas, Juliana; Muñoz, Alvaro; Palella, Frank J.; Post, Wendy; Witt, Mallory D.; Budoff, Matthew; Kuller, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of HIV infection and cumulative exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with the presence and extent of coronary artery calcification (CAC). Design A cross-sectional study of 947 male participants (332 HIV-seronegative, 84 HAART-naive and 531 HAART-experienced HIV-infected) from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Methods The main outcome was CAC score calculated as the geometric mean of the Agatston scores of two computed tomography replicates. Presence of CAC was defined as calcification score above 10, and extent of CAC by the score for those with CAC present. Multivariable regression was used to evaluate the association between HIV infection and HAART and presence and extent of calcification. Results Increasing age was most strongly associated with both prevalence and extent of CAC for all study groups. After adjustment for age, race, family history, smoking, high-density lipoprotein-C, low-density lipoprotein-C and hypertension, HIV infection (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.70, 2.61) and long-term HAART use (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.87, 2.05) increased the odds for presence of CAC. In contrast, after adjustment for these covariates, the extent of CAC was lower among HAART users. Among those not taking lipid-lowering therapy, HAART usage of at least 8 years was associated with significantly reduced CAC scores (relative CAC score, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.24, 0.79). Conclusion HAART use may have different effects on the presence and extent of coronary calcification. Although prevalence of calcification was marginally increased among long-term HAART users, the extent of calcification was significantly reduced among HAART users compared with HIV-seronegative controls. PMID:18670218

  14. A controlled study of an HIV/AIDS/STI/TB intervention with faith healers in Vhembe District, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mashamba, Tshilidzi; Peltzer, Karl; Maluleke, Thelma X; Sodi, Tholene

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop an HIV and AIDS training manual, and to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and management of faith healers of Apostolic churches regarding HIV and AIDS, before and after they attended an HIV and AIDS training programme. A quasi-experimental intervention design was used with faith healers affiliated with the United African Apostolic Church (UAAC) in the Thulamela and Musina municipalities of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 103 faith healers were included in this study, 58 were systematically assigned to an intervention and 45 to a control group. The intervention group received training for 2 days. At follow-up after 2 months, intervention effects were significant for HIV knowledge and to a lesser extent TB knowledge. No significant improvement was found in HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) management strategies such as HIV/STI risk behaviour counselling, referral of clients for HIV testing, keeping condoms at stock in church, and church community HIV/AIDS/STI education. It is important to note that faith healers address some of the major known behavioural risk and protective factors such as partner reduction and condom use. Therefore, faith healers could be more widely utilized in HIV prevention programmes as risk reduction counsellors, in particular on matters of community-level education. PMID:22754060

  15. Survival of AIDS patients treated with traditional chinese medicine in rural central china: a retrospective cohort study, 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yantao; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhengwei; Jiang, Ziqiang; Guo, Huijun; Liu, Zhibin; Xu, Liran

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the survival of AIDS patients treated with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in addition to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and of AIDS patients treated with cART. Data of patients taking cART between 30 October 2003 and 30 October 2004 in the National TCM HIV Treatment Trial Program area were retrospectively analyzed, with follow-up from 30 October 2004 to 30 October 2012. The log-rank test was used to compare survival between the two groups. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine hazard ratios to identify prognostic factors. The study included 521 patients in the TCM + cART group followed up for 3548 person-years and 375 patients in the cART group followed up for 2523 person-years. Mortality rates were 3.2/100 person-years and 4.2/100 person-years in the TCM + cART and cART groups, respectively. The difference in survival was significant. After adjusting for explanatory variables, the mortality rate of AIDS patients in the cART group was 1.7 times higher than in the TCM + cART group. Male sex, older age, little education, and lower CD4 cell count were risk factors for mortality. TCM intervention in addition to cART could increase survival of AIDS patients. PMID:25821482

  16. Air Quality Study Using Satellites - Current Capability and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.; Joiner, Joanna; Gleason, James; Liu, Xiong; Torres, Omar; Krotkov, Nickolay; Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil

    2008-01-01

    how CAS affect the radiation at wavelengths that are used to derive the atmospheric constituents that affect air quality as well as the radiation that controls the photolysis of chemically active trace gases. We will discuss how we are using these new insights to design future satellite missions to study air quality.

  17. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  18. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  19. Gender and AIDS-related psychosocial processes: a study of perceived susceptibility, social distance, and homophobia.

    PubMed

    Schieman, S

    1998-06-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have accumulated evidence that suggests six main factors are associated with AIDS-related risk reduction behavior: (a) perceived susceptibility (Dolcini et al., 1995; van der Plight & Richard, 1994); (b) attitudes toward condoms (Catania et al., 1994; Maticka-Tynadale, 1991); (c) personally knowing someone with HIV/AIDS (Joseph et al., 1987); (d) perceived peer norms about risk-reduction (Maticka-Tyndale, 1991); (e) previous sexual activity (Joseph et al., 1987); and (f) self-efficacy (Aspinwall, Kemeny, Taylor, & Schneider, 1991; van der Plight & Richard, 1994). Furthermore, there is some suggestion that the epidemiology and sociocultural constructions of the disease has led to considerable gender, racial, and class differences in awareness of AIDS, perception of HIV threat, and HIV-relevant behavior (Cohan & Atwood, 1994; Dolcini et al., 1995; Gillies, 1994). PMID:9642424

  20. Economic study of future aircraft fuels (1970-2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, A. D., III

    1972-01-01

    Future aircraft fuels are evaluated in terms of fuel resource availability and pricing, processing methods, and economic projections over the period 1970-2000. Liquefied hydrogen, methane and propane are examined as potential turbine engine aircraft fuels relative to current JP fuel.

  1. The Study of the Future: An Agenda for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Wayne I., Ed.

    This collection of 18 papers is concerned with the beliefs, methods, practices, and results associated with the type of forecasting which has become known in the last 10 to 15 years as "futures research." Topics discussed include: (1) forecasting methodology; (2) the validity of forecasting systems; (3) unforeseen developments; (4) forecasting in…

  2. Feline immunodeficiency virus: an interesting model for AIDS studies and an important cat pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Bendinelli, M; Pistello, M; Lombardi, S; Poli, A; Garzelli, C; Matteucci, D; Ceccherini-Nelli, L; Malvaldi, G; Tozzini, F

    1995-01-01

    The lentivirus feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a widespread pathogen of the domestic cat that is mainly transmitted through bites, although other means of transmission are also possible. Its prevalence ranges from 1 to 10% in different cat populations throughout the world, thus representing a large reservoir of naturally infected animals. FIV resembles the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in many respects. Similarities include the structural features of the virion, the general organization and great variability of the genome, the life cycle in the infected host, and most importantly, the pathogenic potential. Infection is associated with laboratory signs of immunosuppression as well as with a large variety of superinfections, tumors, and neurological manifestations. Our understanding of FIV is steadily improving and is providing important clues to the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency-inducing lentiviruses. The cellular receptor for FIV is different from the feline equivalent of the human CD4 molecule used by HIV; nevertheless, the major hallmark of infection is a progressive loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes as in HIV infection. The mechanisms by which FIV escapes the host's immune responses are being actively investigated. FIV causes lysis of infected T cells and also appears to predispose these cells to apoptosis. Infection of macrophages and other cell types has also been documented. For reasons yet to be understood, antibody-mediated neutralization of fresh FIV isolates is very inefficient both in vitro and in vivo. Vaccination studies have provided some encouraging results, but the difficulties encountered appear to match those met in HIV vaccine development. FIV susceptibility to antiviral agents is similar to that of HIV, thus providing a valuable system for in vivo preclinical evaluation of therapies. It is concluded that in many respects FIV is an ideal model for AIDS studies. PMID:7704896

  3. AIDS and student attitudes.

    PubMed

    Merrill, J M; Laux, L; Thornby, J I

    1989-04-01

    When recently polled, one half of 4,100 physicians believed they had the right not to treat patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 15% said they would actually refuse to care for them. To assure medical care for the 365,000 AIDS patients projected for the US by 1992, it is imperative to know whether there is something unique about AIDS patients that produces aversion among physicians. We hypothesized that the desire to avoid AIDS patients derived from three fears: fear of contagion, homophobia, and a desire to avoid dying patients. To identify the extent to which these three fears affect the attitudes that students hold toward AIDS patients, we conducted three studies. In our first study, we discovered that students' views about a patient with a terminal illness are the same whether the illness is leukemia or AIDS. In the second study, we found that the patient's sexual preference was not the major reason students would avoid an AIDS patients. In a third study, we confirmed that fear of contagion is the principal cause of students' desire to avoid an AIDS patient. In the course of these studies, we found important differences between the attitudes of male and female students. Female students scored lower on the homophobic scale than male students, and they had less antipathy toward AIDS patients. Helping health care professionals understand their fears toward patients with AIDS will in the long run improve medical care. Since the origins of these fears are for the most part well hidden in our unconscious, dissemination of facts alone will not do the job. Interventions are needed to help health care professionals acknowledge and overcome their negative feelings about AIDS. PMID:2705068

  4. Planetary X-ray studies: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    Our solar system is a fascinating physics laboratory and X-ray observations are now firmly established as a powerful diagnostic tool of the multiple processes taking place in it. The science that X-rays reveal encompasses solar, space plasma and planetary physics, and the response of bodies in the solar system to the impact of the Sun's activity. This talk will review what we know from past observations and what we expect to learn in the short, medium and long term. Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton have demonstrated that the origin of Jupiter's bright soft X-ray aurorae lies in the Charge eXchange (CX) process, likely to involve the interaction with atmospheric neutrals of local magnetospheric ions, as well as those carried in the solar wind. At higher energies electron bremsstrahlung is thought to be the X-ray emitting mechanism, while the whole planetary disk acts as a mirror for the solar X-ray flux via Thomson and fluorescent scattering. This 'X-ray mirror' phenomenon is all that is observed from Saturn's disk, which otherwise lacks X-ray auroral features. The Earth's X-ray aurora is bright and variable and mostly due to electron bremsstrahlung and line emission from atmospheric species. Un-magnetised planets, Venus and Mars, do not show X-ray aurorae but display the interesting combination of mirroring the solar X-ray flux and producing X-rays by Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) in their exospheres. These processes respond to different solar stimulation (photons and solar wind plasma respectively) hence their relative contributions are seen to vary according to the Sun's output. Present and future of planetary X-ray studies are very bright. We are preparing for the arrival of the Juno mission at Jupiter this summer and for coordinated observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton on the approach and later during Juno's orbital phase. These will allow direct correlation of the local plasma conditions with the X-ray emissions and the establishment of the

  5. Technology-Aided Programs for Assisting Communication and Leisure Engagement of Persons with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Two Single-Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Ferlisi, Gabriele; Ferrarese, Giacomina; Zullo, Valeria; Addante, Luigi M.; Spica, Antonella; Oliva, Doretta

    2012-01-01

    Technology-aided programs for assisting communication and leisure engagement were assessed in single-case studies involving two men with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Study I involved a 51-year-old man with a virtually total loss of his motor repertoire and assessed a technology-aided program aimed at enabling him to (a) write and send out…

  6. The "aid contract" and its compensation scheme: a case study of the performance of the Ugandan health sector.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Cruz, Valeria; McPake, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Current literature on aid effectiveness describes increasing use of a more contractual approach to the relationship between donor and recipient government in which a system of rewards and penalties for good and bad performance operates. The purpose of this case study of the Ugandan health sector was to understand the extent to which this approach is influencing processes and effectiveness. This qualitative study used a conceptual framework based on agency theory and 'realistic evaluation'. Our results showed that the main official mechanism to assess and reward performance established through the Sector Wide Approach lacked objective criteria and was based on an unstructured system of discussions and agreements among donors. The achievement of a satisfactory performance rating was facilitated by the agreeing to undertakings that were under-demanding, vaguely formulated and lacking quantitative benchmarks against which progress could be measured. However, even when poor performance was readily observable, penalties failed to be applied by donors. This was always the case in relation to health sector performance and mostly so in relation to general governance and accountability. Funds continued to be disbursed despite the lack of progress made in achieving targets and undertakings and other evident performance problems (e.g. in the area of governance). A series of explanations of the failure to penalise were put forward by donor representatives in relation to this behaviour including the need to maintain long-term relationships based on trust and not to undermine health sector performance by withdrawing aid. Thus there are likely to be incentives to disburse funds and report success, irrespective of the realities of aid programmes in the context of large foreign aid volumes associated with increased political visibility of aid in donor countries. PMID:20708316

  7. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  8. Study on computer-aided diagnosis of hepatic MR imaging and mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xuejun

    2005-04-01

    It is well known that the liver is an organ easily attacked by diseases. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for helping radiologists to differentiate hepatic diseases more efficiently. Our software named LIVERANN integrated the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings with different pulse sequences to classify the five categories of hepatic diseases by using the artificial neural network (ANN) method. The intensity and homogeneity within the region of interest (ROI) delineated by a radiologist were automatically calculated to obtain numerical data by the program for input signals to the ANN. Outputs were the five pathological categories of hepatic diseases (hepatic cyst, hepatocellular carcinoma, dysplasia in cirrhosis, cavernous hemangioma, and metastasis). The experiment demonstrated a testing accuracy of 93% from 80 patients. In order to differentiate the cirrhosis from normal liver, the volume ratio of left to whole (LTW) was proposed to quantify the degree of cirrhosis by three-dimensional (3D) volume analysis. The liver region was firstly extracted from computed tomography (CT) or MR slices based on edge detection algorithms, and then separated into left lobe and right lobe by the hepatic umbilical fissure. The volume ratio of these two parts showed that the LTW ratio in the liver was significantly improved in the differentiation performance, with (25.6%{+-}4.3%) in cirrhosis versus the normal liver (16.4%{+-}5.4%). In addition, the application of the ANN method for detecting clustered microcalcifications in masses on mammograms was described here as well. A new structural ANN, so-called a shift-invariant artificial neural network (SIANN), was integrated with our triple-ring filter (TRF) method in our CAD system. As the result, the sensitivity of detecting clusters was improved from 90% by our previous TRF method to 95% by using both SIANN and TRF.

  9. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Skin Lesions Using Conventional Digital Photography: A Reliability and Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Yu; Huang, Adam; Yang, Chung-Yi; Lee, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yin-Chun; Wu, Tian-Yau; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) software that provides a second opinion has been widely used to assist physicians with various tasks. In dermatology, however, CADx has been mostly limited to melanoma or melanocytic skin cancer diagnosis. The frequency of non-melanocytic skin cancers and the accessibility of regular digital macrographs have raised interest in developing CADx for broader applications. Objectives To investigate the feasibility of using CADx to diagnose both melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions based on conventional digital photographic images. Methods This study was approved by an institutional review board, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. In total, 769 conventional photographs of melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions were retrospectively reviewed and used to develop a CADx system. Conventional and new color-related image features were developed to classify the lesions as benign or malignant using support vector machines (SVMs). The performance of CADx was compared with that of dermatologists. Results The clinicians' overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 83.33%, 85.88%, and 85.31%, respectively. New color correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) features improved the classification ability of the baseline CADx (p = 0.001). The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) of the proposed CADx system was 0.949, with a sensitivity and specificity of 85.63% and 87.65%, respectively, and a maximum accuracy of 90.64%. Conclusions We have developed an effective CADx system to classify both melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions using conventional digital macrographs. The system's performance was similar to that of dermatologists at our institute. Through improved feature extraction and SVM analysis, we found that conventional digital macrographs were feasible for providing useful information for CADx applications. The new color

  10. Food Safety Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior of Persons with AIDS: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Mark S.; Peterson, Caryn E.; Gao, Weihua; Mayor, Angel; Hunter, Robert; Negron, Edna; Fleury, Alison; Besch, C. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections including recurrent Salmonella septicemia and toxoplasmosis of the brain with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Patients with immunologic AIDS in Chicago, New Orleans, and Bayamon were interviewed to determine gaps in food safety knowledge and prevalence of related behaviors in order to create targeted educational material for this population. A food safety score was calculated based on responses to 40 knowledge, belief, and behavior questions. Among 268 AIDS patients interviewed, the overall food safety score was 63% (range 28% to 93%). Many patients believed it was okay to eat higher risk food (38% for eating eggs served loose or runny, 27% for eating store-bought hot dogs without heating them first), 40% did not know that eating unpasteurized cheese may get germs inside their body that could cause hospitalization and possibly death, and 40% would not throw away salad that had been splashed with a few drops of raw chicken juice. These data demonstrate substantial knowledge gaps and behavioral risk related to acquisition of foodborne disease among AIDS patients. Healthcare providers should incorporate education regarding foodborne disease risk into routine outpatient discussion of improving and maintaining their health. PMID:25061438

  11. The Impact of Computerization on Archival Finding Aids: A RAMP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitching, Christopher

    This report is based on a questionnaire sent to 32 selected National Archives and on interviews with archivists from eight countries. Geared to the needs of developing countries, the report covers: (1) the impact of computerization on finding aids; (2) advantages and problems of computerization, including enhanced archival control, integration of…

  12. AIDS Related Stigma in Social Relations: A Qualitative Study in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasapoglu, Aytul; Saillard, Elif Kus; Kaya, Nilay; Turan, Feryal

    2011-01-01

    The actual number of HIV/AIDS cases in Turkey is higher than the number of cases reported, and People Living with HIV (PLWHIV) may refrain from acknowledging their sickness or seeking help because of the stigma associated with HIV and fear of discrimination from their close friends, workmates, and even their families. In this paper we aim to…

  13. Computer Aided Instruction: A Study of Student Evaluations and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, David; Deck, Alan; McCrickard, Myra

    2008-01-01

    Computer aided instruction (CAI) encompasses a broad range of computer technologies that supplement the classroom learning environment and can dramatically increase a student's access to information. Criticism of CAI generally focuses on two issues: it lacks an adequate foundation in educational theory and the software is difficult to implement…

  14. Use of the Canterbury Child's Aid in Infancy and Early Childhood: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Leonard; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A blind infant used the Canterbury Child's Aid (a binaural spatial sensor) for such purposes as reaching, feeding, and walking. As a preschooler, she used it to explore novel environments and avoid objects in her path. Training increased her responsiveness to and action upon the environment. (CL)

  15. Achievement Characteristics of Financial Aid Recipients at College of Alameda: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohuslov, Ronald L.; Bohuslov, Esther Buchanan

    Enrollment cards, transcripts, and financial aid records were examined for a 10% random sample of the 2,500 students in the Peralta Community College District who were receiving Basic Educational Opportunity Grants (BEOG) during 1977-78. Analyses were made to determine: (1) the degree to which the students complied with BEOG eligibility…

  16. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  17. PHENOME-WIDE INTERACTION STUDY (PheWIS) IN AIDS CLINICAL TRIALS GROUP DATA (ACTG)

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shefali S.; Frase, Alex T.; Verma, Anurag; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Mahony, Shaun; Haas, David W.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Association studies have shown and continue to show a substantial amount of success in identifying links between multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotypes. These studies are also believed to provide insights toward identification of new drug targets and therapies. Albeit of all the success, challenges still remain for applying and prioritizing these associations based on available biological knowledge. Along with single variant association analysis, genetic interactions also play an important role in uncovering the etiology and progression of complex traits. For gene-gene interaction analysis, selection of the variants to test for associations still poses a challenge in identifying epistatic interactions among the large list of variants available in high-throughput, genome-wide datasets. Therefore in this study, we propose a pipeline to identify interactions among genetic variants that are associated with multiple phenotypes by prioritizing previously published results from main effect association analysis (genome-wide and phenome-wide association analysis) based on a-priori biological knowledge in AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) data. We approached the prioritization and filtration of variants by using the results of a previously published single variant PheWAS and then utilizing biological information from the Roadmap Epigenome project. We removed variants in low functional activity regions based on chromatin states annotation and then conducted an exhaustive pairwise interaction search using linear regression analysis. We performed this analysis in two independent pre-treatment clinical trial datasets from ACTG to allow for both discovery and replication. Using a regression framework, we observed 50,798 associations that replicate at p-value 0.01 for 26 phenotypes, among which 2,176 associations for 212 unique SNPs for fasting blood glucose phenotype reach Bonferroni significance and an additional 9,970 interactions for high

  18. Prioritizing schizophrenia endophenotypes for future genetic studies: An example using data from the COGS-1 family study.

