Science.gov

Sample records for aid land managers

  1. Management of Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, Jeanne, Ed.

    The principles, practices, responsibilities, and controls in student financial aid are described in this manual. It traces the flow of funds, management activities, and legal issues as they occur in the process. The emphasis is on sound management principles of a general and permanent nature rather than on specific government requirements that may…

  2. Software aids plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Winiger, T. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that for most utilities, computer aided engineering (CAE) systems are currently used for operating plant support rather than new plant design particularly for nuclear plant maintenance. For nuclear power generating utilities, switching to a modern, integrated CAE information system can offer significant benefits. During the last decade, however, most engineering automation in the power generation industry focused on computer-aided drafting and stand-alone engineering applications. An integrated CAE system can be a useful too, assisting engineers with many engineering and operational activities. It also can be used to manage the massive amount of information created throughout the life of a plant.

  3. Computer-aided boundary delineation of agricultural lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Thomas D.; Angelici, Gary L.; Slye, Robert E.; Ma, Matt

    1989-01-01

    The National Agricultural Statistics Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) presently uses labor-intensive aerial photographic interpretation techniques to divide large geographical areas into manageable-sized units for estimating domestic crop and livestock production. Prototype software, the computer-aided stratification (CAS) system, was developed to automate the procedure, and currently runs on a Sun-based image processing system. With a background display of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and United States Geological Survey Digital Line Graph data, the operator uses a cursor to delineate agricultural areas, called sampling units, which are assigned to strata of land-use and land-cover types. The resultant stratified sampling units are used as input into subsequent USDA sampling procedures. As a test, three counties in Missouri were chosen for application of the CAS procedures. Subsequent analysis indicates that CAS was five times faster in creating sampling units than the manual techniques were.

  4. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... navigational aids; (c) Airport environmental factors such as local weather conditions and adjacent...

  5. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... navigational aids; (c) Airport environmental factors such as local weather conditions and adjacent...

  6. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... navigational aids; (c) Airport environmental factors such as local weather conditions and adjacent...

  7. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... navigational aids; (c) Airport environmental factors such as local weather conditions and adjacent...

  8. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... navigational aids; (c) Airport environmental factors such as local weather conditions and adjacent...

  9. Minnesota Land Management Information Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordstrand, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A brief history of the Minnesota Land Management Information Center is given and the present operational status and plans for future development are described. The incorporation of LANDSAT data into the system, hardware and software capabilities, and funding are addressed.

  10. Visual cueing aids for rotorcraft landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Andre, Anthony D.

    1993-01-01

    The present study used a rotorcraft simulator to examine descents-to-hover at landing pads with one of three approach lighting configurations. The impact of simulator platform motion upon descents to hover was also examined. The results showed that the configuration with the most useful optical information led to the slowest final approach speeds, and that pilots found this configuration, together with the presence of simulator platform motion, most desirable. The results also showed that platform motion led to higher rates of approach to the landing pad in some cases. Implications of the results for the design of vertiport approach paths are discussed.

  11. Remote sensing in Michigan for land resource management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. S.; Istvan, L. B.; Roller, N. E.; Sattinger, I. J.; Sellman, A. N.; Wagner, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    The application of NASA earth resource survey technology to resource management and environmental protection in Michigan was investigated. Remote sensing techniques to aid Michigan government agencies were applied in the following activities: (1) land use inventory and management, (2) great lakes shorelands protection and management, (3) wetlands protection and management, and (4) soil survey. In addition, information was disseminated on remote sensing technology, and advice and assistance was provided to a number of users.

  12. Environmental Land Management in Tajikistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhmudov, Zafar; Ergashev, Murod

    2015-04-01

    Tackling Environmental Land Management in Tajikistan "Project approach" Khayrullo Ibodzoda, Zafar Mahmoudov, Murod Ergashev, Kamoliddin Abdulloev Among 28 countries in Europe and Central Asia, Tajikistan is estimated to be the most vulnerable to the climate change impacts depending on its high exposure and sensitivity combined with a very low adaptive capacity. The agricultural sector of Tajikistan is subject to lower and more erratic rainfalls, as well as dryness of water resources due to the possible temperature rising in the region, high evaporation, reducing the accumulation of snow in the mountain glaciers and increased frequency of extreme events. Climate change and variability are likely to pose certain risks, especially for those who prefer natural agriculture or pasture management that just reinforces the need for sound, adapted to new climatic conditions and improved principles of land management. Adoption of new strategies and best practices on sustainable land and water management for agricultural ecosystems will help the farmers and communities in addressing the abovementioned problems, adapt and become more resilient to changing climate by increasing wellbeing of local population, and contributing to food security and restoring productive natural resources. The Environmental Land Management and Rural Livelihoods Project is being financed by the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) and Global Environment Facility (GEF). The Project goal is to enable the rural population to increase their productive assets by improving management of natural resources and building resilience to climate change in selected climate vulnerable sites. The project will facilitate introduction of innovative measures on land use and agricultural production by providing small grants at the village level and grants for the Pasture User Groups (PUGs) at jamoat level in order to implement joint plans of pasture management and wellbred livestock, also for the Water User

  13. General Framework of Hearing Aid Fitting Management

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Soo Hee

    2016-01-01

    Hearing aids are one of the most widely used treatment options for the hearing impaired and optimal outcomes of hearing aids are supported by comprehensive hearing aid fitting protocols. Currently, the term 'hearing aid fitting' is prevalently used among service and industry sectors with its comprehensive procedures not systematically explicated. In addition, a variety of non-normalized guidelines for hearing aid fitting has led to non-uniform care, outcome variability, and dissatisfaction of the use of hearing aids. The main purpose of the present study is to suggest a general framework of standardized practice for hearing aid fitting management including its pre- and post-fitting stages. The management framework centers on its fitting process with its prior steps of assessment as well as its posterior steps of follow-up, thereby eliminating diverging interpretations and non-uniform practices. Outcomes of this study are also expected to improve potential benefits such as quality of hearing aid fitting, user satisfaction, and cost effectiveness across relevant stakeholders. PMID:27144226

  14. Nothing prepared me to manage AIDS.

    PubMed

    Banas, G E

    1992-01-01

    Articles and seminars about AIDS in the workplace are not adequate preparation for the genuine problems faced by actual managers in real organizations. There are no easy, win-win solutions to the impossible dilemmas AIDS presents, only various forms of damage control and, at best, more or less humane compromises. Gary Banas knows. Over a period of four years, two of his direct reports developed AIDS, and he watched them suffer through debility, slowly deteriorating performance, and eventual death. He also watched the gradual decline of their subordinates' productivity and morale. He found that, to different degrees, both men refused to acknowledge their illness and their decreasing organizational effectiveness. One of them resisted the author's efforts to give him an easier job at no loss in salary. Both insisted on confidentiality long after the rumor mill had identified their problem. In the course of these two consecutive ordeals, Banas discovered that AIDS patients fall into no single, neat category. AIDS is not an issue but a disease, and the people who get it are human beings first and victims second. He also learned that AIDS affects everyone around the sick individual and that almost every choice a manager makes will injure someone. Finally, he came to understand that while managers have an unequivocal obligation to treat AIDS-afflicted employees with compassion and respect, they have an equally unequivocal obligation to keep their organizations functioning. "Don't let anyone kid you," Banas warns. "When you confront AIDS in the workplace, you will face untenable choices that seem to pit your obligation to humanity against your obligation to your organization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10119719

  15. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  16. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  17. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  18. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  19. Optimization Techniques for College Financial Aid Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosshardt, Donald I.; Lichtenstein, Larry; Palumbo, George; Zaporowski, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of a theoretical model of expected profit maximization, this paper shows how historic institutional data can be used to assist enrollment managers in determining the level of financial aid for students with varying demographic and quality characteristics. Optimal tuition pricing in conjunction with empirical estimation of…

  20. Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowell, Louis

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management at John F. Kennedy Space Center. The contents include: 1) Corrosion at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC); 2) Requirements and Objectives; 3) Program Description, Background and History; 4) Approach and Implementation; 5) Challenges; 6) Lessons Learned; 7) Successes and Benefits; and 8) Summary and Conclusions.

  1. 76 FR 5397 - Bureau of Land Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Notice of Public Meeting, Santa Rosa... Management, Interior; and Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with... Committee Act of 1972, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and...

  2. Land Use Management for Solid Waste Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The author discusses the problems of solid waste disposal and examines various land use management techniques. These include the land use plan, zoning, regionalization, land utilities, and interim use. Information concerning solid waste processing site zoning and analysis is given. Bibliography included. (MA)

  3. Uncertainty management in intelligent design aiding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald E.; Gabbert, Paula S.

    1988-01-01

    A novel approach to uncertainty management which is particularly effective in intelligent design aiding systems for large-scale systems is presented. The use of this approach in the materials handling system design domain is discussed. It is noted that, during any point in the design process, a point value can be obtained for the evaluation of feasible designs; however, the techniques described provide unique solutions for these point values using only the current information about the design environment.

  4. Adaptive management of grazing lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands, the mainland type used as grazing lands, occupy ~54% of the world’s ice-free land surface, and grasslands dominate ~ 16% of all rangelands. China is the third largest country for rangeland resources in the world and has approximately 400 million ha rangeland, about 40% of China’s land s...

  5. Radar PAPIs: human factor issues of EVS landing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, Bernd R.; Lorenz, Bernd; Toebben, Helmut H.; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich; Hecker, Peter

    2004-08-01

    Up to now most Enhanced Vision Systems have been based on IR-sensors. Although the penetration of bad weather (dense fog and light rain) by MMW-radar is remarkably better than in the infrared spectrum MMW sensors still have the disadvantage that radar data are often difficult to interpret. Therefore, it's not always possible for the pilot to obtain a reliable detection of runway structures within the radar images. However, prior field tests have shown that the installation of two different types of radar retro-reflectors along the runway can ease the image analysis task significantly and can provide the visual cues necessary to perform precision straight-in landings. A set of corner reflectors has proven suitable to mark the runway edges needed to adjust for lateral deviations and a set of diplane reflectors provided cues to maintain a 3-degree glide path descend. The present study obtains first objective human performance data to examine the question how efficient pilots are in utilizing these visual cues. The study tested seven VFR and seven IFR-rated pilots and used a low-fidelity human-in-the-loop visual tracking task to simulate a straight-in landing. Pilots were required to detect the lateral and vertical tracking error based on the intensity-coded visual cues provided by the simulated radar images. The study compares two display conditions derived from different spatial arrangements of the diplane reflectors that signal the glide path angles. The first, the so-called "Radar-PAPI", was a horizontal row arrangement of four diplanes, and the second, the "Radar VASI", was a two-over-two arrangement of four diplanes. A third condition simulated the existing visual color coded PAPI landing aid and served as a baseline reference. Performance evaluation was based on the calculation of the root-mean-square error for both axis and subjective preference statements of the pilots.

  6. Machine vision-based night landing aids for aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterji, Gano Broto

    The development of machine vision based pilot aids to help reduce night approach and landing accidents is explored in this thesis. The techniques developed in this thesis are motivated by the desire to use the available information sources for navigation such as the airport lighting layout, attitude sensors and Global Positioning System to derive more precise aircraft position and orientation information. The fact that airport lighting geometry is known and that images of airport lighting can be acquired by the camera, has lead to the synthesis of machine vision based algorithms for runway relative aircraft position and orientation estimation. The main contribution of this research is the synthesis of seven navigation algorithms based on two broad families of solutions. The first family of solution methods consists of techniques that reconstruct the airport lighting layout from the camera image and then estimate the aircraft position components by comparing the reconstructed lighting layout geometry with the known model of the airport lighting layout geometry. The second family of methods is comprised of techniques that synthesize the image of the airport lighting layout using a camera model and estimate the aircraft position and orientation by comparing this image with the actual image of the airport lighting acquired by the camera. Algorithms I through IV belong to the first family of solutions while Algorithms V through VII belong to the second family of solutions. Algorithms I and II are parameter optimization methods, Algorithms III and IV are feature correspondence methods and Algorithms V through VII are Kalman filter centered algorithms. In order to take advantage of the aircraft dynamics and the multiple images available along the glide path, the position estimates provided by Algorithms I through IV are used for driving a six-state Kalman filter for providing improved estimates of the aircraft position and inertial velocity components. Algorithms V

  7. The land management and operations database (LMOD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents the design, implementation, deployment, and application of the Land Management and Operations Database (LMOD). LMOD is the single authoritative source for reference land management and operation reference data within the USDA enterprise data warehouse. LMOD supports modeling appl...

  8. Marginal Lands: Concept, Assessment and Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; West, Tristram O.; Bandaru, Vara Prasad; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A

    2013-01-01

    Marginal lands have received wide attention for their potential to improve food security and support bioenergy production. However, environmental, ecosystem service, and sustainability concerns have been widely raised over the use of marginal land. Knowledge of the extent, location, and quality of marginal lands as well as their assessment and management are limited and diverse. This paper provides a review of the historical development of marginal concept, its application and assessment. Limitations and priority research needs of marginal land assessment and management were discussed.

  9. 75 FR 56501 - Information Collection; Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys... organizations on the new information collection, the Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys. DATES: Comments... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys. OMB Number:...

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.

  11. Emergency Management Computer-Aided Trainer (EMCAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, R. C.; Johnson, R. P.

    1986-01-01

    The Emergency Management Computer-Aided Trainer (EMCAT) developed by Essex Corporation or NASA and the Federal Emergency Management Administration's (FEMA) National Fire Academy (NFA) is described. It is a computer based training system for fire fighting personnel. A prototype EMCAT system was developed by NASA first using video tape images and then video disk images when the technology became available. The EMCAT system is meant to fill the training needs of the fire fighting community with affordable state-of-the-art technologies. An automated real time simulation of the fire situation was needed to replace the outdated manual training methods currently being used. In order to be successful, this simulator had to provide realism, be user friendly, be affordable, and support multiple scenarios. The EMCAT system meets these requirements and therefore represents an innovative training tool, not only for the fire fighting community, but also for the needs of other disciplines.

  12. Remote sensing in Michigan for land resource management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sattinger, I. J.; Sellman, A. N.; Istvan, L. B.; Cook, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    During the period from June 1972 to June 1973, remote sensing techniques were applied to the following tasks: (1) mapping Michigan's land resources, (2) waterfowl habitat management at Point Mouillee, (3) mapping of Lake Erie shoreline flooding, (4) highway impact assessment, (5) applications of the Earth Resources Technology Satellite, ERTS-1, (6) investigation of natural gas eruptions near Williamsburg, and (7) commercial site selection. The goal of the program was the large scale adaption, by both public agencies and private interests in Michigan, of earth-resource survey technology as an important aid in the solution of current problems in resources management and environmental protection.

  13. 43 CFR 9269.3-2 - Land resource management. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land resource management. 9269.3-2 Section 9269.3-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 9269.3-2 Land resource management....

  14. 43 CFR 9269.3-2 - Land resource management. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land resource management. 9269.3-2 Section 9269.3-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 9269.3-2 Land resource management....

  15. 43 CFR 9269.3-2 - Land resource management. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land resource management. 9269.3-2 Section 9269.3-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 9269.3-2 Land resource management....

  16. 43 CFR 9269.3-2 - Land resource management. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land resource management. 9269.3-2 Section 9269.3-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 9269.3-2 Land resource management....

  17. Remote sensing in Michigan for land resource management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. S.; Istvan, L. B.; Roller, N. E. G.; Sellman, A. N.; Wagner, T. W.

    1975-01-01

    The utilization of NASA earth resource survey technology as an important aid in the solution of current problems in resource management and environmental protection in Michigan is discussed. Remote sensing techniques to aid Michigan government agencies were used to achieve the following results: (1) provide data on Great Lakes beach recession rates to establish shoreline zoning ordinances; (2) supply technical justification for public acquisition of land to establish the St. John's Marshland Recreation Area; (3) establish economical and effective methods for performing a statewide wetlands survey; (4) accomplish a variety of regional resource management actions in the Upper Peninsula; and (5) demonstrate improved soil survey methods. The project disseminated information on remote sensing technology and provided advice and assistance to a number of users in Michigan.

  18. The Changing Role of Financial Aid and Enrollment Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Kathy A.

    1995-01-01

    Explores common institutional strategies for pricing, awarding aid, and controlling the growth of aid budgets in light of changing recruitment practices. Concludes by discussing the new services that aid offices must provide to meet their new challenges effectively. Discusses net tuition revenue goals to enhance effective management of resources.…

  19. Management of Student Aid: A Guide for Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Khawas, Elaine

    A guide offering a quick review of principles, decisions, and responsibilities in financial aid management has been developed to aid presidents, trustees, and senior administrators of colleges and universities. The handbook stresses the possible implications of aid for enrollment, financial stability, and institutional mission. Topics that are…

  20. Remediation and management of degraded lands

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.H.; Wong, J.W.C.; Baker, A.J.M.

    1999-11-01

    This book presents the program of the first International Conference on the Remediation and Management of Degraded lands. The book has three sections: mine management and rehabilitation, the management of derelict lands, and soil contamination and reclamation. The 34 chapters present a proactive, solution based approach to the rehabilitation of natural resources. Topics of discussions include the following: the multidisciplinary approach practiced by the Australian Center for Minesite Rehabilitation Research; the relationship between biofuel harvesting and Hong Kong`s continuing upland degradation; and experiments with the effectiveness of EDTA/HCI to remove contaminants from soil.

  1. HIV/AIDS managed care program.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, J G

    2000-01-01

    Approximately one-half of all patients with HIV infection who are under care have Medicaid as the third party payor. Unlike Medicare, Medicaid is a state-specific program that has huge variations in reimbursement strategies. Multiple studies have shown that care for persons with AIDS is about $20,000/year, but reimbursement through various state Medicaid programs varies about $100/m/m to $2800/m/m despite the fact that expectations for care are identical. Hopkins has a major commitment to persons with HIV infection with a program that now includes 30 faculty members and a support staff of 170. With the introduction of mandatory managed care for Medicaid recipients in July, 1997, we were confronted with the issue of substantial downsizing with abandonment of over half of our patients, or learning the transition to managed care. This has been a steep learning curve involving negotiations with the state Medicaid office, reorganization of our clinic, careful scrutiny of our database regarding resource utilization and cost, education of providers, and longitudinal collection of new information and integration of the rapid changes in the field. In the process of this transition, we learned that there are precious few resources to provide guidance and that there is a perceived need for assistance by HIV providers throughout the country. Consequently, we have now established the "HIV Managed Care Network" with substantial funding from diverse sources to support education, data collection, and public policy review. It is premature to evaluate performance since most of these activities have just begun, but we expect that this Network will serve as a demonstration model for methods to deal with chronic diseases under managed care. PMID:10881336

  2. Reinventing the Bureau of Land Management

    SciTech Connect

    Yager, J.O.; Muller, K.

    1995-12-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has developed a {open_quotes}Blueprint for the Future{close_quotes} changing its organizational structure to better manage nearly 270 million acres of public lands and 540 million acres of subsurface mineral resources. Both efforts focus on ecosystem management and better business practices. The mission identified in the {open_quotes}Blueprint{close_quotes} is {open_quotes}to sustain the health, diversity and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations.{close_quotes} Within this mission goals include maintaining healthy ecosystems and improving customer service and business practices. In conjunction with the Blueprint, the BLM developed strategies to streamline its headquarters and field organizational structures and to accommodate an ecosystem management approach. The new headquarters structure uses flexible interdisciplinary work teams in place of the programmatic hierarchical approach. These teams may be established on either a permanent or temporary basis. For example, one team is responsible for reporting on the condition of the public lands as an essential part of maintaining healthy ecosystems. Although it is too early to judge the success of the BLM`s reinvention efforts, insights can be gained from a review of these efforts. One insight is that most people are so used to thinking about the public lands on a statute by statute, resource by resource, project by project basis, that is difficult for them to adjust to the ecosystem management or streamlining paradigms.

  3. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project...

  4. Sustainable Land Management in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan; Araya, Tesfay

    2014-05-01

    Through centuries of farming practices the farmers and pastoralists in Ethiopia were managing their land resources pertaining to the needs of prevalent populations. With an increasing population and growing demands, more land was put under cultivation. Subsequently forest areas were cleared, encroaching agriculture into steep slopes and areas that were not suitable for agricultural activities. Land degradation and particularly soil erosion by water not only reduced the productivity of the land but also aggravated the effects of drought, such as famine and migration. Obvious signs of degradation in the highlands of Ethiopia are wide gullies swallowing fertile lands and rock outcrops making farming a risky business. But also less visible sheet erosion processes result in a tremendous loss of fertile topsoil, particularly on cropland. Efforts have been made by the farming communities to mitigate land degradation by developing local practices of conserving soil and water. With keen interest and openness one can observe such indigenous practices in all corners of Ethiopia. Notwithstanding these practices, there were also efforts to introduce other soil and water conservation interventions to control erosion and retain the eroded soils. Since the early 1980s numerous campaigns were carried out to build terraces in farmlands and sloping areas. Major emphasis was given to structural technologies rather than on vegetative measures. Currently the landscape of the northern highlands is dotted with millions of hectares of terraced fields and in some places with planned watershed management interventions including exclosures. Apparently these interventions were introduced without prior investigating the detailed problems and conservation needs of the local population. Intensive research is undertaken on the processes of degradation, the impact of the different intervention measures and the role of communities in sustainably managing their land. This paper attempts to review the

  5. 43 CFR 2920.3 - Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... initiated land use proposals. Where, as a result of the land use planning process, the desirability of... lands is demonstrated, the authorized officer may identify a use for the public land and notify the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bureau of Land Management initiated...

  6. 43 CFR 2920.3 - Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... initiated land use proposals. Where, as a result of the land use planning process, the desirability of... lands is demonstrated, the authorized officer may identify a use for the public land and notify the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bureau of Land Management initiated...

  7. 43 CFR 2920.3 - Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... initiated land use proposals. Where, as a result of the land use planning process, the desirability of... lands is demonstrated, the authorized officer may identify a use for the public land and notify the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bureau of Land Management initiated...

  8. 43 CFR 2920.3 - Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... initiated land use proposals. Where, as a result of the land use planning process, the desirability of... lands is demonstrated, the authorized officer may identify a use for the public land and notify the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bureau of Land Management initiated...

  9. Arid Lands Ecology Facility management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1993-02-01

    The Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) facility is a 312-sq-km tract of land that lies on the western side of the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington. The US Atomic Energy Commission officially set aside this land area in 1967 to preserve shrub-steppe habitat and vegetation. The ALE facility is managed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for ecological research and education purposes. In 1971, the ALE facility was designated the Rattlesnake Hills Research Natural Area (RNA) as a result of an interagency federal cooperative agreement, and remains the largest RNA in Washington. it is also one of the few remaining large tracts of shrub-steppe vegetation in the state retaining a predominant preeuropean settlement character. This management plan provides policy and implementation methods for management of the ALE facilities consistent with both US Department of Energy Headquarters and the Richland Field Office decision (US Congress 1977) to designate and manage ALE lands as an RNA and as a component of the DOE National Environmental Research Park System.

