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Sample records for aid hawaiian coffee

  1. Isotopes as tracers of the Hawaiian coffee-producing regions.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carla; Brunner, Marion; Steiman, Shawn; Bowen, Gabriel J; Nogueira, José M F; Gautz, Loren; Prohaska, Thomas; Máguas, Cristina

    2011-09-28

    Green coffee bean isotopes have been used to trace the effects of different climatic and geological characteristics associated with the Hawaii islands. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ((MC)-ICP-SFMS and ICP-QMS) were applied to determine the isotopic composition of carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N), sulfur (δ34S), and oxygen (δ18O), the isotope abundance of strontium (87Sr/86Sr), and the concentrations of 30 different elements in 47 green coffees. The coffees were produced in five Hawaii regions: Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Oahu. Results indicate that coffee plant seed isotopes reflect interactions between the coffee plant and the local environment. Accordingly, the obtained analytical fingerprinting could be used to discriminate between the different Hawaii regions studied. PMID:21838232

  2. Isotopes as Tracers of the Hawaiian Coffee-Producing Regions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Green coffee bean isotopes have been used to trace the effects of different climatic and geological characteristics associated with the Hawaii islands. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ((MC)-ICP-SFMS and ICP-QMS) were applied to determine the isotopic composition of carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N), sulfur (δ34S), and oxygen (δ18O), the isotope abundance of strontium (87Sr/86Sr), and the concentrations of 30 different elements in 47 green coffees. The coffees were produced in five Hawaii regions: Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Oahu. Results indicate that coffee plant seed isotopes reflect interactions between the coffee plant and the local environment. Accordingly, the obtained analytical fingerprinting could be used to discriminate between the different Hawaii regions studied. PMID:21838232

  3. Sterile insect technique and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): assessing the utility of aromatherapy in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd E; McInnis, Donald O; Rodd, Charles; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine

    2007-04-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used in integrated programs against tephritid fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Unfortunately, the mass-rearing procedures inherent to the SIT often lead to a reduction in the mating ability of the released males. One potential solution involves the prerelease exposure of males to particular attractants. In particular, exposure of male Mediterranean fruit flies to ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, root oil (GRO) has been shown to increase mating success in laboratory and field cage trials. Here, we describe a field experiment that compares the level of egg sterility observed in two Hawaiian coffee, Coffea arabica L., plots, with GRO-exposed, sterile males released in one (treated) plot and nonexposed, sterile males released in the other (control) plot. Once per week in both plots over a 13-wk period, sterile males were released, trap captures were scored to estimate relative abundance of sterile and wild males, and coffee berries were collected and dissected in the laboratory to estimate the incidence of unhatched (sterile) eggs. Data on wild fly abundance and the natural rate of egg hatch also were collected in a remote area that received no sterile males. Despite that sterile:wild male ratios were significantly lower in the treated plot than in the control plot, the incidence of sterile eggs was significantly higher in the treated plot than in the control plot. Correspondingly, significantly higher values of Fried's competitiveness index (C) were found, on average, for treated than control sterile males. This study is the first to identify an association between the GRO "status" of sterile males and the incidence of egg sterility in the field and suggests that prerelease, GRO exposure may represent a simple and inexpensive means to increase the effectiveness of Mediterranean fruit fly SIT programs. PMID:17461047

  4. Trap capture of three economically important fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae): evaluation of a solid formulation containing multiple male lures in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd; Nishimoto, Jon; Kurashima, Rick

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pose a global threat to agriculture through direct damage to food crops and the accompanying trade restrictions that often result. Early detection is vital to controlling fruit flies, because it increases the probability of limiting the growth and spread of the invasive population and thus may greatly reduce the monetary costs required for eradication or suppression. Male-specific lures are an important component of fruit fly detection, and three such lures are used widely: trimedlure (TML), cue lure (CL), and methyl eugenol (ME), attractive to Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), respectively. In California, Florida, and Texas, the two Bactrocera lures are applied to separate species-specific traps as liquids (with a small amount of the insecticide naled added), whereas TML is delivered as a solid plug in another set of traps. Thus, the detection protocol involves considerable handling time as well as potential contact with a pesticide. The purpose of this study was to compare trap capture between liquid male lures and "trilure" wafers that contain TML, ME, raspberry ketone (RK, the hydroxy equivalent of CL), and the toxicant DDVP embedded within a solid matrix. Field studies were conducted in a Hawaiian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field where the three aforementioned species co-occur, showed that the wafer captured at least as many flies as the liquid baits for all three species. This same result was obtained in comparisons using both fresh and aged (6-wk) baits. Moreover, the wafers performed as well as the single-lure traps in an ancillary experiment in which TML plugs were substituted for liquid TML. Additional experiments demonstrated explicitly that the presence of ME and RK had no effect on captures of C. capitata males and similarly that the presence of TML had no effect on the capture of B

  5. Things Hawaiian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Lehua

    In this short guide, activities are described in five areas: musical instruments, games, canoe building, clothing instruction, and cooking with Hawaiian recipes. All of these activities are designed to help young Hawaiians find out about Hawaii's past. This guide is part of an artifacts kit which contains a few of the many different kinds of…

  6. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Caffeine in green coffee might slow blood clotting. Taking green coffee along with medications that also ...

  7. Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

  8. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  9. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Aristizábal, Luis F; Bustillo, Alex E; Arthurs, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers' conditions. PMID:26848690

  10. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Aristizábal, Luis F.; Bustillo, Alex E.; Arthurs, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers’ conditions. PMID:26848690

  11. Hawaiian Music for Hawaii's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Dorothy K.

    1972-01-01

    Hawaiian music has developed from the simple chant and accompanying hula to choral singing and the use of the guitar and ukulele. Article also presents a compositional and choreographic analysis of Hawaiian music. (RK)

  12. [Coffee and health].

    PubMed

    Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    The coffee bean contains over 2000 chemical compounds, the health effects of which are known only to a limited extent. Previous coffee researchers and laymen focused solely on caffeine and its positive effect on mental alertness. Other ingredients in coffee, especially its polyphenols, also have an influence on our health. In Finland, coffee is the source of more than half of the so-called antioxidants that are thought to be important for health. Coffee drinkers have lower mortality and morbidity rates than non-drinkers in respect of many common chronic diseases. PMID:23901742

  13. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality. PMID:27194895

  14. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  15. Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (Map of the US with the states that have significant Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations according to the Census Bureau) HI - ...

  16. Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Diabetes Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Asian Americans, in general, have the same ... However, there are differences within the Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander population. From a national survey, Native Hawaiians/ ...

  17. Can coffee prevent caries?

    PubMed Central

    Anila Namboodiripad, PC; Kori, Sumathi

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine the anti-carious effect of coffee in humans. Coffee represents one of the most consumed products by the population. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 1000 individuals, of both sexes, who consumed only coffee as a beverage and who visited the Out-Patient Department of KLE Society's Institute of Dental Sciences, with a dental complaint and no history of any major illness, were considered as subjects. The patients' histories with regard to the coffee intake, such as, period of consumption, frequency of consumption, whether taken with milk or wihout milk, with sugar or without sugar, and the brand make, was noted. History of the type of diet, consumption of sweets, periodicity of brushing, and whether they had undergone fluoride applications were also noted. A thousand patients who consumed beverages other than coffee were taken as the control. Results: The results showed that coffee most consumed was roasted coffee, and the frequency on an average was about three cups per day, for an average period of 35 years. The Decayed/Missing/Filled Surface (DMFS) scores varied from 2.9, in subjects who drank black coffee, to 5.5 in subjects who consumed coffee together with sweeteners and creaming agents. The DMFS score was 3.4 in subjects who consumed coffee together with milk but no sugar. The DMFS score of the control subjects was 4, indicating that coffee if consumed alone had anticaries action, but in the presence of additives the antibacterial and anticaries action was totally minimized. Conclusion: Thus coffee can help in prevention of dental caries if consumed without additives. PMID:20379435

  18. Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Search The CDC Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB Note: Javascript is ... Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders MMWR Publications HIV and AIDS Viral Hepatitis STDs Tuberculosis Training and Networking Resources ...

  19. COFFEE GENOMICS AND GERMPLASM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee is the second largest export commodity in the world after petroleum products with an estimated annual retail sales value of US $70 billion. Over 10 million hectares of coffee were harvested in 2005 in more than 50 developing countries, and about 125 million people, equivalent to 17-20 million...

  20. Complementary Coffee Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  1. Exploring Hawaiian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Okubo, Paul G.; Hon, Ken

    2013-01-01

    In 1912 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Thomas A. Jaggar Jr. on the island of Hawaii. Driven by the devastation he observed while investigating the volcanic disasters of 1902 at Montagne Pelée in the Caribbean, Jaggar conducted a worldwide search and decided that Hawai‘i provided an excellent natural laboratory for systematic study of earthquake and volcano processes toward better understanding of seismic and volcanic hazards. In the 100 years since HVO’s founding, surveillance and investigation of Hawaiian volcanoes have spurred advances in volcano and seismic monitoring techniques, extended scientists’ understanding of eruptive activity and processes, and contributed to development of global theories about hot spots and mantle plumes.

  2. Native Hawaiian Epistemology: Exploring Hawaiian Views of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Manu Aluli

    1998-01-01

    Empiricism is culturally defined in that culture shapes sensory knowledge. Hawaiians recognize senses beyond the five that Western culture recognizes. Hawaiians are not unempirical; they draw conclusions of their own from their empirical experiences. It is time to validate other ways of knowing, long suppressed in the U.S. educational system. (TD)

  3. Native Hawaiian Education: Talking Story with Three Hawaiian Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sing, David Kekaulike; Hunter, Alapa; Meyer, Manu Aluli

    1999-01-01

    Interview with three Hawaiian educators discusses Hawaiian educational philosophy focused on the importance of family and community and the relationary nature of knowledge; educational self-determination; the politics of promoting culture-based education; and the spiritual aspect of helping students pursue both a career and a destiny. (SV)

  4. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  5. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have ... being told they had asthma, 2014 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic White Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander/ ...

  6. Culture Studies: Hawaiian Studies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazama, Dorothy, Ed.

    Reports and materials from the Hawaiian Studies Project are presented. The document, designed for elementary school teachers contains two major sections. The first section describes the planning phase of the project, the Summer Institute for Hawaiian Culture Studies (1976) and the follow-up workshops and consultant help (1976-77). The appendix to…

  7. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the Hawaiian coot, Fulica alai, and Hawaiian gallinule, Gallinula galeata sandvicensis, through next-generation sequencing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Wilson, Robert E.; Underwood, Jared G.

    2014-01-01

    We used next generation shotgun sequencing to develop novel microsatellite markers for two endangered waterbirds; the Hawaiian coot (Fulica alai) and Hawaiian gallinule (Gallinula galeata sandvicensis). The 20 loci polymorphic in the Hawaiian coot displayed moderate allelic diversity (average 3.8 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 59.5 %). The 12 loci variable for the Hawaiian gallinule exhibited lower levels of allelic diversity (average 2.4 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 47.5 %). Loci were in linkage equilibrium and only one locus deviated from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. These loci are sufficiently variable to assess levels of genetic diversity and will be useful for conservation genetic studies to aid in the management of these endangered waterbirds.

  8. Coffee and liver health.

    PubMed

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients. PMID:25291138

  9. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debastiani, R.; dos Santos, C. E. I.; Yoneama, M. L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  10. On cooling tea and coffee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, W. G.; Viney, C.

    1988-05-01

    Factors influencing the rate of cooling of hot coffee and tea have been investigated theoretically and studied experimentally using deliberately ``domestic'' apparatus. It is demonstrated that black coffee cools faster than white coffee under the same conditions. Under most (but not all) circumstances, if coffee is required to be as hot as possible several minutes after its preparation, any milk or cream should be added immediately, rather than just before drinking.

  11. Native Hawaiian Views on Biobanking

    PubMed Central

    Tauali‘i, Maile; Davis, Elise Leimomi; Braun, Kathryn L.; Tsark, JoAnn Umilani; Brown, Ngiare; Hudson, Maui; Burke, Wylie

    2014-01-01

    Genomic science represents a new frontier for health research and will provide important tools for personalizing health care. Biospecimen-based research is an important mechanism for expanding the genomic research capacity, and indigenous peoples are a target of biospecimen-based research due to their relative isolation and the potential to discover rare or unique genotypes. This study explored Native Hawaiian perceptions of and expectations for biobanking. Ten discussion groups were conducted with Native Hawaiians (N=92), who first heard a presentation on biobanking. Six themes emerged: 1) biobank governance by the Native Hawaiian community, 2) research transparency, 3) priority of Native Hawaiian health concerns, 4) leadership by Native Hawaiian scientists accountable to community, 5) re-consenting each time specimen is used, and 6) education of Native Hawaiian communities. Considered together, these findings suggest that biobanking should be guided by six principles that comprise “G.R.E.A.T. Research:” (Governance, Re-consent, Education, Accountability, Transparency, Research priorities). These recommendations are being shared with biobanking facilities in Hawai‘i as they develop protocols for biobanking participation, governance, and education. These findings also inform researchers and indigenous peoples throughout the world who are working on biobanking and genomic research initiatives in their nations. PMID:24683042

  12. Interaction of physical trainings and coffee intakes in fuel utilization during exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Cho, Yun-Ok

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the impact of exercises, coffee intakes, and physical trainings on fuel utilization in rats. Ninety-six rats were fed a control diet with either water (C) or coffee (CF; 0.12 g freeze-dried instant coffee/100 g body weight/d). Additionally, the animals go through physical training (TC and TCF) or no training (NTC and NTCF) for 4 weeks. For physical training, animals have to exercise on treadmills for 30 minutes (5 d per week, 15° incline, 0.5-0.8 km/h). At the end of week 4, the animals in each group were subdivided into three exercise groups: before exercise (BE), during exercise (DE), and after exercise (AE). The DE rats exercised on treadmills for 1 hour immediately before being sacrificed. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, glycogen, protein, triglyceride (TG), and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle of the rats were compared accordingly. Organ weights were also measured. Coffee-training interaction had a significant impact on heart weight, visceral fat, hemoglobin, hematocrit, liver glycogen in DE and AE, and liver triglyceride in DE and AE. Exercise (meaning exercised on a treadmill for 1 hour immediately before being sacrificed) training interaction was significant in liver glycogen, muscle glycogen in control diet and control diet with coffee, FFA and muscle TG levels at control diet with coffee group. Exercise-coffee interactions significantly influenced the FFA with no training groups. Exercise-coffee-training interaction significantly effects on FFA, Liver TG and Muscle TG. Coffee intakes can increase lipolysis during exercising but coffee consumptions delay the recovery of liver glycogen levels in trained rats after exercising. Coffee intakes can increase lipolysis during exercising but coffee consumptions delay the recovery of liver glycogen levels in trained rats after exercising. Coffee can be an effective ergogenic aid during exercise for physically trained rats. PMID:23766878

  13. Interaction of physical trainings and coffee intakes in fuel utilization during exercise in rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Young

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of exercises, coffee intakes, and physical trainings on fuel utilization in rats. Ninety-six rats were fed a control diet with either water (C) or coffee (CF; 0.12 g freeze-dried instant coffee/100 g body weight/d). Additionally, the animals go through physical training (TC and TCF) or no training (NTC and NTCF) for 4 weeks. For physical training, animals have to exercise on treadmills for 30 minutes (5 d per week, 15° incline, 0.5-0.8 km/h). At the end of week 4, the animals in each group were subdivided into three exercise groups: before exercise (BE), during exercise (DE), and after exercise (AE). The DE rats exercised on treadmills for 1 hour immediately before being sacrificed. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, glycogen, protein, triglyceride (TG), and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle of the rats were compared accordingly. Organ weights were also measured. Coffee-training interaction had a significant impact on heart weight, visceral fat, hemoglobin, hematocrit, liver glycogen in DE and AE, and liver triglyceride in DE and AE. Exercise (meaning exercised on a treadmill for 1 hour immediately before being sacrificed) training interaction was significant in liver glycogen, muscle glycogen in control diet and control diet with coffee, FFA and muscle TG levels at control diet with coffee group. Exercise-coffee interactions significantly influenced the FFA with no training groups. Exercise-coffee-training interaction significantly effects on FFA, Liver TG and Muscle TG. Coffee intakes can increase lipolysis during exercising but coffee consumptions delay the recovery of liver glycogen levels in trained rats after exercising. Coffee intakes can increase lipolysis during exercising but coffee consumptions delay the recovery of liver glycogen levels in trained rats after exercising. Coffee can be an effective ergogenic aid during exercise for physically trained rats. PMID:23766878

  14. Aloha Aina: Native Hawaiians Fight for Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealoha, Gard

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the history, values, and cultural background of the native Hawaiian population, asserting that Hawaiians want to recapture and reaffirm the native rights guaranteed by the constitution of Hawaii in 1846. (Author/JM)

  15. Coffee (Coffea arabica L.).

    PubMed

    Déchamp, Eveline; Breitler, Jean-Christophe; Leroy, Thierry; Etienne, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Coffee (Coffea sp.) is a perennial plant widely cultivated in many tropical countries. It is a cash crop for millions of small farmers in these areas. As for other tree species, coffee has long breeding cycles, which makes conventional breeding programs time-consuming. For that matter, genetic transformation can be an effective way to introduce a desired trait in elite varieties or for functional genomics. In this chapter, we describe two highly efficient and reliable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation techniques developed for the C. arabica cultivated species: (1) A. tumefaciens to study and introduce genes conferring resistance/tolerance to biotic (coffee leaf rust, insects) and abiotic stress (drought, heat, seed desiccation) in fully transformed plants and (2) A. rhizogenes to study candidate gene expression for nematode resistance in transformed roots. PMID:25416265

  16. Incorporating Technology into a Hawaiian Language Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'awa, Makalapua; Hawkins, Emily

    This paper describes Hawaiian language courses that incorporate computer technology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. In the past decade, enrollments in all types of Hawaiian language programs have increased rapidly. The University of Hawaii is committed to extending Hawaiian language education, especially the full development of Hawaiian…

  17. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were four times more likely than non- ... a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander adults have developed several of the high ...

  18. Native Hawaiian Educational Assessment Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamehameha Schools/Bernice Pauahi Bishop Estate, Honolulu, HI.

    This report documents the educational needs of Native Hawaiians across ecosystem levels. Identifying the unique educational needs of Native Hawaiians and effective Native American and local programs that meet the unique educational needs of native Hawaiians, this project works within certain parameters: (1) part of a continuous needs assessment,…

  19. Hawaiian Studies Curriculum Guide. Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This curriculum guide suggests activities and educational experiences within a Hawaiian cultural context for Grade 3 students in Hawaiian schools. First, an introduction discusses the contents of the guide; the relationship of classroom teacher and the kupuna (Hawaiian-speaking elder); the identification and scheduling of Kupunas; and how to use…

  20. The solar-coffee connection

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, G.

    2000-04-01

    Coffee connoisseurs, when they quaff a cup of coffee or enjoy a jug of joe, don't generally consider the costs to the environment of their favorite beverage. But the fact is that traditional coffee production is hard on the environment, exacting a toll on the native forests and waterways of Central America and on the migratory birds of the western hemisphere. Coffee growing is the second greatest cause of rainforest destruction after cattle ranching, because a lot of trees are cut down to dry the freshly-picked coffee crop. But espresso-sipping environmentalists and an eco-conscious Joe Public can take comfort in a promising new connection between solar energy and rainforest-friendly coffee--solar-dried coffee. And they can take pleasure in it too, because solar-dried coffee, according to virtually everyone who tries it, is the best-tasting coffee made. Considering that coffee is the second most-traded commodity next to oil, and the second most popular beverage in the world next to water, consumed by billions of people, any new process that reduces the environmental damage occasioned by coffee-growing and processing is significant.

  1. The Effects of Preexercise Caffeinated Coffee Ingestion on Endurance Performance: An Evidence-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Simon; Straight, Chad R; Lewis, Richard D

    2016-06-01

    Endurance athletes commonly ingest caffeine as a means to enhance training intensity and competitive performance. A widely-used source of caffeine is coffee, however conflicting evidence exists regarding the efficacy of coffee in improving endurance performance. In this context, the aims of this evidence-based review were threefold: 1) to evaluate the effects of preexercise coffee on endurance performance, 2) to evaluate the effects of coffee on perceived exertion during endurance performance, and 3) to translate the research into usable information for athletes to make an informed decision regarding the intake of caffeine via coffee as a potential ergogenic aid. Searches of three major databases were performed using terms caffeine and coffee, or coffee-caffeine, and endurance, or aerobic. Included studies (n = 9) evaluated the effects of caffeinated coffee on human subjects, provided the caffeine dose administered, administered caffeine ≥ 45 min before testing, and included a measure of endurance performance (e.g., time trial). Significant improvements in endurance performance were observed in five of nine studies, which were on average 24.2% over controls for time to exhaustion trials, and 3.1% for time to completion trials. Three of six studies found that coffee reduced perceived exertion during performance measures significantly more than control conditions (p < .05). Based on the reviewed studies there is moderate evidence supporting the use of coffee as an ergogenic aid to improve performance in endurance cycling and running. Coffee providing 3-8.1 mg/kg (1.36-3.68 mg/lb) of caffeine may be used as a safe alternative to anhydrous caffeine to improve endurance performance. PMID:26568580

  2. Hawaiian health practitioners in contemporary society.

    PubMed

    Chang, H K

    2001-09-01

    Hawaiian medical practices in Hawai'i became fragmented and deteriorated following the arrival of Western civilization. With the resurgence of Hawaiian pride, interest has risen to preserve what remains of Hawaiian healing methods. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which Hawaiian healing modalities are still in existence and practiced in the 1990s by Hawaiian health practitioners. Twenty-five Hawaiian health practitioners on the island of O'ahu agreed to in-depth interviews on their specific training and current practices of Hawaiian healing. Data collection included demographic characteristics, cultural attributes, training patterns, healing modalities, motivation to practice, spirituality and health, use of Hawaiian medicines, and training of haumana (students). Common practices as well as differences between practitioners and specialties were explored. This study found that a small, but substantive, component of Hawaiian healing is practiced by a growing number of Hawaiian practitioners. Content analyses identified two major components of Hawaiian healing: (1) attributes of Hawaiian culture, and (2) elements of spirituality in health and healing. Three significant modalities remain: ho'olomilomi, massage; la'au lapa'au, herbal medicine; and ho'oponopono, conflict resolution. Seventeen or 68% reported being skilled in more than one healing modality and 56% were training haumana. All practitioners reported apprenticeships under one or more master healers or a recognized elder healer--often a family member. Prior to, and after, the administration of any healing modality, spiritual blessings were administered by all practitioners to initiate the healing process and end the healing session. Hawaiian values--such as lokahi, harmony between man, nature, and the gods--are essential for holistic health. Without lokahi, there is illness. In summary, this study provides data that previously did not exist on contemporary Hawaiian health practitioners

  3. Mahukona: The missing Hawaiian volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.O.; Muenow, D.W. ); Kurz, M.D. )

    1990-11-01

    New bathymetric and geochemical data indicate that a seamount west of the island of Hawaii, Mahukona, is a Hawaiian shield volcano. Mahukona has weakly alkalic lavas that are geochemically distinct. They have high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios (12-21 times atmosphere), and high H{sub 2}O and Cl contents, which are indicative of the early state of development of Hawaiian volcanoes. The He and Sr isotopic values for Mahukona lavas are intermediate between those for lavas from Loihi and Manuna Loa volcanoes and may be indicative of a temporal evolution of Hawaiian magmas. Mahukona volcano became extinct at about 500 ka, perhaps before reaching sea level. It fills the previously assumed gap in the parallel chains of volcanoes forming the southern segment of the Hawaiian hotspot chain. The paired sequence of volcanoes was probably caused by the bifurcation of the Hawaiian mantle plume during its ascent, creating two primary areas of melting 30 to 40 km apart that have persisted for at least the past 4 m.y.

  4. Beetles, Biofuel, and Coffee

    SciTech Connect

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier

    2015-05-06

    Berkeley Lab scientist Javier Ceja-Navarro discusses his research on the microbial populations found the guts of insects, specifically the coffee berry borer, which may lead to better pest management and the passalid beetle, which could lead to improved biofuel production.

  5. Germination of coffee seeds and its significance for coffee quality.

    PubMed

    Selmar, D; Bytof, G; Knopp, S-E; Breitenstein, B

    2006-03-01

    Besides genotypic characteristics, the crucial factor that determines coffee quality is the mode of post-harvest treatment, i.e., the wet and dry processing. Up to now, the resulting characteristic flavour differences between these differentially processed coffees were attributed exclusively to differences in starting material. However, as these quality differences are still evident, even when identical coffee samples were processed by the two methods in parallel, the differences must be created by metabolic processes in the coffee beans themselves. Based on expression studies of the germination-specific isocitrate lyase and the resumption of cell cycle activity, monitored by the abundance of beta-tubulin, we evidence that germination is initiated in coffee seeds during the course of standard coffee post-harvest treatments. The extent and nature of the germination processes depend on the processing method. The coherence of metabolic events, substantial differences in the chemical composition of the coffee beans, and the generation of specific coffee qualities establishes the basis for a quite novel approach in coffee research. PMID:16547871

  6. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders were seven times ... At a glance – Cancer Rates for Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Liver & IBD Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  7. Surviving Paradise: A Hawaiian Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    An Ohio University program that introduces botany students to field work sent a team to study Hawaiian species of violets and algae, endangered by invasive, imported plants. The situation of the native species relates to larger scientific and ecological issues because algae is the basis of the aquatic food chain, and violets adapt in unique ways…

  8. Coffee-induced Hypokalaemia

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Taking an excess amount of caffeine (e.g. overdrinking caffeinated beverages) sometimes causes hypokalaemia. Although the detailed mechanism has not been clarified yet, an increased loss of potassium via the urine stream caused by the diuretic action of caffeine is proposed as one of the possibilities. We report the case of a 50-year-old female outpatient who rapidly developed severe generalized muscle weakness and fatigue. Her symptoms were considered to be principally due to hypokalaemia. Since her blood urea nitrogen concentration decreased greatly, it was suggested that she had massive polyuria due to overhydration (i.e. dilution of her body fluids). Initially, we considered that a urinary tract infection might have caused her illness. However, we found that she was a heavy coffee drinker and had constantly experienced massive diuresis. After a course of oral antibiotics, potassium replacement and stopping coffee (caffeine) ingestion, her symptoms resolved quickly. In conclusion, it was considered that overdrinking coffee (caffeine) induced her hypokalaemia. Probably, loss of potassium via the urine stream with secondary aldosteronism was the main cause of the hypokalaemia. PMID:21769248

  9. Biotechnological potential of coffee pulp and coffee husk for bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Pandey; Soccol; Nigam; Brand; Mohan; Roussos

    2000-10-01

    Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as coffee pulp and coffee husk. Coffee pulp or husk is a fibrous mucilagenous material (sub-product) obtained during the processing of coffee cherries by wet or dry process, respectively. Coffee pulp/husk contains some amount of caffeine and tannins, which makes it toxic in nature, resulting the disposal problem. However, it is rich in organic nature, which makes it an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the production of value-added products. Several solutions and alternative uses of the coffee pulp and husk have been attempted. These include as fertilizers, livestock feed, compost, etc. However, these applications utilize only a fraction of available quantity and are not technically very efficient. Attempts have been made to detoxify it for improved application as feed, and to produce several products such as enzymes, organic acids, flavour and aroma compounds, and mushrooms, etc. from coffee pulp/husk. Solid state fermentation has been mostly employed for bioconversion processes. Factorial design experiments offer useful information for the process optimization. This paper reviews the developments on processes and products developed for the value-addition of coffee pulp/husk through the biotechnological means. PMID:10959086

  10. Catalog of Hawaiian earthquakes, 1823-1959

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Fred W.; Wright, Thomas L.

    2000-01-01

    This catalog of more than 17,000 Hawaiian earthquakes (of magnitude greater than or equal to 5), principally located on the Island of Hawaii, from 1823 through the third quarter of 1959 is designed to expand our ability to evaluate seismic hazard in Hawaii, as well as our knowledge of Hawaiian seismic rhythms as they relate to eruption cycles at Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes and to subcrustal earthquake patterns related to the tectonic evolution of the Hawaiian chain.

  11. The Coffee and Cream Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes how Newton's Law of Cooling and the Method of Mixtures are used to solve the basic dilemma of whether to add the cool cream to the hot coffee or to let the black coffee cool down first and then add the cream. (ZWH)

  12. Hawaiian Duck's Future Threatened by Feral Mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uyehara, Kimberly J.; Engilis, Andrew, Jr.; Reynolds, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Nearly 70 percent of Hawaii's native bird species are found nowhere else on Earth, and many of these species are declining or in danger of extinction. Although the Hawaiian Islands were once home to a remarkable diversity of waterfowl, only three species remain-the Hawaiian Goose (Nene), Laysan Duck, and Hawaiian Duck (Koloa maoli)-all Federally endangered. The Koloa maoli is the only Hawaiian bird threatened by 'genetic extinction' from hybridization with an invasive species-feral Mallard ducks. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) biologists in Hawaii are working to find the causes of bird endangerment and ways to prevent extinction of the Koloa maoli and other threatened birds.

  13. The Coffee and Cream Dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minor, Brandon; Feldman, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Many coffee drinkers take cream with their coffee and often wonder whether to add the cream earlier or later. With the objective of keeping their coffee as hot as possible over a moderate time period (10-15 minutes), this is a question that most of them can never answer definitively. We investigated this problem empirically using hot and cold water, with special emphasis on the calorimetry of the mixture. Assuming a coffee:cream (hot:cold) ratio of 3:1, we began with two identical styrofoam coffee cups containing hot water and then added cold water at t = 200 s in one cup and t = 700 s in the other cup. Using two Vernier temperature probes to simultaneously track the temperature change during the cool-down period of the water in both cups over δt = 1000 s, we obtained a real-time graphical account of which process achieved the higher temperature over this time period. In addition, the effect of evaporation was explored by comparing trials with and without a lid on the coffee cup. The application of Newton's Law of Cooling, as compared to the graphical temperature data acquired, will leave no doubt as to the best strategy for adding cool cream to hot coffee.

  14. Indigenous Youth Bilingualism from a Hawaiian Activist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William H.; Kamana, Kauanoe

    2009-01-01

    Hawai'i's massive language shift began a century ago. In the late 1800s, everyone spoke Hawaiian, but being monolingual in Hawaiian marked one as unsophisticated. Then Hawaiian medium schools were banned, resulting in young people speaking Hawaiian with adults and Hawai'i Creole English with peers. The next generation could understand, but not…

  15. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee. PMID:17132260

  16. Native Hawaiian Community College Students: What Happens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Lester, Jaime; Moon, Hye Sun; Tibbetts, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Using a weighted database of approximately 3,000 students, this study involves the tracing of the postsecondary history of 2,516 students who identified as Native Hawaiian, graduated from high school between 1993 and 1995, and attended college. Virtually none of the students are 100% Hawaiian. Due to a long history of intermarriage, the Hawaiian…

  17. Affiliation Motivation and Hawaiian-American Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallimore, Ronald

    1974-01-01

    Fantasy "n" affiliation (nAff) was correlated with reading achievement test scores, but not math achievement test scores, for a sample of 67 Hawaiian-American high school students. There was no relationship between "n" Ach and achievement test scores. The process linking "n" Aff and Hawaiian American achievement was suggested to involve…

  18. Tenure Experiences of Native Hawaiian Women Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka opua, Heipua

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the status of women of color in academe with a particular focus on Native Hawaiian women faculty. Using a qualitative narrative design, this research examined the experiences of tenured instructional Native Hawaiian women faculty (Na Wahine) at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. Two research questions guided this inquiry:…

  19. Cascading effects of insectivorous birds and bats in tropical coffee plantations.

    PubMed

    Karp, Daniel S; Daily, Gretchen C

    2014-04-01

    The loss of apex predators is known to have reverberating consequences for ecosystems, but how changes in broader predator assemblages affect vital ecosystem functions and services is largely unknown. Predators and their prey form complex interaction networks, in which predators consume not only herbivores but also other predators. Resolving these interactions will be essential for predicting changes in many important ecosystem functions, such as the control of damaging crop pests. Here, we examine how birds, bats, and arthropods interact to determine herbivorous arthropod abundance and leaf damage in Costa Rican coffee plantations. In an exclosure experiment, we found that birds and bats reduced non-flying arthropod abundance by -35% and -25%, respectively. In contrast, birds and bats increased the abundance of flying arthropods, probably by consuming spiders. The frequency of this intraguild predation differed between birds and bats, with cascading consequences for coffee shrubs. Excluding birds caused a greater increase in herbivorous arthropod abundance than excluding bats, leading to increased coffee leaf damage. Excluding bats caused an increase in spiders and other predatory arthropods, increasing the ratio of predators to herbivores in the arthropod community. Bats, therefore, did not provide benefits to coffee plants. Leaf damage on coffee was low, and probably did not affect coffee yields. Bird-mediated control of herbivores, however, may aid coffee shrubs in the long-term by preventing pest outbreaks. Regardless, our results demonstrate how complex, cascading interactions between predators and herbivores may impact plants and people. PMID:24933824

  20. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity of Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Yashin, Alexander; Yashin, Yakov; Wang, Jing Yuan; Nemzer, Boris

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA) in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc.) in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison is carried out of the AA of coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta roasted at different temperatures as well as by different roasting methods (microwave, convection, etc.). Data on the antiradical activity of coffee is provided. The antioxidant activity of coffee, tea, cocoa, and red wine is compared. At the end of this review, the total antioxidant content (TAC) of coffee samples from 21 coffee-producing countries as measured by an amperometric method is provided. The TAC of green and roasted coffee beans is also compared. PMID:26784461

  1. Coffee and chocolate in danger.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2014-06-01

    As a rapidly growing global consumer base appreciates the pleasures of coffee and chocolate and health warnings are being replaced by more encouraging sounds from medical experts, their supply is under threat from climate change, pests and financial problems. Coffee farmers in Central America, in particular, are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change, made worse by financial insecurity. Michael Gross reports. PMID:24944039

  2. Coffee induces autophagy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pietrocola, Federico; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Mariño, Guillermo; Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Chaba, Kariman; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and clinical trials revealed that chronic consumption coffee is associated with the inhibition of several metabolic diseases as well as reduction in overall and cause-specific mortality. We show that both natural and decaffeinated brands of coffee similarly rapidly trigger autophagy in mice. One to 4 h after coffee consumption, we observed an increase in autophagic flux in all investigated organs (liver, muscle, heart) in vivo, as indicated by the increased lipidation of LC3B and the reduction of the abundance of the autophagic substrate sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1). These changes were accompanied by the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), leading to the reduced phosphorylation of p70S6K, as well as by the global deacetylation of cellular proteins detectable by immunoblot. Immunohistochemical analyses of transgenic mice expressing a GFP–LC3B fusion protein confirmed the coffee-induced relocation of LC3B to autophagosomes, as well as general protein deacetylation. Altogether, these results indicate that coffee triggers 2 phenomena that are also induced by nutrient depletion, namely a reduction of protein acetylation coupled to an increase in autophagy. We speculate that polyphenols contained in coffee promote health by stimulating autophagy. PMID:24769862

  3. Is coffee a functional food?

    PubMed

    Dórea, José G; da Costa, Teresa Helena M

    2005-06-01

    Definitions of functional food vary but are essentially based on foods' ability to enhance the quality of life, or physical and mental performance, of regular consumers. The worldwide use of coffee for social engagement, leisure, enhancement of work performance and well-being is widely recognised. Depending on the quantities consumed, it can affect the intake of some minerals (K, Mg, Mn, Cr), niacin and antioxidant substances. Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown positive effects of regular coffee-drinking on various aspects of health, such as psychoactive responses (alertness, mood change), neurological (infant hyperactivity, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and metabolic disorders (diabetes, gallstones, liver cirrhosis), and gonad and liver function. Despite this, most reviews do not mention coffee as fulfilling the criteria for a functional food. Unlike other functional foods that act on a defined population with a special effect, the wide use of coffee-drinking impacts a broad demographic (from children to the elderly), with a wide spectrum of health benefits. The present paper discusses coffee-drinking and health benefits that support the concept of coffee as a functional food. PMID:16022745

  4. Coffee induces autophagy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pietrocola, Federico; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Mariño, Guillermo; Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Chaba, Kariman; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and clinical trials revealed that chronic consumption coffee is associated with the inhibition of several metabolic diseases as well as reduction in overall and cause-specific mortality. We show that both natural and decaffeinated brands of coffee similarly rapidly trigger autophagy in mice. One to 4 h after coffee consumption, we observed an increase in autophagic flux in all investigated organs (liver, muscle, heart) in vivo, as indicated by the increased lipidation of LC3B and the reduction of the abundance of the autophagic substrate sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1). These changes were accompanied by the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), leading to the reduced phosphorylation of p70(S6K), as well as by the global deacetylation of cellular proteins detectable by immunoblot. Immunohistochemical analyses of transgenic mice expressing a GFP-LC3B fusion protein confirmed the coffee-induced relocation of LC3B to autophagosomes, as well as general protein deacetylation. Altogether, these results indicate that coffee triggers 2 phenomena that are also induced by nutrient depletion, namely a reduction of protein acetylation coupled to an increase in autophagy. We speculate that polyphenols contained in coffee promote health by stimulating autophagy. PMID:24769862

  5. Immunostimulatory properties of coffee mannans.

    PubMed

    Simões, Joana; Madureira, Pedro; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, Maria do Rosário; Vilanova, Manuel; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2009-08-01

    Coffee infusion mannans are acetylated polysaccharides containing single Galp and Araf residues as side chains of a beta-(1 --> 4)-Manp backbone. These mannans are structurally similar to the bioactive acetylated mannans from Aloe vera (AV). In this study, acetylated mannans were obtained from two coffee infusions prepared from light and dark roasted beans. These samples were tested for their immunostimulatory activity and compared with an extract of AV mannan and with locust bean gum (LBG) galactomannans. The coffee samples, as well as the AV extract, stimulated murine B- and T-lymphocytes, as evaluated by the in vitro expression of the surface lymphocyte activation marker CD69, more marked on B- than on T-lymphocytes. In coffee samples, contrarily to the AV, no proliferative effect was noticed. LBG sample did not show any immunostimulatory activity. Because the material that remains in the residue of the hot water extraction was still very rich in mannans, a sequential extraction was performed and a main fraction was recovered with a 4 M NaOH solution. Because this material was insoluble in water, a partial acetylation was performed. These polysaccharides also showed immunostimulatory activity, opening the possibility of exploitation of coffee infusion and coffee residue as sources of bioactive polysaccharides. PMID:19603397

  6. Hawaiian Starlight: Sharing the Beauty of the Hawaiian Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuillandre, J. C.

    Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. The summit of Mauna Kea (14,000 feet) offers the best viewing of the Cosmos in the northern hemisphere, and the film "Hawaiian Starlight" delivers a pure esthetic experience from the mountain into the Universe. Seven years in the making, this cinematic symphony reveals the spectacular beauty of the mountain and its connection to the Cosmos through the magical influence of time-lapse cinematography scored exclusively (no narration) with the awe-inspiring, critically acclaimed, Halo music by Martin O'Donnell and Michael Salvatori. Daytime and nighttime landscapes and skyscapes alternate with stunning true color images of the Universe captured by an observatory on Mauna Kea, all free of any computer generated imagery. An extended segment of the film will be presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference to celebrate the international year of Astronomy 2009, a global effort initiated by the IAU (International Astronomical Union) and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe through the day- and night-time sky, and thereby engage a personal sense of wonder and discovery. Hawaiian Starlight is true to this commitment. The inspiration and technology of the film will be shortly presented by the film's director.

  7. Hawaiian angiosperm radiations of North American origin

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Bruce G.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Putative phytogeographical links between America (especially North America) and the Hawaiian Islands have figured prominently in disagreement and debate about the origin of Pacific floras and the efficacy of long-distance (oversea) plant dispersal, given the obstacles to explaining such major disjunctions by vicariance. Scope Review of past efforts, and of progress over the last 20 years, toward understanding relationships of Hawaiian angiosperms allows for a historically informed re-evaluation of the American (New World) contribution to Hawaiian diversity and evolutionary activity of American lineages in an insular setting. Conclusions Temperate and boreal North America is a much more important source of Hawaiian flora than suggested by most 20th century authorities on Pacific plant life, such as Fosberg and Skottsberg. Early views of evolution as too slow to account for divergence of highly distinctive endemics within the Hawaiian geological time frame evidently impeded biogeographical understanding, as did lack of appreciation for the importance of rare, often biotically mediated dispersal events and ecological opportunity in island ecosystems. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for North American ancestry of Hawaiian plant radiations, such as the silversword alliance, mints, sanicles, violets, schiedeas and spurges, underlines the potential of long-distance dispersal to shape floras, in accordance with hypotheses championed by Carlquist. Characteristics important to colonization of the islands, such as dispersibility by birds and ancestral hybridization or polyploidy, and ecological opportunities associated with ‘sky islands’ of temperate or boreal climate in the tropical Hawaiian archipelago may have been key to extensive diversification of endemic lineages of North American origin that are among the most species-rich clades of Hawaiian plants. Evident youth of flowering-plant lineages from North America is highly consistent with recent geological

  8. Coffee Cravings May Spring from Your DNA

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160628.html Coffee Cravings May Spring From Your DNA Genes appear ... research suggests that your genes influence how much coffee you drink. Researchers analyzed genetic data from more ...

  9. Ames mutagenicity tests of overheated brewed coffee.

    PubMed

    Blair, C A; Shibamoto, T

    1984-12-01

    Five kinds of coffee samples were prepared from a commercial drip-grind coffee in order to examine the mutagenicity of brewed coffee using the Ames test. The samples prepared were a thick coffee syrup, coffee solid residues, dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of solid residues, a dichloromethane extract of a distillate from normally heated brewed coffee and dichloromethane extracts of distillates from overheated (150-300 degrees C) brewed coffee. The samples were tested for mutagenicity towards Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 both with and without metabolic activation (S-9 mix). Only the extracts of the distillates obtained from coffee heated to 150 degrees or 300 degrees C exhibited mutagenicity towards strain TA98 with S-9 mix. PMID:6392045

  10. Hydrogeology of the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic-rock aquifers are the most extensive and productive aquifers in the Hawaiian Islands. These aquifers contain different types of groundwater systems depending on the geologic setting in which they occur. The most common groundwater systems include coastal freshwater-lens systems in the dike-free flanks of the volcanoes and dike-impounded systems within the dike-intruded areas of the volcanoes. In some areas, a thick (hundreds of meters) freshwater lens may develop because of the presence of a coastal confining unit, or caprock, that impedes the discharge of groundwater from the volcanic-rock aquifer, or because the permeability of the volcanic rocks forming the aquifer is low. In other areas with low groundwater-recharge rates and that lack a caprock, the freshwater lens may be thin or brackish water may exist immediately below the water table. Dike-impounded groundwater systems commonly have high water levels (hundreds of meters above sea level) and contribute to the base flow of streams where the water table intersects the stream. Recent numerical modeling studies have enhanced the conceptual understanding of groundwater systems in the Hawaiian Islands.

  11. Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the health of groups can result from: Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders.

  12. Pearl and Hermes Reef, Hawaiian Island Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Pearl and Hermes Reef (28.0N, 176.0W) in the Hawaiian Island Chain, are seen with several small sandy islands, forming an atoll that caps a seamount on the long chain that extends some 1,500 miles northwestward from the more familiar Hawaiian Islands proper. Pearl and Hermes Reef lies about 100 miles southeast of Midway island. A reticulate network of coral patch reefs separates the lagoon into more or less isolated pools.

  13. Suicidal Thoughts among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Suicidal Thoughts among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders Suicide affects Americans of every racial and ... group is the Asian, Native Hawaiian, or other Pacific Islander population. According to the combined 2008 to ...

  14. Minority Women's Health: Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Islanders Minority Women's Health Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders Related information How to Talk to Your ... Health conditions common in Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander women Accidents Alcoholism and drug abuse Asthma ...

  15. Morphological and Molecular Evaluation of a Meloidogyne hapla Population Damaging Coffee (Coffea arabica) in Maui, Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Handoo, Z. A.; Skantar, A. M.; Carta, L. K.; Schmitt, D. P.