    PubMed

    Millard, Steven P; Shofer, Jane; Braff, David; Calkins, Monica; Cadenhead, Kristin; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Gur, Raquel; Gur, Ruben; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Light, Gregory A; Olincy, Ann; Nuechterlein, Keith; Seidman, Larry; Siever, Larry; Silverman, Jeremy; Stone, William S; Sprock, Joyce; Sugar, Catherine A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Ming; Turetsky, Bruce; Radant, Allen; Tsuang, Debby W

    2016-07-01

    Past studies describe numerous endophenotypes associated with schizophrenia (SZ), but many endophenotypes may overlap in information they provide, and few studies have investigated the utility of a multivariate index to improve discrimination between SZ and healthy community comparison subjects (CCS). We investigated 16 endophenotypes from the first phase of the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia, a large, multi-site family study, to determine whether a subset could distinguish SZ probands and CCS just as well as using all 16. Participants included 345 SZ probands and 517 CCS with a valid measure for at least one endophenotype. We used both logistic regression and random forest models to choose a subset of endophenotypes, adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, site, parent education, and the reading subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test. As a sensitivity analysis, we re-fit models using multiple imputations to determine the effect of missing values. We identified four important endophenotypes: antisaccade, Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs 3-digit version, California Verbal Learning Test, and emotion identification. The logistic regression model that used just these four endophenotypes produced essentially the same results as the model that used all 16 (84% vs. 85% accuracy). While a subset of endophenotypes cannot replace clinical diagnosis nor encompass the complexity of the disease, it can aid in the design of future endophenotypic and genetic studies by reducing study cost and subject burden, simplifying sample enrichment, and improving the statistical power of locating those genetic regions associated with schizophrenia that may be the easiest to identify initially. PMID:27132484

  19. The effect of two cognitive aid designs on team functioning during intra-operative anaphylaxis emergencies: a multi-centre simulation study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, S D; Sanderson, P; McIntosh, C A; Kolawole, H

    2016-04-01

    This multi-centre repeated measures study was undertaken to determine how contrasting designs of cognitive aids affect team performance during simulated intra-operative anaphylaxis crises. A total of 24 teams consisting of a consultant anaesthetist, an anaesthetic trainee and anaesthetic assistant managed three simulated intra-operative anaphylaxis emergencies. Each team was assigned at random to a counterbalanced order of: no cognitive aid; a linear cognitive aid; and a branched cognitive aid, and scored for team functioning. Scores were significantly higher with a linear compared with either a branched version of the cognitive aid or no cognitive aid for 'Team Overall Behavioural Performance', difference between study groups (F-value) 5.8, p = 0.01. Aggregate scores were higher with the linear compared with the branched aid design (p = 0.03). Cognitive aids improve co-ordination of the team's activities and support team members to verbalise their actions. A linear design of cognitive aid improves team functioning more than a branched design. PMID:26792648

  20. On attitude towards HIV/AIDS among Iranian students (case study: high school students in Shiraz City).

    PubMed

    Movahed, Majeed; Shoaa, Seddigheh

    2010-03-15

    Young people are of particular importance in state policies against AIDS. The present study investigated the attitude toward HIV/AIDS and related socio-cultural factors among 600 high school students in Shiraz, Iran. The method of sampling is a stratified one and the instrument for collecting data is a self-administrated questionnaire. In this research, attitude has three dimensions-knowledge, emotion and tendency to action. Descriptive statistics showed that students did not have enough knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The 44.3% of students had low knowledge, 36.9% moderate knowledge and only 18.8% had high knowledge. Also the results indicated that attitude for 69.8% of student has in middle level, 15.4% positive and 14.9% negative. Moreover, results suggested that loyalty to Islamic religious beliefs have an important role on attitude toward this disease. Major of study, sex, mother's occupation and use of some mass media such as books and newspapers were other main influencing factors in the students' attitude. Furthermore, this study showed that parent education, major of study, father's occupation and use of books and the Internet are the most important variables affecting on the participants' knowledge. Age, sex, parents' education, religious beliefs, use of some mass media such as TV, the internet, newspapers, satellite and books affect emotion. Finally, there is a relationship between religious beliefs, sex and major of study, use of satellite, television, radio and books with tendency to action. PMID:20506714

  1. U.S. aerospace industry opinion of the effect of computer-aided prediction-design technology on future wind-tunnel test requirements for aircraft development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treon, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of the U.S. aerospace industry in late 1977 suggests that there will be an increasing use of computer-aided prediction-design technology (CPD Tech) in the aircraft development process but that, overall, only a modest reduction in wind-tunnel test requirements from the current level is expected in the period through 1995. Opinions were received from key spokesmen in 23 of the 26 solicited major companies or corporate divisions involved in the design and manufacture of nonrotary wing aircraft. Development programs for nine types of aircraft related to test phases and wind-tunnel size and speed range were considered.

  2. Associations between HIV Infection and Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS)

    PubMed Central

    Post, Wendy S; Budoff, Matthew; Kingsley, Lawrence; Palella, Frank J; Witt, Mallory D; Li, Xiuhong; George, Richard T; Brown, Todd; Jacobson, Lisa P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) has been associated with HIV infection; however data are not consistent. Objective We performed cardiac CT to determine whether HIV-infected men have more coronary atherosclerosis than uninfected men. Design Cross-sectional study within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study(MACS). Participants HIV-infected (n=618) and –uninfected (n=383) men who have sex with men (MSM) had non-contrast and contrast enhanced cardiac CT if they were between 40–70 years, weighed <300 pounds, and had no history of coronary revascularization. Measurements Presence and extent, for those with plaque, of coronary artery calcium (CAC) on non-contrast CT, and of any plaque, non-calcified, mixed or calcified plaque and stenosis on CT angiography. Results 1001 men underwent non-contrast CT of whom 759 had coronary CT angiography. After adjusting for age, race, center, and cohort, HIV-infected men had a greater prevalence of CAC [Prevalence ratio(PR)=1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.35, p=0.001], and any plaque [PR=1.14(1.05–1.24),p=0.001], including non-calcified plaque [PR=1.28(1.13–1.45),p<0.001) and mixed plaque [PR=1.35(1.10–1.65),p=0.004] than HIV-uninfected men. Associations between HIV-infection and any plaque and non-calcified plaque remained significant (p<0.005) after CAD risk factor adjustment. HIV-infected men also had a greater extent of non-calcified plaque after CAD risk factor adjustment (p=0.026). HIV-infected men had a greater prevalence of coronary artery stenosis>50% than HIV-uninfected men [PR=1.48(1.06–2.07),p=0.020), but not after CAD risk factor adjustment. Longer duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy [PR=1.09(1.02–1.17), p=0.007,per year] and lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count [PR=0.80(0.69–0.94),p=0.005, per 100 cells] were associated with coronary stenosis>50%. Conclusions Coronary artery plaque, especially non-calcified plaque, is more prevalent and extensive in HIV-infected men, independent of

  3. Mortality Trends in the US Perinatal AIDS Collaborative Transmission Study (1986–2004)

    PubMed Central

    Soe, Minn M.; Nesheim, Steven R.; Abrams, Elaine J.; Carter, Rosalind J.; Farley, John; Palumbo, Paul; Koenig, Linda J.; Bulterys, Marc

    2011-01-01

    (See the Editorial Commentary by Nachman, on pages 1035–6.) Background. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–associated morbidity and mortality. The bimodal mortality distribution in HIV-infected children makes it important to evaluate temporal effects of HAART among a birth cohort with long-term, prospective follow-up. Methods. Perinatal AIDS Collaborative Transmission Study (PACTS)/PACTS–HIV Follow-up of Perinatally Exposed Children (HOPE) study was a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–sponsored multicenter, prospective birth cohort study of HIV-exposed uninfected and infected infants from 1985 until 2004. Mortality was evaluated for the no/monotherapy, mono-/dual-therapy, and HAART eras, that is, 1 January 1986 through 31 December 1990, from 1 January 1991 through 31 December 1996, and 1 January 1997 through 31 December 2004. Results. Among 364 HIV-infected children, 56% were female and 69% black non-Hispanic. Of 98 deaths, 79 (81%) and 61 (62%) occurred in children ≤3 and ≤2 years old, respectively. The median age at death increased significantly across the eras (P < .0001). The average annual mortality rates were 18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.6–26.8), 6.9 (95% CI, 5.4–8.8), and 0.8 (95% CI, 0.4–1.5) events per 100 person-years for the no/monotherapy, mono-/dual-therapy and HAART eras, respectively. The corresponding 6-year survival rates for children born in these eras were 57%, 76%, and 91%, respectively (P < .0001). Among children who received HAART in the first 6 months of age, the probability of 6-year survival was 94%. Ten-year survival rates for HAART and non-HAART recipients were 94% and 45% (P < .05). HAART-associated reductions in mortality remained significant after adjustment for confounders (hazard ratio, 0.3; 95% CI, .08–.76). Opportunistic infections (OIs) caused 31.8%, 16.9%, and 9.1% of deaths across the respective eras (P = .051). Conclusions

  4. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Activity: An Examination of Racial Differences in a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cindy; Sloan, Melissa; MacMaster, Samuel; Kilbourne, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The threat of HIV/AIDS to African American's health has become the focus of much concern. This study investigated the potential differences between African Americans' and white college students' current and future sexual behaviors and safer sex behaviors with HIV/AIDS awareness, condom use self-efficacy, and safer sex attitudes. A convenience…

  5. Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

    Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

  6. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 to 1972: implications for HIV education and AIDS risk education programs in the black community.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S B; Quinn, S C

    1991-11-01

    The Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis in the Negro male is the longest nontherapeutic experiment on human beings in medical history. The strategies used to recruit and retain participants were quite similar to those being advocated for HIV/AIDS prevention programs today. Almost 60 years after the study began, there remains a trail of distrust and suspicion that hampers HIV education efforts in Black communities. The AIDS epidemic has exposed the Tuskegee study as a historical marker for the legitimate discontent of Blacks with the public health system. The belief that AIDS is a form of genocide is rooted in a social context in which Black Americans, faced with persistent inequality, believe in conspiracy theories about Whites against Blacks. These theories range from the belief that the government promotes drug abuse in Black communities to the belief that HIV is a manmade weapon of racial warfare. An open and honest discussion of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study can facilitate the process of rebuilding trust between the Black community and public health authorities. This dialogue can contribute to the development of HIV education programs that are scientifically sound, culturally sensitive, and ethnically acceptable. PMID:1951814

  7. The impact of nursing leadership and management on the control of HIV/AIDS: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Nawafleh, Hani; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on an aspect of a larger ethnographic study that sought to investigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on the practice of primary care nurses in Jordan. Nursing leadership and the style of management adopted by senior nursing and medical administrators at the Ministry of Heath were identified as factors impacting on the practice of the nurses and their capacity to raise community awareness and contribute to the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. The study was undertaken in three rural and three urban primary health care centres (PHCC). Data collection included participant observation, key informant interviews, and document analysis. These data informed the development of descriptive ethnographic accounts that allowed for the subsequent identification of common and divergent themes reflective of factors recognized as influencing the practice of the nurse participants. PMID:23181375

  8. A study of knowledge, sexual behaviour and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among long distance truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Sanjeev, K; S K, Garg; S K, Bajpai

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to keep in view the knowledge, sexual behaviour and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among long distance truck drivers interviewed during September to November 2007 on the state highway connecting Punjab to U.P, Bihar and West Bengal.Of 400 study population, majority (78.5%) were found aware of unprotected sex as a mode of spread of HIV/AIDS followed by use of infected needle (48.5%). 32.3% drivers had only single sexual partner and 56.6% were involved in multiple sex partner. 58.6% truck drivers gave history of commercial sex workers (CSW) while 41.4 % drivers had their sexual partners from other sources like extra marital relations & their girl friends etc. The percentage of use of condom among those having multiple sexual partners was 64.3% while 35.7% had either never used a condom or had used it very irregularly. PMID:20469766

  9. Bayesian inference for a nonlinear mixed-effects Tobit model with multivariate skew-t distributions: application to AIDS studies

    PubMed Central

    Dagne, Getachew; Huang, Yangxin

    2016-01-01

    Censored data are characteristics of many bioassays in HIV/AIDS studies where assays may not be sensitive enough to determine gradations in viral load determination among those below a detectable threshold. Not accounting for such left-censoring appropriately can lead to biased parameter estimates in most data analysis. To properly adjust for left-censoring, this paper presents an extension of the Tobit model for fitting nonlinear dynamic mixed-effects models with skew distributions. Such extensions allow one to specify the conditional distributions for viral load response to account for left-censoring, skewness and heaviness in the tails of the distributions of the response variable. A Bayesian modeling approach via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to estimate model parameters. The proposed methods are illustrated using real data from an HIV/AIDS study. PMID:22992288

  10. Erotized, AIDS-HIV information on public-access television: a study of obscenity, state censorship and cultural resistance.

    PubMed

    Lukenbill, W B

    1998-06-01

    This study analyzes court records of a county-level obscenity trial in Austin, Texas, and the appeal of the guilty verdict beginning with a Texas appellate court up to the U.S. Supreme Court of two individuals who broadcast erotized AIDS and HIV safer sex information on a public-access cable television. The trial and appellate court decisions are reviewed in terms of argument themes, and the nature of sexual value controversy is outlined. Erotic materials often conflict with broad-based sexual and community values, and providing erotized HIV and AIDS information products can be a form of radical political action designed to force societal change. This study raises question as to how this trial and this type of informational product might affect the programs and activities of information resource centers, community-based organizations, libraries, and the overall mission of public health education. PMID:9642421

  11. Bayesian inference for a nonlinear mixed-effects Tobit model with multivariate skew-t distributions: application to AIDS studies.

    PubMed

    Dagne, Getachew; Huang, Yangxin

    2012-01-01

    Censored data are characteristics of many bioassays in HIV/AIDS studies where assays may not be sensitive enough to determine gradations in viral load determination among those below a detectable threshold. Not accounting for such left-censoring appropriately can lead to biased parameter estimates in most data analysis. To properly adjust for left-censoring, this paper presents an extension of the Tobit model for fitting nonlinear dynamic mixed-effects models with skew distributions. Such extensions allow one to specify the conditional distributions for viral load response to account for left-censoring, skewness and heaviness in the tails of the distributions of the response variable. A Bayesian modeling approach via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to estimate model parameters. The proposed methods are illustrated using real data from an HIV/AIDS study. PMID:22992288

  12. HIV/AIDS and access to water: A case study of home-based care in Ngamiland, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Kgathi, D. L.

    This case study investigates access to potable water in HIV/AIDS related home-based care households in five rural communities in Ngamiland, Botswana. Primary data collected from five villages consisted of two parts. The first survey collected household data on demographic and rural livelihood features and impacts of HIV/AIDS. A total of 129 households were selected using a two-stage stratified random sampling method. In the second survey, a total of 39 family primary and community care givers of continuously ill, bed-ridden or non-bed-ridden HIV/AIDS patients were interviewed. A detailed questionnaire, with closed and open-ended questions, was used to collect household data. In addition to using the questionnaire, data were also collected through participant observation, informal interviews and secondary sources. The study revealed that there are several sources of water for communities in Ngamiland such as off-plot, outdoor (communal) and on-plot outdoor and/or indoor (private) water connections, as well as other sources such as bowsed water, well-points, boreholes and open perennial/ephemeral water from river channels and pans. There was a serious problem of unreliable water supply caused by, among other things, the breakdown of diesel-powered water pumps, high frequency of HIV/AIDS related absenteeism, and the failure of timely delivery of diesel fuel. Some villages experienced chronic supply disruptions while others experienced seasonal or occasional water shortages. Strategies for coping with unreliability of water supply included economizing on water, reserve storage, buying water, and collection from river/dug wells or other alternative sources such as rain harvesting tanks in government institutions. The unreliability of water supply resulted in an increase in the use of water of poor quality and other practices of poor hygiene as well as a high opportunity cost of water collection. In such instances, bathing of patients was cut from twice daily to once or

  13. Computer-aided detection of HER2 amplification status using FISH images: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Surti, Urvashi; Bhargava, Rohit; Gur, David

    2009-02-01

    The amplification status of human epidermal growth factor receptors 2 (HER2) genes is strongly associated with clinical outcome in patients with breast cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology Tumor Marker Guidelines Panel has recommended routine testing of HER2 status on all newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancers since 2001. Although fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology provides superior accuracy as compared with other approaches, current manual FISH analysis methods are somewhat subjective, tedious, and may introduce interreader variability. The goal of this preliminary study is to develop and test a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to assess HER2 status using FISH images. Forty FISH images were selected for this study from our genetic laboratory. The CAD scheme first applies an adaptive, iterative threshold method followed by a labeling algorithm to segment cells of possible interest. A set of classification rules is then used to identify analyzable interphase cells and discard nonanalyzable cells due to cell overlapping and/or other image staining debris (or artifacts). The scheme then maps the detected analyzable cells onto two other gray scale images corresponding to the red and green color of the original image followed by application of a raster scan and labeling algorithms to separately detect the HER-2/neu ("red") and CEP17 ("green") FISH signals. A simple distance based criterion is applied to detect and merge split FISH signals within each cell. The CAD scheme computes the ratio between independent "red" and "green" FISH signals of all analyzable cells identified on an image. If the ratio is >= 2.0, the FISH image is assumed to have been acquired from a HER2+ case; otherwise, the FISH image is assumed to have been acquired from HER2- case. When we applied the CAD scheme to the testing dataset, the average computed HER2 amplification ratios were 1.06+/-0.25 and 2.53+/-0.81 for HER2- and HER2+ samples, respectively. The

  14. Anti-HIV drug development: structural features and limitations of present day drugs and future challenges in the successful HIV/AIDS treatment.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Garima; Singh, Ramendra K

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), an immuno-compromized condition, a sequel to untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inviting several life-threatening diseases, has become one of the most fatal disorders in the recent past because of HIV strain variance due to mutations, passive latency and reservoirs helping in replenishing and reviving the HIV-1 proviral DNA. Scientific efforts have led to the discovery of several effective drugs against HIV and lowered the morbidity and mortality all over the world. However, despite availability of a good number of anti-HIV drugs, the problem, for the foreseeable reasons, stands out as the most chronic disease due to the less tolerability and low accessibility of drugs, life-long expensive treatment, and above all, the emergence of drug resistant viral strains. This review dwells upon HIV infection and its proliferation inside the host system, drug targets, different types of drugs, their structural features and mode of interaction with viral targets and drug regimens. It further focuses on topics of latest interest regarding drug development, fixed dose combinations (FDCs), the limitations of present day drugs with their structural features along with their pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics and the challenges in finding a permanent cure for HIV/AIDS. PMID:23092282

  15. Current perspectives and the future of domestication studies

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Greger; Piperno, Dolores R.; Allaby, Robin G.; Purugganan, Michael D.; Andersson, Leif; Arroyo-Kalin, Manuel; Barton, Loukas; Climer Vigueira, Cynthia; Denham, Tim; Dobney, Keith; Doust, Andrew N.; Gepts, Paul; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gremillion, Kristen J.; Lucas, Leilani; Lukens, Lewis; Marshall, Fiona B.; Olsen, Kenneth M.; Pires, J. Chris; Richerson, Peter J.; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Sanjur, Oris I.; Thomas, Mark G.; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to overstate the cultural and biological impacts that the domestication of plants and animals has had on our species. Fundamental questions regarding where, when, and how many times domestication took place have been of primary interest within a wide range of academic disciplines. Within the last two decades, the advent of new archaeological and genetic techniques has revolutionized our understanding of the pattern and process of domestication and agricultural origins that led to our modern way of life. In the spring of 2011, 25 scholars with a central interest in domestication representing the fields of genetics, archaeobotany, zooarchaeology, geoarchaeology, and archaeology met at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center to discuss recent domestication research progress and identify challenges for the future. In this introduction to the resulting Special Feature, we present the state of the art in the field by discussing what is known about the spatial and temporal patterns of domestication, and controversies surrounding the speed, intentionality, and evolutionary aspects of the domestication process. We then highlight three key challenges for future research. We conclude by arguing that although recent progress has been impressive, the next decade will yield even more substantial insights not only into how domestication took place, but also when and where it did, and where and why it did not. PMID:24757054

  16. Future orbital transfer vehicle technology study. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. E.

    1982-01-01

    Missions for future orbit transfer vehicles (1995-2010) are identified and the technology, operations and vehicle concepts that satisfy the transportation requirements are defined. Comparison of reusable space and ground based LO2/LH2 OTV's was made. Both vehicles used advanced space engines and aero assist capability. The SB OTV provided advantages in life cycle cost, performance and potential for improvement. Comparison of an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet with a fleet of LO2/LH2 OTVs and electric OTV's was also made. The normal growth technology electric OTV used silicon cells with heavy shielding and argon ion thrusters. This provided a 23% advantage in total transportation cost. The impact of accelerated technology was considered in terms of improvements in performance and cost effectiveness. The accelerated technology electric vehicle used GaAs cells and annealing but did not result in the mixed fleet being any cheaper than an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet. It is concluded that reusable LO2/LH2 OTV's can serve all general purpose cargo roles between LEO and GEO for the forseeable future. The most significant technology for the second generation vehicle would be space debris protection, on-orbit propellant storage and transfer and on-orbit maintenance capability.

  17. Current perspectives and the future of domestication studies.

    PubMed

    Larson, Greger; Piperno, Dolores R; Allaby, Robin G; Purugganan, Michael D; Andersson, Leif; Arroyo-Kalin, Manuel; Barton, Loukas; Climer Vigueira, Cynthia; Denham, Tim; Dobney, Keith; Doust, Andrew N; Gepts, Paul; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Gremillion, Kristen J; Lucas, Leilani; Lukens, Lewis; Marshall, Fiona B; Olsen, Kenneth M; Pires, J Chris; Richerson, Peter J; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Sanjur, Oris I; Thomas, Mark G; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2014-04-29

    It is difficult to overstate the cultural and biological impacts that the domestication of plants and animals has had on our species. Fundamental questions regarding where, when, and how many times domestication took place have been of primary interest within a wide range of academic disciplines. Within the last two decades, the advent of new archaeological and genetic techniques has revolutionized our understanding of the pattern and process of domestication and agricultural origins that led to our modern way of life. In the spring of 2011, 25 scholars with a central interest in domestication representing the fields of genetics, archaeobotany, zooarchaeology, geoarchaeology, and archaeology met at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center to discuss recent domestication research progress and identify challenges for the future. In this introduction to the resulting Special Feature, we present the state of the art in the field by discussing what is known about the spatial and temporal patterns of domestication, and controversies surrounding the speed, intentionality, and evolutionary aspects of the domestication process. We then highlight three key challenges for future research. We conclude by arguing that although recent progress has been impressive, the next decade will yield even more substantial insights not only into how domestication took place, but also when and where it did, and where and why it did not. PMID:24757054

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Michael; Ela, Erik; Hein, Jeff; Schneider, Thomas; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, Chad; Bain, Richard; Chapman, Jamie; Denholm, Paul; Drury, Easan; Hall, Douglas G.; Lantz, Eric; Margolis, Robert; Thresher, Robert; Sandor, Debra; Bishop, Norman A.; Brown, Stephen R.; Felker, Fort; Fernandez, Steven J.; Goodrich, Alan C.; Hagerman, George; Heath, Garvin; O'Neil, Sean; Paquette, Joshua; Tegen, Suzanne; Young, Katherine

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3. End-Use Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  1. The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC) Database: an integrated database for HIV-related studies.