  10. Land-based approach to evaluate sustainable land management and adaptive capacity of ecosystems/lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2015-04-01

    A number of new concepts and paradigms appeared during last decades, such as sustainable land management (SLM), climate change (CC) adaptation, environmental services, ecosystem health, and others. All of these initiatives still not having the common scientific platform although some agreements in terminology were reached, schemes of links and feedback loops created, and some models developed. Nevertheless, in spite of all these scientific achievements, the land related issues are still not in the focus of CC adaptation and mitigation. The last did not grow much beyond the "greenhouse gases" (GHG) concept, which makes land degradation as the "forgotten side of climate change" The possible decision to integrate concepts of climate and desertification/land degradation could be consideration of the "GHG" approach providing global solution, and "land" approach providing local solution covering other "locally manifesting" issues of global importance (biodiversity conservation, food security, disasters and risks, etc.) to serve as a central concept among those. SLM concept is a land-based approach, which includes the concepts of both ecosystem-based approach (EbA) and community-based approach (CbA). SLM can serve as in integral CC adaptation strategy, being based on the statement "the more healthy and resilient the system is, the less vulnerable and more adaptive it will be to any external changes and forces, including climate" The biggest scientific issue is the methods to evaluate the SLM and results of the SLM investments. We suggest using the approach based on the understanding of the balance or equilibrium of the land and nature components as the major sign of the sustainable system. Prom this point of view it is easier to understand the state of the ecosystem stress, size of the "health", range of adaptive capacity, drivers of degradation and SLM nature, as well as the extended land use, and the concept of environmental land management as the improved SLM approach

  11. Professional Education Programme for Land Management and Land Administration in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setha, Vung; Mund, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Land management and land administration are defined as a system of planning, management and administration methods and techniques that aims to integrate ecological with social, economic and legal principles in the management of land for urban and rural development purposes. The main objective is to meet changing and developing human needs, while…

  12. Full color hybrid display for aircraft simulators. [landing aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, W. D. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A full spectrum color monitor, connected to the camera and lens system of a television camera supported by a gantry frame over a terrain model simulating an aircraft landing zone, projects the monitor image onto a lens or screen visually accessible to a trainee in the simulator. A digital computer produces a pattern corresponding to the lights associated with the landing strip onto a monochromatic display, and an optical system projects the calligraphic image onto the same lens so that it is superposed on the video representation of the landing field. The optical system includes a four-color wheel which is rotated between the calligraphic display and the lens, and an apparatus for synchronizing the generation of a calligraphic pattern with the color segments on the color wheel. A servo feedback system responsive to the servo motors on the gantry frame produces an input to the computer so that the calligraphically generated signal corresponds in shape, size and location to the video signal.

  13. Chlorophyll Meters Aid Plant Nutrient Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    On December 7, 1972, roughly 5 hours and 6 minutes after launch, the crew of Apollo 17 took one of history s most famous photographs. The brilliant image of the fully illuminated Earth, the African and Antarctic continents peering out from behind swirling clouds, came to be known as the Blue Marble. Today, Earth still sometimes goes by the Blue Marble nickname, but as the satellites comprising NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) scan the planet daily in ever greater resolutions, it is often the amount of green on the planet that is a focus of researchers attention. Earth s over 400,000 known plant species play essential roles in the planet s health: They absorb carbon dioxide and release the oxygen we breathe, help manage the Earth s temperature by absorbing and reflecting sunlight, provide food and habitats for animals, and offer building materials, medication, and sustenance for humans. As part of NASA s efforts to study our own planet along with the universe around it, the Agency s EOS satellites have been accumulating years of valuable data about Earth s vegetation (not to mention its land features, oceans, and atmosphere) since the first EOS satellite launched in 1997. Among the powerful sensors used is the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites. MODIS sweeps the entire Earth every few days, beaming back information gathered across 36 bands of visible and infrared light, yielding images that let scientists track how much of Earth is green over the course of seasons and years. Monitoring the density and distribution of vegetation on Earth provides a means of determining everything from the impact of natural and human-induced climate change to the potential outbreak of disease. (Goddard Space Flight Center and U.S. Department of Defense researchers have determined, for example, that vegetation density can be used to pinpoint regions of heavy rainfall in Africa regions ripe for outbreaks of rainfall

  14. 25 CFR 167.5 - Land management districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Land management districts. 167.5 Section 167.5 Indians... Land management districts. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs has established and will retain the present land management districts within the Navajo Indian Reservation, based on the social and...

  15. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary...

  16. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary...

  17. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary...

  18. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary...

  19. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land. (a) The Secretary...

  20. Computer Aided Management for Information Processing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akman, Ibrahim; Kocamustafaogullari, Kemal

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the nature of information processing projects and discusses some project management programming packages. Describes an in-house interface program developed to utilize a selected project management package (TIMELINE) by using Oracle Data Base Management System tools and Pascal programming language for the management of information system…

  1. Remote sensing in Michigan for land resource management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. S.; Istvan, L. B.; Roller, N. E. G.; Prentice, V. L.

    1976-01-01

    The Environmental Research Institute of Michigan is conducting a program whose goal is the large-scale adoption, by both public agencies and private interests in Michigan, of NASA earth-resource survey technology as an important aid in the solution of current problems in resource management and environmental protection. During the period from June 1975 to June 1976, remote sensing techniques to aid Michigan government agencies were used to achieve the following major results: (1) supply justification for public acquisition of land to establish the St. John's Marshland Recreation Area; (2) recommend economical and effective methods for performing a statewide wetlands survey; (3) assist in the enforcement of state laws relating to sand and gravel mining, soil erosion and sedimentation, and shorelands protection; (4) accomplish a variety of regional resource management actions in the East Central Michigan Planning and Development Region. Other tasks on which remote sensing technology was used include industrial and school site selection, ice detachment in the Soo Harbor, grave detection, and data presentation for wastewater management programs.

  2. Satellite-aided land mobile communications system implementation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint.

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant land management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    On October 30, 1992, the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act became law. This Act transferred the responsibility for the management of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WILWA) from the Secretary of the Interior to the Secretary of Energy. In accordance with sections 3(a)(1) and (3) of the Act, these lands {open_quotes}{hor_ellipsis}are withdrawn from all forms of entry, appropriation, and disposal under the public land laws{hor_ellipsis}{close_quotes}and are reserved for the use of the Secretary of Energy {open_quotes}{hor_ellipsis}for the construction, experimentation, operation, repair and maintenance, disposal, shutdown, monitoring, decommissioning, and other activities, associated with the purposes of WIPP as set forth in the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Act of 1980 and this Act.{close_quotes}. As a complement to this LMP, a MOU has been executed between the DOE and the BLM, as required by section 4(d) of the Act. The state of New Mexico was consulted in the development of the MOU and the associated Statement of Work (SOW).

  4. Sharing evidence of sustainable land management impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwilch, Gudrun; Mekdaschi Studer, Rima; Providoli, Isabelle; Liniger, Hanspeter

    2015-04-01

    Ensuring sustainable use of natural resources is crucial for maintaining the basis for our livelihoods. With threats from climate change, disputes over water, biodiversity loss, competing claims on land, and migration increasing worldwide, the demands for sustainable land management (SLM) practices will only increase in the future. For years already, various national and international organizations (GOs, NGOs, donors, research institutes, etc.) have been working on alternative forms of land management. And numerous land users worldwide - especially small farmers - have been testing, adapting, and refining new and better ways of managing land. All too often, however, the resulting SLM knowledge has not been sufficiently evaluated, documented and shared. Among other things, this has often prevented valuable SLM knowledge from being channelled into evidence-based decision-making processes. Indeed, proper knowledge management is crucial for SLM to reach its full potential. Since more than 20 years, the international WOCAT network documents and promotes SLM through its global platform. As a whole, the WOCAT methodology comprises tools for documenting, evaluating, and assessing the impact of SLM practices, as well as for knowledge sharing, analysis and use for decision support in the field, at the planning level, and in scaling up identified good practices. In early 2014, WOCAT's growth and ongoing improvement culminated in its being officially recognized by the UNCCD as the primary recommended database for SLM best practices. Over the years, the WOCAT network confirmed that SLM helps to prevent desertification, to increase biodiversity, enhance food security and to make people less vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change. In addition, it plays an important role in mitigating climate change through improving soil organic matter and increasing vegetation cover. In-depth assessments of SLM practices from desertification sites enabled an evaluation of

  5. Signalling characteristics in satellite-aided land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of land mobile radio communications has been demonstrated by a large number of experiments with NASA's ATS satellites. Significant differences in the propagation characteristics of satellite and terrestrial mobile signal paths were observed in the experiments. Terrestrial paths are best in cities where they can provide frequency reuse and assure communication by bouncing signals around obstructions. Satellites may be best in thinly populated areas because they eliminate the need for many tower mounted relays. The satellite paths do not have the severe Rayleigh fading that limits the range and signal quality of terrestrial paths if the satellite is above approximately ten degrees elevation, a value easily achieved for the United States. The experiments verified that high quality voice communications and other functions, such as data transmission and vehicle position surveillance, are easily accomplished through geostationary satellites with vehicle transmitter power and antenna gain no different than those of terrestrial mobile communications.

  6. Satellite-aided land mobile communications system implementation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint. Previously announced in STAR as N82-25290

  7. Signalling characteristics in satellite-aided land mobile communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. E.

    The feasibility of land mobile radio communications has been demonstrated by a large number of experiments with NASA's ATS satellites. Significant differences in the propagation characteristics of satellite and terrestrial mobile signal paths were observed in the experiments. Terrestrial paths are best in cities where they can provide frequency reuse and assure communication by bouncing signals around obstructions. Satellites may be best in thinly populated areas because they eliminate the need for many tower mounted relays. The satellite paths do not have the severe Rayleigh fading that limits the range and signal quality of terrestrial paths if the satellite is above approximately ten degrees elevation, a value easily achieved for the United States. The experiments verified that high quality voice communications and other functions, such as data transmission and vehicle position surveillance, are easily accomplished through geostationary satellites with vehicle transmitter power and antenna gain no different than those of terrestrial mobile communications.

  8. Concentric circles based simple optical landing aid for vertical takeoff and landing aircrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murshid, Syed H.; Enaya, Rayan; Lovell, Gregory L.

    2014-09-01

    Vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircrafts such as helicopters and drones, add a flexible degree of operation to airborne vehicles. In order to operate these devices in low light situations, where it is difficult to determine slope of the landing surface, a lightweight and standalone device is proposed here. This small optical device can be easily integrated into current VTOL systems. An optical projector consisting of low power, light weight, solid state laser along with minimal optics is utilized to illuminate the landing surface with donut shaped circles and coaxial centralized dot. This device can placed anywhere on the aircraft and a properly placed fiber system can be used to illuminate the surface beneath the bottom of the VTOL aircraft in a fashion that during operation, when the aircraft is parallel to the landing surface, the radius between the central dot and outer ring(s) are equidistant for the entire circumference; however, when there the landing surface of the VTOL aircraft is not parallel to the landing strip, the radial distance between two opposite sides of the circle and central dot will be unequal. The larger this distortion, the greater the difference will be between the opposite sides of the circle. Visual confirmation or other optical devices can be used to determine relative alignment of the projector output allowing the pilot to make proper adjustments as they approach the landing surface to ensure safe landings. Simulated and experimental results from a prototype optical projector are presented here.

  9. The readability of federal land management plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Thomas J.; Patrick-Riley, Kent

    1989-01-01

    Regulations to implement the National Environmental Policy Act state that environmental impact statements shall be written in “plain language”. Federal land management agencies operate under this guideline when they prepare plans for their lands. We examined 23 agency plans, using the Flesch Reading Ease Scale, to determine if they met this criterion. The scores show that the plans are written for people with three to six years of college education, far beyond the reading ability of the average person. The results suggest that the plans may limit or bias who participates in agency planning. National policy on the readability of the plans needs to be clarified, and agencies need to evaluate, and defend or revise, their writing programs.

  10. 75 FR 999 - Notice of Reestablishment of Bureau of Land Management Resource Advisory Councils

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Reestablishment of Bureau of Land Management Resource Advisory Councils AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of reestablishment of Resource... reestablished the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Resource Advisory Councils for......

  11. 77 FR 5048 - Notice of Bureau of Land Management Implementation of Recreation Resource Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Bureau of Land Management Implementation of Recreation Resource... Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM...., U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land......

  12. Monitoring neotropical migrants on managed land: When, where, why

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Droege, S.

    1993-01-01

    Relevant wildlife monitoring on managed lands lies somewhere between monitoring everything and monitoring nothing. Knowing the population status of all birds on a managed area would be potentially useful information but would be costly to collect, but without monitoring no link between management and wildlife populations can be made. A decision making process for developing appropriate monitoring programs on managed lands is outlined.

  13. Digital elevation data as an aid to land use and land cover classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvocoresses, Alden P.

    1981-01-01

    In relatively well mapped areas such as the United States and Europe, digital data can be developed from topographic maps or from the stereo aerial photographic movie. For poorer mapped areas (which involved most of the world's land areas), a satellite designed to obtain stereo data offers the best hope for a digital elevation database. Such a satellite, known as Mapsat, has been defined by the U.S. Geological Survey. Utilizing modern solid state technology, there is no reason why such stereo data cannot be acquired simultaneously with the multispectral response, thus simplifying the overall problem of land use and land cover classification.

  14. Home Health Management Aide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincemoyer, Betty Jane

    The report describes a demonstration project to provide a course of study at the senior high level in home health management for the academically handicapped. The course consisted of practice in nursing skills, home management and laboratory work in food preparation techniques, the family, and child care. Activities included field trips,…

  15. Identifying environmental features for land management decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The benefits of changes in management organization and facilities for the Center for Remote Sensing and Cartography in Utah are reported as well as interactions with and outreach to state and local agencies. Completed projects are described which studied (1) Unita Basin wetland/land use; (2) Davis County foothill development; (3) Farmington Bay shoreline fluctuation; (4) irrigation detection; and (5) satellite investigation of snow cover/mule deer relationships. Techniques developed for composite computer mapping, contrast enhancement, U-2 CIR/LANDSAT digital interface; factor analysis, and multivariate statistical analysis are described.

  16. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section 879.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER §...

  17. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section 879.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER §...

  18. 25 CFR 167.5 - Land management districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land management districts. 167.5 Section 167.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.5 Land management districts. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs has established and will retain...

  19. A Cheat Sheet for Land and Resource Managers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single page fact sheet for land managers to use in the field when applying the ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) decision model. The fact sheet guides managers step by step through the EBIPM process....

  20. Land degradation, monitoring, and adapting land management for sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land degradation impacts on agricultural production and other ecosystem services often far exceed those of climate change, yet these impacts are largely ignored. In September, the United Nations adopted a “land degradation neutrality” target as part of its Sustainable Development Agenda. This paper ...

  1. Software Schedules Missions, Aids Project Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA missions require advanced planning, scheduling, and management, and the Space Agency has worked extensively to develop the programs and software suites necessary to facilitate these complex missions. These enormously intricate undertakings have hundreds of active components that need constant management and monitoring. It is no surprise, then, that the software developed for these tasks is often applicable in other high-stress, complex environments, like in government or industrial settings. NASA work over the past few years has resulted in a handful of new scheduling, knowledge-management, and research tools developed under contract with one of NASA s partners. These tools have the unique responsibility of supporting NASA missions, but they are also finding uses outside of the Space Program.

  2. 50 CFR 70.7 - Land-use management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land-use management. 70.7 Section 70.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.7 Land-use management. The...

  3. 50 CFR 70.7 - Land-use management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land-use management. 70.7 Section 70.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.7 Land-use management. The...

  4. 50 CFR 70.7 - Land-use management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land-use management. 70.7 Section 70.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.7 Land-use management. The...

  5. 50 CFR 70.7 - Land-use management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Land-use management. 70.7 Section 70.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.7 Land-use management. The...

  6. 50 CFR 70.7 - Land-use management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land-use management. 70.7 Section 70.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.7 Land-use management. The...

  7. Flight results from a study of aided inertial navigation applied to landing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Carson, T. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Schmidt, S. F.; Conrad, B.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the approach and landing performance of a Kalman filter aided inertial navigation system using flight data obtained from a series of approaches and landings of the CV-340 aircraft at an instrumented test area. A description of the flight test is given, in which data recorded included: (1) accelerometer signals from the platform of an INS; (2) three ranges from the Ames-Cubic Precision Ranging System; and (3) radar and barometric altimeter signals. The method of system evaluation employed was postflight processing of the recorded data using a Kalman filter which was designed for use on the XDS920 computer onboard the CV-340 aircraft. Results shown include comparisons between the trajectories as estimated by the Kalman filter aided system and as determined from cinetheodolite data. Data start initialization of the Kalman filter, operation at a practical data rate, postflight modeling of sensor errors and operation under the adverse condition of bad data are illustrated.

  8. Stochastic control of light UAV at landing with the aid of bearing-only observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Alexander; Miller, Boris

    2015-12-01

    This work considers the tracking of the UAV (unmanned aviation vehicle) at landing on unprepared field. Despite the advantages in UAV guidance the autonomous landing remains to be one of most serious problems. The principal difficulties are the absence of the precise UAV position measurements with respect to the landing field and the action of external atmospheric perturbations (turbulence and wind). So the control problem for UAV landing is the nonlinear stochastic one with incomplete information. The aim of the article is the development of stochastic control algorithms based on pseudomeasurement Kalman filter in the problem of the UAV autonomous landing with the aid of ground-based optical/radio radars in the case of strong wind and large initial error of the UAV entrance into the area covered by radars. The novelty of the article is the joint control-observation algorithm based on unbiased pseudomeasurement Kalman filter which provides the quadratic characteristics of the estimation errors. The later property is highly important for the UAV control based on the data fusion from INS (inertial navigation system) and the bearing observations obtained from external terrain based locators. The principal difficulty in the UAV landing control is the absence of the direct control tools at the terrain end, so the possible control can be based on the angular-range data obtained by terrain locators which must be transmitted from terrain location station to the UAV control unit. Thus the stochastic approach looks very effective in this challenging problem of the UAV landing.

  9. Agricultural land cover mapping with the aid of digital soil survey data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    A study is recounted which assessed the effect of stratifying multidate Landsat MSS data on land cover classification accuracy. The study area covered 49,184 ha (121,534 acres) in Gentry County in northwestern Missouri. A pixel-by-pixel comparison of the two land cover classifications with field-verified land cover indicated improvements in identification of all cover types when land areas were stratified by soils. The introduction of soil map information to the land cover mapping process can improve discrimination of land cover types and reduce confusion among crop types that may be caused by soil-specific management practices, soil-induced crop development differences, and background reflectance characteristics.

  10. Management Aids and Procedures for Strategic Planning. Staff Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Robert G.

    Management aids required in strategic planning are divided into three categories: (1) assessing the environment, (2) providing a process for reaching decisions, and (3) presenting criteria to evaluate strategic decisions. A model for scanning the environment has four dimensions that concern economic, social, knowledge-technology, and public policy…

  11. The convergence of HIV/AIDS and customary tenure on women's access to land in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Tschirhart, Naomi; Kabanga, Lucky; Nichols, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the convergence of HIV/AIDS and the social processes through which women access customary land in rural Malawi. Data were collected from focus group discussions with women in patrilineal and matrilineal communities. Women's land tenure is primarily determined through kinship group membership, customary inheritance practices and location of residence. In patrilineal communities, land is inherited through the male lineage and women access land through relationships with male members who are the rightful heirs. Conversely in matrilineal matrilocal communities, women as daughters directly inherit the land. This research found that in patrilineal communities, HIV/AIDS, gendered inequalities embedded in customary inheritance practices and resource shortages combine to affect women's access to land. HIV/AIDS may cause the termination of a woman's relationship with the access individual due to stigma or the individual's death. Termination of such relationships increases tenure insecurity for women accessing land in a community where they do not have inheritance rights. In contrast to the patrilineal patrilocal experience, research on matrilineal matrilocal communities demonstrates that where women are the inheritors of the land and have robust land tenure rights, they are not at risk of losing their access to land due to HIV/AIDS. PMID:26771077

  12. Automatic photointerpretation for land use management in Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanlund, G. D. (Principal Investigator); Kirvida, L.; Cheung, M.; Pile, D.; Zirkle, R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Automatic photointerpretation techniques were utilized to evaluate the feasibility of data for land use management. It was shown that ERTS-1 MSS data can produce thematic maps of adequate resolution and accuracy to update land use maps. In particular, five typical land use areas were mapped with classification accuracies ranging from 77% to over 90%.

  13. Simulation and flight evaluation of a head-up landing aid for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. L., Sr.; Goode, M. W.; Yenni, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    A head-up general aviation landing aid called a landing site indicator (LASI) was tested in a fixed-base, visual simulator and in an airplane to determine the effectiveness of the LASI. The display, which had a simplified format and method of implementation, presented to the pilot in his line of sight through the windshield a graphic representation of the airplane's velocity vector. In each testing model (simulation of flight), each of 4 pilots made 20 landing approaches with the LASI and 20 approaches without it. The standard deviations of approach and touchdown parameters were considered an indication of pilot consistency. Use of the LASI improved consistency and also reduced elevator, aileron, and rudder control activity. Pilots' comments indicated that the LASI reduced work load. An appendix is included with a discussion of the simulator effectiveness for visual flight tasks.

  14. Application of expert systems in project management decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Regina; Shaffer, Steven; Stokes, James; Goldstein, David

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of developing an expert systems-based project management decision aid to enhance the performance of NASA project managers was assessed. The research effort included extensive literature reviews in the areas of project management, project management decision aiding, expert systems technology, and human-computer interface engineering. Literature reviews were augmented by focused interviews with NASA managers. Time estimation for project scheduling was identified as the target activity for decision augmentation, and a design was developed for an Integrated NASA System for Intelligent Time Estimation (INSITE). The proposed INSITE design was judged feasible with a low level of risk. A partial proof-of-concept experiment was performed and was successful. Specific conclusions drawn from the research and analyses are included. The INSITE concept is potentially applicable in any management sphere, commercial or government, where time estimation is required for project scheduling. As project scheduling is a nearly universal management activity, the range of possibilities is considerable. The INSITE concept also holds potential for enhancing other management tasks, especially in areas such as cost estimation, where estimation-by-analogy is already a proven method.

  15. 50 CFR 29.2 - Cooperative land management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative land management. 29.2 Section 29.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules § 29.2 Cooperative...

  16. 50 CFR 29.2 - Cooperative land management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative land management. 29.2 Section 29.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules § 29.2 Cooperative...

  17. 50 CFR 29.2 - Cooperative land management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative land management. 29.2 Section 29.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules § 29.2 Cooperative...

  18. 50 CFR 29.2 - Cooperative land management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative land management. 29.2 Section 29.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules § 29.2 Cooperative...