    2005-01-01

    An unusual population of Meloidogyne hapla, earlier thought to be an undescribed species, was found causing large galls, without adventitious roots, and substantial damage to coffee in Maui, Hawaii. Only in Brazil had similar damage to coffee been reported by this species. Unlike M. exigua from South and Central America, this population reproduced well on coffee cv. Mokka and M. incognita-susceptible tomato but poorly on tomato with the Mi resistance gene. Characterization included SEM images, esterase isozymes, and five DNA sequences: i) the D3 segment of the large subunit (LSU-D3 or 28S) rDNA, ii) internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) rDNA, iii) intergenic spacer (IGS) rDNA, iv) the mitochondrial interval from cytochrome oxidase (CO II) to 16S mtDNA, and v) the nuclear gene Hsp90. Sequences for ITS-1, IGS, and COII were similar to other M. hapla populations, but within species ITS-1 variability was not less than among species. One LSU-D3 haplotype was similar to a previously analyzed population with two minor haplotypes. Hsp90 exhibited some variation between Maryland and Hawaiian populations distinct from other species. Females were narrow with wide vulval slits, large interphasmidial distances, and more posterior excretory pores; 20% of perineal patterns had atypical perivulval lines. Males had a low b ratio (<12 µm). Juveniles had a short distance between stylet and dorsal gland orifice. Juvenile body length was short (<355 µm) and was different between summer and winter populations. PMID:19262853

  16. Tracing coffee tabletop traces.

    PubMed

    Leiterer, Jork; Emmerling, Franziska; Panne, Ulrich; Christen, Wolfgang; Rademann, Klaus

    2008-08-01

    Crystallization processes under different conditions are of fundamental interest in chemistry, pharmacy, and medicine. Therefore, we have studied the formation of micro- and nanosized crystals using water-caffeine (1,3,7-trimethyl-1 H-purine-2,6(3 H,7 H)-dione) solutions under ambient conditions as a relevant model system. When droplets of an aqueous caffeine solution evaporate and eventually dry on surfaces (glass, polystyrene, and polyester), stable "coffee tabletop" rings with a perimeter of typically 3 mm are formed after 20 to 50 min. Using a micro focus X-ray beam available at the BESSY muSpot-beamline, the fine structure of different caffeine needles can be distinguished. Unexpectedly, both crystal modifications (alpha- and beta-caffeine) are present, but locally separated in these rings. Furthermore, AFM studies reveal the presence of even smaller particles on a nanometer length scale. To eliminate influences of surface irregularities from the crystallization process, acoustic levitation of liquid samples was employed. Such levitated droplets are trapped in a stable position and only surrounded by air. The solvent in an ultrasonically levitated drop evaporates completely, and the resulting crystallization of caffeine was followed in situ by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. In this case, the diffraction pattern is in accordance with pure alpha-caffeine and does not indicate the formation of the room temperature polymorph beta-caffeine. Hence, our investigations open new vistas that may lead to a controlled formation of cocrystals and novel polymorphs of micro- and nanocrystalline materials, which are of relevance for fundamental studies as well as for pharmaceutical and medical applications. PMID:18582001

  17. The coffee genome hub: a resource for coffee genomes

    PubMed Central

    Dereeper, Alexis; Bocs, Stéphanie; Rouard, Mathieu; Guignon, Valentin; Ravel, Sébastien; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Poncet, Valérie; Garsmeur, Olivier; Lashermes, Philippe; Droc, Gaëtan

    2015-01-01

    The whole genome sequence of Coffea canephora, the perennial diploid species known as Robusta, has been recently released. In the context of the C. canephora genome sequencing project and to support post-genomics efforts, we developed the Coffee Genome Hub (http://coffee-genome.org/), an integrative genome information system that allows centralized access to genomics and genetics data and analysis tools to facilitate translational and applied research in coffee. We provide the complete genome sequence of C. canephora along with gene structure, gene product information, metabolism, gene families, transcriptomics, syntenic blocks, genetic markers and genetic maps. The hub relies on generic software (e.g. GMOD tools) for easy querying, visualizing and downloading research data. It includes a Genome Browser enhanced by a Community Annotation System, enabling the improvement of automatic gene annotation through an annotation editor. In addition, the hub aims at developing interoperability among other existing South Green tools managing coffee data (phylogenomics resources, SNPs) and/or supporting data analyses with the Galaxy workflow manager. PMID:25392413

  18. The coffee genome hub: a resource for coffee genomes.

    PubMed

    Dereeper, Alexis; Bocs, Stéphanie; Rouard, Mathieu; Guignon, Valentin; Ravel, Sébastien; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Poncet, Valérie; Garsmeur, Olivier; Lashermes, Philippe; Droc, Gaëtan

    2015-01-01

    The whole genome sequence of Coffea canephora, the perennial diploid species known as Robusta, has been recently released. In the context of the C. canephora genome sequencing project and to support post-genomics efforts, we developed the Coffee Genome Hub (http://coffee-genome.org/), an integrative genome information system that allows centralized access to genomics and genetics data and analysis tools to facilitate translational and applied research in coffee. We provide the complete genome sequence of C. canephora along with gene structure, gene product information, metabolism, gene families, transcriptomics, syntenic blocks, genetic markers and genetic maps. The hub relies on generic software (e.g. GMOD tools) for easy querying, visualizing and downloading research data. It includes a Genome Browser enhanced by a Community Annotation System, enabling the improvement of automatic gene annotation through an annotation editor. In addition, the hub aims at developing interoperability among other existing South Green tools managing coffee data (phylogenomics resources, SNPs) and/or supporting data analyses with the Galaxy workflow manager. PMID:25392413

  19. Landscape context and scale differentially impact coffee leaf rust, coffee berry borer, and coffee root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Avelino, Jacques; Romero-Gurdián, Alí; Cruz-Cuellar, Héctor F; Declerck, Fabrice A J

    2012-03-01

    Crop pest and disease incidences at plot scale vary as a result of landscape effects. Two main effects can be distinguished. First, landscape context provides habitats of variable quality for pests, pathogens, and beneficial and vector organisms. Second, the movements of these organisms are dependent on the connectivity status of the landscape. Most of the studies focus on indirect effects of landscape context on pest abundance through their predators and parasitoids, and only a few on direct effects on pests and pathogens. Here we studied three coffee pests and pathogens, with limited or no pressure from host-specific natural enemies, and with widely varying life histories, to test their relationships with landscape context: a fungus, Hemileia vastatrix, causal agent of coffee leaf rust; an insect, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); and root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. Their incidence was assessed in 29 coffee plots from Turrialba, Costa Rica. In addition, we characterized the landscape context around these coffee plots in 12 nested circular sectors ranging from 50 to 1500 m in radius. We then performed correlation analysis between proportions of different land uses at different scales and coffee pest and disease incidences. We obtained significant positive correlations, peaking at the 150 m radius, between coffee berry borer abundance and proportion of coffee in the landscape. We also found significant positive correlations between coffee leaf rust incidence and proportion of pasture, peaking at the 200 m radius. Even after accounting for plot level predictors of coffee leaf rust and coffee berry borer through covariance analysis, the significance of landscape structure was maintained. We hypothesized that connected coffee plots favored coffee berry borer movements and improved its survival. We also hypothesized that wind turbulence, produced by low-wind-resistance land uses such as pasture, favored removal of coffee

  20. Navigating Rough Waters: Hawaiian Science Teachers Discuss Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaire, Franklin S.

    2013-01-01

    Research with Native Hawaiian science teachers is contributing to a better understanding of issues relating to equity in science education, and toward improving science curriculum to support Native Hawaiian students as well as support systems for Native Hawaiian students interested in pursuing higher education and science-based careers.…

  1. Hawaiian Language Immersion: The Role of Kamehameha Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleka, Hinano; Hammond, Ormond

    1992-01-01

    Hawaii has a strong crusade to revive the Hawaiian language to preserve the Hawaiian culture. The article examines the events leading up to the implementation of Hawaiian language immersion programs through the State Department of Education and lists specific immersion school goals and strategies. (SM)

  2. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  3. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  4. Coffee: The Most Teachable Commodity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenworthy, Eldon; Schaeffer, Eric

    2000-01-01

    Discusses one result of globalization that more of what people consume comes from distant regions through complex transitions hidden from ordinary view. Outlines the advantages of studying the coffee chain to understand its relationship to consumer choice and environmental issues. (Author/ASK)

  5. Respiratory function in coffee workers.

    PubMed Central

    Zuskin, E; Valić, F; Skurić, Z

    1979-01-01

    Respiratory function was studied in three groups of workers employed in processing coffee. The prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in coffee processors than in control workers. In each group during the Monday work shift there was a significant mean acute decrease in the maximum expiratory flow rate at 50% vital capacity (VC), ranging from 4.0% to 8.7%, and at 25% VC, ranging from 6.0% to 18.5%. Acute reductions in FEV1.0 were considerably lower, ranging from 1.3% to 2.8%. On Thursdays the acute ventilatory function changes were somewhat lower than on Mondays. Acute decreases in flow rates at low lung volumes suggest that the bronchoconstrictor effect of the dust acts mostly on smaller airways. Administration of Intal (disodium cromoglycate) before the shift considerably diminished acute reductions in flow rates. A comparison of Monday pre-shift values of ventilatory capacity in coffee workers with those in controls indicates that exposure to dust in green or roasted coffee processing may lead to persistent loss of pulmonary function. PMID:111700

  6. Immunological and respiratory changes in coffee workers.

    PubMed Central

    Zuskin, E; Valić, F; Kanceljak, B

    1981-01-01

    Immunological status and respiratory function were studied in a group of 45 coffee workers. Skin tests with coffee allergens demonstrated the highest percentage of positive reactions to dust collected during emptying bags (40.0%), followed by dust of green (12%) and then roasted coffee (8.9%). Among 34 skin-tested control workers, 14.7% had positive skin reaction to dust collected during emptying bags, but none had positive skin reaction to green or roasted coffee. Serum levels of total IgE were increased in 24.4% of coffee workers and in 5.9% of control subjects. The prevalence of all chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in coffee workers than in control subjects. Coffee workers with positive skin tests to coffee allergen had a significantly higher prevalence of chronic cough (63.6%) and chronic phlegm (72.7%) than those with negative skin tests (32.4% and 23.5% respectively). There was a significant mean decrease over the Monday work shift in the maximum expiratory flow rate at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50: -7.9%) and at 25% vital capacity (MEF25: -17.8%), suggesting an obstructive effect mostly in smaller airways. Coffee workers with positive skin tests to coffee allergens had larger acute reductions in flow rates than those with negative skin tests but the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:7292386

  7. Pharmacological characterisation of extracts of coffee dusts.

    PubMed Central

    Zuskin, E; Duncan, P G; Douglas, J S

    1983-01-01

    The contractile or relaxant activities or both of aqueous extracts of green and roasted coffees were assayed on isolated guinea pig tracheal spirals. Contractile and relaxant activities were compared with histamine and theophylline, respectively. Green coffee extracts induced concentration dependent contraction, but the maximal tension never exceeded 76.3% +/- 5.2 of a maximal histamine contraction (0.69 +/- 0.07 g/mm2 v 0.52 +/- 0.05 g/mm2; p (0.01). One gram of green coffee dust had a biological activity equivalent to 1.23 +/- 0.1 mg of histamine. The pD2 value of histamine was -5.17 +/- 0.05. The potency of green coffee was unaffected by mepyramine maleate (1 micrograms/ml, final bath concentration) while that of histamine was reduced 500 fold. Tissues contracted with histamine were not significantly relaxed by green coffee extracts. By contrast, roasted coffee extracts induced concentration dependent relaxation of uncontracted and histamine contracted tissues. Tissues contracted with green coffee extracts were also completely relaxed by roasted coffee extracts. The pD2 value of theophylline was -4.10 +/- 0.03. The relaxant activity of 1 g of roasted coffee was equivalent to 1.95 +/- 0.16 mg of theophylline. The potency of these extracts was significantly reduced after propranolol (1 micrograms/ml; dose ratio 1.56). Our results show that coffee dust extracts have considerable biological activity which changes from a contractile to a relaxant action as a consequence of processing. The greater incidence of adverse reactions to green coffee dust(s) in coffee workers may be related to the contractile activity present in green coffee dust. PMID:6830717

  8. Cogeneration in the Hawaiian sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    For nearly a century the Hawaiian sugar industry has produced most of the steam and electricity needed to process sugarcane and to power its factories and irrigation pumps. Judicious use of bagasse and cane trash has made the Hawaiian sugar industry among the most efficient in the world in converting biomass into electricity --- in comparison with typical worldwide cane-to-electricity productivities of {approximately}10 kWh per ton of cane, Hawaiian sugar factories today generate, on average, about 60 kWh per ton of cane and, in some factories, 100 kWh or more. Plantations in Hawaii produce about 800 million kWh annually, and, after satisfying virtually all of their internal power requirements, export roughly 400 million kWh to public utility companies. To attain world prominence in generating and exporting power from bagasse, Hawaiian sugar companies have had to address numerous technical, operational, regulatory, and contractual issues relating to the production and distribution of steam and electricity. Prior to 1970 the development of electricity generation in the Hawaiian sugar industry was shaped almost entirely by technical developments --- better utilization of the available biomass resources; consolidation of steam-generation facilities into fewer, larger, and more efficient units; and increased operating pressures and temperatures of steam and electrical generating units and better heat recovery to achieve higher thermal efficiency in the cogeneration plant. In more recent years, however, non-technical issues have influenced electricity generation and sale more than technical factors. 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Coffee fermentation and flavor--An intricate and delicate relationship.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2015-10-15

    The relationship between coffee fermentation and coffee aroma is intricate and delicate at which the coffee aroma profile is easily impacted by the fermentation process during coffee processing. However, as the fermentation process in coffee processing is conducted mainly for mucilage removal, its impacts on coffee aroma profile are usually neglected. Therefore, this review serves to summarize the available literature on the impacts of fermentation in coffee processing on coffee aroma as well as other unconventional avenues where fermentation is employed for coffee aroma modulation. Studies have noted that proper control over the fermentation process imparts desirable attributes and prevents undesirable fermentation which generates off-flavors. Other unconventional avenues in which fermentation is employed for aroma modulation include digestive bioprocessing and the fermentation of coffee extracts and green coffee beans. The latter is an area that should be explored further with appropriate microorganisms given its potential for coffee aroma modulation. PMID:25952856

  10. Effect of processing on ochratoxin A (OTA) content of coffee.

    PubMed

    Viani, R

    2002-01-01

    Coffee production can be roughly separated into three main steps 1) cherry processing to green coffee beans, 2) storage and transportation of green coffee to the place of consumption, and 3) green coffee processing to roasted and ground coffee and soluble coffee. The mold species which are known to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) in coffee have been identified as Aspergillus ochraceus, A. carbonarius and occasionally, A. niger. The length of time spent at a water activity > 0.80 at any moment until roasting defines the risk of mold growth and OTA production. However, the specific moment and locus of contamination have not yet been clearly identified. Since coffee husks are a significant source of OTA contamination, cleaning and grading of green coffee are effective methods for reducing OTA levels in coffee. During the process of converting green coffee to roasted and soluble coffees, up to 90% reduction in OTA levels can occur. PMID:11922086

  11. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: I. Green coffee.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    Modulation of coffee aroma via the biotransformation/fermentation of different coffee matrices during post-harvest remains sparingly explored despite some studies showing their positive impacts on coffee aroma. Therefore, this is an unprecedented study aimed at modulating coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with a food-grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus. The objective of part I of this two-part study was to characterize the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffee beans after fermentation. Proteolysis during fermentation resulted in 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of proline and aspartic acid which exhibited high Maillard reactivity. Extensive degradation of ferulic and caffeic acids led to 2-fold increase in the total concentrations of volatile phenolic derivatives. 36% of the total volatiles detected in fermented green coffee beans were generated during fermentation. Hence, the work presented demonstrated that R. oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans could induce modification of the aroma precursors of green coffees. PMID:27283713

  12. Climate Change Impacts on Worldwide Coffee Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, T.; Rising, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) plays a vital role in many countries' economies, providing necessary income to 25 million members of tropical countries, and supporting a $81 billion industry, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the world. At the same time, coffee is at the center of many issues of sustainability. It is vulnerable to climate change, with disease outbreaks becoming more common and suitable regions beginning to shift. We develop a statistical production model for coffee which incorporates temperature, precipitation, frost, and humidity effects using a new database of worldwide coffee production. We then use this model to project coffee yields and production into the future based on a variety of climate forecasts. This model can then be used together with a market model to forecast the locations of future coffee production as well as future prices, supply, and demand.

  13. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  14. What every dentist should know about coffee.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Lara M; Eckenrode, Kelsey N; Bloom, Ira T; Bashirelahi, Nasir

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages throughout the world. Its stimulating nature is responsible for much of its popularity, which paradoxically has resulted in its reputation for negative effects on consumer health. This review will address recent research on the systemic and dental health effects of coffee. Many of its supposed harmful effects have been disproved, while many protective and beneficial roles for coffee are emerging. PMID:27367628

  15. Pathological findings in the Hawaiian monk seal.

    PubMed

    Banish, L D; Gilmartin, W G

    1992-07-01

    Postmortem examinations were performed on 45 Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) collected during field research on the beaches of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (USA) from 1981 to 1985. Both males and females of all age groups, perinatal through adult, were examined. Frequent findings included parasites, trauma, cardiovascular disease (congenital and acquired), and respiratory infections. Emaciation was a common condition. All animals except neonates were infected with parasites; infection was severe in several cases. Splenic hematopoiesis was a universal histopathologic finding. Some cases exhibited lesions consistent with renal, gastrointestinal, and toxic disorders; ectopic tissue calcification; gallstones; and ophthalmologic and dental problems. PMID:1512875

  16. Consumption of dietary caffeine and coffee in physically active populations: physiological interactions.

    PubMed

    Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Reimer, Raylene A; Lun, Victor; Shearer, Jane

    2008-12-01

    Caffeine is a proven ergogenic aid, increasing athletic performance, endurance, and mental chronometry at doses as low as 1-3 mg.kg-1. As coffee is a readily available and commonly ingested form of caffeine, the two are often equated. However, coffee also contains hundreds of other biologically active compounds, many of which are metabolically distinct from caffeine. The purpose of this review was to examine the prevalence of coffee and (or) caffeine consumption among elite Canadian athletes, and to delineate the effects of coffee and caffeine on physical activity, weight maintenance, performance, and metabolism. A total of 270 self-reported 3-day food records were examined for caffeine intake from athletes registered with Canadian Sport Centres in 2005 and 2006. Athletes ranged in age from 16-45 years, and competed in 38 different sports. Results showed that 30% of athletes ingested >1 mg.kg-1.day-1 from a variety of sources. Average daily intake was 0.85 +/- 13 mg.kg-1. Caffeine intake was not correlated with any 1 sport; the 10 highest caffeine users were athletes from 9 different sports, including skill, endurance, and power sports. No differences were noted for average caffeine ingestion between summer and winter sports. High caffeine intakes corresponded to coffee ingestion, with the 25 highest individual intakes (193-895 mg.day-1) from coffee drinkers. In summary, it can be concluded that the majority of high-level Canadian athletes consume dietary caffeine primarily in the form of coffee. However, levels consumed are insufficient to elicit performance enhancement. Potential detrimental effects of caffeine consumption on exercise performance include gastric upset, withdrawal, sleep disturbance, and interactions with other dietary supplements. PMID:19088792

  17. Oxisterol determination in selected coffees.

    PubMed

    Turchetto, E; Lercker, G; Bortolomeazzi, R

    1993-01-01

    The main aim of green-coffee processing techniques, such as decaffeination and roasting, is always to maintain a very high level of quality in taste and flavor, the beverage's most important characteristics to consumers. Oxidative alterations of coffee lipids, which can occur in roasting, exert a very marked influence on these quality traits. Determining the extent of oxidation thus can provide an indication of the product's potential shelf-life and reveal traces of any newly-formed oxidative products that might prove nutritionally unsafe. Yet, while much attention has recently been focused on certain by-products induced by cholesterol oxidation and their proven toxicity as risk factors in atherosclerosis and cancer, oxidated phytosterols have largely gone unnoticed, being considered along with beta-sitosterol as not very dangerous in that neither is absorbed by the intestinal tract. The present study investigates the substances derived from phytosterol oxidation (oxisterols) in samples of regular and decaffeinated commercial coffees. The findings show that oxisterols were absent in some samples and that the traces of oxidate phytosterols detected in others were well below the threshold considered as toxicologically active. PMID:8367891

  18. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    PubMed

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-01

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants. PMID:26458882

  19. Geoflicks Reviewed--Films about Hawaiian Volcanoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 11 films on volcanic eruptions in the United States. Films are given a one- to five-star rating and the film's year, length, source and price are listed. Top films include "Inside Hawaiian Volcanoes" and "Kilauea: Close up of an Active Volcano." (AIM)

  20. Native Hawaiian Profile: State Of Hawaii 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alu Like, Inc., Honolulu, HI.

    This work summarizes statistics from previous reports on native Hawaiians done for the four counties in Hawaii. The data provided were extracted from the Office of Economic Opportunity's 1975 Census Update Surveys of Oahu, Hawaii, and Maui and from the 1974 Kauai Socio-Economic Profile done by the Center for Non-Metropolitan Studies of the…

  1. Age of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Clague, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar age data on alkalic and tholeiitic basalts from Diakakuji and Kinmei Seamounts in the vicinity of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend indicate that these volcanoes are about 41 and 39 m.y. old, respectively. Combined with previously published age data on Yuryaku and Ko??ko Seamounts, the new data indicate that the best age for the bend is 42.0 ?? 1.4 m.y. Petrochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks recovered from bend seamounts are indistinguishable from Hawaiian volcanic rocks, strengthening the hypothesis that the Hawaiian-Emperor bend is part of the Hawaiian volcanic chain. 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages on altered whole-rock basalt samples are consistent with feldspar ages and with 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating data and appear to reflect the crystallization ages of the samples even though conventional K-Ar ages are significantly younger. The cause of this effect is not known but it may be due to low-temperature loss of 39Ar from nonretentive montmorillonite clays that have also lost 40Ar. ?? 1976.

  2. Predicting School Problems of the Hawaiian Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Roland; Gallimore, Ronald

    An informal survey of Hawaiian school teachers and administrators revealed a considerable variance among communities in the type of problems mentioned. A model was formulated to specify the characteristics of the communities in the hope of discovering a basis for allocating future program resources. The model consists of two dimensions: density of…

  3. Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Colecptera: Curculiondae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. Eggs are deposited inside coffee berries, and insects feed on the coffee seed, severely reducing yields. Conventional chemical control is a very limited option, and there has been a concerted effort to develop biolo...

  4. Experimental analysis of the Italian coffee pot ``moka''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianino, Concetto

    2007-01-01

    I describe an experiment involving the moka Italian coffee pot. The pot is an ingenious device for making coffee that uses the liquid-vapor equation of state of the water and Darcy's law of linear filtration. The filtration coefficient of coffee is measured and a steam engine model is used to estimate the efficiency of the coffee pot.

  5. Evolution of green coffee protein profiles with maturation and relationship to coffee cup quality.

    PubMed

    Montavon, Philippe; Duruz, Eliane; Rumo, Gilbert; Pratz, Gudrun

    2003-04-01

    Coffee flavor is the product of a complex chain of chemical transformations. The green bean has only a faint odor that is not at all reminiscent of coffee aroma. It contains, however, all of the necessary precursors to generate the unmistakable coffee flavor during roasting. The levels and biochemical status of these precursors may vary in relation to genetic traits, environmental factors, maturation level, postharvest treatment, and storage. To improve our understanding of coffee flavor generation, the sensory and biochemical impact of maturation was assessed. Maturation clearly favored the development of high-quality flavor in the coffee brew. A specific subclass of green coffee beans, however, generated high-quality coffee flavor irrespective of maturation. Biochemical aspects were examined using a dynamic system: immature and mature green coffee suspensions were incubated under air or argon. On the analytical side, a specific pool of flavor precursors was monitored: chlorogenic acids, green coffee proteins, and free amino acids. A link between maturation, the redox behavior of green coffee suspensions, and their sensory scores was identified. Compared to ripe beans, unripe beans were found to be more sensitive to oxidation of chlorogenic acids. Aerobic incubation also triggered the fragmentation or digestion of the 11S seed storage protein and the release of free amino acids. PMID:12670177

  6. Draft genome of the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide: the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...

  7. Breast cancer and the consumption of coffee.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, L; Miller, D R; Helmrich, S P; Kaufman, D W; Schottenfeld, D; Stolley, P D; Shapiro, S

    1985-09-01

    The hypothesis has been raised that coffee consumption may increase the incidence of breast cancer, based on the report that fibrocystic breast disease, a risk factor for breast cancer, regresses after abstention from coffee and other methylxanthines. The relation between recent coffee consumption and the risk of breast cancer was evaluated in a case-control study, based on interviews conducted 1975-1982 at several mainly eastern US teaching and community hospitals. The responses of 2,651 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer were compared with those of 1,501 controls with nonmalignant conditions and 385 controls with cancers at other sites. The relative risk estimates for levels of coffee drinking up to seven or more cups daily, relative to none, approximated 1.0 with narrow 95% confidence intervals. After allowance for confounding, the relative risk estimate for drinking at least five cups a day was 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.6) using the noncancer controls and 1.1 (0.7-1.6) using the cancer controls. Coffee consumption was not associated with an increase in the risk of breast cancer among women with a history of fibrocystic breast disease, nor were tea or decaffeinated coffee associated with an increase in the risk of breast cancer. The results suggest that the recent consumption of coffee does not influence the incidence of breast cancer. PMID:4025289

  8. Bronchial reactivity in green coffee exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Skurić, Z; Butković, D

    1985-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms and lung function were studied in nine coffee workers who complained of job related respiratory symptoms. Six described symptoms characteristic of occupational asthma. Lung function data showed obstructive changes mostly in the smaller airways with no impairment in diffusing capacity. Bronchoprovocation testing with green coffee allergen provoked immediate asthmatic reactions with acute reductions of ventilatory capacity in four workers. The relative fall in FEF25-75% (ranging from 28% to 66%) was greater than in FEV1 (ranging from 18% to 62% of the control values). Eight of the nine workers had an increased total IgE serum level; five had positive intradermal skin tests to green coffee allergen. Most of the six healthy subjects experimentally exposed to green coffee dust in the working environment showed an acute fall in flow rates on maximum expiratory flow-volume curves. These results indicate that bronchoprovocation with green coffee allergen or green coffee dust may be used to identify subjects sensitive to green coffee. PMID:4005196

  9. Voluminous submarine lava flows from Hawaiian volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, R.T.; Moore, J.G.; Lipman, P.W.; Belderson, R.H.

    1988-05-01

    The GLORIA long-range sonar imaging system has revealed fields of large lava flows in the Hawaiian Trough east and south of Hawaii in water as deep as 5.5 km. Flows in the most extensive field (110 km long) have erupted from the deep submarine segment of Kilauea's east rift zone. Other flows have been erupted from Loihi and Mauna Loa. This discovery confirms a suspicion, long held from subaerial studies, that voluminous submarine flows are erupted from Hawaiian volcanoes, and it supports an inference that summit calderas repeatedly collapse and fill at intervals of centuries to millenia owing to voluminous eruptions. These extensive flows differ greatly in form from pillow lavas found previously along shallower segments of the rift zones; therefore, revision of concepts of volcano stratigraphy and structure may be required.

  10. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Minea, R.

    2005-10-01

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties.

  11. Hawaii Play Fairway Analysis: Hawaiian Place Names

    SciTech Connect

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-11-15

    Compilation of Hawaiian place names indicative of heat. Place names are from the following references: Pukui, M.K., and S.H. Elbert, 1976, Place Names of Hawaii, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI 96822, 289 pp. ; Bier, J. A., 2009, Map of Hawaii, The Big Island, Eighth Edition, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI  96822, 1 sheet.; and Reeve, R., 1993, Kahoolawe Place Names, Consultant Report No. 16, Kahoolawe Island Conveyance Commission, 259 pp.

  12. Characterization of mutagenic activity in grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, M.A.E.; Knize, M.G.; Felton, J.S.; Jagerstad, M.

    1994-06-01

    Several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees showed a mutagenic response in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024 and YG1O29 with metabolic activation. The beverage powders contained 150 to 500 TA98 and 1150 to 4050 YG1024 revertant colonies/gram, respectively. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment. Characterization of the mutagenic activity, using HPLC-and the Ames test of the collected fractions, showed the coffee-substitutes and instant coffees contain several mutagenic compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines.

  13. Shoreline Change in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, B. M.; Fletcher, C. H.; Barbee, M.; Frazer, L.; Anderson, T. R.

    2010-12-01

    Historical shoreline studies aid the coastal management community in identifying and managing coastal areas facing an increased risk of future beach erosion, assuming historical trends of shoreline change have a relationship to future shoreline changes. Beaches around the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui are investigated for chronic beach erosion, defined as shoreline change occurring over 10’s to 100 years. Historical shoreline positions are mapped from orthorectified aerial photographs and topographic survey charts. Positional uncertainty is calculated for each historical shoreline using data from seasonal beach profile measurements and from the mapping process. Shoreline movement through time is measured along 244 km of beach at 12,203 transects spaced every 20 m along the shore. Shoreline change rates are calculated using two methods of weighted least-squares regression, providing cross-validation of model results and identification of statistically significant shoreline trends. Rates are calculated for long (full time series) and short (1940’s-) time series allowing rudimentary investigation into whether rates may be changing with time. Shoreline change behavior is spatially variable along Hawaii beaches with cells of erosion and accretion often separated by only a few hundred meters on a continuous beach, or by short headlands that separate the coast into many small embayments and pocket beaches. Twenty-one km or 9% of the total length of beach studied was completely lost to erosion over the time-span of available data. The remaining beaches of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui are erosional over the long and short term with an average long-term rate of all transects of -0.061 ± 0.005 m/yr and average short-term rate of -0.023 ± 0.008 m/yr. The majority of the shoreline on the three islands (61% long-term, 54% short-term) has a significant trend of erosion or is more likely erosional than accretional. Looking at the islands individually, Kauai beaches are

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J.; Tabandera, Nicole K.; Wright, Patrick R.; Wright, Anthony D.

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808

  15. The Perception of Innovation in the Delivery of Services for Hawaiian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jamee Mahealani

    2012-01-01

    Native Hawaiians come from a tradition of success and resilience. Sumida and Meyer (2006) report that Native Hawaiians were among the most literate people in the world in the 1840's where they had the highest literacy rate west of the Rockies. By 1893, nearly 100 Hawaiian newspapers were in print and circulation in the Hawaiian Islands…

  16. Raising Cultural Self-Efficacy among Faculty and Staff of a Private Native Hawaiian School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Randie Kamuela

    2012-01-01

    The Hawaiian cultural revitalization movement in Hawai`i is an important driver for many Hawaiian organizations as well as educational institutions that serve Native Hawaiians. One such organization is Kamehameha Schools, a private school system founded and endowed by Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop in 1887 to educate Native Hawaiian children. From…

  17. Advances in genomics for the improvement of quality in coffee.

    PubMed

    Tran, Hue Tm; Lee, L Slade; Furtado, Agnelo; Smyth, Heather; Henry, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Coffee is an important crop that provides a livelihood to millions of people living in developing countries. Production of genotypes with improved coffee quality attributes is a primary target of coffee genetic improvement programmes. Advances in genomics are providing new tools for analysis of coffee quality at the molecular level. The recent report of a genomic sequence for robusta coffee, Coffea canephora, is a major development. However, a reference genome sequence for the genetically more complex arabica coffee (C. arabica) will also be required to fully define the molecular determinants controlling quality in coffee produced from this high quality coffee species. Genes responsible for control of the levels of the major biochemical components in the coffee bean that are known to be important in determining coffee quality can now be identified by association analysis. However, the narrow genetic base of arabica coffee suggests that genomics analysis of the wild relatives of coffee (Coffea spp.) may be required to find the phenotypic diversity required for effective association genetic analysis. The genomic resources available for the study of coffee quality are described and the potential for the application of next generation sequencing and association genetic analysis to advance coffee quality research are explored. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26919810

  18. Human coffee drinking: manipulation of concentration and caffeine dose.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A; O'Keeffe, M; O'Leary, D; Russ, N

    1986-01-01

    In a residential research ward coffee drinking was studied in 9 volunteer human subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. A series of five experiments was undertaken to characterize adlibitum coffee consumption and to investigate the effects of manipulating coffee concentration, caffeine dose per cup, and caffeine preloads prior to coffee drinking. Manipulations were double-blind and scheduled in randomized sequences across days. When cups of coffee were freely available, coffee drinking tended to be rather regularly spaced during the day with intercup intervals becoming progressively longer throughout the day; experimental manipulations showed that this lengthening of intercup intervals was not due to accumulating caffeine levels. Number of cups of coffee consumed was an inverted U-shaped function of both coffee concentration and caffeine dose per cup; however, coffee-concentration and dose-per-cup manipulations did not produce similar effects on other measures of coffee drinking (intercup interval, time to drink a cup, within-day distribution of cups). Caffeine preload produced dose-related decreases in number of cups consumed. As a whole, these experiments provide some limited evidence for both the suppressive and the reinforcing effects of caffeine on coffee consumption. Examination of total daily coffee and caffeine intake across experiments, however, provides no evidence for precise regulation (i.e., titration) of coffee or caffeine intake. PMID:3958660

  19. The Sociopolitical Context of Establishing Hawaiian-Medium Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Hawaiian-language-revitalization effort, which is the most developed of any indigenous-language revitalization in the United States. During the last 15 years, Hawaiian-language revitalization has centered around establishing indigenous-medium/immersion education and implementing the official status of the language of Hawaii.…

  20. The Return of Hawaiian: Language Networks of the Revival Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenzinger, Matthias; Heinrich, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Some 40 years ago, language transmission in Hawai'i was interrupted among Hawaiians across all islands with the sole exception of language maintenance among a small community on the tiny, isolated Ni'ihau Island. Today, Hawaiian has returned as spoken and written medium with some 5000-7000 new speakers. The present paper provides an…

  1. Creating Active Learners on Hawaiian Adventures through Project ALOHA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Claire; Anderson, Thomas; Sakuda, Katherine

    1998-01-01

    Describes an integrated curriculum project for fourth graders in a Hawaiian elementary school with a highly transient population. The project, ALOHA (Active Learners on Hawaiian Adventures) was developed to motivate students in learning about Hawaii's culture and ecosystems. Cooperation between the library media specialist, technology coordinator,…

  2. Teacher Technology Narratives: Native Hawaiian Views on Education and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong, D. Lilinoe; Hoffman, Ellen S.

    2014-01-01

    Narrative inquiry is a method by which "silenced voices" may be heard. In this study, eight Native Hawaiian teachers share their experiences of the Hawaiian Language Immersion Program (HLIP), or Papahana Kaiapuni, within the Hawai'i public school system. The teachers describe change over time in HLIP with a focus on technology and…

  3. Student Perceptions of Hawaiian Values in Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Pillis, Emmeline; Kim, Bryan; Thomas, Chris Allen; Kaulukukui, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Students attending a Native Hawaiian-serving institution read statements from two hypothetical job candidates. The passages had equivalent meaning, but one incorporated Hawaiian leadership values (HLV) without identifying them as such. Participants judged the HLV candidate to have lower credibility, rationality, and effectiveness, and preferred…

  4. Thysanoptera-Terebrantia of the Hawaiian Islands: an identification manual

    PubMed Central

    Mound, Laurence; Nakahara, Sueo; Tsuda, Dick M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated identification system is presented to 99 species and 49 genera in three families recorded from the Hawaiian Islands in the Thysanoptera suborder Terebrantia. Only seven (possibly eight) of these species are considered endemic, the remainder being adventive to these islands. The only previous study of Hawaiian Thysanoptera, by Zimmerman in 1948, included 47 Terebrantia species in 21 genera. PMID:26843832

  5. 78 FR 63381 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register A. Regulatory History and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI.... 14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following...

  6. Nā Liko Noelo: a program to develop Native Hawaiian researchers

    PubMed Central

    Tsark, JoAnn ‘Umilani; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2010-01-01

    Native Hawaiians are underrepresented in health research. They also have expressed dissatisfaction with the way in which many non-native researchers have formulated research questions, conducted research, and disseminated findings about Native Hawaiians. ‘Imi Hale - Native Hawaiian Cancer Network was funded by the National Cancer Institute to increase research training and mentorship opportunities for Native Hawaiians. To this end, ‘Imi Hale has followed principles of community-based participatory research to engage community members in identifying research priorities and assuring that research is beneficial, and not harmful, to Native Hawaiians. Developing indigenous researchers is a cornerstone of the program and, in its first 4 years ‘Imi Hale enrolled 78 Native Hawaiian “budding researchers (called Nā Liko Noelo in Hawaiian), of which 40 (68%) have participated in at least one training and 28 (36%) have served as investigators, 40 (51%) as research assistants, and 10 (13%) as mentors on cancer prevention and control studies. The major challenge for Nā Liko Noelo is finding the time needed to devote to research and writing scientific papers, as most have competing professional and personal obligations. Program evaluation efforts suggest, however, that ‘Imi Hale and its Nā Liko Noelo program are well accepted and are helping develop a cadré of community-sensitive indigenous Hawaiian researchers. PMID:16281705

  7. A New Health Perk for Coffee Drinkers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the coffee that are released in the roasting process," said senior researcher Dr. Gad Rennert. He is director of the Clalit National Israeli Cancer Control Center in Haifa, Israel. These findings can't ...

  8. Plant biochemistry: a naturally decaffeinated arabica coffee.

    PubMed

    Silvarolla, Maria B; Mazzafera, Paulo; Fazuoli, Luiz C

    2004-06-24

    The adverse side effects of caffeine have increased the market for decaffeinated coffee to about 10% of coffee consumption worldwide (http://www.ncausa.org), despite the loss of key flavour compounds in the industrial decaffeinating process. We have discovered a naturally decaffeinated Coffea arabica plant from Ethiopia, a species normally recognized for the high quality of its beans. It should be possible to transfer this trait to commercial varieties of arabica coffee plants by intraspecific hybridization--a process likely to be simpler than an interspecific hybridization strategy, which could require more than 30 years of breeding to fix the decaffeinated trait and would probably result in an inferior cup of coffee. PMID:15215853

  9. Coffee: biochemistry and potential impact on health.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Clifford, Michael N; Lean, Michael E J; Ashihara, Hiroshi; Crozier, Alan

    2014-08-01

    This review provides details on the phytochemicals in green coffee beans and the changes that occur during roasting. Key compounds in the coffee beverage, produced from the ground, roasted beans, are volatile constituents responsible for the unique aroma, the alkaloids caffeine and trigonelline, chlorogenic acids, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, and melanoidins, which are Maillard reaction products. The fate of these compounds in the body following consumption of coffee is discussed along with evidence of the mechanisms by which they may impact on health. Finally, epidemiological findings linking coffee consumption to potential health benefits including prevention of several chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease, are evaluated. PMID:24671262

  10. Prediction of specialty coffee cup quality based on near infrared spectra of green coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Tolessa, Kassaye; Rademaker, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The growing global demand for specialty coffee increases the need for improved coffee quality assessment methods. Green bean coffee quality analysis is usually carried out by physical (e.g. black beans, immature beans) and cup quality (e.g. acidity, flavour) evaluation. However, these evaluation methods are subjective, costly, time consuming, require sample preparation and may end up in poor grading systems. This calls for the development of a rapid, low-cost, reliable and reproducible analytical method to evaluate coffee quality attributes and eventually chemical compounds of interest (e.g. chlorogenic acid) in coffee beans. The aim of this study was to develop a model able to predict coffee cup quality based on NIR spectra of green coffee beans. NIR spectra of 86 samples of green Arabica beans of varying quality were analysed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to develop a model correlating spectral data to cupping score data (cup quality). The selected PLS model had a good predictive power for total specialty cup quality and its individual quality attributes (overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste) showing a high correlation coefficient with r-values of 90, 90,78, 72 and 72, respectively, between measured and predicted cupping scores for 20 out of 86 samples. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 1.04, 0.22, 0.27, 0.24 and 0.27 for total specialty cup quality, overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste, respectively. The results obtained suggest that NIR spectra of green coffee beans are a promising tool for fast and accurate prediction of coffee quality and for classifying green coffee beans into different specialty grades. However, the model should be further tested for coffee samples from different regions in Ethiopia and test if one generic or region-specific model should be developed. PMID:26838420

  11. Wake up and smell the coffee. Caffeine, coffee, and the medical consequences.

    PubMed Central

    Chou, T

    1992-01-01

    Caffeine is a methylxanthine whose primary biologic effect is antagonism of the adenosine receptor. Its presence in coffee, tea, soda beverages, chocolate, and many prescription and over-the-counter drugs makes it the most commonly consumed stimulant drug. Initially caffeine increases blood pressure, plasma catecholamine levels, plasma renin activity, serum free fatty acid levels, urine production, and gastric acid secretion. Its long-term effects have been more difficult to substantiate. Most of the caffeine consumed in the United States is in coffee, which contains many other chemicals that may have other biologic actions. The consumption of coffee is a self-reinforcing behavior, and caffeine dependence and addiction are common. Coffee and caffeine intake have been linked to many illnesses, but definitive correlations have been difficult to substantiate. Initial trials showing coffee's association with coronary disease and myocardial infarction have been difficult to reproduce and have many confounding variables. Recent studies showing a larger effect over long follow-up periods and with heavy coffee consumption have again brought the question of the role of coffee in disease states to the fore. Caffeine in average dosages does not seem to increase the risk of arrhythmia. At present there is no convincing evidence that caffeine or coffee consumption increases the risk for any solid tumor. The intake of coffee and caffeine has clearly been decreasing in this country over the past two decades, largely brought about by the increasing health consciousness of Americans. Although there have been many studies that hint that the fears of increased disease with coffee drinking may be warranted, many questions have yet to be answered about the health effects of coffee and caffeine use. Images PMID:1441496

  12. Thermoluminescence dating of Hawaiian basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Rodd James

    1979-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of plagioclase separates from 11 independently dated alkalic basalts 4,500 years to 3.3 million years old and 17 tholeiitic basalts 16 years to 450,000 years old from the Hawaiian Islands were investigated for the purpose of developing a TL dating method for young volcanic rocks. Ratios of natural to artificial TL intensity, when normalized for natural radiation dose rates, were used to quantify the thermoluminescence response of individual samples for age-determination purposes. The TL ratios for the alkalic basalt plagioclase were found to increase with age at a predictable exponential rate that permits the use of the equation for the best-fit line through a plot of the TL ratios relative to known age as a TL age equation. The equation is applicable to rocks ranging in composition from basaltic andesite to trachyte over the age range from about 2,000 to at least 250,000 years before present (B.P.). The TL ages for samples older than 50,000 years have a calculated precision of less than :t 10 percent and a potential estimated accuracy relative to potassium-argon ages of approximately :t 10 percent. An attempt to develop a similar dating curve for the tholeiitic basalts was not as successful, primarily because the dose rates are on the average lower than those for the alkalic basalts by a factor of 6, resulting in lower TL intensities in the tholeiitic basalts for samples of equivalent age, and also because the age distribution of dated material is inadequate. The basic TL properties of the plagioclase from the two rock types are similar, however, and TL dating of tholeiitic basalts should eventually be feasible over the age range 10,000 to at least 200,000 years B.P. The average composition of the plagioclase separates from the alkalic basalts ranges from oligoclase to andesine; compositional variations within this range have no apparent effect on the TL ratios. The average composition of the plagioclase from the tholeiitic

  13. Can coffee improve image guidance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirz, Raul; Lathrop, Ray A.; Godage, Isuru S.; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica; Russell, Paul T.; Webster, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    Anecdotally, surgeons sometimes observe large errors when using image guidance in endonasal surgery. We hypothesize that one contributing factor is the possibility that operating room personnel might accidentally bump the optically tracked rigid body attached to the patient after registration has been performed. In this paper we explore the registration error at the skull base that can be induced by simulated bumping of the rigid body, and find that large errors can occur when simulated bumps are applied to the rigid body. To address this, we propose a new fixation method for the rigid body based on granular jamming (i.e. using particles like ground coffee). Our results show that our granular jamming fixation prototype reduces registration error by 28%-68% (depending on bump direction) in comparison to a standard Brainlab reference headband.

  14. Identification of Putative Coffee Rust Mycoparasites via Single-Molecule DNA Sequencing of Infected Pustules

    PubMed Central

    Marino, John A.; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of crop pests with their natural enemies is a fundament to their control. Natural enemies of fungal pathogens of crops are poorly known relative to those of insect pests, despite the diversity of fungal pathogens and their economic importance. Currently, many regions across Latin America are experiencing unprecedented epidemics of coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Identification of natural enemies of coffee rust could aid in developing management strategies or in pinpointing species that could be used for biocontrol. In the present study, we characterized fungal communities associated with coffee rust lesions by single-molecule DNA sequencing of fungal rRNA gene bar codes from leaf discs (≈28 mm2) containing rust lesions and control discs with no rust lesions. The leaf disc communities were hyperdiverse in terms of fungi, with up to 69 operational taxonomic units (putative species) per control disc, and the diversity was only slightly reduced in rust-infected discs, with up to 63 putative species. However, geography had a greater influence on the fungal community than whether the disc was infected by coffee rust. Through comparisons between control and rust-infected leaf discs, as well as taxonomic criteria, we identified 15 putative mycoparasitic fungi. These fungi are concentrated in the fungal family Cordycipitaceae and the order Tremellales. These data emphasize the complexity of diverse fungi of unknown ecological function within a leaf that might influence plant disease epidemics or lead to the development of species for biocontrol of fungal disease. PMID:26567299

  15. MORTALITY PATTERNS IN ENDANGERED HAWAIIAN GEESE (NENE; BRANTA SANDVICENSIS).

    PubMed

    Work, Thierry M; Dagenais, Julie; Rameyer, Robert; Breeden, Renee

    2015-07-01

    Understanding causes of death can aid management and recovery of endangered bird populations. Toward those ends, we systematically examined 300 carcasses of endangered Hawaiian Geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis) from Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai between 1992 and 2013. The most common cause of death was emaciation, followed by trauma (vehicular strikes and predation), and infectious/inflammatory diseases of which toxoplasmosis (infection with Toxoplasma gondii) predominated. Toxicoses were less common and were dominated by lead poisoning or botulism. For captive birds, inflammatory conditions predominated, whereas emaciation, trauma, and inflammation were common in free-ranging birds. Mortality patterns were similar for males and females. Trauma predominated for adults, whereas emaciation was more common for goslings. Causes of death varied among islands, with trauma dominating on Molokai, emaciation and inflammation on Kauai, emaciation on Hawaii, and inflammation and trauma on Maui. Understanding habitat or genetic-related factors that predispose Nene (particularly goslings) to emaciation might reduce the impact of this finding. In addition, trauma and infection with T. gondii are human-related problems that may be attenuated if effectively managed (e.g., road signs, enforcement of speed limits, feral cat [Felis catus] control). Such management actions might serve to enhance recovery of this endangered species. PMID:26161721

  16. Mortality patterns in endangered Hawaiian geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Rameyer, Robert; Breeden, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Understanding causes of death can aid management and recovery of endangered bird populations. Toward those ends, we systematically examined 300 carcasses of endangered Hawaiian Geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis) from Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai between 1992 and 2013. The most common cause of death was emaciation, followed by trauma (vehicular strikes and predation), and infectious/inflammatory diseases of which toxoplasmosis (infection with Toxoplasma gondii) predominated. Toxicoses were less common and were dominated by lead poisoning or botulism. For captive birds, inflammatory conditions predominated, whereas emaciation, trauma, and inflammation were common in free-ranging birds. Mortality patterns were similar for males and females. Trauma predominated for adults, whereas emaciation was more common for goslings. Causes of death varied among islands, with trauma dominating on Molokai, emaciation and inflammation on Kauai, emaciation on Hawaii, and inflammation and trauma on Maui. Understanding habitat or genetic-related factors that predispose Nene (particularly goslings) to emaciation might reduce the impact of this finding. In addition, trauma and infection with T. gondii are human-related problems that may be attenuated if effectively managed (e.g., road signs, enforcement of speed limits, feral cat [Felis catus] control). Such management actions might serve to enhance recovery of this endangered species.