    PubMed

    Cserhati, Matyas F; Pandey, Sanjit; Beaudoin, James J; Baccaglini, Lorena; Guda, Chittibabu; Fox, Howard S

    2015-01-01

    We herein present the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium-Data Coordinating Center (NNTC-DCC) database, which is the only available database for neuroAIDS studies that contains data in an integrated, standardized form. This database has been created in conjunction with the NNTC, which provides human tissue and biofluid samples to individual researchers to conduct studies focused on neuroAIDS. The database contains experimental datasets from 1206 subjects for the following categories (which are further broken down into subcategories): gene expression, genotype, proteins, endo-exo-chemicals, morphometrics and other (miscellaneous) data. The database also contains a wide variety of downloadable data and metadata for 95 HIV-related studies covering 170 assays from 61 principal investigators. The data represent 76 tissue types, 25 measurement types, and 38 technology types, and reaches a total of 33,017,407 data points. We used the ISA platform to create the database and develop a searchable web interface for querying the data. A gene search tool is also available, which searches for NCBI GEO datasets associated with selected genes. The database is manually curated with many user-friendly features, and is cross-linked to the NCBI, HUGO and PubMed databases. A free registration is required for qualified users to access the database. PMID:26228431

  2. The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC) Database: an integrated database for HIV-related studies

    PubMed Central

    Cserhati, Matyas F.; Pandey, Sanjit; Beaudoin, James J.; Baccaglini, Lorena; Guda, Chittibabu; Fox, Howard S.

    2015-01-01

    We herein present the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium-Data Coordinating Center (NNTC-DCC) database, which is the only available database for neuroAIDS studies that contains data in an integrated, standardized form. This database has been created in conjunction with the NNTC, which provides human tissue and biofluid samples to individual researchers to conduct studies focused on neuroAIDS. The database contains experimental datasets from 1206 subjects for the following categories (which are further broken down into subcategories): gene expression, genotype, proteins, endo-exo-chemicals, morphometrics and other (miscellaneous) data. The database also contains a wide variety of downloadable data and metadata for 95 HIV-related studies covering 170 assays from 61 principal investigators. The data represent 76 tissue types, 25 measurement types, and 38 technology types, and reaches a total of 33 017 407 data points. We used the ISA platform to create the database and develop a searchable web interface for querying the data. A gene search tool is also available, which searches for NCBI GEO datasets associated with selected genes. The database is manually curated with many user-friendly features, and is cross-linked to the NCBI, HUGO and PubMed databases. A free registration is required for qualified users to access the database. Database URL: http://nntc-dcc.unmc.edu PMID:26228431

  3. Psychological, Social, and Familial Problems of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Dejman, Masoumeh; Ardakani, Hossein Malekafzali; Malekafzali, Bahareh; Moradi, Ghobad; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Shushtari, Zahra Jorjoran; Alinaghi, Seyed Ahmad Seyed; Mohraz, Minoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS is one of the diseases which not only makes threats to physical health, but also, due to the negative attitudes of people and the social stigma, affects the emotional and social health of patients. The aim of this study was to identify the psychological, social, and family problems of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Iran. Methods: In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to enroll PLWHA, their families, and physicians and consultants in two cities of Kermanshah and Tehran. Each group of PLWHA, their families, physicians, and consultants participated in two focus group discussions (FGDs), and a total of eight FGDs were conducted. Six interviews were held with all key people, individually. Results: Based on the views and opinions of various groups involved in the study, the main problems of PLWHA were: Ostracism, depression, anxiety, a tendency to get revenge and lack of fear to infect others, frustration, social isolation, relationship problems, and fear due to the social stigma. Their psychological problems included: Marriage problems, family conflict, lack of family support, economic hardships inhibiting marriage, and social rejection of patient's families. Their family problems were: Unemployment, the need for housing, basic needs, homelessness, and lack of social support associations. Conclusions: It seems that the identification and focusing on psychological, social, and family problems of affected people not only is an important factor for disease prevention and control, but also enables patients to have a better response to complications caused by HIV/AIDS. PMID:26900440

  4. Flight results from a study of aided inertial navigation applied to landing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Carson, T. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Schmidt, S. F.; Conrad, B.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the approach and landing performance of a Kalman filter aided inertial navigation system using flight data obtained from a series of approaches and landings of the CV-340 aircraft at an instrumented test area. A description of the flight test is given, in which data recorded included: (1) accelerometer signals from the platform of an INS; (2) three ranges from the Ames-Cubic Precision Ranging System; and (3) radar and barometric altimeter signals. The method of system evaluation employed was postflight processing of the recorded data using a Kalman filter which was designed for use on the XDS920 computer onboard the CV-340 aircraft. Results shown include comparisons between the trajectories as estimated by the Kalman filter aided system and as determined from cinetheodolite data. Data start initialization of the Kalman filter, operation at a practical data rate, postflight modeling of sensor errors and operation under the adverse condition of bad data are illustrated.

  5. Can Financial Aid Improve Student Success at Louisiana's Community Colleges? A Study of the Potential Impact of Redistributing State Gift Aid on the Success of Pell Grant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Kevin; Heffron, Mark; Schneider, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this report, the authors investigate the relationship between levels of financial aid and student success in Louisiana community colleges, with a focus on Pell Grant recipients. They measure success by whether a student earned a certificate or an associate's degree within three years of enrolling as a first-time full-time student or transferred…

  6. $200,000 Grants Awarded to CCR Researchers for HIV/AIDS Studies | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Earlier this year, the Office of AIDS Research (OAR) awarded two, two-year grants of $200,000 each to Anu Puri, Ph.D., and Robert Blumenthal, Ph.D., both of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) Nanobiology Program, and to Eric Freed, Ph.D., of the HIV Drug Resistance Program, for their research on potential new treatments for HIV.

  7. Study Looking at End Expiratory Pressure for Altitude Illness Decrease (SLEEP-AID).

    PubMed

    Lipman, Grant S; Kanaan, Nicholas C; Phillips, Caleb; Pomeranz, Dave; Cain, Patrick; Fontes, Kristin; Higbee, Becky; Meyer, Carolyn; Shaheen, Michael; Wentworth, Sean; Walsh, Diane

    2015-06-01

    Lipman, Grant S., Nicholas C. Kanaan, Caleb Phillips, Dave Pomeranz, Patrick Cain, Kristin Fontes, Becky Higbee, Carolyn Meyer, Michael Shaheen, Sean Wentworth, and Diane Walsh. Study Looking at End Expiratory Pressure for Altitude Illness Decrease (SLEEP-AID). High Alt Med Biol 16:154-161, 2015.--Acute mountain sickness (AMS) affects 25%-70% of the tens of millions of high altitude travelers annually, with hypoxia and nocturnal desaturations as major contributing factors. This is the first double blind randomized placebo controlled trial to assess expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) for AMS prevention and nocturnal hypoxic events. Healthy adult participants trekking in the Khumbu region of the Himalayas were randomized to a single-use EPAP nasal strip, or a visually identical sham device (placebo) prior to first night sleeping between 4371-4530 m (14,340-14,800 ft). The primary outcome was AMS incidence, measured by Lake Louise Questionnaire (LLQ), with secondary outcomes of AMS severity (by LLQ) and physiologic sleep indices measured by continuous sleep monitor. Intent-to-treat analysis included 219 participants with comparable demographic characteristics, of which 115 received EPAP and 104 placebo. There was no decrease in AMS with EPAP intervention (14% EPAP vs. 17% placebo; p=0.65; risk difference (-)3.15%, 95% CI (-)12.85%-6.56%). While overall AMS severity was not different between groups, EPAP reported decreased incidence of headache (64% vs. 76%; p<0.05, OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27-0.95) and dizziness (81% vs. 98%; p<0.03, OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09-0.78). During sleep, EPAP resulted in significant improvements in average peripheral oxygenation (Spo(2)) (80% versus 78%; p<0.01, mean difference=2, 95% CI 0.58-3.63) and a reduced percentage of time below 80% Spo(2) (31% vs. 46%; p<0.03, median difference=16, 95% CI 2.22-28.18). This lightweight and inexpensive EPAP device did not prevent acute mountain sickness, but did reduce the subgroup incidence of

  8. Introducing future engineers to sustainable ecology problems: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipkowski, A.

    2011-12-01

    The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and industrial design. The energy, which they consume, is increasing the greenhouse effect and the waste poisons the environment. So far, most courses on ecology are offered to specialists in environmental engineering. These courses are filled with many details. The Warsaw Academy of Computer Science, Management and Administration teaches students in the direction of management and production engineering. Upon completion, the students receive the degree of 'engineer'. Their future work will mainly concern management of different types of industrial enterprises and they will be responsible for organising it in such a way as to avoid a dangerous contribution to environmental pollution and climate change. This is why it was decided to introduce a new course entitled 'Principles of Ecology and Environmental Management'. This course is quite broad, concerning almost all technical, law and organisational aspects of the problem. The presentation is made in a spectacular way, aiming to convince students that their future activity must be environmentally friendly. It contains information about international activities in ecology, legal aspects concerning pollution, technical and information methods of monitoring and, finally, the description of 'green' solutions. Altogether, 27 hours of lectures and 15 hours of discussions and students' presentations complete the course. Details of this course are described in this paper.

  9. Computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and dynamic brain mapping in AIDS and HIV related syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Ferracuti, S; Freedman, A M; Sherer, C; Mehta, P; Itil, K Z

    1990-07-01

    In a group of HIV positive young male patients without any significant neuropsychiatric signs, computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and Dynamic Brain Mapping evaluations were conducted. These patients, who only had micro-neuropsychiatric symptoms, demonstrated CEEG profiles that more closely resemble those of patients diagnosed as suffering from mild dementia than age-related normals from our CEEG data base. The CEEGs of patients diagnosed as having Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), compared to patients with HIV positive, showed greater similarity in CEEG patterns to severely demented patients than to normal control groups. The findings of this pilot study suggest that CEEG may be useful for early determination of the Central Nervous System's (CNS) involvement with the AIDS virus and monitoring the progress of the illness. PMID:2364555

  10. Does expressed acceptance reflect genuine attitudes? A bogus pipeline study of the effects of mortality salience on acceptance of a person with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Grover, Kristin W; Miller, Carol T

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether expressed acceptance of a person with AIDS reflects genuine acceptance or a desire to appear to be accepting. Theory and research on the effects of mortality salience on acceptance of stigmatized people provided the framework for investigating this question. After writing about death or another aversive topic, participants indicated their acceptance of a target with AIDS while connected to physiological equipment that they believed could detect lies (bogus pipeline) or was simply measuring physiological responses to participation in the study. As predicted, participants in the mortality salience/bogus pipeline condition indicated significantly less acceptance of the target with AIDS than participants in the other three conditions, suggesting that acceptance of a person with AIDS is at least partially a result of wanting to appear to be accepting, without necessarily genuinely accepting someone with AIDS. PMID:22468415

  11. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  12. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  13. Study on the Future Internet System through Analysis of SCADA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jae-Gu; Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Seoksoo

    Research on the future Internet is focused on establishing standards by solving problems through various projects and accepting various requirements. In this study, the SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) environment, closely related with national infrastructure, is analyzed in order to explore requirements of the future Internet and then those of the SCADA network. Also, this study provides SCADA system environments for the future Internet.

  14. Future orbital transfer vehicle technology study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. E.

    1982-01-01

    Reusable space and ground based LO2/LH2 OTV's, both advanced space engines and aero assist capability were compared. The SB OTV provided advantages in life cycle cost, performance and potential for improvement. An all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet was also compared with a fleet of LO2/.H2 OTV's and electric OTV's. The normal growth technology electric OTV used silicon cells with heavy shielding and argon ion thrusters. In this case, the LO2/LH2 OTV fleet provided a 23% advantage in total transportation cost. An accelerated technology LF2/LH2 OTV provided improvements in performance relative to LO2/.H2 OTV but has higher DDT&E cost which negated its cost effectiveness. The accelerated technology electric vehicle used GaAs cells and annealing but still did not result in the mixed fleet being any cheaper than an all LO2/LH2 OTV fleet. It is concluded that reusable LO2/LH2 OTV's can serve all general purpose cargo roles between LEO and GEO for the forseeable future. The most significant technology for the second generation vehicle would be space debris protection, on orbit propellant storage and transfer and on orbit maintenance capability.

  15. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among rural married migrant women in Shandong Province, China: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Song, Yapei; Kang, Dianmin; Wang, Guoyong; Wei, Chongyi; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Qian, Yuesheng; Zhu, Tiwen; Yang, Shan; Yu, Shaoqi; Wang, Hong; Ma, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Migrant women in China are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study described HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among married migrant women in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women and identified factors associated with HIV testing history and extramarital sex among married migrant women. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the analyses. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and were more likely to have had premarital sex, extramarital sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and drug use. Less than a quarter of migrant women used condoms consistently in extramarital sex. Only 31.0 % of married migrant women had ever tested for HIV, and the rate of premarital HIV testing was very low. Multivariable analysis showed that married migrant women with a history of extramarital sex were more likely to be from Yunnan province, be living in Yantai city, be in their first marriage, have lower family income, have poor relationship with spouses, use drug, have a history of sexually transmitted diseases, and have lower social support. Our findings provide further evidence that married migrant women are at higher risk for HIV infection and that targeted interventions need to be developed for this population. PMID:25323941

  16. Contextualising women's mental distress and coping strategies in the time of AIDS: a rural South African case study.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Rochelle; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    Increasing attention is paid to impacts of HIV/AIDS on women's mental health, often framed by decontextualized psychiatric understandings of emotional distress and treatment. We contribute to the small qualitative literature extending these findings through exploring HIV/AIDS--affected women's own accounts of their distress-focusing on the impacts of social context, and women's efforts to cope outside of medical support services. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with women experiencing depression or anxiety-like symptoms in a wider study of services in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Thematic analysis was framed by Summerfield's emphasis on contexts and resilience. Women highlighted family conflicts (particularly abandonment by men), community-level violence, poverty and HIV/AIDS as drivers of distress. Whilst HIV/AIDS placed significant burdens on women, poverty and relationship difficulties were more central in their accounts. Four coping mechanisms were identified. Women drew on indigenous local resources in their psychological re-framing of negative situations, and their mobilisation of emotional and financial support from inter-personal networks, churches and HIV support groups. Less commonly, they sought expert advice from traditional healers, medical services or social workers, but access to these was limited. Though all tried to supplement government grants with income generation efforts, only a minority regarded these as successful. Findings support ongoing efforts to bolster strained mental health services with support groups, which often offer valuable emotional and practical support. Without parallel poverty alleviation strategies, however, support groups may sometimes offer little more than encouraging passive acceptance of the inevitability of suffering--potentially exacerbating the hopelessness underpinning women's distress. PMID:24670517

  17. Emergence and Persistence of CXCR4-Tropic HIV-1 in a Population of Men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, James C.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Qiao, Wei; Jamieson, Beth D.; Phair, John P.; Piazza, Paolo; Quinn, Thomas C.; Margolick, Joseph B.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the emergence of CXCR4 (i.e., X4) tropism in 67 male human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seroconverters from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) who were selected to reflect the full spectrum of rates of HIV-1 disease progression. A mean of 10 serial samples per donor were evaluated by a laboratory-validated, commercially available assay to determine phenotypic coreceptor use. A total of 52% of men had dual- or mixed-tropic HIV-1 detected at 1 or more of the time points tested. Use of X4 by HIV-1 was detected more frequently among men who developed AIDS (defined as a CD4+ T cell count of < 200 cells/μL and/or an AIDS-defining illness)≤11 years after seroconversion than among those who did not (P = .005), as well as among men who exhibited a total T cell count decline (i.e., a CD3+ inflection point), compared with those who did not (P = .03). For men in whom both X4 virus and an inflection point were detected, emergence of X4 virus preceded the inflection point by a median of 0.83 years. The median CD4+ T cell count at first detection of X4 viruses before the onset of AIDS was 475 cells/μL. We conclude that HIV-1 variants that used X4 frequently emerged at high CD4+ T cell counts and may contribute to the decrease in T cell numbers during late HIV-1 infection. PMID:18783316

  18. Development of mental health first aid guidelines for panic attacks: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Claire M; Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A

    2009-01-01

    Background Panic attacks are common, and while they are not life-threatening events, they can lead to the development of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Appropriate help at the time that a panic attack occurs may decrease the fear associated with the attack and reduce the risk of developing an anxiety disorder. However, few people have the knowledge and skills required to assist. Simple first aid guidelines may help members of the public to offer help to people who experience panic attacks. Methods The Delphi method was used to reach consensus in a panel of experts. Experts included 50 professionals and 6 people who had experience of panic attacks and were active in mental health advocacy. Statements about how to assist someone who is having a panic attack were sourced through a systematic search of both professional and lay literature. These statements were rated for importance as first aid guidelines by the expert and consumer panels and guidelines were written using the items most consistently endorsed. Results Of 144 statements presented to the panels, 27 were accepted. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this paper. Conclusion There are a number of actions which are considered to be useful for members of the public to do if they encounter someone who is having a panic attack. These guidelines will be useful in revision of curricula of mental health first aid programs. They can also be used by members of the public who want immediate information about how to assist someone who is experiencing panic attacks. PMID:19664244

  19. [A study of the computer aid design for tooth arrangement of full denture].

    PubMed

    Lu, P J

    1992-05-01

    This paper is to use the power function Simpson's integration formula and some other methods to describe the geometric form of the dentition and edentulous arch in accordance with the theories and principles of tooth arrangement in textbook. The matching equations of artificial dentition and edentulous arch form and size are developed by using the multivariable regression method to analyze and summarize the clinical experiences of prosthodontists. Based on the above facts, a computer program that can be used to aid the dentist to arrange the artificial teeth for full denture is developed with Quick Basic Language and realized them in PC miniprocessors. PMID:1292895

  20. Qualitative Research in the Foreseeable Future: No Study Left Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinders, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Questions efficacy of Department of Education's recent decision to support only studies using quantitative experimental research designs. Describes advantages of qualitative research. (Contains 23 references.) (PKP)

  1. The Role of Future Time Perspective in Psychological Contracts: A Study among Older Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; de Lange, Annet H.; Rousseau, Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates relations between psychological contract fulfillment…

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, D.; Belzer, D.B.; Hadley, S.W.; Markel, T.; Marnay, C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  5. The Future of Native Studies: A Modest Manifesto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Melissa K.

    2011-01-01

    In the author's presentation at the gathering and celebration of forty years of the American Indian Studies Center, she focused on emerging, positive trends and developments in Native American/American Indian/indigenous studies (NAS) and on areas to move toward as educators expand the field in order to make it more current and relevant to the…

  6. A Self-Study on Preparing Future School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, William C.; Riley, Ann T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a self-study project that goes beyond the surface of praxis to examine the internal academic teaching process of a PK-12 school leader educator. The study systematically relates one professor's intrapersonal struggle and professional challenge in addressing his lived contradiction of teaching aspiring school leaders. Results…

  7. Biochemical Studies in Suicide Victims: Current Findings and Future Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Michael; Stanley, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Reviews relevant neurochemical findings in postmortem suicide studies, looking specifically at association between serotonergic dysfunction and suicide. Explores relative strengths and weaknesses of studies and provides overview regarding advantages and shortcomings of given technique or approach. Notes that data presented in review provide…

  8. Studies of Expansive Learning: Foundations, Findings and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engestrom, Yrjo; Sannino, Annalisa

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines studies based on the theory of expansive learning, formulated in 1987. In recent years the theory has been used in a wide variety of studies and interventions. The theory builds on foundational ideas put forward by Vygotsky, Leont'ev, Il'enkov, and Davydov, key figures in the Russian school of cultural-historical activity…

  9. Reimagining the Curriculum: Future Teachers and Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillion, JoAnn; Malewski, Erik L.; Sharma, Suniti; Wang, Yuxiang

    2009-01-01

    Universities in the United States and elsewhere offer study abroad programs to meet requirements that graduates have cross-cultural competencies and an international perspective on their discipline. Study abroad courses and field experiences for preservice teachers address two major challenges specific to the teaching profession: (1) how to…

  10. Global and local alignments in HIV/AIDS prevention trainings: a case study from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Martina

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a linguistic analysis of data from an ongoing research project exploring HIV/AIDS education in West African Burkina Faso. I argue that we can identify different, sometimes even competing, discourses about the disease in prevention interactions. Thus, communication about HIV/AIDS in Burkina Faso--and probably in most of the Sub-Saharan countries--might be characterized by what I will call, with reference to Bakhtin, discursive heteroglossia. There is clear evidence of such discursive heteroglossia, that is, the participants' alignment to local and global HIV discourses, deployed in the communication of health workers. In my analysis of peer educators training sessions, I draw on theoretical and methodological principles from discourse analysis and interactional linguistics. I focus on the linguistic devices and conversational strategies the participants use to indicate the relevance of the local or the global discourses. Three particular devices--namely, metaphors, epistemic and evidential markers, and word explanations--will be examined in a more detailed way. I will also show how the local and the global interweave at different levels of prevention discourse. PMID:17714039

  11. AIDS related knowledge and behaviours among college students, Gondar, Ethiopia: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Teka, T

    1997-07-01

    AIDS-related knowledge and behaviours among students at the Gondar College of Medical Sciences, Gondar, Ethiopia were evaluated based on identical surveys conducted in 1990 and 1992. One hundred three second year students provided information in 1992. Analysis indicated that 49% were engaged in sexual intercourse and only a third of these group used condom despite their improved knowledge and belief on condom compared to their previous position in 1990 (p < 0.004). On the other hand, their sexual behaviours regarding sexual contact with high risk individuals decreased compared to 1990 (p < 0.0005). Their general level of AIDS-related preventive knowledge increased over time (p < 0.002), although there was no significant difference in knowledge observed among different sexes and departments. Among the sexually active, a large proportion of students (22%) still had sexual contact with high risk individuals and only 33% of them were using safer methods. Continuing efforts, including peer education, specific health education interventions are still crucially needed to bring a positive change in sexual behaviour. PMID:9558757

  12. Do special constables in London feel that they are adequately prepared to meet their first aid responsibilities? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Meakin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study's aims were to explore the views of special constables in the London metropolitan police force concerning their obligations and skills as first aiders. Background The metropolitan police force provides police officers to act as first responders to emergency calls made by the public. Special constables act with the same powers and responsibility as police officers and are required to deal with incidents involving medical emergencies. Setting West London Police Station. Participants Fifteen special constables entered and completed the study. Methods and Outcome Measures A qualitative study involving semistructured interviews, participant observation, and reflective work. The outcome measures were the themes derived from the ‘thematic framework approach’ to analysis. Results Four main themes were identified. (1) ‘Our responsibility?’—Special constables felt they had a responsibility, but were unsure of the origin of this responsibility, with many feeling it stemmed from public expectation. (2) ‘Confidence’—Special constables had mixed feelings regarding their confidence in first aid scenarios and many felt that more could be done to improve their confidence. (3) ‘Training needs’—Many felt the current training system was lacking in several ways including regularity, teaching and content. (4) ‘Personal first aid knowledge’—Special constables were disappointed with their past performances. Conclusions Owing to the small size of this study, the conclusions are limited; however, if the findings are confirmed by larger studies, they suggest the need to improve the confidence of special constables in first aid situations. PMID:26826155

  13. Future Facilities for Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    Pulsars seen at gamma-ray energies offer insight into particle acceleration to very high energies, along with information about the geometry and interaction processes in the magnetospheres of these rotating neutron stars. During the next decade, a number of new gamma-ray facilities will become available for pulsar studies. This brief review describes the motivation for gamma-ray pulsar studies, the opportunities for such studies, and some specific discussion of the capabilities of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) for pulsar measurements.