  19. 50 CFR 29.2 - Cooperative land management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative land management. 29.2 Section 29.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules § 29.2 Cooperative...

  20. 77 FR 44144 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ...) published a National Forest System land management planning rule in the Federal Register, on April 9, 2012, (77 FR 21162). Errors have been found in the rule with respect to punctuation, hyphenation, and... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 RIN 0596-AD02 National Forest System Land Management Planning;...

  1. PLANS FOR THE LAND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (LMS) INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Land Management System (LMS) is an initiative of the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) to address technology requirements related to land and water resource management in both military and Civil Works mission areas. The purpose of LMS is to provide rel...

  2. Policy implications in developing a land use management information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landini, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The current land use map for the city of Los Angeles was developed by the guesstimation process and provides single stage information for each level in the critical geographical hierarchy for land use planning management. Processing and incorporation of LANDSAT data in the land use information system requires special funding; however, computergraphic maps are able to provide a viable information system for city planning and management.

  3. Computer-Aided Evaluation of Forage Management: Forage Manager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panciera, M. T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents the Forage Manager spreadsheet, developed as a forage management teaching tool to integrate agronomic, livestock, and cost data to demonstrate the impact of forage management on livestock production costs. Teaching applications, examples involving agronomic data and conventional agronomic evaluation, and limitations of the program are…

  4. Ecological Principles and Guidelines for Managing the Use of Land

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Brown, Sandra; Haeuber, R A; Hobbs, N T; Huntly, N; Naiman, R J; Riebsame, W E; Turner, M G; Valone, T J

    2014-01-01

    The many ways that people have used and managed land throughout history has emerged as a primary cause of land-cover change around the world. Thus, land use and land management increasingly represent a fundamental source of change in the global environment. Despite their global importance, however, many decisions about the management and use of land are made with scant attention to ecological impacts. Thus, ecologists' knowledge of the functioning of Earth's ecosystems is needed to broaden the scientific basis of decisions on land use and management. In response to this need, the Ecological Society of America established a committee to examine the ways that land-use decisions are made and the ways that ecologists could help inform those decisions. This paper reports the scientific findings of that committee. Five principles of ecological science have particular implications for land use and can assure that fundamental processes of Earth's ecosystems are sustained. These ecological principles deal with time, species, place, dis- turbance, and the landscape. The recognition that ecological processes occur within a temporal setting and change over time is fundamental to analyzing the effects of land use. In addition, individual species and networks of interacting species have strong and far-reaching effects on ecological processes. Furthermore, each site or region has a unique set of organisms and abiotic conditions influencing and constraining ecological processes. Distur- bances are important and ubiquitous ecological events whose effects may strongly influence population, com- munity, and ecosystem dynamics. Finally, the size, shape, and spatial relationships of habitat patches on the landscape affect the structure and function of ecosystems. The responses of the land to changes in use and management by people depend on expressions of these fundamental principles in nature. These principles dictate several guidelines for land use. The guidelines give practical

  5. 78 FR 70012 - Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, California, Land Management Plan Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Forest Service Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, California, Land Management Plan Revision AGENCY: Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of objection filing period. SUMMARY... Management Unit (LTBMU) Land Management Plan Revision available for the 60-day pre-decisional...

  6. Influence of Land Related Factors on Sustainable Land Management in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshome, Akalu; de Graaff, Jan; Ritsema, Coen

    2014-05-01

    Land is a scarce resource in the highlands of Ethiopia. Its sustainable use is highly affected among other factors by bio-physical and institutional aspects of land. The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of land quality, land fragmentation and tenure systems on interrelated sustainable land management (SLM) investments in the North Western Ethiopian Highlands. A multivariate probit regression model is used to analyse interdependent investment decisions of SLM practices using a multiple parcel-level observations. The analysis indicates that farmers invest a combination of practices at parcels levels by considering substitution and complementarity effects of the practices. The results also reveal that land quality (e.g. slope and soil fertility status), land fragmentation (parcel size and distance of parcel from homestead) and tenure arrangements influence farmers' investments in SLM practices. The overall results indicate that farm land attributes promote or hinder investments, and tenure systems regulate the decisions about investments. Policy makers should take into consideration these various land related factors in designing and implementing SLM policies and programmes. Key words: Land quality, land fragmentation, tenure arrangements, sustainable land management, multivariate probit

  7. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management. Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adapta...

  8. Use of Land Use Land Cover Change Mapping Products in Aiding Coastal Habitat Conservation and Restoration Efforts of the Mobile Bay NEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Swann, Roberta; Smooth, James

    2010-01-01

    The Mobile Bay region has undergone significant land use land cover change (LULC) over the last 35 years, much of which is associated with urbanization. These changes have impacted the region s water quality and wildlife habitat availability. In addition, much of the region is low-lying and close to the Gulf, which makes the region vulnerable to hurricanes, climate change (e.g., sea level rise), and sometimes man-made disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Land use land cover change information is needed to help coastal zone managers and planners to understand and mitigate the impacts of environmental change on the region. This presentation discusses selective results of a current NASA-funded project in which Landsat data over a 34-year period (1974-2008) is used to produce, validate, refine, and apply land use land cover change products to aid coastal habitat conservation and restoration needs of the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program (MB NEP). The project employed a user defined classification scheme to compute LULC change mapping products for the entire region, which includes the majority of Mobile and Baldwin counties. Additional LULC change products have been computed for select coastal HUC-12 sub-watersheds adjacent to either Mobile Bay or the Gulf of Mexico, as part of the MB NEP watershed profile assessments. This presentation will include results of additional analyses of LULC change for sub-watersheds that are currently high priority areas, as defined by MB NEP. Such priority sub-watersheds include those that are vulnerable to impacts from the DWH oil spill, as well as sub-watersheds undergoing urbanization. Results demonstrating the nature and permanence of LULC change trends for these higher priority sub-watersheds and results characterizing change for the entire 34-year period and at approximate 10-year intervals across this period will also be presented. Future work will include development of value-added coastal habitat quality

  9. Changing landowners, changing ecosystem? Land-ownership motivations as drivers of land management practices.

    PubMed

    Sorice, Michael G; Kreuter, Urs P; Wilcox, Bradford P; Fox, William E

    2014-01-15

    Motivations for owning rural land are shifting from an agricultural-production orientation to a preference for natural and cultural amenities. Resultant changes in land management have significant implications for the type and distribution of landscape-level disturbances that affect the delivery of ecosystem services. We examined the relationship between motivations for owning land and the implementation of conservation land management practices by landowners in the Southern Great Plains of the United States. Using a mail survey, we classified landowners into three groups: agricultural production, multiple-objective, and lifestyle-oriented. Cross tabulations of landowner group with past, current, and future use of 12 different land management practices (related to prescribed grazing, vegetation management, restoration, and water management) found that lifestyle-oriented landowners were overall less likely to adopt these practices. To the degree that the cultural landscape of rural lands transitions from production-oriented to lifestyle-oriented landowners, the ecological landscape and the associated flow of ecosystem services will likely change. This poses new challenges to natural resource managers regarding education, outreach, and policy; however, a better understanding about the net ecological consequences of lower rates of adoption of conservation management practices requires consideration of the ecological tradeoffs associated with the changing resource dependency of rural landowners. PMID:24374464

  10. Land Vehicle Navigation with the Integration of GPS and Reduced INS: Performance Improvement with Velocity Aiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Songlai; Wang, Jinling

    The movement of a land vehicle is constrained because the vehicle always remains on the Earth's surface and only experiences small pitch and roll angles. So the GPS/INS integrated system for land vehicle navigation could be reconfigured to be the integration of GPS and reduced INS to cut down the costs. In a reduced INS, the vertical accelerometer and two horizontal gyros could be omitted from the system. But both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that this configuration may result in the divergence of height solution and large velocity errors. To improve the system performances, precise velocity derived from GPS carrier phase measurements, together with the GPS single point positioning solution, is used to aid the reduced INS. Field test results have demonstrated that first, the aiding from GPS precise velocity overcomes the divergence problem of the integrated height solutions and improves the integrated velocity and secondly the proposed novel integration scheme could achieve comparable navigation accuracy with that from the GPS and full INS integrated system.

  11. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mganga, K. Z.; Musimba, N. K. R.; Nyariki, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80 % of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems.

  12. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mganga, K Z; Musimba, N K R; Nyariki, D M

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80% of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems. PMID:26178534

  13. Wilderness designation of Bureau of Land Management lands and impacts on the availability of energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, E.H.; Voelker, A.H.

    1983-02-01

    In 1964 Congress mandated the establishment of the National Wilderness Preservation System - a collection of federal lands dedicated to the preservation of selected parts of our once vast wilderness. Because wilderness management precludes many traditional land uses, controversy has plagued the efforts of land-management agencies to select and recommend areas for wilderness inclusion. This study examines potential impacts on the supply of energy resources from the possible withdrawal by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) of some part of the 24.3 million acres of public lands now under study for inclusion in the wilderness system. Except for uranium, the energy-resource potential of the total WSA-acreage is low. Wilderness designation of some WSAs is therefore not expected to cause serious impacts on the future availability of energy resources. Because the significance of land withdrawals by the BLM will depend to some extent on the availability of other federal lands for mineral activities, an up-to-date estimate of the current and future status-of-access to western federal lands for mineral activities was prepared. Overall conclusions of the report are that (1) the inclusion of some BLM land in the National Wilderness Preservation System will not interfere with the nation's required supply of energy resources, (2) there is sufficient federal land currently available in the West for mineral activities, (3) the availability of western federal land for mineral activities will increase in the future, (4) the administration should continue to support the major land-review programs, and (5) the administration should accelerate the review process for WSAs in regions that have a high energy-resource potential.

  14. Experiences in monitoring and assessment of sustainable land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although sustainable land management (SLM) is widely promoted to prevent and mitigate land degradation and desertification, its monitoring and assessment has received much less attention. This paper compiles methodological approaches which to date have been little reported in literature. It draws le...

  15. Geographic science for public and Tribal lands management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torregrosa, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    There are more than 650 million acres of U.S. public and Tribal lands, most found west of the Mississippi River. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey's Western Geographic Science Center are working to increase the scientific information available for natural resource decision making, while continuing productive collaborations with Federal land managers, Tribal leaders, and local communities.

  16. Land use and management in PR China: problems and strategies.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y

    1990-10-01

    The conflict between population and land in China results from high population density, declining availability of arable land, decrease in cropland, overgrazing, inability to afford imported grain, and expansion of land use for urbanization. Unwise decisions have been made. These decisions have resulted in land degradation, soil erosion, deforestation, degradation of grasslands, waste of land for freight storage or waste disposal due to low grain prices, and nonagricultural constructions on croplands. Ineffective land management problems are identified as: 1) the lack of an economic means of guiding land use and land is not valued; the lack of any mechanism to ensure economic land use including public lands which are not accounted for with rent; 2) the lack of integration of departments into the decision making structure and too many departments making decisions about the same land; 3) the lack of choice in land use which results in higher government departments being unaware of local conditions, and the lack of appropriate investment which results in short-term exploitation; and 4) surveys are inadequate for decision making. The strategies suggested for improvement in land use management include low resources expenditure in production and appropriate goods consumption. The goal is to sustain subsistence with gradual improvement through development. Land resources must be conserved and the environment protected. The solutions to depend on food imports or reduce the nutritional level deny the equally plausible solution to generate a higher level of input. The profit motive and scientific agricultural practices could accomplish this end. Reclamation for cropland is possible for 8 million hectares of wasteland in wide areas in Sanjiang Plain and 3.4 million hectares in small pockets in Eastern Monsoon China. Traditional agriculture must be transformed and an optimum scale of land operation established. Land tenure reform is necessary. Regional conditions must prevail

  17. Ecological sites: Organizational tool for outcome-based land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing for sustained ecosystem services from rangelands involves complex interactions among soils, plant communities, topography and the prevailing environmental conditions across different land forms from local patches to entire landscapes. This complexity has contributed to prior difficulties in...

  18. Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.

    PubMed

    Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

    2015-03-15

    This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management. PMID:25617787

  19. Performance evaluation of a W-band monopulse radar in rotorcraft brownout landing aid application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoqing; Yang, Ken; Sykora, Brian; Salha, Imad

    2009-05-01

    BAE Systems recently developed a rotorcraft brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) to satisfy the urgent need for brownout landing capability. BLAST uses a W-band monopulse (MP) radar in conjunction with radar signal processing and synthetic display techniques to paint a three-dimensional (3-D) perspective of the landing zone (LZ) in real time. Innovative radar signal processing techniques are developed to process the radar data and generate target data vectors for 3-D image synthesis and display. Field tests are conducted to characterize the performance of BLAST with MP and non-MP (only using the sum channel of the MP radar) modes in clear and brownout conditions. Data processing and analysis are performed to evaluate the system's performance in terms of visual effect, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), target height estimation, ground-mapping effect, and false alarm rate. Both MP and non-MP modes reveal abilities to sufficiently display the 3-D volume of the LZ; the former shows advantage over the latter in providing accurate ground mapping and object height determination.

  20. BAE systems brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) system overview and flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykora, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Rotary wing aircraft continue to experience mishaps caused by the loss of visual situational awareness and spatial disorientation due to brownout or whiteout in dusty, sandy or snowy conditions as the downwash of the rotor blades creates obscurant clouds that completely engulf the helicopter during approaches to land. BAE Systems has developed a "see-through" brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) based on a small and light weight 94GHz radar with proven ability to penetrate dust, coupled with proprietary antenna tracking, signal processing and digital terrain morphing algorithms to produce a cognitive real-time 3D synthetic image of the ground and proximate surface hazards in and around the landing zone. A series of ground and flight tests have been conducted at the United States Army's Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona that reflect operational scenarios in relevant environments to progressively mature the technology. A description of the BLAST solution developed by BAE Systems and results from recent flight tests is provided.

  1. Heilougjiang adopts measures to strengthen land management-each square millimeter of land is utterly cherished and rationally used

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Peiquan; Liu, Y.

    1983-07-30

    This article reports on how a Chinese province with a large area of land and a small population has adopted a series of measures to strengthen land management, to stop the illegal occupying of land, and to protect land resources. Investigations of land resources and of the state of land use, as well as soil surveys, have been launched in order to determine the rights of land ownership and use. Many counties and cities have experimented with dividing farm areas into districts and comprehensive land planning, established land files, trained key personnel in land management skills, and have launched scientific land research. Illegal occupation, waste and destruction of land have risen with the increase in population and construction. Per capita cultivated acreage has declined to 4.1 mu. An effort has been made to reach the people in urban and rural areas with this message: ''Cherish every square millimeter of land utterly and use it rationally''.

  2. 22 CFR 214.3 - A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer. 214.3 Section 214.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT General § 214.3 A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer. The Advisory Committee Management Officer is responsible to the Administrator...

  3. E&P forum land transport safety management guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, S.; Carouso, M.; Covil, M.

    1996-11-01

    Against a general background of falling lost time injuries the member of serious incidents and fatalities in the upstream E&P industry involving motor vehicles employed in land transport remains stubbornly high. In consequence the E&P Forum has prepared guidelines to provide the E&P industry with clear guidance and a shared aim in minimizing vehicle incidents and their costs. Logistics and land transport are multifunctional activities involving personnel throughout the E&P industry. All those involved in land transport share a joint commitment to amazing land transport risks in their operation and to preventing incidents and fatalities as stated in their HSE policies. Historically management`s focus has been on those activities which have a higher perceived risk. This attention has resulted in significant reductions in the number of accidents in these areas. The management of land transport safety requires the same approach and the same proactive emphasis as the management of other HSE risks within the business activity. Companies should have in place a management system for land transport operations based on a full and careful appraisal of the risks, followed by a clear management strategy to minimis and control those risks to a level as low as reasonably practicable.

  4. Land management in the Anthropocene: Is history still relevant?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safford, Hugh D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Hayward, Gregory D.; Wiens, John A.; Regan, Claudia M.

    2008-01-01

    Ecological restoration, conservation, and land management are often based on comparisons with reference sites or time periods, which are assumed to represent “natural” or “properly functioning” conditions. Such reference conditions can provide a vision of the conservation or management goal and a means to measure progress toward that vision. Although historical ecology has been used successfully to guide resource management in many parts of the world, the continuing relevance of history is now being questioned. Some scientists doubt that lessons from the past can inform management in what may be a dramatically different future, given profound climate change, accelerated land use, and an onslaught of plant and animal invasions.

  5. Land Management in the Anthropocene: Is History Still Relevant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safford, Hugh D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Hayward, Gregory D.; Wiens, John A.; Regan, Claudia M.

    2008-09-01

    Incorporating Historical Ecology and Climate Change Into Land Management; Lansdowne, Virginia, 22-25 April 2008; Ecological restoration, conservation, and land management are often based on comparisons with reference sites or time periods, which are assumed to represent ``natural'' or ``properly functioning'' conditions. Such reference conditions can provide a vision of the conservation or management goal and a means to measure progress toward that vision. Although historical ecology has been used successfully to guide resource management in many parts of the world, the continuing relevance of history is now being questioned. Some scientists doubt that lessons from the past can inform management in what may be a dramatically different future, given profound climate change, accelerated land use, and an onslaught of plant and animal invasions.

  6. 78 FR 64973 - Call for Nominations for the Bureau of Land Management's Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for the Bureau of Land Management's Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory Committee, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Call for nominations. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is soliciting nominations......

  7. Improving HIV/AIDS Knowledge Management Using EHRs

    PubMed Central

    Malmberg, Erik D.; Phan, Thao M.; Harmon, Glynn; Nauert, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Background A primary goal for the development of EHRs and EHR-related technologies should be to facilitate greater knowledge management for improving individual and community health outcomes associated with HIV / AIDS. Most of the current developments of EHR have focused on providing data for research, patient care and prioritization of healthcare provider resources in other areas. More attention should be paid to using information from EHRs to assist local, state, national, and international entities engaged in HIV / AIDS care, research and prevention strategies. Unfortunately the technology and standards for HIV-specific reporting modules are still being developed. Methods: A literature search and review supplemented by the author’s own experiences with electronic health records and HIV / AIDS prevention strategies will be used. This data was used to identify both opportunities and challenges for improving public health informatics primarily through the use of latest innovations in EHRs. Qualitative analysis and suggestions are offered for how EHRs can support knowledge management and prevention strategies associated with HIV infection. Results: EHR information, including demographics, medical history, medication and allergies, immunization status, and other vital statistics can help public health practitioners to more quickly identify at-risk populations or environments; allocate scarce resources in the most efficient way; share information about successful, evidenced-based prevention strategies; and increase longevity and quality of life. Conclusion: Local, state, and federal entities need to work more collaboratively with NGOs, community-based organizations, and the private sector to eliminate barriers to implementation including cost, interoperability, accessibility, and information security. PMID:23569643

  8. Assessment and management of land flooding risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirtskhulava, Ts. E.

    2007-11-01

    A study was done on elaborating a quantitative method for assessing the conditions and hazard potential of lands subject to flooding and underflooding (ground water rising) using the Markov process theory, including the stochastic kinetic differential Ito and Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations. Numerical examples are given for the application of the equations derived.

  9. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Pyke, David A.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Wills, Skye A.; Brown, Joel R.; Karl, Jason W.; Havstad, Kris M.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management (Holling 1973; Walters and Holling 1990). Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adaptation of management until desired results are achieved (Brown and MacLeod 1996; Savory and Butterfield 1999). However, adaptive management is often criticized because very few projects ever complete more than one cycle, resulting in little adaptation and little knowledge gain (Lee 1999; Walters 2007). One significant criticism is that adaptive management is often used as a justification for undertaking actions with uncertain outcomes or as a surrogate for the development of specific, measurable indicators and monitoring programs (Lee 1999; Ruhl 2007).

  10. Ultraviolet light propagation under low visibility atmospheric conditions and its application to aircraft landing aid.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Claire; Durand, Gérard; Roblin, Antoine

    2006-12-20

    Light scattering in the atmosphere by particles and molecules gives rise to an aureole surrounding the source image that tends to reduce the contrast of the source with respect to the background. However, UV scattering phase functions of the haze droplets present a very important forward peak. The spreading of a detected signal in the UV is not as important as in the case of a clear atmosphere where Rayleigh scattering predominates. This physical property has to be taken into account to evaluate the potential of UV radiation as an aircraft landing aid under low visibility conditions. Different results characterizing UV runway lights, simulations of UV radiation propagation in the atmosphere, and the use of a simple detection algorithm applied to one particular sensor are presented. PMID:17151753

  11. A tactual pilot aid for the approach-and-landing task: Inflight studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, R. D.; Fenton, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A pilot aid -- a kinesthetic-tactual compensatory display -- for assisting novice pilots in various inflight situations has undergone preliminary inflight testing. The efficacy of this display, as compared with two types of visual displays, was evaluated in both a highly structured approach-and-landing task and a less structured test involving tight turns about a point. In both situations, the displayed quantity was the deviation (alpha sub 0 - alpha) in angle at attack from a desired value alpha sub 0. In the former, the performance with the tactual display was comparable with that obtained using a visual display of (alpha sub 0 - alpha), while in the later, substantial improvements (reduced tracking error (55%), decreased maximum altitude variations (67%), and decreased speed variations (43%)), were obtained using the tactual display. It appears that such a display offers considerable potential for inflight use.

  12. Aiding the environment: the Australian Development Agency's experience of implementing an environmental management system

    SciTech Connect

    Keen, Meg . E-mail: meg.keen@anu.edu.au; Sullivan, Marjorie

    2005-08-15

    Aid agencies, like commercial businesses, are increasingly concerned with incorporating sound environmental management into their operations. Different approaches are being used to integrate sustainability into development assistance to ensure that environmental impacts are assessed and managed. One approach being used by AusAID, the Australian aid agency, is to implement an environmental management system (EMS) across program and project areas. This paper examines how AusAID has adapted the EMS approach to suit aid agency operations, and some of the lessons from the Australian experience.

  13. Can land management and biomass utilization help mitigate global warming?

    SciTech Connect

    Schlamadinger, B.; Lauer, M.

    1996-12-31

    With rising concern about the increase of the CO{sub 2} concentration in the earth`s atmosphere there is considerable interest in various land-use based mitigation options, like afforestation of surplus agricultural land with or without subsequent harvest; improved forest management; strategies that rely on wood plantations managed in short rotation or agricultural crops with high yields to produce bioenergy, timber and other biomass products. In the first step of this study, the net carbon benefits of such strategies will be calculated per unit of land, i.e., per hectare, because it is assumed that land is the limiting resource for such strategies in the future, and thus, the benefits per unit land need to be optimized. For these calculations a computer model has been developed. The results take into account the time dependence of carbon storage in the biosphere and are shown graphically both for land and for plantation systems with constant output of biomass over time. In the second step, these results will be combined with data on available land for Austria. The potential contribution of each of the above strategies towards mitigating the Austrian CO{sub 2} emissions will be demonstrated. A comparison to other renewable mitigation options, like solar thermal or photovoltaics, will be drawn in terms of available land resources and overall CO{sub 2} reductions.