  17. Determination of acrylamide during roasting of coffee.

    PubMed

    Bagdonaite, Kristina; Derler, Karin; Murkovic, Michael

    2008-08-13

    In this study different Arabica and Robusta coffee beans from different regions of the world were analyzed for acrylamide after roasting in a laboratory roaster. Due to the complex matrix and the comparably low selectivity of the LC-MS at m/ z 72, acrylamide was analyzed after derivatization with 2-mercaptobenzoic acid at m/ z 226. Additionally, the potential precursors of acrylamide (3-aminopropionamide, carbohydrates, and amino acids) were studied. The highest amounts of acrylamide formed in coffee were found during the first minutes of the roasting process [3800 ng/g in Robusta ( Coffea canephora robusta) and 500 ng/g in Arabica ( Coffea arabica)]. When the roasting time was increased, the concentration of acrylamide decreased. It was shown that especially the roasting time and temperature, species of coffee, and amount of precursors in raw material had an influence on acrylamide formation. Robusta coffee contained significantly larger amounts of acrylamide (mean = 708 ng/g) than Arabica coffee (mean = 374 ng/g). Asparagine is the limiting factor for acrylamide formation in coffee. 3-Aminopropionamide formation was observed in a dry model system with mixtures of asparagine with sugars (sucrose, glucose). Thermal decarboxylation and elimination of the alpha-amino group of asparagine at high temperatures (>220 degrees C) led to a measurable but low formation of acrylamide. PMID:18624446

  18. Identification of ciguatoxins in Hawaiian monk seals Monachus schauinslandi from the Northwestern and Main Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Bottein, Marie-Yasmine Dechraoui; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Wang, Zhihong; Littnan, Charles; Ramsdell, John S

    2011-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are potent algal neurotoxins that concentrate in fish preyed upon by the critically endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi). The only report for Hawaiian monk seal exposure to ciguatoxins occurred during a 1978 mortality event when two seal liver extracts tested positive by mouse bioassay. Ciguatoxins were thus proposed as a potential threat to the Hawaiian monk seal population. To reinvestigate monk seal exposure to ciguatoxins we utilized more selective detection methods, the Neuro-2A cytotoxicity assay, to quantify ciguatoxin activity and an analytical method LC-MS/MS to confirm the molecular structure. Tissue analysis from dead stranded animals revealed ciguatoxin activity in brain, liver, and muscle, whereas analysis of blood samples from 55 free-ranging animals revealed detectable levels of ciguatoxin activity (0.43 to 5.49 pg/mL P-CTX-1 equiv) in 19% of the animals. Bioassay-guided LC fractionation of two monk seal liver extracts identified several ciguatoxin-like peaks of activity including a peak corresponding to the P-CTX-3C which was confirmed present by LC-MS/MS. In conclusion, this work provides first confirmation that Hawaiian monk seals are exposed to significant levels of ciguatoxins and first evidence of transfer of ciguatoxin to marine mammals. This threat could pose management challenges for this endangered marine mammal species. PMID:21591690

  19. The coffee-machine bacteriome: biodiversity and colonisation of the wasted coffee tray leach

    PubMed Central

    Vilanova, Cristina; Iglesias, Alba; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities are ubiquitous in both natural and artificial environments. However, microbial diversity is usually reduced under strong selection pressures, such as those present in habitats rich in recalcitrant or toxic compounds displaying antimicrobial properties. Caffeine is a natural alkaloid present in coffee, tea and soft drinks with well-known antibacterial properties. Here we present the first systematic analysis of coffee machine-associated bacteria. We sampled the coffee waste reservoir of ten different Nespresso machines and conducted a dynamic monitoring of the colonization process in a new machine. Our results reveal the existence of a varied bacterial community in all the machines sampled, and a rapid colonisation process of the coffee leach. The community developed from a pioneering pool of enterobacteria and other opportunistic taxa to a mature but still highly variable microbiome rich in coffee-adapted bacteria. The bacterial communities described here, for the first time, are potential drivers of biotechnologically relevant processes including decaffeination and bioremediation. PMID:26592442

  20. The coffee-machine bacteriome: biodiversity and colonisation of the wasted coffee tray leach.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Cristina; Iglesias, Alba; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities are ubiquitous in both natural and artificial environments. However, microbial diversity is usually reduced under strong selection pressures, such as those present in habitats rich in recalcitrant or toxic compounds displaying antimicrobial properties. Caffeine is a natural alkaloid present in coffee, tea and soft drinks with well-known antibacterial properties. Here we present the first systematic analysis of coffee machine-associated bacteria. We sampled the coffee waste reservoir of ten different Nespresso machines and conducted a dynamic monitoring of the colonization process in a new machine. Our results reveal the existence of a varied bacterial community in all the machines sampled, and a rapid colonisation process of the coffee leach. The community developed from a pioneering pool of enterobacteria and other opportunistic taxa to a mature but still highly variable microbiome rich in coffee-adapted bacteria. The bacterial communities described here, for the first time, are potential drivers of biotechnologically relevant processes including decaffeination and bioremediation. PMID:26592442

  1. Processing of a novel powdered herbal coffee (Pistacia Terebinthus L. Fruits Coffee) and its sensorial properties.

    PubMed

    Secilmis, S S; Yanık, D Kocak; Gogus, F

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effects of roasting method, grinding and reduction in oil content on the characteristics of Pistacia terebinthus fruit coffee were investigated. Pistacia terebinthus fruit was roasted by microwave, pan and combined (microwave and convection) methods. The degree of roasting was determined by L*, a*, b* color values. The roasting times were 1,500, 1,900 and 1,620 s for microwave, pan and combined roasting methods, respectively. Cold press was used to reduce the oil content both prior to roasting and after the roasting. The oil content was reduced to around 21.5 % in all roasting methods to approach to that of coffee beans. Powdered Pistacia terebinthus fruit coffee brews were compared with each other and Turkish coffee in terms of aroma, flavor, acidity aftertaste, and overall acceptability. Sensorial analysis results showed that coffee brews prepared by pressing after the roasting process were better than those pressing prior to roasting. PMID:26139935

  2. The Hawaiian Archipelago: a microbial diversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Donachie, S P; Hou, S; Lee, K S; Riley, C W; Pikina, A; Belisle, C; Kempe, S; Gregory, T S; Bossuyt, A; Boerema, J; Liu, J; Freitas, T A; Malahoff, A; Alam, M

    2004-11-01

    The Hawaiian Archipelago is a "biodiversity hotspot" where significant endemism among eukaryotes has evolved through geographic isolation and local topography. To address the absence of corresponding region-wide data on Hawaii's microbiota, we compiled the first 16S SSU rDNA clone libraries and cultivated bacteria from five Hawaiian lakes, an anchialine pool, and the Lō'ihi submarine volcano. These sites offer diverse niches over approximately 5000 m elevation and approximately 1150 nautical miles. Each site hosted a distinct prokaryotic community dominated by Bacteria. Cloned sequences fell into 158 groups from 18 Bacteria phyla, while seven were unassigned and two belonged in the Euryarchaeota. Only seven operational taxonomic units (each OTU comprised sequences that shared > or =97% sequence identity) occurred in more than one site. Pure bacterial cultures from all sites fell into 155 groups (each group comprised pure cultures that shared > or =97% 16S SSU rDNA sequence identity) from 10 Bacteria phyla; 15 Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were cultivated from more than one site. One hundred OTUs (60%) and 52 (33.3%) cultures shared <97% 16S SSU rDNA sequence identity with published sequences. Community structure reflected habitat chemistry; most delta-Proteobacteria occurred in anoxic and sulfidic waters of one lake, while beta-Proteobacteria were cultivated exclusively from fresh or brackish waters. Novel sequences that affiliate with an Antarctic-specific clade of Deinococci, and Candidate Divisions TM7 and BRC1, extend the geographic ranges of these phyla. Globally and locally remote, as well as physically and chemically diverse, Hawaiian aquatic habitats provide unique niches for the evolution of novel communities and microorganisms. PMID:15696384

  3. Heavy Coffee Drinkers Show Lower Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Heavy Coffee Drinkers Show Lower Risk of Multiple Sclerosis But the finding isn't reason enough to ... coffee may have a lower risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS), a new large study suggests. Researchers found ...

  4. Interior view of coffee processing structure No. 1, showing concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of coffee processing structure No. 1, showing concrete reservoirs on floor, view towards the west - Finca Silem, Coffee Processing Structure No. 1, Highway 139, Kilometer 9.3, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  5. Exterior view of hipped roof with coffee processing structure in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view of hipped roof with coffee processing structure in background, view towards the southwest - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 2, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  6. Planar view of northwest side of coffee processing structure No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view of northwest side of coffee processing structure No. 1, view towards the southeast - Finca Silem, Coffee Processing Structure No. 1, Highway 139, Kilometer 9.3, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  7. 18. DETAIL VIEW OF DEVICE ON OUTSIDE OF COFFEE HUSKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW OF DEVICE ON OUTSIDE OF COFFEE HUSKER THAT ADJUSTED ANGLE OF HUSKER VAT WALLS - Hacienda Cafetalera Santa Clara, Coffee Mill, KM 19, PR Route 372, Hacienda La Juanita, Yauco Municipio, PR

  8. Planar view towards the southeast of the front of coffee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Planar view towards the southeast of the front of coffee processing structure with the Santaella residence to the left - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  9. View towards the northeast of coffee beans drying on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View towards the northeast of coffee beans drying on the third floor with hopper and drum type dryer in background - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  10. View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer on second floor of structure, view towards southeast - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  11. View towards west from across Rio Cerrillos of coffee processing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View towards west from across Rio Cerrillos of coffee processing structure (on left) with the Santaella residence (on right) - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  12. 10. THIRD FLOOR COFFEE AND SPICE MILLING ROOM (NOW TIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. THIRD FLOOR COFFEE AND SPICE MILLING ROOM (NOW TIRE STORAGE), LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATOR HALL. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  13. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1956 Quarterly Administrative Reports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. This report consists of four parts.

  14. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, John

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  15. Corrosion tests in Hawaiian geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen-Basse, J.; Lam, Kam-Fai

    1984-01-01

    Exposure tests were conductd in binary geothermal brine on the island of Hawaii. The steam which flashes from the high pressure, high temperature water as it is brought to ambient pressure contains substantial amounts of H{sub 2}S. In the absence of oxygen this steam is only moderately aggressive but in the aerated state it is highly aggressive to carbon steels and copper alloys. The liquid after flasing is intermediately aggressive. The Hawaiian fluid is unique in chemistry and corrosion behavior; its corrosiveness is relatively mild for a geothermal fluid falling close to the Iceland-type resources. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  17. Social Determinants of Health for Native Hawaiian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alameda, Christian K

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Traditional Hawaiian thought places children in a position of prominence in the family. Yet in Hawai‘i, Native Hawaiian children and adolescents face significant inequity in health outcomes. From prenatal alcohol and tobacco use, late or no prenatal care, macrosomia as well as low birth rates, to exclusive breastfeeding rates at 6 months, and high rates of infant mortality, Native Hawaiians face inequities in pre and early childhood indicators. During childhood and adolescence, Native Hawaiians experience high rates of obesity, and physical, mental and sexual abuse. This review examines the determinants behind the health inequities encountered by Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, and contextualizes those inequities s in a human rights-based approach to health. Methods A literature review was conducted for relevant research on Native Hawaiian and other indigenous children and adolescents. Existing data sources were also reviewed for relevant Native Hawaiian data. Results There is a significant dearth of data on the determinants of health for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents. Some prenatal data is available from the Prenatal Risk Assessment Monitoring System, while selected youth data is available from the Youth Behavioral Risk Factor system. Available data show significant inequities for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, compared to other groups in Hawai‘i. Based on comparisons with other indigenous and marginalized peoples, the etiology of these disparities may be a lack of health equity, deriving from multigenerational trauma and discrimination as well as poverty and inequities of housing, education, environment, healthcare access, and social capital. Conclusions The significant barriers facing Native Hawaiian children and adolescents achieving their full potential constitute a challenge to the fulfillment of the human right to health. Future research needs to more fully articulate the linkage between the health status of

  18. Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 120

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ormond W.; Wilson, Melly; Barros, Corrin

    2011-01-01

    This summary describes a larger report that discusses how Native Hawaiian students represent the largest single ethnic group in Hawai'i, at 27 percent of the student population in 2008/09. This larger REL Pacific report, "Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math," reports…

  19. Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 120

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ormond W.; Wilson, Melly; Barros, Corrin

    2011-01-01

    Native Hawaiian students represent the largest single ethnic group in Hawai'i, at 27 percent of the student population in 2008/09. This REL Pacific report, "Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math," reports the reading and math proficiency rates of grade 8 Native Hawaiian…

  20. Hormesis with glyphosate depends on coffee growth stage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed management systems in almost all Brazilian coffee plantations allow herbicide spray to drift on crop plants. In order to evaluate if there is any effect of the most commonly used herbicide in coffee production, glyphosate, on coffee plants, a range of glyphosate doses were applied directly on ...

  1. Our Everyday Cup of Coffee: The Chemistry behind Its Magic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petracco, Marino

    2005-01-01

    Coffee consumption has spread worldwide and differences in the raw bean consumption, in roasting conditions and in the extraction procedures used to prepare coffee brews result in a great diversity of chemical composition in the final product, the cup of coffee. Hence, beverage preparation is a fundamental step for enjoying the benefits of this…

  2. The Hawaiian Mantle Plume from Toe to Head along the Northwest Hawaiian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L.; Weis, D.; Garcia, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Hawaiian-Emperor (HE) chain records ~82 Myr of volcanism1 with two distinct geochemical and geographical trends, Kea and Loa, identified on the archipelago. The Northwest Hawaiian Ridge (NWHR) includes 51 volcanoes, spanning ~42 Myr between the bend in the HE chain and the Hawaiian Islands (47% of the HE chain2), that has no high-precision isotopic data aside from two volcanoes near the bend1. Only Kea compositions have been observed on Emperor seamounts (>50 Ma)1,3, whereas the Hawaiian Islands (<6.5 Ma) have both Kea and Loa lavas3,4. We have analyzed 23 samples of shield stage tholeiitic lavas from 13 NWHR volcanoes for Pb isotopes to test if the Loa trend exhibits a persistent presence along the ridge after Diakakuji seamount1. Age corrected 206Pb/204Pb range from 17.870 at Diakakuji to 18.654 at Midway atoll. The most enriched Loa isotopic compositions are erupted at Diakakuji (comparable to Lanai), and Mokumanamana, West Nihoa, and Nihoa have isotopic compositions similar to Mauna Loa. These observations suggest an ephemeral presence of the Loa geochemical trend along the NWHR. When shield-stage lavas of each Hawaiian volcano is averaged, NWHR volcanoes shows the most and least radiogenic Pb of the entire HE dataset: Diakakuji (0.9703) and Midway (0.9247). The NWHR exhibits the most geochemically extreme lava compositions along a region where many geophysical parameters (volcanic propagation rate, magmatic flux, mantle potential temperature) were changing significantly2,5. At a broader scale, correlation between radiogenic Pb and magmatic flux suggests source composition may control some of these changes, and help explain why the Hawaiian mantle plume seems to be strengthening5 rather than waning like classic plumes and LIPs. 1Regelous et al., 2003, J. Pet., 44, 1, 113-140. 2Garcia et al., 2015, GSA Sp. Pap. 511. 3Tanaka et al., 2008, EPSL, 265, 450-465. 4Weis et al., 2011, Nat. Geosci., 4, 831-838. 5Vidal & Bonneville, 2004, J. Geophy. Res., 109.

  3. Primary Succession on a Hawaiian Dryland Chronosequence

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, Kealohanuiopuna M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Cordell, Susan; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Heckman, Katherine; Hotchkiss, Sara; Jeraj, Marjeta; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Knapp, David E.; Questad, Erin J.; Thaxton, Jarrod M.; Trusdell, Frank; Kellner, James R.

    2015-06-12

    We used measurements from airborne imaging spectroscopy and LiDAR to quantify the biophysical structure and composition of vegetation on a dryland substrate age gradient in Hawaii. Both vertical stature and species composition changed during primary succession, and reveal a progressive increase in vertical stature on younger substrates followed by a collapse on Pleistocene-aged flows. Tall-stature Metrosideros polymorpha woodlands dominated on the youngest substrates (hundreds of years), and were replaced by the tall-stature endemic tree species Myoporum sandwicense and Sophora chrysophylla on intermediate-aged flows (thousands of years). The oldest substrates (tens of thousands of years) were dominated by the short-stature native shrub Dodonaea viscosa and endemic grass Eragrostis atropioides. We excavated 18 macroscopic charcoal fragments from Pleistocene-aged substrates. Mean radiocarbon age was 2,002 years and ranged from < 200 to 7,730. Genus identities from four fragments indicate that Osteomeles spp. or M. polymorpha once occupied the Pleistocene-aged substrates, but neither of these species is found there today. These findings indicate the existence of fires before humans are known to have occupied the Hawaiian archipelago, and demonstrate that a collapse in vertical stature is prevalent on the oldest substrates. In conclusion, this work contributes to our understanding of prehistoric fires in shaping the trajectory of primary succession in Hawaiian drylands.

  4. Primary Succession on a Hawaiian Dryland Chronosequence

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Kealohanuiopuna M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Cordell, Susan; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Heckman, Katherine; Hotchkiss, Sara; Jeraj, Marjeta; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Knapp, David E.; Questad, Erin J.; Thaxton, Jarrod M.; Trusdell, Frank; Kellner, James R.

    2015-01-01

    We used measurements from airborne imaging spectroscopy and LiDAR to quantify the biophysical structure and composition of vegetation on a dryland substrate age gradient in Hawaii. Both vertical stature and species composition changed during primary succession, and reveal a progressive increase in vertical stature on younger substrates followed by a collapse on Pleistocene-aged flows. Tall-stature Metrosideros polymorpha woodlands dominated on the youngest substrates (hundreds of years), and were replaced by the tall-stature endemic tree species Myoporum sandwicense and Sophora chrysophylla on intermediate-aged flows (thousands of years). The oldest substrates (tens of thousands of years) were dominated by the short-stature native shrub Dodonaea viscosa and endemic grass Eragrostis atropioides. We excavated 18 macroscopic charcoal fragments from Pleistocene-aged substrates. Mean radiocarbon age was 2,002 years and ranged from < 200 to 7,730. Genus identities from four fragments indicate that Osteomeles spp. or M. polymorpha once occupied the Pleistocene-aged substrates, but neither of these species is found there today. These findings indicate the existence of fires before humans are known to have occupied the Hawaiian archipelago, and demonstrate that a collapse in vertical stature is prevalent on the oldest substrates. This work contributes to our understanding of prehistoric fires in shaping the trajectory of primary succession in Hawaiian drylands. PMID:26066334

  5. Primary Succession on a Hawaiian Dryland Chronosequence

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kinney, Kealohanuiopuna M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Cordell, Susan; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Heckman, Katherine; Hotchkiss, Sara; Jeraj, Marjeta; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Knapp, David E.; Questad, Erin J.; et al

    2015-06-12

    We used measurements from airborne imaging spectroscopy and LiDAR to quantify the biophysical structure and composition of vegetation on a dryland substrate age gradient in Hawaii. Both vertical stature and species composition changed during primary succession, and reveal a progressive increase in vertical stature on younger substrates followed by a collapse on Pleistocene-aged flows. Tall-stature Metrosideros polymorpha woodlands dominated on the youngest substrates (hundreds of years), and were replaced by the tall-stature endemic tree species Myoporum sandwicense and Sophora chrysophylla on intermediate-aged flows (thousands of years). The oldest substrates (tens of thousands of years) were dominated by the short-stature nativemore » shrub Dodonaea viscosa and endemic grass Eragrostis atropioides. We excavated 18 macroscopic charcoal fragments from Pleistocene-aged substrates. Mean radiocarbon age was 2,002 years and ranged from < 200 to 7,730. Genus identities from four fragments indicate that Osteomeles spp. or M. polymorpha once occupied the Pleistocene-aged substrates, but neither of these species is found there today. These findings indicate the existence of fires before humans are known to have occupied the Hawaiian archipelago, and demonstrate that a collapse in vertical stature is prevalent on the oldest substrates. In conclusion, this work contributes to our understanding of prehistoric fires in shaping the trajectory of primary succession in Hawaiian drylands.« less

  6. Linking Hawaiian and Strombolian explosive styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, B. F.; Taddeucci, J.; Orr, T. R.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Swanson, D. A.; Parcheta, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Contrary to some contemporary classification schemes, high Hawaiian fountaining eruptions represent mass eruption rates 100 to 1000 times largely than classical Strombolian explosions. They are also sustained on time scales of hours to days, compared to durations for explosions of seconds to tens of seconds at Stromboli. However the advent of high-speed, high-resolution imagery at Stromboli and Kilauea shows both eruption styles are typically unsteady and pulsatory in terms of ejecta height and mass discharge rate. Plotting basaltic activity in viscosity-mass eruption rate space reveals some of the issues. Individual Strombolian explosions occupy the short duration, low eruption rate corner of such a plot, very clearly distinguished from high Hawaiian fountains that have durations that are 3 to 5 orders of magnitude longer and mass discharge rates that are 10 to 100 times larger. However the spectrum of activity called names such as ';low fountains', ';gas pistoning' and ';violent Strombolian' defines a grey scale between these extremes. Recent observations suggest that notions of open versus closed system behavior and mechanically coupled versus decoupled gas bubbles are oversimplified for these persistently active volcanoes with long established yet complex conduit/storage systems for magma.

  7. Primary Succession on a Hawaiian Dryland Chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Kealohanuiopuna M; Asner, Gregory P; Cordell, Susan; Chadwick, Oliver A; Heckman, Katherine; Hotchkiss, Sara; Jeraj, Marjeta; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Knapp, David E; Questad, Erin J; Thaxton, Jarrod M; Trusdell, Frank; Kellner, James R

    2015-01-01

    We used measurements from airborne imaging spectroscopy and LiDAR to quantify the biophysical structure and composition of vegetation on a dryland substrate age gradient in Hawaii. Both vertical stature and species composition changed during primary succession, and reveal a progressive increase in vertical stature on younger substrates followed by a collapse on Pleistocene-aged flows. Tall-stature Metrosideros polymorpha woodlands dominated on the youngest substrates (hundreds of years), and were replaced by the tall-stature endemic tree species Myoporum sandwicense and Sophora chrysophylla on intermediate-aged flows (thousands of years). The oldest substrates (tens of thousands of years) were dominated by the short-stature native shrub Dodonaea viscosa and endemic grass Eragrostis atropioides. We excavated 18 macroscopic charcoal fragments from Pleistocene-aged substrates. Mean radiocarbon age was 2,002 years and ranged from < 200 to 7,730. Genus identities from four fragments indicate that Osteomeles spp. or M. polymorpha once occupied the Pleistocene-aged substrates, but neither of these species is found there today. These findings indicate the existence of fires before humans are known to have occupied the Hawaiian archipelago, and demonstrate that a collapse in vertical stature is prevalent on the oldest substrates. This work contributes to our understanding of prehistoric fires in shaping the trajectory of primary succession in Hawaiian drylands. PMID:26066334

  8. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in coffee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. While it is already present in most of the world’s major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent re-introductions which might include hyperparasites or...

  9. Trigonelline in coffee. II. Content of green, roasted and instant coffee.

    PubMed

    Stennert, A; Maier, H G

    1994-09-01

    The results of several determinations of trigonelline in green, roasted and instant coffees are reported. The values in normal coffee species and degrees of roast are in agreement with most literature values. In Coffea dewevrei var. excelsa and C. stenophylla lower values were found than reported in the only other publication. The differences from steamed samples were minimal. Fast roasting may result in higher values with the same organic roasting loss, but this was not observed in commercial blends. During industrial extraction of roasted coffee, trigonelline is not completely extracted. The percentage depends on the extraction yield. PMID:7975906

  10. Walking with coffee: why does it spill?

    PubMed

    Mayer, H C; Krechetnikov, R

    2012-04-01

    In our busy lives, almost all of us have to walk with a cup of coffee. While often we spill the drink, this familiar phenomenon has never been explored systematically. Here we report on the results of an experimental study of the conditions under which coffee spills for various walking speeds and initial liquid levels in the cup. These observations are analyzed from the dynamical systems and fluid mechanics viewpoints as well as with the help of a model developed here. Particularities of the common cup sizes, the coffee properties, and the biomechanics of walking proved to be responsible for the spilling phenomenon. The studied problem represents an example of the interplay between the complex motion of a cup, due to the biomechanics of a walking individual, and the low-viscosity-liquid dynamics in it. PMID:22680548

  11. Psychosocial risk and protective influences in Hawaiian adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Nahulu, L B; Andrade, N N; Makini, G K; Yuen, N Y; McDermott, J F; Danko, G P; Johnson, R C; Waldron, J A

    1996-01-01

    A large community sample of adolescents of a Native Hawaiian (Asian/ Pacific Islander) minority group was studied along with a small comparison group of non-Hawaiians, for the relationship between psychopathology (as measured by standard symptom scales) and (a) perceived support from family and friends, and (b) discussing problems with others. Expected gender patterns for friend support but not for family support were found. The Hawaiian boys appeared atypical, reporting nearly equal family support as Hawaiian girls. Discussing problems with another person was correlated with lower anxiety and depression scores but not aggression and substance abuse scores. It is concluded that gender and cultural factors influence symptom prevalence and severity as well as the impact of psychosocial risk factors. PMID:9225566

  12. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall infant mortality rate for Asians/Pacific Islanders is comparable to the white population, disparities ...

  13. Microbiological and biochemical study of coffee fermentation.

    PubMed

    Avallone, S; Guyot, B; Brillouet, J M; Olguin, E; Guiraud, J P

    2001-04-01

    The coffee fermentation microflora were rich and mainly constituted of aerobic Gram-negative bacilli, with Erwinia and Klebsiella genuses at the highest frequencies. The best population increase was observed with lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, whereas those microorganisms that counted on a pectin medium remained constant during the fermentation step. Qualitatively, lactic acid bacteria belonged mainly to Leuconostoc mesenteroides species but the others microflora were relatively heterogeneous. The microorganisms isolated on pectin medium were Enterobacteriaceae, identified as Erwinia herbicola and Klebsiella pneumoniae, not reported as strong pectolytic strains. Throughout coffee fermentation, 60% of the simple sugars were degraded by the total microflora and not specifically by pectolytic microorganisms. PMID:11178725

  14. Observations of an indigenous Hawaiian planetarium operator: Astronomy content knowledge of Hawaiian school children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, Ahia G.; Ha`o, Celeste; Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-08-01

    Not so long ago, astronomers visiting schools in Hawaii tried to build awareness among school children and teachers about how stars move across the sky, the nature of planets orbiting our sun, and the physical processes governing stars and galaxies. While these efforts were undertaken with all good intentions, they were often based on our collective understanding of how Mainland children come to know astronomy topics, and with a Western worldview. Research observations of Hawaiian elementary school children indicate that Hawaiian children understand far more about the skies than could have been predicted from the behavior of Mainland children, or from the body of literature on children’s understanding of astronomy. Analysis of elementary students’ responses to a kumu’s, or teacher’s questions relating to the celestial sphere indicate that these students posses a deep knowledge of the night sky and celestial motions. This knowledge base is fluent across two cultural systems of constellations, and is predictive. In an era of curriculum development based upon learning progressions, it appears that Native Hawaiian students possess unexpected knowledge that is well poised to interfere with conventional educational and public outreach approaches if not taken into account. Further, these findings suggest that further inquiry must be made into the astronomical thinking of minority populations prior to the unilateral implementation of national science education standards.

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Hawaiian Corals: Possible Protection from Disease?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochfeld, D. J.; Aeby, G. S.; Miller, J. D.

    2006-12-01

    Reports of coral diseases in the Caribbean have appeared with increasing frequency over the past two decades; however, records of coral diseases in the Pacific have lagged far behind. Recent surveys of coral disease in the Hawaiian Islands indicate relatively low, but consistent, levels of disease throughout the inhabited Main and uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and demonstrate variation in levels of disease among the major genera of Hawaiian corals. Although little is known about immune defense to disease in corals, one potential mechanism of defense is the production of antimicrobial compounds that protect corals from pathogens. A preliminary survey of antibacterial chemical defenses among three dominant species of Hawaiian corals was undertaken. Crude aqueous extracts of Porites lobata, Pocillopora meandrina and Montipora capitata were tested against nine strains of bacteria in a growth inhibition assay. Inhibitory extracts were further tested to determine whether their effects were cytostatic or cytotoxic. The bacteria selected included known coral pathogens, potential marine pathogens found in human waste and strains previously identified from the surfaces of Hawaiian corals. Extracts from all three species of coral exhibited a high degree of antibacterial activity, but also a high degree of selectivity against different bacterial strains. In addition, some extracts were stimulatory to some bacteria. In addition to interspecific variability, extracts also exhibited intraspecific variability, both within and between sites. Hawaiian corals have significant antibacterial activity, which may explain the relatively low prevalence of disease in these corals; however, further characterization of pathogens specifically responsible for disease in Hawaiian corals is necessary before we can conclude that antibacterial activity protects Hawaiian corals from disease.

  16. Coffee-ring effect beyond the dilute limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Ryu, Seul-A.; Kim, Hyungdae; Kim, Joon Heon; Park, Jung Su; Park, Yong Seok; Oh, Jeong Su; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    The coffee-ring effect, which is a natural generation of outward capillary flows inside drying coffee drops, is valid at the dilute limit of initial solute concentrations. If the solute is not dilute, the ring deposit is forced to have a non-zero width; higher initial concentration leads to a wider ring. Here we study the coffee-ring effect in the dense limit by demonstrating differences with various initial coffee concentrations from 0.1% to 60%. The coffee drops with high initial concentrations of real coffee particles show interesting evaporation dynamics: dense coffee drops tend to evaporate slowly. This result is different from the classic coffee-ring effect in the dilute limit. We suppose that the slow evaporation of dense coffee drops is associated with the ring growth dynamics. The coffee-ring effect becomes more significant in modern technologies such as self-assembly of nanoparticles, ink-jet printing, painting and ceramics. The complexity in evaporation dynamics of colloidal fluids would be able to be understood by expanding the coffee-ring effects in the dilute as well as the dense limits.

  17. Recent Advances in the Genetic Transformation of Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, M. K.; Slater, A.

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most important plantation crops, grown in about 80 countries across the world. The genus Coffea comprises approximately 100 species of which only two species, that is, Coffea arabica (commonly known as arabica coffee) and Coffea canephora (known as robusta coffee), are commercially cultivated. Genetic improvement of coffee through traditional breeding is slow due to the perennial nature of the plant. Genetic transformation has tremendous potential in developing improved coffee varieties with desired agronomic traits, which are otherwise difficult to achieve through traditional breeding. During the last twenty years, significant progress has been made in coffee biotechnology, particularly in the area of transgenic technology. This paper provides a detailed account of the advances made in the genetic transformation of coffee and their potential applications. PMID:22970380

  18. 2-Furoylglycine as a Candidate Biomarker of Coffee Consumption.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Silke S; Holmes, Elaine; Kochhar, Sunil; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-09-30

    Specific and sensitive food biomarkers are necessary to support dietary intake assessment and link nutritional habits to potential impact on human health. A multistep nutritional intervention study was conducted to suggest novel biomarkers for coffee consumption. (1)H NMR metabolic profiling combined with multivariate data analysis resolved 2-furoylglycine (2-FG) as a novel putative biomarker for coffee consumption. We relatively quantified 2-FG in the urine of coffee drinkers and investigated its origin, metabolism, and excretion kinetics. When searching for its potential precursors, we found different furan derivatives in coffee products, which are known to get metabolized to 2-FG. Maximal urinary excretion of 2-FG occurred 2 h after consumption (p = 0.0002) and returned to baseline after 24 h (p = 0.74). The biomarker was not excreted after consumption of coffee substitutes such as tea and chicory coffee and might therefore be a promising acute biomarker for the detection of coffee consumption in human urine. PMID:26357997

  19. Revised age for Midway volcano, Hawaiian volcanic chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Clague, D.A.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    New conventional K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar, and petrochemical data on alkalic basalt pebbles from the basalt conglomerate overlying tholeiitic flows in the Midway drill hole show that Midway evolved past the tholeiitic shield-building stage and erupted lavas of the alkalic suite 27.0 ?? 0.6 m.y. ago. The data also show that previously published conventional K-Ar ages on altered samples of tholeiite are too young by about 9 m.y. These results remove a significant anomaly in the age-distance relationships of the Hawaiian chain and obviate the need for large changes in either the rate of rotation of the Pacific plate about the Hawaiian pole or the motion of the plate relative to the Hawaiian hot spot since the time of formation of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend. All of the age data along the Hawaiian chain are now reasonably consistent with an average rate of volcanic propagation of 8.0 cm/yr and with 0.83??/m.y. of angular rotation about the Hawaiian pole. ?? 1977.

  20. Microbial interactions and the ecology and evolution of Hawaiian Drosophilidae

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Timothy K.; Humphrey, Parris T.; Lapoint, Richard T.; Whiteman, Noah K.; O’Grady, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive radiations are characterized by an increased rate of speciation and expanded range of habitats and ecological niches exploited by those species. The Hawaiian Drosophilidae is a classic adaptive radiation; a single ancestral species colonized Hawaii approximately 25 million years ago and gave rise to two monophyletic lineages, the Hawaiian Drosophila and the genus Scaptomyza. The Hawaiian Drosophila are largely saprophagous and rely on approximately 40 endemic plant families and their associated microbes to complete development. Scaptomyza are even more diverse in host breadth. While many species of Scaptomyza utilize decomposing plant substrates, some species have evolved to become herbivores, parasites on spider egg masses, and exploit microbes on living plant tissue. Understanding the origin of the ecological diversity encompassed by these nearly 700 described species has been a challenge. The central role of microbes in drosophilid ecology suggests bacterial and fungal associates may have played a role in the diversification of the Hawaiian Drosophilidae. Here we synthesize recent ecological and microbial community data from the Hawaiian Drosophilidae to examine the forces that may have led to this adaptive radiation. We propose that the evolutionary success of the Hawaiian Drosophilidae is due to a combination of factors, including adaptation to novel ecological niches facilitated by microbes. PMID:25566196

  1. Distinct and extinct: genetic differentiation of the Hawaiian eagle.

    PubMed

    Hailer, Frank; James, Helen F; Olson, Storrs L; Fleischer, Robert C

    2015-02-01

    Eagles currently occur in the Hawaiian Islands only as vagrants, but Quaternary bones of Haliaeetus eagles have been found on three of the major islands. A previous study of a ∼3500-year-old skeleton from Maui found its mtDNA more similar to White-tailed (H. albicilla) than to Bald (H. leucocephalus) Eagles, but low intraspecific resolution of the markers and lack of comparative data from mainland populations precluded assessment of whether the individual was part of the diversity found in Eurasia, or whether it represented an endemic Hawaiian lineage. Using ancient DNA techniques, we sequenced part of the rapidly evolving mtDNA control region from the same specimen, and compared it to published range-wide control region data from White-tailed Eagles and newly generated sequences from Bald Eagles. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Hawaiian eagle represents a distinct (>3% divergent) mtDNA lineage most closely related to those of extant White-tailed Eagles. Based on fossil calibration, we estimate that the Hawaiian mtDNA lineage diverged from mainland sequences around the Middle Pleistocene. Although not clearly differentiated morphologically from mainland forms, the Hawaiian eagle thus likely constituted an isolated, resident population in the Hawaiian archipelago for more than 100,000 years, where it was the largest terrestrial predator. PMID:25463753

  2. Mapping the Hawaiian plume conduit with converted seismic waves

    PubMed

    Li; Kind; Priestley; Sobolev; Tilmann; Yuan; Weber

    2000-06-22

    The volcanic edifice of the Hawaiian islands and seamounts, as well as the surrounding area of shallow sea floor known as the Hawaiian swell, are believed to result from the passage of the oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot. Although geochemical and gravity observations indicate the existence of a mantle thermal plume beneath Hawaii, no direct seismic evidence for such a plume in the upper mantle has yet been found. Here we present an analysis of compressional-to-shear (P-to-S) converted seismic phases, recorded on seismograph stations on the Hawaiian islands, that indicate a zone of very low shear-wave velocity (< 4 km s(-1)) starting at 130-140 km depth beneath the central part of the island of Hawaii and extending deeper into the upper mantle. We also find that the upper-mantle transition zone (410-660 km depth) appears to be thinned by up to 40-50 km to the south-southwest of the island of Hawaii. We interpret these observations as localized effects of the Hawaiian plume conduit in the asthenosphere and mantle transition zone with excess temperature of approximately 300 degrees C. Large variations in the transition-zone thickness suggest a lower-mantle origin of the Hawaiian plume similar to the Iceland plume, but our results indicate a 100 degrees C higher temperature for the Hawaiian plume. PMID:10879532

  3. Coping With Breast Cancer at the Nexus of Religiosity and Hawaiian Culture: Perspectives of Native Hawaiian Survivors and Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Mitschke, Diane B.; Kloezeman, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes research to develop a breast health intervention for women in Hawaiian churches. Native Hawaiian women are disproportionately burdened by breast disease and tend to be diagnosed at advanced stages when treatment options are more limited. Research suggests that cultural conflict may be a factor in Hawaiian women's underutilization of conventional health services. Phenomenological approaches guided data collection and analysis to explore the influence of religiosity and ethnocultural tradition in coping with breast cancer. The overarching theme was kakou (we or us), which emphasized ways of coping oriented to the family collective and focused on family well-being. Findings offer a portal for understanding the lived experience of survivors and families in Hawaiian churches. Considerations are suggested for those practitioners assisting clients from collectivist-oriented cultures. PMID:20835303

  4. Erosion of Fluted Cliffs on the Na Pali Coast, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, G.; Mohr, S.; Blay, C.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitous sea cliffs on the northwest side of Kauai, sculpted into deep bedrock gullies and sharp divides, are known as "Na Pali", Hawaiian for "the cliffs", and are commonly referred to as fluted cliffs. Rising 500 m above the coast, they constitute some of the most dramatic scenery on planet Earth and are a world famous tourist attraction. After the discovery of flank collapses on some Hawaiian volcanoes the great Na Pali escarpment was hypothesized to have been generated by a megalandslide, but bathymetric data show the shallow submarine shelf off the Na Pali coast bears no landslide deposits. It is likely that wave erosion at the base of the local thin-bedded lavas, particularly in winter, is responsible for the escarpment. Superimposed on the escarpment are the deep gullies, or grooves, and divides, which constitute drainage networks that happen to be developed on very steep slopes. Networks are poorly developed on relatively young parts of the escarpment and well developed on older parts, which feature coalescing tributaries and very deep gullies. In most cases gullies shallow going upslope, and many fade out completely just below drainage divides, just like in drainage networks developed on more gently sloping landscapes. The drainage networks show that the basalts along this coast are relatively easily eroded by runoff. Rocks easily eroded by runoff generally do not stand in 500-m-high cliffs because they are not mechanically strong enough to resist failure and mass movement. The key to development of high fluted cliffs is a mix of mechanical strength and erodibiity, a combination whose rarity explains why analogs to the Na Pali cliffs are not found outside the Hawaiian Islands. The combination here is provided by basalt which is strong where unweathered but rotten and in some case completely decomposed close to the surface, courtesy of the Hawaiian climate. Weathering must proceed downward at about the same rate as removal of mass by runoff erosion

  5. Coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei)—a vector for toxigenic molds and ochratoxin A contamination in coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Velmourougane, Kulandaivelu; Bhat, Rajeev; Gopinandhan, Thirukonda Nannier

    2010-10-01

    Coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari) is a common insect pest in coffee plantations and is a suspected vector of various mycotoxin-producing molds. In the present study, field trials were undertaken consecutively for 3 years to evaluate the impact of CBB on the microbial contamination of Arabica and Robusta coffee bean varieties, with emphasis laid toward ochratoxin A (OTA)-producing fungi. Results revealed higher microbial contamination in CBB-infested beans in both the varieties of coffee with the presence of toxigenic molds (such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus). The "timely harvested" coffee, which was infested with CBB, was found to possess comparatively lesser OTA levels than those berries left in soil or on coffee plants. Studies carried out on coffee beans collected from nine curing factories indicated the presence of OTA in almost all the CBB-infested coffee beans, irrespective of the variety. Results of the present study provide sufficient baseline information and evidence to understand and correlate the role of CBB with various OTA-producing molds in coffee beans. Understanding the role of CBB might be useful and applicable in the coffee-growing regions of the world, especially in plantations for production of quality coffee. PMID:20618085

  6. the Geochemical Structure of the Hawaiian Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Frey, F. A.

    2005-12-01

    The spatial arrangement of modern Hawaiian volcanoes forms two offset trends, the Kea and Loa trends. Lavas from these two volcanic trends have important geochemical differences; e.g., Loa and Kea trend lavas form different trends in 87Sr/86Sr and 208Pb*/206Pb* vs 3He/4He plots (e.g., Kurz et al., 1995; Lassiter et al., 1996). Abouchami et al. (2005) noted that, compared with Kea trend lavas, Loa trend lavas have relatively higher 208Pb/204Pb at a given 206Pb/204Pb, i.e., Loa trend lavas have higher 208Pb*/206Pb*. Kea and Loa trend lavas also form different trends in plots of 208Pb*/206Pb* vs Hf, Sr and Nd isotopic ratios. An important observation is that in these isotopic ratio plots, Loihi lavas are located at the intersections of the near-linear Loa and Kea trends; implying that the Loihi component (high 3He/4He) is a common source component for Loa and Kea trend volcanoes. The other ends of the Loa and Kea trends are defined by Koolau and Mauna Kea lavas, and are designated as the Koolau and Kea components. Loa trend lavas sample the Koolau and Loihi components, and the Kea trend lavas sample the Kea and Loihi components. The Loa-Kea geochemical differences have been inferred to reflect source characteristics. Consequently, different models for the structure of the Hawaiian plume have been proposed, for example, a concentrically zoned plume (Lassiter et al., 1996) and a bilaterally asymmetric plume (Abouchami et al., 2005). Based on the temporal variations of geochemical compositions of shield lavas from several Hawaiian shields, such as Mauna Kea, Koolau and Haleakala, as well as melt inclusion study, Kurz et al. (2004) and Ren et al. (2005) proposed that although the plume is grossly zoned, there are Kea- and Loa-type sources present throughout the plume. In this study, we propose that Loa and Kea volcanoes sample a common, geochemically heterogeneous mantle plume source which contains the Koolau, Kea and Loihi components. These geochemical heterogeneities

  7. 77 FR 27185 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... the following vacant seats on the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  8. 78 FR 9327 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS establishes the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for calendar year 2013 at zero lobsters....

  9. Quantification of coffee blends for authentication of Asian palm civet coffee (Kopi Luwak) via metabolomics: A proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Jumhawan, Udi; Putri, Sastia Prama; Yusianto; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2016-07-01

    Asian palm civet coffee (Kopi Luwak), an animal-digested coffee with an exotic feature, carries a notorious reputation of being the rarest and most expensive coffee beverage in the world. Considering that illegal mixture of cheap coffee into civet coffee is a growing concern among consumers, we evaluated the use of metabolomics approach and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) prediction technique to quantify the degree of coffee adulteration. Two prediction sets, consisting of certified and commercial coffee, were made from a blend of civet and regular coffee with eleven mixing percentages. The prediction model exhibited accurate estimation of coffee blend percentage thus, successfully validating the prediction and quantification of the mixing composition of known-unknown samples. This work highlighted proof of concept of metabolomics application to predict degree of coffee adulteration by determining the civet coffee fraction in blends. PMID:26777237

  10. Two views of Hawaiian plume structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Farnetani, Cinzia G.

    2013-12-01

    Fundamentally contradictory interpretations of the isotopic compositions of Hawaiian basalts persist, even among authors who agree that the Hawaiian hotspot is caused by a deep-mantle plume. One view holds that the regional isotopic pattern of the volcanoes reflects large-scale heterogeneities in the basal thermal boundary layer of the mantle. These are drawn into the rising plume conduit, where they are vertically stretched and ultimately sampled by volcanoes. The alternative view is that the plume resembles a "uniformly heterogeneous plum pudding," with fertile plums of pyroxenite and/or enriched peridotite scattered in a matrix of more refractory peridotite. In a rising plume, the plums melt before the matrix, and the final melt composition is controlled significantly by the bulk melt fraction. Here we show that the uniformly heterogeneous plum pudding model is inconsistent with several geochemical observations: (1) the relative melt fractions inferred from La/Yb ratios in shield-stage basalts of the two parallel (Kea- and Loa-) volcanic chains, (2) the systematic Pb-isotopic differences between the chains, and the absence of such differences between shield and postshield phases, (3) the systematic shift to uniformly depleted Nd-isotopic compositions during rejuvenated volcanism. We extend our previous numerical simulation to the low melt production rates calculated far downstream (200-400 km) from shield volcanism. Part of these melts, feeding rejuvenated volcanism, are formed at pressures of ˜5 GPa in the previously unmelted underside of the plume, from material that originally constituted the uppermost part of the thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle.