  14. Future studies of planetary rings by space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent space probe observations of the rings of Jupiter and Saturn have furnished a substantial enhancement of the current understanding of the outer planets' rings. Voyager 2 offers further opportunities for the study of the Neptune and Uranus ring systems. The Galileo mission to Jupiter furnishes the first opportunity for long term space probe studies of a planetary ring system. It is suggested that an appropriately instrumented Saturn orbiter would not only provide a similar opportunity for the study of the Saturn rings, but may also be the only means by which to adequately address the nature of the diverse phenomena displayed by this prototypical planetary ring system.

  15. Building for the future: essential infrastructure for rodent ageing studies.

    PubMed

    Wells, Sara E; Bellantuono, Ilaria

    2016-08-01

    When planning ageing research using rodent models, the logistics of supply, long term housing and infrastructure provision are important factors to take into consideration. These issues need to be prioritised to ensure they meet the requirements of experiments which potentially will not be completed for several years. Although these issues are not unique to this discipline, the longevity of experiments and indeed the animals, requires a high level of consistency and sustainability to be maintained throughout lengthy periods of time. Moreover, the need to access aged stock or material for more immediate experiments poses many issues for the completion of pilot studies and/or short term intervention studies on older models. In this article, we highlight the increasing demand for ageing research, the resources and infrastructure involved, and the need for large-scale collaborative programmes to advance studies in both a timely and a cost-effective way. PMID:27221665

  16. EMG-based pattern recognition approach in post stroke robot-aided rehabilitation: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies investigating the use of electromyographic (EMG) signals in robot-based stroke neuro-rehabilitation to enhance functional recovery. Here we explored whether a classical EMG-based patterns recognition approach could be employed to predict patients’ intentions while attempting to generate goal-directed movements in the horizontal plane. Methods Nine right-handed healthy subjects and seven right-handed stroke survivors performed reaching movements in the horizontal plane. EMG signals were recorded and used to identify the intended motion direction of the subjects. To this aim, a standard pattern recognition algorithm (i.e., Support Vector Machine, SVM) was used. Different tests were carried out to understand the role of the inter- and intra-subjects’ variability in affecting classifier accuracy. Abnormal muscular spatial patterns generating misclassification were evaluated by means of an assessment index calculated from the results achieved with the PCA, i.e., the so-called Coefficient of Expressiveness (CoE). Results Processing the EMG signals of the healthy subjects, in most of the cases we were able to build a static functional map of the EMG activation patterns for point-to-point reaching movements on the horizontal plane. On the contrary, when processing the EMG signals of the pathological subjects a good classification was not possible. In particular, patients’ aimed movement direction was not predictable with sufficient accuracy either when using the general map extracted from data of normal subjects and when tuning the classifier on the EMG signals recorded from each patient. Conclusions The experimental findings herein reported show that the use of EMG patterns recognition approach might not be practical to decode movement intention in subjects with neurological injury such as stroke. Rather than estimate motion from EMGs, future scenarios should encourage the utilization of these signals to detect and interpret the normal and

  17. [Nursing teaching on HIV/AIDS in the perspective of citizenship].

    PubMed

    Camillo, Simone de Oliveira; Maiorino, Fabiana Tavolaro; Chaves, Loide Corina

    2013-09-01

    The aim was to investigate the perception of nursing faculty about their responsibility in teaching practice on HIV/AIDS and if they value the construction of knowledge on the subject of HIV/AIDS focused on parameters aimed to citizenship. This qualitative study had its theoretical framework on Morin Complex Thought. Seven professors from jive institutions of higher education in Sao Paulo participated of the study in the period from January to July 2010. Data were collected through focus group and analysed through content analysis. The semantic categories were: The importance of reflection and criticality of the professor in teaching HIV/AIDS; the exercise of citizenship through education of HIV/AIDS and; the understanding of the human in learning from the experience of a person with HIV/AIDS. The study shows that the role of the professor when teaching HIV/AIDS is essential to an ethical and a citizen development for the future nurse. PMID:24344593

  18. Building Futures: The Head Start Impact Study. Research Design Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Cook, Ronna; Friedman, Janet; Heid, Camilla

    Along with the rapid expansion over the past decade of Head Start, a program providing comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children, their families, and their communities, has come the demand for rigorous research to demonstrate program effectiveness. This report describes the proposed design of a national study of the…

  19. The Future of Leisure Studies in Research Universities: Administrators' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Daniel; Collins, Rachel; Schultz, Jeremy; Browne, Laurie; Schwab, Keri; Rose, Jeff; Timmerman, Danielle; Altschuler, Ben; Jostad, Jeremy; Spencer, Callie; Newman, Jackie; Bricker, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the content of a three-day administrative summit held at Zion Ponderosa Resort in southern Utah in late September 2010. Department chairs, heads, and deans representing 13 universities across North America offering leisure studies doctoral degrees, master's degrees, and undergraduate professional preparation degrees…

  20. A Study of Florida's Future Needs for Architects: 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Bruce D.; Wittenberg, Dennis

    During the past decade, Florida has become the fastest growing large state in the United States. This growth has resulted in a parallel increase in the demand for architectural services. The objective of this study was to employ several types of quantitative assessment of Florida's need for registered architects and then compare the need obtained…

  1. Neptune and Triton: A Study in Future Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, M. D.; Malaska, M. J.; Hosseini, S.; Mcgranaghan, R.; Fernandes, P. A.; Fougere, N.; Clegg, R. N.; Scully, J.; Alibay, F.; Ries, P.; Craig, P. L.; Hutchins, M. L.; Leonard, J.; Uckert, K.; Patthoff, A.; Girazian, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Neptune provides a unique natural laboratory for studying the dynamics of ice giants. Last visited by Voyager 2 in 1989, Neptune and its moon Triton hold important clues to the evolution of the solar system. The Voyager 2 flyby revealed Neptune to be a dynamic world with large storms, unparalleled wind speeds, and an unusual magnetic field. Triton, Neptune's largest satellite, is believed to be a captured Kuiper Belt Object with a thin atmosphere and possible sub-surface ocean. Further study of the farthest planet in our solar system could offer new insights into the dynamics of ice-giant exoplanets, and help us understand their complex atmospheres. The diverse science questions associated with Neptune and Triton motivate the complex and exciting mission proposed in this study. The proposed mission follows the guidelines of the 2013-2022 Planetary Science Decadal Survey, and optimizes the number of high priority science goals achieved, while still maintaining low mission costs. High priority science goals include understanding the structure, composition, and dynamics of Neptune's atmosphere and magnetosphere, as well as analyzing the surface of Triton. With a budget of $1.5 billion, the mission hosts an atmospheric probe and suite of instruments equipped with technologies significantly more advanced than those carried by Voyager 2. Additionally, the mission offers improved spatial coverage and higher resolution measurements than any previously achieved at Neptune. The proposed spacecraft would complete an orbital tour of Neptune and execute several close flybys of Triton. Further study of Neptune and Triton will provide exciting insights into what lies on the edge of our solar system and beyond. This study was prepared in conjunction with Jet Propulsion Laboratory's 2013 Planetary Science Summer School.

  2. Computer aided manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  3. The future of sociobiology: Counting babies or studying proximate mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Crawford, C B

    1993-05-01

    Much of the debate over applying the theory of evolution to the study of human behaviour has died down because most critics now realize that the political ramifications of sociobiology are no more, or no less, than those of behaviourism, psychoanalysis or cognitive science. But controversy remains. It is scientific, and concerns the 'proper' way to do human sociobiology. I contrast the perspective of those sociobiologists who use the approach of behavioural ecology, and who have come to be known as 'darwinian anthropologists' or 'darwinian social scientists', with their critics, who refer to themselves as evolutionary or 'darwinian psychologists', describe the research methods that each uses, and ask if those issues must also be confronted by those studying animals. PMID:21236141

  4. Studies of future readout links for the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Gerry; Beccati, Barbara; Behrens, Ulf; Biery, Kurt; Bouffet, Olivier; Branson, James; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Deldicque, Christian; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Hatton, Derek; Holzner, Andre; Hwong, Yi Ling; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius K.; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Michal; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2011-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment has developed an electrical implementation of the S-LINK64 extension (Simple Link Interface 64 bit) operating at 400 MB/s in order to read out the detector. This paper studies a possible replacement of the existing S-LINK64 implementation by an optical link, based on 10 Gigabit Ethernet in order to fulfil larger throughput, replace aging hardware and simplify an architecture. A prototype transmitter unit has been developed based on the FPGA Altera PCI Express Development Kit with a custom firmware. A standard PC has been acted as receiving unit. The data transfer has been implemented on a stack of protocols: RDP over IP over Ethernet. This allows receiving the data by standard hardware components like PCs or network switches and NICs. The first test proved that basic exchange of the packets between transmitter and receiving unit works. The paper summarizes the status of these studies.

  5. Projecting the self into the future in individuals with schizophrenia: a preliminary cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Raffard, Stéphane; Bortolon, Catherine; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Gardes, Jeanne; Gely-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Capdevielle, Delphine; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-07-01

    The ability to project oneself into the future contributes to development and maintenance of a coherent sense of identity. If recent research has revealed that schizophrenia is associated with difficulties envisioning the future, little is known about patients' future self-representations. In this study, 27 participants with schizophrenia and 26 healthy controls were asked to simulate mental representations of plausible and highly significant future events (self-defining future projections, SDFPs) that they anticipate to happen in their personal future. Main results showed that schizophrenia patients had difficulties in reflecting on the broader meaning and implications of imagined future events. In addition, and contrary to our hypothesis, a large majority of SDFPs in schizophrenia patients were positive events, including achievements, relationship, and leisure contents. Interestingly, patients and controls did not differ on the perceived probability that these events will occur in the future. Our results suggest that schizophrenia patients have an exaggerated positive perception of their future selves. Together, these findings lend support to the idea that past and future self-defining representations have both similar and distinct characteristics in schizophrenia. PMID:26274839

  6. Ocean Studies Board annual report 1988 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council monitors the status and needs of ocean sciences and assists U.S. government agencies in the development and maintenance of ocean research programs. The major activities of 1988 are reviewed on the following: Navy Review Panel, NOAA Review Panel, CO2 Panel, International Ocean Science Policy Group, Ocean Climate Research Committee, The Continental Margins Workshop Committee, and the Exclusive Economic Zone.

  7. Ocean Studies Board annual report 1988 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    The Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council monitors the status and needs of ocean sciences and assists U.S. government agencies in the development and maintenance of ocean research programs. The major activities of 1988 are reviewed on the following: Navy Review Panel, NOAA Review Panel, CO2 Panel, International Ocean Science Policy Group, Ocean Climate Research Committee, The Continental Margins Workshop Committee, and the Exclusive Economic Zone.

  8. Animal venom studies: Current benefits and future developments.

    PubMed

    Utkin, Yuri N

    2015-05-26

    Poisonous organisms are represented in many taxa, including kingdom Animalia. During evolution, animals have developed special organs for production and injection of venoms. Animal venoms are complex mixtures, compositions of which depend on species producing venom. The most known and studied poisonous terrestrial animals are snakes, scorpions and spiders. Among marine animals, these are jellyfishes, anemones and cone snails. The toxic substances in the venom of these animals are mainly of protein and peptide origin. Recent studies have indicated that the single venom may contain up to several hundred different components producing diverse physiological effects. Bites or stings by certain poisonous species result in severe envenomations leading in some cases to death. This raises the problem of bite treatment. The most effective treatment so far is the application of antivenoms. To enhance the effectiveness of such treatments, the knowledge of venom composition is needed. On the other hand, venoms contain substances with unique biological properties, which can be used both in basic science and in clinical applications. The best example of toxin application in basic science is α-bungarotoxin the discovery of which made a big impact on the studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Today compositions of venom from many species have already been examined. Based on these data, one can conclude that venoms contain a large number of individual components belonging to a limited number of structural types. Often minor changes in the amino acid sequence give rise to new biological properties. Change in the living conditions of poisonous animals lead to alterations in the composition of venoms resulting in appearance of new toxins. At the same time introduction of new methods of proteomics and genomics lead to discoveries of new compounds, which may serve as research tools or as templates for the development of novel drugs. The application of these sensitive and

  9. Animal venom studies: Current benefits and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Utkin, Yuri N

    2015-01-01

    Poisonous organisms are represented in many taxa, including kingdom Animalia. During evolution, animals have developed special organs for production and injection of venoms. Animal venoms are complex mixtures, compositions of which depend on species producing venom. The most known and studied poisonous terrestrial animals are snakes, scorpions and spiders. Among marine animals, these are jellyfishes, anemones and cone snails. The toxic substances in the venom of these animals are mainly of protein and peptide origin. Recent studies have indicated that the single venom may contain up to several hundred different components producing diverse physiological effects. Bites or stings by certain poisonous species result in severe envenomations leading in some cases to death. This raises the problem of bite treatment. The most effective treatment so far is the application of antivenoms. To enhance the effectiveness of such treatments, the knowledge of venom composition is needed. On the other hand, venoms contain substances with unique biological properties, which can be used both in basic science and in clinical applications. The best example of toxin application in basic science is α-bungarotoxin the discovery of which made a big impact on the studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Today compositions of venom from many species have already been examined. Based on these data, one can conclude that venoms contain a large number of individual components belonging to a limited number of structural types. Often minor changes in the amino acid sequence give rise to new biological properties. Change in the living conditions of poisonous animals lead to alterations in the composition of venoms resulting in appearance of new toxins. At the same time introduction of new methods of proteomics and genomics lead to discoveries of new compounds, which may serve as research tools or as templates for the development of novel drugs. The application of these sensitive and

  10. A tactual pilot aid for the approach-and-landing task: Inflight studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, R. D.; Fenton, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A pilot aid -- a kinesthetic-tactual compensatory display -- for assisting novice pilots in various inflight situations has undergone preliminary inflight testing. The efficacy of this display, as compared with two types of visual displays, was evaluated in both a highly structured approach-and-landing task and a less structured test involving tight turns about a point. In both situations, the displayed quantity was the deviation (alpha sub 0 - alpha) in angle at attack from a desired value alpha sub 0. In the former, the performance with the tactual display was comparable with that obtained using a visual display of (alpha sub 0 - alpha), while in the later, substantial improvements (reduced tracking error (55%), decreased maximum altitude variations (67%), and decreased speed variations (43%)), were obtained using the tactual display. It appears that such a display offers considerable potential for inflight use.

  11. Dialectical theory and the study of HIV/AIDS and other epidemics.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel R; Rossi, Diana

    2011-12-01

    Epidemics have been important in human history. This article discusses epidemics as part of a metabolic dialectics of humanity within nature. The creative thoughts and actions of those people most threatened by HIV/AIDS, and the thoughts and actions of science, have shaped both each other and the virus. The virus has reacted through mutation in ways that mimic strategic intelligence. The dialectics of capital and states has shaped these interactions and, in some cases, been shaped by them. Practical action to minimize the harms epidemics do can be strengthened by understanding of these epidemics, and Marxist theory and practices can be strengthened by understanding the dialectics of public health and the struggles around it more fully. PMID:23894218

  12. A Qualitative Study of Underutilization of the AIDS Drug Assistance Program

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Kristin M.; Godwin, Noah C.; Wilkins, Sara Anne; Mugavero, Michael J.; Moneyham, Linda D.; Slater, Larry Z.; Raper, James L.

    2014-01-01

    In our previous work, we demonstrated underutilization of the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) at an HIV clinic in Alabama. In order to understand barriers and facilitators to utilization of ADAP, we conducted focus groups of ADAP enrollees. Focus groups were stratified by sex, race, and historical medication possession ratio as a measure of program utilization. We grouped factors according to the social-ecological model. We found that multiple levels of influence, including patient and clinic-related factors, influenced utilization of antiretroviral medications. Patients introduced issues that illustrated high-priority needs for ADAP policy and implementation, suggesting that in order to improve ADAP utilization, the following issues must be addressed: patient transportation, ADAP medication refill schedules and procedures, mailing of medications, and the ADAP recertification process. These findings can inform a strategy of approaches to improve ADAP utilization, which may have widespread implications for ADAP programs across the United States. PMID:24503498

  13. Dialectical theory and the study of HIV/AIDS and other epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Epidemics have been important in human history. This article discusses epidemics as part of a metabolic dialectics of humanity within nature. The creative thoughts and actions of those people most threatened by HIV/AIDS, and the thoughts and actions of science, have shaped both each other and the virus. The virus has reacted through mutation in ways that mimic strategic intelligence. The dialectics of capital and states has shaped these interactions and, in some cases, been shaped by them. Practical action to minimize the harms epidemics do can be strengthened by understanding of these epidemics, and Marxist theory and practices can be strengthened by understanding the dialectics of public health and the struggles around it more fully. PMID:23894218

  14. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    , and smoking cessation outcomes as well as putative mediator variables will be measured up to 6 months following the quit date. Discussion The primary objective of STEP is to evaluate whether vigorous-intensity exercise can aid smoking cessation in anxiety vulnerable adults. If effective, the use of vigorous-intensity exercise as a component of smoking cessation interventions would have a significant public health impact. Specifically, in addition to improving smoking cessation treatment outcome, exercise is expected to offer benefits to overall health, which may be particularly important for smokers. The study is also designed to test putative mediators of the intervention effects and therefore has the potential to advance the understanding of exercise-anxiety-smoking relations and guide future research on this topic. Clinical trials registry ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01065506, http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01065506 PMID:23148822

  15. The Broadbent-Bolton Growth Study--past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Hans, M G; Broadbent, B H; Nelson, S S

    1994-06-01

    A computerized database of 14 textual elements has been created to describe the 4309 subjects enrolled in the Broadbent-Bolton Growth Study. The database can be searched by using Boolean operators to select subsets of subjects matched on the 14 data elements. The structure of the database, along with representative tables and charts of the data, is presented to aid researchers contemplating use of the collection for scientific investigation. PMID:8198085

  16. Latent and manifest empiricism in Q'eqchi' Maya healing: a case study of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Waldram, James B; Hatala, Andrew R

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a case study of the traditional treatment of a Q'eqchi' Maya man in southern Belize in 2011 who is suffering from AIDS-related sickness. The purpose is to detail the empirical nature of Q'eqchi' Maya medicine, distinguishing between manifest and latent empiricism, as evidenced in the healers evolving attempts to treat the patient in the absence of knowledge of his biomedical diagnosis. The paper argues for a more complete understanding of the empirical nature of much Indigenous healing, which parallels aspects of scientific medicine, and for better collaboration among traditional healers and biomedical practitioners in strongly Indigenous areas. PMID:25497726

  17. Are schoolteachers able to teach first aid to children younger than 6 years? A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ammirati, Christine; Gagnayre, Rémi; Amsallem, Carole; Némitz, Bernard; Gignon, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to assess the knowledge acquired by very young children (<6 years) trained by their own teachers at nursery school. This comparative study assessed the effect of training before the age of 6 years compared with a group of age-matched untrained children. Setting Some schoolteachers were trained by emergency medical teams to perform basic first aid. Participants Eighteen classes comprising 315 pupils were randomly selected: nine classes of trained pupils (cohort C1) and nine classes of untrained pupils (cohort C2). Primary and secondary outcome measures The test involved observing and describing three pictures and using the phone to call the medical emergency centre. Assessment of each child was based on nine criteria, and was performed by the teacher 2 months after completion of first aid training. Results This study concerned 285 pupils: 140 trained and 145 untrained. The majority of trained pupils gave the expected answers for all criteria and reacted appropriately by assessing the situation and alerting emergency services (55.7−89.3% according to the questions). Comparison of the two groups revealed a significantly greater ability of trained pupils to describe an emergency situation (p<0.005) and raise the alert (p<0.0001). Conclusions This study shows the ability of very young children to assimilate basic skills as taught by their own schoolteachers. PMID:25239292

  18. Papal policy, poverty, and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Morley, D

    1990-06-30

    Papal "pronouncements" have been a major cause of the Philippines' increasing poverty, and of its failure to promote the only method proved to limit the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Kenya has a growth rate of 3-4% and will double its population in 17 years. The UK has an average family size of 1.8 children. This is due to contraceptive usage. The poor lack knowledge and funds to ignore the rulings of the Catholic Church. Families will have 7 or more children without access to modern contraceptives. The Philippine elite are 90% Catholic, and disregard church policy and use contraceptives. Therefore, they have small families. Abortion is widely used in Latin America. It is the leading cause of death of women aged 15-39. The Philippines is industrializing rapidly; businessmen, however, do not see a future in producing condoms here. Widespread availability of condoms would limit the spread of AIDS. Mainly surveys show that in 1989 only 5 to 10/1000 prostitutes were positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Other Asian countries have shown large increases in HIV infection occurrence in 2-3 years. Pope John Paul has been telling young people in Burkina Faso that they "must face the plagues of modern times." He did not identify these plaques. However, Monsignore Carlo Cafara, dean of John Paul II's Institute for Marriage and Family Studies at the Vatican, told a recent conference that when 1 partner of a married couple is positive for AIDS, it is preferable to risk catching the AIDS virus than to use condoms. St. Paul would have approved the use of modern contraceptive methods. PMID:2390554

  19. Multi-path transportation futures study : vehicle characterization and scenario analyses.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S. E.; Singh, M. K.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering; ORNL

    2009-12-03

    Projecting the future role of advanced drivetrains and fuels in the light vehicle market is inherently difficult, given the uncertainty (and likely volatility) of future oil prices, inadequate understanding of likely consumer response to new technologies, the relative infancy of several important new technologies with inevitable future changes in their performance and costs, and the importance - and uncertainty - of future government marketplace interventions (e.g., new regulatory standards or vehicle purchase incentives). This Multi-Path Transportation Futures (MP) Study has attempted to improve our understanding of this future role by examining several scenarios of vehicle costs, fuel prices, government subsidies, and other key factors. These are projections, not forecasts, in that they try to answer a series of 'what if' questions without assigning probabilities to most of the basic assumptions.