  14. Applying the Ecosystem Services Concept to Public Land Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the challenges opportunities involved in applying ecosystem services to public lands management, with an emphasis on the work of the USDA Forest Service. We review the history of economics approaches to landscape management, outline a conceptual framework defining the ...

  15. Identifying environmental features for land management decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The major accomplishments of the Center for Remote Sensing and Cartography are outlined. The analysis and inventory of the Parker Mountain rangeland and the use of multitemporal data to study aspen succession stages are discussed. New and continuing projects are also described including a Salt Lake County land use study, Wasatch-Cache riparian study, and Humboldt River riparian habitat study. Finally, progress in digital processing techniques is reported.

  16. Management of Children Using Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Psarros, Colleen; Incerti, Paula; Hill, Mandy

    2001-01-01

    Four case studies identify six factors affecting successful use of a hearing aid with a cochlear implant: duration of hearing aid use prior to implantation, amount of residual hearing in the non-implanted ear, educational and listening demands, cosmetic issues, hearing aid rejection, and extended period of non-use of hearing aid. (Contains…

  17. Vision-Aided RAIM: A New Method for GPS Integrity Monitoring in Approach and Landing Phase

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Li; Zhang, Jun; Li, Rui; Cao, Xianbin; Wang, Jinling

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) was proposed to provide the integrity of a navigation system by checking the consistency of GPS measurements. However, during the approach and landing phase of a flight path, where there is often low GPS visibility conditions, the performance of the existing RAIM method may not meet the stringent aviation requirements for availability and integrity due to insufficient observations. To solve this problem, a new RAIM method, named vision-aided RAIM (VA-RAIM), is proposed for GPS integrity monitoring in the approach and landing phase. By introducing landmarks as pseudo-satellites, the VA-RAIM enriches the navigation observations to improve the performance of RAIM. In the method, a computer vision system photographs and matches these landmarks to obtain additional measurements for navigation. Nevertheless, the challenging issue is that such additional measurements may suffer from vision errors. To ensure the reliability of the vision measurements, a GPS-based calibration algorithm is presented to reduce the time-invariant part of the vision errors. Then, the calibrated vision measurements are integrated with the GPS observations for integrity monitoring. Simulation results show that the VA-RAIM outperforms the conventional RAIM with a higher level of availability and fault detection rate. PMID:26378533

  18. Vision-Aided RAIM: A New Method for GPS Integrity Monitoring in Approach and Landing Phase.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; Zhang, Jun; Li, Rui; Cao, Xianbin; Wang, Jinling

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) was proposed to provide the integrity of a navigation system by checking the consistency of GPS measurements. However, during the approach and landing phase of a flight path, where there is often low GPS visibility conditions, the performance of the existing RAIM method may not meet the stringent aviation requirements for availability and integrity due to insufficient observations. To solve this problem, a new RAIM method, named vision-aided RAIM (VA-RAIM), is proposed for GPS integrity monitoring in the approach and landing phase. By introducing landmarks as pseudo-satellites, the VA-RAIM enriches the navigation observations to improve the performance of RAIM. In the method, a computer vision system photographs and matches these landmarks to obtain additional measurements for navigation. Nevertheless, the challenging issue is that such additional measurements may suffer from vision errors. To ensure the reliability of the vision measurements, a GPS-based calibration algorithm is presented to reduce the time-invariant part of the vision errors. Then, the calibrated vision measurements are integrated with the GPS observations for integrity monitoring. Simulation results show that the VA-RAIM outperforms the conventional RAIM with a higher level of availability and fault detection rate. PMID:26378533

  19. 76 FR 33342 - Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Managed by the California Desert District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ...(a) of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act is now in closed parentheses, the word ``and'' has... Bureau of Land Management Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Managed by the California Desert District AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Final supplementary rules. SUMMARY:...

  20. 43 CFR 3101.7-2 - Action by the Bureau of Land Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Action by the Bureau of Land Management...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.7-2 Action by the Bureau of Land Management. (a) Where the surface...

  1. 43 CFR 3101.7-2 - Action by the Bureau of Land Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Action by the Bureau of Land Management...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.7-2 Action by the Bureau of Land Management. (a) Where the surface...

  2. 43 CFR 3101.7-2 - Action by the Bureau of Land Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Action by the Bureau of Land Management...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.7-2 Action by the Bureau of Land Management. (a) Where the surface...

  3. Derived crop management data for the LandCarbon Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Gail; Liu, Shu-Guang; Oeding, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The LandCarbon project is assessing potential carbon pools and greenhouse gas fluxes under various scenarios and land management regimes to provide information to support the formulation of policies governing climate change mitigation, adaptation and land management strategies. The project is unique in that spatially explicit maps of annual land cover and land-use change are created at the 250-meter pixel resolution. The project uses vast amounts of data as input to the models, including satellite, climate, land cover, soil, and land management data. Management data have been obtained from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) and USDA Economic Research Service (ERS) that provides information regarding crop type, crop harvesting, manure, fertilizer, tillage, and cover crop (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2011a, b, c). The LandCarbon team queried the USDA databases to pull historic crop-related management data relative to the needs of the project. The data obtained was in table form with the County or State Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) and the year as the primary and secondary keys. Future projections were generated for the A1B, A2, B1, and B2 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) scenarios using the historic data values along with coefficients generated by the project. The PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE) modeling framework (Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment, 2006) was used to develop coefficients for each IPCC SRES scenario, which were applied to the historic management data to produce future land management practice projections. The LandCarbon project developed algorithms for deriving gridded data, using these tabular management data products as input. The derived gridded crop type, crop harvesting, manure, fertilizer, tillage, and cover crop

  4. Tracking federal land management: Report No. 3 on federal land management actions impacting geothermal commecialization at selected target prospects in the five Pacific Rim states

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-20

    Generic land management actions affecting geothermal commerializtion in Pacific River states are reviewed. Specific federal land management actions affecting geothermal prospects in California and the Pacific Northwest are described. (MHR)

  5. The Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1994-01-01

    Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed, the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. The design manager's aid for intelligent decomposition (DeMAID) is a knowledge based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for design. Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save considerable money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined.

  6. Working towards an integrated land contamination management framework for Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sam, Kabari; Coulon, Frédéric; Prpich, George

    2016-11-15

    Over the past five decades, Nigeria has developed a number of contaminated land legislations to address the damage caused primarily by oil and gas exploitation activities. Within these legislations exists elements of risk assessment and risk-based corrective action. Despite this progress, we argue that contaminated land management approaches in Nigeria need further development to be able to integrate new scientific information, and to address environmental, economic, and social values. By comparison, advanced contaminated land regimes in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States of America (USA) apply a number of integrative approaches (e.g. sustainability appraisal, liability regime, funding mechanisms, technology demonstration) that enable them to meet the environmental, economic, and social needs of their populations. In comparison, Nigerian governance lacks many of these mechanisms and management of contaminated land is ad hoc. In this paper we propose an integrated risk assessment framework for Nigeria that incorporates the principles of sustainability and stakeholder engagement into the decision-making processes for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management. The integrated approach relies on transparency to promote acceptance and build trust in institutions, and uses stakeholder engagement to address data deficiencies. We conclude this paper with a roadmap for how Nigeria might implement such an integrative approach into their existing contaminated land regulatory system, as well as identify a series of policy priorities that should be addressed. PMID:27443458

  7. Changing farmers' land management practices in the hills of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Paudel, G S; Thapa, G B

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without extemal assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of guly control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any extemal assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies. PMID:11915967

  8. Changing Farmers' Land Management Practices in the Hills of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Giridhari Sharma; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2001-12-01

    This paper sheds light on changing farmers' land management practices in two mountain watersheds, with and without external assistance, in the western hills of Nepal. Information used in the analysis were obtained through a survey of 300 households, group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation conducted during April-September 1999. Confronted with ever-decreasing landholding size due to a steadily growing population and scarcity of nonfarming employment opportunities, farmers in both watersheds have increasingly adopted assorted types of structural and biological measures to control soil erosion, landslides, gully expansion, and soil nutrient loss to maintain or even enhance land productivity. Adoption of gully control measures, construction of the retention walls, alley cropping, use of vegetative measures for landslide control, mulching, and use of green manure and chemical fertilizers are found significantly high in the project area due to the provision of technical and financial support, whereas composting is found significantly high in the nonproject area. Different from the traditionally held beliefs, population pressure on a finite land resource has brought positive change in land management. However, the experience from both watersheds indicates that there is limit to the extent that resource poor farmers can respond to land degradation without any external assistance. Required is the arrangement for appropriate polices and support services and facilities enabling farmers to adopt locationally suitable and economically attractive land management technologies.

  9. Multimedia Modeling System Response to Regional Land Management Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooter, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    A multi-media system of nitrogen and co-pollutant models describing critical physical and chemical processes that cascade synergistically and competitively through the environment, the economy and society has been developed at the USEPA Office of Research and Development. It is populated with linked or fully coupled models that address nutrient research questions such as, "How might future policy, climate or land cover change in the Mississippi River Basin affect Nitrogen and Phosphorous loadings to the Gulf of Mexico" or, "What are the management implications of regional-scale land management changes for the sustainability of air, land and water quality?" This second question requires explicit consideration of economic (e.g. sector prices) and societal (e.g. land management) factors. Metrics that illustrate biosphere-atmosphere interactions such as atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations, atmospheric N loading to surface water, soil organic N and N percolation to groundwater are calculated. An example application has been completed that is driven by a coupled agricultural and energy sector model scenario. The economic scenario assumes that by 2022 there is: 1) no detectable change in weather patterns relative to 2002; 2) a concentration of stover processing facilities in the Upper Midwest; 3) increasing offshore Pacific and Atlantic marine transportation; and 4) increasing corn, soybean and wheat production that meets future demand for food, feed and energy feedstocks. This production goal is reached without adding or removing agricultural land area whose extent is defined by the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 2002v2011 classes 81 and 82. This goal does require, however, crop shifts and agricultural management changes. The multi-media system response over our U.S. 12km rectangular grid resolution analysis suggests that there are regions of potential environmental and health costs, as well as large areas that could experience unanticipated environmental and health

  10. Great Basin land management planning using ecological modeling.

    PubMed

    Forbis, Tara A; Provencher, Louis; Frid, Leonardo; Medlyn, Gary

    2006-07-01

    This report describes a land management modeling effort that analyzed potential impacts of proposed actions under an updated Bureau of Land Management Resource Management Plan that will guide management for 20 years on 4.6 million hectares in the Great Basin ecoregion of the United States. State-and-transition models that included vegetation data, fire histories, and many parameters (i.e., rates of succession, fire return intervals, outcomes of management actions, and invasion rates of native and nonnative invasive species) were developed through workshops with scientific experts and range management specialists. Alternative restoration scenarios included continuation of current management, full fire suppression, wildfire use in designated fire use zones, wildfire use in resilient vegetation types only, restoration with a tenfold budget increase, no restoration treatments, and no livestock grazing. Under all the scenarios, cover of vegetation states with native perennial understory declined and was replaced by tree-invaded and weed-dominated states. The greatest differences among alternative management scenarios resulted from the use of fire as a tool to maintain native understory. Among restoration scenarios, only the scenario assuming a tenfold budget increase had a more desirable outcome than the current management scenario. Removal of livestock alone had little effect on vegetation resilience. Rather, active restoration was required. The predictive power of the model was limited by current understanding of Great Basin vegetation dynamics and data needs including statistically valid monitoring of restoration treatments, invasiveness and invasibility, and fire histories. The authors suggest that such computer models can be useful tools for systematic analysis of potential impacts in land use planning. However, for a modeling effort to be productive, the management situation must be conducive to open communication among land management agencies and partner

  11. Great Basin Land Management Planning Using Ecological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbis, Tara A.; Provencher, Louis; Frid, Leonardo; Medlyn, Gary

    2006-07-01

    This report describes a land management modeling effort that analyzed potential impacts of proposed actions under an updated Bureau of Land Management Resource Management Plan that will guide management for 20 years on 4.6 million hectares in the Great Basin ecoregion of the United States. State-and-transition models that included vegetation data, fire histories, and many parameters (i.e., rates of succession, fire return intervals, outcomes of management actions, and invasion rates of native and nonnative invasive species) were developed through workshops with scientific experts and range management specialists. Alternative restoration scenarios included continuation of current management, full fire suppression, wildfire use in designated fire use zones, wildfire use in resilient vegetation types only, restoration with a tenfold budget increase, no restoration treatments, and no livestock grazing. Under all the scenarios, cover of vegetation states with native perennial understory declined and was replaced by tree-invaded and weed-dominated states. The greatest differences among alternative management scenarios resulted from the use of fire as a tool to maintain native understory. Among restoration scenarios, only the scenario assuming a tenfold budget increase had a more desirable outcome than the current management scenario. Removal of livestock alone had little effect on vegetation resilience. Rather, active restoration was required. The predictive power of the model was limited by current understanding of Great Basin vegetation dynamics and data needs including statistically valid monitoring of restoration treatments, invasiveness and invasibility, and fire histories. The authors suggest that such computer models can be useful tools for systematic analysis of potential impacts in land use planning. However, for a modeling effort to be productive, the management situation must be conducive to open communication among land management agencies and partner

  12. Remote sensing in Michigan for land resource management: Waterfowl habitat management at Pointe Mouillee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellman, A. N.; Sattinger, I. J.; Istvan, L. B.; Enslin, W. R.; Myers, W. L.; Sullivan, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    For many years the Pointe Mouillee State Game Area, located on the Lake Erie shoreline just south of Detroit, has been a prime waterfowl habitat. The usefulness of the site for this purpose has been impaired because of the gradual deterioration of the marshland and severe flooding and storms during the spring of 1973. Also, it has been proposed that a dredge spoils area be located in or near the marsh. To aid the future management of a diked refuge area of 148 hectares within the State Game Area, a detailed vegetation inventory was prepared by photointerpretation and a generalized vegetation inventory was obtained by processing multispectral scanner imagery. Also, an analysis was conducted to determine the magnitude of past losses of marshland and the possibilities of replacing this lost habitat. The analysis indicated that large additions to waterfowl habitat could be provided by changes in management of vegetation in existing sections of the State Game Area, through acquisition and conversion of adjacent land by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, and by the proposed construction of a barrier dike offshore of Pointe Mouillee. Altogether, the various measures considered in this report could affect a total area of nearly 13 sq. km.

  13. A Self-Instructional Course in Student Financial Aid Administration. Module 17--Evaluation of Student Aid Management: Self-Evaluation, Audit, and Program Review. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The 17th module in the 17-module self-instructional course on student financial aid administration discusses the evaluation of student aid management in terms of self-evaluation, audit, and program review. The full course offers a systematic introduction to the management of federal financial aid programs authorized by Title IV of the Higher…

  14. Identifying environmental features for land management decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis and imaging processing techniques are being applied to the study of arid/semiarid environments, with emphasis on desertification. Field level indicators of land-soil biota degradation are being sifted out with staging up to the low aircraft reconnaissance level, to LANDSAT TM & MSS, and even to the AVHRR level. Three completed projects are reviewed: riparian habitat on the Humboldt River floodplain, Salt Lake County Urban expansion detection, and salinization/desertification detection in the delta area. Beginning projects summarized include: comparative condition of rangeland in Rush Valley; modeling a GIS/remote sensing data base for Cache County; universal soil loss equation applied to Pinyon-Juniper; relating MSS to ground radiometry near Battle Mountain; and riparian habitat mapping on Mary's River, Nevada.

  15. Land degradation causes and sustainable land management practices in southern Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2014-05-01

    Jordan is one of the world's most water-deficit countries with only about 4% of the total land area considered arable. As a consequence agricultural production is greatly constrained by limited natural resources. Therefore, a major challenge for the country is to promote the sustainable use of natural resources for agricultural purposes. This challenge is being made harder by the ongoing processes of degradation due to increased population pressure, which undermine any social and economic development gains. In the southern plains of Jordan, sustainability of farming practices has worsened in the past three decades, exacerbating pressure on land and increasing land degradation processes. Non-sustainable land use practices include improper ploughing, inappropriate rotations, inadequate or inexistent management of plant residues, overgrazing of natural vegetation, random urbanization, land fragmentation and over-pumping of groundwater. The root cause is the high population growth which exerts excessive pressure on the natural resources to meet increased food and income demand. The poorest farmers who are increasingly growing cereals on marginal areas. Wheat and barley are now grown with little to no rotation, with no nutrient replenishment, and at places avoiding even fallow. Small landholding sizes and topographic features of the area tend to oblige longitudinal mechanized tillage operations along the slopes. Overall, the constraints facing the deprived land users such as, poor access to technology, capital and organization are the factors that lead into unsustainable practices. The main bottlenecks and barriers that hinder mainstreaming of sustainable land management in Jordan can be grouped into three main categories: (i) Knowledge, (ii) Institutional and Governance, and (iii) Economic and Financial. In this case study, the key challenge was to create a knowledge base among local stakeholders - including planners, extension officers, NGO/community leaders, teachers

  16. 25 CFR 166.300 - How is Indian agricultural land managed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is Indian agricultural land managed? 166.300 Section 166.300 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.300 How is Indian agricultural land managed? Tribes,...

  17. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP). [photomapping arid land in Arizona for land and resources management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Imagery from U-2 flight or Skylab is used to produce maps of Arizona for resource management and land use. Color photography and thermal mapping techniques are described for studying vegetation growth, natural resources, flood plains, soil erosion, and heat loss from buildings.

  18. Impacts of Land Use Management in Extreme Flood Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Greg; Ewen, John; Geris, Josie; Enda O'Connell, P.

    2010-05-01

    It is increasingly recognised internationally that the management of land and water is strongly interdependent, and that integrated management approaches are needed. There is evidence that modern land management practices have caused an increase in flood risk in rural upland areas, so there is the potential to use land management control as a tool in flood risk mitigation programmes. Flooding from historical extreme rainfall events must be considered when designing mitigation programmes, especially if the designs have to take into account the possibility that such extreme events will become more frequent in the future. The largest 90 minute rainfall ever recorded in the UK was 117mm, in 1967 in the Dunsop catchment, NW England (25 km^2). Extensive land management changes have recently been made in the catchment, including peat restoration, tree planting and reductions in sheep stocking density, and the analysis of the flooding in 1967 was undertaken as part of a wider study on the potential impact of the recent changes. An important part of the work on the 1967 flood was the separation of the various roles played in flood generation; particularly the roles played by runoff generation from the hillslopes and flow though the drainage/river network. A novel approach has been developed, for role separation, which involves tracking the downstream propagation of information through the catchment. This is achieved using reverse algorithmic differentiation (adjoint modelling) of a gridded catchment model that includes a detailed hydraulic model for the flow drainage/river network. Results will be shown for how various information and sensitivities vary spatially across the catchment, allowing conclusions to be drawn about the potential for using land management control in flood risk mitigation programmes.

  19. HIV/AIDS Case Managers and Client HIV Status Disclosure: Perceived Client Needs, Practices, and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Klein, Susan J.; Kalichman, Moira O.; O'Connell, Daniel A.; Freedman, Jay A.; Eaton, Lisa; Cain, Demetria

    2007-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS often need assistance in deciding whether or how to disclose their HIV status to others, and case managers are in a unique position to offer this assistance. The current study surveyed 223 case managers providing services to people living with HIV/AIDS in New York State. The survey was conducted anonymously, and case…

  20. Clarifying uncertainty in biogeochemical response to land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonitto, C.; Gurwick, N. P.; Woodbury, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    We examined the ability of contemporary simulation and empirical modeling tools to describe net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a result of agricultural and forest ecosystem land management, and we looked at how key policy institutions use these tools. We focused on quantification of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural systems, as agriculture is the dominant source of anthropogenic N2O emissions. Agricultural management impact on N2O emissions is especially challenging because controls on N2O emissions (soil aerobic status, inorganic N availability, and C substrate availability) vary as a function of site soil type, climate, and cropping system; available measurements do not cover all relevant combinations of these controlling system features. Furthermore, N2O emissions are highly non-linear, and threshold values of controlling soil environmental conditions are not defined across most agricultural site properties. We also examined the multi-faceted challenges regarding the quantification of increased soil organic carbon (SOC) storage as a result of land management in both agricultural and forest systems. Quantifying changes in SOC resulting from land management is difficult because mechanisms of SOC stabilization are not fully understood, SOC measurements have been concentrated in the upper 30cm of soil, erosion is often ignored when estimating SOC, and few long-term studies exist to track system response to diverse management practices. Furthermore, the permanence of SOC accumulating management practices is not easily established. For instance, under the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), forest land managed for SOC accumulation must remain under permanent conservation easement to ensure that SOC accumulation is not reversed due to changes in land cover. For agricultural protocols, given that many farmers rent land and that agriculture is driven by an annual management time scale, the ability to ensure SOC-accumulating land management would

  1. 78 FR 13316 - National Forest System Land Management Planning Directives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...The Forest Service has issued proposed directives to Forest Service Handbook (FSH 1909.12) and Manual (FSM 1920) establishing procedures and responsibilities for implementing the National Forest System (NFS) land management planning regulation. Issuance of these proposed directives will provide consistent overall guidance to Forest Service Line Officers and Agency employees in developing,......

  2. 78 FR 23491 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Register, on April 9, 2012 (77 FR 21162). DATES: These corrections are effective April 19, 2013. ADDRESSES... Register, page 21162, April 9, 2012, (77 FR 21162) the United States Department of Agriculture (Department... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 RIN 0596-AB86 National Forest System Land Management Planning;...

  3. Understanding Public Land Management through Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Alex P.

    2004-01-01

    Role-playing activities are an example of active learning that introduces students to "real-world" situations. This paper discusses the development and assessment of a role-play that involves an undergraduate geography class in a local public land management process. This particular case study is useful because it reflects broader themes and…

  4. LAND USE AND MANAGEMENT IMPACT ON INFILTRATION RATE OF SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil physical properties and water infiltration were measured for five land use and soil management practices at North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds, Coshocton, Ohio. The five treatments were no-till with and without manure (NTM, NTWM), no-till corn-soybean rotation (NTCSR), conventional till...

  5. A GIS MODEL OF SOIL PROCESSES FOR ARID LAND MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a growing need at the state and federal management agency levels to make decisions based on ecological processes across the landscape. Arid and semiarid lands around the world are thought to be best understood in terms of their soil resources. One soil process that influences water infilt...