  11. On the Gravity of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, A. F.; Ito, G.; Garcia, M. O.; Taylor, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are part of the most geologically studied intra-plate volcanic island chain. Surprisingly, the only chain wide compilation of marine and terrestrial gravity data is now more than 40 years old. Early terrestrial studies conducted by J. G. Moore, H.L Krivoy, G. P. Woollard, W. E Strange and others in the early 1960's were meant to serve as reconnaissance surveys only. In addition, early marine surveys were limited in both accurate positioning and data density. Detailed analysis of the crustal density structure of the island chain was limited. We present a new chain-wide gravity compilation incorporating the original island-specific survey data, recently published data on the island of Kauai and Hawaii, as well as more than 10 years of newly incorporated marine data collected aboard the University of Hawaii's R/V Kilo Moana. This data was supplemented by surveys aboard the R/V Farnella among others. We present free-air (FAA), simple/complete Bouguer, and residual gravity maps on an unprecedented resolution and geographical extent for the area. This data will be hosted as an interactive Google-Earth overlay at the Hawaii Mapping Research Group (HMRG - www.soest.hawaii.edu/HMRG) and made available to the scientific community. We hope that this dataset will be used for further comparison of the gravity fields of other intra-plate volcanic systems (French Polynesia, etc.) and to constrain seismic studies of crustal structure in the Hawaiian-chain through joint seismic-gravity inversions.

  12. Microbiology: Mixing Wine, Chocolate, and Coffee.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Matthew R

    2016-04-01

    Yeasts associated with cocoa and coffee beans are genetically distinct. These populations have been created through the migration and mixing of populations associated with vineyards, trees in America, and the ancestral seat of this species in Far East Asia. PMID:27046811

  13. Fungal endophytes in green coffee seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green coffee seeds from Colombia, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico, and Vietnam were sampled for the presence of fungal endophytes. Sections of surface sterilized seeds were plated on yeast malt agar, and fungal growth was isolated for subsequent DNA extraction and sequencing....

  14. Redirect research to control coffee pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coff...

  15. The Coffee-Milk Mixture Problem Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of a problem that is frequently posed at professional development workshops, in print, and on the Web--the coffee-milk mixture riddle--illustrates the timeless advice of George Pólya's masterpiece on problem solving in mathematics, "How to Solve It." In his book, Pólya recommends that problems previously solved and put…

  16. Nuclear Physics in a Coffee Cup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbie, J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses physical phenomena which can be demonstrated by using a coffee cup, involving the short-range field, alpha-particle scattering, standing waves, and Bohr's closed electron orbits. Indicates that observation of the physics of the classroom in everyday objects can attract student interest in physics learning. (CC)

  17. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  2. Pu'a i ka 'Olelo, Ola ka 'Ohana: Three Generations of Hawaiian Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai'ae'a, Keiki K. C.; Housman, Alohalani Kaluhiokalani; Alencastre, Makalapua

    2007-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the Hawaiian language had reached its low point with fewer than 50 native speakers of Hawaiian under the age of 18. Outside of the Ni'ihau community, a small group of families in Honolulu and Hilo were raising their children through Hawaiian. This article shares the perspectives of three pioneering families of the Hawaiian…

  3. 50 CFR 226.201 - Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.201 Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals. Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi) All beach areas,...

  4. 50 CFR 226.201 - Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.201 Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals. Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi) All beach areas,...

  5. 50 CFR 226.201 - Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.201 Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals. Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi) All beach areas,...

  6. 50 CFR 226.201 - Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.201 Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals. Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi) All beach areas,...

  7. 50 CFR 226.201 - Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS DESIGNATED CRITICAL HABITAT § 226.201 Critical habitat for Hawaiian monk seals. Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi) All beach areas,...

  8. 34 CFR 402.1 - What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIVE HAWAIIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM General § 402.1 What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program? The...

  9. 34 CFR 402.1 - What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIVE HAWAIIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM General § 402.1 What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program? The...

  10. 34 CFR 402.1 - What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIVE HAWAIIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM General § 402.1 What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program? The...

  11. 34 CFR 402.1 - What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIVE HAWAIIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM General § 402.1 What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program? The...

  12. 34 CFR 402.1 - What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIVE HAWAIIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM General § 402.1 What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program? The...

  13. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  14. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  15. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  16. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  17. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: II. Effects of different roast levels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    This study aims to evaluate how changes of the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffees induced by Rhizopus oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans (Part I) translated to changes in the volatile and aroma profiles of light, medium and dark roasted coffees and non-volatile profile of roasted coffee where fermentation effects were most distinctive (light roast). R. oligosporus fermentation resulted in 1.7-, 1.5- and 1.3-fold increases in pyrazine, 2-methylpyrazine and 2-ethylpyrazine levels in coffees of all roast degrees, respectively. This corresponded with the greater extent of amino acids degradation in light roasted fermented coffee. Ethyl palmitate was detected exclusively in medium and dark roasted fermented coffees. The sweet attribute of light and dark roasted coffees were increased following fermentation along with other aroma profile changes that were roast degree specific. This work aims to develop a direct but novel methodology for coffee aroma modulation through green coffee beans fermentation. PMID:27283714

  18. Tungsten Abundances in Hawaiian Picrites: Implications for the Mantle Sources of Hawaiian Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. J.; Arevalo, R. D.; Walker, R. J.; McDonough, W. F.

    2008-12-01

    Tungsten abundances have been measured in a suite of Hawaiian picrites (MgO >13 wt.%) from nine Hawaiian shield volcanoes (Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Loihi, Koolau, Kilauea, Kohala, Lanai and Molokai). Tungsten concentrations in the parental melts for these volcanoes have been estimated via the intersection of linear W-MgO trends with the putative MgO content of the parental melt (~16 wt.%). Tungsten behaves as a highly incompatible trace element in mafic to ultramafic systems; thus, given an independent assessment of the degree of partial melting for each volcanic center, the W abundances in their mantle sources can be determined. The mantle sources for Hualalai, Kilauea, Kohala and Loihi have non- uniform estimated W abundances of 11, 13, 16 and 27 ng/g, respectively, giving an average source abundance of 17±5 ng/g. This average source abundance is nearly six times more enriched than Depleted MORB Mantle (DMM: 3.0±2.3 ng/g) and slightly elevated relative to the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE: 13±10 ng/g). The relatively high abundances of W in the Hawaiian sources relative to the DMM can potentially be explained as a consequence of crustal recycling. For example, incorporation of 30% oceanic crust (30 ng/g W), including 3% sediment (1500 ng/g W), into a DMM source could create the W enrichment observed in the Loihi source, consistent with estimates from earlier models based on other trace elements and isotope systems. The Hualalai source, however, has also been suggested to contain a substantial recycled component, as implied by similarly radiogenic 187Os/188Os, yet this source has the lowest estimated W abundance among the volcanic centers studied. The conflict between these results may: 1) reflect chemical differences among recycled components, 2) indicate a more complex history for Hualalai samples, e.g. involvement of a melt percolation component, or 3) implicate other sources of W.

  19. Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and coffee production in East Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature r...

  20. Growth and degradation of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 3 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, David A.; Sherrod, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Large Hawaiian volcanoes can persist as islands through the rapid subsidence by building upward rapidly enough. But in the long run, subsidence, coupled with surface erosion, erases any volcanic remnant above sea level in about 15 m.y. One consequence of subsidence, in concert with eustatic changes in sea level, is the drowning of coral reefs that drape the submarine flanks of the actively subsiding volcanoes. At least six reefs northwest of the Island of Hawai‘i form a stairstep configuration, the oldest being deepest.

  1. Tungsten in Hawaiian picrites: A compositional model for the sources of Hawaiian lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Thomas J.; Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.; Walker, Richard J.; McDonough, William F.

    2009-08-01

    Concentrations of tungsten (W) and uranium (U), which represent two of the most highly incompatible elements during mantle melting, have been measured in a suite of Hawaiian picrites and primitive tholeiites from nine main-stage shield volcanoes. Tungsten abundances in the parental melts are estimated from correlations between sample W abundances and MgO contents, and/or by olivine correction calculations. From these parental melt determinations, along with independent estimates for the degree of partial melting at each volcanic center, we extrapolate the W content of the mantle sources for each shield volcano. The mantle sources of Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kohala, Kilauea, Mauna Kea, Koolau and Loihi contain 9 ± 2 (2 σ), 11 ± 5, 10 ± 4, 12 ± 4, 10 ± 5, 8 ± 7 and 11 ± 5 ng/g, respectively. When combined, the mean Hawaiian source has an average of 10 ± 3 ng/g W, which is three-times as enriched as the Depleted MORB Mantle (DMM; 3.0 ± 2.3 ng/g). The relatively high abundances of W in the mantle sources that contribute to Hawaiian lavas may be explained as a consequence of the recycling of W-rich oceanic crust and sediment into a depleted mantle source, such as the depleted MORB mantle (DMM). However, this scenario requires varying proportions of recycled materials with different mean ages to account for the diversity of radiogenic isotope compositions observed between Kea- and Loa-trend volcanoes. Alternatively, the modeled W enrichments may also reflect a primary source component that is less depleted in incompatible trace elements than the DMM. Such a source would not necessarily require the addition of recycled materials, although the presence of some recycled crust is permitted within our model parameters and likely accounts for some of the isotopic variations between volcanic centers. The physical admixture of ⩽0.5 wt.% outer core material with the Hawaiian source region would not be resolvable via W source abundances or W/U ratios; however, W isotopes

  2. The origin of chemical heterogeneity in the Hawaiian mantle plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietruszka, A. J.; Norman, M. D.; Garcia, M. O.; Marske, J. P.; Burns, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    Inter-shield differences in the composition of lavas from Hawaiian volcanoes are generally thought to result from the melting of a heterogeneous mantle source containing variable amounts or types of oceanic crust (sediment, basalt, and/or gabbro) that was recycled into the mantle at ancient subduction zones (e.g., [1-3]). Here we investigate the origin of chemical heterogeneity in the Hawaiian mantle plume by comparing the incompatible trace element abundances of tholeiitic basalts from (1) Kilauea, Mauna Loa, and Loihi Seamount (the three active Hawaiian volcanoes) and (2) the extinct Koolau shield (a compositional end member for Hawaiian volcanoes). Model calculations (based on these incompatible trace element abundances) suggest that the mantle sources of Hawaiian volcanoes contain variable amounts of recycled oceanic crust (ROC), consisting of basalt and gabbro (but little or no marine sediment) that was altered by interaction with seawater or hydrothermal fluids prior to being variably dehydrated in an ancient subduction zone. The estimated fraction of ROC in the Hawaiian plume varies from ~8-16% at Kilauea and Loihi to ~15-21% at Mauna Loa and Koolau (the remainder is assumed to be ambient depleted Hawaiian mantle). The ROC in the mantle source of Kilauea and Loihi lavas is dominated by the uppermost portion of the residual slab (gabbro-free, strongly dehydrated basalt), whereas the ROC in the mantle source of Mauna Loa and Koolau lavas is dominated by the lowermost portion of the residual slab (weakly dehydrated basalt and gabbro). The model results suggest that the large-scale distribution of compositional heterogeneities in the Hawaiian plume at the present time cannot be described by either a radial zonation [1] or a bilateral asymmetry [4,5]. Instead, the Hawaiian plume is heterogeneous on a small scale with a NW-SE oriented spatial gradient in the amount, type (i.e., basalt vs. gabbro) and extent of dehydration of the ancient ROC. [1] Hauri (1996

  3. Characterization of Organic and Conventional Coffee Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    E. A. De Nadai Fernandes; P. Bode; F. S. Tagliaferro

    2000-11-12

    Countries importing organic coffee are facing the difficulty of assessing the quality of the product to distinguish original organic coffee from other coffees, thereby eliminating possible fraud. Many analytical methods are matrix sensitive and require matrix-matching reference materials for validation, which are currently nonexistent. This work aims to establish the trace element characterization of organic and conventional Brazilian coffees and to establish correlations with the related soil and the type of fertilizer and agrochemicals applied. It was observed that the variability in element concentrations between the various types of coffee is not so large, which emphasizes the need for analytical methods of high accuracy, reproducibility, and a well-known uncertainty. Moreover, the analyses indicate that sometimes the coffee packages may contain some soil remnants.

  4. The chemical structure of the Hawaiian mantle plume.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Ingle, Stephanie; Takahashi, Eiichi; Hirano, Naoto; Hirata, Takafumi

    2005-08-11

    The Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic island and seamount chain is usually attributed to a hot mantle plume, located beneath the Pacific lithosphere, that delivers material sourced from deep in the mantle to the surface. The shield volcanoes of the Hawaiian islands are distributed in two curvilinear, parallel trends (termed 'Kea' and 'Loa'), whose rocks are characterized by general geochemical differences. This has led to the proposition that Hawaiian volcanoes sample compositionally distinct, concentrically zoned, regions of the underlying mantle plume. Melt inclusions, or samples of local magma 'frozen' in olivine phenocrysts during crystallization, may record complexities of mantle sources, thereby providing better insight into the chemical structure of plumes. Here we report the discovery of both Kea- and Loa-like major and trace element compositions in olivine-hosted melt inclusions in individual, shield-stage Hawaiian volcanoes--even within single rock samples. We infer from these data that one mantle source component may dominate a single lava flow, but that the two mantle source components are consistently represented to some extent in all lavas, regardless of the specific geographic location of the volcano. We therefore suggest that the Hawaiian mantle plume is unlikely to be compositionally concentrically zoned. Instead, the observed chemical variation is probably controlled by the thermal structure of the plume. PMID:16100780

  5. The traditional Hawaiian diet: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ruth; Braun, Kathryn L; Hughes, Claire K

    2004-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing among all Americans, including Native Hawaiians. Because obesity is a risk factor for major chronic diseases and shortens lifespan, it is important to develop and test interventions to prevent and reduce it. Traditional Hawaiian Diet (THD) programs, conducted over the last two decades, were examined in the context of national information on weight loss and obesity prevention programs. This review reveals that THD programs appeal to Native Hawaiians, especially the education about the health and cultural values of native foods and the support of peers. The majority of participants realize short-term weight loss and improvements in health, but few individuals sustain a significant weight loss. Most participants have difficulty adhering to the THD, citing barriers to accessing fresh, affordable produce and the lack of support systems and environments that embrace healthy eating. Any THD program offered in the future should address these barriers and engage participants for at least a year. This review includes a logic model that can be used to help program providers improve THD programs and increase the rigor of evaluation efforts. Additionally, public health professionals and Native Hawaiians should advocate for environmental changes that will support healthy lifestyles, for example: increase access by Native Hawaiians to the land and ocean; provide land for home, neighborhood and community gardening; support local farmers; remove junk-food vending machines from public buildings (including schools); improve school lunches; and mandate daily, enjoyable physical education classes in schools and after-school programs. PMID:16281710

  6. Roots of the Hawaiian Hotspot. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Exploration--Grades 9-12 (Earth Science). Seismology and Geological Origins of the Hawaiian Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This activity is designed to introduce to students the processes of plate tectonics and volcanism that resulted in the formation of the Hawaiian Islands and the difference between S waves and P waves. Students are expected to explain how seismic data recorded at different locations can be used to determine the epicenter of an earthquake, infer a…

  7. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure, acid secretion, and blood gastrin after coffee consumption.

    PubMed

    Van Deventer, G; Kamemoto, E; Kuznicki, J T; Heckert, D C; Schulte, M C

    1992-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that differences in the processing of raw coffee beans can account for some of the variability in gastric effects of coffee drinking. Coffees were selected to represent several ways that green coffee beans are treated, ie, processing variables. These included instant and ground coffee processing, decaffeination method (ethyl acetate or methylene chloride extraction), instant coffee processing temperature (112 degrees F or 300 degrees F), and steam treatment. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure, acid secretion, and blood gastrin was measured in eight human subjects after they consumed each of the different coffees. Consumption of coffee was followed by a sustained decrease in lower esophageal sphincter pressure (P less than 0.05) except for three of the four coffees treated with ethyl acetate regardless of whether or not they contained caffeine. Caffeinated ground coffee stimulated more acid secretion that did decaf ground coffees (P less than 0.05), but not more than a steam-treated caffeinated coffee. Instant coffees did not differ in acid-stimulating ability. Ground caffeinated coffee resulted in higher blood gastrin levels than other ground coffees (P less than 0.05). Freeze-dried instant coffee also tended toward higher gastrin stimulation. It is concluded that some of the observed variability in gastric response to coffee consumption can be traced to differences in how green coffee beans are processed. PMID:1551346

  8. Determination of acrylamide in coffee and coffee products by GC-MS using an improved SPE clean-up.

    PubMed

    Soares, C; Cunha, S; Fernandes, J

    2006-12-01

    An improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine acrylamide (AA) in coffee and coffee products was developed. The method was based on two main purification steps: the first with ethanol and Carrez solutions in order to precipitate polysaccharides and proteins, respectively; and the second with a layered solid-phase extraction (SPE) column which proved to be efficient in the elimination of the main chromatographic interferences. The method is applicable to a wide range of coffee products. Twenty-six samples of different coffee products were analysed. The levels of AA were in the range 11.4-36.2 microg l-1 for 'espresso coffee' and 200.8-229.4 microg l-1 for coffee blends with cereals. The results indicate that the presence of cereals significantly increased the levels of AA. PMID:17118870

  9. Changes in green coffee protein profiles during roasting.

    PubMed

    Montavon, Philippe; Mauron, Anne-France; Duruz, Eliane

    2003-04-01

    To reveal its flavor, coffee has to be roasted. In fact, the green coffee bean contains all ingredients necessary for the later development of coffee flavor. It is now widely accepted that free amino acids and peptides are required for the generation of coffee aroma. However, the mechanisms leading to defined mixtures of free amino acids and peptides remain unknown. Information pertaining to the identification of precursor proteins is also lacking. To answer some of these questions, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) was used to follow the fate of green coffee proteins. Two conditions were considered: roasting and incubation of green coffee suspensions at 37 degrees C. Coffee beans were observed to acquire the potential to spontaneously release H(2)O(2) upon polymerization of their proteins during roasting. Fragmentation of proteins was also observed. Conversely, H(2)O(2) was found to control polymerization and fragmentation of green coffee proteins in solution at 37 degrees C. Polymerization and fragmentation patterns under the two conditions were comparable. These observations suggest that the two conditions under study triggered, at least to some extent, similar biochemical mechanisms involving autoxidation. Throughout this study, a unique fragmentation cascade involving the 11S coffee storage protein was identified. Generated fragments shared an atypical staining behavior linked to their sensitivity to redox conditions. PMID:12670178

  10. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    PubMed Central

    Groessl, Erik J.; Allison, Matthew A.; Larson, Joseph C.; Ho, Samuel B.; Snetslaar, Linda G.; Lane, Dorothy S.; Tharp, Katie M.; Stefanick, Marcia L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample (N = 83,778 women) was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0–<4 cups), and high (4+ cups). Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53%) new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02–1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93–1.38). Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05–1.36) and high nondrip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01–2.02) were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research. PMID:27239197

  11. Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: An epidemiological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Geleijnse, Johanna M

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current epidemiological evidence on coffee consumption in relation to blood pressure (BP) and risk of hypertension. Data from cross-sectional studies suggest an inverse linear or U-shaped association of habitual coffee use with BP in different populations. Prospective studies suggest a protective effect of high coffee intake (4 or more cups per day) against hypertension, mainly in women. Furthermore, the risk of hypertension may be lower in coffee abstainers. Randomized controlled trials, which are mostly of short duration (1–12 weeks), have shown that coffee intake around 5 cups per day causes a small elevation in BP (∼2/1 mmHg) when compared to abstinence or use of decaffeinated coffee. With regard to underlying biological mechanisms, most research has been devoted to BP-raising effects of caffeine. However, there are many other substances in coffee, such as polyphenols, soluble fibre and potassium, which could exert a beneficial effect in the cardiovascular system. Although the precise nature of the relation between coffee and BP is still unclear, most evidence suggests that regular intake of caffeinated coffee does not increase the risk of hypertension. PMID:19183744

  12. The cardiovascular effects of regular and decaffeinated coffee.

    PubMed Central

    Smits, P; Thien, T; Van 't Laar, A

    1985-01-01

    In a single-blind study the effects of drinking two cups of regular or decaffeinated coffee on blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow and plasma concentrations of caffeine, renin and catecholamines were studied in 12 normotensive subjects. Drinking regular coffee led to a rise of blood pressure, a fall of heart rate and an increase of plasma catecholamines. Decaffeinated coffee induced a smaller increase of diastolic blood pressure without changing other parameters. This study shows that the cardiovascular effects of drinking coffee are mainly the result of its caffeine content. PMID:4027129

  13. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Gross Rainfall, Throughfall and Stemflow in a Non-native Hawaiian Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, A.; Safeeq, M.; Fares, S.

    2011-12-01

    Information on partitioning of gross rainfall in non-native trees in Hawaiian forests is limited. In this study, measurements of gross rainfall (PG), throughfall (TF), and stemflow (SF) were made at three locations in the upper Mākaha valley watershed to perform canopy water balance and parameterize Gash analytical model. The three selected locations are dominated by Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum), Christmas berry (Schinus terebinthifolius), Java plum (Syzygium cumini), and Coffee (Coffea Arabica) trees. Mean TF expressed as percentage of PG was the lowest (43.32%) under Strawberry guava and the highest (56.47%) under a mixture of Christmas berry, Strawberry guava, and Java plum. However, measured SF was the highest (33.9%) for Strawberry guava and lowest (3.6%) under the mixture of Christmas berry, Strawberry guava, and Java plum. The highest SF under Strawberry guava can be attributed to its smooth bark and steep branching and could have been the reason behind lowest TF. The mean observed interception losses varied between 23% under Strawberry guava and 45% for the site dominated by Coffee. Estimated mean free TF coefficients varied from 0.34 to 0.44, while the mean canopy storage capacity varied from 0.89 to 1.94 mm. The mean SF partitioning coefficient ranged from 0.05 to 0.37. The estimated canopy storage and trunk storage (P't) varied from 4.6 to 5.7 mm and 1.47 to 3.72 mm, respectively. Trees with nearly vertical branches and smooth bark (i.e. Strawberry Guava) resulted in smaller value of trunk storage. The analytical Gash's model for rainfall interception was successfully applied and its simulated results agreed reasonably well with observed data.

  14. Enhancing medication compliance in coffee groups.

    PubMed

    Olarte, S W; Masnik, R

    1981-06-01

    In an adult outpatient department of a hospital serving a severely disadvantaged population, coffee groups have become an effective means of treating chronic, treatment-resistant patients and reinforcing their compliance with medication regimens. In dealing with the patients, many of whom have problems communicating needs and information, the therapists have developed such approaches as using concrete language, recognizing that many patients use medication transactions to reflect dissatisfaction with changes in group routine, anticipating common problems related to medication, and at times accepting patients' idiosyncratic chemotherapeutic preferences. Important elements of the coffee groups are the caring attitude of the co-therapists, a nonpressured atmosphere, and the presence of a familiar peer group. PMID:7262849

  15. Phylogenetics of the Antopocerus-Modified Tarsus Clade of Hawaiian Drosophila: Diversification across the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Lapoint, Richard T.; Magnacca, Karl N.; O’Grady, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophilidae radiation is an ecologically and morphologically diverse clade of almost 700 described species. A phylogenetic approach is key to understanding the evolutionary forces that have given rise to this diverse lineage. Here we infer the phylogeny for the antopocerus, modified tarsus and ciliated tarsus (AMC) clade, a lineage comprising 16% (91 of 687 species) of the described Hawaiian Drosophilidae. To improve on previous analyses we constructed the largest dataset to date for the AMC, including a matrix of 15 genes for 68 species. Results strongly support most of the morphologically defined species groups as monophyletic. We explore the correlation of increased diversity in biogeography, sexual selection and ecology on the present day diversity seen in this lineage using a combination of dating methods, rearing records, and distributional data. Molecular dating analyses indicate that AMC lineage started diversifying about 4.4 million years ago, culminating in the present day AMC diversity. We do not find evidence that ecological speciation or sexual selection played a part in generating this diversity, but given the limited number of described larval substrates and secondary sexual characters analyzed we can not rule these factors out entirely. An increased rate of diversification in the AMC is found to overlap with the emergence of multiple islands in the current chain of high islands, specifically Oahu and Kauai. PMID:25420017

  16. Phylogenetics of the antopocerus-modified tarsus clade of Hawaiian Drosophila: diversification across the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Lapoint, Richard T; Magnacca, Karl N; O'Grady, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophilidae radiation is an ecologically and morphologically diverse clade of almost 700 described species. A phylogenetic approach is key to understanding the evolutionary forces that have given rise to this diverse lineage. Here we infer the phylogeny for the antopocerus, modified tarsus and ciliated tarsus (AMC) clade, a lineage comprising 16% (91 of 687 species) of the described Hawaiian Drosophilidae. To improve on previous analyses we constructed the largest dataset to date for the AMC, including a matrix of 15 genes for 68 species. Results strongly support most of the morphologically defined species groups as monophyletic. We explore the correlation of increased diversity in biogeography, sexual selection and ecology on the present day diversity seen in this lineage using a combination of dating methods, rearing records, and distributional data. Molecular dating analyses indicate that AMC lineage started diversifying about 4.4 million years ago, culminating in the present day AMC diversity. We do not find evidence that ecological speciation or sexual selection played a part in generating this diversity, but given the limited number of described larval substrates and secondary sexual characters analyzed we can not rule these factors out entirely. An increased rate of diversification in the AMC is found to overlap with the emergence of multiple islands in the current chain of high islands, specifically Oahu and Kauai. PMID:25420017

  17. Historical Trauma and Substance Use among Native Hawaiian College Students

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To test the relationships among historical trauma, perceived discrimination, and substance use (cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use) among Native Hawaiians. Methods Cross sectional self-report data were collected online from 128 Native Hawaiian community college students (M age = 27.5; SD = 9.5; 65% Women). Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Results Historical trauma had 2 paths to substance use: an indirect path to higher substance use through higher perceived discrimination and a direct path to lower substance use. Conclusions Thoughts, knowledge, or experience associated with historical trauma may enhance substance use behavior via increased perceived discrimination and may also be protective against substance use, possibly via increased pride in one's cultural heritage. This research has implications for historical trauma, discrimination, and substance use research concerning Native Hawaiians. PMID:24636038

  18. [Occurrence of phenols in coffee melanoidins].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, L; Baltes, W

    1987-11-01

    Compounds with higher molecular weights in roast coffee were separated by means of adsorption chromatography followed by gel chromatography which yielded seven fractions of different molecular weights. These were tested sensorially and degraded by Curie point pyrolysis high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HRGC/MS) about 100 products, among them 33 phenols, were found. The products were compared with fragments formed via model pyrolysis experiments on chlorogenic acid. PMID:3433952

  19. The Social Contexts of Drug Offers and Their Relationship to Drug Use of Rural Hawaiian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Kulis, Stephen; Helm, Susana; Edwards, Christopher; Giroux, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the differences in drug offers and recent drug use between Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities, and the relationship between drug offers and drug use of Hawaiian youth in these communities. Two hundred forty nine youth (194 Hawaiian youth) from 7 different middle or intermediate schools completed a survey focused on the social context of drug offers. Hawaiian youth in the study received significantly more offers from peers and family, and had significantly higher rates of recent alcohol and marijuana use, compared with non-Hawaiian youth. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the social context differentially influenced drug use of Hawaiian youth, with family drug offers and context influencing overall drug use and the use of the widest variety of substances. Implications for prevention practices are discussed. PMID:24860249

  20. Arsenic chemistry and remediation in Hawaiian soils.

    PubMed

    Hue, Nguyen V

    2013-01-01

    Past use of arsenical pesticides has resulted in elevated levels of arsenic (As) in some Hawaiian soils. Total As concentrations of 20-100 mg/kg are not uncommon, and can exceed 900 mg/kg in some lands formerly planted with sugarcane. With high contents of amorphous aluminosilicates and iron oxides in many Hawaii's volcanic ash-derived Andisols, a high proportion (25-30%) of soil As was associated with either these mineral phases or with organic matter. Less than 1% of the total As was water soluble or exchangeable. Furthermore, the soils can sorb As strongly: the addition of 1000 mg/kg as As (+5) resulted in only between 0.03 and 0.30 mg/L As in soil solution. In contrast, soils having more crystalline minerals (e.g., Oxisols) sorb less As and thus often contain less As. Phosphate fertilization increases As bioaccessibility, whereas the addition of Fe(OH)3 decreases it. Brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) can be used to remove some soil As. Concentrations of As in fronds varied on average from 60 mg/kg when grown on a low-As Oxisol to 350 mg/kg when grown on a high-As Andisol. Ratios of leaf As to CaCl2-extractable soil As were 12 and 222 for the Oxisol and Andisol, respectively. PMID:23487989

  1. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1961 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  2. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1962 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  3. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1971 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  4. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1980 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  5. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1964 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  6. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1978 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  7. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1965 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  8. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1984 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  9. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1972 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  10. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1983 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  11. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1967 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  12. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1969 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  13. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1982 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  14. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1975 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  15. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1960 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  16. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1979 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  17. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1957 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  18. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1976 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  19. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1959 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  20. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1968 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  1. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1973 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  2. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1958 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  3. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1966 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  4. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1977 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  5. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1981 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  6. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1963 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  7. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1970 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  8. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1985 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  9. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1974 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  10. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Eben H; Camp, Richard J; Gorresen, P Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H; Leonard, David L; VanderWerf, Eric A

    2016-09-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua'i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species' ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua'i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai'i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  11. Extremophilic Eukaryote Life in Hawaiian Fumaroles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, C.; Anderson, S.; Anderson, C.

    2008-12-01

    Extremophilic microorganisms exist in all three domains of life (Eukarya, Archaea, Bacteria), but are less known in eukaryotes. Fumaroles provide heat and moisture characteristic of an environment suitable for these organisms. On the Island of Hawaii, fumaroles are scattered across the southeastern portion of the island as a result of the volcanic activity from Kilauea Crater and Pu'u' O'o vent with all forming within geochemically similar basalt substrates. We used metagenomics to detect 18S rDNA from eukaryotic extremophilic microorganisms indicating their presence in Hawaiian fumaroles. To determine the effects of environmental gradients (temperature and pH) on microbial diversity within and among fumaroles, 11 samples from 3 fumaroles were collected over a three-day period in February of 2007. Temperatures of the different fumaroles range from 31.0oC to 62.7oC, with pH values that vary from 2.55 to 6.93 allowing for 8 different microenvironments. Fifty sequences per sample were analyzed with eighteen different organisms identified, the majority belonging to the family Cercozoa. The most diverse fumarole consisted of 8 different genera residing in a temperature of 34.1oC and a pH of 3.0. Unclassified mosses were identified in the fumarole with the highest temperature and Phaeoceros (hornworts) were identified at the most acidic fumarole. Both of these groups have been previously identified in geothermal areas.

  12. Diversity of Thermophilic Microorganisms within Hawaiian Fumaroles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, C. A.; Anderson, S.; Anderson, C.

    2007-12-01

    Fumaroles provide heat and moisture characteristic of an environment suitable for thermophilic microorganisms. On the Island of Hawaii, fumaroles are scattered across the southeastern portion of the island as a result of the volcanic activity from Kilauea Crater and Pu'u' O'o vent. We used metagenomics to detect 16S rDNA from archaeal and bacterial thermophilic microorganisms indicating their presence in Hawaiian fumaroles. The fumaroles sampled exist along elevation and precipitation gradients; varying from sea level to 4,012ft and annual rainfall from less than 20in to greater than 80in. To determine the effects of environmental gradients (including temperature, pH, elevation, and precipitation) on microbial diversity within and among fumaroles, we obtained 22 samples from 7 fumaroles over a three-day period in February of 2007. Temperature variations within individual fumaroles vary from 2.3oC to 35oC and the pH variances that range from 0.4 to 2.0. Temperatures of the different fumaroles range from 29.9oC to greater than 105oC, with pH values that vary from 2.55 to 6.93. Further data on the microbial diversity within fumaroles and among fumaroles will be determined once the sequencing of the microbial 16S rDNA regions is completed. We are currently assembling and sequencing clone libraries of bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA fragments from fumaroles.

  13. Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Richmond, B.M.; Fletcher, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

  14. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Eben H.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  15. Improving the performance of an electronic nose by wine aroma training to distinguish between drip coffee and canned coffee.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Kouki; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Shimizu, Nobuo; Ikeda, Keiichi; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell). This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit "Le Nez du Vin," and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses. PMID:25587981

  16. Improving the Performance of an Electronic Nose by Wine Aroma Training to Distinguish between Drip Coffee and Canned Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Kouki; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Shimizu, Nobuo; Ikeda, Keiichi; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    Coffee aroma, with more than 600 components, is considered as one of the most complex food aromas. Although electronic noses have been successfully used for objective analysis and differentiation of total coffee aromas, it is difficult to use them to describe the specific features of coffee aroma (i.e., the type of smell). This is because data obtained by electronic noses are generally based on electrical resistance/current and samples are distinguished by principal component analysis. In this paper, we present an electronic nose that is capable of learning the wine related aromas using the aroma kit “Le Nez du Vin,” and the potential to describe coffee aroma in a similar manner comparable to how wine experts describe wine aroma. The results of our investigation showed that the aromas of three drip coffees were more similar to those of pine and honey in the aroma kit than to the aromas of three canned coffees. Conversely, the aromas of canned coffees were more similar to the kit coffee aroma. In addition, the aromatic patterns of coffees were different from those of green tea and red wine. Although further study is required to fit the data to human olfaction, the presented method and the use of vocabularies in aroma kits promise to enhance objective discrimination and description of aromas by electronic noses. PMID:25587981

  17. Effect of roasting conditions on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in ground Arabica coffee and coffee brew.

    PubMed

    Houessou, Justin Koffi; Maloug, Saber; Leveque, Anne-Sophie; Delteil, Corine; Heyd, Bertrand; Camel, Valérie

    2007-11-14

    Roasting is a critical process in coffee production as it enables the development of flavor and aroma. At the same time, roasting may lead to the formation of nondesirable compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, Arabica green coffee beans from Cuba were roasted under controlled conditions to monitor PAH formation during the roasting process. Roasting was performed in a pilot spouted bed roaster, with the inlet air temperature varying from 180 to 260 degrees C, using both dark (20 min) and light (5 min) roasting conditions. Several PAHs were determined in both roasted coffee samples and green coffee samples. Also, coffee brews, obtained using an electric coffee maker, were analyzed for final estimation of PAH transfer coefficients to the infusion. Formation of phenanthrene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene in coffee beans was observed at temperatures above 220 degrees C, whereas formation of pyrene and chrysene required 260 degrees C. Low levels of benzo[g,h,i]perylene were also noted for dark roasting under 260 degrees C, with simultaneous partial degradation of three-cycle PAHs, suggesting that transformation of low molecular PAHs to high molecular PAHs occurs as the roasting degree is increased. The PAH transfer to the infusion was quite moderate (<35%), with a slightly lower extractability for dark-roasted coffee as compared to light-roasted coffee. PMID:17941690

  18. Effects of coffee management on deforestation rates and forest integrity.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Kristoffer; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Delrue, Josefien; Enkosa, Woldeyohannes

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge about how forest margins are utilized can be crucial for a general understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and biodiversity across landscapes. We studied forest-agriculture transitions in southwestern Ethiopia and hypothesized that the presence of coffee (Coffea arabica)decreases deforestation rates because of coffee's importance to local economies and its widespread occurrence in forests and forest margins. Using satellite images and elevation data, we compared changes in forest cover over 37 years (1973-2010) across elevations in 2 forest-agriculture mosaic landscapes (1100 km(2) around Bonga and 3000 km(2) in Goma-Gera). In the field in the Bonga area, we determined coffee cover and forest structure in 40 forest margins that differed in time since deforestation. Both the absolute and relative deforestation rates were lower at coffee-growing elevations compared with at higher elevations (-10/20% vs. -40/50% comparing relative rates at 1800 m asl and 2300-2500 m asl, respectively). Within the coffee-growing elevation, the proportion of sites with high coffee cover (>20%) was significantly higher in stable margins (42% of sites that had been in the same location for the entire period) than in recently changed margins (0% of sites where expansion of annual crops had changed the margin). Disturbance level and forest structure did not differ between sites with 30% or 3% coffee. However, a growing body of literature on gradients of coffee management in Ethiopia reports coffee's negative effects on abundances of forest-specialist species. Even if the presence of coffee slows down the conversion of forest to annual-crop agriculture, there is a risk that an intensification of coffee management will still threaten forest biodiversity, including the genetic diversity of wild coffee. Conservation policy for Ethiopian forests thus needs to develop strategies that acknowledge that forests without coffee production may have higher deforestation

  19. Induction of AhR-Mediated Gene Transcription by Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Satoshi; Morita, Koji; Okinaga, Hiroko; Teramoto, Tamio

    2014-01-01

    Background Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is classically known to be activated by xenobiotics such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although it has been reported that PAHs are contained in roasted coffee beans, in general coffee beverages are not considered to be AhR activators. We tested whether exposure to coffee would activate AhR in cultured cells. Methods HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene were treated with coffee samples. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was quantitated by RT-PCR and Western blotting in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells, after treatment with coffee. In order to obtain sensitive and reproducible results, all the experiments were performed with the cells placed in either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or pure serum, instead of routinely-used culture medium, whose intrinsic AhR-stimulating activity turned out to be so strong as to interfere with the analyses. Results All the coffee samples tested robustly stimulated AhR-mediated transcription in the reporter gene assays. Of note, to what extent coffee and other AhR agonists activated AhR was different, depending on whether the experiments were done in PBS or serum. CYP1A1 mRNA was induced by coffee, in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells placed in either PBS or serum. CYP1A1 protein expression, which was not detected in these cells incubated in PBS, was also increased by coffee in cells placed in serum. Conclusions By using culture medium-free experimental settings, we have shown that coffee is a strong AhR activator. Our observation may help elucidate as-yet-unrecognized effects of coffee on human health. PMID:25007155

  20. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors <2 mg/g. For the single-bean calibration the r(2) values were between 0.85 and 0.93 with standard errors of cross validation of 0.8-1.6 mg/g depending upon calibration. The results showed it was possible to develop NIRS calibrations to estimate the caffeine concentration of individual coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products. PMID:24070227

  1. Native Hawaiians Study Commission: Report on the Culture, Needs and Concerns of Native Hawaiians. Final Report. Volume II. Claims of Conscience: A Dissenting Study of the Culture, Needs and Concerns of Native Hawaiians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    Volume II of the final report of the Native Hawaiians Study Commission (NHSC) on the culture, needs, and concerns of native Hawaiians, this book contains a formal dissent to the conclusions and recommendations presented in Volume I made by three of the NHSC commissioners. Its principal criticism is that Volume I fails to address the underlying…

  2. [Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis caused by the dust of green coffee beans].

    PubMed

    Glauser, T; Bircher, A; Wüthrich, B

    1992-08-29

    In a 37-year-old worker employed in a coffee roastery who suffered from work-related rhinoconjunctivitis, allergologic investigations demonstrated sensitization to the dust of the green, unroasted coffee bean. This particular allergy is uncommon in Switzerland. The case is discussed and the literature on the subject is reviewed. PMID:1529315

  3. Screening for atopy in a coffee processing factory.

    PubMed

    Panzani, R C; Falagiani, P; Riva, G; Delord, Y; Mercier, P

    1995-01-01

    Screening for blood IgE mediated allergy (atopy) by the RAST technique among 76 people working in a coffee processing factory showed rather unexpected findings: although we found a prevalence of positivity (17.1%) to the common airborne antigens (pollens, mites, cat, Alternaria tenuis) which was close to the prevalence of atopy among normal adults in our area (19.3%), only one case of allergy to green coffee and two cases to castor bean came to the fore. Specific IgG4 antibodies were measured only for castor bean and green coffee, and rather elevated figures were found: green coffee 17.1%, castor bean 13.1%. The occurence of positive RASTs to castor bean is more likely to be due to contamination of the bags containing green coffee. The low prevalence of RAST positivities to green coffee, and the elevated specific IgG4 antibodies to both castor bean and green coffee antigens, raise several possibilities which are discussed; however, all the subjects but one having elevated specific IgG4 levels to green coffee worked in more exposed areas. Probably IgG4 antibodies in this particular case are acting as blocking antibodies. PMID:7631592

  4. Isolation, identification, and quantification of roasted coffee antibacterial compounds.

    PubMed

    Daglia, Maria; Papetti, Adele; Grisoli, Pietro; Aceti, Camilla; Spini, Valentina; Dacarro, Cesare; Gazzani, Gabriella

    2007-12-12

    Coffee brew is a widely consumed beverage with multiple biological activities due both to naturally occurring components and to the hundreds of chemicals that are formed during the roasting process. Roasted coffee extract possesses antibacterial activity against a wide range of microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans, whereas green coffee extract exhibits no such activity. The naturally occurring coffee compounds, such as chlorogenic acids and caffeine, cannot therefore be responsible for the significant antibacterial activity exerted by coffee beverages against both bacteria. The very low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) found for standard glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl compounds formed during the roasting process points to these alpha-dicarbonyl compounds as the main agents responsible for the antibacterial activity of brewed coffee against Sa. aureus and St. mutans. However, their low concentrations determined in the beverage account for only 50% of its antibacterial activity. The addition of caffeine, which has weak intrinsic antibacterial activity, to a mixture of alpha-dicarbonyl compounds at the concentrations found in coffee demonstrated that caffeine synergistically enhances the antibacterial activity of alpha-dicarbonyl compounds and that glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl in the presence of caffeine account for the whole antibacterial activity of roasted coffee. PMID:18001036

  5. 38. East elevation of coffee storage and drying shed with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. East elevation of coffee storage and drying shed with circular, cattle watering pond in left foreground and coffee mill in background right. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1C-1 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  6. Ant patchiness: a spatially quantitative test in coffee agroecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philpott, Stacy M.

    2006-08-01

    Arboreal ants form patchy spatial patterns in tropical agroforest canopies. Such patchy distributions more likely occur in disturbed habitats associated with lower ant diversity and resource availability than in forests. Yet, few studies have quantitatively examined these patchy patterns to statistically test if ants are non-randomly distributed or at what scale. Coffee agroecosystems form a gradient of management intensification along which vegetative complexity and ant diversity decline. Using field studies and a spatially explicit randomization model, I investigated ant patchiness in coffee agroecosystems in Chiapas, Mexico varying in management intensity to examine if: (1) coffee intensification affects occurrence of numerically dominant ants, (2) numerical dominants form statistically distinguishable single-species patches in coffee plants, (3) shade trees play a role in patch location, and (4) patch formation or size varies with management intensity. Coffee intensification correlated with lower occurrence frequency of numerically dominant species generally and of one of four taxa examined. All dominant ant species formed patches but only Azteca instabilis was patchy around shade trees. Ant patchiness did vary somewhat with spatial scale and with strata (within the coffee layer vs around shade trees). Patchiness, however, did not vary with management intensity. These results provide quantitative evidence that numerically dominant ants are patchy within the coffee layer at different scales and that shade tree location, but not coffee management intensity, may play a role in the formation of patchy distributions.

  7. Consumption of coffee or tea and symptoms of anxiety.

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, W W; McLeod, J

    1984-01-01

    The relationship of consumption of coffee or tea to self-reported symptoms of anxiety is examined with data from the detailed examination component of the National Center for Health Statistics Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Among this nationwide sample of 3,854 respondents, there was no significant association between consumption of coffee or tea and symptoms of anxiety. PMID:6689844

  8. Alkylpyridiniums. 2. Isolation and quantification in roasted and ground coffees.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Richard H; Varga, Natalia; Milo, Christian; Schilter, Benoit; Vera, Francia Arce; Welti, Dieter H

    2002-02-27

    Recent model studies on trigonelline decomposition have identified nonvolatile alkylpyridiniums as major reaction products under certain physicochemical conditions. The quaternary base 1-methylpyridinium was isolated from roasted and ground coffee and purified by ion exchange and thin-layer chromatography. The compound was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C) and mass spectrometry techniques. A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to quantify the alkaloid in coffee by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The formation of alkylpyridiniums is positively correlated to the roasting degree in arabica coffee, and highest levels of 1-methylpyridinium, reaching up to 0.25% on a per weight basis, were found in dark roasted coffee beans. Analyses of coffee extracts also showed the presence of dimethylpyridinium, at concentrations ranging from 5 to 25 mg/kg. This is the first report on the isolation and quantification of alkylpyridiniums in coffee. These compounds, described here in detail for the first time, may have an impact on the flavor/aroma profile of coffee directly (e.g., bitterness), or indirectly as precursors, and potentially open new avenues in the flavor/aroma modulation of coffee. PMID:11853504

  9. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  10. Amphitheater-Headed Valleys: Unique or Non-Unique Origin? The Hawaiian Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, D. T.; Blay, C.