  20. Methods for studying the zebrafish brain: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Cameron; Bartoszek, Ewelina M; Yaksi, Emre

    2015-07-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the most promising new model organisms. The increasing popularity of this amazing small vertebrate is evident from the exponentially growing numbers of research articles, funded projects and new discoveries associated with the use of zebrafish for studying development, brain function, human diseases and screening for new drugs. Thanks to the development of novel technologies, the range of zebrafish research is constantly expanding with new tools synergistically enhancing traditional techniques. In this review we will highlight the past and present techniques which have made, and continue to make, zebrafish an attractive model organism for various fields of biology, with a specific focus on neuroscience. PMID:25900095

  1. Inquiry Into Terminal Decline: Five Objectives for Future Study

    PubMed Central

    Gerstorf, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Notions of terminal decline propose that late-life change is primarily driven by processes closely tied to pathology and mortality rather than chronological age. We use the rationales of longitudinal research as outlined by Baltes and Nesselroade (Baltes, P., & Nesselroade, J. [1979]. History and rationale of longitudinal research. In J. R. Nesselroade & P. Baltes (Eds.), Longitudinal research in the study of behavior and development [pp. 1–39]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press) as a framework for organizing research on terminal decline. In doing so, we note that there are relatively robust descriptions of terminal decline across a variety of different domains, as well as the extent of interindividual differences in the levels of function, rates of change, and timing of terminal decline (research rationales 1 and 2). However, there is much more to learn about the interrelations among change in different domains, the underlying mechanisms of change, and the factors that contribute to interindividual differences in change (research rationales 3–5). Needed are new study designs and analytical models that better address the structural, temporal, and causal interrelations that contribute to and protect against terminal decline. PMID:23704220

  2. Proceedings of the NATO-Advanced Study Institute on Computer Aided Analysis of Rigid and Flexible Mechanical Systems. Volume 1: Main lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Manuel S.; Ambrosio, Jorge A. C.

    1993-07-01

    During the last few years, major scientific progress has been achieved in fields related to computer aided analysis of multibody systems. In view of this progress and recent developments of computer hardware and general purpose software, there is a need to access the current state of art and results from different schools of thought, with the objective of focussing trends in future research. Going back to 1983 when an important NATO-NSF-ARO Advanced Study Institute on Computer Aided Analysis and Optimization of Mechanical Systems was held at the University of Iowa, one may notice that less then 10 years ago the state of art was mainly dwelling on rigid body dynamics. The interest in the dynamic simulation of mechanical systems has steadily increased in recent years coming mainly from the aerospace and automative industries. The development of multibody system analysis formulations have been more recently motivated with the need to include several features such as: real-time simulation capabilities, highly non-linear control devices, work space path planing, active control of machine flexibilities and reliability and accuracy in the analysis results. The need for accurate and efficient analysis tools for design of large and lightweight mechanical systems has driven many research groups in the challenging problem of flexible systems with an increasing interaction with finite element methodologies. Basic approaches to mechanical systems dynamic analysis have recently been presented in several new text books. These publications demonstrate that both recursive and absolute methods still have their proponents to resolve the redundancy encountered in most mechanical systems.

  3. A case study of school support and the psychological, emotional and behavioural consequences of HIV and AIDS on adolescents.

    PubMed

    Asikhia, Olubusayo Aduke; Mohangi, Kesh

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have reported a huge increase in the numbers of orphaned adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa and its effects on their psychological, emotional and behavioural development. Yet, their needs are seldom recognised or adequately addressed in policy and programmes.This article uses a qualitative study to report the experiences of 11 orphaned adolescents (5 boys and 6 girls aged between 15 and 18 years) affected by HIV and AIDS in a secondary school (in Atteridgeville, Pretoria, South Africa) and the school support provided by them. The primary data-generation strategies were informal interviews and the Beck Youth Inventories-II (BYI-II) (adopted to measure the participants' level of emotional, behavioural and psychological problems). All interview transcriptions with the participants were thematically analysed. BYI-II data were subjected to T scores (in percentages) to know the participant's psychological, behavioural and emotional problems in order to compare it with their perceptions on the degree of support provided by the school. Result shows that participants have a high prevalence of psychological, behavioural and emotional problems and that the school support provided to them (teachers' support, the general school environment and the degree of discrimination, labelling and bullying that exists in the school) was not sufficient. The participants, however, reported a high level of support from the principal. In conclusion, we have suggested the urgent need for teachers to acquire and possess basic knowledge and skills in caring and paying attention to learners affected by HIV and AIDS and for government agencies and NGOs working with HIV-and AIDS-affected children, to focus on proposals that address the psychological, behavioural and emotional problems in such affected adolescents. PMID:26771076

  4. The God Factor of the Community College Ecological System: Future Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jerry L.

    A rationale and plan are presented for implementing a futures approach in many areas of community college activities. After the introduction, the paper cites several characteristics of the community college and its mission which mandate planned experimentation and innovation. Next, the relationship of future studies to the educational system as a…

  5. GM1 Ganglioside: Past Studies and Future Potential.

    PubMed

    Aureli, Massimo; Mauri, Laura; Ciampa, Maria Grazia; Prinetti, Alessandro; Toffano, Gino; Secchieri, Cynthia; Sonnino, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Gangliosides (sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids) are abundant in neurons of all animal species and play important roles in many cell physiological processes, including differentiation, memory control, cell signaling, neuronal protection, neuronal recovery, and apoptosis. Gangliosides also function as anchors or entry points for various toxins, bacteria, viruses, and autoantibodies. GM1, a ganglioside component of mammalian brains, is present mainly in neurons. GM1 is one of the best studied gangliosides, and our understanding of its properties is extensive. Simple and rapid procedures are available for preparation of GM1 as a natural compound on a large scale, or as a derivative containing an isotopic radionuclide or a specific probe. Great research interest in the properties of GM1 arose from the discovery in the early 1970s of its role as receptor for the bacterial toxin responsible for cholera pathogenesis. PMID:25762012

  6. Feasibility study for a future Austrian lightning nano-satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Jaffer, Ghulam; Koudelka, O.; Khan, S.; Grant, C.; Unterberger, M.; Lichtenegger, Herbert; Macher, W.; Hausleitner, W.

    A feasibility study for an Austrian lightning nano-satellite is presented. The satellite will carry a radio-frequency receiver payload for the investigation of electromagnetic signatures produced by lightning strokes. A special emphasis will be on the investigation of transient electromagnetic waves in VHF range (20-40MHz) known as sferics. The onboard RF lightning triggering system will be a special capability of the nano-satellite. The lightning experiment will also observe VHF signals of ionospheric and magnetospheric origin. Adaptive filters will be developed to differentiate terrestrial electromagnetic impulsive signals from ionospheric or magnetospheric signals. One of the major problems using a nano-satellite is to integrate the lightning experiment antenna, receiver and data acquisition unit into the nano-satellite structure. Using a gravity gradient boom as a lightning antenna can increase the sensitivity and directional capability. A major part of this study is devoted to the design of a combined gravity-gradient boom and a sferics antenna. The compact structure of a nano-satellite faces special EMC issues e.g., impulsive electromagnetic events from DC converters. The low power and mass budget of a nano-satellite requires merging of the satellite housekeeping and lightning experiment units. The Lightning nano-satellite team has participated in various space missions (HUYGENS, DEMETER, PHOBOS, CLUSTER) investigating electromagnetic phenomena. The data of these missions will be used to test the hardand software of the lightning experiment before the launch. Further tests with a satellite mock-up, high frequency electronics and gravity gradient boom acting as lightning antenna will be carried out in a high voltage chamber, where artificial lightning can be generated. Additionally ground based and balloon-borne tests are planned with the satellite engineering model using terrestrial lightning.

  7. Future Far-UV Studies of Hot White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, M. A.

    We are beginning to understand the evolution of the hot white dwarfs, but even with telescopes such as IUE and HST, we have still only observed a modest number of the most interesting objects with the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise required. This is in part arises from the intense competition for HST time, against both optical and IR observations as well as other far-UV bids. A key requirement of any new far-UV telescope is sufficient sensitivity to observe most of the ~100 or so brightest hot white dwarfs at high spectral resolution. A spectral resolving power of at least 30,000 is required for studies of white dwarfs. First it is necessary to detect and resolve photospheric, circumstellar and interstellar absorption features. Interstellar/circumstellar features may have several components that can only be separated in velocity space. For example, it is interesting to note that IUE was unable to resolve the photospheric and circumstellar CIV components of G191-B2B, discovered by the HST STIS instrument, leading to a serious overestimate of the carbon abundance in this star. There may be similar components in other stars observed only by IUE. In those stars that have highly stratified atmospheres, the detailed shape of the absorption lines is sensitive to the atmospheric structure. High-resolution observations of the line shapes can provide us with a direct probe of atmospheric structure.

  8. Correlates of depression among caregivers of children affected by HIV/AIDS in Uganda: findings from the Suubi-Maka family study.

    PubMed

    Kagotho, Njeri; Ssewamala, Fred M

    2012-01-01

    This study uses the baseline (wave 1) data from a four-year (2008-2012) longitudinal study called the Suubi-Maka family economic empowerment intervention for AIDS-orphaned children in Uganda funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (Grant # RMH081763A). Specifically, using baseline data from the Suubi-Maka study, this article provides a contextualized understanding of depression levels among caregivers for AIDS-orphaned children in two rural communities heavily affected by AIDS in Uganda: Rakai and Masaka districts. Using baseline data collected from caregivers of children orphaned by AIDS (N=297) the study examines the factors that influence reported depression levels of caregivers of AIDS-orphaned children in rural communities of Uganda. We specifically use ordinary least squares regression methods. In the analysis we control for several demographic factors, including age, gender, assets, social support, and caregiving status. We find that caregivers' reported economic status and social support system are highly correlated with caregivers' reported depression scores. Specifically, caregivers with cash savings and a strong family support system reported better depression scores. These findings have implications for community development practice and programming. Specifically, the study highlights a need for family economic empowerment programs and, strengthened family support among caregivers for AIDS-orphaned children, especially those caregivers with reported poor mental health functioning. PMID:22375826

  9. Correlates of Depression among Caregivers of Children Affected by HIV/AIDS in Uganda: Findings from the Suubi-Maka Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Ssewamala, Fred M.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses the baseline (wave 1) data from a 4-year (2008-2012) longitudinal study called the Suubi-Maka family economic empowerment intervention for AIDS-orphaned children in Uganda funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (Grant # RMH081763A). Specifically, using baseline data from the Suubi-Maka study, this paper provides a contextualized understanding of depression levels among caregivers for AIDS-orphaned children in two rural communities heavily affected by AIDS in Uganda: Rakai and Masaka districts. Using baseline data collected from caregivers of children orphaned by AIDS (N=297) the study examines the factors that influence reported depression levels of caregivers of AIDS-orphaned children in rural communities of Uganda. We specifically use OLS regression methods. In the analysis we control for several demographic factors, including age, gender, assets, social support, and caregiving status. We find that caregivers’ reported economic status and social support system are highly correlated with caregivers’ reported depression scores. Specifically, caregivers with cash savings and a strong family support system reported better depression scores. These findings have implications for community development practice and programming. Specifically, the study highlights a need for family economic empowerment programs and, strengthened family support among caregivers for AIDS-orphaned children, especially those caregivers with reported poor mental health functioning. PMID:22375826

  10. A Decision Aid for Women Considering Neoadjuvant Systemic Therapy for Operable Invasive Breast Cancer: Development and Protocol of a Phase II Evaluation Study (ANZ1301 DOMINO)

    PubMed Central

    Butow, Phyllis; Hutchings, Elizabeth; Douglas, Charles; Coll, Joseph R; Boyle, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    Background Neoadjuvant systemic therapy is offered to selected women with large and/or highly proliferative operable breast cancers. This option adds further complexity to an already complex breast cancer treatment decision tree. Patient decision aids are an established method of increasing patient involvement and knowledge while decreasing decisional conflict. There is currently no decision aid available for women considering neoadjuvant systemic therapy. Objective We aimed to develop a decision aid for women diagnosed with operable breast cancer and considered suitable for neoadjuvant systemic therapy, and the protocol for a multicenter pre-post study evaluating the acceptability and feasibility of the decision aid. Methods The decision aid was developed through literature review, expert advisory panel, adherence to the International Patient Decision Aid Standards, and iterative review. The protocol for evaluation of the decision aid consists of the following: eligible women will undertake a series of questionnaires prior to and after using the decision aid. The primary endpoint is decision aid acceptability to patients and investigators and the feasibility of use. Secondary endpoints include change in decisional conflict, participant knowledge, and information involvement preference. Feasibility is defined as the proportion of eligible participants who use the decision aid to help inform their treatment decision. Results This study has recruited 29 out of a planned 50 participants at four Australian sites. A 12-month recruitment period is expected with a further 12-months follow-up. Conclusions The decision aid has the potential to allow patients with operable breast cancer, who have been offered neoadjuvant systemic therapy, decreased decisional conflict, and greater involvement in the decision. If this study finds that an online decision aid is feasible and acceptable, it will be made widely available for routine clinical practice. Trial Registration

  11. A Psychophysiological Study of Processing HIV/AIDS Public Service Announcements: The Effects of Novelty Appeals, Sexual Appeals, Narrative Versus Statistical Evidence, and Viewer's Sex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jueman Mandy; Chen, Gina Masullo; Chock, T Makana; Wang, Yi; Ni, Liqiang; Schweisberger, Valarie

    2016-07-01

    This study used self-reports and physiological measures-heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL)-to examine the effects of novelty appeals, sexual appeals, narrative versus statistical evidence, and viewer's sex on cognitive and emotional processing of HIV/AIDS public service announcements (PSAs) among heterosexually active single college students. Novelty or sexual appeals differently affected self-reported attention and cognitive effort as measured by HR. High- rather than low-novelty HIV/AIDS PSAs, perceived as more attention-eliciting, did not lead to more cognitive effort. High- rather than low-sex HIV/AIDS PSAs, not perceived as more attention-eliciting, led to more cognitive effort as reflected by greater HR deceleration. Novelty or sexual appeals also affected self-reported emotional arousal and SCL differently. HIV/AIDS PSAs with high rather than low levels of novelty or sexual appeals led to greater self-reported arousal, but not greater SCL. Message evidence interacted with message appeals to affect cognitive effort. Participants exerted greater cognitive effort during high- rather than low-novelty narrative HIV/AIDS PSAs, and during low- rather than high-novelty statistical ones. The advantage of high over low sexual appeals was more obvious in statistical than in narrative HIV/AIDS PSAs. Males reported greater emotional arousal than females during high- rather than low-sex HIV/AIDS PSAs. PMID:26642917

  12. What is lacking in current decision aids on cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Jimbo, Masahito; Rana, Gurpreet K.; Hawley, Sarah; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Kelly-Blake, Karen; Nease, Donald E.; Ruffin, Mack T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent guidelines on cancer screening have given not only more screening options but also conflicting recommendations. Thus, patients, with their clinicians’ support, must decide whether to get screened or not, which modality to use, and how often to get screened. Decision aids could potentially lead to better shared decision making regarding screening between the patient and the clinician. We reviewed 73 decision aids on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, and prostate cancers. The goal of this review was to assess the effectiveness of such decision aids, examine areas in need for more research, and determine how the decision aids can be currently applied in the real world setting. Most studies used sound study design. Significant variation existed in setting, theoretical framework, and measured outcomes. Just over a third of the decision aids included an explicit values clarification. Other than knowledge, little consistency was noted in which patient attributes were measured as outcomes. Few studies actually measured shared decision making. Little information was available on the feasibility and outcomes of integrating decision aids into practice. We discuss the implications for future research, as well as what the clinicians can do now to incorporate decision aids into their practice. PMID:23504675

  13. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  14. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  15. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  16. Building partnerships to support community-led HIV/AIDS management: a case study from rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nair, Yugi; Campbell, Catherine

    2008-05-01

    The importance of partnerships between marginalised communities and support agencies (from the public sector, private sector and civil society) is a pillar of HIV/AIDS management policy. Such alliances are notoriously difficult to promote and sustain. We present a case study focusing on the first stage of a project seeking to build partnerships to facilitate local responses to HIV/AIDS in a remote rural community in South Africa. To date the Entabeni project has been successful in its goal of training volunteer health workers in home-based care, peer education, project management and procedures for accessing grants and services. The paper focuses on the project's other goal - to create external support structures for these volunteers (drawing on government departments, local NGOs and private-sector philanthropists). The partnership aims to empower volunteers to lead HIV-prevention and AIDS-care efforts, and to make public services more responsive to local needs. We illustrate how features of the local public-sector environment have actively worked against effective community empowerment. These include a rigid hierarchy, poor communication between senior and junior health professionals, lack of social development skills and the demoralisation and/or exhaustion of public servants dealing with multiple social problems in under-resourced settings. We outline the obstacles that have prevented private-sector involvement, suggesting a degree of scepticism about the potential for private-sector contributions to development in remote areas. We discuss how the project's most effective partners have been two small under-funded NGOs - run by highly committed individuals with a keen understanding of social-development principles, flexible working styles and a willingness to work hard for small gains. Despite many challenges, the partnership formation process has seen some positive achievements; we outline these and discuss the essential role played by an external change agent

  17. Helping someone with problem drinking: Mental health first aid guidelines - a Delphi expert consensus study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a leading risk factor for avoidable disease burden. Research suggests that a drinker's social network can play an integral role in addressing hazardous (i.e., high-risk) or problem drinking. Often however, social networks do not have adequate mental health literacy (i.e., knowledge about mental health problems, like problem drinking, or how to treat them). This is a concern as the response that a drinker receives from their social network can have a substantial impact on their willingness to seek help. This paper describes the development of mental health first aid guidelines that inform community members on how to help someone who may have, or may be developing, a drinking problem (i.e., alcohol abuse or dependence). Methods A systematic review of the research and lay literature was conducted to develop a 285-item survey containing strategies on how to help someone who may have, or may be developing, a drinking problem. Two panels of experts (consumers/carers and clinicians) individually rated survey items, using a Delphi process. Surveys were completed online or via postal mail. Participants were 99 consumers, carers and clinicians with experience or expertise in problem drinking from Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Items that reached consensus on importance were retained and written into guidelines. Results The overall response rate across all three rounds was 68.7% (67.6% consumers/carers, 69.2% clinicians), with 184 first aid strategies rated as essential or important by ≥80% of panel members. The endorsed guidelines provide guidance on how to: recognize problem drinking; approach someone if there is concern about their drinking; support the person to change their drinking; respond if they are unwilling to change their drinking; facilitate professional help seeking and respond if professional help is refused; and manage an alcohol-related medical emergency. Conclusion The guidelines