  6. Open source GIS for HIV/AIDS management

    PubMed Central

    Vanmeulebrouk, Bas; Rivett, Ulrike; Ricketts, Adam; Loudon, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Background Reliable access to basic services can improve a community's resilience to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, work is being done to upgrade the physical infrastructure in affected areas, often employing a strategy of decentralised service provision. Spatial characteristics are one of the major determinants in implementing services, even in the smaller municipal areas, and good quality spatial information is needed to inform decision making processes. However, limited funds, technical infrastructure and human resource capacity result in little or no access to spatial information for crucial infrastructure development decisions at local level. This research investigated whether it would be possible to develop a GIS for basic infrastructure planning and management at local level. Given the resource constraints of the local government context, particularly in small municipalities, it was decided that open source software should be used for the prototype system. Results The design and development of a prototype system illustrated that it is possible to develop an open source GIS system that can be used within the context of local information management. Usability tests show a high degree of usability for the system, which is important considering the heavy workload and high staff turnover that characterises local government in South Africa. Local infrastructure management stakeholders interviewed in a case study of a South African municipality see the potential for the use of GIS as a communication tool and are generally positive about the use of GIS for these purposes. They note security issues that may arise through the sharing of information, lack of skills and resource constraints as the major barriers to adoption. Conclusion The case study shows that spatial information is an identified need at local level. Open source GIS software can be used to develop a system to provide local-level stakeholders with spatial information. However, the suitability of the technology

  7. Managing the public lands: the authority of the Executive to withdraw lands

    SciTech Connect

    Getches, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Federal-land-use planning and management relies heavily on the executive (the President and/or the Secretary of the Interior) withdrawal of public lands to protect them from private acquisition and use. The article reviews and analyzes judicial interpretations of executive withdrawal authority in the past and makes suggestions for the construction and application of statutorily based withdrawal authority. Special emphasis is placed on the importance of the Antiquities Act, one of the few statutes to survive Congress's 1976 wholesale repeal of statutes dealing with executive withdrawal authority. 309 references.

  8. Keeping a tight grip on the reins: donor control over aid coordination and management in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Buse, K

    1999-09-01

    A long-standing consensus that aid coordination should be owned by recipient authorities has been eclipsed by accord on the desirability of recipient management of aid along-side domestic resources. Nonetheless, in many low and lower-middle income countries, donors remain remarkably uncoordinated; where attempts at coordination are made, they are often donor-driven, and only a small proportion of aid is directly managed by recipients. This paper draws on evidence from an in-depth review of aid to the health sector in Bangladesh to analyze the systems by which external resources are managed. Based on interviews with key stakeholders, a questionnaire survey and analysis of documentary sources, the factors constraining the government from assuming a more active role in aid management are explored. The results suggest that donor perceptions of weak government capacity, inadequate accountability and compromised integrity only partially account for the propensity for donor leadership. Equally important is the consideration that aid coordination has a markedly political dimension. Stakeholders are well aware of the power, influence and leverage which aid coordination confers, an awareness which colours the desire of some stakeholders to lead aid coordination processes, and conditions the extent and manner by which others wish to be involved. It is argued that recipient management of external aid is dependent on major changes in the attitudes and behaviours of recipients and donors alike. PMID:10621239

  9. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212 Section 970.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS)....

  10. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS)....

  11. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 970.210 Section 970.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  12. 23 CFR 971.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 971.210 Section 971.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In...

  13. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 970.210 Section 970.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  14. 23 CFR 971.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 971.210 Section 971.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In...

  15. 23 CFR 972.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 972.212 Section 972.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.212 Federal lands safety management system...

  16. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212 Section 970.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS)....

  17. 75 FR 6837 - Notice of Call for Nominations for Bureau of Land Management's California Desert District...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-11

    ... Desert District Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) California Desert District is soliciting nominations from the... be sent to the District Manager, Bureau of Land Management, California Desert District Office,...

  18. 23 CFR 970.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208 Section 970.208 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.208 Federal lands pavement management system...

  19. 23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208 Section 971.208 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS)....

  20. The Economics of Land Reform in Latin America and the Role of AID Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dale W.

    This discussion paper points out how land reform was the principal component in the Alliance for Progress aimed at easing rural poverty. Major sections question: (1) the influence of land reform on agricultural productivity, (2) urbanization as a viable alternative to land reform, and (3) colonization as an economic alternative to land reform.…

  1. Agricultural land management options following large-scale environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Turcanu, Catrinel

    2011-07-01

    The recent events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in Japan, have raised questions about the accumulation of radionuclides in soils, the transfer in the food chain, and the possibility for restricted land use in the foreseeable future. This article summarizes what is generally understood about the application of agricultural countermeasures as a land management option to reduce the transfer of radionuclides in the food chain and to facilitate the return of potentially affected soils to agricultural practices in the vicinity of the Fukushima plant. PMID:21608113

  2. Rural Land Management: Simultaneous benefits for both floods and droughts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, Ian; Reaney, Sim; Lane, Stuart; Hardy, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The UK is experiencing a greater frequency of flow extremes, illustrated by the low river flows early in 2012 followed by widespread flooding. It is therefore key that floods and droughts are not investigated separately but studied as a continuum. The primary drivers of flow extremes are the climate and weather patterns, but the impact can be modified by catchment processes such as rural land management. However, the effect of rural land management on flow regimes is highly uncertain, especially at larger spatial scales. This is due to (a) the diffuse nature of land use; (b) the propagation of runoff through the network; and (c) the competing effects of different land uses in different locations. This study focuses on landscape scale scenarios of soil compaction and agricultural and forestry land covers. A physically based continuous simulation hydrological model, CRUM3, is used to consider the impact of these scenarios on both high and low river flows. This model also allowed the results to be interpreted in terms of the driving hydrological processes operating throughout the catchment. It was applied to the Dacre Beck (38 km2) sub-catchment with the larger Eden catchment (2400 km2), Cumbria, UK. It was found that reducing the level of soil compaction has a significant impact on both high and low river flows. Using a linear scale of compaction level, where low compaction took typical parameters for a natural soil, heavy compaction produced a peak discharge 65% higher than light compaction and the minimum flow was 86.8% lower for the heavily compacted soil. These results were explained by a combination of antecedent conditions and the partitioning of the rainfall into sub-surface and surface runoff. It was also found that the coniferous woodland and pastoral farming land covers produced the lowest minimum flows and well as the highest maximum flows. It therefore seems that rural land management of both soil properties and vegetation covers could be used to mitigate

  3. 43 CFR 3101.7-2 - Action by the Bureau of Land Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Action by the Bureau of Land Management. 3101.7-2 Section 3101.7-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.7-2 Action by the...

  4. Land management versus natural factors in land instability: some examples in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Viola Maria; Bonachea, Jaime; Remondo, Juan; Gómez-Arozamena, Jose; Rivas, Victoria; Barbieri, Matteo; Capocchi, Stefano; Soldati, Mauro; Cendrero, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work is to test a hypothesis formulated on the basis of former results which considers that there might be a ‘‘global geomorphic change,’’ due to activities related to land management and not determined by climate change, which could be causing an acceleration of geomorphic processes. Possible relationships between some geomorphic processes related to land instability (landslides or sediment generation) and potential triggering factors are analyzed in study areas in northern Spain. The analysis is based on landslide inventories covering different periods, as well as the determination of sedimentation rates. Temporal landslide and sedimentation rate trends are compared with different indicators of human activities (land-use change, logging, forest fires) and with potential natural triggers (rainfall, seismicity). The possible influence of the road network in the distribution of landslides is also analyzed. Results obtained show that there is a general increase of both landslide and sedimentation rates with time that cannot be explained satisfactorily by observed rainfall trends and even less by seismicity. Land use change appears to be by far the main factor leading to land instability, with some changes producing up to a 12-fold increase of landslide rate. A relationship between road network and the spatial distribution of landslides has also been observed. These results do confirm the existence of an acceleration of geomorphic processes in the region, and also suggest that climate-related factors play a limited role in the changes observed. PMID:23797484

  5. 78 FR 26804 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for Travel Management on Public Lands in Gunnison...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... Environmental Impact Statement at 72 FR 24267 (May 2, 2007). They subsequently published the Gunnison Basin... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for Travel Management on Public Lands in... proposing supplementary rules for public lands included in the Gunnison Basin Federal Lands...

  6. 43 CFR 24.4 - Resource management and public activities on Federal lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resource management and public activities on Federal lands. 24.4 Section 24.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.4 Resource management and public activities on Federal lands....

  7. ERTS-1 Role in land management and planning in Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sizer, J. E.; Brown, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Research on applications of ERTS-1 imagery to land use has focused on evaluating the ability of ERTS-1 imagery to update and refine the detail of land use information in the Minnesota Land Management Information System. Work has been directed toward defining the capabilities of the ERTS-1 system to provide information about surface cover by identifying forest, water, and wetland resources; urban and agricultural development: and testing and evaluating data input and output procedures. As capabilities were developed, meetings were held with administrators and resource information users from various agencies of government to identify their information needs. A full scale systems test for several selected pilot areas in the state is nearly complete. Users have been identified for each test area and they have been instrumental in identifying data requirements and analysis needs for administrative purposes. Users have both rural and urban orientations and provide a basis for evaluation of the results.

  8. 76 FR 81911 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Forest Service National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of intent to establish an advisory... Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning...

  9. LUMIS: A Land Use Management Information System for urban planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, C. K.

    1975-01-01

    The Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS) consists of a methodology of compiling land use maps by means of air photo interpretation techniques, digitizing these and other maps into machine-readable form, and numerically overlaying these various maps in two computer software routines to provide land use and natural resource data files referenced to the individual census block. The two computer routines are the Polygon Intersection Overlay System (PIOS) and an interactive graphics APL program. A block referenced file of land use, natural resources, geology, elevation, slope, and fault-line items has been created and supplied to the Los Angeles Department of City Planning for the City's portion of the Santa Monica Mountains. In addition, the interactive system contains one hundred and seventy-three socio-economic data items created by merging the Third Count U.S. Census Bureau tapes and the Los Angeles County Secured Assessor File. This data can be graphically displayed for each and every block, block group, or tract for six test tracts in Woodland Hills, California. Other benefits of LUMIS are the knowledge of air photo availability, flight pattern coverage and frequencies, and private photogrammetry companies flying Southern California, as well as a formal Delphi study of relevant land use informational needs in the Santa Monicas.

  10. Key unknowns in estimating atmospheric emissions from UK land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misselbrook, T. H.; Cape, J. N.; Cardenas, L. M.; Chadwick, D. R.; Dragosits, U.; Hobbs, P. J.; Nemitz, E.; Reis, S.; Skiba, U.; Sutton, M. A.

    2011-02-01

    Robust emission inventories of atmospheric pollutants are critical to understanding and predicting impacts, identifying key sources and mitigation opportunities. The objective of this study was to review the extent to which UK land management is accounted for as a source of emission of ammonia (NH 3), nitrous oxide (N 2O), nitrogen oxides (NO x), organic nitrogen (N org), methane (CH 4), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals (HM), in comparison with the current state of scientific knowledge; to ascertain whether there is evidence for significant gaps or that key emission sources have been overlooked. The processes leading to emissions of NH 3, N 2O and CH 4 are largely understood and all major sources are thought to be captured in the current inventory. Quantification of uncertainties in the estimates for some of these sources is still required, as is an assessment of the potential improvement in accuracy of estimates through the development of country-specific emission factors for N 2O and CH 4 in particular. There is limited knowledge about sources and processes leading to emissions of N org and the role that these may play in local and global nitrogen budgets. Land management is known to be a source of NO x, NMVOC and PM emissions, and potentially also HM emissions. Improved quantification is required to assess the importance of land management as a source of these pollutants in comparison with other sectors and, if appropriate, to determine the potential for mitigation.

  11. Remote sensing in Michigan for land resource management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sattinger, I. J.

    1972-01-01

    This project to demonstrate the application of earth resource survey technology to current problems in Michigan was undertaken jointly by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan and Michigan State University. Remote sensing techniques were employed to advantage in providing management information for the Pointe Mouillee State Game Area and preparing an impact assessment in advance of the projected construction of the M-14 freeway from Ann Arbor to Plymouth, Michigan. The project also assisted the state government in its current effort to develop and implement a state-wide land management plan.

  12. 25 CFR 212.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The functions of the Bureau of Land Management are found in 43... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 212.4 Section 212.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY...

  13. 75 FR 40034 - Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... (Significant Threat), or Rank 3 (Lesser Threat) on the Tennessee Exotic Plant Pest Council list of Invasive... Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort Patrick Henry... Land Management Plan (NTRLMP) for the 4,933 acres of TVA-managed public land on Beaver Creek,...

  14. AIDS in the Workplace: A Training for Managers and Supervisors. District of Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyree, Jimmy L.

    This document provides a summary of "AIDS in the Workplace for Court Managers," a 3-hour seminar that was presented to the District of Oregon. The document begins with a summary of the seminar goals and objectives, which included the following: reduce fears and anxieties about HIV/AIDS in the workplace; provide information about the fundamentals…

  15. Enrollment Management and Financial Aid Part Two: A Public Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kalsbeek, David

    2008-01-01

    In our previous essay, we considered the role of institutional financial aid and the practice of enrollment management. In that essay we explored the use of financial aid as a tool to enhance equity increase prestige, as a revenue enhancement tool and as a means to shape institutional image in the various markets that comprise our diverse system…

  16. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... value (protection/rejuvenation of resources, improved visitor experience) to the park and adjacent... LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems §...

  17. Malaria Knowledge, Concern, Land Management, and Protection Practices among Land Owners and/or Managers in Lowland versus Highland Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Pinault, Lauren L.; Hunter, Fiona F.

    2011-01-01

    To control malaria effectively, it is essential to understand the current knowledge, beliefs, concerns, land management practices, and mosquito bite protection methods in use by citizens. This study presents a comparative, quantitative, interview-based study of land owners and/or managers (n = 262) in the Ecuadorian lowlands (presently considered malarious) (n = 131) and highlands (potentially malarious in the future) (n = 131). Although respondents had a strong understanding of where the disease occurs in their own country and of the basic relationship among standing water, mosquitoes, and malaria, about half of respondents in potential risk areas denied the current possibility of malaria infection on their own property. As well, about half of respondents with potential anopheline larval habitat did not report its presence, likely due to a highly specific definition of suitable mosquito habitat. Most respondents who are considered at risk of malaria currently use at least one type of mosquito bite prevention, most commonly bed nets. PMID:22363897

  18. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  19. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (SUN VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  20. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  1. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (SUN VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  2. Monitoring of livestock grazing effects on Bureau of Land Management land

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Public land management agencies, such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), are charged with managing rangelands throughout the western United States for multiple uses, such as livestock grazing and conservation of sensitive species and their habitats. Monitoring of condition and trends of these rangelands, particularly with respect to effects of livestock grazing, provides critical information for effective management of these multiuse landscapes. We therefore investigated the availability of livestock grazing-related quantitative monitoring data and qualitative region-specific Land Health Standards (LHS) data across BLM grazing allotments in the western United States. We then queried university and federal rangeland science experts about how best to prioritize rangeland monitoring activities. We found that the most commonly available monitoring data were permittee-reported livestock numbers and season-of-use data (71% of allotments) followed by repeat photo points (58%), estimates of forage utilization (52%), and, finally, quantitative vegetation measurements (37%). Of the 57% of allotments in which LHS had been evaluated as of 2007, the BLM indicated 15% had failed to meet LHS due to livestock grazing. A full complement of all types of monitoring data, however, existed for only 27% of those 15%. Our data inspections, as well as conversations with rangeland experts, indicated a need for greater emphasis on collection of grazing-related monitoring data, particularly ground cover. Prioritization of where monitoring activities should be focused, along with creation of regional monitoring teams, may help improve monitoring. Overall, increased emphasis on monitoring of BLM rangelands will require commitment at multiple institutional levels.

  3. Waste management and the land disposal restriction storage prohibition

    SciTech Connect

    1992-05-01

    RCRA Sect. 3004(j) prohibits storage of wastes that have been prohibited from land disposal, unless that storage is for the purpose of accumulating sufficient quantities of hazardous wastes to facilitate proper recovery, treatment, or disposal. This requirement was incorporated as part of the Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) regulations. Under the LDR storage prohibition, facilities may only store restricted wastes in containers and tanks. As stated in the Third LDR rule, storage of prohibited waste is only allowed in non-land based storage units since land-based storage is a form of disposal. The EPA has recognized that generators and storers of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) may find it impossible to comply with storage prohibition in cases where no available treatment capacity exists. Additionally, under the current regulatory interpretation, there is no provision that would allow for storage of wastes for which treatment capacity and capability are not available, even where capacity is legitimately being developed. Under the LDR program, restricted wastes that are disposed of, or placed into storage before an LDR effective date, are not subject to the LDR requirements. However, if such wastes are removed from a storage or disposal site after the effective date, such wastes would be subject to LDR requirements. The purpose of this information brief is to clarify what waste management practices constitute removal from storage.

  4. Integrating land management into Earth system models: the importance of land use transitions at sub-grid-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, Julia; Wilkenskjeld, Stiig; Kloster, Silvia; Reick, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that changes in surface climate and carbon fluxes caused by land management (i.e., modifications of vegetation structure without changing the type of land cover) can be as large as those caused by land cover change. Further, such effects may occur on substantial areas: while about one quarter of the land surface has undergone land cover change, another fifty percent are managed. This calls for integration of management processes in Earth system models (ESMs). This integration increases the importance of awareness and agreement on how to diagnose effects of land use in ESMs to avoid additional model spread and thus unnecessary uncertainties in carbon budget estimates. Process understanding of management effects, their model implementation, as well as data availability on management type and extent pose challenges. In this respect, a significant step forward has been done in the framework of the current IPCC's CMIP5 simulations (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5): The climate simulations were driven with the same harmonized land use dataset that, different from most datasets commonly used before, included information on two important types of management: wood harvest and shifting cultivation. However, these new aspects were employed by only part of the CMIP5 models, while most models continued to use the associated land cover maps. Here, we explore the consequences for the carbon cycle of including subgrid-scale land transformations ("gross transitions"), such as shifting cultivation, as example of the current state of implementation of land management in ESMs. Accounting for gross transitions is expected to increase land use emissions because it represents simultaneous clearing and regrowth of natural vegetation in different parts of the grid cell, reducing standing carbon stocks. This process cannot be captured by prescribing land cover maps ("net transitions"). Using the MPI-ESM we find that ignoring gross transitions

  5. Setting priorities for land management to mitigate climate change

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background No consensus has been reached how to measure the effectiveness of climate change mitigation in the land-use sector and how to prioritize land use accordingly. We used the long-term cumulative and average sectorial C stocks in biomass, soil and products, C stock changes, the substitution of fossil energy and of energy-intensive products, and net present value (NPV) as evaluation criteria for the effectiveness of a hectare of productive land to mitigate climate change and produce economic returns. We evaluated land management options using real-life data of Thuringia, a region representative for central-western European conditions, and input from life cycle assessment, with a carbon-tracking model. We focused on solid biomass use for energy production. Results In forestry, the traditional timber production was most economically viable and most climate-friendly due to an assumed recycling rate of 80% of wood products for bioenergy. Intensification towards "pure bioenergy production" would reduce the average sectorial C stocks and the C substitution and would turn NPV negative. In the forest conservation (non-use) option, the sectorial C stocks increased by 52% against timber production, which was not compensated by foregone wood products and C substitution. Among the cropland options wheat for food with straw use for energy, whole cereals for energy, and short rotation coppice for bioenergy the latter was most climate-friendly. However, specific subsidies or incentives for perennials would be needed to favour this option. Conclusions When using the harvested products as materials prior to energy use there is no climate argument to support intensification by switching from sawn-wood timber production towards energy-wood in forestry systems. A legal framework would be needed to ensure that harvested products are first used for raw materials prior to energy use. Only an effective recycling of biomaterials frees land for long-term sustained C sequestration by

  6. Global change pressures on soils from land use and management.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; House, Joanna I; Bustamante, Mercedes; Sobocká, Jaroslava; Harper, Richard; Pan, Genxing; West, Paul C; Clark, Joanna M; Adhya, Tapan; Rumpel, Cornelia; Paustian, Keith; Kuikman, Peter; Cotrufo, M Francesca; Elliott, Jane A; McDowell, Richard; Griffiths, Robert I; Asakawa, Susumu; Bondeau, Alberte; Jain, Atul K; Meersmans, Jeroen; Pugh, Thomas A M

    2016-03-01

    Soils are subject to varying degrees of direct or indirect human disturbance, constituting a major global change driver. Factoring out natural from direct and indirect human influence is not always straightforward, but some human activities have clear impacts. These include land-use change, land management and land degradation (erosion, compaction, sealing and salinization). The intensity of land use also exerts a great impact on soils, and soils are also subject to indirect impacts arising from human activity, such as acid deposition (sulphur and nitrogen) and heavy metal pollution. In this critical review, we report the state-of-the-art understanding of these global change pressures on soils, identify knowledge gaps and research challenges and highlight actions and policies to minimize adverse environmental impacts arising from these global change drivers. Soils are central to considerations of what constitutes sustainable intensification. Therefore, ensuring that vulnerable and high environmental value soils are considered when protecting important habitats and ecosystems, will help to reduce the pressure on land from global change drivers. To ensure that soils are protected as part of wider environmental efforts, a global soil resilience programme should be considered, to monitor, recover or sustain soil fertility and function, and to enhance the ecosystem services provided by soils. Soils cannot, and should not, be considered in isolation of the ecosystems that they underpin and vice versa. The role of soils in supporting ecosystems and natural capital needs greater recognition. The lasting legacy of the International Year of Soils in 2015 should be to put soils at the centre of policy supporting environmental protection and sustainable development. PMID:26301476

  7. Computer-aided analysis of Skylab scanner data for land use mapping, forestry and water resource applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Skylab data were obtained over a mountainous test site containing a complex association of cover types and rugged topography. The application of computer-aided analysis techniques to the multispectral scanner data produced a number of significant results. Techniques were developed to digitally overlay topographic data (elevation, slope, and aspect) onto the S-192 MSS data to provide a method for increasing the effectiveness and accuracy of computer-aided analysis techniques for cover type mapping. The S-192 MSS data were analyzed using computer techniques developed at Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing (LARS), Purdue University. Land use maps, forest cover type maps, snow cover maps, and area tabulations were obtained and evaluated. These results compared very well with information obtained by conventional techniques. Analysis of the spectral characteristics of Skylab data has conclusively proven the value of the middle infrared portion of the spectrum (about 1.3-3.0 micrometers), a wavelength region not previously available in multispectral satellite data.

  8. DeMAID/GA USER'S GUIDE Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition with a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Many companies are looking for new tools and techniques to aid a design manager in making decisions that can reduce the time and cost of a design cycle. One tool that is available to aid in this decision making process is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). Since the initial release of DEMAID in 1989, numerous enhancements have been added to aid the design manager in saving both cost and time in a design cycle. The key enhancement is a genetic algorithm (GA) and the enhanced version is called DeMAID/GA. The GA orders the sequence of design processes to minimize the cost and time to converge to a solution. These enhancements as well as the existing features of the original version of DEMAID are described. Two sample problems are used to show how these enhancements can be applied to improve the design cycle. This report serves as a user's guide for DeMAID/GA.

  9. Effects of Privately Owned Land Management Practices on Biogeochemical Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getson, J. M.; Hutyra, L.; Short, A. G.; Templer, P. H.; Kittredge, D.