    2007-12-01

    While the formation and migration of amphitheaters (knickpoints) in unconsolidated sediment is fairly well understood the same cannot be said for amphitheaters formed in a variety of bedrock types, climate settings, and even planetary location. The question remains, is there a single knickpoint forming process at work or do multiple landscape forming processes have a convergence tendency because of cybernetic feedback? A simple example would be a waterfall creating a micro-environment that enhances and focuses specific landscape forming processes like weathering, microbial action, and vegetation growth aiding in the continuation of the knickpoint form. It should be noted that weathering, microbial growth and vegetation growth would have cybernetic feedback among them. In fact it may be difficult to determine the controlling process, if any. If one considers that knickpoints likely intercept the regional groundwater flow system there is an additional focused source of water supply which further contributes to the micro-environment of the knickpoint. Groundwater discharge has significant cybernetic feedbacks with landscape forming processes. The nature and composition of the bedrock and climatic factors may determine rates of knickpoint migration but the resulting morphologic features in different settings would likely be similar with cybernetic feedback. It should be noted that cybernetic feedback can either be damping or amplifying. Amphitheater-headed valleys have developed in many locations on the Hawaiian Islands. The islands have formed in a time sequence as the supporting oceanic plate moves over a focused mantle source for the basalts. The amphitheaters of Hawaii occur in "fresh" and "older" basaltic rock depending on island location. Weathering processes have acted longer on some islands. Because of the topography and its affect on trade winds the main islands have focused rainfall, significant recharge, and active groundwater flow systems. While climate is

  11. The Lithium Isotopic Signature of Hawaiian Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L.; Weis, D.; Hanano, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Recycling of oceanic crust and sediment is a common mechanism to account for the presence of chemical heterogeneities observed in oceanic island basalts (OIBs). On Hawai';i, a mantle plume-sourced OIB with a high mass flux, sampling of deep mantle heterogeneities accounts for the presence of two unique geochemical and geographical trends called the Loa and Kea trends. The Loa trend overlaps the Pacific large low shear velocity province and is distinctly more enriched [1] than the Kea trend with average Pacific mantle compositions [2]. Because of the sizeable fractionation of lithium isotopes in low temperature environments, lithium serves as a tracer for the presence of recycled material in OIB sources, including Hawai'i. In this study, we analyzed 87 samples of Hawaiian basalt from the pre-shield, shield, post-shield, and rejuvenated volcanic stages and 10 samples of altered oceanic crust from ODP Site 843 for lithium isotopes using a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Correlations of lithium isotopes with the radiogenic isotopes Pb, Hf, Nd, and Sr indicate lithium isotopes may be used to trace components in mantle plumes such as Hawai';i. The measured range of lithium isotopes for shield stage lavas is δ7Li = 1.8 - 5.7‰ and for post-shield lavas is δ7Li = 0.8 - 4.7‰. Pre-shield stage lavas (Lo'ihi volcano only) and rejuvenated lavas are the least and most homogeneous volcanic stages, respectively, in lithium isotopes. The Loa and Kea geochemical trends have different lithium isotopic signatures, with Loa trend shield volcanoes exhibiting lighter lithium isotopic signatures (δ7Li = 3.5‰ [N=43]) than Kea trend shield volcanoes (δ7Li = 4.0‰ [N=31]) [3]. Similarly, post-shield lavas have systematically lighter δ7Li than shield lavas. The presence of systematic differences in lithium isotopic signatures may indicate: 1) the sampling of distinct components in the deep source, to account for variations between Kea and Loa trend

  12. A young source for the Hawaiian plume.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Alexander V; Hofmann, Albrecht W; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Kuzmin, Dmitry V; Stoll, Brigitte

    2011-08-25

    Recycling of oceanic crust through subduction, mantle upwelling, and remelting in mantle plumes is a widely accepted mechanism to explain ocean island volcanism. The timescale of this recycling is important to our understanding of mantle circulation rates. Correlations of uranogenic lead isotopes in lavas from ocean islands such as Hawaii or Iceland, when interpreted as model isochrons, have yielded source differentiation ages between 1 and 2.5 billion years (Gyr). However, if such correlations are produced by mixing of unrelated mantle components they will have no direct age significance. Re-Os decay model ages take into account the mixing of sources with different histories, but they depend on the assumed initial Re/Os ratio of the subducted crust, which is poorly constrained because of the high mobility of rhenium during subduction. Here we report the first data on (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios for 138 melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from lavas of Mauna Loa shield volcano, Hawaii, indicating enormous mantle source heterogeneity. We show that highly radiogenic strontium in severely rubidium-depleted melt inclusions matches the isotopic composition of 200-650-Myr-old sea water. We infer that such sea water must have contaminated the Mauna Loa source rock, before subduction, imparting a unique 'time stamp' on this source. Small amounts of seawater-derived strontium in plume sources may be common but can be identified clearly only in ultra-depleted melts originating from generally highly (incompatible-element) depleted source components. The presence of 200-650-Myr-old oceanic crust in the source of Hawaiian lavas implies a timescale of general mantle circulation with an average rate of about 2 (±1) cm yr(-1), much faster than previously thought. PMID:21832996

  13. The role of dissolved cations in coffee extraction.

    PubMed

    Hendon, Christopher H; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell

    2014-05-28

    The flavorsome compounds in coffee beans exist in the form of aprotic charge neutral species, as well as a collection of acids and conjugate salts. The dissolution and extraction of these organic molecules is a process dependent on the dissolved mineral content of the water. It is known that different rates and compositions of coffee extraction are achieved through the control of the water "impurities", Na(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), which coordinate to nucleophilic motifs in coffee. Using density functional theory, we quantify the thermodynamic binding energies of five familiar coffee-contained acids, caffeine, and a representative flavor component, eugenol. From this, we provide insight into the mechanism and ideal mineral composition of water for extraction of flavorsome compounds in coffee. PMID:24802110

  14. Coffee Adulteration: More than Two Decades of Research.

    PubMed

    Toci, Aline Theodoro; Farah, Adriana; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is a ubiquitous food product of considerable economic importance to the countries that produce and export it. The adulteration of roasted coffee is a strategy used to reduce costs. Conventional methods employed to identify adulteration in roasted and ground coffee involve optical and electron microscopy, which require pretreatment of samples and are time-consuming and subjective. Other analytical techniques have been studied that might be more reliable, reproducible, and widely applicable. The present review provides an overview of three analytical approaches (physical, chemical, and biological) to the identification of coffee adulteration. A total of 30 published articles are considered. It is concluded that despite the existence of a number of excellent studies in this area, there still remains a lack of a suitably sensitive and widely applicable methodology able to take into account the various different aspects of adulteration, considering coffee varieties, defective beans, and external agents. PMID:25633422

  15. Spent coffee grounds as a versatile source of green energy.

    PubMed

    Kondamudi, Narasimharao; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano

    2008-12-24

    The production of energy from renewable and waste materials is an attractive alternative to the conventional agricultural feed stocks such as corn and soybean. This paper describes an approach to extract oil from spent coffee grounds and to further transesterify the processed oil to convert it into biodiesel. This process yields 10-15% oil depending on the coffee species (Arabica or Robusta). The biodiesel derived from the coffee grounds (100% conversion of oil to biodiesel) was found to be stable for more than 1 month under ambient conditions. It is projected that 340 million gallons of biodiesel can be produced from the waste coffee grounds around the world. The coffee grounds after oil extraction are ideal materials for garden fertilizer, feedstock for ethanol, and as fuel pellets. PMID:19053356

  16. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: A short review with recent findings and future research directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. Adult females bore a hole in the coffee berry, where they deposit their eggs; upon hatching, larvae feed on the coffee seeds inside the berry, thus reducing yield and quality of the marketable product. The ins...

  17. The coffee berry borer: the centenary of a biological invasion in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is a bark beetle endemic to Africa. This species was first detected in the field in 1897 in Mount Coffee, Liberia, and years later was reported as a pest of coffee in several African countries. In 1913 the coffee berry borer was accidentally introduced in...

  18. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide. It infests crops in most coffee producing countries, and is of particular concern in developing countries where coffee comprises a significant component of gross domestic product. Of more than 850 i...

  19. [Spectroscopic methods applied to component determination and species identification for coffee].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua-zhou; Xu, Li-li; Qin, Qiang

    2014-06-01

    Spectroscopic analysis was applied to the determination of the nutrient quality of ground, instant and chicory coffees. By using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-ES), nine mineral elements were determined in solid coffee samples. Caffeine was determined by ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry and organic matter was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Oxidation-reduction titration was utilized for measuring the oxalate. The differences between ground coffee and instant coffee was identified on the basis of the contents of caffeine, oxalate and mineral elements. Experimental evidence showed that, caffeine in instant coffee was 2-3 times higher than in ground coffee. Oxalate in instant coffee was significantly higher in ground coffee. Mineral elements of Mg, P and Zn in ground coffee is lower than in instant coffee, while Cu is several times higher. The mineral content in chicory coffee is overall lower than the instant coffee. In addition, we determined the content of Ti for different types of coffees, and simultaneously detected the elements of Cu, Ti and Zn in chicory coffee. As a fast detection technique, FTIR spectroscopy has the potential of detecting the differences between ground coffee and instant coffee, and is able to verify the presence of caffeine and oxalate. PMID:25358189

  20. Native Hawaiian Epistemology: Sites of Empowerment and Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Manu Aluli

    1998-01-01

    Discusses and gives a view of the categories of native Hawaiian epistemology: (1) spirituality and knowing; (2) the cultural nature of the senses and expanding notions of empiricism; (3) relationship and knowledge; (4) utility and knowledge; (5) words and knowledge; and (6) the body/mind question. Educational implications are discussed. (SLD)

  1. Family Involvement in a Hawaiian Language Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Lois A.; Lau-Smith, Jo-Anne; Luning, Rebecca J. I.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which family members of students in a Hawaiian language immersion program were involved in their children's education and identified the effects of and barriers to involvement. A sociocultural theoretical approach and Epstein's framework of different types of involvement were applied. Participants included 35…

  2. Context Matters: Improving Schooling for Native Hawaiian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantle-Bromley, Corinne; Wilson, Carol A.; Foster, Ann M.; Maaka, Margaret J.

    2003-01-01

    This case study examines an initiative at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa's College of Education with the mission of improving schooling for children, mostly Native Hawaiian, of the Wai'anae Coast of O'ahu. The study reports how the initiative recruits, supports, and prepares new teachers for the particularities of this specific location as…

  3. Building Family Capacity for Native Hawaiian Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokuau, Noreen; Braun, Kathryn L.; Daniggelis, Ephrosine

    2012-01-01

    Native Hawaiian women have the highest breast cancer incidence and mortality rates when compared with other large ethnic groups in Hawai'i. Like other women, they rely on the support of their families as co-survivors. This project explored the feasibility and effects of a culturally tailored educational intervention designed to build family…

  4. Phytochemicals in fruits of Hawaiian wild cranberry relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytochemical profile of the Hawaiian Native Vaccinium (family Ericaceae) has not been thoroughly described. Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition of diverse wild and cultivated samples of the low-growing ‘ohelo, V. reticulatum Smith. In 2009, ripe fruit samples were collected f...

  5. 14 CFR 91.877 - Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations. 91.877 Section 91.877 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... November 5, 1990, shall submit an annual report to the FAA, Office of Environment and Energy, on...

  6. Pesticide sorption and leaching potential on three Hawaiian soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On the Hawaiian Islands, groundwater is the principal source of potable water and contamination of this key resource by pesticides is of great concern. To evaluate the leaching potential of four weak acid herbicides [aminocyclopyrachlor, picloram, metsulfuron-methyl, biologically active diketonitril...

  7. Kilohoku - Ho‘okele Wa‘a: Hawaiian Navigational Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, Ahia; Ha'o, Celeste; Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Over thousands of years of Pacific Basin settlement, Polynesians developed a complex, scientific understanding of the cosmos, including a generative view of the celestial sphere. Memorizing the location and spatial relationships of hundreds of stars, across changing latitudes, this astronomy was one of the four scientific knowledge bases Polynesians used to navigate thousands of miles, across open water, without instrumentation. After Western colonization, this large body of knowledge was nearly lost to Hawaiians. Since the Hawaiian Renaissance, much of this knowledge has been reconstructed, and is again in use in open oceanic navigation. While some of this knowledge has been shared with the broader public, much of what we know has been unavailable to those beyond the family of navigators. This paper represents an attempt to begin sharing this catalog of knowledge with the outside world, with the hopes that the larger community will appreciate the complexity of astronomical knowledge possessed by navigators, and that the international body of astronomy historians will help insure that this knowledge will not be lost again. This paper will present, Na ´Ohanahōkū, the Hawaiian star families that divide the celestial sphere into four wedges, running from the circumpolar north, beyond the horizon to the south. Na Hoku Huihui, or Hawaiian constellations will be discussed, in addition to a brief introduction to the setting and rising pairs that are used to determine direction and latitude.

  8. 78 FR 29089 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors,...

  9. Is mercury from Hawaiian volcanoes a natural source of pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, A.; Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1971-01-01

    An analysis shows that 98% of mercury from Hawaiian fumaroles is gaseous or solid particles less than 0.3 micron in diameter. It is suggested that both natural and industrial sources may be contributors to mercury pollution of the air in Hawaii.

  10. Hawaiian Drosophila genomes: size variation and evolutionary expansions.

    PubMed

    Craddock, Elysse M; Gall, Joseph G; Jonas, Mark

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports genome sizes of one Hawaiian Scaptomyza and 16 endemic Hawaiian Drosophila species that include five members of the antopocerus species group, one member of the modified mouthpart group, and ten members of the picture wing clade. Genome size expansions have occurred independently multiple times among Hawaiian Drosophila lineages, and have resulted in an over 2.3-fold range of genome sizes among species, with the largest observed in Drosophila cyrtoloma (1C = 0.41 pg). We find evidence that these repeated genome size expansions were likely driven by the addition of significant amounts of heterochromatin and satellite DNA. For example, our data reveal that the addition of seven heterochromatic chromosome arms to the ancestral haploid karyotype, and a remarkable proportion of ~70 % satellite DNA, account for the greatly expanded size of the D. cyrtoloma genome. Moreover, the genomes of 13/17 Hawaiian picture wing species are composed of substantial proportions (22-70 %) of detectable satellites (all but one of which are AT-rich). Our results suggest that in this tightly knit group of recently evolved species, genomes have expanded, in large part, via evolutionary amplifications of satellite DNA sequences in centric and pericentric domains (especially of the X and dot chromosomes), which have resulted in longer acrocentric chromosomes or metacentrics with an added heterochromatic chromosome arm. We discuss possible evolutionary mechanisms that may have shaped these patterns, including rapid fixation of novel expanded genomes during founder-effect speciation. PMID:26790663

  11. Women of Hope: Native American/Hawaiian. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfelder, Arlene; Molin, Paulette Fairbanks; Oneita, Kathryn; Wakim, Yvonne B.

    This study guide accompanies a poster series and documentary video about 12 American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian "women of hope." The women vary by age, education, profession, and geographic locale, but they share an unwavering commitment and dedication to their people's struggle to survive and flourish as distinct cultures. The…

  12. Hawaiian Performance Cartography of Kaua'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akana, Kalani

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a discussion that examines Hawaiian performance cartography as described by Oliveira--but only as it relates to the island of Kaua'i. Section I begins with a chant asking permission to "enter" into the cultural landscape described in "mele" (songs) and "hula" (dance). Section II looks…

  13. A PCR test for avian malaria in Hawaiian birds.

    PubMed

    Feldman, R A; Freed, L A; Cann, R L

    1995-12-01

    The decline of native Hawaiian forest birds since European contact is attributed to factors ranging from habitat destruction to interactions with introduced species. Remaining populations of Hawaiian honeycreepers (Fringillidae: Drepanidinae) are most abundant and diverse in high elevation refuges above the normal range of disease-carrying mosquitoes. Challenge experiments suggest that honeycreepers are highly susceptible to avian malaria (Plasmodium sp.) but resistance exists in some species. In order to detect low levels of malarial infection and quantify prevalence of Plasmodium in high elevation natural populations of Hawaiian birds, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnostic test was developed that identifies rRNA genes of Plasmodium in avian blood samples. Quantitative competitive PCR (QC-PCR) experiments indicate that the detection limit of our test is an order of magnitude greater than that reported for human malaria DNA blot tests. Compared with standard histological methods, the PCR test detected a higher prevalence of diseased birds at mid-elevations. Malaria was detected in three species of native birds living in a high elevation wildlife refuge on the island of Hawaii and in four species from Maui. Our results show that avian malaria is more widespread in Hawaiian forests than previously thought, a finding that has important conservation implications for these threatened species. PMID:8564006

  14. Acultural Assumptions of Empiricism: A Native Hawaiian Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Manu Aluli

    2001-01-01

    A Native Hawaiian critiques the notion that philosophy is acultural, focusing on the spiritual and cultural context of knowledge, cultural influences on perception, relationships as the basis of epistemology, practical knowledge, the power of words in an oral culture, the mind-body question, and the politics of education. (SV)

  15. Coral: A Hawaiian Resource. An Instructional Guidebook for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Ann; Moniz, Barbara

    Described are eight field trips to various sites on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. These experiences are designed to help teachers develop middle school students' awareness and understanding of Hawaii's natural resources, with particular emphasis upon coral. Each field trip unit contains a physical and biological description of the area and two to…

  16. Field Keys to Common Hawaiian Marine Animals and Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Presented are keys for identifying common Hawaiian marine algae, beach plants, reef corals, sea urchins, tidepool fishes, and sea cucumbers. Nearly all species considered can be distinguished by characteristics visible to the naked eye. Line drawings illustrate most plants and animals included, and a list of suggested readings follows each…

  17. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  18. Potential genotoxic, mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of coffee: a review.

    PubMed

    Nehlig, A; Debry, G

    1994-04-01

    Coffee and caffeine are mutagenic to bacteria and fungi, and in high concentrations they are also mutagenic to mammalian cells in culture. However, the mutagenic effects of coffee disappear when bacteria or mammalian cells are cultured in the presence of liver extracts which contain detoxifying enzymes. In vivo, coffee and caffeine are devoid of mutagenic effects. Coffee and caffeine are able to interact with many other mutagens and their effects are synergistic with X-rays, ultraviolet light and some chemical agents. Caffeine seems to potentiate rather than to induce chromosomal aberrations and also to transform sublethal damage of mutagenic agents into lethal damage. Conversely, coffee and caffeine are also able to inhibit the mutagenic effects of numerous chemicals. These antimutagenic effects depend on the time of administration of coffee as compared to the acting time of the mutagenic agent. In that case, caffeine seems to be able to restore the normal cycle of mitosis and phosphorylation in irradiated cells. Finally, the potential genotoxic and mutagenic effects of the most important constituents of coffee are reviewed. Mutagenicity of caffeine is mainly attributed to chemically reactive components such as aliphatic dicarbonyls. The latter compounds, formed during the roasting process, are mutagenic to bacteria but less to mammalian cells. Hydrogen peroxide is not very active but seems to considerably enhance mutagenic properties of methylglyoxal. Phenolic compounds are not mutagenic but rather anticarcinogenic. Benzopyrene and mutagens formed during pyrolysis are not mutagenic whereas roasting of coffee beans at high temperature generates mutagenic heterocyclic amines. In conclusion, the mutagenic potential of coffee and caffeine has been demonstrated in lower organisms, but usually at doses several orders of magnitude greater than the estimated lethal dose for caffeine in humans. Therefore, the chances of coffee and caffeine consumption in moderate to

  19. My Morning Coffee: The Effect of Climate Change on the Economies of Coffee-Producing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.

  20. GLORIA mosaic of the U. S. Hawaiian exclusive economic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Torresan, M.E. )

    1990-06-01

    Digital long-range side-scan sonar reconnaissance surveys using GLORIA have imaged about 65% of the nearly 2.4 million km{sup 2} of the Hawaiian EEZ. The images have been processed and compiled into one mosaic that comprises the EEZ area surrounding the principal Hawaiian islands (from Hawaii to Kauai); extending on the south side of the ridge west to Kure Island, and on the north side to St. Rogatien Bank. The GLORIA images depict a variety of features that include enormous slumps and debris avalanches, lava flows, seafloor spreading fabric, fracture zones, seamounts, and unusual sedimentation patterns with more detail than previously had been possible with typical seismic reflection techniques. Some of these features were unknown before the GLORIA surveys. In particular, the GLORIA images show that the major degradational processes that affect the island and ridge areas are massive, likely tsunamogenic, blocky debris avalanches and slumps. These failures mantle the flanks of the ridge; some extending across the trough and up on to the Hawaiian Arch (up to 230 km from their sources). Over 30 failures are identified, ranging in area from 250 to > 6,000 km{sup 2} and having volumes from 500 to > 5,000 km{sup 3}. Such deposits cover > 125,000 km{sup 3} of the Ridge and adjacent seafloor. Also imaged are large Cenozoic submarine volcanic flow fields situated on the Hawaiian Arch. One such field, the North Arch field, is located north of Oahu between the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, and covers about 200,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to the GLORIA imagery only a small portion of this flow field was mapped. In addition, the imagery depicts the finer details of the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, the Cretaceous seafloor spreading fabric, and tensional faults on the Hawaiian Arch.

  1. Rhabdomyolysis induced by excessive coffee drinking.

    PubMed

    Chiang, W-F; Liao, M-T; Cheng, C-J; Lin, S-H

    2014-08-01

    Excessive ingestion of caffeine-containing beverages is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis. Here, we describe the case of a 44-year-old woman presented with nausea, vomiting, palpitations, and tea-colored urine 6 h after drinking a liter of black coffee containing approximately 565 mg of caffeine for mental alertness. Laboratory studies were notable for myoglobinuria and markedly elevated plasma creatine kinase (CK) level of 7315 U/L. With volume expansion and alkalization, her plasma CK level returned to normal within 5 days. Rhabdomyolysis should be considered a potential health hazard from excessive consumption of caffeine-containing products. PMID:24220878

  2. Petrologic insights into basaltic volcanism at historically active Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 6 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helz, Rosalind L.; Clague, David A.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Thornber, Carl R.

    2014-01-01

    Contributions to our knowledge of the nature of the mantle source(s) of Hawaiian basalts are reviewed briefly, although this is a topic where debate is ongoing. Finally, our accumulated petrologic observations impose constraints on the nature of the summit reservoirs at Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, specifically whether the summit chamber has been continuous or segmented during past decades.

  3. The National Center on Indigenous Hawaiian Behavioral Health Study of Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Native Hawaiian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Naleen N.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; McDermott, John F., Jr.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Makini, George K., Jr.; Nahulu, Linda B.; Yuen, Noelle Y. C.; McArdle, John J.; Bell, Cathy K.; Carlton, Barry S.; Miyamoto, Robin H.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Else, Iwalani R. N.; Guerrero, Anthony P. S.; Darmal, Arsalan; Yates, Alayne; Waldron, Jane A.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence rates of disorders among a community-based sample of Hawaiian youths were determined and compared to previously published epidemiological studies. Method: Using a two-phase design, 7,317 adolescents were surveyed (60% participation rate), from which 619 were selected in a modified random sample during the 1992-1993 to…

  4. Modulation of 3',5'-cyclic AMP homeostasis in human platelets by coffee and individual coffee constituents.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Gina A; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eirich, Marion; Erk, Thomas; Baum, Matthias; Habermeyer, Michael; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2014-11-14

    3',5'-Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is one of the most important second messengers in mammalian cells, mediating a multitude of diverse cellular signalling responses. Its homeostasis is primarily regulated by adenylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases (PDE), the activities of which are partially dependent on the downstream events of adenosine receptor signalling. The present study was conducted to determine whether coffee constituents other than caffeine can influence the homeostasis of intracellular cAMP in vitro and in vivo by evaluating the effects of selected constituents present in coffee, coffee brews and coffee extracts on platelet PDE activity. In addition, to evaluate the potential effects of these constituents on platelet cAMP concentrations and PDE activity in humans, a 7-week pilot intervention study with eight subjects was conducted. The subjects consumed a regular commercial coffee and a low-caffeine coffee at a rate of 750 ml/d for 2 weeks each. The in vivo results revealed a highly significant inhibition of PDE activity (P< 0·001) after coffee intervention that was not directly dependent on the caffeine content of coffee. Although our in vitro and in vivo findings suggest that caffeine plays some role in the modulation of platelet cAMP status, other natural and roasting-associated compounds such as pyrazines and other currently unidentified species also appear to contribute significantly. In conclusion, moderate consumption of coffee can modulate platelet PDE activity and cAMP concentrations in humans, which may contribute to the putative beneficial health effects of coffee. Further detailed mechanistic investigations will be required to substantiate these beneficial effects and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25247601

  5. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  6. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  7. Monitoring Coffee Yield Using Modis Remote Sensing Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, T.; Rosa, V. G.; Rudorf, B. F.; Adami, M.

    2011-12-01

    Remote sensing studies applied to coffee crop have shown the complexity and difficulty to extract information from satellite imagery. The accuracy of automatic classification for coffee areas was considered only intermediate by several authors. The errors were attributed to topographic effects and low spatial resolution of Landsat images. Besides the difficulties to map coffee crop, there are few cloud cover free Landsat images over the growing season. Despite the low spatial resolution, high temporal coverage of MODIS data makes it possible to obtain cloud free images on several dates over the year providing additional information for monitoring coffee crops. Our hypothesis is that the range of foliar biomass of coffee plots over the growing season, assumed to be estimated through MODIS vegetation indices, is related to coffee yield. We assess the feasibility of monitoring coffee yield by using time-series of MODIS 250m normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data. The study area is situated in the south of the Minas Gerais State which produces about thirty percent of the Brazilian coffee production. We used NDVI and EVI products from MODIS spanning from 2006 to 2009 to assess the feasibility of detecting relationships between vegetation indices and coffee yield. Landsat images were used to obtain a reference map of coffee areas and to identify MODIS 250m pure pixels overlapping homogeneous coffee crops. Only MODIS pixels with 100% coffee were included in the analysis. A wavelet-based filter was used to smooth NDVI and EVI time profiles. The next step was the acquisition of coffee yield data directly from farmers on the test site. Those data are being statistically related to vegetation indices and range values per year. The study region presents nearly 452.000 hectares of coffee mapped by on-screen digitalization of Landsat imagery from which about 10.000 hectares match plots likely to be monitored from 250 meters MODIS

  8. Aroma recovery from roasted coffee by wet grinding.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, J; Thomann, D; Perren, R; Escher, F

    2010-01-01

    Aroma recovery as determined by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was compared in coffees resulting from conventional grinding processes, and from wet grinding with cold and hot water. Freshly roasted coffee as well as old, completely degassed coffee was ground in order to estimate the relationship of internal carbon dioxide pressure in freshly roasted coffee with the aroma loss during grinding. The release of volatile aroma substances during grinding was found to be related to the internal carbon dioxide pressure, and wet grinding with cold water was shown to minimize losses of aroma compounds by trapping them in water. Due to the high solubility of roasted coffee in water, the use of wet-grinding equipment is limited to processes where grinding is followed by an extraction step. Combining grinding and extraction by the use of hot water for wet grinding resulted in considerable losses of aroma compounds because of the prolonged heat impact. Therefore, a more promising two-step process involving cold wet grinding and subsequent hot extraction in a closed system was introduced. The yield of aroma compounds in the resulting coffee was substantially higher compared to conventionally ground coffee. PMID:21535580

  9. A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K

    2015-05-01

    The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed. PMID:25598156

  10. Effect of regular and decaffeinated coffee on serum gastrin levels.

    PubMed

    Acquaviva, F; DeFrancesco, A; Andriulli, A; Piantino, P; Arrigoni, A; Massarenti, P; Balzola, F

    1986-04-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that the noncaffeine gastric acid stimulant effect of coffee might be by way of serum gastrin release. After 10 healthy volunteers drank 50 ml of coffee solution corresponding to one cup of home-made regular coffee containing 10 g of sugar and 240 mg/100 ml of caffeine, serum total gastrin levels peaked at 10 min and returned to basal values within 30 min; the response was of little significance (1.24 times the median basal value). Drinking 100 ml of sugared water (as control) resulted in occasional random elevations of serum gastrin which were not statistically significant. Drinking 100 ml of regular or decaffeinated coffee resulted in a prompt and lasting elevation of total gastrin; mean integrated outputs after regular or decaffeinated coffee were, respectively, 2.3 and 1.7 times the values in the control test. Regular and decaffeinated coffees share a strong gastrin-releasing property. Neither distension, osmolarity, calcium, nor amino acid content of the coffee solution can account for this property, which should be ascribed to some other unidentified ingredient. This property is at least partially lost during the process of caffeine removal. PMID:3745848

  11. Equine poisoning by coffee husk (Coffea arabica L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Brazil, coffee (Coffea arabica) husks are reused in several ways due to their abundance, including as stall bedding. However, field veterinarians have reported that horses become intoxicated after ingesting the coffee husks that are used as bedding. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether coffee husk consumption causes intoxication in horses. Results Six horses fed coast cross hay ad libitum were given access to coffee husks and excitability, restlessness, involuntary muscle tremors, chewing movements and constant tremors of the lips and tongue, excessive sweating and increased respiration and heart rates were the most evident clinical signs. Caffeine levels were measured in the plasma and urine of these horses on two occasions: immediately before the coffee husks were made available to the animals (T0) and at the time of the clinical presentation of intoxication, 56 h after the animals started to consume the husks (T56). The concentrations of caffeine in the plasma (p < 0.001) and urine (p < 0.001) of these animals were significantly greater at T56 than at T0. Conclusions It was concluded that consumption of coffee husks was toxic to horses due to the high levels of caffeine present in their composition. Therefore, coffee husks pose a risk when used as bedding or as feed for horses. PMID:22239973

  12. Coffee consumption vs. cancer risk - a review of scientific data.

    PubMed

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Coffee and its impact on health continue to be the topic of much heated debate. Until recently, coffee consumption has been believed to be associated with adverse effects, mainly cardiovascular problems. However, the vast majority of contemporary sources not only emphasize a lack of detrimental effect, but also suggest a beneficial effect of coffee intake. According to the current state of knowledge, coffee consumption is not associated with the majority of cancers although the results of studies on bladder and lung cancer remain conflicting. In case of colorectal, liver and breast cancers, coffee drinking may even have a protective effect. Coffee contains numerous compounds, potentially beneficial as well as harmful. The former include polyphenols which inhibit harmful oxidation processes in the body, while the latter include acrylamide, whose high intake in daily diet may have carcinogenic action. The impact of coffee on the human body is associated also with other factors, e.g. the rate of metabolism and other individual features. PMID:26656410

  13. Coffee and tea consumption in relation to prostate cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Geybels, Milan S.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Stott-Miller, Marni; Stanford, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioactive compounds found in coffee and tea may delay the progression of prostate cancer. Methods We investigated associations of pre-diagnostic coffee and tea consumption with risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression. Study participants were men diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2002–2005 in King County, Washington, USA. We assessed the usual pattern of coffee and tea consumption two years before diagnosis date. Prostate cancer outcome events were identified using a detailed follow-up survey. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The analysis of coffee intake in relation to prostate cancer recurrence/progression included 630 patients with a median follow-up of 6.4 years, during which 140 prostate cancer recurrence/progression events were recorded. Approximately 61% of patients consumed at least one cup of coffee per day. Coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression; the adjusted HR for ≥4 cups/day versus ≤1 cup/week was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.81; P for trend = 0.01). Approximately 14% of patients consumed one or more cups of tea per day, and tea consumption was unrelated to prostate cancer recurrence/progression. Conclusion Results indicate that pre-diagnostic coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression. This finding will require replication in larger studies. PMID:23907772

  14. Acute ventilatory response to green coffee dust extract.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Kanceljak, B; Witek, T J; Schachter, E N

    1991-03-01

    The lung function response to inhalation of an extract of green coffee was studied in ten healthy subjects who were prescreened for airway hyperresponsiveness to an aerosol of green coffee extract. The effects of this provocation were evaluated at rest and following moderate exercise as well as with and without pretreatment with 80 mg of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). There was a statistically significant decrement in lung function over time (P less than .001) following coffee provocation both at rest and following exercise. No significant protection against this response was observed with DSCG pretreatment. While the majority of these "healthy" coffee reactors exhibited baseline nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine (PC20 FEV1 less than 25 mg/mL in 7/10), there was no correlation in these ten subjects between baseline responsiveness to methacholine and the degree of lung function decrement following coffee (P greater than .05). Also, no correlation was observed between skin prick and lung function response to coffee extract. We conclude that inhalation of green coffee extract causes significant bronchoconstriction in selected healthy volunteers and that this response is not prevented by pretreatment with DSCG. PMID:1900983

  15. Coffee and Depression: A Short Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria; Orlando, Valentina; D'Urso, Emanuela; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Novellino, Ettore; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is among the most widespread and healthiest beverages in the world. It is known to be a highly rich source of biologically active natural metabolites which possess therapeutic effects (i.e. caffeine) and functional properties (i.e. chlorogenic acids). Therefore, coffee can be considered a drink which has different positive effects on human health such as cardioprotective, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, etc. However, heavy coffee consumption may be related to some unpleasant symptoms, mainly anxiety, headache, increased blood pressure, nausea, and restlessness. During the past two decades, several studies have indicated that there is a close correlation between consumption of coffee and incidence of depression. In addition, phytochemical studies showed that caffeine is the main responsible constituent for antidepressant effects of coffee through multiple molecular mechanisms. The aim of the present paper was to collect the latest literature data (from 1984 to 2014) on the positive and negative impacts of coffee consumption on the major depressive disorders and to clarify the role of bioactive constituents of coffee in the related different clinical trials. To the best of our knowledge, this the first review on this topic. PMID:26303345

  16. Weather and Climate Indicators for Coffee Rust Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, S.; Imbach, P. A.; Avelino, J.; Anzueto, F.; del Carmen Calderón, G.

    2014-12-01

    Coffee rust is a disease that has significant impacts on the livelihoods of those who are dependent on the Central American coffee sector. Our investigation has focussed on the weather and climate indicators that favoured the high incidence of coffee rust disease in Central America in 2012 by assessing daily temperature and precipitation data available from 81 weather stations in the INSIVUMEH and ANACAFE networks located in Guatemala. The temperature data were interpolated to determine the corresponding daily data at 1250 farms located across Guatemala, between 400 and 1800 m elevation. Additionally, CHIRPS five day (pentad) data has been used to assess the anomalies between the 2012 and the climatological average precipitation data at farm locations. The weather conditions in 2012 displayed considerable variations from the climatological data. In general the minimum daily temperatures were higher than the corresponding climatology while the maximum temperatures were lower. As a result, the daily diurnal temperature range was generally lower than the corresponding climatological range, leading to an increased number of days where the temperatures fell within the optimal range for either influencing the susceptibility of the coffee plants to coffee rust development during the dry season, or for the development of lesions on the coffee leaves during the wet season. The coffee rust latency period was probably shortened as a result, and farms at high altitudes were impacted due to these increases in minimum temperature. Factors taken into consideration in developing indicators for coffee rust development include: the diurnal temperature range, altitude, the environmental lapse rate and the phenology. We will present the results of our study and discuss the potential for each of the derived weather and climatological indicators to be used within risk assessments and to eventually be considered for use within an early warning system for coffee rust disease.

  17. Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1989-09-01

    In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference for caffeine was demonstrated whether or not preference testing was preceded by a period of 10 to 37 days of caffeine abstinence, suggesting that a recent history of heavy caffeine intake (tolerance/dependence) was not a necessary condition for caffeine to function as a reinforcer. In Experiment 2, 6 subjects had 10 opportunities each day to self-administer a cup of coffee or (on different days) a capsule, dependent upon completing a work requirement that progressively increased and then decreased over days. Each day, one of four conditions was studied: caffeinated coffee (100 mg/cup), decaffeinated coffee, caffeine capsules (100 mg/capsule), or placebo capsules. Caffeinated coffee maintained the most self-administration, significantly higher than decaffeinated coffee and placebo capsules but not different from caffeine capsules. Both decaffeinated coffee and caffeine capsules were significantly higher than placebo capsules but not different from each other. In both experiments, subject ratings of "linking" of coffee or capsules covaried with the self-administration measures. These experiments provide the clearest demonstrations to date of the reinforcing effects of caffeine in capsules and in coffee. PMID:2794839

  18. Coffee, tea, and melanoma risk among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haotian; Reeves, Katherine W; Qian, Jing; Sturgeon, Susan R

    2015-07-01

    Laboratory research suggests that components in coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects. Some epidemiologic studies have reported that women who consume coffee and tea have a lower risk for melanoma. We assessed coffee, tea, and melanoma risk prospectively in the Women's Health Initiative - Observational Study cohort of 66,484 postmenopausal women, followed for an average of 7.7 years. Coffee and tea intakes were measured through self-administered questionnaires at baseline and at year 3 of follow-up. Self-reported incident melanomas were adjudicated using medical records. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk, adjusting for covariates, with person-time accumulation until melanoma diagnosis (n=398), death, loss to follow-up, or through 2005. Daily coffee [hazard ratio (HR)=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.12] and tea (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.31) intakes were not significantly associated with melanoma risk compared with nondaily intake of each beverage. No significant trends were observed between melanoma risk and increasing intakes of coffee (P for trend=0.38) or tea (P for trend=0.22). Women who reported daily coffee intake at both baseline and year 3 had a significantly decreased risk compared with women who reported nondaily intake at both time points (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97). Consistent daily tea intake was not associated with decreased melanoma risk. Overall, there is no strong evidence that increasing coffee or tea consumption can lead to a lower melanoma risk. We observed a decrease in melanoma risk among long-term coffee drinkers, but the lack of consistency in the results by dose and type cautioned against overinterpretation of the results. PMID:25325307

  19. Association between coffee consumption and serum lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    KARABUDAK, EFSUN; TÜRKÖZÜ, DUYGU; KÖKSAL, EDA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and serum lipid levels in a study population of 122 Turkish subjects (mean age, 41.4±12.69 years), including 48 males and 74 females. A questionnaire was compiled to determine baseline characteristics, and food and coffee consumption. Subjects were divided into three groups, which included non-drinkers, Turkish coffee and instant coffee drinkers, and anthropometric measurements were acquired, including weight, height and body mass index. Serum lipid levels were analyzed, including the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels. Of the population studied, 76.2% had consumed at least one cup of coffee per week over the previous year. Daily consumption values were 62.3±40.60 ml (0.7±0.50 cup) for Turkish coffee and 116.3±121.96 ml (0.7±0.81 cup) for instant coffee. No statistically significant differences were observed in the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C or VLDL-C among the three groups. In addition, no statistically significant differences were observed in the serum lipid levels when comparing individuals who consumed coffee with sugar/cream or who smoked and those who did not (P>0.05). Therefore, the present observations indicated no significant association between the consumption of Turkish or instant coffee and serum lipid levels. PMID:26136902

  20. Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1989-01-01

    In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference for caffeine was demonstrated whether or not preference testing was preceded by a period of 10 to 37 days of caffeine abstinence, suggesting that a recent history of heavy caffeine intake (tolerance/dependence) was not a necessary condition for caffeine to function as a reinforcer. In Experiment 2, 6 subjects had 10 opportunities each day to self-administer a cup of coffee or (on different days) a capsule, dependent upon completing a work requirement that progressively increased and then decreased over days. Each day, one of four conditions was studied: caffeinated coffee (100 mg/cup), decaffeinated coffee, caffeine capsules (100 mg/capsule), or placebo capsules. Caffeinated coffee maintained the most self-administration, significantly higher than decaffeinated coffee and placebo capsules but not different from caffeine capsules. Both decaffeinated coffee and caffeine capsules were significantly higher than placebo capsules but not different from each other. In both experiments, subject ratings of "linking" of coffee or capsules covaried with the self-administration measures. These experiments provide the clearest demonstrations to date of the reinforcing effects of caffeine in capsules and in coffee. PMID:2794839

  1. Tea, Coffee, and Milk Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Methods Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 2005–07. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of black tea (with and without milk), green tea, herbal tea, hot coffee, iced coffee, and milk with colorectal cancer. Results Consumption of 1 or more cups of herbal tea per week was associated with a significantly decreased risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16–0.82; PTrend = 0.044), and consumption of 1 or more cups of iced coffee per week was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.91–2.54; PTrend = 0.004). Neither herbal tea nor iced coffee was associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. Hot coffee was associated with a possible increased risk of distal colon cancer. Black tea (with or without milk), green tea, decaffeinated coffee, and milk were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Consumption of herbal tea was associated with reduced risk of distal colon cancer, and consumption of iced coffee was associated with increased rectal cancer risk. PMID:24531002

  2. The Emperor Seamounts: southward motion of the Hawaiian hotspot plume in Earth's mantle.

    PubMed

    Tarduno, John A; Duncan, Robert A; Scholl, David W; Cottrell, Rory D; Steinberger, Bernhard; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Kerr, Bryan C; Neal, Clive R; Frey, Fred A; Torii, Masayuki; Carvallo, Claire

    2003-08-22

    The Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track has a prominent bend, which has served as the basis for the theory that the Hawaiian hotspot, fixed in the deep mantle, traced a change in plate motion. However, paleomagnetic and radiometric age data from samples recovered by ocean drilling define an age-progressive paleolatitude history, indicating that the Emperor Seamount trend was principally formed by the rapid motion (over 40 millimeters per year) of the Hawaiian hotspot plume during Late Cretaceous to early-Tertiary times (81 to 47 million years ago). Evidence for motion of the Hawaiian plume affects models of mantle convection and plate tectonics, changing our understanding of terrestrial dynamics. PMID:12881572

  3. Effect of coffee (caffeine) against human cataract blindness

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Shambhu D

    2016-01-01

    Previous biochemical and morphological studies with animal experiments have demonstrated that caffeine given topically or orally to certain experimental animal models has significant inhibitory effect on cataract formation. The present studies were undertaken to examine if there is a correlation between coffee drinking and incidence of cataract blindness in human beings. That has been found to be the case. Incidence of cataract blindness was found to be significantly lower in groups consuming higher amounts of coffee in comparison to the groups with lower coffee intake. Mechanistically, the caffeine effect could be multifactorial, involving its antioxidant as well as its bioenergetic effects on the lens. PMID:26869755

  4. What's Inside That Seed We Brew? A New Approach To Mining the Coffee Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Michael Joe; Mitchell, Thomas; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B

    2015-10-01

    Coffee is a critically important agricultural commodity for many tropical states and is a beverage enjoyed by millions of people worldwide. Recent concerns over the sustainability of coffee production have prompted investigations of the coffee microbiome as a tool to improve crop health and bean quality. This review synthesizes literature informing our knowledge of the coffee microbiome, with an emphasis on applications of fruit- and seed-associated microbes in coffee production and processing. A comprehensive inventory of microbial species cited in association with coffee fruits and seeds is presented as reference tool for researchers investigating coffee-microbe associations. It concludes with a discussion of the approaches and techniques that provide a path forward to improve our understanding of the coffee microbiome and its utility, as a whole and as individual components, to help ensure the future sustainability of coffee production. PMID:26162877

  5. What's Inside That Seed We Brew? A New Approach To Mining the Coffee Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Thomas; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is a critically important agricultural commodity for many tropical states and is a beverage enjoyed by millions of people worldwide. Recent concerns over the sustainability of coffee production have prompted investigations of the coffee microbiome as a tool to improve crop health and bean quality. This review synthesizes literature informing our knowledge of the coffee microbiome, with an emphasis on applications of fruit- and seed-associated microbes in coffee production and processing. A comprehensive inventory of microbial species cited in association with coffee fruits and seeds is presented as reference tool for researchers investigating coffee-microbe associations. It concludes with a discussion of the approaches and techniques that provide a path forward to improve our understanding of the coffee microbiome and its utility, as a whole and as individual components, to help ensure the future sustainability of coffee production. PMID:26162877

  6. Coffee ringspot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in coffee.

    PubMed

    Chagas, C M; Kitajima, E W; Rodrigues, J C V

    2003-01-01

    Coffee ringspot is characterized by conspicuous ringspot symptoms on leaves, berries, and less frequently on twigs. It is caused by coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV), a short, bacilliform virus (40 nm x 100-110 nm). The virus is not seed borne and is transmitted by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). Transovarial transmission within the mite does not occur. CoRSV has been mechanically transmitted to Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste and Reynaud, C. quinoa Wildenow, Beta vulgaris L., and Alternanthera tenella Colla resulting in local lesions. Systemic infection within both C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa occurs. Virions are found in the nucleus or cytoplasm of infected cells, commonly associated with membranes. Occasionally, membrane bounded particles are found within the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum. A characteristic electron lucent, nuclear inclusion is commonly found in many infected cells. These cytopathic effects place CoRSV among the nuclear type of Brevipalpus-borne viruses. The disease has been reported in several Brazilian states (São Paulo, Paraná, Minas Gerais, and Federal District) and recently found in Costa Rica. A similar disease is known in the Philippines, but no information exists about its relationship to CoRSV. Coffee ringspot had no economical significance until recently when a large scale infection was reported in Minas Gerais that resulted in yield loss. PMID:14756417

  7. Five new species of Isospora from Hawaiian birds.

    PubMed

    Levine, N D; Van Riper, S; Van Riper, C

    1980-08-01

    The following species are described from Hawaiian birds: Isospora brayi sp. n., with oocysts 27 X 26 micron and sporocysts 19 X 12 micron, from the Japanese white-eye, Zosterops japonicus Temminck & Schlegel; Isospora cardinalis sp. n., with oocysts 24 X 23 micron, and sporocysts 16 X 10 micron, from the cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis (Linnaeus); Isospora ivensae sp. n., with oocysts 26 X 25 micron, and sporocysts 18 X 12 micron, from the spotted or white-throated munia, Lonchura punctulata (Linnaeus); Isospora loxopis sp. n., with oocysts 26 X 23 micron, and sporocysts 16 X 13 micron, from the amakihi or honeycreeper, Loxops virens (Gmelin); and Isospora phaeornis sp. n., with oocysts 27 X 19 micron, and sporocysts 16 X 11 micron, from the omao or Hawaiian thrush, Phaeornis obscurus (Gmelin). All the host birds belong to the order Passerorida. PMID:7452523

  8. Founder effects initiated rapid species radiation in Hawaiian cave planthoppers.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Andreas; Hoch, Hannelore; Asche, Manfred; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Björn; Heck, Volker; Stone, Fred D; Howarth, Francis G

    2013-06-01

    The Hawaiian Islands provide the venue of one of nature's grand experiments in evolution. Here, we present morphological, behavioral, genetic, and geologic data from a young subterranean insect lineage in lava tube caves on Hawai'i Island. The Oliarus polyphemus species complex has the potential to become a model for studying rapid speciation by stochastic events. All species in this lineage live in extremely similar environments but show strong differentiation in behavioral and morphometric characters, which are random with respect to cave age and geographic distribution. Our observation that phenotypic variability within populations decreases with increasing cave age challenges traditional views on founder effects. Furthermore, these cave populations are natural replicates that can be used to test the contradictory hypotheses. Moreover, Hawaiian cave planthoppers exhibit one of the highest speciation rates among animals and, thus, radically shift our perception on the evolutionary potential of obligate cavernicoles. PMID:23696661

  9. Founder effects initiated rapid species radiation in Hawaiian cave planthoppers

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Andreas; Hoch, Hannelore; Asche, Manfred; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Björn; Heck, Volker; Stone, Fred D.; Howarth, Francis G.