  18. Episodic future thinking in semantic dementia: a cognitive and FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Viard, Armelle; Piolino, Pascale; Belliard, Serge; de La Sayette, Vincent; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by gradual loss of semantic memory. While episodic autobiographical memory seems relatively preserved, behavioral studies suggest that episodic future thinking is impaired. We used fMRI to measure brain activity in four SD patients (JPL, EP, LL, EG) while they envisioned future events and remembered personal past events. Twelve healthy elders served as controls. Episodic quality, emotion, mental imagery and level of consciousness (via remember/know judgements) were checked at debriefing. We analyzed the future compared to the past for each patient. All patients presented lateral temporal atrophy, but varied in terms of frontal and anterior hippocampal atrophy. Patient JPL presented atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and left anterior hippocampus and was unable to engage in episodic future thinking, despite hyperactivations in frontal and occipital regions. Patient EP presented no atrophy in the anterior hippocampus, but atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyrus and had difficulties to engage in episodic future thinking. Patient LL presented atrophy in left anterior hippocampus, but hyperactivated its right counterpart for future compared to past thinking, permitting her to project efficiently in the future in an episodic way. Patient EG presented no atrophy in the superior medial frontal gyri or anterior hippocampi and was able to engage in episodic future thinking. Altogether, patients' future projections differed depending on the severity and localization of their atrophy. The functional integrity of bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and anterior hippocampus appear crucial for episodic future thinking: atrophy of both structures strongly impairs future projection, while integrity of these structures or hyperactivation of residual tissue normalizes episodic future projection. PMID:25333997

  19. Episodic Future Thinking in Semantic Dementia: A Cognitive and fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Viard, Armelle; Piolino, Pascale; Belliard, Serge; de La Sayette, Vincent; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by gradual loss of semantic memory. While episodic autobiographical memory seems relatively preserved, behavioral studies suggest that episodic future thinking is impaired. We used fMRI to measure brain activity in four SD patients (JPL, EP, LL, EG) while they envisioned future events and remembered personal past events. Twelve healthy elders served as controls. Episodic quality, emotion, mental imagery and level of consciousness (via remember/know judgements) were checked at debriefing. We analyzed the future compared to the past for each patient. All patients presented lateral temporal atrophy, but varied in terms of frontal and anterior hippocampal atrophy. Patient JPL presented atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and left anterior hippocampus and was unable to engage in episodic future thinking, despite hyperactivations in frontal and occipital regions. Patient EP presented no atrophy in the anterior hippocampus, but atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyrus and had difficulties to engage in episodic future thinking. Patient LL presented atrophy in left anterior hippocampus, but hyperactivated its right counterpart for future compared to past thinking, permitting her to project efficiently in the future in an episodic way. Patient EG presented no atrophy in the superior medial frontal gyri or anterior hippocampi and was able to engage in episodic future thinking. Altogether, patients' future projections differed depending on the severity and localization of their atrophy. The functional integrity of bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and anterior hippocampus appear crucial for episodic future thinking: atrophy of both structures strongly impairs future projection, while integrity of these structures or hyperactivation of residual tissue normalizes episodic future projection. PMID:25333997

  20. Can we predict future change from long-term watershed studies? Fraser Experimental Forest case study

    SciTech Connect

    Stottlemyer, R.; Troendle, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    The Fraser Experimental Forest (FEF) has nine gauged watersheds, some monitored continuously since the early 1940`s. Hydrographs are dominated by snowmelt with >70% discharge variation accounted for by snow water equivalent. Mean annual flow is cyclic over a ten-year period. Climate models suggest that peak streamwater discharge and its timing respond to temperature change. FEF results suggest simulated climate changes are unlikely to shift the hydrograph magnitude outside of normal variability, but the time of peak discharge is sensitive to anticipated climate change. The fate of atmospheric contaminant input has been studied >10 y. Hydrologic variation accounts for most of the variation in surface water ion concentration and flux. The FEF record suggests that watershed-level nutrient study will not be very sensitive to projected future change in atmospheric contaminant input or climate.

  1. A magic bullet for the “African” mother? Neo-Imperial reproductive futurism and the pharmaceutical “solution” to the HIV/AIDS Crisis.

    PubMed

    Booth, Karen M

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of a close reading of popular and medical texts which address a debate over the ethics of clinical drug trials funded by the United States and designed mainly for sub-Saharan Africa, I argue that international public health discourse about infant HIV infection in that region reflects and legitimates a neo-imperialist, anti-reproductive justice ideology. Participants share a fetal-centered logic that US-funded biomedicine must shoulder the burden of rescuing sub-Saharan Africa from itself by using the bodies of HIV-positive pregnant women to transmit biomedicine's magic bullet—antiretroviral drugs—to the next generation. The survival of the fetus, disguised as the well-being of the HIV-positive woman and accomplished by the magic of biomedical research, becomes the survival of a region otherwise doomed by its present state of economic, political, and medical incapacity. This version of what queer theorist Lee Edelman (2004, No Future: Queer Theory and the Death Drive) calls “reproductive futurism” redounds to the benefit of the more explicitly women-hating and nationalist ideologies of still-powerful right-wing movements against reproductive and sexual rights. PMID:20821901

  2. Intelligence-aided multitarget tracking for urban operations - a case study: counter terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyan, T.; Bharadwaj, K.; Sinha, A.; Kirubarajan, T.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for tracking multiple mobile targets in an urban environment based on data from multiple sources of information, and for evaluating the threat these targets pose to assets of interest (AOI). The motivating scenario is one where we have to track many targets, each with different (unknown) destinations and/or intents. The tracking algorithm is aided by information about the urban environment (e.g., road maps, buildings, hideouts), and strategic and intelligence data. The tracking algorithm needs to be dynamic in that it has to handle a time-varying number of targets and the ever-changing urban environment depending on the locations of the moving objects and AOI. Our solution uses the variable structure interacting multiple model (VS-IMM) estimator, which has been shown to be effective in tracking targets based on road map information. Intelligence information is represented as target class information and incorporated through a combined likelihood calculation within the VS-IMM estimator. In addition, we develop a model to calculate the probability that a particular target can attack a given AOI. This model for the calculation of the probability of attack is based on the target kinematic and class information. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the operation of the proposed framework on a representative scenario.

  3. Computer-aided modelling and analysis of PV systems: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Koukouvaos, Charalambos; Kandris, Dionisis; Samarakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Modern scientific advances have enabled remarkable efficacy for photovoltaic systems with regard to the exploitation of solar energy, boosting them into having a rapidly growing position among the systems developed for the production of renewable energy. However, in many cases the design, analysis, and control of photovoltaic systems are tasks which are quite complex and thus difficult to be carried out. In order to cope with this kind of problems, appropriate software tools have been developed either as standalone products or parts of general purpose software platforms used to model and simulate the generation, transmission, and distribution of solar energy. The utilization of this kind of software tools may be extremely helpful to the successful performance evaluation of energy systems with maximum accuracy and minimum cost in time and effort. The work presented in this paper aims on a first level at the performance analysis of various configurations of photovoltaic systems through computer-aided modelling. On a second level, it provides a comparative evaluation of the credibility of two of the most advanced graphical programming environments, namely, Simulink and LabVIEW, with regard to their application in photovoltaic systems. PMID:24772007

  4. Computer-Aided Modelling and Analysis of PV Systems: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Koukouvaos, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Modern scientific advances have enabled remarkable efficacy for photovoltaic systems with regard to the exploitation of solar energy, boosting them into having a rapidly growing position among the systems developed for the production of renewable energy. However, in many cases the design, analysis, and control of photovoltaic systems are tasks which are quite complex and thus difficult to be carried out. In order to cope with this kind of problems, appropriate software tools have been developed either as standalone products or parts of general purpose software platforms used to model and simulate the generation, transmission, and distribution of solar energy. The utilization of this kind of software tools may be extremely helpful to the successful performance evaluation of energy systems with maximum accuracy and minimum cost in time and effort. The work presented in this paper aims on a first level at the performance analysis of various configurations of photovoltaic systems through computer-aided modelling. On a second level, it provides a comparative evaluation of the credibility of two of the most advanced graphical programming environments, namely, Simulink and LabVIEW, with regard to their application in photovoltaic systems. PMID:24772007

  5. Understanding Faculty Perceptions of the Future: Action Research for Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malenfant, Kara Josephine

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this study was to aid academic librarians in examining their perceptions of the future of higher education, engaging disciplinary faculty members to understand their views, and determining actions to take to shape the future. In this mixed methods study, scenarios about the future of higher education served as the basis for…

  6. Study of Fuel Property Effects Using Future Low Emissions Heavy Duty Truck Engine Hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sharon

    2000-08-20

    Fuel properties have had substantial impact on engine emissions. Fuel impact varies with engine technology. An assessment of fuel impact on future low emission designs was needed as part of an EMAEPA-API study effort

  7. [Academic application of text messages in a first aid course: a pilot study in a private university in Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Shu-Yip, Sebastián B; Pérez-Lu, José E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate the impact of an educational intervention with the use of text messages (SMS) in a first aid course. A prospective study and intervention was conducted. Two steps were implemented: 1) a qualitative study to design the SMS and 2) the intervention with the sending of the SMS messages. The outcome variable was the final grade of students. Multivariate models were constructed, prevalence ratios and confidence intervals at 95% were calculated. The first phase revealed that the SMS should be educational-theoretical, motivational, and multiple choice. In the intervention there were 66 participants in the control and intervention group. The average age was 17.7 (± 1.2) years. The intervention group obtained higher scores compared with the control group (PR = 4.82; 95% CI: 1.58 to 14.72). In conclusion, SMS with informative and motivational content is useful in the formation of undergraduate medicine. PMID:26338387

  8. Financing the Future: Postsecondary Students, Costs, and Financial Aid, 1993-1994. Household Economic Studies. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Jennifer Cheeseman; Witkowski, Kristine

    This report uses data collected in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to examine the characteristics of postsecondary education students, their schooling costs, and avenues of financing education for the academic year 1993-1994. The SIPP provides information on all students who were enrolled at any time, for any duration, during…

  9. Abrupt climate change: Past, present and the search for precursors as an aid to predicting events in the future (Hans Oeschger Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayewski, Paul Andrew

    2016-04-01

    the state of atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere that will result as a consequence of greenhouse gas rise and "healing" of the Antarctic ozone hole (Mayewski et al., 2015). Climate change perspective gained from instrumentally calibrated ice core and other past climate proxies is essential to the construction of plausible scenarios for future climate and actionable planning. More ACC events are in our future and the early manifestation of these events is apparent in the emerging change in the severity and frequency of extreme events. Searching for a precursor for ACC events is a major challenge for the scientific community and humanity. For the climate community to undertake this challenge it is necessary to investigate both past and present sub-seasonal and longer extreme events associated with past D-O and ACC events and their impact on societies. Examples of sub-seasonal scale investigation of these events will be included in the presentation. Mayewski, P.A., Sneed, S.B., Birkel, S.D., Kurbatov, A.V. and Maasch, Holocene warming marked by longer summers and reduced storm frequency around Greenland, Journal of Quaternary Science, 267-8179. DOl: I 0.1002/jqs.2684, 2013. Mayewski, P.A., Bertler, N., Birkel, S., Bracegirdle, T., Carleton, A., England, M., Goodwin, I., Kang, J-H., Mayewski, P., Russell, J., Schneider, S., Turner, J. and Vellicogna, I., 2015, Potential for Southern Hemisphere climate surprises, Journal of Quaternary Science (Rapid Communication) 30, 391-395, DOI: 10.1002/jqs.2794.

  10. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C.

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants. PMID:27069489

  11. [Vulnerability of women in common-law marriage to becoming infected with HIV/AIDS: a study of social representations].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Larissa Silva Abreu; Paiva, Mirian Santos; de Oliveira, Jeane Freitas; da Nóbrega, Sheva Maia

    2012-04-01

    This article discusses the social representations of women living in common-law marriage in terms of their vulnerability to becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. Data were obtained through the free association of words, and consisted of an excerpt of a study founded on the Social Representations Theory developed with HIV-negative women living in the state capital and cities in the interior of Bahia. The correspondence factor analysis showed significance for the variables: origin, education level and time spent in common-law marriage. Their acceptance of marital affairs emerged as a vulnerability factor for respondents with one to five years spent in common-law marriage, living in cities in the interior. Women from the capital, with 6-10 years spent in common-law marriage, reported monogamy as a form of prevention. Women with a longer common-law marriage who had completed only a primary education reported feeling invulnerable, which was the opposite of those with one to five years in common-law marriage with a secondary education. Results show there is a need for more interventions aiming to denaturalize the socio-cultural coercions that generate representations and make women in common-law marriages more vulnerable to AIDS. PMID:22576538

  12. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants. PMID:27069489

  13. Development of mental health first aid guidelines for suicidal ideation and behaviour: A Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Claire M; Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Langlands, Robyn L

    2008-01-01

    Background Suicide is a statistically rare event, but devastating to those left behind and one of the worst possible outcomes associated with mental illness. Although a friend, family member or co-worker may be the first person to notice that a person is highly distressed, few have the knowledge and skills required to assist. Simple guidelines may help such a person to encourage a suicidal individual to seek professional help or decide against suicide. Methods This research was conducted using the Delphi methodology, a method of reaching consensus in a panel of experts. Experts recruited to the panels included 22 professionals, 10 people who had been suicidal in the past and 6 carers of people who had been suicidal in the past. Statements about how to assist someone who is thinking about suicide were sourced through a systematic search of both professional and lay literature. The guidelines were written using the items most consistently endorsed by all three panels. Results Of 114 statements presented to the panels, 30 were accepted. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this paper. Conclusion There are a number of actions which are considered to be useful for members of the public when they encounter someone who is experiencing suicidal thoughts or engaging in suicidal behaviour. These guidelines will be useful in revision of curricula of mental health first aid and suicide intervention training programs. They can also be used by members of the public who want immediate information about how to assist a suicidal person. PMID:18366657

  14. "Fooling fido"--chemical and behavioral studies of pseudo-explosive canine training aids.

    PubMed

    Kranz, William D; Strange, Nicholas A; Goodpaster, John V

    2014-12-01

    Genuine explosive materials are traditionally employed in the training and testing of explosive-detecting canines so that they will respond reliably to these substances. However, challenges arising from the acquisition, storage, handling, and transportation of explosives have given rise to the development of "pseudo-explosive" training aids. These products attempt to emulate the odor of real explosives while remaining inert. Therefore, a canine trained on a pseudo-explosive should respond to its real-life analog. Similarly, a canine trained on an actual explosive should respond to the pseudo-explosive as if it was real. This research tested those assumptions with a focus on three explosives: single-base smokeless powder, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and a RDX-based plastic explosive (Composition C-4). Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid phase microextraction as a pre-concentration technique, we determined that the volatile compounds given off by pseudo-explosive products consisted of various solvents, known additives from explosive formulations, and common impurities present in authentic explosives. For example, simulated smokeless powders emitted terpenes, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite. Simulated TNT products emitted 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene. Simulated C-4 products emitted cyclohexanone, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and dimethyldinitrobutane. We also conducted tests to determine whether canines trained on pseudo-explosives are capable of alerting to genuine explosives and vice versa. The results show that canines trained on pseudo-explosives performed poorly at detecting all but the pseudo-explosives they are trained on. Similarly, canines trained on actual explosives performed poorly at detecting all but the actual explosives on which they were trained. PMID:25424725

  15. Hearing aid or tinnitus masker: which one is the best treatment for blast-induced tinnitus? The results of a long-term study on 974 patients.

    PubMed

    Jalilvand, Hamid; Pourbakht, Akram; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore whether a hearing aid or noise generator would be an effective audiological treatment for blast-induced chronic tinnitus. The amount of satisfaction from different hearing devices (hearing aid, noise generator, or both) during different time periods (1, 6, 12 and 24 months after fitting) was assessed. The 974 subjects enrolled in this study were Iran-Iraq war veterans, suffering from tinnitus for at least 2 years. About 84% of the subjects preferred just a hearing aid. Only 2.7% chose the noise generator, and the others preferred to use both devices. There were no significant differences between the hearing thresholds of the 3 groups. The satisfaction score for the hearing aid and combined devices increased by time but decreased for the noise generator. There was no correlation between the satisfaction score and parameters such as hearing thresholds, audiogram configuration and tinnitus pitch. We concluded that, compared with a noise generator, the most long-lasting treatment for blast-induced tinnitus is a hearing aid. The possible cause for such a performance is probably the recovery of the auditory function and neuroplasticity through the hearing aid. PMID:25924663

  16. Discovering the Future of the Case Study Method in Evaluation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    1994-01-01

    It is assumed that evaluators of the future will still be interested in case study methodology. Scenarios that ignore a case study method, that look back to a distinctive case study method, and that see the case study method as an integrating force in the qualitative-quantitative debate are explored. (SLD)

  17. Responses to the global HIV and AIDS pandemic: a study of the role of faith-based organisations in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Olowu, Dejo

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to establish the key contribution by people of faith to the global HIV pandemic response, using Lesotho as a case study. Particular focus is paid to the work of selected religious organisations in Lesotho in this context, assessing their capacities to coordinate an effective HIV and AIDS action at the grassroots levels through education, health care, development, and social service activities. Empirical evaluations and findings regarding the level and quality of faith-based engagement in this field establish the basic premise of this article, namely, that faith-based organisations are contributing energy, expertise, and experience in order to achieve the commitment of the global commitment to advance universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, and support. Although the article is particularly focused on the Lesotho context, its tremendous implications for simulated studies and approaches across Sub-Saharan Africa are accentuated. PMID:26711063

  18. Study of space shuttle EVA/IVA support requirements. Volume 4: Requirements study for space shuttle mobility aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, P. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The requirements for mobility aids and restraint devices for use by personnel of the space shuttle were investigated. The devices considered were as follows: (1) translational devices to assist crewmen in moving from place to place and in moving equipment, (2) restraint devices for crewman at the worksite to prevent undesired induced motion between the crewman and the worksite, and (3) other necessary worksite provisions. Existing devices in each category are reviewed and new concepts are generated as required. Diagrams and line drawings of items of equipment are provided.

  19. U.S. Energy Demand: Some Low Energy Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Described is a study in which energy demands were analyzed and several plausable future energy scenarios were developed. The article attempts to illustrate the dynamics of energy demand and supply in the United States in order to aid future planning. (MDR)

  20. Technology-aided programs for assisting communication and leisure engagement of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: two single-case studies.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Ferlisi, Gabriele; Ferrarese, Giacomina; Zullo, Valeria; Addante, Luigi M; Spica, Antonella; Oliva, Doretta

    2012-01-01

    Technology-aided programs for assisting communication and leisure engagement were assessed in single-case studies involving two men with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Study I involved a 51-year-old man with a virtually total loss of his motor repertoire and assessed a technology-aided program aimed at enabling him to (a) write and send out text messages and have incoming messages read to him and (b) establish videophone connections with his children (i.e., establish video contact and communicate with them). Study II involved a 66-year-old man with virtually no motor behavior and apparent depression and assessed a technology-aided program aimed at enabling him to (a) engage in leisure activities and make requests for basic needs and (b) use a low-demand messaging system. The results of both studies were highly encouraging. The participant of Study I could use the technology-aided program for effective communication and social interaction with multiple partners as well as for family interaction. The participant of Study II could use the technology-aided program for leisure engagement, requests, and basic family contacts/communication. The implications of technology for helping persons with severe ALS levels maintain an active and constructive role are discussed. PMID:22537857

  1. A methodology for the preliminary scoping of future changes in ecosystem services, with an illustration from the future midwestern landscapes study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a white paper defining a methodology for the preliminary scoping of future changes in ecosystem services, with an Illustration from the Future Midwestern Landscapes Study. The scoping method develops a hierarchy of relevant societal values, identifies the ecosyste...

  2. Low-Temperature, Vacuum-Aided Thermal Desorption Studies on a Simulated Organic Sludge Waste

    SciTech Connect

    R. K. Farnsworth; D. R. Peterman; Gary L. Anderson; T. G. Garn

    2002-12-01

    simulated sludge. Micro boiling of VOC’s would be expected to occur in localized volumes within the organic sludge where temperatures exceed the volatile organic saturation temperature sufficiently to form vapor bubbles. Further model based evaluations reflecting the transient temperatures, local boiling, and subsequent vapor in liquid/sludge transport conditions are needed, with supporting controlled testing of the vacuum-aided thermal desorption process at small and full-scale conditions in order to fully develop this process.

  3. Experimental studies on lung carcinogenesis and their relationship to future research on radiation-induced lung cancer in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, F.T.