    2014-12-01

    An increasing fraction of the global population lives in urban settings. Understanding how the human-natural system couple and decouple biogeochemical cycles across urbanization gradients is crucial for human health and environmental sustainability. Natural processes of nutrient deposition, export, uptake, and internal cycling can be disrupted by human activities. Residential landscape management (e.g. composting, leaf litter collection, fertilizer application) interrupts these natural biogeochemical cycles; therefore, it is key to characterize these practices and their impacts. This study looks at private land management practices along a rural to urban gradient in Boston, Massachusetts. We used a mail survey instrument coupled with biogeochemical measurements and remote sensing derived estimates of aboveground biomass to estimate biogeochemical modifications associated with residential landscape management practices. We find parcel size influences management behavior, management practices differ for leaf litter and lawn clippings, and fertilizer application is unrelated to parcel size or degree of urban-ness. These management practices result in nutrient redistribution that differs with residential characteristics.

  10. Soil Respiration in Semiarid Temperate Grasslands under Various Land Management

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiangyang; Schellenberg, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Soil respiration, a major component of the global carbon cycle, is significantly influenced by land management practices. Grasslands are potentially a major sink for carbon, but can also be a source. Here, we investigated the potential effect of land management (grazing, clipping, and ungrazed enclosures) on soil respiration in the semiarid grassland of northern China. Our results showed the mean soil respiration was significantly higher under enclosures (2.17μmol.m−2.s−1) and clipping (2.06μmol.m−2.s−1) than under grazing (1.65μmol.m−2.s−1) over the three growing seasons. The high rates of soil respiration under enclosure and clipping were associated with the higher belowground net primary productivity (BNPP). Our analyses indicated that soil respiration was primarily related to BNPP under grazing, to soil water content under clipping. Using structural equation models, we found that soil water content, aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and BNPP regulated soil respiration, with soil water content as the predominant factor. Our findings highlight that management-induced changes in abiotic (soil temperature and soil water content) and biotic (ANPP and BNPP) factors regulate soil respiration in the semiarid temperate grassland of northern China. PMID:26808376

  11. Soil Respiration in Semiarid Temperate Grasslands under Various Land Management.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Ji, Lei; Hou, Xiangyang; Schellenberg, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Soil respiration, a major component of the global carbon cycle, is significantly influenced by land management practices. Grasslands are potentially a major sink for carbon, but can also be a source. Here, we investigated the potential effect of land management (grazing, clipping, and ungrazed enclosures) on soil respiration in the semiarid grassland of northern China. Our results showed the mean soil respiration was significantly higher under enclosures (2.17 μmol.m(-2).s(-1)) and clipping (2.06 μmol.m(-2).s(-1)) than under grazing (1.65 μmol.m-(2).s(-1)) over the three growing seasons. The high rates of soil respiration under enclosure and clipping were associated with the higher belowground net primary productivity (BNPP). Our analyses indicated that soil respiration was primarily related to BNPP under grazing, to soil water content under clipping. Using structural equation models, we found that soil water content, aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and BNPP regulated soil respiration, with soil water content as the predominant factor. Our findings highlight that management-induced changes in abiotic (soil temperature and soil water content) and biotic (ANPP and BNPP) factors regulate soil respiration in the semiarid temperate grassland of northern China. PMID:26808376

  12. 23 CFR 970.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208... HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  13. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...

  14. 23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  15. Understanding barriers to implementation of an adaptive land management program.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Susan K; Morris, Julie K; Sanders, J Scott; Wiley, Eugene N; Brooks, Michael; Bennetts, Robert E; Percival, H Franklin; Marynowski, Susan

    2006-10-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission manages over 650,000 ha, including 26 wildlife management and environmental areas. To improve management, they developed an objective-based vegetation management (OBVM) process that focuses on desired conditions of plant communities through an adaptive management framework. Our goals were to understand potential barriers to implementing OBVM and to recommend strategies to overcome barriers. A literature review identified 47 potential barriers in six categories to implementation of adaptive and ecosystem management: logistical, communication, attitudinal, institutional, conceptual, and educational. We explored these barriers through a bureau-wide survey of 90 staff involved in OBVM and personal interviews with area managers, scientists, and administrators. The survey incorporated an organizational culture assessment instrument to gauge how institutional factors might influence OBVM implementation. The survey response rate was 69%. Logistics and communications were the greatest barriers to implementing OBVM. Respondents perceived that the agency had inadequate resources for implementing OBVM and provided inadequate information. About one-third of the respondents believed OBVM would decrease their job flexibility and perceived greater institutional barriers to the approach. The 43% of respondents who believed they would have more responsibility under OBVM also had greater attitudinal barriers. A similar percentage of respondents reported OBVM would not give enough priority to wildlife. Staff believed that current agency culture was hierarchical but preferred a culture that would provide more flexibility for adaptive management and would foster learning from land management activities. In light of the barriers to OBVM, we recommend the following: (1) mitigation of logistical barriers by addressing real and perceived constraints of staff, funds, and other resources in a participatory manner; (2) mitigation of

  16. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... the basis of how well they: (a) Accord with existing and planned land use, including management of...

  17. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... the basis of how well they: (a) Accord with existing and planned land use, including management of...

  18. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... the basis of how well they: (a) Accord with existing and planned land use, including management of...

  19. 78 FR 73144 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Western Interior Alaska Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Western Interior Alaska Federal Subsistence... subsistence uses on Federal public lands and waters in Alaska. The Federal Subsistence Board, which includes... the subsistence management of fish and wildlife on Federal public lands in Alaska. The Board...

  20. Remote sensing as an aid for marsh management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragan, J. G.; Green, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    NASA aerial photography, primarily color infrared and color positive transparencies, is used in a study of marsh management practices and in comparing managed and unmanaged marsh areas. Weir locations for tidal control are recommended.

  1. Integrating research on ecohydrology and land use change with land use management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Brad; Byers, Ralph E.; Lister, Nina-Marie

    1998-10-01

    One objective of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme is to provide a scientific basis for sustainable development policies. Land use change and ecohydrology are important components of this scientific basis, but predicting change is difficult because of the scale and complexity of the interactions between non-linear ecohydrological and socio-economic processes at different spatial and temporal scales. A systems framework, the Ecosystem Approach, has been developed to conceptualize these interactions for the purpose of providing information for sustainable development policy. The Ecosystem Approach combines the dynamics of the Holling figure-eight model - a conceptual model of dynamics that stresses discontinuous change and destruction as an internal property of the system - and the properties of self-organizing systems with the socio political aspects of decision making.The Ecosystem Approach highlights the problems of managing change in complex systems when that change may involve unpredictable shifts to a different attractor. Although there are methods available to detect the occurrence of such shifts, both detection and modelling are complicated by the presence of semi-stable attractors. When a model or an ecosystem is on a semi-stable attractor, it may appear to remain stable for an extended period prior to changing as a consequence of inherent instabilities. When the shift to a new attractor occurs, it is quite sudden and unpredictable. A technical discussion on prediction under conditions of semi-stability and chaos is included because it enhances our understanding of the role of surprise in ecosystems, as well as the utility of simulation models.The principles of the Ecosystem Approach are derived from the theoretical discussion and an example of a land use policy in the Huron Natural Area in south-western Ontario. These principles provide a clear role for scientific research, and particularly simulation modelling, within the larger context of

  2. Potential Carbon Negative Commercial Aviation through Land Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    Brazilian terra preta soil and char-enhanced soil agricultural systems have demonstrated both enhanced plant biomass and crop yield and functions as a carbon sink. Similar carbon sinking has been demonstrated for both glycophyte and halophyte plants and plant roots. Within the assumption of 3.7 t-C/ha/yr soils and plant root carbon sinking, it is possible to provide carbon neutral U.S. commercial aviation using about 8.5% of U.S. arable lands. The total airline CO2 release would be offset by carbon credits for properly managed soils and plant rooting, becoming carbon neutral for carbon sequestered synjet processing. If these lands were also used to produce biomass fuel crops such as soybeans at an increased yield of 60 bu/acre (225gal/ha), they would provide over 3.15 10(exp 9) gallons biodiesel fuel. If all this fuel were refined into biojet it would provide a 16% biojet-84% synjet blend. This allows the U.S. aviation industry to become carbon negative (carbon negative commercial aviation through carbon credits). Arid land recovery could yield even greater benefits.

  3. Data management for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, W. A.; Smith, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of data flow through the design and manufacturing processes has established specific information management requirements and identified unique problems. The application of data management technology to the engineering/manufacturing environment addresses these problems. An overview of the IPAD prototype data base management system, representing a partial solution to these problems, is presented here.

  4. Crop manuring and intensive land management by Europe's first farmers.

    PubMed

    Bogaard, Amy; Fraser, Rebecca; Heaton, Tim H E; Wallace, Michael; Vaiglova, Petra; Charles, Michael; Jones, Glynis; Evershed, Richard P; Styring, Amy K; Andersen, Niels H; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Bartosiewicz, László; Gardeisen, Armelle; Kanstrup, Marie; Maier, Ursula; Marinova, Elena; Ninov, Lazar; Schäfer, Marguerita; Stephan, Elisabeth

    2013-07-30

    The spread of farming from western Asia to Europe had profound long-term social and ecological impacts, but identification of the specific nature of Neolithic land management practices and the dietary contribution of early crops has been problematic. Here, we present previously undescribed stable isotope determinations of charred cereals and pulses from 13 Neolithic sites across Europe (dating ca. 5900-2400 cal B.C.), which show that early farmers used livestock manure and water management to enhance crop yields. Intensive manuring inextricably linked plant cultivation and animal herding and contributed to the remarkable resilience of these combined practices across diverse climatic zones. Critically, our findings suggest that commonly applied paleodietary interpretations of human and herbivore δ(15)N values have systematically underestimated the contribution of crop-derived protein to early farmer diets. PMID:23858458

  5. LIDAR-Aided Inertial Navigation with Extended Kalman Filtering for Pinpoint Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busnardo, David M.; Aitken, Matthew L.; Tolson, Robert H.; Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2011-01-01

    In support of NASA s Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project, an extended Kalman filter routine has been developed for estimating the position, velocity, and attitude of a spacecraft during the landing phase of a planetary mission. The proposed filter combines measurements of acceleration and angular velocity from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) with range and Doppler velocity observations from an onboard light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. These high-precision LIDAR measurements of distance to the ground and approach velocity will enable both robotic and manned vehicles to land safely and precisely at scientifically interesting sites. The filter has been extensively tested using a lunar landing simulation and shown to improve navigation over flat surfaces or rough terrain. Experimental results from a helicopter flight test performed at NASA Dryden in August 2008 demonstrate that LIDAR can be employed to significantly improve navigation based exclusively on IMU integration.

  6. Trialling a web-based spatial information management tool with Land Managers in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Anna M; Park, Geoff; Melland, Alice R; Miller, Ian

    2009-01-01

    A prototype web-based spatial information management tool (called eFarmer) was tested for its useability and usefulness by 46 Land Managers and 5 extension staff in Victoria, Australia. Participants had a range of enterprises (dairy, beef/sheep grazing, cropping, lifestyle land use), property sizes and computer ownership and expertise. A follow up study was conducted with 12 dairy farmers, where features regarding assessment of nutrient losses from paddocks (Farm Nutrient Loss Index, FNLI) were added to eFarmer. Over 27,000 maps (including 11,000 with aerial photography) were accessed by Land Managers during a 5-month trial period. Despite limited training and support, 1350 people are registered users, and approximately 700 have actively used the tool. Reasons for the success include providing improved access to spatial information, enabling measurement of farm features and creation of farm maps, providing a basis for decision-making about farm inputs, support for better farm and landscape scale action planning and production and Land Managers being able to seek management advice from the extension staff who facilitated eFarmer testing programs. For dairy farmers in the FNLI trial, awareness of off-site impacts increased and most changed management practices. Provision of on-going training and support will be at least as important as further development of the tool itself. Web-based spatial information tools have potential to improve the awareness of Land Managers about their environmental impacts and influence their decision-making. Access to spatial information has potential to reduce information asymmetry between Land Managers, extension staff and catchment planners in a constructive way. It will also change the role of extension staff away from being an expert with answers, to a facilitator enabling learning. Results have applicability in countries where there is a high level of farm computer ownership, relevant spatial information is available in GIS format

  7. Pilot decision making in a computer-aided flight management situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Y. Y.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental representation of a computer-aided multi-task flight management situation has been developed. A computer aiding program was implemented to serve as a back-up decision maker. An experiment was conducted with a balanced design of several subject runs for different workload levels. This was achieved using three levels of subsystem event arrival rates, three levels of control task involvement, and three levels of availability of computer aiding. Experimental results compared quite favorably with those from a computer simulation which employed a queueing model. It was shown that the aiding had enhanced system performance as well as subjective ratings, and that the adaptive aiding policy further reduced subsystem delay.

  8. Postfire management in forested public lands of the western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beschta, R.L.; Rhodes, J.J.; Kauffman, J.B.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Minshall, G.W.; Frissell, C.A.; Perry, D.A.; Hauer, R.

    2004-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in the western United States evolved over many millennia in response to disturbances such as wildfires. Land use and management practices have altered these ecosystems, however, including fire regimes in some areas. Forest ecosystems are especially vulnerable to postfire management practices because such practices may influence forest dynamics and aquatic systems for decades to centuries. Thus, there is an increasing need to evaluate the effect of postfire treatments from the perspective of ecosystem recovery. We examined, via the published literature and our collective experience, the ecological effects of some common postfire treatments. Based on this examination, promising postfire restoration measures include retention of large trees, rehabilitation of firelines and roads, and, in some cases, planting of native species. The following practices are generally inconsistent with efforts to restore ecosystem functions after fire: seeding exotic species, livestock grazing, placement of physical structures in and near stream channels, ground-based postfire logging, removal of large trees, and road construction. Practices that adversely affect soil integrity, persistence or recovery of native species, riparian functions, or water quality generally impede ecological recovery after fire. Although research provides a basis for evaluating the efficacy of postfire treatments, there is a continuing need to increase our understanding of the effects of such treatments within the context of societal and ecological goals for forested public lands of the western United States.

  9. Promoting justified risk-based decisions in contaminated land management.

    PubMed

    Reinikainen, Jussi; Sorvari, Jaana

    2016-09-01

    Decision making and regulatory policies on contaminated land management (CLM) are commonly governed by risk assessment. Risk assessment, thus, has to comply with legislation, but also provide valid information in terms of actual risks to correctly focus the potentially required measures and allocate the available resources. Hence, reliable risk assessment is a prerequisite for justified and sustainable risk management. This paper gives an introduction to the Finnish risk-based regulatory framework, outlines the challenges within the policies and the practice and provides an overview of the new guidance document to promote risk-based and sustainable CLM. We argue that the current risk assessment approaches in the policy frameworks are not necessarily efficient enough in supporting justified risk-based decisions. One of the main reasons for this is the excessive emphasis put on conservative risk assessments and on generic guideline values without contributing to their appropriate application. This paper presents how some of the challenges in risk-based decision making have been tackled in the Finnish regulatory framework on contaminated land. We believe that our study will also stimulate interest with regard to policy frameworks in other countries. PMID:26767620

  10. 76 FR 2414 - Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's Gunnison Field Office in Gunnison, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's Gunnison Field Office in Gunnison, CO AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of relocation. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) Gunnison Field Office moved from 216......

  11. 77 FR 23496 - Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's Tucson Field Office in Tucson, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's Tucson Field Office in Tucson, AZ AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of relocation. SUMMARY: This notice announces the relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM)......

  12. 78 FR 53477 - Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's San Pedro Project Office in Sierra Vista, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's San Pedro Project Office in Sierra Vista, AZ AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) San......

  13. Earthworm Preference Bioassays to Evaluate Land Management Practices.

    PubMed

    Bouldin, Jennifer L; Klasky, John W P; Green, V Steven

    2016-06-01

    Earthworm preference tests, especially in soil-dosed exposures, can be an informative tool for assessing land management practices. Agricultural management intended to increase crop yield and improve soil sustainability includes physical manipulation of topsoil through conventional tillage, reduced or no-tillage, and/or winter cover crops. Soil amendments include the addition of inorganic nitrogen or organic nitrogen derived from soil amendments including biosolids from sewage treatment plants, poultry litter, or locally available industrial effluent. This study used 48-h Eisenia fetida preference tests to assess impacts of agricultural management practices on soil macrofauna. Although in laboratory-dosed exposures, E. fetida preferred biosolid-dosed soils (80 %-95 % recovery) over control soils, the same results were not found with field soils receiving biosolid amendments (33 % recovery). Poultry litter-amended soils (68 % recovery) were preferred over control soils. No differences were measured between tilled fields and controls, and earthworms preferred control soils over those from fields with no-tillage and cover crops. Soil assessments through laboratory exposures such as these allows science-based agricultural management decisions to maintain or improve soil health. PMID:26873732

  14. Remote sensing and GIS for land use/cover mapping and integrated land management: case from the middle Ganga plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. B.; Kumar, Dilip

    2012-06-01

    In India, land resources have reached a critical stage due to the rapidly growing population. This challenge requires an integrated approach toward harnessing land resources, while taking into account the vulnerable environmental conditions. Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) based technologies may be applied to an area in order to generate a sustainable development plan that is optimally suited to the terrain and to the productive potential of the local resources. The present study area is a part of the middle Ganga plain, known as Son-Karamnasa interfluve, in India. Alternative land use systems and the integration of livestock enterprises with the agricultural system have been suggested for land resources management. The objective of this paper is to prepare a land resource development plan in order to increase the productivity of land for sustainable development. The present study will contribute necessary input for policy makers to improve the socio-economic and environmental conditions of the region.

  15. Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges: Cross-Jurisdictional Management and Impacts on Unconventional Fuel Development in Utah's Uinta Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, Robert; Ruple, John; Holt, Rebecca; Tanana, Heather; McNeally, Phoebe; Tribby, Clavin

    2012-10-01

    Utah is rich in oil shale and oil sands resources. Chief among the challenges facing prospective unconventional fuel developers is the ability to access these resources. Access is heavily dependent upon land ownership and applicable management requirements. Understanding constraints on resource access and the prospect of consolidating resource holdings across a fragmented management landscape is critical to understanding the role Utah’s unconventional fuel resources may play in our nation’s energy policy. This Topical Report explains the historic roots of the “crazy quilt” of western land ownership, how current controversies over management of federal public land with wilderness character could impact access to unconventional fuels resources, and how land exchanges could improve management efficiency. Upon admission to the Union, the State of Utah received the right to title to more than one-ninth of all land within the newly formed state. This land is held in trust to support public schools and institutions, and is managed to generate revenue for trust beneficiaries. State trust lands are scattered across the state in mostly discontinuous 640-acre parcels, many of which are surrounded by federal land and too small to develop on their own. Where state trust lands are developable but surrounded by federal land, federal land management objectives can complicate state trust land development. The difficulty generating revenue from state trust lands can frustrate state and local government officials as well as citizens advocating for economic development. Likewise, the prospect of industrial development of inholdings within prized conservation landscapes creates management challenges for federal agencies. One major tension involves whether certain federal public lands possess wilderness character, and if so, whether management of those lands should emphasize wilderness values over other uses. On December 22, 2010, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar issued

  16. Conceptualizing the cross-cultural gaps in managing international aid: HIV/AIDS and TB project delivery in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Terence

    2011-01-01

    There appears to be a gap between the billions of dollars inputted into fighting HIV/AIDS and TB and outcomes. This in part can be attributed to the lack of attention in International Development to managing programmes and projects within complex levels of cross-cultural interactions. International Development often ignores management issues, yet Management Studies is left wanting through a lack of engagement with development issues including the fight against disease and poverty. This paper attempts to link these two disciplines towards mutual benefit, through a critical cross-cultural approach. It provides contextualization of international development policies/strategies; conceptualization of dominant paradigms; structural analysis of how a programme/project fits into the global governance structure; analysis of complexities and levels of cross-cultural interaction and their consequences and the process and implications of knowledge transfer across cultural distances. It concludes with implications for policy and practice, as well as what is needed from cross-disciplinary research. This includes how feedback loops can be strengthened from local to global, how indigenous knowledge may be better understood and integrated, how power relations within the global governance structure could be managed, how cross-cultural interaction could be better understood, and how knowledge transfer/sharing should be critically managed. PMID:20957771

  17. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for the transportation systems providing access to and within National Forests, as appropriate, that... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS)....

  18. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for the transportation systems providing access to and within National Forests, as appropriate, that... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS)....

  19. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for the transportation systems providing access to and within National Forests, as appropriate, that... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS)....

  20. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for the transportation systems providing access to and within National Forests, as appropriate, that... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS)....

  1. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., 2001, is available for inspection as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. It is also available from the... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...

  2. An intelligent flight-management aid for procedure execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program is described that contains a model of the procedures used in the operation of a twin engine aircraft. This program, by comparing the model to the aircraft state, can determine when a procedure (or checklist) should be or is invoked and when each step (detectable by a change in the aircraft state) is completed. Thus, the program tracks the flight crew's procedure execution through changes in the aircraft state. Data were used for evaluation from an earlier experiment on a Link GAT-II simulator. The program had been able to identify practically all of the errors identified by human judges as well as locate some missed by them. It is felt that this model could significantly aid flight crews.

  3. Disaster Management: AN Integral Part of Science & Technology System and Land Administration-Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghawana, T.; Zlatanova, S.

    2016-06-01

    Disaster management is a multidisciplinary field, which requires a general coordination approach as well as specialist approaches. Science and Technology system of a country allows to create policies and execution of technical inputs required which provide services for the specific types of disasters management. Land administration and management agencies, as the administrative and management bodies, focus more on the coordination of designated tasks to various agencies responsible for their dedicated roles. They get help from Scientific and technical inputs & policies which require to be implemented in a professional manner. The paper provides an example of such integration from India where these two systems complement each other with their dedicated services. Delhi, the Capital of India, has such a disaster management system which has lot of technical departments of government which are mandated to provide their services as Emergency Service Functionaries. Thus, it is shown that disaster management is a job which is an integral part of Science & Technology system of a country while being implemented primarily with the help of land administration and management agencies. It is required that new policies or mandates for the Science and technology organizations of government should give a primary space to disaster management

  4. Development of a Coherent Lidar for Aiding Precision Soft Landing on Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego; Tolson, Robert H.; Powell, Richard W.; Davidson, John B.; Peri, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Coherent lidar can play a critical role in future planetary exploration missions by providing key guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) data necessary for navigating planetary landers to the pre-selected site and achieving autonomous safe soft-landing. Although the landing accuracy has steadily improved over time to approximately 35 km for the recent Mars Exploration Rovers due to better approach navigation, a drastically different guidance, navigation and control concept is required to meet future mission requirements. For example, future rovers will require better than 6 km landing accuracy for Mars and better than 1 km for the Moon plus maneuvering capability to avoid hazardous terrain features. For this purpose, an all-fiber coherent lidar is being developed to address the call for advancement of entry, descent, and landing technologies. This lidar will be capable of providing precision range to the ground and approach velocity data, and in the case of landing on Mars, it will also measure the atmospheric wind and density. The lidar obtains high resolution range information from a frequency modulated-continuous wave (FM-CW) laser beam whose instantaneous frequency varies linearly with time, and the ground vector velocity is directly extracted from the Doppler frequency shift. Utilizing the high concentration of aerosols in the Mars atmosphere (approx. two order of magnitude higher than the Earth), the lidar can measure wind velocity with a few watts of optical power. Operating in 1.57 micron wavelength regime, the lidar can use the differential absorption (DIAL) technique to measure the average CO2 concentration along the laser beam using, that is directly proportional to the Martian atmospheric density. Employing fiber optics components allows for the lidar multi-functional operation while facilitating a highly efficient, compact and reliable design suitable for integration into a spacecraft with limited mass, size, and power resources.