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands provide the venue of one of nature’s grand experiments in evolution. Here, we present morphological, behavioral, genetic, and geologic data from a young subterranean insect lineage in lava tube caves on Hawai‘i Island. The Oliarus polyphemus species complex has the potential to become a model for studying rapid speciation by stochastic events. All species in this lineage live in extremely similar environments but show strong differentiation in behavioral and morphometric characters, which are random with respect to cave age and geographic distribution. Our observation that phenotypic variability within populations decreases with increasing cave age challenges traditional views on founder effects. Furthermore, these cave populations are natural replicates that can be used to test the contradictory hypotheses. Moreover, Hawaiian cave planthoppers exhibit one of the highest speciation rates among animals and, thus, radically shift our perception on the evolutionary potential of obligate cavernicoles. PMID:23696661

  10. Age, geochemistry and melt flux variations for the Hawaiian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D. A.; Greene, A. R.; Wessel, P.; Harrison, L.; Tree, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Hawaiian Ridge portion of the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain, the classic example of a mantle plume produced linear island chain, is 6000 km in length, active for 80+ Myr, and tectonically simple. Despite its importance to our understanding of mantle plumes and Cenozoic plate motion, there are large data gaps for the age and geochemistry of lavas from volcanoes along the Hawaiian Ridge (HR) portion of the Chain. Ages: Only volcanoes near the Hawaiian-Emperor bend and in the Hawaiian Islands have modern Ar-Ar ages, leaving a gap of 2000 km where existing K-Ar ages suggest synchronous volcanism over a 1000 km section. Geochemistry: There is a 2900 km gap in high precision geochemical data for the HR. The Emperor Seamounts (>45 Ma) have better regional coverage of recent isotopic data and show a correlation of Sr isotope composition with age of the underlying oceanic lithosphere (Regelous et al. 2003). The HR has an unexplained, exponential increase in magma flux over the last 30 Myr (Vidal & Bonneville 2004). Potential explanations for the increase in magma flux include: changes in melting conditions (temperature and/or pressure), change in source fertility related to rock type (pyroxenite vs. peridotite) or previous melting history, and/or changes in plate stresses resulting from reconfigurations of plate motion. Our new multi-disciplinary project will: 1) Determine 40Ar/39Ar ages, and whole-rock major, trace element, and Pb, Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic geochemistry for lavas from 20 volcanoes spanning ~2150 km of the HR (NW of the Hawaiian Islands). 2) Use the geochemical data to determine the long-term evolution of the Hawaiian mantle plume source components and to evaluate whether there have been systematic variations in mantle potential temperature, melting pressure, and/or source lithology during the creation of the HR. If so, are they responsible for the 300% variation in melt production along the Ridge? Also, we will assess when the more fertile Loa source component

  11. An olivine-free mantle source of Hawaiian shield basalts.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Alexander V; Hofmann, Albrecht W; Sobolev, Stephan V; Nikogosian, Igor K

    2005-03-31

    More than 50 per cent of the Earth's upper mantle consists of olivine and it is generally thought that mantle-derived melts are generated in equilibrium with this mineral. Here, however, we show that the unusually high nickel and silicon contents of most parental Hawaiian magmas are inconsistent with a deep olivine-bearing source, because this mineral together with pyroxene buffers both nickel and silicon at lower levels. This can be resolved if the olivine of the mantle peridotite is consumed by reaction with melts derived from recycled oceanic crust, to form a secondary pyroxenitic source. Our modelling shows that more than half of Hawaiian magmas formed during the past 1 Myr came from this source. In addition, we estimate that the proportion of recycled (oceanic) crust varies from 30 per cent near the plume centre to insignificant levels at the plume edge. These results are also consistent with volcano volumes, magma volume flux and seismological observations. PMID:15800614

  12. Improvement of vegetables elemental quality by espresso coffee residues.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rebeca; Morais, Simone; Mendes, Eulália; Pereira, José A; Baptista, Paula; Casal, Susana

    2014-04-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are usually disposed as common garbage, without specific reuse strategies implemented so far. Due to its recognised richness in bioactive compounds, the effect of SCG on lettuce's macro- and micro-elements was assessed to define its effectiveness for agro industrial reuse. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with different amounts of fresh and composted spent coffee, and potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, zinc and copper were analysed. A progressive decrease on all lettuce mineral elements was verified with the increase of fresh spent coffee, except for potassium. In opposition, an increment of lettuce's essential macro-elements was verified when low amounts of composted spent coffee were applied (5%, v/v), increasing potassium content by 40%, manganese by 30%, magnesium by 20%, and sodium by 10%, of nutritional relevance This practical approach offers an alternative reuse for this by-product, extendable to other crops, providing value-added vegetable products. PMID:24262560

  13. Chemical profiling to differentiate geographic growing origins of coffee.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kim A; Smith, Brian W

    2002-03-27

    The objective of this research was to demonstrate the feasibility of this method to differentiate the geographical growing regions of coffee beans. Elemental analysis (K, Mg, Ca, Na, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, S, Cd, Pb, and P) of coffee bean samples was performed using ICPAES. There were 160 coffee samples analyzed from the three major coffee-growing regions: Indonesia, East Africa, and Central/South America. A computational evaluation of the data sets was carried out using statistical pattern recognition methods including principal component analysis, discriminant function analysis, and neural network modeling. This paper reports the development of a method combining elemental analysis and classification techniques that may be widely applied to the determination of the geographical origin of foods. PMID:11902958

  14. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roasted coffee.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Angelica; Adisa, Afolabi; Woodham, Cara; Saleh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. This study describes the presence of PAHs in light, medium and dark roasted coffee including instant and decaffeinated brands. Total PAHs concentration was related to the degree of roasting with light roasted coffee showing the least and dark roasted coffee showing the highest level. Both instant and decaffeinated coffee brand showed lower levels of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, pyrene and chrysene were the most abundant individual isomers. The concentrations ranged from 0 to 561 ng g(-1) for naphthalene, 0 to 512 ng g(-1) for acenaphthylene, 60 to 459 ng g(-1) for pyrene and 56 to 371 ng g(-1) for chrysene. Thus, roasting conditions should be controlled to avoid the formation of PAHs due to their suspected carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. PMID:25190557

  15. 32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing beans from first floor hopper. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1B-17 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  16. Coffee consumption and the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, C; Talamini, R; Decarli, A; Franceschi, S; Parazzini, F; Tognoni, G

    1986-09-01

    The relationship of breast cancer to coffee drinking habits was evaluated in a case-control study of 616 women with breast cancer and 616 control subjects with nonmalignant disorders, apparently unrelated to coffee consumption. Compared with women who had never drunk coffee, the relative risk estimates for those women who drank less than two, two or three, and four or more cups each day were 1.5, 1.3, and 1.0, respectively. There was no apparent association with duration of consumption or use of other methylxanthine-containing beverages. The results were not modified by several potential confounding factors, including the major risk factors for breast cancer. The findings suggest that coffee consumption does not increase the risk of malignant neoplasms of the breast. PMID:3738766

  17. All the Exquisite Details of a Coffee Mug.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Dave M., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a three-part exercise used in a first semester freshman composition class, intended to show students the world of details in even the most ordinary, everyday objects by having students write about a plastic coffee mug. (SR)

  18. Antioxidative activities of fractions obtained from brewed coffee.

    PubMed

    Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Ochi, Hirotomo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2004-02-11

    The antioxidative activity of column chromatographic fractions obtained from brewed coffee was investigated to find antioxidants and to assess the benefit of coffee drinking. The dichloromethane extract inhibited hexanal oxidation by 100 and 50% for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, at the level of 5 microg/mL. A GC/MS analysis of fractions, which exhibited oxidative activity, revealed the presence of antioxidative heterocyclic compounds including furans, pyrroles, and maltol. The residual aqueous solution exhibited slight antioxidative activity. The inhibitory activity (%) of the seven fractions from an aqueous solution toward malonaldehde formation from lipid oxidation ranged from 10 to 90 at a level of 300 microg/mL. The results indicate that brewed coffee contains many antioxidants and consumption of antioxidant-rich brewed coffee may inhibit diseases caused by oxidative damages. PMID:14759154

  19. Caffeine in coffee: its removal. Why and how?

    PubMed

    Ramalakshmi, K; Raghavan, B

    1999-09-01

    The popularity of coffee as a beverage is ever increasing despite the fact that there are reports antagonized to its consumption. Of the several factors cited, the alkaloid caffeine present in coffee can cause addiction and stimulate the central nervous system. It has an effect on the cardiovascular system with a slight increase in blood pressure and heart output. It undergoes biotransformation in the human body to form methylated derivatives of uric acid. In recent times, much effort has gone into the research on the removal of caffeine in coffee, resulting in a specialty product called decaffeinated coffee. Decaffeination methods mainly employ organic solvents or water or supercritical carbon dioxide. These methods with their attendant advantages and disadvantages are reviewed in this article. PMID:10516914

  20. 43. RAILROAD TRACKS, WITH BISHOP'S BLOCK, MCFADDEN COFFEE AND SPICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. RAILROAD TRACKS, WITH BISHOP'S BLOCK, MCFADDEN COFFEE AND SPICE COMPANY FACTORY AND WAREHOUSE AND DUBUQUE SEED COMPANY WAREHOUSE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Dubuque Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  1. 42. RAILROAD TRACKS, WITH BISHOP'S BLOCK, MCFADDEN COFFEE AND SPICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. RAILROAD TRACKS, WITH BISHOP'S BLOCK, MCFADDEN COFFEE AND SPICE COMPANY FACTORY AND WAREHOUSE AND DUBUQUE SEED COMPANY WAREHOUSE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Dubuque Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  2. 44. RAILROAD TRACKS, WITH BISHOP'S BLOCK, MCFADDEN COFFEE AND SPICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. RAILROAD TRACKS, WITH BISHOP'S BLOCK, MCFADDEN COFFEE AND SPICE COMPANY FACTORY AND WAREHOUSE AND DUBUQUE SEED COMPANY WAREHOUSE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Dubuque Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  3. Space Coffee Cup: Capillary Flow Driven Fluids in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Interested in learning more about how fluids react in Space? In this video, Professor Mark Weislogel, and Dr. Marshall Porterfield will discuss the Space Coffee Cup and Capillary Flow Driven Fluids...

  4. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roasted coffee

    PubMed Central

    JIMENEZ, ANGELICA; ADISA, AFOLABI; WOODHAM, CARA; SALEH, MAHMOUD

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. This study describes the presence of PAHs in light, medium and dark roasted coffee including instant and decaffeinated brands. Total PAHs concentration was related to the degree of roasting with light roasted coffee showing the least and dark roasted coffee showing the highest level. Both instant and decaffeinated coffee brand showed lower levels of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, pyrene and chrysene were the most abundant individual isomers. The concentrations ranged from 0 to 561 ng g−1 for naphthalene, 0 to 512 ng g−1 for acenaphthylene, 60 to 459 ng g−1 for pyrene and 56 to 371 ng g−1 for chrysene. Thus, roasting conditions should be controlled to avoid the formation of PAHs due to their suspected carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. PMID:25190557

  5. Progressive island colonization and ancient origin of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Percy, Diana M; Garver, Adam M; Wagner, Warren L; James, Helen F; Cunningham, Clifford W; Miller, Scott E; Fleischer, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the evolutionary history of plants that are ecologically dominant in modern ecosystems is critical to understanding the historical development of those ecosystems. Metrosideros is a plant genus found in many ecological and altitudinal zones throughout the Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands, Metrosideros polymorpha is an ecologically dominant species and is also highly polymorphic in both growth form and ecology. Using 10 non-coding chloroplast regions, we investigated haplotype diversity in the five currently recognized Hawaiian Metrosideros species and an established out-group, Metrosideros collina, from French Polynesia. Multiple haplotype groups were found, but these did not match morphological delimitations. Alternative morphologies sharing the same haplotype, as well as similar morphologies occurring within several distinct island clades, could be the result of developmental plasticity, parallel evolution or chloroplast capture. The geographical structure of the data is consistent with a pattern of age progressive island colonizations and suggests de novo intra-island diversification. If single colonization events resulted in a similar array of morphologies on each island, this would represent parallel radiations within a single, highly polymorphic species. However, we were unable to resolve whether the pattern is instead explained by ancient introgression and incomplete lineage sorting resulting in repeated chloroplast capture. Using several calibration methods, we estimate the colonization of the Hawaiian Islands to be potentially as old as 3.9 (−6.3) Myr with an ancestral position for Kaua'i in the colonization and evolution of Metrosideros in the Hawaiian Islands. This would represent a more ancient arrival of Metrosideros to this region than previous studies have suggested. PMID:18426752

  6. Toxoplasmosis in three species of native and introduced Hawaiian birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Lindsay, D.S.; Dubey, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with antia??T. gondiia??specific polyclonal antibodies. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in these species of birds.

  7. Toxoplasmosis in three species of native and introduced Hawaiian birds.

    PubMed

    Work, Thierry M; Massey, J Gregory; Lindsay, David; Dubey, J P

    2002-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with anti-T. gondii-specific polyclonal antibodies. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in these species of birds. PMID:12435157

  8. Pathways and Predictors of Juvenile Justice Involvement for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youths: A Focus on Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasko, Lisa; Mayeda, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growth of Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) youths in court and correctional involvement, studies of their delinquency and juvenile justice involvement are quite limited, and the literature becomes almost nonexistent when examining gender differences. Using case file analysis of 150 Native Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian and…

  9. Associations of coffee drinking with systemic immune and inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Loftfield, Erikka; Shiels, Meredith S.; Graubard, Barry I.; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Chaturvedi, Anil K.; Trabert, Britton; Pinto, Ligia A.; Kemp, Troy J.; Shebl, Fatma M.; Mayne, Susan T.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Purdue, Mark P.; Hildesheim, Allan; Sinha, Rashmi; Freedman, Neal D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Coffee drinking has been inversely associated with mortality as well as cancers of the endometrium, colon, skin, prostate, and liver. Improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammation are among the hypothesized mechanisms by which coffee drinking may affect cancer risk; however, associations between coffee drinking and systemic levels of immune and inflammatory markers have not been well characterized. Methods We used Luminex bead-based assays to measure serum levels of 77 immune and inflammatory markers in 1,728 older non-Hispanic Whites. Usual coffee intake was self-reported using a food frequency questionnaire. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression models to examine associations between coffee and dichotomized marker levels. We conducted statistical trend tests by modeling the median value of each coffee category and applied a 20% false discovery rate criterion to P-values. Results Ten of the 77 markers were nominally associated (P-value for trend<0.05) with coffee drinking. Five markers withstood correction for multiple comparisons and included aspects of the host response namely chemotaxis of monocytes/macrophages (IFNγ, CX3CL1/fractalkine, CCL4/MIP-1β), pro-inflammatory cytokines (sTNFRII) and regulators of cell growth (FGF-2). Heavy coffee drinkers had lower circulating levels of IFNγ (OR=0.35; 95% CI 0.16–0.75), CX3CL1/fractalkine (OR=0.25; 95% CI 0.10–0.64), CCL4/MIP-1β (OR=0.48; 95% CI 0.24–0.99), FGF-2 (OR=0.62; 95% CI 0.28–1.38), and sTNFRII (OR=0.34; 95% CI 0.15–0.79) than non-coffee drinkers. Conclusions Lower circulating levels of inflammatory markers among coffee drinkers may partially mediate previously observed associations of coffee with cancer and other chronic diseases. Impact Validation studies, ideally controlled feeding trials, are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:25999212

  10. Determination of serotonin released from coffee wax by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kele, M; Ohmacht, R

    1996-04-12

    A simple hydrolysis and extraction method was developed for the release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) from a coffee wax sample obtained from decaffeination of coffee beans. The recoverable amount of serotonin was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with gradient elution and UV detection, using the standard addition method. Different type of basic deactivated chromatographic columns were used for the separation. PMID:8680597

  11. Restoration of Native Hawaiian Dryland Forest at Auwahi, Maui

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medieros, Arthur C.; vonAllmen, Erica

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The powerful volcanoes that formed the high islands of the Hawaiian archipelago block northeasterly tradewinds, creating wet, windward rain forests and much drier, leeward forests. Dryland forests in Hawai'i receive only about 20 inches of rain a year. However, the trees in these forests intercept fog and increase ground moisture levels, thereby enabling these seemingly inhospitable habitats to support a diverse assemblage of plants and animals. Dryland forests of the Hawaiian Islands, like those worldwide, have been heavily impacted by humans both directly and indirectly. Less than 10% of Hawai'i's original dryland forest habitat remains. These forests have been severely impacted by urban development, ranching and agriculture, and invasive species. In particular, browsing animals and alien grasses have caused significant damage. Feral ungulates, including goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs, consume sensitive plants. Alien grasses have become dominant in the understory in many dryland habitats. In addition, these introduced grasses are fire-adapted and have increased the incidence of wildfire in these ecosystems. Native Hawaiian plants did not evolve with frequent fires or mammalian herbivores and typically do not survive well under these pressures.

  12. What, When, Where, and Why of Secondary Hawaiian Hotspot Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. O.; Ito, G.; Applegate, B.; Weis, D.; Swinnard, L.; Flinders, A.; Hanano, D.; Nobre-Silva, I.; Bianco, T.; Naumann, T.; Geist, D.; Blay, C.; Sciaroni, L.; Maerschalk, C.; Harpp, K.; Christensen, B.

    2007-12-01

    Secondary hotspot volcanism occurs on most oceanic island groups (Hawaii, Canary, Society) but its origins remain enigmatic. A 28-day marine expedition used multibeam bathymetry and acoustic imagery to map the extent of submarine volcanic fields around the northern Hawaiian Islands (Kauai, Niihau and Kaula), and the JASON2 ROV to sample many volcanoes to characterize the petrology, geochemistry (major and trace elements, and isotopes) and ages of the lavas from these volcanoes. Our integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical study attempts to examine the what (compositions and source), where (distribution and volumes), when (ages), and why (mechanisms) of secondary volcanism on and around the northern Hawaiian Islands. A first-order objective was to establish how the submarine volcanism relates in space, time, volume, and composition to the nearby shield volcanoes and their associated onshore secondary volcanism. Our surveying and sampling revealed major fields of submarine volcanoes extending from the shallow slopes of these islands to more than 100 km offshore. These discoveries dramatically expand the volumetric importance, distribution and geodynamic framework for Hawaiian secondary volcanism. New maps and rock petrology on the samples collected will be used to evaluate currently proposed mechanisms for secondary volcanism and to consider new models such as small-scale mantle convection driven by thermal and melt-induced buoyancy to produce the huge volume of newly discovered lava. Our results seem to indicate substantial revisions are needed to our current perceptions of hotspot dynamics for Hawaii and possibly elsewhere.

  13. Composition and origin of basaltic magma of the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, H.A.

    1955-01-01

    Silica-saturated basaltic magma is the source of the voluminous lava flows, erupted frequently and rapidly in the primitive shield-building stage of activity, that form the bulk of each Hawaiian volcano. This magma may be available in batches that differ slightly in free silica content from batch to batch both at the same and at different volcanoes; differentiation by fractionation of olivine does not occur within this primitive magma. Silica-deficient basaltic magma, enriched in alkali, is the source of commonly porphyritic lava flows erupted less frequently and in relatively negligible volume during a declining and decadent stage of activity at some Hawaiian volcanoes. Differentiation by fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and augite is evident among these lavas, but does not account for the silica deficiency or the alkali enrichment. Most of the data of Hawaiian volcanism and petrology can be explained by a hypothesis that batches of magma are melted from crystalline paridotite by a recurrent process (distortion of the equatorial bulge by forced and free nutational stresses) that accomplishes the melting only of the plagioclase and pyroxene component but not the excess olivine and more refractory components within a zone of fixed and limited depth. Eruption exhausts the supply of meltable magma under a given locality and, in the absence of more violent melting processes, leaves a stratum of crystalline refractory components. ?? 1955.

  14. Ancient origin for Hawaiian Drosophilinae inferred from protein comparisons.

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, S M; Wilson, A C

    1985-01-01

    Immunological comparisons of a larval hemolymph protein enabled us to build a tree relating major groups of drosophiline flies in Hawaii to one another and to continental flies. The tree agrees in topology with that based on internal anatomy. Relative rate tests suggest that evolution of hemolymph proteins has been about as fast in Hawaii as on continents. Since the absolute rate of evolution of hemolymph proteins in continental flies is known, one can erect an approximate time scale for Hawaiian fly evolution. According to this scale, the Hawaiian fly fauna stems from a colonist that landed on the archipelago about 42 million years ago-i.e., before any of the present islands harboring drosophilines formed. This date fits with the geological history of the archipelago, which has witnessed the sequential rise and erosion of many islands during the past 70 million years. We discuss the bearing of the molecular time scale on views about rates of organismal evolution in the Hawaiian flies. PMID:3860822

  15. Mycorrhizal dependency of some endemic and endangered Hawaiian plant species.

    PubMed

    Gemma, J N; Koske, R E; Habte, M

    2002-02-01

    Four endemic species of Hawaiian plants were tested for their response to inoculation with a Hawaiian isolate of Glomus aggregatum (an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus [AMF]) when grown in a native soil with or without P added to achieve different soil-solution P levels. The endangered species (Sesbania tomentosa [Fabaceae] and Colubrina oppositifolia [Rhamnaceae]) and two nonendangered species (Bidens sandvicensis and B. asymmetrica × sandvicensis [Asteraceae]) were tested. When soil-solution P levels in greenhouse trials were similar to unfertilized field soils (e.g., 0.005-0.020 mg P/L), shoots of inoculated plants were 2.1 to 7.0 times larger than noninoculated plants. Leaf tissue P levels and root biomass in these species showed similar responses to inoculation. Mycorrhizal dependencies ranging from 44 to 88% were measured when plants were grown in low-P soils and were -4-42% in soil with P levels typical of highly productive agricultural soils. A survey of P levels in a variety of native (nonagricultural) Hawaiian soils indicated the widespread occurrence of P-limited sites (mean = 0.010 mg P/L, range = <0.001-0.030 mg P/L; N = 41). The terms "ecological mycorrhizal dependency" (EMD) and "agricultural mycorrhizal dependency" (AMD) are introduced to refine the concept of mycorrhizal dependency. PMID:21669742

  16. Dynamical Downscaling of Climate Change over the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Hamilton, K. P.; Lauer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The pseudo-global-warming (PGW) method was applied to the Hawaii Regional Climate Model (HRCM) to dynamically downscale the projected climate in the late 21st century over the Hawaiian Islands. The initial and boundary conditions were adopted from MERRA reanalysis and NOAA SST data for the present-day simulations. The global warming increments constructed from the CMIP3 multi-model ensemble mean were added to the reanalysis and SST data to perform the future climate simulations. We found that the Hawaiian Islands are vulnerable to global warming effects and the changes are diverse due to the varied topography. The windward side will have more clouds and receive more rainfall. The increase of the moisture in the boundary layer makes the major contribution. On the contrary, the leeward side will have less clouds and rainfall. The clouds and rain can slightly slow down the warming trend over the windward side. The temperature increases almost linearly with the terrain height. Cloud base and top heights will slightly decline in response to the slightly lower trade wind inversion base height, while the trade wind occurrence frequency will increase by about 8% in the future. More extreme rainfall events will occur in the warming climate over the Hawaiian Islands. And the snow cover on the top of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa will nearly disappear in the future winter.

  17. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  18. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  19. Coffee Ring Effect” in Ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Sharifzadeh, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The process of formation of Marx line is studied in this article. Various theories have been proposed previously, in order to explain the mechanisms which lead to the development of Marx line. These theories are based on the characteristics of stained area and do not pay attention to the behavior of dye solution itself on the surface. The aim of this study is to investigate the latter behavior and introduce a new theory based on it, in order to explain the process of the Marx line formation. This study also introduces “Coffee Ring Effect” and its possible applications in explaining some ophthalmological phenomena. The effect of dye solution's behavior on the beneath surface is adopted in order to propose a novel theory. This new hypothesis is called “Anionic Dye Deposition” which was based on “Coffee Ring Effect” phenomenon. For evaluation of this theory, Evaporation pattern of Rose Bengal and fluorescein were analyzed on different surfaces. Furthermore, the effect of tear meniscus alteration on lid margin staining is studied. During the evaporation process of dye solutions, it was observed that almost all of the solute was deposited at the edge of the drop on hydrophilic surfaces. Furthermore, in the study of lid margin staining, it is observed that tear meniscus alteration during gaze affects staining pattern. This observation invalidates former hypotheses which only focus on stained surface characteristics. According to the observations in this study, it is proposed that Marx line staining occurs as a result of “anionic dye deposition” due to evaporation. PMID:27057835

  20. Espresso coffee residues: a valuable source of unextracted compounds.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Rebeca; Cardoso, Maria M; Fernandes, Luana; Oliveira, Marta; Mendes, Eulália; Baptista, Paula; Morais, Simone; Casal, Susana

    2012-08-15

    Espresso spent coffee grounds were chemically characterized to predict their potential, as a source of bioactive compounds, by comparison with the ones from the soluble coffee industry. Sampling included a total of 50 samples from 14 trademarks, collected in several coffee shops and prepared with distinct coffee machines. A high compositional variability was verified, particularly with regard to such water-soluble components as caffeine, total chlorogenic acids (CGA), and minerals, supported by strong positive correlations with total soluble solids retained. This is a direct consequence of the reduced extraction efficiency during espresso coffee preparation, leaving a significant pool of bioactivity retained in the extracted grounds. Besides the lipid (12.5%) and nitrogen (2.3%) contents, similar to those of industrial coffee residues, the CGA content (478.9 mg/100 g), for its antioxidant capacity, and its caffeine content (452.6 mg/100 g), due to its extensive use in the food and pharmaceutical industries, justify the selective assembly of this residue for subsequent use. PMID:22812683

  1. Dicinnamoylquinides in roasted coffee inhibit the human adenosine transporter.

    PubMed

    de Paulis, Tomas; Schmidt, Dennis E; Bruchey, Aleksandra K; Kirby, Michael T; McDonald, Michael P; Commers, Patricia; Lovinger, David M; Martin, Peter R

    2002-05-10

    Preliminary screening of a minor, non-xanthine constituent of roasted coffee, 3,4-diferuloyl-1,5-quinolactone (DIFEQ), showed inhibition of the adenosine transporter at low micromolar concentration. DIFEQ is a neutral derivative of the chlorogenic acids, i.e. isomeric mono- and di-substituted coumaroyl-, caffeoyl-, and feruloyl-esters of quinic acid, formed in the roasting process of coffee. Displacement of the adenosine transporter antagonist [(3)H](S)-(nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine binding by DIFEQ in cultured U-937 cell preparations, expressing the human adenosine transporter protein (hENT1), showed a K(i) of 0.96+/-0.13 microM. Extracts of regular and decaffeinated coffee showed binding activities equivalent to 30-40 mg DIFEQ per three cups of coffee. Acute administration of a high dose of DIFEQ (100 mg/kg i.p.) reduced open field locomotion in mice for 20 min in correlation with brain levels of DIFEQ. Both 3,4-dicaffeoyl-1,5-quinide and 3,4-dicoumaroyl-1,5-quinide, two close structural analogs of DIFEQ also present in roasted coffee, showed similar affinities for the adenosine transporter, while the corresponding 3- and 4-mono caffeoyl- and feruloyl-quinides were one to two orders of magnitudes less active. This suggests that 3,4-dicinnamoyl-1,5-quinides in coffee could have the potential to raise extra-cellular adenosine levels, thereby counteracting the stimulant effect of caffeine. PMID:12065074

  2. Determination of volatile marker compounds of common coffee roast defects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ni; Liu, Chujiao; Liu, Xingkun; Degn, Tina Kreuzfeldt; Munchow, Morten; Fisk, Ian

    2016-11-15

    Coffee beans from the same origin were roasted using six time-temperature profiles, in order to identify volatile aroma compounds associated with five common roast coffee defects (light, scorched, dark, baked and underdeveloped). Thirty-seven volatile aroma compounds were selected on the basis that they had previously been identified as potent odorants of coffee and were also identified in all coffee brew preparations; the relative abundance of these aroma compounds was then evaluated using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with headspace solid phase micro extraction. Some of the 37 key aroma compounds were significantly changed in each coffee roast defect and changes in one marker compound was chosen for each defect type, that is, indole for light defect, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol for scorched defect, phenol for dark defect, maltol for baked defect and 2,5-dimethylfuran for underdeveloped defect. The association of specific changes in aroma profiles for different roast defects has not been shown previously and could be incorporated into screening tools to enable the coffee industry quickly identify if roast defects occur during production. PMID:27283624

  3. Diversity of Zoanthids (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) on Hawaiian Seamounts: Description of the Hawaiian Gold Coral and Additional Zoanthids

    PubMed Central

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V.; Baco, Amy R.

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals. PMID:23326345

  4. Diversity of zoanthids (anthozoa: hexacorallia) on Hawaiian seamounts: description of the Hawaiian gold coral and additional zoanthids.

    PubMed

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V; Baco, Amy R

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals. PMID:23326345

  5. Political and Cultural Determinants of Educational Policymaking: The Case of Native Hawaiians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, Maenette K. P.; Heck, Ronald H.

    A political-cultural model explores the educational process and its impact on Native Hawaiians over a 140-year period. The theoretical model suggests that core political values are transmitted to educational policy and school-related activities, and thereby impact the social, economic, and academic status of Native Hawaiians. Three historical case…

  6. Early Childhood Education and Care for Native Hawaiian Children in Hawai'i: A Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Donna J.; Ku'ulei Serna, Alethea

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a brief overview of the history of early childhood education and care for Native Hawaiian children in Hawai'i. Data sources include a literature review, examination of archival documents, and interviews with a sample of Native Hawaiian parents and community members. We trace the emergence of outside-the-home early childhood…

  7. "He Kuleana Ko Kakou": Hawaiian-Language Learners and the Construction of (Alter)Native Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder-Frey, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the various language ideologies and cultural models that inform Hawaiian-language learners' experiences, language practices, and socio-ethnic identity as they attempt to become speakers of their heritage language. While Hawaiian-language education is often noted as a revitalization success story, and certainly is in…

  8. "Bloodline Is All I Need": Defiant Indigeneity and Hawaiian Hip-Hop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teves, Stephanie Nohelani

    2011-01-01

    During the late twentieth century, Kanaka Maoli have struggled to push back against these representations, offering a rewriting of Hawaiian history, quite literally. Infused by Hawaiian nationalism and a growing library of works that investigate the naturalization of American colonialism in Hawai'i, innovative Kanaka Maoli representations in the…

  9. Developing a Culturally Responsive Breast Cancer Screening Promotion with Native Hawaiian Women in Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaopua, Lana Sue

    2008-01-01

    This article presents findings from research to develop the promotional component of a breast cancer screening program for Native Hawaiian women associated with historically Hawaiian churches in medically underserved communities. The literature on adherence to health recommendations and health promotions marketing guided inquiry on screening…

  10. Soil carbon stock and total nitrogen in Hawaiian sugarcane commercial plantations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a recent, renewed interest in Hawaiian sugarcane as a biofuel feedstock. However, there is little information on how much soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) is stored in Hawaiian sugarcane fields under normal, monoculture operations. Soil C and N data are needed to assess the life cycl...

  11. Forgotten "Native Americans": A Study of the Psychological Development of Hawaiian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Andrea, Michael; Daniels, Judy

    This study was conducted to learn more about the moral development of Hawaiian children and adolescents and to assess if grade level (grade 5, 7, 9, or 11) or gender were related to the children's reported level of self-esteem. Eighty Hawaiian children and adolescents from low-to middle-income families were interviewed individually, asked to solve…

  12. 76 FR 7175 - Native Hawaiian Education Program; Office of Elementary and Secondary Education; Overview...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ...--Improving Early Learning Outcomes Projects that are designed to improve school readiness and success for... discretionary grant programs, published in the Federal Register on December 15, 2010 (75 FR 78486). Competitive... disciplines in which Native Hawaiians are underemployed. Competitive Preference Priority 3--Hawaiian...

  13. 75 FR 35990 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Flying Earwig Hawaiian Damselfly and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... FR 21664). Candidate species are those taxa for which the Service has sufficient information on their... FR 58804), whereas the Pacific Hawaiian damselfly retained its status as a candidate species. On November 15, 1994 (59 FR 58982), the flying earwig Hawaiian damselfly was added back onto the...

  14. 76 FR 4551 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for calendar year 2011 is established at...

  15. "He Pu'a Kani 'Aina": Mapping Student Growth in Hawaiian-Focused Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kana'iaupuni, Shawn Malia

    2008-01-01

    Fourteen of the startup charter schools in the State of Hawai'i are Hawaiian-focused, providing an education grounded in culturally relevant content and context. This study centers on outcomes in these Hawaiian-focused charter schools, which have demonstrated their value to the community, serving the educational needs of an increasing number of…

  16. Genetic diversity and evidence for recent modular recombination in Hawaiian Citrus tristeza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hawaiian Islands are home to a widespread and diverse population of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), an economically important pathogen of citrus. In this study we quantified the genetic diversity of two CTV genes and determined the complete genomic sequence for two strains of Hawaiian CTV. The nucl...

  17. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  18. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  19. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  20. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the...

  1. Serology and genetics of Toxoplasma gondii in endangered Hawaiian (Nene) geese (Branta sandvicensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is parasite transmitted by feral cats that has historically caused mortality in native Hawaiian birds. A recent study revealed that this parasite accounts for ca. 4% of causes of mortality in native Hawaiian geese (nene-Branta sandvicensis). To know how widespread exposure to the...

  2. A GC method for simultaneous analysis of bornesitol, other polyalcohols and sugars in coffee and its substitutes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Matute, Ana Isabel; Montilla, Antonia; del Castillo, Maria Dolores; Martínez-Castro, Isabel; Sanz, Maria Luz

    2007-03-01

    A GC method has been developed for the determination of polyalcohols and sugars in aqueous extracts from green coffee beans, ground roasted coffee beans submitted to either conventional or torrefacto processes, coffee blends and soluble instant coffees. Bornesitol was detected in aqueous coffee extracts for the first time. Mannitol, myo-inositol, mannose, fructose, galactose, glucose and sucrose have also been determined. Results seem to indicate that coffee manufacturing processes, such as roasting or decaffeination, do not affect the polyalcohol content. Coffee substitutes based on cereals, carob or chicory, have also been studied. The possibility to characterize their presence in coffee extracts was evaluated. PMID:17444224

  3. Coffee, tea and decaffeinated coffee in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a European population: multicentre, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Jenab, Mazda; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Fedirko, Veronika; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Kuhn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Benetou, Vasiliki; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Dik, Vincent K; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Lindkvist, Björn; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Stepien, Magdalena; Gunter, Marc; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-04-15

    Inverse associations of coffee and/or tea in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been consistently identified in studies conducted mostly in Asia where consumption patterns of such beverages differ from Europe. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), we identified 201 HCC cases among 486,799 men/women, after a median follow-up of 11 years. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence in relation to quintiles/categories of coffee/tea intakes. We found that increased coffee and tea intakes were consistently associated with lower HCC risk. The inverse associations were substantial, monotonic and statistically significant. Coffee consumers in the highest compared to the lowest quintile had lower HCC risk by 72% [HR: 0.28; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.16-0.50, p-trend < 0.001]. The corresponding association of tea with HCC risk was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.22-0.78, p-trend = 0.003). There was no compelling evidence of heterogeneity of these associations across strata of important HCC risk factors, including hepatitis B or hepatitis C status (available in a nested case-control study). The inverse, monotonic associations of coffee intake with HCC were apparent for caffeinated (p-trend = 0.009), but not decaffeinated (p-trend = 0.45) coffee for which, however, data were available for a fraction of subjects. Results from this multicentre, European cohort study strengthen the existing evidence regarding the inverse association between coffee/tea and HCC risk. Given the apparent lack of heterogeneity of these associations by HCC risk factors and that coffee/tea are universal exposures, our results could have important implications for high HCC risk subjects. PMID:25219573

  4. The ``Sol Kitchen'' solar coffee can cooker kit and curriculum package

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, R.M.

    1999-07-01

    The Sol Kitchen Solar Coffee Can Cooker Kit is being developed, by Solar utilities, as a product, with several contexts in mind, including (1) the need to sustain the long term market development of solar energy through education, (2) the need for an improved set of performance criteria for the technology, as it is presented in the classroom and (3) an awareness of newly evolving bench marks in environmental education ({hor_ellipsis}which is about learning how to save the earth.). The category of technology discussed in this paper is the solar cooker, also known as, the solar oven, furnace, or box cooker, with or without reflective panels. The use of full scale solar cookers, modified to act as curriculum aids, can augment educational programs; but only if they work well, are appropriate to the educational objectives, and engage the attention and active involvement of the learners.

  5. Application of EPR spectroscopy to the examination of pro-oxidant activity of coffee.

    PubMed

    Krakowian, Daniel; Skiba, Dominik; Kudelski, Adam; Pilawa, Barbara; Ramos, Paweł; Adamczyk, Jakub; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna

    2014-05-15

    Free radicals present in coffee may be responsible for exerting toxic effects on an organism. The objectives of this work were to compare free radicals properties and concentrations in different commercially available coffees, in solid and liquid states, and to determine the effect of roasting on the formation of free radicals in coffee beans of various origins. The free radicals content of 15 commercially available coffees (solid and liquid) was compared and the impact of processing examined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at X-band (9.3 GHz). First derivative EPR spectra were measured at microwave power in the range of 0.7-70 mW. The following parameters were calculated for EPR spectra: amplitude (A), integral intensity (I), and line-width (ΔBpp); g-Factor was obtained from resonance condition. Our study showed that free radicals exist in green coffee beans (10(16) spin/g), roasted coffee beans (10(18) spin/g), and in commercially available coffee (10(17)-10(18) spin/g). Free radical concentrations were higher in solid ground coffee than in instant or lyophilised coffee. Continuous microwave saturation indicated homogeneous broadening of EPR lines from solid and liquid commercial coffee samples as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes were found to be present in all coffee samples tested, solid and liquid commercial coffees as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Higher free radicals concentrations were obtained for both the green and roasted at 240 °C coffee beans from Peru compared with those originating from Ethiopia, Brazil, India, or Colombia. Moreover, more free radicals occurred in Arabica coffee beans roasted at 240 °C than Robusta. EPR spectroscopy is a useful method of examining free radicals in different types of coffee. PMID:24423509

  6. Influence of conjunctive use of coffee effluent and fresh water on performance of robusta coffee and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Salakinkop, S R; Shivaprasad, P

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the influence of treated coffee effluent irrigation on performance of established robusta coffee, nutrient contribution and microbial activities in the soil. The results revealed that the field irrigated with coffee effluent from aerobic tank having COD of 1009 ppm, did not affect the yield of clean coffee (1309 kg/ha) and it was statistically similar (on par) with the plots irrigated with fresh water (1310 kg/ha) with respect to clean coffee yield. Effluent irrigation increased significantly the population bacteria, yeast, fungi, actinomycetes and PSB (122, 52, 12, 34 and 6 x 104/g respectively)) in the soil compared to the soil irrigated with fresh water (87, 22, 5, 24 and 2 x 10(4)/g respectively). The organic carbon (2.60%), available nutrients in the soil like P (57.2 kg/ha), K (401.6 kg/ha, Ca (695.3 ppm), S (5.3 ppm),Cu (4.09 ppm) and Zn(4.78 ppm) were also increased due to effluent irrigation compared to fresh water irrigation. Thus analysis of coffee effluent for major and minor plant nutrients content revealed its potential as source of nutrients and water for plant growth. PMID:23741860

  7. Supercritical fluid extraction from spent coffee grounds and coffee husks: antioxidant activity and effect of operational variables on extract composition.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Kátia S; Gonçalvez, Ricardo T; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2012-01-15

    The present study describes the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of spent coffee grounds and coffee husks extracts, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) and with CO(2) and co-solvent. In order to evaluate the high pressure method in terms of process yield, extract composition and antioxidant activity, low pressure methods, such as ultrasound (UE) and soxhlet (SOX) with different organic solvents, were also applied to obtain the extracts. The conditions for the SFE were: temperatures of 313.15K, 323.15K and 333.15K and pressures from 100 bar to 300 bar. The SFE kinetics and the mathematical modeling of the overall extraction curves (OEC) were also investigated. The extracts obtained by LPE (low pressure extraction) with ethanol showed the best results for the global extraction yield (X(0)) when compared to SFE results. The best extraction yield was 15±2% for spent coffee grounds with ethanol and 3.1±04% for coffee husks. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH method, ABTS method and Folin-Ciocalteau method. The best antioxidant activity was showed by coffee husk extracts obtained by LPE. The quantification and the identification of the extracts were accomplished using HPLC analysis. The main compounds identified were caffeine and chlorogenic acid for the supercritical extracts from coffee husks. PMID:22265539

  8. Development and validation of a matrix solid-phase dispersion method to determine acrylamide in coffee and coffee substitutes.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cristina M Dias; Alves, Rita C; Casal, Susana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Fernandes, José Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    The present study describes the development and validation of a new method based on a matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) sample preparation procedure followed by GC-MS for determination of acrylamide levels in coffee (ground coffee and brewed coffee) and coffee substitute samples. Samples were dispersed in C(18) sorbent and the mixture was further packed into a preconditioned custom-made ISOLUTE bilayered SPE column (C(18)/Multimode; 1 g + 1 g). Acrylamide was subsequently eluted with water, and then derivatized with bromine and quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode. The MSPD/GC-MS method presented a LOD of 5 microg/kg and a LOQ of 10 microg/kg. Intra and interday precisions ranged from 2% to 4% and 4% to 10%, respectively. To evaluate the performance of the method, 11 samples of ground and brewed coffee and coffee substitutes were simultaneously analyzed by the developed method and also by a previously validated method based in a liquid-extraction (LE) procedure, and the results were compared showing a high correlation between them. PMID:20492315

  9. Coffee, Decaffeinated Coffee, Caffeine, and Tea Consumption in Young Adulthood and Atherosclerosis Later in Life: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Jared P.; Loria, Catherine M.; Steffen, Lyn M; Zhou, Xia; van Horn, Linda; Siscovick, David S.; Jacobs, David R.; Carr, J. Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Objective Determine the association of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, caffeine, and tea consumption in young adulthood with the presence and progression of coronary artery calcified (CAC) plaque and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) later in life. Methods and Results CARDIA is a cohort of 5115 white and black adults who were 18–30 years when they completed a baseline clinic examination in 1985–1986. Subsequent examinations were conducted 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 years later. After multivariable adjustment, no association was observed between average coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or caffeine consumption (years 0 and 7) and presence of CAC [score >0 Agatston units (AU) at year 15 or 20], CAC progression (incident CAC at year 20 or an increase in CAC score ≥20 AU), or high cIMT (>80th percentile, year 20). Tea consumption, however, displayed a non-significant trend for an inverse association with CAC (ptrend0.08) and an inverse association with CAC progression (ptrend0.04), but no association with high cIMT (ptrend>0.2). Stratification of the coffee analyses by sex, race, or smoking yielded similar non-significant patterns. Conclusion We observed no substantial association between coffee or caffeine intake and coronary and carotid atherosclerosis. However, our results suggested an inverse association between tea and CAC, but not carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:20616310

  10. Developing a Culturally Responsive Breast Cancer Screening Promotion with Native Hawaiian Women in Churches

    PubMed Central

    Ka’opua, Lana Sue

    2010-01-01

    This article presents findings from research to develop the promotional component of a breast cancer screening program for Native Hawaiian women associated with historically Hawaiian churches in medically underserved communities. The literature on adherence to health recommendations and health promotions marketing guided inquiry on screening influences. Focus groups and individual interviews patterned on the culturally familiar practice of talk story were conducted with 60 Hawaiian women recruited through religious and social organizations. Text data were analyzed with an incremental process involving content analysis and Airhihenbuwa’s PEN-3 model. Key informants and senior colleagues reviewed preliminary findings to ensure accuracy of interpretation. Findings reflect collectivist values at the intersection of indigenous Hawaiian culture and religiosity. Inclusion of messages that encourage holistic health across the intergenerational continuum of extended family and fictive kin, reinforcement from spiritual leaders, and testimonials of cancer survivors and family members may facilitate Hawaiian women’s screening intent. PMID:18773792

  11. New Approaches for Enhanced Detection of Enteroviruses from Hawaiian Environmental Waters

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Christina; Tong, Hsin-I; Wang, Zi; Allmann, Erin; Lu, Yuanan

    2012-01-01

    Health risks associated with sewage-contaminated recreational waters are of important public health concern. Reliable water monitoring systems are therefore crucial. Current recreational water quality criteria rely predominantly on the enumeration of bacterial indicators, while potentially dangerous viral pathogens often remain undetected. Human enteric viruses have been proposed as alternative indicators; however, their detection is often hindered by low viral concentrations present in the environment. Reported here are novel and effective laboratory protocols for viral concentration and highly sensitive and optimized RT-PCR for the efficient detection of enteroviruses, an important enteric virus subset, in Hawaiian environmental waters. Eighteen published enterovirus primer pairs were comparatively evaluated for detection sensitivity. The primer set exhibiting the lowest detection limit under optimized conditions, EQ-1/EQ-2, was validated in a field survey of 22 recreational bodies of water located around the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Eleven sites tested positive for enterovirus, indicating fecal contamination at these locations. As an additional means of viral concentration, shellfish were collected from 9 sample sites and subjected to dissection, RNA extraction, and subsequent RT-PCR. Shellfish tissue from 6 of 9 sites tested positive for enterovirus. The techniques implemented here are valuable resources to aid accurate reflection of microbial contamination in Hawaii’s environmental waters. PMID:22567083

  12. 75 FR 7471 - Chandra Coffee and Rabun Boatworks, Complainants v. Georgia Power Company, Respondent; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chandra Coffee and Rabun Boatworks, Complainants v. Georgia Power Company... January 8, 2010, Chandra Coffee and Rabun Boatworks (Complainants) filed with the Federal...