    1991-03-01

    The usefulness of experimental systems for studying human lung carcinogenesis lies in the ease of studying components of a total problem. As an example, the main thrust of attack on possible synergistic interactions between radiation, cigarette smoke, and other irritants must be by means of research on animals. Because animals can be serially sacrificed, a systematic search can be made for progressive lung changes, thereby improving our understanding of carcinogenesis. The mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis have not yet been delineated, but modern concepts of molecular and cellular biology and of radiation dosimetry are being increasingly applied to both in vivo and in vitro exposure to determine the mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, to elucidate human data, and to aid in extrapolating experimental animal data to human exposures. In addition, biologically based mathematical models of carcinogenesis are being developed to describe the nature of the events leading to malignancy; they are also an essential part of a rational approach to quantitative cancer risk assessment. This paper summarizes recent experimental and modeling data on radon-induced lung cancer and includes the confounding effects of cigarette-smoke exposures. The applicability of these data to understanding human exposures is emphasized, and areas of future research on human radiation-induced carcinogenesis are discussed. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Beyond speculative robot ethics: a vision assessment study on the future of the robotic caretaker.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, Arjanna; Smits, Martijntje; Wehrmann, Caroline

    2010-11-01

    In this article we develop a dialogue model for robot technology experts and designated users to discuss visions on the future of robotics in long-term care. Our vision assessment study aims for more distinguished and more informed visions on future robots. Surprisingly, our experiment also led to some promising co-designed robot concepts in which jointly articulated moral guidelines are embedded. With our model, we think to have designed an interesting response on a recent call for a less speculative ethics of technology by encouraging discussions about the quality of positive and negative visions on the future of robotics. PMID:21069593

  5. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  6. Perceptions of government knowledge and control over contributions of aid organizations and INGOs to health in Nepal: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Almost 50% of the Nepali health budget is made up of international aid. International Non-Governmental Organizations working in the field of health are able to channel their funds directly to grass root level. During a 2010 conference, the Secretary of Population stated that the government has full knowledge and control over all funds and projects coming to Nepal. However, there are no documents to support this. The study aims to assess government and partner perceptions on whether Government of Nepal currently has full knowledge of contributions of international aid organizations and International Non-Governmental Organizations to health in Nepal and to assess if the government is able to control all foreign contributions to fit the objectives of Second Long Term Health Plan (1997–2017). Methods A qualitative study was performed along with available literature review. Judgmental and snowball sampling led to 26 in depth interviews with key informants from the government, External Development Partners and International Non-Governmental Organizations. Results were triangulated based on source of data. Representatives of the Department of Health Services declined to be interviewed. Data collection was done until researchers felt data saturation had been reached with each group of key informants. Results While Ministry of Health and Population leads the sector wide approach that aims to integrate all donor and International Non-Governmental Organization contributions to health and direct them to the government’s priority areas, questions were raised around its capacity to do so. Similarly, informants questioned the extent to which Social Welfare Council was able to control all International Non-Governmental Organizations contributions. Political tumult, corruption in the government, lack of human resources in the government, lack of coordination between government bodies, convoluted bureaucracy, and unreliability of donor and International Non

  7. Egocentrism and Development of Students' Identity (On the Example of Studying of Future Teachers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gromova, Chulpan R.; Alimbekov, Akmatali

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of the studied problem is that the nature of interrelation between an index of an egocentrism and characteristics of identity isn't studied. Secondly, special trainings of decentration for students--future teachers are not developed. The article is directed to study the structure of the first-third year students' identity, connection…

  8. A study on spatial decision support systems for HIV/AIDS prevention based on COM GIS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Luo, Huasong; Peng, Shungyun; Xu, Quanli

    2007-06-01

    Based on the deeply analysis of the current status and the existing problems of GIS technology applications in Epidemiology, this paper has proposed the method and process for establishing the spatial decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention by integrating the COM GIS, Spatial Database, GPS, Remote Sensing, and Communication technologies, as well as ASP and ActiveX software development technologies. One of the most important issues for constructing the spatial decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention is how to integrate the AIDS spreading models with GIS. The capabilities of GIS applications in the AIDS epidemic prevention have been described here in this paper firstly. Then some mature epidemic spreading models have also been discussed for extracting the computation parameters. Furthermore, a technical schema has been proposed for integrating the AIDS spreading models with GIS and relevant geospatial technologies, in which the GIS and model running platforms share a common spatial database and the computing results can be spatially visualized on Desktop or Web GIS clients. Finally, a complete solution for establishing the decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention has been offered in this paper based on the model integrating methods and ESRI COM GIS software packages. The general decision support systems are composed of data acquisition sub-systems, network communication sub-systems, model integrating sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information spatial database sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information querying and statistical analysis sub-systems, AIDS epidemic dynamic surveillance sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information spatial analysis and decision support sub-systems, as well as AIDS epidemic information publishing sub-systems based on Web GIS.

  9. The impact of AIDS on intergenerational support in South Africa: Evidence from the Cape Area Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Ardington, Cally; Case, Anne; Islam, Mahnaz; Lam, David; Leibbrandt, Murray; Menendez, Alicia; Olgiati, Analia

    2009-01-01

    This study uses panel data from Cape Town to document the role played by aging parents in caring for grandchildren who lose parents due to illnesses such as AIDS. We quantify the probabilities that older adults and their adult children provide financial support to orphaned grandchildren. We find significant transfers of public and private funds to older adults caring for orphans. Perhaps because of these transfers we find no differences in expenditure patterns between households with orphans and other older adult households. We also find no impact of either the death of a child or taking in orphaned grandchildren on adult well-being as measured by ability to work, depression, or self reported health. Our findings suggest that the combined public and private safety net in South Africa mitigates many of the consequences older adults could suffer when an adult child dies and leaves behind grandchildren needing care. PMID:20161477

  10. The impact of AIDS on intergenerational support in South Africa: Evidence from the Cape Area Panel Study.

    PubMed

    Ardington, Cally; Case, Anne; Islam, Mahnaz; Lam, David; Leibbrandt, Murray; Menendez, Alicia; Olgiati, Analia

    2010-01-01

    This study uses panel data from Cape Town to document the role played by aging parents in caring for grandchildren who lose parents due to illnesses such as AIDS. We quantify the probabilities that older adults and their adult children provide financial support to orphaned grandchildren. We find significant transfers of public and private funds to older adults caring for orphans. Perhaps because of these transfers we find no differences in expenditure patterns between households with orphans and other older adult households. We also find no impact of either the death of a child or taking in orphaned grandchildren on adult well-being as measured by ability to work, depression, or self reported health. Our findings suggest that the combined public and private safety net in South Africa mitigates many of the consequences older adults could suffer when an adult child dies and leaves behind grandchildren needing care. PMID:20161477

  11. [Will AIDS overtake them?].

    PubMed

    Boukhari, S

    UNICEF estimates that the streets are now the home of some 5 million African children aged 7-15 who are victims of rapid population growth and urbanization as well as the disintegration of traditional family structure. These children, deprived of a home and of all parental control, are potentially very vulnerable to the threat of AIDS. Prostitution, which is almost institutionalized in the most impoverished urban areas, represents for young girls the most immediate means of survival and occasionally even of helping their families. Male prostitution is highly tabu and marginal in sub-Saharan Africa, and is only slightly developed around the tourist hotels. Homeless children are somewhat protected against contamination through the blood by their lack of access to health care. Intravenous drugs are rare in Africa, and drug use is at most an indirect risk factor for AIDS to the extent that in increases the need for money and weakens the immune system. The frequency of sexually transmitted diseases, deplorable hygienic conditions, and poor general health of homeless children increase their risk of contracting the virus. Many homeless children do not even know of the existence of condoms and in any event condoms are usually inaccessible or too costly for them. Homeless children, like the general population, have false ideas about AIDS that discourage self-protective behaviors. In addition they are cut off from the activities of existing prevention programs. In a context of permanent daily insecurity, AIDS appears as just 1 more menace among others. According to an anthropologist working with the UNESCO program to help homeless children, the only way of making such children aware of the threat of AIDS in the large African cities will be to increase the number of prevention programs targeted at them. At the same time, the children need to be educated and taught an income-generating skill; in short, they need to be given a reason to believe in the future. PMID:12316939

  12. AIDS: there's hope.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices. PMID:12179231

  13. A randomized double-blind study of the effect of distant healing in a population with advanced AIDS. Report of a small scale study.

    PubMed Central

    Sicher, F; Targ, E; Moore, D; Smith, H S

    1998-01-01

    Various forms of distant healing (DH), including prayer and "psychic healing," are widely practiced, but insufficient formal research has been done to indicate whether such efforts actually affect health. We report on a double-blind randomized trial of DH in 40 patients with advanced AIDS. Subjects were pair-matched for age, CD4+ count, and number of AIDS-defining illnesses and randomly selected to either 10 weeks of DH treatment or a control group. DH treatment was performed by self-identified healers representing many different healing and spiritual traditions. Healers were located throughout the United States during the study, and subjects and healers never met. Subjects were assessed by psychometric testing and blood draw at enrollment and followed for 6 months. At 6 months, a blind medical chart review found that treatment subjects acquired significantly fewer new AIDS-defining illnesses (0.1 versus 0.6 per patient, P = 0.04), had lower illness severity (severity score 0.8 versus 2.65, P = 0.03), and required significantly fewer doctor visits (9.2 versus 13.0, P = 0.01), fewer hospitalizations (0.15 versus 0.6, P = 0.04), and fewer days of hospitalization (0.5 versus 3.4, P = 0.04). Treated subjects also showed significantly improved mood compared with controls (Profile of Mood States score -26 versus 14, P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in CD4+ counts. These data support the possibility of a DH effect in AIDS and suggest the value of further research. PMID:9866433

  14. AIDS-Related Stigma and Mental Disorders among People Living with HIV: A Cross-Sectional Study in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Siyan; Chhoun, Pheak; Suong, Samedy; Thin, Kouland; Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary

    2015-01-01

    Background AIDS-related stigma and mental disorders are the most common conditions in people living with HIV (PLHIV). We therefore conducted this study to examine the association of AIDS-related stigma and discrimination with mental disorders among PLHIV in Cambodia. Methods A two-stage cluster sampling method was used to select 1,003 adult PLHIV from six provinces. The People Living with HIV Stigma Index was used to measure stigma and discrimination, and a short version of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure mental disorders. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results The reported experiences of discrimination in communities in the past 12 months ranged from 0.8% for reports of being denied health services to 42.3% for being aware of being gossiped about. Internal stigma was also common ranging from 2.8% for avoiding going to a local clinic and/or hospital to 59.6% for deciding not to have (more) children. The proportions of PLHIV who reported fear of stigma and discrimination ranged from 13.9% for fear of being physically assaulted to 34.5% for fear of being gossiped about. The mean score of GHQ-12 was 3.2 (SD = 2.4). After controlling for several potential confounders, higher levels of mental disorders (GHQ-12≥ 4) remained significantly associated with higher levels of experiences of stigma and discrimination in family and communities (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4–2.6), higher levels of internal stigma (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2–2.3), and higher levels of fear of stigma and discrimination in family and communities (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1–2.2). Conclusions AIDS-related stigma and discrimination among PLHIV in Cambodia are common and may have potential impacts on their mental health conditions. These findings indicate a need for community-based interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination in the general public and to help PLHIV to cope with this situation. PMID:25806534

  15. Experiences in applying skills learned in a mental health first aid training course: a qualitative study of participants' stories

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Mugford, Stephen K

    2005-01-01

    Background Given the high prevalence of mental disorders and the comparatively low rate of professional help-seeking, it is useful for members of the public to have some skills in how to assist people developing mental disorders. A Mental Health First Aid course has been developed to provide these skills. Two randomized controlled trials of this course have shown positive effects on participants' knowledge, attitudes and behavior. However, these trials have provided limited data on participants' subsequent experiences in providing first aid. To remedy this, a study was carried out gathering stories from participants in one of the trials, 19–21 months post-training. Methods Former course participants were contacted and sent a questionnaire either by post or via the internet. Responses were received from 94 out of the 131 trainees who were contacted. The questionnaire asked about whether the participant had experienced a post-training situation where someone appeared to have a mental health problem and, if so, asked questions about that experience. Results Post-training experiences were reported by 78% of respondents. Five key points emerged from the qualitative data: (1) the majority of respondents had had some direct experience of a situation where mental health issues were salient and the course enabled them to take steps that led to better effects than otherwise might have been the case; (2) positive effects were experienced in terms of increased empathy and confidence, as well as being better able to handle crises; (3) the positive effects were experienced by a wide range of people with varied expectations and needs; (4) there was no evidence of people over-reaching themselves because of over-confidence and (5) those who attended were able to identify quite specific benefits and many thought the course not only very useful, but were keen to see it repeated and extended. Conclusion The qualitative data confirm that most members of the public who receive Mental

  16. Psychosocial Well-Being of Children in HIV/AIDS-Affected Families in Southwest China: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Tao; Yan, Zhihua; Duan, Song; Wang, Changhe; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the psychosocial well-being of children in HIV/AIDS-affected families in rural China from the child's and caregiver's perspectives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among children living in HIV/AIDS-affected families (n = 16), their caregivers (n = 16) and key community informants (n = 5). Our findings showed that all of…

  17. Impact of Grants-in-Aid on Collegiate Education: Evidence and Implications of a Regional Study in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayana, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    Estimated the impact of grants-in-aid (GIA) and other variables on student performance (in terms of pass percentages) in aided private degree colleges in the Bangalore district in India from 1991-1992 to 1997-1998 using panel data from 31 colleges. Results show that the impact of GIA is positive and significant. (SLD)

  18. How Study Aids Influence Learning and Motivation for Girls in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatoney, M.; Andreucci, C.

    2009-01-01

    Sciences and technology study and technological jobs are deserted by girls. Many measurements were set up in the study to find an issue. But not enough researches learn over this question as part of education study, in other words on the process of transmission. Indeed they ignore for instance, if certain contents, certain types of activities,…

  19. International aid and natural disasters: a pre- and post-earthquake longitudinal study of the healthcare infrastructure in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Kligerman, Maxwell; Barry, Michele; Walmer, David; Bendavid, Eran

    2015-02-01

    The reconstruction of healthcare systems in developing countries after natural disasters is poorly understood. Using data collected before and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, we detail the response of aid agencies and their interaction with local healthcare providers in Leogane, the city closest to the epicenter. We find that the period after the earthquake was associated with an increase in the total number of healthcare facilities, inpatient beds, and surgical facilities and that international aid has been a driving force behind this recovery. Aid has funded 12 of 13 new healthcare facilities that have opened since the earthquake as well as the reconstruction of 7 of 8 healthcare facilities that have been rebuilt. Despite increases in free, aid-financed healthcare, private Haitian healthcare facilities have remained at a constant number. The planned phase-out of several aid-financed facilities, however, will leave Leogane with fewer inpatient beds and healthcare services compared with the pre-earthquake period. PMID:25510716

  20. A history of futures: A review of scenario use in water policy studies in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Haasnoot, M.; Middelkoop, H.

    2012-01-01

    The future of human life in the world's river deltas depends on the success of water management. To deal with uncertainties about the future, policymakers in the Netherlands have used scenarios to develop water management strategies for the coastal zone of the Rhine–Meuse delta. In this paper we reflect on six decades of scenario use in the Netherlands, and provide recommendations for future studies. Based on two criteria, ‘Decision robustness’ and ‘Learning success’, we conclude that (1) the possibilities for robust decisionmaking increased through a paradigm shift from predicting to exploring futures, but the scenario method is not yet fully exploited for decisionmaking under uncertainty; and (2) the scenarios enabled learning about possible impacts of developments and effectiveness of policy options. New scenario approaches are emerging to deal with the deep uncertainties water managers are currently facing. PMID:23471143

  1. Development of mental health first aid guidelines for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experiencing problems with substance use: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Problems with substance use are common in some Aboriginal communities. Although problems with substance use are associated with significant mortality and morbidity, many people who experience them do not seek help. Training in mental health first aid has been shown to be effective in increasing knowledge of symptoms and behaviours associated with seeking help. The current study aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who is experiencing problem drinking or problem drug use (e.g. abuse or dependence). Methods Twenty-eight Aboriginal health experts participated in two independent Delphi studies (n = 22 problem drinking study, n = 21 problem drug use; 15 participated in both). Panellists were presented with statements about possible first aid actions via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in the guidelines if they were endorsed by ≥ 90% of panellists as either 'Essential' or 'Important'. At the end of the two Delphi studies, participants were asked to give feedback on the value of the project and their participation experience. Results From a total of 735 statements presented over two studies, 429 were endorsed (223 problem drinking, 206 problem drug use). Statements were grouped into sections based on common themes (n = 7 problem drinking, n = 8 problem drug use), then written into guideline documents. Participants evaluated the Delphi method employed, and the guidelines developed, as useful and appropriate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Conclusions Aboriginal health experts were able to reach consensus about culturally appropriate first aid for problems with substance use. Many first aid actions endorsed in the current studies were not endorsed in previous international Delphi studies, conducted on problem drinking and problem drug use

  2. Assessment of quality of life in early stage HIV-infected persons: data from the AIDS Time-oriented Health Outcome Study (ATHOS).

    PubMed

    Lubeck, D P; Fries, J F

    1997-08-01

    The development of new pharmaceutical interventions for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has resulted in extended survival and a need for valid, reliable and responsive instruments to assess health-related QoL (HRQoL). This paper reviews the reliability and validity of an HRQoL instrument, the AIDS Health Assessment Questionnaire (AIDS-HAQ), among persons participating in an observational database of HIV infection. The AIDS-HAQ includes nine subscales: disability, energy, general health, pain, cognitive functioning, mental health, social functioning, health distress and symptoms. Individuals complete the AIDS-HAQ quarterly. Data are reported for 440 individuals entering the study with early HIV infection. Fifty-nine progressed to symptomatic disease and 109 to AIDS after 1 year. The subscales of the instrument resulted in high internal consistency reliability (range = 0.79-0.88). Concurrent validity data reflected the ability to distinguish between patients with increasing disease severity. In all domains, except cognitive functioning, individuals who progressed to AIDS had significant decrements (p < 0.01) in HRQoL compared with symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Significant decrements (p < 0.01) were observed for disability, general health, energy and symptoms for patients who progressed to symptomatic disease from an asymptomatic status. Individuals who had decreasing CD4+ counts also had significant declines (p < 0.001) in disability, general health, social functioning, pain and symptoms. The AIDS-HAQ is an instrument that can be used when comparing group differences and within group changes in observational databases, naturalistic studies and clinical trials. PMID:9330550

  3. Mental Health First Aid guidelines for helping a suicidal person: a Delphi consensus study in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop guidelines for how a member of the Filipino public should provide mental health first aid to a person who is suicidal. Methods The guidelines were produced by developing a questionnaire containing possible first aid actions and asking an expert panel of 34 Filipino mental health clinicians to rate whether each action should be included in the guidelines. The content of the questionnaire was based on a systematic search of the relevant evidence and claims made by authors of consumer and carer guides and websites. The panel members were asked to complete the questionnaire by web survey. Three rounds of the rating were carried and, at the end of each round, items that reached the consensus criterion were selected for inclusion in the guidelines. During the first round, panel members were also asked to suggest any additional actions that were not covered in the original questionnaire (to include items that are relevant to local cultural circumstances, values, and social norms). Responses to these open-ended questions were used to generate new items. Results The output from the Delphi process was a set of agreed upon action statements. The Delphi process started with 138 statements, 48 new items were written based on suggestions from panel members and, of these 186 items, 102 met the consensus criterion. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this paper. The guidelines are currently being translated into local languages. Conclusions There are a number of actions that are considered to be useful for members of the public when they encounter someone who is experiencing suicidal thoughts or engaging in suicidal behaviour. Although the guidelines are designed for members of the public, they may also be helpful to non-mental health professionals working in health and welfare settings. PMID:21167076

  4. FBI fingerprint identification automation study. AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 1: Compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The primary features of the overall study are encompassed and an evaluation of an automation system is presented. Objectives of the study are described, methods of evaluation are summarized and conclusions about the system's feasibility are presented. Also included is a brief history of fingerprint automation activities within the FBI, the organization of the FBI, a bibliography of documents and records, a data dictionary and a reference set of all of the transparencies presented throughout the study.

  5. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  6. Review of Current Studies in Instructional Design Theory in Korea: Major Trends and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil; Yeon, Eunkyoung

    2009-01-01

    This article reviewed recent studies of instructional design theory in Korea to explore major trends and suggest future directions. Based on the analysis of 40 articles from the "Journal of Educational Technology" between 1994 and 2006, this study identified six trends: little emphasis on the conceptualization of instructional design theory;…

  7. A general review of concepts for reducing skin friction, including recommendations for future studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, M. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Four main concepts which have significantly reduced skin friction in experimental studies are discussed; suction, gaseous injection, particle additives, and compliant wall. It is considered possible that each of these concepts could be developed and applied in viable skin friction reduction systems for aircraft application. Problem areas with each concept are discussed, and recommendations for future studies are made.