  5. 76 FR 2908 - Nonprofit Management LLC and Jeremy Ryan Claeys; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Nonprofit Management LLC and Jeremy Ryan Claeys; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment... or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the... following Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes the terms of the consent agreement, and the...

  6. Ideologies of aid, practices of power: lessons for Medicaid managed care.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nancy L

    2005-03-01

    The articles in this special issue teach valuable lessons based on what happened in New Mexico with the shift to Medicaid managed care. By reframing these lessons in broader historical and cultural terms with reference to aid programs, we have the opportunity to learn a great deal more about the relationship between poverty, public policy, and ideology. Medicaid as a state and federal aid program in the United States and economic development programs as foreign aid provide useful analogies specifically because they exhibit a variety of parallel patterns. The increasing concatenation of corporate interests with state and nongovernmental interests in aid programs is ultimately producing a less centralized system of power and responsibility. This process of decentralization, however, is not undermining the sources of power behind aid efforts, although it does make the connections between intent, planning, and outcome less direct. Ultimately, the devolution of power produces many unintended consequences for aid policy. But it also reinforces the perspective that aid and the need for it are nonpolitical issues. PMID:15789629

  7. Estimated abundance of wild burros surveyed on Bureau of Land Management Lands in 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) requires accurate estimates of the numbers of wild horses (Equus ferus caballus) and burros (Equus asinus) living on the lands it manages. For over ten years, BLM in Arizona has used the simultaneous double-observer method of recording wild burros during aerial surveys and has reported population estimates for those surveys that come from two formulations of a Lincoln-Petersen type of analysis (Graham and Bell, 1989). In this report, I provide those same two types of burro population analysis for 2014 aerial survey data from six herd management areas (HMAs) in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah. I also provide burro population estimates based on a different form of simultaneous double-observer analysis, now in widespread use for wild horse surveys that takes into account the potential effects on detection probability of sighting covariates including group size, distance, vegetative cover, and other factors (Huggins, 1989, 1991). The true number of burros present in the six areas surveyed was not known, so population estimates made with these three types of analyses cannot be directly tested for accuracy in this report. I discuss theoretical reasons why the Huggins (1989, 1991) type of analysis should provide less biased estimates of population size than the Lincoln-Petersen analyses and why estimates from all forms of double-observer analyses are likely to be lower than the true number of animals present in the surveyed areas. I note reasons why I suggest using burro observations made at all available distances in analyses, not only those within 200 meters of the flight path. For all analytical methods, small sample sizes of observed groups can be problematic, but that sample size can be increased over time for Huggins (1989, 1991) analyses by pooling observations. I note ways by which burro population estimates could be tested for accuracy when there are radio-collared animals in the population or when there are simultaneous

  8. Vision-Aided Autonomous Landing and Ingress of Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockers, Roland; Ma, Jeremy C.; Matthies, Larry H.; Bouffard, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Micro aerial vehicles have limited sensor suites and computational power. For reconnaissance tasks and to conserve energy, these systems need the ability to autonomously land at vantage points or enter buildings (ingress). But for autonomous navigation, information is needed to identify and guide the vehicle to the target. Vision algorithms can provide egomotion estimation and target detection using input from cameras that are easy to include in miniature systems.

  9. Managing dyslipidemia in HIV/AIDS patients: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Nazik Elmalaika OS; Ahmed, Mohamed H

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a chronic disease associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. In addition, the administration of combination antiretroviral therapy is associated with an increase in the incidence of metabolic risk factors (insulin resistance, lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, and abnormalities of fat distribution in HIV patients). HIV dyslipidemia is a common problem, and associated with an increase in incidence of cardiovascular disease. Further challenges in the management of HIV dyslipidemia are the presence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hypothyroidism, chronic kidney disease, the risk of diabetes associated with statin administration, age and ethnicity, and early menopause in females. Dyslipidemia in patients with HIV is different from the normal population, due to the fact that HIV increases insulin resistance and HIV treatment not only may induce dyslipidemia but also may interact with lipid-lowering medication. The use of all statins (apart from simvastatin and lovastatin) is safe and effective in HIV dyslipidemia, and the addition of ezetimibe, fenofibrate, fish oil, and niacin can be used in statin-unresponsive HIV dyslipidemia. The management of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease risks associated with HIV is complex, and a certain number of patients may require management in specialist clinics run by specialist physicians in lipid disorders. Future research is needed to address best strategies in the management of hyperlipidemia with HIV infection. PMID:25565897

  10. Graphic visualization of program performance aids management review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhart, G. N.

    1967-01-01

    Chart technique /PERTREE/ which displays the essential status elements of a PERT system in a vertical flow array, of high graphic quality, enables visual review by management of program performance. Since the display is versatile, it can accommodate any aspect of the program which the presenter wishes to accent.

  11. Enrollment Management and Financial Aid: Seeking a Strategic Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, David H.; Hossler, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Enrollment management has become an important leadership function on many college and university campuses. It is also attracting critical attention here and abroad among observers of the system of postsecondary education. With this essay, the authors continue a series that examines policies and practices that are central to campus-based efforts to…

  12. The Resilience Assessment Framework: a common indicator for land management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Annette; Metternicht, Graciela; O'Connell, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    At the Rio+20 conference in June 2013, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reinforced their mutual interests in building linkages between biodiversity conservation, sustainable land management, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. The UNCCD sees building resilience of agro-ecosystems as a common interest that could strengthen linkages between the conventions and deliver synergies in progressing goals of each of the conventions. Furthermore, enhancing resilience of productive agro-ecosystems is fundamental to food security and sustainable development, and thus aligns with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Global Environment Facility (GEF) shares the interest of the conventions in building resilience in agro-ecosystems. Indicators of resilience are required for monitoring progress in these endeavors, application of a common indicator between the UNCCD, UNFCCC and CBD as a measure of both land-based adaptation and ecosystem resilience, could strengthen links between the conventions and increase attention to the broad benefits of improved land management. Consequently, the Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) to the GEF commissioned the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) to produce a report reviewing the conceptual basis for resilience, and proposing an indicator approach that could meet the needs of the Conventions and the GEF for an indicator of agro-ecosystem resilience and land-based adaption. The paper presents a synthesis of scientific understanding of resilience in agro-ecosystems, reviews indicators that have been proposed, and, having concluded that none of the extant indicator approaches adequately assesses resilience of agro-ecosystems, proposes a new approach to the assessment of resilience. Recognizing that no single indicator of resilience is

  13. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... evaluated on the basis of how well they: (a) Accord with existing and planned land use, including...

  14. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... evaluated on the basis of how well they: (a) Accord with existing and planned land use, including...

  15. Field-Based Land Cover Classification Aided with Texture Analyses Using Terrasar-X Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Ali; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Buchroithner, Manfred

    The present study aims to evaluate the field-based approach for the classification of land cover using the recently launched high resolution SAR data. TerraSAR-X1 (TSX-1) strip mode im-age, coupled with Digital Ortho Photos with 20 cm spatial resolution was used for land cover classification and parcel mapping respectively. Different filtering and texture analyses tech-niques were applied to extract textural information from the TSX-1 image in order to assess the enhancement of the classification accuracy. Several attributes of parcels were derived from the available TSX-1 image in order to define the most suitable attributes discriminating be-tween different land cover types. Then, these attributes were further analyzed by statistical and various image classification methods for landcover classification. The results showed that, tex-tural analysis performed higher classification accuracy than the earlier. The authors conclude that, an integrated landcover classification using the textural information in TerraSAR-X1 has high potential for landcover mapping. Key words: Landcover classification, TerraSARX1, field based, texture analysis

  16. Anomaly in the rainfall-runoff behaviour of the Meuse catchment. Climate, land use, or land use management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenicia, F.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Avdeeva, Y.

    2008-07-01

    An anomaly has been found in the rainfall runoff behaviour of the Meuse. Ninety years of rainfall-runoff simulations show a consistent underestimation of the runoff in the period between 1930 and 1965. Different authors have debated possible causes for the anomaly, including climatic variability, land use change and data errors. None of the authors considered the way in which the land is used by for instance agricultural and forestry practises. This paper focuses on the possible effects of land use and land use management on the hydrological response of the Meuse catchment. In absence of detailed information on land use over the observation period, we adopted a fully "top-down" approach to the problem. The approach consists of a dynamic evaluation of a conceptual hydrological model and the interpretation of the temporal trends of model parameters. It appears that land use has had a considerable impact on the hydrological behaviour of the Meuse catchment. The time lag of the catchment has reduced markedly over time, possibly related to more intensive drainage and river training works. Moreover we hypothesise that forest rotation has had a significant impact on the evaporation of the catchment. These results contrast with previous studies, where the effect of land use change on the hydrological behaviour of the Meuse catchment was considered negligible, mainly because there was not sufficient change in land cover to account for it. Here we hypothesise that in the Meuse it was not the change of land cover that was responsible for hydrological change, but rather the way the land was managed.

  17. An analysis of flight data from aircraft landings with and without the aid of a painted diamond on the same runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swaroop, R.; Ashworth, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The usefulness of a painted diamond on a runway as a visual aid to perform safe landings of aircraft was studied. Flight data on glideslope intercepts, flight path elevation angles, and touchdown distances were collected and analyzed. It is concluded that an appropriately painted diamond on a runway has the potential of providing glideslope information for the light weight class of general aviation aircraft. This conclusion holds irrespective of the differences in landing techniques used by the pilots.

  18. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or "apps" along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to "self-digitize" and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. PMID:27486338

  19. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or “apps” along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to “self-digitize” and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. PMID:27486338

  20. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970...: (i) Identify and document measures for congestion (e.g., level of service); (ii) Identify the...

  1. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems... for congestion (e.g., level of service); (ii) Identify the causes of congestion; (iii)...

  2. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems... for congestion (e.g., level of service); (ii) Identify the causes of congestion; (iii)...

  3. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214... document measures for congestion (e.g., level of service); (ii) Identify the causes of congestion;...

  4. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970...: (i) Identify and document measures for congestion (e.g., level of service); (ii) Identify the...

  5. Land management in the Anthropocene: is history still relevant?: incorporating historical ecology and climate change into land management; Lansdowne, Virginia, 22–25 April 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safford, Hugh D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Hayward, Gregory D.; Wiens, John A.; Regan, Claudia M.

    2008-01-01

    Ecological restoration, conservation, and land management are often based on comparisons with reference sites or time periods, which are assumed to represent “natural” or “properly functioning” conditions. Such reference conditions can provide a vision of the conservation or management goal and a means to measure progress toward that vision. Although historical ecology has been used successfully to guide resource management in many parts of the world, the continuing relevance of history is now being questioned. Some scientists doubt that lessons from the past can inform management in what may be a dramatically different future, given profound climate change, accelerated land use, and an onslaught of plant and animal invasions.

  6. The Film as Visual Aided Learning Tool in Classroom Management Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altinay Gazi, Zehra; Altinay Aksal, Fahriye

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the impact of the visual aided learning on pre-service teachers' co-construction of subject matter knowledge in teaching practice. The study revealed the examination of film as an active cognizing and learning tool in classroom management course within teacher education programme. Within the framework of action…

  7. Data Management Standards in Computer-aided Acquisition and Logistic Support (CALS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferson, David K.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on data management standards in computer-aided acquisition and logistic support (CALS) are presented. CALS is intended to reduce cost, increase quality, and improve timeliness of weapon system acquisition and support by greatly improving the flow of technical information. The phase 2 standards, industrial environment, are discussed. The information resource dictionary system (IRDS) is described.

  8. The Role of Social Entrepreneurship in HIV/AIDS Management across the Education Sector in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayiro, Laban P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The overall purpose of this study is to identify key entrepreneurial variables in the realm of social entrepreneurship that may contribute to enhancing impact mitigation of HIV/AIDS. In addition, the study seeks to establish which of the correlations between the entrepreneurial variables and management of response of impact mitigation of…

  9. Functional Specifications for Computer Aided Training Systems Development and Management (CATSDM) Support Functions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John; And Others

    This report provides a description of a Computer Aided Training System Development and Management (CATSDM) environment based on state-of-the-art hardware and software technology, and including recommendations for off the shelf systems to be utilized as a starting point in addressing the particular systematic training and instruction design and…

  10. Need for, and financial feasibility of, satellite-aided land mobile communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Marantz, C. S.; Freibaum, J.

    Questions regarding the role of a mobile-satellite system in augmenting the terrestrial communications system are considered, and a market assessment study is discussed. Aspects of an investment analysis are examined, taking into account a three phase financial study of four postulated land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) systems, project profitability evaluation methods, risk analysis methods, financial projections, potential investor acceptance standards, and a risk analysis. It is concluded that a satellite augmented terrestrial mobile service appears to be economically and technically superior to a service depending exclusively on terrestrial systems. The interest in the Mobile Satellite Service is found to be worldwide, and the ground equipment market is potentially large.

  11. Need for, and financial feasibility of, satellite-aided land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Marantz, C. S.; Freibaum, J.

    1982-01-01

    Questions regarding the role of a mobile-satellite system in augmenting the terrestrial communications system are considered, and a market assessment study is discussed. Aspects of an investment analysis are examined, taking into account a three phase financial study of four postulated land Mobile Satellite Service (LMSS) systems, project profitability evaluation methods, risk analysis methods, financial projections, potential investor acceptance standards, and a risk analysis. It is concluded that a satellite augmented terrestrial mobile service appears to be economically and technically superior to a service depending exclusively on terrestrial systems. The interest in the Mobile Satellite Service is found to be worldwide, and the ground equipment market is potentially large.

  12. 75 FR 55341 - Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Assistance and Fire Management Assistance AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... comments on Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire...

  13. 23 CFR 971.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... available for inspection and copying as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. (c) The tri-party partnership shall... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 971.212... lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  14. Sustainable Land Management and Adult Education: Issues for the Stakeholders of Australia's Tropical Savannas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    Sustainable land management is an important consideration for stakeholders in Australia's tropical savannas. Land-management-education providers must deal with issues of access and the impact of values and perceptions on behavior. Adult educators must take on the role of negotiating attitudes and beliefs among stakeholders. (SK)

  15. 23 CFR 973.212 - Indian lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands safety management system (SMS). 973.212 Section 973.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs...

  16. 78 FR 69814 - Revision of the Land Management Plan for El Yunque National Forest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ...El Yunque National Forest, located in Puerto Rico, is initiating the development of a land management plan revision (forest plan) for El Yunque National Forest (NF). A Draft Assessment is being posted to our Web site. We are inviting the public to help us develop a preliminary ``need for change'' and a proposed action for the land management plan...

  17. Impact of agricultural land management systems on soil microbial diversity and plant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased diversity of fungal rDNA ITS-1 amplicons, as measured by the Shannon-Weiner index, was associated with land management practices that minimise soil disturbance (bahiagrass pasture and undisturbed weed fallow) when compared with organic or conventional land management systems. Diversity de...

  18. 75 FR 66125 - Federal Land Managers' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... approach for the Federal Land Managers (FLMs), i.e., National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service... Service, P.O. Box 25287, Denver, Colorado 80225; e-mail: john_bunyak@nps.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... National Park Service Federal Land Managers' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG) AGENCY:...

  19. 23 CFR 973.210 - Indian lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). 973.210 Section 973.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs...

  20. 23 CFR 973.210 - Indian lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). 973.210 Section 973.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs...

  1. 23 CFR 973.212 - Indian lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands safety management system (SMS). 973.212 Section 973.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs...

  2. 23 CFR 970.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208... Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204, the...) An inventory of the physical pavement features including the number of lanes, length, width,...

  3. 23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...,” AASHTO, 2001, is available for inspection as prescribed at 49 CFR part 7. It is also available from the... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  4. 78 FR 61329 - Revision of the Land Management Plan for the Nantahala and Pisgah National Forests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    .../nprevision . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the 2012 Forest Planning Rule (36 CFR Part 219), the... Forest Service Revision of the Land Management Plan for the Nantahala and Pisgah National Forests AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Initiating the development of a land management plan revision...

  5. Editing ERTS-1 data to exclude land aids cluster analysis of water targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It has been determined that an increase in the number of spectrally distinct coastal water types is achieved when data values over the adjacent land areas are excluded from the processing routine. This finding resulted from an automatic clustering analysis of ERTS-1 system corrected MSS scene 1002-18134 of 25 July 1972 over Monterey Bay, California. When the entire study area data set was submitted to the clustering only two distinct water classes were extracted. However, when the land area data points were removed from the data set and resubmitted to the clustering routine, four distinct groupings of water features were identified. Additionally, unlike the previous separation, the four types could be correlated to features observable in the associated ERTS-1 imagery. This exercise demonstrates that by proper selection of data submitted to the processing routine, based upon the specific application of study, additional information may be extracted from the ERTS-1 MSS data.

  6. Spatial Differentiation of Arable Land and Permanent Grasslands to Improve a Regional Land Management Model for Nutrient Balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Giménez, M.; Della Peruta, R.; de Jong, R.; Keller, A.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Agroecosystems play an important role providing economic and ecosystem services, which directly impact society. Inappropriate land use and unsustainable agricultural management with associated nutrient cycles can jeopardize important soil functions such as food production, livestock feeding and conservation of biodiversity. The objective of this study was to integrate remotely sensed land cover information into a regional Land Management Model (LMM) to improve the assessment of spatial explicit nutrient balances for agroecosystems. Remotely sensed data as well as an optimized parameter set contributed to feed the LMM providing a better spatial allocation of agricultural data aggregated at farm level. The integration of land use information in the land allocation process relied predominantly on three factors: i) spatial resolution, ii) classification accuracy and iii) parcels definition. The best-input parameter combination resulted in two different land cover classifications with overall accuracies of 98%, improving the LMM performance by 16% as compared to using non-spatially explicit input. Firstly, the use of spatial explicit information improved the spatial allocation output resulting in a pattern that better followed parcel boundaries (Figure 1). Second, the high classification accuracies ensured consistency between the datasets used. Third, the use of a suitable spatial unit to define the parcels boundaries influenced the model in terms of computational time and the amount of farmland allocated. We conclude that the combined use of remote sensing (RS) data with the LMM has the potential to provide highly accurate information of spatial explicit nutrient balances that are crucial for policy options concerning sustainable management of agricultural soils. Figure 1. Details of the spatial pattern obtained: a) Using only the farm census data, b) using also land use information. Framed in black in the left image (a), examples of artifacts that disappeared when

  7. 25 CFR 162.201 - Must agricultural land be managed in accordance with a tribe's agricultural resource management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tribe's agricultural resource management plan? 162.201 Section 162.201 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... Must agricultural land be managed in accordance with a tribe's agricultural resource management plan... and objectives in any agricultural resource management plan developed by the tribe, or by us in...

  8. 76 FR 16805 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Bureau of Land Management's California Desert District...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Land Management's California Desert District Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Desert District is soliciting nominations from the public for six members of its California Desert... should be sent to Teresa Raml, District Manager, Bureau of Land Management, California Desert...

  9. Effects of Land Use and Management on Soil Hydraulic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horel, Ágota; Tóth, Eszter; Gelybó, Györgyi; Kása, Ilona; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Farkas, Csilla

    2015-11-01

    Soil hydraulic properties are among the most important parameters that determine soil quality and its capability to serve the ecosystem. Land use can significantly influence soil properties, including its hydraulic conditions; however, additional factors, such as changes in climate (temperature and precipitation), can further influence the land use effects on soil hydraulic properties. In order to develop possible adaptation measures and mitigate any negative effects of land use and climatic changes, it is important to study the impact of land use and changes in land use on soil hydraulic properties. In this paper, we summarize recent studies examining the effect of land use/land cover and the associated changes in soil hydraulic properties, mainly focusing on agricultural scenarios of cultivated croplands and different tillage systems.

  10. Land Use in Korean Tidal Wetlands: Impacts and Management Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sun-Kee; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Harris, Richard R.; Kim, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jeom-Sook; Ihm, Byung-Sun

    2010-05-01

    The coastal landscapes in southwestern Korea include a diverse array of tidal wetlands and salt marshes. These coastal zones link the ecological functions of marine tidal wetlands and freshwater ecosystems with terrestrial ecosystems. They are rich in biological diversity and play important roles in sustaining ecological health and processing environmental pollutants. Korean tidal wetlands are particularly important as nurseries for economically important fishes and habitats for migratory birds. Diking, draining, tourism, and conversion to agricultural and urban uses have adversely affected Korean tidal wetlands. Recent large development projects have contributed to further losses. Environmental impact assessments conducted for projects affecting tidal wetlands and their surrounding landscapes should be customized for application to these special settings. Adequate environmental impact assessments will include classification of hydrogeomorphic units and consideration of their responses to biological and environmental stressors. As is true worldwide, Korean laws and regulations are changing to be more favorable to the conservation and protection of tidal wetlands. More public education needs to be done at the local level to build support for tidal wetland conservation. Some key public education points include the role of tidal wetlands in maintaining healthy fish populations and reducing impacts of nonpoint source pollution. There is also a need to develop procedures for integrating economic and environmental objectives within the overall context of sustainable management and land uses.

  11. Land use in Korean tidal wetlands: impacts and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sun-Kee; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Harris, Richard R; Kim, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jeom-Sook; Ihm, Byung-Sun

    2010-05-01

    The coastal landscapes in southwestern Korea include a diverse array of tidal wetlands and salt marshes. These coastal zones link the ecological functions of marine tidal wetlands and freshwater ecosystems with terrestrial ecosystems. They are rich in biological diversity and play important roles in sustaining ecological health and processing environmental pollutants. Korean tidal wetlands are particularly important as nurseries for economically important fishes and habitats for migratory birds. Diking, draining, tourism, and conversion to agricultural and urban uses have adversely affected Korean tidal wetlands. Recent large development projects have contributed to further losses. Environmental impact assessments conducted for projects affecting tidal wetlands and their surrounding landscapes should be customized for application to these special settings. Adequate environmental impact assessments will include classification of hydrogeomorphic units and consideration of their responses to biological and environmental stressors. As is true worldwide, Korean laws and regulations are changing to be more favorable to the conservation and protection of tidal wetlands. More public education needs to be done at the local level to build support for tidal wetland conservation. Some key public education points include the role of tidal wetlands in maintaining healthy fish populations and reducing impacts of nonpoint source pollution. There is also a need to develop procedures for integrating economic and environmental objectives within the overall context of sustainable management and land uses. PMID:18523822

  12. Watershed Characteristics and Land Management in the Nonpoint-Source Evaluation Monitoring Watersheds in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rappold, K.F.; Wierl, J.A.; Amerson, F.U.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, began a land-use inventory to identify sources of contaminants and track the land-management changes for eight evaluation monitoring watersheds in Wisconsin. An important component of the land-use inventory has been developing descriptions and preliminary assessments for the eight watersheds. These descriptions establish a baseline for future data analysis. The watershed descriptions include sections on location, reference watersheds, climate, land use, soils and topography, and surface-water resources. The land-management descriptions include sections on objectives, sources of nonpoint contamination and goals of contaminant reduction, and implementation of best-management practices. This information was compiled primarily from the nonpoint-source control plans, county soil surveys, farm conservation plans, Federal and State agency data reports, and data collected through the land-use inventory.