  13. NIH study finds that coffee drinkers have lower risk of death

    Cancer.gov

    Older adults who drank coffee -- caffeinated or decaffeinated -- had a lower risk of death overall than others who did not drink coffee, according a study by researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health,

  14. Novel identification strategy for ground coffee adulteration based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tie; Ting, Hu; Jin-Lan, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most common and most valuable beverages. According to International Coffee Organization (ICO) reports, the adulteration of coffee for financial reasons is regarded as the most serious threat to the sustainable development of the coffee market. In this work, a novel strategy for adulteration identification in ground coffee was developed based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling. Along with integrated statistical analysis, 17 oligosaccharide composition were identified as markers for the identification of soybeans and rice in ground coffee. This strategy, validated by manual mixtures, optimized both the reliability and authority of adulteration identification. Rice and soybean adulterants present in ground coffee in amounts as low as 5% were identified and evaluated. Some commercial ground coffees were also successfully tested using this strategy. PMID:26213074

  15. [Comparison of green coffee beans volatiles chemical composition of Hainan main area].

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong-Suo; Chu, Zhong; Gu, Feng-Lin; Lu, Min-Quan; Lu, Shao-Fang; Wu, Gui-Ping; Tan, Le-He

    2013-02-01

    Chemical component of Hainan green coffee beans was analyzed with solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the discrepancy between two green coffee beans was differentiated through the spectrum database retrieval and retention index of compound characterization. The experimental results show that: the chemical composition of Wanning coffee beans and Chengmai coffee beans is basically the same. The quantity of analyzed compound in Wanning area coffee is 91, and in Chengmai area coffee is 106, the quantity of the same compound is 66, and the percent of the same component is 75.52%. The same compounds accounted for 89.86% of the total content of Wanning area coffee, and accounted for 85.70% of the total content of Chengmai area coffee. PMID:23697152

  16. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  17. Climatic factors directly impact the volatile organic compound fingerprint in green Arabica coffee bean as well as coffee beverage quality.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, B; Boulanger, R; Dussert, S; Ribeyre, F; Berthiot, L; Descroix, F; Joët, T

    2012-12-15

    Coffee grown at high elevations fetches a better price than that grown in lowland regions. This study was aimed at determining whether climatic conditions during bean development affected sensory perception of the coffee beverage and combinations of volatile compounds in green coffee. Green coffee samples from 16 plots representative of the broad range of climatic variations in Réunion Island were compared by sensory analysis. Volatiles were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction and the volatile compounds were analysed by GC-MS. The results revealed that, among the climatic factors, the mean air temperature during seed development greatly influenced the sensory profile. Positive quality attributes such as acidity, fruity character and flavour quality were correlated and typical of coffees produced at cool climates. Two volatile compounds (ethanal and acetone) were identified as indicators of these cool temperatures. Among detected volatiles, most of the alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons and ketones appeared to be positively linked to elevated temperatures and high solar radiation, while the sensory profiles displayed major defects (i.e. green, earthy flavour). Two alcohols (butan-1,3-diol and butan-2,3-diol) were closely correlated with a reduction in aromatic quality, acidity and an increase in earthy and green flavours. We assumed that high temperatures induce accumulation of these compounds in green coffee, and would be detected as off-flavours, even after roasting. Climate change, which generally involves a substantial increase in average temperatures in mountainous tropical regions, could be expected to have a negative impact on coffee quality. PMID:22980845

  18. Land use change on coffee farms in southern Guatemala and its environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Haggar, Jeremy; Medina, Byron; Aguilar, Rosa Maria; Munoz, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Changes in commodity prices, such as the fall in coffee prices from 2000 to 2004, affect land use decisions on farms, and the environmental services they provide. A survey of 50 farms showed a 35% loss in the area under coffee between 2000 and 2004 below 700 m with the majority of this area (64 %) being coffee agroforest systems that included native forest species. Loss of coffee only occurred on large and medium-scale farms; there was no change in area on cooperatives. Coffee productivity declined below 1,100 m altitude for sun and Inga shade coffee, but only below 700 m altitude for agroforest coffee. Coffee productivity was 37-53% lower under agroforests than other systems. Increases in rubber and pasture were related to low altitude large-scale farms, and bananas and timber plantations to mid-altitude farms. Average aboveground carbon stocks for coffee agroforests of 39 t C ha(-1) was similar to rubber plantations, but one-third to one half that of natural forest and timber plantations, respectively. Coffee agroforests had the highest native tree diversity of the productive systems (7-12 species ha(-1)) but lower than natural forest (31 species ha(-1)). Conversion of coffee agroforest to other land uses always led to a reduction in the quality of habitat for native biodiversity, especially avian, but was concentrated among certain farm types. Sustaining coffee agroforests for biodiversity conservation would require targeted interventions such as direct payments or market incentives specifically for biodiversity. PMID:23435611

  19. A predator of the coffee berry borer: is it present in your country?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) was reported in Kenya as a predator of coffee berry borer eggs and larvae. The 1-2 mm long thrips enters the hole bored by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on the coffee berry,...

  20. On the eyes of the coffee berry borer as rudimentary organs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...

  1. Developing Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers for the identification of Coffee germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages that represent a multibillion dollar global industry. Accurate identification of coffee cultivars is essential for efficient management, exchange and use of coffee genetic resources. So far a universal platform that can allow data comparison across...

  2. Evaluating bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) diversity using malaise traps in coffee landscapes of Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, Rubiaceae) can self-pollinate, bees are important pollinators, without which there is lower fruit quality and yield. We studied bee diversity in coffee agroecosystems in Costa Rica during two coffee flowering seasons (2005 and 2006). Malaise traps...

  3. Acute Effect of Decaffeinated Coffee on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, and Exercise Performance in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ravi; Kaushik, Vidya S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of decaffeinated coffee on the cardiovascular exercise performance in nine healthy volunteers was evaluated in a double-blind randomized fashion. The heart rate, blood pressure, and duration of exercise were unchanged, and no arrhythmias or ischemic changes were seen on the electrocardiogram after drinking decaffeinated coffee. It was concluded that decaffeinated coffee has no discernible, acute, adverse cardiovascular effects. PMID:3339645

  4. Land Use Change on Coffee Farms in Southern Guatemala and its Environmental Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggar, Jeremy; Medina, Byron; Aguilar, Rosa Maria; Munoz, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Changes in commodity prices, such as the fall in coffee prices from 2000 to 2004, affect land use decisions on farms, and the environmental services they provide. A survey of 50 farms showed a 35 % loss in the area under coffee between 2000 and 2004 below 700 m with the majority of this area (64 %) being coffee agroforest systems that included native forest species. Loss of coffee only occurred on large and medium-scale farms; there was no change in area on cooperatives. Coffee productivity declined below 1,100 m altitude for sun and Inga shade coffee, but only below 700 m altitude for agroforest coffee. Coffee productivity was 37-53 % lower under agroforests than other systems. Increases in rubber and pasture were related to low altitude large-scale farms, and bananas and timber plantations to mid-altitude farms. Average aboveground carbon stocks for coffee agroforests of 39 t C ha-1 was similar to rubber plantations, but one-third to one half that of natural forest and timber plantations, respectively. Coffee agroforests had the highest native tree diversity of the productive systems (7-12 species ha-1) but lower than natural forest (31 species ha-1). Conversion of coffee agroforest to other land uses always led to a reduction in the quality of habitat for native biodiversity, especially avian, but was concentrated among certain farm types. Sustaining coffee agroforests for biodiversity conservation would require targeted interventions such as direct payments or market incentives specifically for biodiversity.

  5. Soundscape Ecology of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin Resting Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenehan, Heather Leigh

    Sound is a key sensory modality for Hawaiian spinner dolphins. Like many other marine animals, these dolphins rely on sound and their acoustic environment for many aspects of their daily lives, making it is essential to understand soundscape in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest during the day in shallow coastal areas and forage offshore at night. In my dissertation I focus on the soundscape of the bays where Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest taking a soundscape ecology approach. I primarily relied on passive acoustic monitoring using four DSG-Ocean acoustic loggers in four Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays on the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island. 30-second recordings were made every four minutes in each of the bays for 20 to 27 months between January 8, 2011 and March 30, 2013. I also utilized concomitant vessel-based visual surveys in the four bays to provide context for these recordings. In my first chapter I used the contributions of the dolphins to the soundscape to monitor presence in the bays and found the degree of presence varied greatly from less than 40% to nearly 90% of days monitored with dolphins present. Having established these bays as important to the animals, in my second chapter I explored the many components of their resting bay soundscape and evaluated the influence of natural and human events on the soundscape. I characterized the overall soundscape in each of the four bays, used the tsunami event of March 2011 to approximate a natural soundscape and identified all loud daytime outliers. Overall, sound levels were consistently louder at night and quieter during the daytime due to the sounds from snapping shrimp. In fact, peak Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting time co-occurs with the quietest part of the day. However, I also found that humans drastically alter this daytime soundscape with sound from offshore aquaculture, vessel sound and military mid-frequency active sonar. During one recorded mid

  6. Potential antioxidant response to coffee - A matter of genotype?

    PubMed

    Hassmann, Ute; Haupt, Larisa M; Smith, Robert A; Winkler, Swantje; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Griffiths, Lyn R; Marko, Doris

    2014-12-01

    In a human intervention study, coffee combining natural green coffee bean constituents and dark roast products was identified as a genotype-dependent inducer of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, significantly affecting Nrf2 gene expression and downstream GST1A1 and UGT1A1 gene transcription. The observed transcriptional changes correlated with the presence of specific Nrf2 genotypes suggesting their influence on both Nrf2 and subsequent ARE-dependent GST1A1 and UGT1A1 transcription. While the presence of the - 653 SNP seems to be advantageous, resulting in higher Nrf2, GST1A1 and UGT1A1 gene transcription following coffee consumption, in contrast, the presence of the - 651 SNP significantly down-regulated the response to the study coffee. Furthermore, the presence of the B/B genotype in GST1A1 along with the frequency of the [TA]6/6 and [TA]7/7 polymorphisms in UGT1A1 appeared to significantly increase sensitivity toward coffee-induced gene transcription. This data suggests that when examining the role of the Nrf2/ARE pathway in the regulation of antioxidative and chemopreventive phase II efficacy, individual genotypes should be included when considering the potency of bioactive food/food constituents and their therapeutic potential. PMID:25606436

  7. Evolution of robusta green coffee redox enzymatic activities with maturation.

    PubMed

    Montavon, Philippe; Bortlik, Karlheinz

    2004-06-01

    Oxidation reactions in coffee involve redox-sensitive polyphenols and appear to control the fragmentation of coffee storage proteins both in solution and during roasting. Coffee-specific nitrogenous flavor precursors may derive from this process. Accordingly, data converge to suggest that the redox status of the green bean before roasting might control the development of subsequent redox reactions during roasting. Consequently, we decided to identify biological events that may trigger or prevent oxidation during maturation of the coffee cherry and set the final redox status of the green bean. In a previous study, we observed that the sensitivity of green coffee to oxidative processes decreased along maturation. By using the very same samples originating from open-pollinated Robusta clones, we followed the activity of three essential redox enzymes: catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO). While CAT and POD activities increased with maturation, PPO activities decreased. Thanks to the identification of an atypical immature subclass, it appeared that CAT might be an essential factor in setting the final redox status of the green bean before the roasting event. PMID:15161235

  8. Biotechnological conversion of spent coffee grounds into polyhydroxyalkanoates and carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Obruca, Stanislav; Benesova, Pavla; Kucera, Dan; Petrik, Sinisa; Marova, Ivana

    2015-12-25

    Coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages and has been growing steadily in commercial importance. Nowadays, coffee is the second largest traded commodity in the world, after petroleum. Hence, coffee industry is responsible for the generation of large amounts of waste, especially spent coffee grounds (SCG). Various attempts to valorize this waste stream of coffee industry were made. This article summarizes our research and publications aiming at the conversion of SCG into valuable products - polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and carotenoids. At first, oil extracted from SCG (approx. 15 wt% oil in SCG) can be efficiently (YP/S=0.82 g/g) converted into PHA employing Cupriavidus necator H16. Further, the solid residues after oil extraction can be hydrolyzed (by the combination of chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis) yielding fermentable sugars, which can be further used as a substrate for the production of PHAs employing Bacillus megaterium (YP/S=0.04 g/g) or Burkholderia cepacia (YP/S=0.24 g/g). Alternatively, SCG hydrolysate can be used as a substrate for biotechnological production of carotenoids by carotenogenic yeast Sporobolomyces roseus. Solid residues after either oil extraction or hydrolysis can be used as fuel in industrial boilers to generate heat and energy. Therefore, entire biomass of SCG can be used for sustainable production of PHAs and/or carotenoids employing bio-refinery approach. PMID:25721970

  9. Transfer of ochratoxin A into tea and coffee beverages.

    PubMed

    Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Toman, Jakub; Bazin, Ingrid; Roubal, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, reprotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic (group 2B), being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity. Despite the fact that OTA is in some aspects a controversial topic, OTA is the most powerful renal carcinogen. The aim of this study was to make a small survey concerning OTA content in black tea, fruit tea, and ground roasted coffee, and to assess OTA transfer into beverages. OTA content was measured using a validated and accredited HPLC-FLD method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.35 ng/g. The OTA amount ranged from LOQ up to 250 ng/g in black tea and up to 104 ng/g in fruit tea. Black tea and fruit tea, naturally contaminated, were used to prepare tea infusions. The transfer from black tea to the infusion was 34.8% ± 1.3% and from fruit tea 4.1% ± 0.2%. Ground roasted coffee naturally contaminated at 0.92 ng/g was used to prepare seven kinds of coffee beverages. Depending on the type of process used, OTA transfer into coffee ranged from 22.3% to 66.1%. OTA intakes from fruit and black tea or coffee represent a non-negligible human source. PMID:25525684

  10. Daily intake of trace metals through coffee consumption in India.

    PubMed

    Suseela, B; Bhalke, S; Kumar, A V; Tripathi, R M; Sastry, V N

    2001-02-01

    The trace element contents of five varieties of instant coffee powder available in the Indian market have been analysed. Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, Zn and Pb, Cd, Cu have been determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, respectively. The metal levels in the coffee powders observed in this study are comparable with those reported for green coffe beans (Arabica and Robusta variety) reported worldwide with the exception of Sr and Zn, which were on the lower side of the reported values. Concentrations of these metals have been converted into intake figures based on coffee consumption. The daily intakes of the above metals through ingestion of coffee are 1.4 mg, 1.58 microg, 124 microg, 41.5 mg, 4.9 mg, 17.9 microg, 2.9 microg, 3.8 microg, 12.5 microg, 0.2 microg, 0.03 microg and 15.5 microg, respectively. The values, which were compared with the total dietary, intake of metals through ingestion by the Mumbai population, indicate that the contribution from coffee is less than or around 1% for most of the elements except for Cr and Ni which are around 3%. PMID:11288908

  11. Characterization and Spectral Monitoring of Coffee Lands in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, H. M. R.; Volpato, M. M. L.; Vieira, T. G. C.; Maciel, D. A.; Gonçalves, T. G.; Dantas, M. F.

    2016-06-01

    In Brazil, coffee production has great economic and social importance. Despite this fact, there is still a shortage of information regarding its spatial distribution, crop management and environment. The aim of this study was to carry out spectral monitoring of coffee lands and to characterize their environments using geotechnologies. Coffee fields with contiguous areas over 0.01 km2 within a 488.5 km2 region in the south of Minas Gerais state were selected for the study. Spectral data from the sensors OLI/Landsat 8 and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission from 2014 to 2015 were obtained, as well as information on production areas, surface temperature, vegetation indexes, altitude and slope, were gathered and analyzed. The results indicate that there is great variation in the NDVI and NDWI values, with means ranging from 0.21 to 0.91 (NDVI) and 0.108 to 0.543 (NDWI). The altitude ranged from 803 to 1150 m, and the surface temperature from 20.9°C to 27.6°C. The altitude and the surface temperature distribution patterns were correlated with the vegetation indexes. The slope classes were very homogeneous, predominantly with declivities between 8 to 20 %, characterized as wavy relief. This study made possible the characterization and monitoring of coffee lands and its results may be instrumental in decision-making processes related to coffee management.

  12. Transfer of Ochratoxin A into Tea and Coffee Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Toman, Jakub; Bazin, Ingrid; Roubal, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, reprotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic (group 2B), being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity. Despite the fact that OTA is in some aspects a controversial topic, OTA is the most powerful renal carcinogen. The aim of this study was to make a small survey concerning OTA content in black tea, fruit tea, and ground roasted coffee, and to assess OTA transfer into beverages. OTA content was measured using a validated and accredited HPLC-FLD method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.35 ng/g. The OTA amount ranged from LOQ up to 250 ng/g in black tea and up to 104 ng/g in fruit tea. Black tea and fruit tea, naturally contaminated, were used to prepare tea infusions. The transfer from black tea to the infusion was 34.8% ± 1.3% and from fruit tea 4.1% ± 0.2%. Ground roasted coffee naturally contaminated at 0.92 ng/g was used to prepare seven kinds of coffee beverages. Depending on the type of process used, OTA transfer into coffee ranged from 22.3% to 66.1%. OTA intakes from fruit and black tea or coffee represent a non-negligible human source. PMID:25525684

  13. Influence of roasting levels on ochratoxin a content in coffee.

    PubMed

    Romani, Santina; Pinnavaia, Gian Gaetano; Dalla Rosa, Marco

    2003-08-13

    Because of inconsistent and contradictory results from investigations concerning the influence of roasting process on the ochratoxin A content in coffee beans, a study was undertaken to assess the elimination of ochratoxin A during the roasting process. Four different green coffee samples, naturally contaminated with ochratoxin A, were submitted to different roasting conditions (light, medium, and dark) and analyzed for roasting parameters (weight loss, color change, density, and moisture content) and ochratoxin A content. The ochratoxin A content of green coffee was reduced by the roasting process; in particular, consistently high percentages of ochratoxin A reduction were found in the highest contaminated samples. This reduction was influenced by the severity of the thermal process and was generally related to the initial ochratoxin A content. Samples obtained with roasting parameters suitable for a typical Italian espresso coffee brew showed reductions of >90% in the ochratoxin A content, in both high and low contaminated samples. Moreover, the presence of off-flavors and visual defects was not found to be directly related to the ochratoxin A content in the green coffee samples. PMID:12903986

  14. Characterization of galactomannan derivatives in roasted coffee beverages.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Fernando M; Reis, Ana; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2006-05-01

    In this work, the galactomannans from roasted coffee infusions were purified by 50% ethanol precipitation, anion exchange chromatography, and phenylboronic acid-immobilized Sepharose chromatography. Specific enzymatic hydrolysis of the beta-(1-->4)-D-mannan backbone allowed us to conclude that the galactomannans of roasted coffee infusions are high molecular weight supports of low molecular weight brown compounds. Also, the molecular weight of the brown compounds linked to the galactomannan increases with the increase of the coffee degree of roast. The reaction pathways of galactomannans during the coffee roasting process were inferred from the detection of specific chemical markers by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry and/or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Maillard reaction, caramelization, isomerization, oxidation, and decarboxylation pathways were identified by detection of Amadori compounds, 1,6-beta-anhydromannose, fructose, glucose, mannonic acid, 2-ketogluconic acid, and arabinonic acid in the reducing end of the obtained oligosaccharides. The implication of the several competitive reaction pathways is discussed and related to the structural changes of the galactomannans present in the roasted coffee infusions. PMID:16637704

  15. Coffee and gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Francisco; Lunet, Nuno; Barros, Henrique

    2006-05-01

    We systematically reviewed the literature on the association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer and performed a meta-analysis of the results. Published cohort and case-control studies were identified in PubMed and reference lists. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool effects from 23 studies, and heterogeneity was explored by stratification and meta-regression. The odds ratio (OR) for the overall association between coffee and gastric cancer (highest vs. lowest category of exposure) was 0.97 (95%CI: 0.86-1.09), similar for cohort (OR = 1.02; 95%CI: 0.76-1.37) and case-control studies (population-based: OR = 0.90; 95%CI: 0.70-1.15; hospital-based: OR = 0.97; 95%CI: 0.83-1.13). The OR was 1.26 (95%CI: 1.02-1.57) when considering five studies conducted in the USA, 0.97 (95%CI: 0.82-1.14) for the five Japanese studies, 0.98 (95%CI: 0.81-1.17) for the six studies from Europe, and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.47-0.86) for the two studies from South America. In this meta-analysis we found no adverse effect of coffee associated with gastric cancer. Knowledge on the level of exposure to different coffee constituents may provide a deeper understanding of this reassuring result and the real role of coffee on cancer risk. PMID:16680342

  16. Potential antioxidant response to coffee — A matter of genotype?

    PubMed Central

    Hassmann, Ute; Haupt, Larisa M.; Smith, Robert A.; Winkler, Swantje; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Griffiths, Lyn R.; Marko, Doris

    2014-01-01

    In a human intervention study, coffee combining natural green coffee bean constituents and dark roast products was identified as a genotype-dependent inducer of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, significantly affecting Nrf2 gene expression and downstream GST1A1 and UGT1A1 gene transcription. The observed transcriptional changes correlated with the presence of specific Nrf2 genotypes suggesting their influence on both Nrf2 and subsequent ARE-dependent GST1A1 and UGT1A1 transcription. While the presence of the − 653 SNP seems to be advantageous, resulting in higher Nrf2, GST1A1 and UGT1A1 gene transcription following coffee consumption, in contrast, the presence of the − 651 SNP significantly down-regulated the response to the study coffee. Furthermore, the presence of the B/B genotype in GST1A1 along with the frequency of the [TA]6/6 and [TA]7/7 polymorphisms in UGT1A1 appeared to significantly increase sensitivity toward coffee-induced gene transcription. This data suggests that when examining the role of the Nrf2/ARE pathway in the regulation of antioxidative and chemopreventive phase II efficacy, individual genotypes should be included when considering the potency of bioactive food/food constituents and their therapeutic potential. PMID:25606436

  17. Month-Year Rainfall Maps of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, A. G.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Diaz, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands have one of the most spatially-diverse rainfall patterns on earth. Island topography, persistent trade winds, thermal effects of the islands, and the presence of the trade-wind inversion interact to cause air to be lifted in distinct spatial patterns anchored to the topography. The resulting clouds and rainfall produced by this uplift lead to extreme gradients in monthly and annual rainfall in the islands. Knowledge of the rainfall patterns is critically important for a variety of resource management issues, including ground water and surface water development and protection, controlling and eradicating invasive species, protecting and restoring native ecosystems, and planning for the effects of global warming. In this study, development of month-year rainfall maps from 1920-2007 for the six major Hawaiian islands using geostatistical methods is undertaken. While mean monthly and annual rainfall maps for Hawaii are available, spatially continuous maps of precipitation for individual months do not exist. Simple methods, such as linear interpolation or ordinary kriging, are not appropriate for interpolating month-year rainfall due to the extreme spatial diversity. A method comparison is performed here to choose the best interpolation method for each island. The comparison focuses on different kriging algorithms including kriging with an external drift and simple kriging with varying local means. Parameter sensitivity tests are used for each method, and several covariates are considered to reduce interpolation error. The different combinations of methods, covariates and parameters are evaluated using cross validation statistics. To produce the final maps, the anomaly method is used to relate station data from every individual month with the 1978-2007 mean monthly maps. The anomalies are interpolated using the best method determined from the comparison, and then recombined with the mean maps to produce the final maps for the six major Hawaiian

  18. New biological properties of coffee melanoidins.

    PubMed

    Argirova, Mariana D; Stefanova, Iliyana D; Krustev, Athanas D

    2013-08-01

    Water-soluble melanoidins isolated from roasted coffee induced ex vivo changes in the bioelectric and contractile activity of rat circular gastric smooth muscle tissues. They provoked a depolarization of smooth muscle cellular membranes and an increase in Ca²⁺-influx as evidenced by the increase in the frequency and amplitude of Ca²⁺-generated spike potentials. In the presence of 1 × 10⁻⁶ mol L⁻¹ acetylcholine and 1 × 10⁻⁶ mol L⁻¹ arecoline the melanoidin-evoked contraction was significantly reduced. M-cholinergic receptor blocking agents atropine, ipratropium, pirenzepine, and 4-DAMP also significantly reduced the melanoidin-provoked contraction. Nonspecific N-cholinergic receptor blockers hexamethonium and decamethonium (1 × 10⁻⁵ mol L⁻¹ each) did not influence the melanoidin-induced mechanical reaction. The melanoidins did not affect the strength of contractions evoked by adrenaline and dopamine (1 × 10⁻⁶ mol L⁻¹ each). The results obtained support the assumption that melanoidin-evoked contraction is a result of activation of muscarinic-type cholinergic receptors. PMID:23712216

  19. Acrylamide, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine in coffee substitutes and instant coffees.

    PubMed

    Loaëc, Grégory; Jacolot, Philippe; Helou, Cynthia; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Tessier, Frédéric J

    2014-04-01

    Sensitive analytical methods were developed and validated for the quantification of acrylamide, N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in 24 commercial coffee substitutes (CSs) and 12 instant coffees (ICs). Acrylamide levels varied widely from 200 to 4940 µg kg(-1) with higher levels in CSs. Only two out of 24 CSs had a level of acrylamide above the indicative value set for this food category by the European Commission (4000 µg kg(-1)). None of the ICs tested in this study exceeded the indicative value set for this foodstuff (900 µg kg(-1)). CML ranged from 0.17 to 47 mg kg(-1) and it increased in proportion to the protein content of the samples. The highest concentrations were found in IC partly due to the relatively high protein content of this food group. HMF was the most abundant neoformed compound (NFC) found in the tested commercial samples. It was found between 0.59 and 13 g kg(-1). Among other food categories IC and CS could appear to be major contributors to the exposure to NFCs if consumed on a daily basis. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the acrylamide formation during processing and to determine the daily intake level of frequent consumers of these products. PMID:24460803

  20. Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Wolbachia in Drosophila and other native Hawaiian insects

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Gordon M.; Pantoja, Norma A.; O’Grady, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia is a genus of parasitic alphaproteobacteria found in arthropods and nematodes, and represents on of the most common, widespread endosymbionts known. Wolbachia affects a variety of reproductive functions in its host (e.g., male killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis), which have the potential to dramatically impact host evolution and species formation. Here, we present the first broad-scale study to screen natural populations of native Hawaiian insects for Wolbachia, focusing on the endemic Diptera. Results indicate that Wolbachia infects native Hawaiian taxa, with alleles spanning phylogenetic supergroups, A and B. The overall frequency of Wolbachia incidene in Hawaiian insects was 14%. The incidence of infection in native Hawaiian Diptera was 11% for individuals and 12% for all species screened. Wolbachia was not detected in two large, widespread Hawaiian dipteran families—Dolichopodidae (44 spp screened) and Limoniidae (12 spp screened). Incidence of infection within endemic Hawaiian lineages that carry Wolbachia was 18% in Drosophilidae species, 25% in Caliphoridae species, > 90% in Nesophrosyne species, 20% in Drosophila dasycnemia and 100% in Nesophrosyne craterigena. Twenty unique alleles were recovered in this study, of which 18 are newly recorded. Screening of endemic populations of D. dasycnemia across Hawaii Island revealed 4 unique alleles. Phylogenetic relationships and allele diversity provide evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia among Hawaiian arthropod lineages. PMID:22878693

  1. Mortality Patterns of Native Hawaiians Across Their Lifespan: 1990–2000

    PubMed Central

    Mau, Marjorie K.; Williams, David R.; McNally, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined mortality patterns across the lifespan of Native Hawaiians and compared mortality disparities across races. Methods. We determined the age-specific and age-adjusted mortality rates of Native Hawaiians from 1990 to 2000 by using national census and vital registration data. Results. Among Native Hawaiians aged younger than 1 year, expected deaths were 15% lower than for Blacks and 50% higher than for Whites. Among older adults, Native Hawaiians had higher rates of mortality compared with the general population, particularly in 1990 and 1995. Crude death rates for Native Hawaiians were similar to those for Blacks in 1990 and 1995 but were 20% lower than those for Blacks by 2000. Crude death rates for Native Hawaiians were 30% higher than for Whites in 1990 and 1995 and more than 40% higher than for Whites in 2000. Conclusions. Compared with Whites, Native Hawaiians and Blacks face similar challenges regarding infant and early-life mortality and increasing risks of mortality in mid-life and early old age. Our analyses document a need for renewed efforts to identify the determinants of ill health and commitment to address them. PMID:20864716

  2. Erysipelas in a free-ranging Hawaiian crow (Corvus hawaiiensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Ball, Donna; Wolcott, Mark

    1999-01-01

    We describe a case of erysipelas in a free-ranging endangered Hawaiian crow. The partially scavenged carcass exhibited gross emaciation and petechial hemorrhages in both lungs. Microscopy revealed multiple necrotic foci associated with gram-positive rods in the liver and adrenal, diffuse acute proximal tubular necrosis of kidney, diffuse necrosis and inflammation of proventricular mucosa associated with gram-positive rods, and multiple intravascular aggregates of gram-positive rods associated with thrombi. Culture of the kidney revealed the bacterium to be Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. The implications of this finding to free-ranging crows remain unclear.

  3. Weak-intensity, basaltic, explosive volcanism: Dynamics of Hawaiian fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcheta, Carolyn

    Hawaiian fountains, typically occurring on basaltic volcanoes, are sustained, weakly-explosive jets of gas and juvenile ejecta. A broad range of Hawaiian fountaining styles occurred during twelve episodes of the Mauna Ulu eruption on Kilauea between May and December 1969. The western episode 1 fissure system is currently well exposed, providing an exclusive opportunity to study processes of low-intensity fissure fountains. Episode 1 fountains occurred along a 5 km long fissure system that exploited the eastern-most kilometer of the Ko'ai fault system. A low, near-continuous, spatter rampart is present on the northern upwind and upslope side of the fissure. Most pyroclastic products, however, fell downwind to the south and little was preserved because of two processes: 1) incorporation of proximal spatter in rheomorphic lava flows 10--20 meters from the vents, and 2) downslope transport of cooler spatter falling on top of these flows >20 meters from vent. There is a clear 'lava-shed' delineation between lava that drained back into the fissure and lava that continued flowing into the flowfield. Vents range in surface geometry from linear--circular, with superimposed irregularity and sinuosity, and range from straight-sided--flaring cross-sectional geometries. Irregularity results from joints in the pre-existing wall rock. Sinuosity results from the local stress field. Geometry of non-flared vents could indicate the true geometry of the dike. Flared vents likely formed through mechanical erosion and thermo-mechanical abrasion. Vent positions along the fissure likely resulted from flow focusing. Uniquely, these vents drained and remain unobstructed (some >100 m depth), despite subsequent nearby eruptive activity. Three vents were imaged .16 m in depth at <4 cm resolution with tripodmounted LiDAR. Textural analyses of pyroclasts from eruptive episodes 2.12 show three distinct degassing and outgassing paths: 1) rapid degassing and quenching with minimal outgassing, 2

  4. From Purgatory to Paradise: The Volatile Life of Hawaiian Magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marske, J. P.; Hauri, E. H.; Trusdell, F.; Garcia, M. O.; Pietruszka, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Variations in radiogenic isotope ratios and magmatic volatile abundances (e.g., CO2 or H2O) in Hawaiian lavas reveal key processes within a deep-seated mantle plume (e.g., mantle heterogeneity, source lithology, partial melting, and magma degassing). Shield-stage Hawaiian lavas likely originate from a mixed plume source containing peridotite and recycled oceanic crust (pyroxenite) based on variations of radiogenic isotopes (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb). The mantle source region may also be heterogeneous with respect to volatile contents, yet the link between pre-eruptive volatile budgets and mantle source lithology in the Hawaiian plume is poorly constrained due to shallow magmatic degassing and mixing. Here, we use a novel approach to investigate this link using Os isotopic ratios, and major, trace, and volatile elements in olivines and mineral-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) from 34 samples from Koolau, Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Kilauea, and Loihi. These samples reveal a strong correlation between volatile contents in olivine-hosted MIs and Os isotopes of the same olivines, in which lavas that originated from greater proportions of recycled oceanic crust/pyroxenite (i.e. 'Loa' chain volcanoes: Koolau, Mauna Loa, Loihi) have MIs with the lower H2O, F, and Cl contents than 'Kea' chain volcanoes (i.e. Kilauea) that contain greater amounts of peridotite in the source region. No correlation is observed with CO2 or S. The depletion of fluid-mobile elements (H2O, F, and Cl) in 'Loa' chain volcanoes indicates ancient dehydrated oceanic crust is a plume component that controls much of the compositional variation of Hawaiian Volcanoes. The presence of dehydrated recycled mafic material in the plume source suggests that subduction effectively devolatilizes the mafic part of the oceanic crust. These results are similar to the observed shifts in H2O/Ce ratios near the Easter and Samoan hotspots [1,2]. Thus, it appears that multiple hotspots may record relative H2O depletions and possibly other

  5. Coffee for morning hunger pangs. An examination of coffee and caffeine on appetite, gastric emptying, and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Grant, Gary; Horner, Katy; King, Neil; Leveritt, Michael; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has a number of potential health benefits. Coffee may influence energy expenditure and energy intake, which in turn may affect body weight. However, the influence of coffee and its constituents - particularly caffeine - on appetite remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of coffee consumption (with and without caffeine) on appetite sensations, energy intake, gastric emptying, and plasma glucose between breakfast and lunch meals. In a double-blind, randomised crossover design. Participants (n = 12, 9 women; Mean ± SD age and BMI: 26.3 ± 6.3 y and 22.7 ± 2.2 kg•m⁻²) completed 4 trials: placebo (PLA), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), caffeine (CAF), and caffeine with decaffeinated coffee (COF). Participants were given a standardised breakfast labelled with ¹³C-octanoic acid and 225 mL of treatment beverage and a capsule containing either caffeine or placebo. Two hours later, another 225 mL of the treatment beverage and capsule was administered. Four and a half hours after breakfast, participants were given access to an ad libitum meal for determination of energy intake. Between meals, participants provided exhaled breath samples for determination of gastric emptying; venous blood and appetite sensations. Energy intake was not significantly different between the trials (Means ± SD, p> 0.05; Placebo: 2118 ± 663 kJ; Decaf: 2128 ± 739 kJ; Caffeine: 2287 ± 649 kJ; Coffee: 2016 ± 750 kJ); Other than main effects of time (p <0.05), no significant differences were detected for appetite sensations or plasma glucose between treatments (p > 0.05). Gastric emptying was not significantly different across trials (p > 0.05). No significant effects of decaffeinated coffee, caffeine or their combination were detected. However, the consumption of caffeine and/or coffee for regulation of energy balance

  6. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a : Astronomy of the Hawaiian Navigators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa C.

    2016-01-01

    This poster provides an introduction to the astronomy of the Hawaiian wayfinders, Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a. Rooted in a legacy of navigation across the Polynesian triangle, wayfinding astronomy has been part of a suite of skills that allows navigators to deliberately hop between the small islands of the Pacific, for thousands of years. Forty years ago, in one manifestation of the Hawaiian Renaissance, our teachers demonstrated that ancient Hawaiians were capable of traversing the wide Pacific to settle and trade on islands separated by thousands of miles. Today those same mentors train a new generation of navigators, making Hawaiian voyaging a living, evolving, sustainable endeavor. This poster presents two components of astronomical knowledge that all crewmen, but particularly those in training to become navigators, learn early in their training. Na Ohana Hoku, the Hawaiian Star Families constitute the basic units of the Hawaiian sky. In contrast to the Western system of 88 constellations, Na Ohana Hoku divides the sky into four sections that each run from the northern to the southern poles. This configuration reduces cognitive load, allowing the navigator to preserve working memory for other complex tasks. In addition, these configurations of stars support the navigator in finding and generatively using hundreds of individual, and navigationally important pairs of stars. The Hawaiian Star Compass divides the celestial sphere into a directional system that uses 32 rather than 8 cardinal points. Within the tropics, the rising and setting of celestial objects are consistent within the Hawaiian Star Compass, providing for extremely reliable direction finding. Together, Na Ohana Hoku and the Hawaiian Star Compass provide the tropical navigator with astronomical assistance that is not available to, and would have been unknown to Western navigators trained at higher latitudes.

  7. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a : Astronomy of the Modern Hawaiian Wayfinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha`o, Celeste; Dye, Ahia G.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa

    2015-08-01

    This paper provides an introduction to Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a, the astronomy of the Hawaiian wayfinders. Rooted in a legacy of navigation across the Polynesian triangle, wayfinding astronomy has been part of a suite of skills that allows navigators to deliberately hop between the small islands of the Pacific, for thousands of years. Forty years ago, in one manifestation of the Hawaiian Renaissance, our teachers demonstrated that ancient Hawaiians were capable of traversing the wide Pacific to settle and trade on islands separated by thousands of miles. Today those same mentors train a new generation of navigators, making Hawaiian voyaging a living, evolving, sustainable endeavor. This paper presents two components of astronomical knowledge that all crewmen, but particularly those in training to become navigators, learn early in their training. Na Ohana Hoku, the Hawaiian Star Families constitute the basic units of the Hawaiian sky. In contrast to the Western system of 88 constellations, Na Ohana Hoku divides the sky into four sections that each run from the northern to the southern poles. This configuration reduces cognitive load, allowing the navigator to preserve working memory for other complex tasks. In addition, these configurations of stars support the navigator in finding and generatively using hundreds of individual, and navigationally important pairs of stars. The Hawaiian Star Compass divides the celestial sphere into a directional system that uses 32 rather than 8 cardinal points. Within the tropics, the rising and setting of celestial objects are consistent within the Hawaiian Star Compass, providing for extremely reliable direction finding. Together, Na Ohana Hoku and the Hawaiian Star Compass provide the tropical navigator with astronomical assistance that is not available to, and would have been unknown to Western navigators trained at higher latitudes.

  8. Stable Radical Content and Anti-Radical Activity of Roasted Arabica Coffee: From In-Tact Bean to Coffee Brew

    PubMed Central

    Troup, Gordon J.; Navarini, Luciano; Liverani, Furio Suggi; Drew, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO) capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD) melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (< 3 kD) fraction exhibited the highest AO capacity using DPPH as an oxidant. The AO activity was not mediated by the stable radicals or by metal complexes within the brew. While other non-AO functions of the roasting-induced radical and metal complexes may be possible in vivo, we confirm that the in vitro antiradical activity of brewed coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds. PMID:25856192

  9. Coffee Consumption Habits and the Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Panza, Francesco; Imbimbo, Bruno P; D'Introno, Alessia; Galluzzo, Lucia; Gandin, Claudia; Misciagna, Giovanni; Guerra, Vito; Osella, Alberto; Baldereschi, Marzia; Di Carlo, Antonio; Inzitari, Domenico; Seripa, Davide; Pilotto, Alberto; Sabbá, Carlo; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Scafato, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Coffee, tea, or caffeine consumption may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia. We estimated the association between change or constant habits in coffee consumption and the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated 1,445 individuals recruited from 5,632 subjects, aged 65-84 year old, from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging, a population-based sample from eight Italian municipalities with a 3.5-year median follow-up. Cognitively normal older individuals who habitually consumed moderate amount of coffee (from 1 to 2 cups of coffee/day) had a lower rate of the incidence of MCI than those who never or rarely consumed coffee [1 cup/day: hazard ratio (HR): 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.211 to 1.02 or 1-2 cups/day: HR: 0.31 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.75]. For cognitively normal older subjects who changed their coffee consumption habits, those increasing coffee consumption (>1 cup of coffee/day) had higher rate of the incidence of MCI compared to those with constant habits (up to ±1 cup of coffee/day) (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.92) or those with reduced consumption (<1 cup of coffee/day) (HR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.16 to 4.08). Finally, there was no significant association between subjects with higher levels of coffee consumption (>2 cups of coffee/day) and the incidence of MCI in comparison with those who never or rarely consumed coffee (HR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.03 to 2.11). In conclusion, cognitively normal older individuals who increased their coffee consumption had a higher rate of developing MCI, while a constant in time moderate coffee consumption was associated to a reduced rate of the incidence of MCI. PMID:26401769

  10. Gut feelings about smoking and coffee in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Derkinderen, Pascal; Shannon, Kathleen M; Brundin, Patrik

    2014-07-01

    Strong epidemiologic evidence suggests that smokers and coffee drinkers have a lower risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). The explanation for this finding is still unknown, and the discussion has focused on two main hypotheses. The first suggests that PD patients have premorbid personality traits associated with dislike for coffee-drinking and smoking. The second posits that caffeine and nicotine are neuroprotective. We propose an alternative third hypothesis, in which both cigarette and coffee consumption change the composition of the microbiota in the gut in a way that mitigates intestinal inflammation. This, in turn, would lead to less misfolding of the protein alpha-synuclein in enteric nerves, reducing the risk of PD by minimizing propagation of the protein aggregates to the central nervous system, where they otherwise can induce neurodegeneration. PMID:24753353

  11. Heat of Combustion of Dried and Undried Coffee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giso, Mathew; Amanuel, Samuel

    Globally, over two billion cups of coffee are consumed per day. During roasting, 15-20% of the weight of the coffee beans is lost. We studied the gasses released during the roasting process using an IR spectrometer and identified the evaporation profile of water as a function of temperature. The heat of combustion (Hºc) of the beans was also determined using an Isoperibol Oxygen-Bomb calorimeter and the Hºc of dry beans were determined to be 21.24 +/-0.13 MJ/kg while the Hºc of the wet beans were determined to be 19.56 +/-0.12 MJ/kg. This study can potentially lead to developing more economical and environmentally friendly techniques of roasting coffee beans. This work was partially supported by NSF-DMR: 1229142.

  12. Coffee's country of origin determined by NMR: the Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Arana, V A; Medina, J; Alarcon, R; Moreno, E; Heintz, L; Schäfer, H; Wist, J

    2015-05-15

    The determination of the origin of coffee beans by NMR fingerprinting has been shown promising and classification has been reported for samples of different countries and continents. Here we show that this technique can be extended and applied to discriminate coffee samples from one country against all others, including its closest neighbors. Very high classification rates are reported using a large number of spectra (>300) acquired over a two-year period. As original aspects it can be highlighted that this study was performed in fully automatic mode and with non-deuterated coffee extracts. This is achieved using a series of experiments to procure a robust suppression of the solvent peaks. As is, the method represents a cost effective opportunity for countries to protect their national productions. PMID:25577112

  13. Coffee husk waste for fermentation production of mosquitocidal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Poopathi, Subbiah; Abidha, S

    2011-12-01

    Coffee husk waste (CHW) discarded as bio-organic waste, from coffee industries, is rich in carbohydrates. The current study emphasizes the management of solid waste from agro-industrial residues for the production of biopesticides (Bacillus sphaericus, and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis), to control disease transmitting mosquito vectors. An experimental culture medium was prepared by extracting the filtrates from coffee husk. A conventional culture medium (NYSM) also was prepared. The studies revealed that the quantity of mosquitocidal toxins produced from CHW is at par with NYSM. The bacteria produced in these media, were bioassayed against mosquito vectors (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti) and it was found that the toxic effect was statistically comparable. Cost-effective analysis have revealed that, production of biopesticides from CHW is highly economical. Therefore, the utilization of CHW provides dual benefits of effective utilization of environmental waste and efficient production of mosquitocidal toxins. PMID:22299340

  14. High-pressure liquid chromatography of caffeine in coffee.

    PubMed

    Madison, B L; Kozarek, W J; Damo, C P

    1976-11-01

    A new method is described for the determination of caffeine in coffee, based on high-pressure liquid chromatography. The caffeine is extracted from the sample with water and/or methylene chloride, and then separated from interfering materials by passing an aliquot of the extract through a high-pressure column containing sulfonated cation exchange resin, using 0.01M nitric acid as the mobile phase. An ultraviolet detector measures the absorption of the solution directly. The method is rapid and eliminates the lengthy separations common to other methods. The procedure was applied successfully to decaffeinated and non-decaffeinated green, roasted, and instant coffees. This method gives a more accurate measure of the caffeine content in decaffeinated coffee samples than the micro Bailey-Andrew and modified Levine methods, with equal or better precision. This method gives results equal to those obtained by the official methods for non-decaffeinated samples. PMID:993180

  15. Magma supply, storage, and transport at shield-stage Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 5 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta; Montgomery-Brown, Emily K.