  8. The Role of Individual Interest and Future Goals during the First Years of University Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkonen, Johanna; Ruohoniemi, Mirja; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 28 university students from two different fields--the humanities and veterinary medicine--were interviewed. The aim was to explore the role of individual interest and future goals during the first two years of university study through retrospective interviews. The results showed that, while support from the learning environment was…

  9. Amalgamation of Future Time Orientation, Epistemological Beliefs, Achievement Goals and Study Strategies: Empirical Evidence Established

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently research evidence emphasizes two main lines of inquiry, namely the relations between future time perspective (FTP), achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance) and study processing strategies, and the relations between epistemological beliefs, achievement goals and study processing strategies.…

  10. Alternative Delivery Systems for the Computer-Aided Instruction Study Management System (CAISMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievergelt, Jurg; And Others

    The Computer-Assisted Instruction Study Management System (CAISMS) was developed and implemented on the PLATO system to monitor and guide student study of text materials. It administers assignments, gives quizzes, and automatically keeps track of a student's progress. This report describes CAISMS and several hypothetical implementations of CAISMS…

  11. An Empirical Study to Aid in Formulating Educational Goals [and] Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, John C.; Russ-Eft, Darlene

    The objective of this survey study was to find some tentative answers to the question of how well educational programs are meeting the needs of students. The study design included several unique features intended to increase both the validity and the practical applicability of the results. The first feature was to establish an empirical framework…

  12. Effects of Self-Regulatory Instructional Aids on Self-Directed Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednall, Timothy C.; Kehoe, E. James

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of providing instructional support for the self-regulation of a self-directed homework assignment. Across four parallel experiments, university students completed an online module on critical thinking. In Experiment 1, participants who were prompted on a broad spectrum of study strategies showed superior…

  13. Psychometric Limitations of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale for Assessing Depressive Symptoms among Adults with HIV/AIDS: A Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kottorp, Anders; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale is a widely used measure of depressive symptoms, but its psychometric properties have not been adequately evaluated among adults with HIV/AIDS. This study used an item response theory approach (Rasch analysis) to evaluate the CES-D's validity and reliability in relation to key demographic and clinical variables in adults with HIV/AIDS. A convenience sample of 347 adults with HIV/AIDS (231 males, 93 females, and 23 transgenders; age range 22–77 years) completed the CES-D. A Rasch model application was used to analyze the CES-D's rating scale functioning, internal scale validity, person-response validity, person-separation validity, internal consistency, differential item functioning (DIF), and differential test functioning. CES-D scores were generally high and associated with several demographic and clinical variables. The CES-D distinguished 3 distinct levels of depression and had acceptable internal consistency but lacked unidimensionality, five items demonstrated poor fit to the model, 15% of the respondents demonstrated poor fit, and eight items demonstrated DIF related to gender, race, or AIDS diagnosis. Removal of misfitting items resulted in minimal improvement in the CES-D's substantive and structural validity. CES-D scores should be interpreted with caution in adults with HIV/AIDS, particularly when comparing scores across gender and racial groups. PMID:27042347

  14. Impact of continuous Medical Aid utilisation on healthcare utilisation: unique insight using the 2008–2012 Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Na Rae; Park, Eun-Cheol; Han, Kyu-Tae; Choi, Young; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although there has been considerable discussion about the social safety net, few studies related to effect of duration of continuous receipt of Medical Aid on healthcare utilisation have been conducted. Therefore, we investigate whether the duration of receiving Medical Aid affected medical care utilisation. Setting Data were collected from the Korean Welfare Panel Study conducted from 2008 to 2012. Participants We included 11 783 samples. Interventions Estimating changes in their healthcare utilisation during specific time intervals (1, 2 and ≥3 years) after they switched from National Health Insurance to Medical Aid. Primary and secondary outcome measures Number of outpatient visits. Results The number of outpatient visits per year was 0.0.051-fold higher (p value: 0.434) among those who were Medical Aid beneficiaries for a continuous period of 1 year, 0.0.267-fold higher (p value: 0.000) among those who were beneficiaries for a continuous period of 2 years, and 0.0.562-fold higher (p value:<0.0001) among those who were beneficiaries for a continuous period of 3 years than it was among those who were beneficiaries of National Health Insurance. Conclusions Our results reflect an association between the number of consecutive years of receiving Medical Aid and number of outpatient visits. Since duration of dependence is correlated with reduced exit rates, limits on length of benefits should be considered to strengthen the incentive to return to work. PMID:27053265

  15. Decision aid on breast cancer screening reduces attendance rate: results of a large-scale, randomized, controlled study by the DECIDEO group.

    PubMed

    Bourmaud, Aurelie; Soler-Michel, Patricia; Oriol, Mathieu; Regnier, Véronique; Tinquaut, Fabien; Nourissat, Alice; Bremond, Alain; Moumjid, Nora; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-03-15

    Controversies regarding the benefits of breast cancer screening programs have led to the promotion of new strategies taking into account individual preferences, such as decision aid. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a decision aid leaflet on the participation of women invited to participate in a national breast cancer screening program. This Randomized, multicentre, controlled trial. Women aged 50 to 74 years, were randomly assigned to receive either a decision aid or the usual invitation letter. Primary outcome was the participation rate 12 months after the invitation. 16 000 women were randomized and 15 844 included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The participation rate in the intervention group was 40.25% (3174/7885 women) compared with 42.13% (3353/7959) in the control group (p = 0.02). Previous attendance for screening (RR = 6.24; [95%IC: 5.75-6.77]; p < 0.0001) and medium household income (RR = 1.05; [95%IC: 1.01-1.09]; p = 0.0074) were independently associated with attendance for screening. This large-scale study demonstrates that the decision aid reduced the participation rate. The decision aid activate the decision making process of women toward non-attendance to screening. These results show the importance of promoting informed patient choices, especially when those choices cannot be anticipated. PMID:26883201

  16. Decision aid on breast cancer screening reduces attendance rate: results of a large-scale, randomized, controlled study by the DECIDEO group

    PubMed Central

    Bourmaud, Aurelie; Soler-Michel, Patricia; Oriol, Mathieu; Regnier, Véronique; Tinquaut, Fabien; Nourissat, Alice; Bremond, Alain; Moumjid, Nora; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Controversies regarding the benefits of breast cancer screening programs have led to the promotion of new strategies taking into account individual preferences, such as decision aid. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a decision aid leaflet on the participation of women invited to participate in a national breast cancer screening program. This Randomized, multicentre, controlled trial. Women aged 50 to 74 years, were randomly assigned to receive either a decision aid or the usual invitation letter. Primary outcome was the participation rate 12 months after the invitation. 16 000 women were randomized and 15 844 included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The participation rate in the intervention group was 40.25% (3174/7885 women) compared with 42.13% (3353/7959) in the control group (p = 0.02). Previous attendance for screening (RR = 6.24; [95%IC: 5.75-6.77]; p < 0.0001) and medium household income (RR = 1.05; [95%IC: 1.01-1.09]; p = 0.0074) were independently associated with attendance for screening. This large-scale study demonstrates that the decision aid reduced the participation rate. The decision aid activate the decision making process of women toward non-attendance to screening. These results show the importance of promoting informed patient choices, especially when those choices cannot be anticipated. PMID:26883201

  17. Psychometric Limitations of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale for Assessing Depressive Symptoms among Adults with HIV/AIDS: A Rasch Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gay, Caryl L; Kottorp, Anders; Lerdal, Anners; Lee, Kathryn A

    2016-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale is a widely used measure of depressive symptoms, but its psychometric properties have not been adequately evaluated among adults with HIV/AIDS. This study used an item response theory approach (Rasch analysis) to evaluate the CES-D's validity and reliability in relation to key demographic and clinical variables in adults with HIV/AIDS. A convenience sample of 347 adults with HIV/AIDS (231 males, 93 females, and 23 transgenders; age range 22-77 years) completed the CES-D. A Rasch model application was used to analyze the CES-D's rating scale functioning, internal scale validity, person-response validity, person-separation validity, internal consistency, differential item functioning (DIF), and differential test functioning. CES-D scores were generally high and associated with several demographic and clinical variables. The CES-D distinguished 3 distinct levels of depression and had acceptable internal consistency but lacked unidimensionality, five items demonstrated poor fit to the model, 15% of the respondents demonstrated poor fit, and eight items demonstrated DIF related to gender, race, or AIDS diagnosis. Removal of misfitting items resulted in minimal improvement in the CES-D's substantive and structural validity. CES-D scores should be interpreted with caution in adults with HIV/AIDS, particularly when comparing scores across gender and racial groups. PMID:27042347

  18. Survival after diagnosis of AIDS: a prospective observational study of 2625 patients. Royal Free/Chelsea and Westminster Hospitals Collaborative Group.

    PubMed Central

    Mocroft, A.; Youle, M.; Morcinek, J.; Sabin, C. A.; Gazzard, B.; Johnson, M. A.; Phillips, A. N.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate median survival and changes in survival in patients diagnosed as having AIDS. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Clinics in two large London hospitals. SUBJECTS: 2625 patients with AIDS seen between 1982 and July 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival, estimated using lifetable analyses, and factors associated with survival, identified from Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Median survival (20 months) was longer than previous estimates. The CD4 lymphocyte count at or before initial AIDS defining illness decreased significantly over time from 90 x 10(6)/1 during 1987 or earlier to 40 x 10(6)/1 during 1994 and 1995 (P < 0.0001). In the first three months after diagnosis, patients in whom AIDS was diagnosed after 1987 had a much lower risk of death (relative risk 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.86; P = 0.017) than patients diagnosed before 1987. When the diagnosis was based on oesophageal candidiasis or Kaposi's sarcoma, patients had a lower risk of death than when the diagnosis was based on Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (0.21 (0.07 to 0.59). P = 0.0030 and 0.37 (0.16 to 0.83), P = 0.016). Three months after AIDS diagnosis, the risk of death was similar in patients whose diagnosis was made after and before 1987 (1.02 (0.79 to 1.31), P = 0.91). There were no differences in survival between patients diagnosed during 1988-90, 1991-3, or 1994-5. CONCLUSIONS: In later years, patients were much more likely to survive their initial illness, but long term survival has remained poor. The decrease in CD4 lymphocyte count at AIDS diagnosis indicates that patients are being diagnosed as having AIDS at ever more advanced stages of immunodeficiency. PMID:9040386

  19. Translating comparative effectiveness of depression medications into practice by comparing the depression medication choice decision aid to usual care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparative effectiveness research (CER) documents important differences in antidepressants in terms of efficacy, safety, cost, and burden to the patient. Decision aids can adapt this evidence to help patients participate in making informed choices. In turn, antidepressant therapy will more likely reflect patients’ values and context, leading to improved adherence and mood outcomes. Methods/Design The objective of this study is to develop the Depression Medication Choice decision aid for use during primary care encounters, and to test its efficacy by conducting a clustered practical randomized trial comparing the decision aid to usual depression care in primary care practices. We will use a novel practice-based, patient-centered approach based on participatory action research that involves a multidisciplinary team of designers, investigators, clinicians, patient representatives, and other stakeholders for the development of the decision aid. We will then conduct a clustered practical randomized trial enrolling clinicians and their patients (n = 300) with moderate to severe depression from rural, suburban and inner city primary care practices (n = 10). The intervention will consist of the use of the depression medication choice decision aid during the clinical encounter. This trial will generate preliminary evidence of the relative impact of the decision aid on patient involvement in decision making, decision making quality, patient knowledge, and 6-month measures of medication adherence and mental health compared to usual depression care. Discussion Upon completion of the proposed research, we will have developed and evaluated the efficacy of the decision aid depression medication choice as a novel translational tool for CER in depression treatment, engaged patients with depression in their care, and refined the process by which we conduct practice-based trials with limited research footprint. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01502891 PMID

  20. An empirical study on information spillover effects between the Chinese copper futures market and spot market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangli; Cheng, Siwei; Wang, Shouyang; Hong, Yongmiao; Li, Yi

    2008-02-01

    This study employs a parametric approach based on TGARCH and GARCH models to estimate the VaR of the copper futures market and spot market in China. Considering the short selling mechanism in the futures market, the paper introduces two new notions: upside VaR and extreme upside risk spillover. And downside VaR and upside VaR are examined by using the above approach. Also, we use Kupiec’s [P.H. Kupiec, Techniques for verifying the accuracy of risk measurement models, Journal of Derivatives 3 (1995) 73-84] backtest to test the power of our approaches. In addition, we investigate information spillover effects between the futures market and the spot market by employing a linear Granger causality test, and Granger causality tests in mean, volatility and risk respectively. Moreover, we also investigate the relationship between the futures market and the spot market by using a test based on a kernel function. Empirical results indicate that there exist significant two-way spillovers between the futures market and the spot market, and the spillovers from the futures market to the spot market are much more striking.

  1. The Use of Study Maps and Visual Mnemotechnics as an Aid to Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Shirley

    1985-01-01

    Notes that many students lack the skills necessary for the efficient memorization of content information as well as awareness of appropriate rehearsal strategies or metacognitive skills. Discusses several rehearsal strategies, and concentrates on one--study mapping. (FL)

  2. A NASA study of the impact of technology on future carrier based tactical aircraft - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. B., III

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of technology on future carrier based tactical aircraft. The results were used in the Center for Naval Analysis Future Carrier Study. The NASA Team designed three classes of aircraft ('Fighter', 'Attack', and 'Multimission') with two different technology levels. The Multimission aircraft were further analyzed by examining the penalty on the aircraft for both catapult launch/arrested landing recovery (Cat/trap) and short take-off/vertical landing (STOVL). The study showed the so-called STOVL penalty was reduced by engine technology and the next generation Strike Fighter will pay more penalty for Cat/trap than for STOVL capability.

  3. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  4. Treatments for HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS HIV medicines are giving women longer, healthier futures and new strength. While there's no cure for HIV, the treatments today allow women to live longer, fuller lives. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved many drugs for treating HIV. ...

  5. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  6. Studying the Impact of Federal and State Changes in Student Aid Policy at the Campus Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Robert H.; Dillon, Kathryn A.; Porter, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that shifts in government policies can produce unintended consequences for needy students and the institutions they attend, and illustrates how campus units can cooperate to examine the impact of these changes through creation of longitudinal databases and data warehousing techniques. Describes the approach used and results of a study at…

  7. Building Scientific Literacy in HIV/AIDS Education: A Case Study of Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutonyi, Harriet; Nielsen, Wendy; Nashon, Samson

    2007-01-01

    The term scientific literacy is defined differently in different contexts. The term literacy simply refers to the ability for one to read and write, but recent studies in language literacy have extended this definition. New literacy research seeks a redefinition in terms of how skills are used rather than how they are learned. Contemporary…

  8. Federal Student aid Handbook, 2002-2003. Volume 6: Federal Work-Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    The Federal Work-Study (FWS) Program allows undergraduate and graduate students to work part-time to help pay for the cost of their education. Schools must use 75% of their FSW Program funds to compensate students employed in community service jobs. This volume describes the ways schools are required to use money from FSW program funds to…

  9. Student Financial Aid Handbook, 2000-2001. Volume 6: Federal Work-Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    The Federal Work-Study (FWS) Program encourages the part-time employment of undergraduate and graduate students who need the income to help pay the cost of their education and encourages FSW recipients to participate in community service activities. This volume describes the ways schools are required to use money from their FSW Program funds to…

  10. Critical Evaluation as an Aid to Improved Report Writing: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mirabelle; Williams, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Report writing is an important employability skill for Engineers and Technologists, and this case study describes how a Technology degree module took a novel approach to developing students' report writing skills. Students learned how to use a criterion-referenced critical evaluation framework for reports and other technological documents.…

  11. "Infotectives" on the "Infobahn": Designing Internet-Aided Projects for the Social Studies Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskin, Melvin R.

    1996-01-01

    Describes three social studies projects tackled by students at the Bronx High School of Science: an extracredit activity on doing business in Manhattan, a citizen-participation project on fixing the United States, and a cooperative activity to identify problems common to Tokyo and New York City. Using the Internet to solve real-world problems…

  12. Study of the commonality of space vehicle applications to future national needs (unclassified portion)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A midterm progress report was presented on the study of commonality of space vehicle applications to future national needs. Two of the four objectives in the entire study were discussed. The first one involved deriving functional requirements for space systems based on future needs and environments for the military and civilian communities. Possible space initiatives based on extrapolations of technology were compiled without regard as to need but only with respect to feasibility, given the advanced state of technology which could exist through the year 2,000. The second one involved matching the initiatives against the requirements, developing a methodology to match and select the initiatives with each of the separate plans based on the future environments, and deriving common features of the military and civilian support requirements for these programs.

  13. Text Messages as a Reminder Aid and Educational Tool in Adults and Adolescents with Atopic Dermatitis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Pena-Robichaux, Venessa; Kvedar, Joseph C.; Watson, Alice J.

    2010-01-01

    Optimal management of atopic dermatitis (AD) requires patients to adhere to self-care behaviors. Technologies, such as cell phones, have been widely adopted in the USA and have potential to reinforce positive health behaviors. We conducted a pilot study with 25 adolescents and adults age 14 years and older [mean 30.5 yrs, SD 13.4] with AD. Daily text messages (TMs) that provided medication reminders and AD education were sent for six weeks to participants. Our goals were to (1) measure changes in pre- and posttest scores in treatment adherence, self-care behaviors, disease severity, and quality of life and (2) assess the usability and satisfaction of the TM system. Significant improvements in treatment adherence, self-care behaviors, skin severity, and quality of life (P ≤ .001, .002, <.001, and .014, resp.) were noted postintervention. User feedback on the TM system was positive with 88% and 92% of participants reporting that the reminder TMs and educational TMs were helpful, respectively. In conclusion, study participants were receptive to using TMs as a reminder aid and educational tool. The positive trends observed are promising and lay the ground work for further studies needed to elucidate the full potential of this simple and cost-effective intervention. PMID:20885940

  14. Adversity and Syndemic Production Among Men Participating in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study: A Life-Course Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sin How; Plankey, Michael W.; Chmiel, Joan S.; Guadamuz, Thomas T.; Kao, Uyen; Shoptaw, Steven; Carrico, Adam; Ostrow, David; Stall, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We tested a theory of syndemic production among men who have sex with men (MSM) using data from a large cohort study. Methods. Participants were 1551 men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study enrolled at 4 study sites: Baltimore, Maryland–Washington, DC; Chicago, Illinois; Los Angeles, California; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Participants who attended semiannual visits from April 1, 2008, to March 31, 2009, completed an additional survey that captured data about events throughout their life course thought to be related to syndemic production. Results. Using multivariate analysis, we found that the majority of life-course predictor variables (e.g., victimization, internalized homophobia) were significantly associated with both the syndemic condition and the component psychosocial health outcomes (depressive symptoms, stress, stimulant use, sexual compulsivity, intimate partner violence). A nested negative binomial analysis showed that the overall life course significantly explained variability in the syndemic outcomes (χ2 = 247.94; P < .001; df = 22). Conclusions. We identified life-course events and conditions related to syndemic production that may help to inform innovative interventions that will effectively disentangle interconnecting health problems and promote health among MSM. PMID:23153154

  15. Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M J; Waters, W E

    1987-04-01

    In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed. PMID:3105789

  16. Designing for the home: a comparative study of support aids for central heating systems.

    PubMed

    Sauer, J; Wastell, D G; Schmeink, C

    2009-03-01

    The study examined the influence of different types of enhanced system support on user performance during the management of a central heating system. A computer-based simulation of a central heating system, called CHESS V2.0, was used to model different interface options, providing different support facilities to the user (e.g., historical, predictive, and instructional displays). Seventy-five participants took part in the study and completed a series of operational scenarios under different support conditions. The simulation environment allowed the collection of performance measures (e.g., energy consumption), information sampling, and system control behaviour. Subjective user evaluations of various aspects of the system were also measured. The results showed performance gains for predictive displays whereas no such benefits were observed for the other display types. The data also revealed that status and predictive displays were valued most highly by users. The implications of the findings for designers of central heating systems are discussed. PMID:18433730

  17. Stereo study as an aid to visual analysis of ERTS and Skylab images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The parallax on ERTS and Skylab images is sufficiently large for exploitation by human photointerpreters. The ability to view the imagery stereoscopically reduces the signal-to-noise ratio. Stereoscopic examination of orbital data can contribute to studies of spatial, spectral, and temporal variations on the imagery. The combination of true stereo parallax, plus shadow parallax offer many possibilities to human interpreters for making meaningful analyses of orbital imagery.

  18. Study of TRIP-Aided Bainitic Ferritic Steels Produced by Hot Press Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shangping; Rana, Radhakanta; Lahaije, Chris

    2014-04-01

    A study is reported to produce high strength ductile steels by controlled cooling following hot press forming, instead of quenching, as is practiced in the traditional press hardened steels. Heat treatments of several specially designed low carbon steels were carried out by interrupting the fast cooling from the austenization temperature at temperatures between T 0 and Ms and then cooling in controlled rates to room temperature. The effect of the interrupt temperature and the cooling rate afterward on the microstructures and tensile properties was studied. The microstructures were characterized using dilatometry, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and TEM. A multi-phase microstructure including bainite, martensite, and retained austenite was obtained in the simulated hot press forming process. Volume fraction bainite was found to increase with an increase in interrupt temperature and a decrease in cooling rate. Structure-property correlations of the studied steels heat treated at different conditions were developed. Improved tensile properties were obtained by controlling the interrupt temperature and cooling rate which produced an optimum bainite content of 60 to 75 pct and retained austenite. Unfortunately, the bainite in the simulated samples was not completely carbide free even though the steels contained about 1.6 wt pct of Si.

  19. Study of astronaut restraints and mobility aids in a weightless shirtsleeve environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loats, H. L., Jr.; Mattingly, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    A study, established to produce needed information about manual performance limits in intravehicular weightlessness such as the motions induced by the astronaut's direct application of force against the body of the vehicle or an object to be moved, is presented. Using both conventional and water immersion techniques, it was possible to develop realistic time estimates for astronaut station-to-station translation in Skylab, to simulate and analyze specific Skylab tasks involving force application and motion dynamics, and to evaluate certain thresholds of force application in weightlessness. The study was divided into three tasks. The first related to locomotion and verification or modification of present Skylab translation timelines. In all cases, translation times were less than the Skylab timelines indicated. The second task studied mass handling and transfer. Specifically, this involved measurement of the astronaut's ability to relocate the Skylab food lockers to stowage levels of three different heights and his ability to transfer the M509 PSS bottles between the OWS and the recharge station. The third task helped define the physical limits of man's ability to perform Skylab translation tasks under weightless conditions.

  20. Satellite data in aquatic area research - Some ideas for future studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitala, Jouko T.

    1986-01-01

    Attempts to apply aquatic remote sensing to the preparation of parametric map-like presentations, quantitative evaluations and time-related investigations in various water areas in Finland are presented. The potential use of Landsat MSS data in aquatic area studies, including limology, aquatic botany, geomorphology and engineering is evaluated using computer-aided digital remote sensing techniques. MSS data may provide information about depth, Secchi disc values, humus content in water, and productivity. Aquatic vegetation classification using MSS is possible only where vegetation units are large enough in respect to the 0.5 hectares ground resolution. Multitemporal satellite imagery has been used to evaluate alterations in the littoral areas of some Finnish water reservoirs between successive periods of high water. It is concluded that although MSS data can be of use in aquatic studies, it should be used in connection with field data and/or TM and SPOT data.