    2014-01-01

    Magma supply to Hawaiian volcanoes has varied over millions of years but is presently at a high level. Supply to Kīlauea’s shallow magmatic system averages about 0.1 km3/yr and fluctuates on timescales of months to years due to changes in pressure within the summit reservoir system, as well as in the volume of melt supplied by the source hot spot. Magma plumbing systems beneath Kīlauea and Mauna Loa are complex and are best constrained at Kīlauea. Multiple regions of magma storage characterize Kīlauea’s summit, and two pairs of rift zones, one providing a shallow magma pathway and the other forming a structural boundary within the volcano, radiate from the summit to carry magma to intrusion/eruption sites located nearby or tens of kilometers from the caldera. Whether or not magma is present within the deep rift zone, which extends beneath the structural rift zones at ~3-km depth to the base of the volcano at ~9-km depth, remains an open question, but we suggest that most magma entering Kīlauea must pass through the summit reservoir system before entering the rift zones. Mauna Loa’s summit magma storage system includes at least two interconnected reservoirs, with one centered beneath the south margin of the caldera and the other elongated along the axis of the caldera. Transport of magma within shield-stage Hawaiian volcanoes occurs through dikes that can evolve into long-lived pipe-like pathways. The ratio of eruptive to noneruptive dikes is large in Hawai‘i, compared to other basaltic volcanoes (in Iceland, for example), because Hawaiian dikes tend to be intruded with high driving pressures. Passive dike intrusions also occur, motivated at Kīlauea by rift opening in response to seaward slip of the volcano’s south flank.

  16. Plant Nutrient Partitioning in Coffee Infected with Meloidogyne konaensis

    PubMed Central

    Hurchanik, Denise; Schmitt, D. P.; Hue, N. V.; Sipes, B. S.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess nutrient partitioning in coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Typica land race Guatemala) infected with Meloidogyne konaensis. Nutrient levels were quantified from soil, roots, and leaves. In the first experiment, 500-cm3 aliquants of a Kealakekua Andisol were infested with four initial population densities of M. konaensis ranging from 0 to 1,500 freshly hatched second-stage juveniles. Coffee plants (~3 months old) were transplanted into the soil and grown for 25 weeks. Plants responded to nematode infection with decreases (P < 0.05) in concentrations of Ca, Mg, P, and B and increases (P < 0.05) in concentrations of Mn, Cu, Zn, and Ca/B in the roots. Mn and Cu uptake by roots was decreased (P < 0.05) by nematode infection even though concentrations of Mn and Cu increased (P < 0.05) in the roots. Concentrations of Ca and Mg also decreased (P < 0.05) in the leaves, whereas the concentration of Zn increased (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, the soil was amended with Zn at 0 or 5 mg/kg soil and infested with M. konaensis at 0, 100, 1,000 or 10,000 eggs/1,200 cm3 soil. Three-month-old coffee seedlings of similar height were weighed and transplanted into pots and then placed in a greenhouse and grown under 50% shade for 23 weeks. Concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, B, and Zn increased in roots of nematode-free plants growing in Zn-amended soil. The beneficial effects due to the Zn amendment were not apparent in nematode-infected plants. Mn, B, and Zn uptake by coffee roots and P and B concentrations in coffee leaves responded similarly. Management of M. konaensis is necessary to achieve optimal nutrient management in coffee. PMID:19262790

  17. Tea and Coffee Consumption and MRSA Nasal Carriage

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Eric M.; Mainous, Arch G.; Everett, Charles J.; King, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Hot tea and coffee have been found to have antimicrobial properties. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the consumption of tea, coffee, or both is associated with less frequent nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS We performed a secondary analysis of data from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to investigate the relationship between the consumption of coffee, hot tea, cold tea, and soft drinks, and MRSA nasal carriage among the noninstitutionalized population of the United States. RESULTS An estimated 2.5 million persons (1.4% of the population) were MRSA nasal carriers. In an adjusted logistic regression analysis controlling for age, race, sex, poverty-income ratio, current health status, hospitalization in the past 12 months, and use of antibiotics in the past month, individuals who reported consuming hot tea were one-half as likely to have MRSA nasal carriage relative to individuals who drank no hot tea (odds ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.31–0.71). Similarly, individuals who reported consuming coffee had about a one-half reduction in the risk of MRSA nasal carriage relative to individuals who drank no coffee (odds ratio = 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.24–0.93). CONCLUSIONS Consumption of hot tea or coffee is associated with a lower likelihood of MRSA nasal carriage. Our findings raise the possibility of a promising new method to decrease MRSA nasal carriage that is safe, inexpensive, and easily accessible. PMID:21747100

  18. Plant Nutrient Partitioning in Coffee Infected with Meloidogyne konaensis.

    PubMed

    Hurchanik, Denise; Schmitt, D P; Hue, N V; Sipes, B S

    2004-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess nutrient partitioning in coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Typica land race Guatemala) infected with Meloidogyne konaensis. Nutrient levels were quantified from soil, roots, and leaves. In the first experiment, 500-cm3 aliquants of a Kealakekua Andisol were infested with four initial population densities of M. konaensis ranging from 0 to 1,500 freshly hatched second-stage juveniles. Coffee plants (~3 months old) were transplanted into the soil and grown for 25 weeks. Plants responded to nematode infection with decreases (P < 0.05) in concentrations of Ca, Mg, P, and B and increases (P < 0.05) in concentrations of Mn, Cu, Zn, and Ca/B in the roots. Mn and Cu uptake by roots was decreased (P < 0.05) by nematode infection even though concentrations of Mn and Cu increased (P < 0.05) in the roots. Concentrations of Ca and Mg also decreased (P < 0.05) in the leaves, whereas the concentration of Zn increased (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, the soil was amended with Zn at 0 or 5 mg/kg soil and infested with M. konaensis at 0, 100, 1,000 or 10,000 eggs/1,200 cm(3) soil. Three-month-old coffee seedlings of similar height were weighed and transplanted into pots and then placed in a greenhouse and grown under 50% shade for 23 weeks. Concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, B, and Zn increased in roots of nematode-free plants growing in Zn-amended soil. The beneficial effects due to the Zn amendment were not apparent in nematode-infected plants. Mn, B, and Zn uptake by coffee roots and P and B concentrations in coffee leaves responded similarly. Management of M. konaensis is necessary to achieve optimal nutrient management in coffee. PMID:19262790

  19. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  20. Long-Term Coffee Consumption and Risk of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shao-Bo; Weng, Hong; Zhou, Meng; Duan, Xiao-Li; Shen, Xian-Feng; Zeng, Xian-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer risk remains controversial. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate and quantify the potential dose–response association between long-term coffee consumption and risk of gastric cancer. Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase from January 1996 through February 10, 2015 and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved publications. Prospective cohort studies in which authors reported effect sizes and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of gastric cancer for 3 or more categories of coffee consumption were eligible. Results from eligible studies were aggregated using a random effect model. All analyses were carried out using the STATA 12.0 software. Nine studies involving 15 independent prospective cohorts were finally included. A total of 2019 incident cases of gastric cancer were ascertained among 1,289,314 participants with mean follow-up periods ranging from 8 to 18 years. No nonlinear relationship of coffee consumption with gastric cancer risk was indentified (P for nonlinearity = 0.53; P for heterogeneity = 0.004). The linear regression model showed that the combined relative risk (RR) of every 3 cups/day increment of total coffee consumption was 1.07 (95% CI = 0.95–1.21). Compared with the lowest category of coffee consumption, the RR of gastric cancer was 1.18 (95% CI = 0.90–1.55) for the highest (median 6.5 cups/day) category, 1.06 (95% CI = 0.85–1.32) for the second highest category (median 3.5 cups/day), and 0.97 (95% CI = 0.79–1.20) for the third highest category (median 1.5 cups/day). Subgroup analysis showed an elevated risk in the US population (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.75) and no adjustment for smoking (RR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.08–2.59) for 6.5 cups/day. Current evidence indicated there was no nonlinear association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer risk. However, high

  1. Historical Reconstruction Reveals Recovery in Hawaiian Coral Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Kittinger, John N.; Pandolfi, John M.; Blodgett, Jonathan H.; Hunt, Terry L.; Jiang, Hong; Maly, Kepā; McClenachan, Loren E.; Schultz, Jennifer K.; Wilcox, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are declining worldwide, yet regional differences in the trajectories, timing and extent of degradation highlight the need for in-depth regional case studies to understand the factors that contribute to either ecosystem sustainability or decline. We reconstructed social-ecological interactions in Hawaiian coral reef environments over 700 years using detailed datasets on ecological conditions, proximate anthropogenic stressor regimes and social change. Here we report previously undetected recovery periods in Hawaiian coral reefs, including a historical recovery in the MHI (∼AD 1400–1820) and an ongoing recovery in the NWHI (∼AD 1950–2009+). These recovery periods appear to be attributed to a complex set of changes in underlying social systems, which served to release reefs from direct anthropogenic stressor regimes. Recovery at the ecosystem level is associated with reductions in stressors over long time periods (decades+) and large spatial scales (>103 km2). Our results challenge conventional assumptions and reported findings that human impacts to ecosystems are cumulative and lead only to long-term trajectories of environmental decline. In contrast, recovery periods reveal that human societies have interacted sustainably with coral reef environments over long time periods, and that degraded ecosystems may still retain the adaptive capacity and resilience to recover from human impacts. PMID:21991311

  2. Air-sea coupling in the Hawaiian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, J. M.; Powell, B.; Mattheus, D.

    2014-12-01

    A coupled numerical model is used to investigate the ocean-atmosphere interaction in the lee of the Hawaiian archipelago. The wind curl generated by the island blocking of the trade winds is known to give rise to ocean eddies; however, the impact of the sea surface temperature (SST) and velocity fronts associated with these eddies on the atmosphere is less understood. The main coupling mechanisms are: (i) changes in the near-surface stability and surface stress, (ii) vertical transfer of momentum from higher atmospheric levels to the ocean surface due to an increase of the turbulence in the boundary layer, (iii) secondary circulations associated with perturbations in the surface atmospheric pressure over the SST fronts, and (iv) the impact of the oceanic eddy currents on the net momentum transferred between the atmosphere and the ocean. To assess the relative contribution from each process, a coupled simulation between the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models is conducted for the main Hawaiian Islands. The impact of the coupling, the perturbation of the mean wind pattern, and the different spatial scales involved in the air-sea exchanges of momentum and heat are explored.

  3. Building Family Capacity for Native Hawaiian Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mokuau, Noreen; Braun, Kathryn L.; Daniggelis, Ephrosine

    2012-01-01

    Native Hawaiian women have the highest breast cancer incidence and mortality rates when compared with other large ethnic groups in Hawai‘i. Like other women, they rely on the support of their families as co-survivors. This project explored the feasibility and effects of a culturally tailored educational intervention designed to build family capacity by improving the knowledge and skills of the woman and her family in dealing with breast cancer, particularly in the latter stage of recovery care. Twenty-nine Native Hawaiian women with breast cancer, along with a close family member, were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 15) or a wait-list control group (n = 14). The authors assessed the knowledge, self-efficacy, and coping skills of women and their family members and the recovery care behaviors of the women at baseline and at four months (after the intervention or control period). The intervention group made significant improvements in self-efficacy and coping; the wait-list control group did not. Evaluation of the intervention suggests that it was well received by participants. This work has relevance for social workers wanting to design and test culturally appropriate interventions for minority groups. PMID:23301435

  4. Historical reconstruction reveals recovery in Hawaiian coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Kittinger, John N; Pandolfi, John M; Blodgett, Jonathan H; Hunt, Terry L; Jiang, Hong; Maly, Kepā; McClenachan, Loren E; Schultz, Jennifer K; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are declining worldwide, yet regional differences in the trajectories, timing and extent of degradation highlight the need for in-depth regional case studies to understand the factors that contribute to either ecosystem sustainability or decline. We reconstructed social-ecological interactions in Hawaiian coral reef environments over 700 years using detailed datasets on ecological conditions, proximate anthropogenic stressor regimes and social change. Here we report previously undetected recovery periods in Hawaiian coral reefs, including a historical recovery in the MHI (~AD 1400-1820) and an ongoing recovery in the NWHI (~AD 1950-2009+). These recovery periods appear to be attributed to a complex set of changes in underlying social systems, which served to release reefs from direct anthropogenic stressor regimes. Recovery at the ecosystem level is associated with reductions in stressors over long time periods (decades+) and large spatial scales (>10(3) km(2)). Our results challenge conventional assumptions and reported findings that human impacts to ecosystems are cumulative and lead only to long-term trajectories of environmental decline. In contrast, recovery periods reveal that human societies have interacted sustainably with coral reef environments over long time periods, and that degraded ecosystems may still retain the adaptive capacity and resilience to recover from human impacts. PMID:21991311

  5. Earthquakes of Loihi submarine volcano and the Hawaiian hot spot.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, F.W.

    1982-01-01

    Loihi is an active submarine volcano located 35km S of the island of Hawaii and may eventually grow to be the next and S most island in the Hawaiian chain. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory recorded two major earthquake swarms located there in 1971-1972 and 1975 which were probably associated with submarine eruptions or intrusions. The swarms were located very close to Loihi's bathymetric summit, except for earthquakes during the second stage of the 1971-1972 swarm, which occurred well onto Loihi's SW flank. The flank earthquakes appear to have been triggered by the preceding activity and possible rifting along Loihi's long axis, similar to the rift-flank relationship at Kilauea volcano. Other changes accompanied the shift in locations from Loihi's summit to its flank, including a shift from burst to continuous seismicity, a rise in maximum magnitude, a change from small earthquake clusters to a larger elongated zone, a drop in b value, and a presumed shift from concentrated volcanic stresses to a more diffuse tectonic stress on Loihi's flank. - Author

  6. Mermithid parasitism of Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders in a fragmented landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, Amy; Roderick, George K.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders inhabiting small forest fragments on the Big Island of Hawaii are parasitized by mermithid nematodes. This is the first report of mermithid nematodes infecting spiders in Hawaii, and an initial attempt to characterize this host–parasite interaction. Because immature mermithids were not morphologically identifiable, a molecular identification was performed. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S small ribosomal subunit nuclear gene sequences suggested that Hawaiian spider mermithids are more closely related to a mainland presumptive Aranimemis species that infects spiders, than to an insect-infecting mermithid collected on Oahu, HI, or to Mermis nigrescens, also a parasite of insects. Measured infection prevalence was low (ranging from 0 to 4%) but differed significantly among forest fragments. Infection prevalence was associated significantly with fragment area, but not with spider density nor spider species richness. Results suggest that mermithid populations are sensitive to habitat fragmentation, but that changes in infection prevalence do not appear to affect spider community structure.

  7. Rejuvenation of the lithosphere by the Hawaiian plume.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueqing; Kind, Rainer; Yuan, Xiaohui; Wölbern, Ingo; Hanka, Winfried

    2004-02-26

    The volcanism responsible for creating the chain of the Hawaiian islands and seamounts is believed to mark the passage of the oceanic lithosphere over a mantle plume. In this picture hot material rises from great depth within a fixed narrow conduit to the surface, penetrating the moving lithosphere. Although a number of models describe possible plume-lithosphere interactions, seismic imaging techniques have not had sufficient resolution to distinguish between them. Here we apply the S-wave 'receiver function' technique to data of three permanent seismic broadband stations on the Hawaiian islands, to map the thickness of the underlying lithosphere. We find that under Big Island the lithosphere is 100-110 km thick, as expected for an oceanic plate 90-100 million years old that is not modified by a plume. But the lithosphere thins gradually along the island chain to about 50-60 km below Kauai. The width of the thinning is about 300 km. In this zone, well within the larger-scale topographic swell, we infer that the rejuvenation model (where the plume thins the lithosphere) is operative; however, the larger-scale topographic swell is probably supported dynamically. PMID:14985758

  8. Convergent evolution of 'creepers' in the Hawaiian honeycreeper radiation.

    PubMed

    Reding, Dawn M; Foster, Jeffrey T; James, Helen F; Pratt, H Douglas; Fleischer, Robert C

    2009-04-23

    Natural selection plays a fundamental role in the ecological theory of adaptive radiation. A prediction of this theory is the convergent evolution of traits in lineages experiencing similar environments. The Hawaiian honeycreepers are a spectacular example of adaptive radiation and may demonstrate convergence, but uncertainty about phylogenetic relationships within the group has made it difficult to assess such evolutionary patterns. We examine the phylogenetic relationships of the Hawaii creeper (Oreomystis mana), a bird that in a suite of morphological, ecological and behavioural traits closely resembles the Kauai creeper (Oreomystis bairdi), but whose mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and osteology suggest a relationship with the amakihis (Hemignathus in part) and akepas (Loxops). We analysed nuclear DNA sequence data from 11 relevant honeycreeper taxa and one outgroup to test whether the character contradiction results from historical hybridization and mtDNA introgression, or convergent evolution. We found no evidence of past hybridization, a phenomenon that remains undocumented in Hawaiian honeycreepers, and confirmed mtDNA and osteological evidence that the Hawaii creeper is most closely related to the amakihis and akepas. Thus, the morphological, ecological and behavioural similarities between the evolutionarily distant Hawaii and Kauai creepers represent an extreme example of convergent evolution and demonstrate how natural selection can lead to repeatable evolutionary outcomes. PMID:19087923

  9. Calculated geochronology and stress field orientations along the Hawaiian chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, E.D.; Shaw, H.R.; Bargar, K.E.

    1975-01-01

    A new method has been discovered for calculating ages of the main shield building stages of volcanoes along the Hawaiian chain from Kilauea to the Hawaiian-Emperor bend. The method is based on a graphical technique for hypothetical subtraction of distance intervals that theoretically represent regions of simultaneous volcanism along adjacent or nearly en-echelon loci of volcanism. Distances along the chain, measured from Kilauea, when progressively foreshortened by the distances of hypothetical "collapse" and plotted versus existing age data are found to give linear age-distance relationships. A calibration graph is presented that agrees closely with the measured ages in 17 of the 20 existing dated volcanoes. The criterion for simultaneous activity on different loci is based on the concept of equal azimuths of synchronous volcanic propagation within coeval segments of the chain. This is the predicted relationship when magmatic fluids inject the lithosphere along directions normal to a nearly horizontal least principal stress. It appears that the Pacific plate has been subjected to oscillatory, but principally clockwise, rotations of horizontal stress components during the last 40 m.y. ?? 1975.

  10. Insight into the mechanism of coffee melanoidin formation using modified "in bean" models.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Fernando M; Cruz, Ana C S; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2012-09-01

    To study the mechanism of coffee melanoidin formation, green coffee beans were prepared by (1) removal of the hot water extractable components (WECoffee); (2) direct incorporation of sucrose (SucCoffee); and (3) direct incorporation of type II arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPCoffee). As a control of sucrose and AGP incorporation, lyophilized green coffee beans were also immersed in water (control). The original coffee and the four modified "in bean" coffee models were roasted and their chemical characteristics compared. The formation of material not identified as carbohydrates or protein, usually referred to as "unknown material" and related to melanoidins, and the development of the brown color during coffee roasting have distinct origins. Therefore, a new parameter for coffee melanoidin evaluation, named the "melanoidin browning index" (MBI), was introduced to handle simultaneously the two concepts. Sucrose is important for the formation of colored structures but not to the formation of "unknown material". Type II AGPs also increase the brown color of the melanoidins, but did not increase the amount of "unknown material". The green coffee hot water extractable components are essential for coffee melanoidin formation during roasting. The cell wall material was able to generate a large amount of "unknown material". The galactomannans modified by the roasting and the melanoidin populations enriched in galactomannans accounted for 47% of the high molecular weight brown color material, showing that these polysaccharides are very relevant for coffee melanoidin formation. PMID:22880950

  11. Removal of lead ions in drinking water by coffee grounds as vegetable biomass.

    PubMed

    Tokimoto, Toshimitsu; Kawasaki, Naohito; Nakamura, Takeo; Akutagawa, Jyunichi; Tanada, Seiki

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to reuse food waste for useful purposes, we investigated the possibility of using coffee grounds to remove lead ions from drinking water. We studied the lead ion adsorption characteristics of coffee beans and grounds by measuring their fat and protein content, adsorption isotherms for lead ions, and adsorption rates for lead ions. The number of lead ions adsorbed by coffee grounds did not depend on the kind of coffee beans or the temperature at which adsorption tests were performed. The rate of lead ion adsorption by coffee grounds was directly proportional to the amount of coffee grounds added to the solution. When coffee grounds were degreased or boiled, the number of lead ions decreased. When proteins contained in coffee grounds were denatured, the lead ion adsorption was considerably reduced. The lead ion adsorption capacity of coffee grounds decreased with increased concentration of perchloric acid used for treating them and disappeared with 10% perchloric acid. The experiments demonstrated that proteins contained in coffee beans depend upon the adsorption of lead ion. The present study gave an affirmative answer to the possibility of using coffee grounds, an abundant food waste, for removing lead ions from drinking water. PMID:15567380

  12. The Big Rust and the Red Queen: Long-Term Perspectives on Coffee Rust Research.

    PubMed

    McCook, Stuart; Vandermeer, John

    2015-09-01

    Since 2008, there has been a cluster of outbreaks of the coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix) across the coffee-growing regions of the Americas, which have been collectively described as the Big Rust. These outbreaks have caused significant hardship to coffee producers and laborers. This essay situates the Big Rust in a broader historical context. Over the past two centuries, coffee farmers have had to deal with the "curse of the Red Queen"-the need to constantly innovate in the face of an increasing range of threats, which includes the rust. Over the 20th century, particularly after World War II, national governments and international organizations developed a network of national, regional, and international coffee research institutions. These public institutions played a vital role in helping coffee farmers manage the rust. Coffee farmers have pursued four major strategies for managing the rust: bioprospecting for resistant coffee plants, breeding resistant coffee plants, chemical control, and agroecological control. Currently, the main challenge for researchers is to develop rust control strategies that are both ecologically and economically viable for coffee farmers, in the context of a volatile, deregulated coffee industry and the emergent challenges of climate change. PMID:26371395

  13. Occurrence of furan in coffee from Spanish market: Contribution of brewing and roasting.

    PubMed

    Altaki, M S; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2011-06-15

    In this work, we evaluated the occurrence of furan in brews obtained from regular, decaffeinated, and instant coffee and commercial packed capsules. For this purpose, a previously developed automated headspace solid-phase microextraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used. Initially, the influence of HS-SPME conditions on furan formation was evaluated. In addition, the effect of roasting conditions (temperature and time) used for coffee beans on furan formation was also studied. We found that low temperature and long roasting time (140°C and 20min) decreases the final furan content. Furan concentrations in regular ground coffee brews from an espresso coffee machine were higher (43-146ng/ml) than those obtained from a home drip coffee maker (20 and 78ng/ml), while decaffeinated coffee brews from a home drip coffee maker (14-65ng/ml) showed a furan concentration similar to that obtained from regular coffee. Relatively low concentrations of this compound (12-35ng/ml) were found in instant coffee brews, while commercial packed coffee capsules showed the highest concentrations (117-244ng/ml). Finally, the daily intake of furan through coffee consumption in Barcelona (Spain) (0.03-0.38μg/kg of body weight) was estimated. PMID:25213922

  14. Usual coffee intake in Brazil: results from the National Dietary Survey 2008-9.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alessandra Gaspar; da Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo

    2015-05-28

    Coffee is central to the economy of many developing countries, as well as to the world economy. However, despite the widespread consumption of coffee, there are very few available data showing the usual intake of this beverage. Surveying usual coffee intake is a way of monitoring one aspect of a population's usual dietary intake. Thus, the present study aimed to characterise the usual daily coffee intake in the Brazilian population. We used data from the National Dietary Survey collected in 2008-9 from a probabilistic sample of 34,003 Brazilians aged 10 years and older. The National Cancer Institute method was applied to obtain the usual intake based on two nonconsecutive food diaries, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed by age and sex for Brazil and its regions. The estimated average usual daily coffee intake of the Brazilian population was 163 (SE 2.8) ml. The comparison by sex showed that males had a 12% greater usual coffee intake than females. In addition, the highest intake was recorded among older males. Among the five regions surveyed, the North-East had the highest usual coffee intake (175 ml). The most common method of brewing coffee was filtered/instant coffee (71%), and the main method of sweetening beverages was with sugar (87%). In Brazil, the mean usual coffee intake corresponds to 163 ml, or 1.5 cups/d. Differences in usual coffee intake according to sex and age differed among the five Brazilian regions. PMID:25851731

  15. Analysis of coffee for the presence of acrylamide by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, Denis; Roach, John A G; Gay, Martha L; Musser, Steven M

    2004-04-01

    A variety of popular instant, ground, and brewed coffees were analyzed using a modified liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method specifically developed for the determination of acrylamide in foods. Coffee test portions were spiked with 13C3-labeled acrylamide as an internal standard prior to their extraction and cleanup. Ground coffees (1 g) and instant coffees (0.5 g) were extracted by shaking with 9 mL of water for 20 min. Brewed coffee test portions (9 mL) were taken through the cleanup procedure without further dilution with extraction solvent. Coffee test portions were cleaned up by passing 1.5 mL first through an Oasis HLB (hydrophilic/lipophilic copolymer sorbent) solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge and then a Bond Elut-Accucat (cation and anion exchange sorbent) SPE cartridge. The cleaned up extracts were analyzed by positive ion electrospray LC-MS/MS. The MS/MS data was used to detect, confirm, and quantitate acrylamide. The limit of quantitation of the method was 10 ng/g for ground and instant coffees and 1.0 ng/mL for brewed coffee. The levels of acrylamide ranged from 45 to 374 ng/g in unbrewed coffee grounds, from 172 to 539 ng/g in instant coffee crystals, and from 6 to 16 ng/mL in brewed coffee. PMID:15053542

  16. Green coffee bean extract improves human vasoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Ryuji; Jokura, Hiroko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Komai, Norio; Rakugi, Hiromi; Ogihara, Toshio

    2004-10-01

    Our previous study revealed the antihypertensive effects of green coffee bean extract (GCE) ingestion in spontaneously hypertensive rats. We suggested that this antihypertensive action was due to the fact that GCE contains chlorogenic acid (CQA) as a major phenolic compound, and CQA in turn contains ferulic acid as a metabolic component that acts on nitric oxide (NO) derived from the vascular endothelium. In this study, the effects of GCE on blood vessels were evaluated in healthy males. The subjects were 20 healthy males with reduced vasodilation responses measured by strain gauge plethysmograms (SPG) to ischemic reactive hyperemia. Of the 20 subjects, 10 (mean age, 37.2 years) ingested a test drink containing GCE (CQA: 140 mg/day), and the other 10 (mean age, 34.8 years) ingested a placebo drink for 4 months. During the ingestion period, SPG, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and serum biochemical parameters were measured, and acceleration plethysmograms (APG) were taken. The reactive hyperemia ratio (RHR) in the test drink group began to increase after ingestion for 1 month and was significantly higher (p <0.05) than that in the placebo group after ingestion for 3 months and 4 months. In addition, after ingestion for 4 months, the test drink group showed a significant decrease (p <0.01) in the plasma total homocysteine level compared with the pre-ingestion level. However, there were no significant differences in PWV or APG between the test drink group and the placebo drink group. The improvement in RHR after ingestion of a drink containing GCE suggested an improvement in vasoreactivity by this component. PMID:15785008

  17. Wake up and smell the coffee

    SciTech Connect

    Comerford, T.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Early in 1991, Public Service Electric and Gas Co. (PSE G) began investigating various ways to retain businesses and industries in New Jersey. Other organizations were trying, or investigating, different business-retention techniques, many of which centered around surveys to determine businesses' major concerns and problems. Around the same time, PSE G was part of a team that was working to save the Maxwell House Coffee Plant in Hoboken, NJ. General Foods, the parent company of Maxwell House, had determined that they no longer needed the capacity of both the Hoboken facility and a facility in Florida. In the course of responding to Maxwell House, many concerns and problems were uncovered, many of which had been developing for some time. The team responded to each issue and proposed innovative solutions, but Maxwell House decided against Hoboken in favor of Florida. It became apparent that retaining a company that had begun the relocation process would be extremely difficult. PSE G's Marketing Services and Area Development Department and the New Jersey Department of Commerce and Economic Development jointly established the Business Enhancement Program (BEP) in the spring of 1991. Realizing that business concerns had to be confronted before they became major issues, the program was designed as an ongoing communication network. The BEP is committed to addressing business problems or concerns in a timely and professional manner. Not all concerns can be solved to the complete satisfaction of the company. However, the program strives to provide appropriate assessment of the issues and to demonstrate that the business is valued and appreciated in New Jersey.

  18. Furan levels in coffee as influenced by species, roast degree, and brewing procedures.

    PubMed

    Arisseto, Adriana Pavesi; Vicente, Eduardo; Ueno, Mariana Soares; Tfouni, Silvia Amélia Verdiani; Toledo, Maria Cecília De Figueiredo

    2011-04-13

    Brazilian green coffee beans of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora species were roasted to light, medium, and dark roast degrees and analyzed in relation to furan content by using an in-house validated method based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry preceded by headspace solid-phase microextraction. Furan was not detected in green coffees, whereas levels between 911 and 5852 μg/kg were found in the roasted samples. Higher concentrations were found in Coffea canephora species and darker ground coffees. Some of the potential furan precursors were observed in significant amounts in green coffee, especially sucrose and linoleic acid, but their concentrations could not be correlated to furan formation. Additionally, coffee brews were prepared from roasted ground coffees by using two different procedures, and furan levels in the beverages varied from <10 to 288 μg/kg. The factor that most influenced the furan content in coffee brew was the brewing procedure. PMID:21388135

  19. Mozambioside Is an Arabica-Specific Bitter-Tasting Furokaurane Glucoside in Coffee Beans.

    PubMed

    Lang, Roman; Klade, Stefan; Beusch, Anja; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Sensory-guided fractionation of a roasted coffee beverage revealed a highly polar, bitter-tasting subfraction, from which the furokaurane glucoside mozambioside was isolated and identified in its chemical structure by means of HDMS and NMR spectra. Sensory evaluation revealed a bitter taste recognition threshold of 60 (± 10) μmol/L. UPLC-HDMS quantitation of raw coffee beans showed that Arabica coffees contained 396-1188 nmol/g mozambioside, whereas only traces (<5 nmol/g) were detected in Robusta coffees, thus suggesting that mozambioside can be used as an analytical marker for Arabica coffee. Roasted Arabica contained a substantially reduced concentration (232 ± 37 nmol/g), indicating partial degradation of mozambioside during coffee roasting. Mozambioside was nearly quantitatively extracted into the aqueous brew during coffee-making (86-98%). PMID:26585544

  20. Coffee and cardiovascular disease: in vitro, cellular, animal, and human studies.

    PubMed

    Bonita, Jennifer Stella; Mandarano, Michael; Shuta, Donna; Vinson, Joe

    2007-03-01

    Coffee is a commonly consumed beverage with potential health benefits. This review will focus on cardiovascular disease. There are three preparations of coffee that are commonly consumed and thus worthy of examination; boiled unfiltered coffee, filtered coffee, and decaffeinated coffee. Coffee has over a thousand chemicals, many formed during the roasting process. From a physiological point of view, the potential bioactives are caffeine, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol found in the oil, and the polyphenols, most notably chlorogenic acid. We will examine coffee and its bioactives and their connection with and effect on the risk factors which are associated with heart disease such as lipids, blood pressure, inflammation, endothelial function, metabolic syndrome and potentially protective in vivo antioxidant activity. These will be critically examined by means of in vitro studies, cell experiments, animal supplementation, epidemiology, and the most definitive evidence, human trials. PMID:17368041

  1. Coffee consumption and human health--beneficial or detrimental?--Mechanisms for effects of coffee consumption on different risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ranheim, Trine; Halvorsen, Bente

    2005-03-01

    Coffee is probably the most frequently ingested beverage worldwide. Especially Scandinavia has a high prevalence of coffee-drinkers, and they traditionally make their coffee by boiling ground coffee beans and water. Because of its consumption in most countries in the world, it is interesting, from both a public and a scientific perspective, to discuss its potential benefits or adverse aspects in relation to especially two main health problems, namely cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of boiled coffee is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. This is mainly due to the two diterpenes identified in the lipid fraction of coffee grounds, cafestol and kahweol. These compounds promote increased plasma concentration of cholesterol in humans. Coffee is also a rich source of many other ingredients that may contribute to its biological activity, like heterocyclic compounds that exhibit strong antioxidant activity. Based on the literature reviewed, it is apparent that moderate daily filtered, coffee intake is not associated with any adverse effects on cardiovascular outcome. On the contrary, the data shows that coffee has a significant antioxidant activity, and may have an inverse association with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:15704241

  2. Effects of Coffee Management Intensity on Composition, Structure, and Regeneration Status of Ethiopian Moist Evergreen Afromontane Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundera, Kitessa; Aerts, Raf; Fontaine, Alexandre; Van Mechelen, Maarten; Gijbels, Pieter; Honnay, Olivier; Muys, Bart

    2013-03-01

    The effect of arabica coffee management intensity on composition, structure, and regeneration of moist evergreen Afromontane forests was studied in three traditional coffee-management systems of southwest Ethiopia: semiplantation coffee, semiforest coffee, and forest coffee. Vegetation and environmental data were collected in 84 plots from forests varying in intensity of coffee management. After controlling for environmental variation (altitude, aspect, slope, soil nutrient availability, and soil depth), differences in woody species composition, forest structure, and regeneration potential among management systems were compared using one way analysis of variance. The study showed that intensification of forest coffee cultivation to maximize coffee production negatively affects diversity and structure of Ethiopian moist evergreen Afromontane forests. Intensification of coffee productivity starts with the conversion of forest coffee to semiforest coffee, which has significant negative effects on tree seedling abundance. Further intensification leads to the conversion of semiforest to semiplantation coffee, causing significant diversity losses and the collapse of forest structure (decrease of stem density, basal area, crown closure, crown cover, and dominant tree height). Our study underlines the need for shade certification schemes to include variables other than canopy cover and that the loss of species diversity in intensively managed coffee systems may jeopardize the sustainability of coffee production itself through the decrease of ecosystem resilience and disruption of ecosystem services related to coffee yield, such as pollination and pest control.

  3. Effects of coffee management intensity on composition, structure, and regeneration status of ethiopian moist evergreen afromontane forests.

    PubMed

    Hundera, Kitessa; Aerts, Raf; Fontaine, Alexandre; Van Mechelen, Maarten; Gijbels, Pieter; Honnay, Olivier; Muys, Bart

    2013-03-01

    The effect of arabica coffee management intensity on composition, structure, and regeneration of moist evergreen Afromontane forests was studied in three traditional coffee-management systems of southwest Ethiopia: semiplantation coffee, semiforest coffee, and forest coffee. Vegetation and environmental data were collected in 84 plots from forests varying in intensity of coffee management. After controlling for environmental variation (altitude, aspect, slope, soil nutrient availability, and soil depth), differences in woody species composition, forest structure, and regeneration potential among management systems were compared using one way analysis of variance. The study showed that intensification of forest coffee cultivation to maximize coffee production negatively affects diversity and structure of Ethiopian moist evergreen Afromontane forests. Intensification of coffee productivity starts with the conversion of forest coffee to semiforest coffee, which has significant negative effects on tree seedling abundance. Further intensification leads to the conversion of semiforest to semiplantation coffee, causing significant diversity losses and the collapse of forest structure (decrease of stem density, basal area, crown closure, crown cover, and dominant tree height). Our study underlines the need for shade certification schemes to include variables other than canopy cover and that the loss of species diversity in intensively managed coffee systems may jeopardize the sustainability of coffee production itself through the decrease of ecosystem resilience and disruption of ecosystem services related to coffee yield, such as pollination and pest control. PMID:23180249

  4. Deformation and rupture of the oceanic crust may control growth of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Got, J.-L.; Monteiller, V.; Monteux, J.; Hassani, R.; Okubo, P.

    2008-01-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes are formed by the eruption of large quantities of basaltic magma related to hot-spot activity below the Pacific Plate. Despite the apparent simplicity of the parent process - emission of magma onto the oceanic crust - the resulting edifices display some topographic complexity. Certain features, such as rift zones and large flank slides, are common to all Hawaiian volcanoes, indicating similarities in their genesis; however, the underlying mechanism controlling this process remains unknown. Here we use seismological investigations and finite-element mechanical modelling to show that the load exerted by large Hawaiian volcanoes can be sufficient to rupture the oceanic crust. This intense deformation, combined with the accelerated subsidence of the oceanic crust and the weakness of the volcanic edifice/oceanic crust interface, may control the surface morphology of Hawaiian volcanoes, especially the existence of their giant flank instabilities. Further studies are needed to determine whether such processes occur in other active intraplate volcanoes. ??2008 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. Deformation and rupture of the oceanic crust may control growth of Hawaiian volcanoes.

    PubMed

    Got, Jean-Luc; Monteiller, Vadim; Monteux, Julien; Hassani, Riad; Okubo, Paul

    2008-01-24

    Hawaiian volcanoes are formed by the eruption of large quantities of basaltic magma related to hot-spot activity below the Pacific Plate. Despite the apparent simplicity of the parent process--emission of magma onto the oceanic crust--the resulting edifices display some topographic complexity. Certain features, such as rift zones and large flank slides, are common to all Hawaiian volcanoes, indicating similarities in their genesis; however, the underlying mechanism controlling this process remains unknown. Here we use seismological investigations and finite-element mechanical modelling to show that the load exerted by large Hawaiian volcanoes can be sufficient to rupture the oceanic crust. This intense deformation, combined with the accelerated subsidence of the oceanic crust and the weakness of the volcanic edifice/oceanic crust interface, may control the surface morphology of Hawaiian volcanoes, especially the existence of their giant flank instabilities. Further studies are needed to determine whether such processes occur in other active intraplate volcanoes. PMID:18216852

  6. Maternal and Child Health of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) women and infants, but do not ... and childbirth are meaningful and important to many AA and NHPI families. The health care system must ...

  7. Book review: Conservation biology of Hawaiian forest birds: Implications for island avifauna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engstrom, R. Todd; van Riper, Charles, III

    2010-01-01

    Review info: Conservation Biology of Hawaiian Forest Birds: Implications for Island Avifauna. By Thane K. Pratt, Carter T. Atkinson, Paul C. Banko, James D. Jacobi, and Bethany L. Woodworth, Eds., 2009. ISBN 978-0300141085, 707 pp.

  8. 75 FR 57441 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... the following vacant seats on the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Commercial Shipping, Whale Watching, Ocean Recreation, Business/Commerce,...

  9. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Monument (74 FR 47119, September 15, 2009). During December 2009 and January 2010, eligible NWHI lobster... Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster...

  10. 76 FR 77214 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS establishes the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in...

  11. Culturally based interventions for substance use and child abuse among native Hawaiians.

    PubMed Central

    Mokuau, Noreen

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article presents an overview of child abuse among culturally diverse populations in Hawaii, substance use among culturally diverse students in Hawaii, and culturally based interventions for preventing child abuse and substance abuse in Native Hawaiian families. OBSERVATIONS: Native Hawaiians accounted for the largest number of cases of child abuse and neglect in Hawaii between 1996 and 1998. Alcohol and other drugs have increasingly been linked with child maltreatment. Native Hawaiian youths report the highest rate of substance use in Hawaii. Cultural factors such as spirituality, family, and cultural identification and pride are important in interventions with Native Hawaiians. CONCLUSION: Human services should continue to emphasize interventions that integrate "mainstream" and cultural-specific approaches. PMID:12435831

  12. Chemical heterogeneity in the Hawaiian mantle plume from the alteration and dehydration of recycled oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietruszka, Aaron J.; Norman, Marc D.; Garcia, Michael O.; Marske, Jared P.; Burns, Dale H.

    2013-01-01

    Inter-shield differences in the composition of lavas from Hawaiian volcanoes are generally thought to result from the melting of a heterogeneous mantle source containing variable amounts or types of oceanic crust (sediment, basalt, and/or gabbro) that was recycled into the mantle at an ancient subduction zone. Here we investigate the origin of chemical heterogeneity in the Hawaiian mantle plume by comparing the incompatible trace element abundances of tholeiitic basalts from (1) the three active Hawaiian volcanoes (Kilauea, Mauna Loa, and Loihi) and (2) the extinct Koolau shield (a compositional end member for Hawaiian volcanoes). New model calculations suggest that the mantle sources of Hawaiian volcanoes contain a significant amount of recycled oceanic crust with a factor of ˜2 increase from ˜8-16% at Loihi and Kilauea to ˜15-21% at Mauna Loa and Koolau. We propose that the Hawaiian plume contains a package of recycled oceanic crust (basalt and gabbro, with little or no marine sediment) that was altered by interaction with seawater or hydrothermal fluids prior to being variably dehydrated during subduction. The recycled oceanic crust in the mantle source of Loihi and Kilauea lavas is dominated by the uppermost portion of the residual slab (gabbro-free and strongly dehydrated), whereas the recycled oceanic crust in the mantle source of Mauna Loa and Koolau lavas is dominated by the lowermost portion of the residual slab (gabbro-rich and weakly dehydrated). The present-day distribution of compositional heterogeneities in the Hawaiian plume cannot be described by either a large-scale bilateral asymmetry or radial zonation. Instead, the mantle source of the active Hawaiian volcanoes is probably heterogeneous on a small scale with a NW-SE oriented spatial gradient in the amount, type (i.e., basalt vs. gabbro), and extent of dehydration of the ancient recycled oceanic crust.

  13. Scientists probe Earth’s secrets at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unger, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) sits on the edge of Kilauea Caldera at the summit of Kilauea Volcao, one of the five volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, the largest island in the Hawaiian Islands chain. Of the five, only Kilauea and Mauna Loa have been active in the past 100 years. Before its last eruption in June 1950, Mauna Loa had erupted more frequently and copiously than Kilauea, but since then only Kilauea has been active. 

  14. Studies in Hawaiian Diptera II: New Distributional Records for Endemic Scatella (Ephydridae).

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Patrick M; Arakaki, Keith; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2014-01-01

    Here we summarize the known distributional data for the Hawaiian Scatella (Ephydridae). We report on four new island records; Scatellaamnica and Scatellastagnalis from Kauai, Scatellaoahuense from Lanai, and Scatellaterryi from Maui. A list of material present, comprising over 3100 individual specimen records in the collections of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Essig Musuem of Entomology at UC Berkeley is included, along with details distributional maps for the Hawaiian endemic species. PMID:25197231

  15. Studies in Hawaiian Diptera II: New Distributional Records for Endemic Scatella (Ephydridae)

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Keith; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Here we summarize the known distributional data for the Hawaiian Scatella (Ephydridae). We report on four new island records; Scatella amnica and Scatella stagnalis from Kauai, Scatella oahuense from Lanai, and Scatella terryi from Maui. A list of material present, comprising over 3100 individual specimen records in the collections of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Essig Musuem of Entomology at UC Berkeley is included, along with details distributional maps for the Hawaiian endemic species. PMID:25197231

  16. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  17. Arabinogalactan proteins are incorporated in negatively charged coffee brew melanoidins.

    PubMed

    Bekedam, E Koen; De Laat, Marieke P F C; Schols, Henk A; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Smit, Gerrit

    2007-02-01

    The charge properties of melanoidins in high molecular weight (HMw) coffee brew fractions, isolated by diafiltration and membrane dialysis, were studied. Ion exchange chromatography experiments with the HMw fractions showed that coffee brew melanoidins were negatively charged whereas these molecules did not expose any positive charge at the pH of coffee brew. Fractions with different ionic charges were isolated and subsequently characterized by means of the specific extinction coefficient (K(mix 405nm)), sugar composition, phenolic group content, nitrogen content, and the arabinogalactan protein (AGP) specific Yariv gel-diffusion assay. The isolated fractions were different in composition and AGP was found to be present in one of the HMw fractions. The AGP accounted for 6% of the coffee brew dry matter and had a moderate negative charge, probably caused by the presence of uronic acids. As the fraction that precipitated with Yariv was brown (K(mix 405nm) = 1.2), compared to a white color in the green bean, it was concluded that these AGPs had undergone Maillard reaction resulting in an AGP-melanoidin complex. The presence of mannose (presumably from galactomannan) indicates the incorporation of galactomannans in the AGP-melanoidin complex. As the uronic acid content in the more negatively charged melanoidin-rich, AGP-poor HMw fractions decreased, it was hypothesized that acidic groups are formed or incorporated during melanoidin formation. PMID:17263472

  18. CONSERVATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES OF COFFEE USING CRYOPRESERVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation of genetic resources of Coffea, a genus of economic importance worldwide, is difficult because Coffea seeds do not survive conventional seed sotrage protocols. Most coffee germplasm is maintained in field collections, which are expensive to maintain and susceptible to natural disasters...

  19. The Determination of Caffeine in Coffee: Sense or Nonsense?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckers, Jozef L.

    2004-01-01

    The presence of caffeine in coffee is determined by the use of separation devices and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The results indicate that the use of various analytical tools helps to perceive the higher concentration values obtained through UV-vis spectrophotometry than with separation methods.

  20. Teaching Transport Phenomena around a Cup of Coffee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condoret, Jean Stephane

    2007-01-01

    The very common situation of waiting for the cooling of a cup of coffee is addressed through a conventional engineering approach, where several important concepts of heat and mass transfer are used. A numerical and analytical solution of the differential equations of the problem are proposed, and assessed by comparing to simple experiments.…