  13. Patient-related barriers to pain management in ambulatory AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Breitbart, W; Passik, S; McDonald, M V; Rosenfeld, B; Smith, M; Kaim, M; Funesti-Esch, J

    1998-05-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that pain is dramatically undertreated among patients with AIDS and that opioids in particular are rarely prescribed. To date, however, there has been no systematic attempt to examine patient-related barriers to the management of pain in AIDS. This study examines potential patient-related barriers to pain management in patients with AIDS using the Barriers Questionnaire (Ward et al., Pain, 52 (1993) 319-324), and assesses gender, racial, and other demographic differences in the endorsement of these barriers. We surveyed 199 ambulatory patients with AIDS, recruited from numerous sites in New York City, as part of an ongoing study of pain and quality of life in ambulatory AIDS patients. In addition to obtaining demographic and medical data, we administered a number of self-report questionnaires including the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Brief Symptom Index (BSI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS). Barriers to pain management were assessed using a modified version of the Barriers Questionnaire (BQ), including the original 27 questions from this self-report instrument along with an additional 12 items developed for an AIDS population. Results indicated that the most frequently endorsed BQ items were those concerning the addiction potential of pain medications and physical discomfort associated with opioid administration (e.g. injections) or side effects (e.g. nausea, constipation). There were no associations between age, gender, or HIV transmission risk factor and total scores on the BQ; however, Caucasian patients endorsed significantly fewer BQ items than did non-Caucasian patients and years of education was negatively correlated with BQ scores. Scores on the BQ were also significantly correlated with number of physical symptoms (MSAS) and scores on several self-report measures of psychological distress (the BSI Global Distress Index, BDI total scores). Patient

  14. 77 FR 68146 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment To Amend Bureau of Land Management, Boise...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment To Amend Bureau of Land Management, Boise District, Land Use Plans To Clarify Lands Eligible for Disposal; Correction AGENCY: Bureau... in the Federal Register on Thursday, October 18, 2012 (77 FR 64124). On page 64124, column 2, line...

  15. DeMAID/GA an Enhanced Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Many companies are looking for new tools and techniques to aid a design manager in making decisions that can reduce the time and cost of a design cycle. One tool is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). Since the initial public release of DeMAID in 1989, much research has been done in the areas of decomposition, concurrent engineering, parallel processing, and process management; many new tools and techniques have emerged. Based on these recent research and development efforts, numerous enhancements have been added to DeMAID to further aid the design manager in saving both cost and time in a design cycle. The key enhancement, a genetic algorithm (GA), will be available in the next public release called DeMAID/GA. The GA sequences the design processes to minimize the cost and time in converging a solution. The major enhancements in the upgrade of DeMAID to DeMAID/GA are discussed in this paper. A sample conceptual design project is used to show how these enhancements can be applied to improve the design cycle.

  16. The Watershed Planning System: A Tool for Integrated Land Use Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, D. G.

    2002-05-01

    The challenge in Maryland and across the nation is allowing economic growth while protecting our environment. Maryland's Smart Growth policies provide a strong foundation for conserving resource land, minimizing nutrient loadings from new development, and revitalizing our urban/suburban communities. To assist local governments and communities, MDP has developed the Watershed Planning System (WPS). It is an analytical tool to conduct watershed-based assessments of the impacts of current and alternative programs and policies on land and water resources. The WPS consists of two GIS-based models, the Growth Management Simulation, and the Pollution Simulation Management models. The Growth Management Simulation Model estimates changes in land uses by watershed as a function of population and household projections, as well as state and county policies, regulations, and programs. The model allows evaluation of different future land use scenarios by changing assumptions associated with comprehensive plans and zoning, subdivision, and environmental regulations through which plans are implemented. The Pollution Simulation Management model evaluates the effects of pollution management alternatives on current land use and future land use conditions. The output provides a basis for selecting a feasible mix of management alternatives that can be implemented through program changes, such as: comprehensive plans, soil conservation and water quality plans, nutrient management programs, zoning and subdivision programs, and sensitive area protection programs, and through implementation of best management practices. The WPS has been applied in the 13 counties, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Charles, Howard, Montgomery, Prince George's, St. Mary's, Worcester, Cecil, Wicomico, Frederick, Carroll, and Harford, to address a variety of land use management, resource conservation, and pollution control objectives. In addition, the model has been used to produce statewide 2020 land use projections

  17. Irrigated lands assessment for water management: Technique test. [California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S. L.; Brown, C. E.; Eriksson, M.; Grigg, C. A.; Thomas, R. W.; Colwell, R. N.; Estes, J. E.; Tinney, L. R.; Baggett, J. O.; Sawyer, G.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for estimating irrigated land using full frame LANDSAT imagery was demonstrated. Relatively inexpensive interpretation of multidate LANDSAT photographic enlargements was used to produce a map of irrigated land in California. The LANDSAT and ground maps were then linked by regression equations to enable precise estimation of irrigated land area by county, basin, and statewide. Land irrigated at least once in California in 1979 was estimated to be 9.86 million acres, with an expected error of less than 1.75% at the 99% level of confidence. To achieve the same level of error with a ground-only sample would have required 3 to 5 times as many ground sample units statewide. A procedure for relatively inexpensive computer classification of LANDSAT digital data to irrigated land categories was also developed. This procedure is based on ratios of MSS band 7 and 5, and gave good results for several counties in the Central Valley.

  18. A land management history for central Queensland, Australia as determined from land-holder questionnaire and aerial photography.

    PubMed

    Fensham, Roderick J; Fairfax, Russell J

    2003-08-01

    Features of the land management history over a 125,755 km(2) area of central Queensland, Australia were determined from a variety of sources. A random sample of 205 site locations provided the basis for determining trends in land use. Trends in vegetation clearing were determined using sequential aerial photography for the sample sites, revealing a steady rate averaging nearly 1% of the region per annum over 41 years. This measure of sustained clearing over a large region is higher than recently published clearing rates from South America. Land types have been selectively cleared with over 90% of the Acacia on clay land type having been cleared. A land-holder questionnaire pertaining to the random sites yielded a response rate of 71% and provided information on vegetation clearing, ploughing, tree killing (ring-barking or tree poisoning), and fire frequency, season and intensity. The land-holder responses were compared with independent data sources where possible and revealed no mis-information. However, land-holders may have been marginally less likely to respond if the sample area had been cleared, although this effect was not statistically significant. Ploughing and tree killing are variable depending on land type, but the former has affected about 40% of the Acacia on clay land type, effectively eliminating options for natural regrowth. The proportion of decade-site combinations that were reported as having no fires increased from 22% in the 1950s to an average of 42% for subsequent decades, although the reporting of more than one fire per decade has been relatively constant through the study period. The reporting of at least one fire per decade varies from 46% for the Acacia on sand land type to 77% for the Eucalypt on sand land type for decade-site combinations. Fires are more intense when associated with clearing than in uncleared vegetation, but the proportion of cool and hot fires is relatively constant between land types in uncleared vegetation. Nearly

  19. Land-use and land-management change: relationships with earthworm and fungi communities and soil structural properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Change in land use and management can impact massively on soil ecosystems. Ecosystem engineers and other functional biodiversity in soils can be influenced directly by such change and this in turn can affect key soil functions. Here, we employ meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of the effects of changes in land use and land management across a range of successional/extensification transitions (conventional arable → no or reduced tillage → grassland → wooded land) on community metrics for two functionally important soil taxa, earthworms and fungi. An analysis of the relationships between community change and soil structural properties was also included. Results Meta-analysis highlighted a consistent trend of increased earthworm and fungal community abundances and complexity following transitions to lower intensity and later successional land uses. The greatest changes were seen for early stage transitions, such as introduction of reduced tillage regimes and conversion to grassland from arable land. Not all changes, however, result in positive effects on the assessed community metrics. For example, whether woodland conversion positively or negatively affects community size and complexity depends on woodland type and, potentially, the changes in soil properties, such as pH, that may occur during conversion. Alterations in soil communities tended to facilitate subsequent changes in soil structure and hydrology. For example, increasing earthworm abundances and functional group composition were shown to be positively correlated with water infiltration rate (dependent on tillage regime and habitat characteristics); while positive changes in fungal biomass measures were positively associated with soil microaggregate stability. Conclusions These findings raise the potential to manage landscapes to increase ecosystem service provision from soil biota in relation to regulation of soil structure and water flow. PMID:24289220

  20. Land Management, River Restoration and the Water Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ben; Clifford, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    The influence of catchment land-use on river ecosystems is well established, with negative changes in hydrology, sediment supply and pollutants causing widespread degradation in modified catchments across Europe. The strength of relationship found between different land-use types and impacts on river systems varies from study to study as a result of issues around data quality, scale, study design and the interaction of stressors at multiple scales. Analysis of large-scale datasets can provide important information about the way that catchments pressures affect WFD objectives at a national scale. Comparisons of relationships between land-use and WFD status in different types of catchment within the UK allow an assessment of catchment sensitivity and analysis of the catchment characteristics which influence these relationships. The results suggest prioritising catchments at or near land-use thresholds, or targeting waterbodies with limited land-use pressures but which are failing to achieve GES or GEP. This paper uses UK datasets on land cover and WFD waterbody status to examine how catchment land-use impacts on WFD status and to evaluate opportunities to achieve Good Ecological Status or Good Ecological Potential. Agricultural and urban land-use are shown to have different types of relationship with respect to the likelihood of achieving Good Ecological Status, and with clear threshold effects apparent for urban land-use in the catchment. Broad-scale analysis shows the influence of different sized buffer strips in mitigating the negative effects of different types of land-cover, and reinforces the positive effects of riparian woodland on river ecosystems and their potential under the WFD.

  1. Effects of land management on large trees and carbon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppi, P. E.; Birdsey, R. A.; Pan, Y.; Ihalainen, A.; Nöjd, P.; Lehtonen, A.

    2015-02-01

    Large trees are important and unique organisms in forests, providing ecosystem services including carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere and long-term storage. Some reports have raised concerns about the global decline of large trees. Based on observations from two regions in Finland and three regions in the United States we report that trends of large trees during recent decades have been surprisingly variable among regions. In southern Finland, the growing stock volume of trees larger than 30 cm at breast height increased nearly five-fold during the second half of the 20th century, yet more recently ceased to expand. In the United States, large hardwood trees have become increasingly common in the Northeast since the 1950s, while large softwood trees declined until the mid 1990s as a consequence of harvests in the Pacific region, and then rebounded when harvesting there was reduced. We conclude that in the regions studied, the history of land use and forest management governs changes of the diameter-class distributions of tree populations. Large trees have significant benefits; for example, they can constitute a large proportion of the carbon stock and affect greatly the carbon density of forests. Large trees usually have deeper roots and long lifetimes. They affect forest structure and function and provide habitats for other species. An accumulating stock of large trees in existing forests may have negligible direct biophysical effects on climate through transpiration or forest albedo. Understanding changes in the demography of tree populations makes a contribution to estimating the past impact and future potential of forests in the global carbon budget and to assessing other ecosystem services of forests.

  2. Effects of land management on large trees and carbon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppi, P. E.; Birdsey, R. A.; Pan, Y.; Ihalainen, A.; Nöjd, P.; Lehtonen, A.

    2014-02-01

    Large trees are important and unique organisms in forests, providing ecosystem services including carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere and long-term storage. There is concern about reports of global decline of big trees. Based on observations from Finland and the United States we report that trends of big trees during recent decades have been surprisingly variable among regions. In southern Finland, the growing stock volume of trees larger than 30 cm at breast height increased nearly five-fold during the second half of the 20th century, yet more recently ceased to expand. In the United States, large hardwood trees have become increasingly common since the 1950s, while large softwood trees declined until the mid 1990's as a consequence of harvests in the Pacific region, and then rebounded when harvesting there was reduced. We conclude that in the regions studied, the history of land use and forest management governs changes of tree populations especially with reference to large trees. Large trees affect greatly the carbon density of forests and usually have deeper roots and relatively lower mortality than small trees. An accumulating stock of large trees in forests may have negligible direct biophysical effects on climate because from changes in transpiration or forest albedo. Large trees have particular ecological importance and often constitute an unusually large proportion of biomass carbon stocks in a forest. Understanding the changes in big tree distributions in different regions of the world and the demography of tree populations makes a contribution to estimating the past impact and future potential of the role of forests in the global carbon budget.

  3. Contaminated land and groundwater management at Sellafield, a large operational site with significant legacy and contaminated land challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, Phil; Eilbeck, Katherine

    2007-07-01

    Sellafield is a former Royal Ordnance Factory used since the 1940's for the production and reprocessing of fissile materials. Leaks and spills from these plants and their associated waste facilities has led to radioactive contaminated ground legacy of up to 20 million m{sup 3}. Consideration of land contamination at Sellafield began in 1976, following discovery of a major leak from a waste storage silo. Over the past three decades there has been a programme of environmental monitoring and several phases of characterization. The latest phase of characterization is a pounds 10 million contract to develop second generation conceptual and numeric models. The Site Licence Company that operates the site has been subject to structural changes due to reorganizations within the British nuclear industry. There has also been a change in emphasis to place an increased importance on accelerated decommissioning. To address these challenges a new contaminated land team and contaminated land and groundwater management plan have been established. Setting and measuring performance against challenging objectives is important. The management plan has to be cognizant of the long timescales (ca. 80 years) for final remediation. Data review, collation, acquisition, analysis, and storage is critical for success. It is equally important to seize opportunities for early environmental gains. It is possible to accelerate the development and delivery of a contaminated land and groundwater management plan by using international experts. (authors)

  4. Idiopathic ulcers as an oral manifestation in pediatric patients with AIDS: multidisciplinary management.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sandoval, B; Ceballos-Hernández, H; Téllez-Rodríguez, J; Xochihua-Díaz, L; Durán-Ibarra, G; Pozos-Guillen, A J

    2012-01-01

    HIV infection is a major global health problem affecting developing and developed countries alike. HIV infection is associated with multiple oral lesions, some of which are of value in diagnosing the disease. The aim of this report is to describe the clinical manifestations and their multidisciplinary management, in a 6-year-old girl with AIDS. The findings of this case report indicate that, it is essential to be familiar with the early oral manifestations of AIDS in order to understand the patient's dental health needs, apply preventive methods, control caries, and understand the value of oral lesions as diagnostic markers of disease progression in children with HIV infection. A multidisciplinary management is fundamental. PMID:23342569

  5. Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield Risk Management of Adenocarcinoma: The Future of Imaging?

    PubMed

    Foley, Finbar; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Boland, Jennifer M; Karwoski, Ronald A; Maldonado, Fabien; Bartholmai, Brian J; Peikert, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Increased clinical use of chest high-resolution computed tomography results in increased identification of lung adenocarcinomas and persistent subsolid opacities. However, these lesions range from very indolent to extremely aggressive tumors. Clinically relevant diagnostic tools to noninvasively risk stratify and guide individualized management of these lesions are lacking. Research efforts investigating semiquantitative measures to decrease interrater and intrarater variability are emerging, and in some cases steps have been taken to automate this process. However, many such methods currently are still suboptimal, require validation and are not yet clinically applicable. The computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield software application represents a validated tool for the automated, quantitative, and noninvasive tool for risk stratification of adenocarcinoma lung nodules. Computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield correlates well with consensus histology and postsurgical patient outcomes, and therefore may help to guide individualized patient management, for example, in identification of nodules amenable to radiological surveillance, or in need of adjunctive therapy. PMID:27568149

  6. Enhancements to the Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMaid)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.; Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the addition of two new enhancements to the program Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). DeMAID is a knowledge-based tool used to aid a design manager in understanding the interactions among the tasks of a complex design problem. This is done by ordering the tasks to minimize feedback, determining the participating subsystems, and displaying them in an easily understood format. The two new enhancements include (1) rules for ordering a complex assembly process and (2) rules for determining which analysis tasks must be re-executed to compute the output of one task based on a change in input to that or another task.

  7. Enhancements to the Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.; Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the addition of two new enhancements to the program Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). DeMAID is a knowledge-based tool used to aid a design manager in understanding the interactions among the tasks of a complex design problem. This is done by ordering the tasks to minimize feedback, determining the participating subsystems, and displaying them in an easily understood format. The two new enhancements include (1) rules for ordering a complex assembly process and (2) rules for determining which analysis tasks must be re-executed to compute the output of one task based on a change in input to that or another task.

  8. 75 FR 36438 - Notice of Interim Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Managed by the California Desert...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... California Desert District AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Interim Final Supplementary Rules. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) California Desert District (CDD) Office and... following methods: Mail or hand-delivery: Lynnette Elser, Bureau of Land Management, California...

  9. 77 FR 2755 - Call for Nominations for the Bureau of Land Management's California Desert District Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for the Bureau of Land Management's California Desert... of Land Management's (BLM) California Desert District is soliciting nominations from the public for six members of its California Desert District Advisory Council (Council) to serve 3- year...

  10. 76 FR 77008 - Notice of Administrative Boundary Change for Bureau of Land Management Offices in Montana To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Administrative Boundary Change for Bureau of Land Management Offices in Montana To Eliminate the County Split of Lewis and Clark County AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The administrative boundaries between the Central Montana...

  11. Energy exploration on wilderness: privatization and public lands management

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, C.F.

    1984-02-01

    This note reviews three perspectives relevant to the balance of private and public interests in land resources: 1) the technical feasibility of private exploitation of publicly held lands, 2) economic efficiency, and 3) valuative questions of social welfare. It concludes that greater attention to the technical, economic, and social value of land resources is essential to the development of reasonable guidelines for the allocation of property rights. Policy in some cases will favor privatization, and in other cases will favor wilderness. The level of public debate in deciding these cases will be raised if it avoids ideology and rhetoric, and concentrates on more relevant issues. 88 references, 1 table.

  12. Managing water services in tropical regions: From land cover proxies to hydrologic fluxes.

    PubMed

    Ponette-González, Alexandra G; Brauman, Kate A; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Farley, Kathleen A; Weathers, Kathleen C; Young, Kenneth R; Curran, Lisa M

    2015-09-01

    Watershed investment programs frequently use land cover as a proxy for water-based ecosystem services, an approach based on assumed relationships between land cover and hydrologic outcomes. Water flows are rarely quantified, and unanticipated results are common, suggesting land cover alone is not a reliable proxy for water services. We argue that managing key hydrologic fluxes at the site of intervention is more effective than promoting particular land-cover types. Moving beyond land cover proxies to a focus on hydrologic fluxes requires that programs (1) identify the specific water service of interest and associated hydrologic flux; (2) account for structural and ecological characteristics of the relevant land cover; and, (3) determine key mediators of the target hydrologic flux. Using examples from the tropics, we illustrate how this conceptual framework can clarify interventions with a higher probability of delivering desired water services than with land cover as a proxy. PMID:25432319

  13. Building capacity for HIV/AIDS program leadership and management in Uganda through mentored Fellowships

    PubMed Central

    Matovu, Joseph K.B.; Wanyenze, Rhoda K.; Mawemuko, Susan; Wamuyu-Maina, Gakenia; Bazeyo, William; Olico-Okui; Serwadda, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Around the world, health professionals and program managers are leading and managing public and private health organizations with little or no formal management and leadership training and experience. Objective To describe an innovative 2-year, long-term apprenticeship Fellowship training program implemented by Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH) to strengthen capacity for leadership and management of HIV/AIDS programs in Uganda. Implementation process The program, which began in 2002, is a 2-year, full-time, non-degree Fellowship. It is open to Ugandan nationals with postgraduate training in health-related disciplines. Enrolled Fellows are attached to host institutions implementing HIV/AIDS programs and placed under the supervision of host institution and academic mentors. Fellows spend 75% of their apprenticeship at the host institutions while the remaining 25% is dedicated to didactic short courses conducted at MakSPH to enhance their knowledge base. Achievements Overall, 77 Fellows have been enrolled since 2002. Of the 57 Fellows who were admitted between 2002 and 2008, 94.7% (54) completed the Fellowship successfully and 50 (92.3%) are employed in senior leadership and management positions in Uganda and internationally. Eighty-eight percent of those employed (44/54) work in institutions registered in Uganda, indicating a high level of in-country retention. Nineteen of the 20 Fellows who were admitted between 2009 and 2010 are still undergoing training. A total of 67 institutions have hosted Fellows since 2002. The host institutions have benefited through staff training and technical expertise from the Fellows as well as through grant support to Fellows to develop and implement innovative pilot projects. The success of the program hinges on support from mentors, stakeholder involvement, and the hands-on approach employed in training. Conclusion The Fellowship Program offers a unique opportunity for hands-on training in HIV/AIDS

  14. Nanostructured Delivery Systems: Augmenting the Delivery of Antiretroviral Drugs for Better Management of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S; Mustafa, Sanaul

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, HIV-1, the retrovirus associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is globally one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, existing approaches for interventions are not able to suppress the progression of infection due to this virus. Of the many obstacles, viral entry into the mono-nuclear phagocyte system encompassing monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells is a major concern. Viral infection is also responsible for the subsequent distribution of the virus into various tissues throughout the organism. Tremendous progress has been made during the past few years to diagnose and treat patients with HIV/AIDS infection, yet much remains to be done. Recommended treatment involves long-term and multiple drug therapy that causes severe side effects. With almost 12% of the world population suffering from HIV/AIDS, better management of this global threat is highly desired. Nanostructured delivery systems hold promise for improving the situation. Such systems can facilitate the uptake of antiretroviral drugs, causing a considerable improvement in HIV/AIDS therapy. Nanoscale systems have intriguing potential to drastically improve existing HIV/AIDS diagnosis and treatment platforms. Nanosystems constitute a wide range of systems varying from polymeric nanoparticles, to solid-lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, micro- and nanoemulsions, dendrimers, and self-nanoemulsifying systems. Improved bioavailability, solubility, stability, and biocompatibility make them an ideal choice for delivery of antiretroviral drugs. The present review initially describes an updated bird's-eye view account of the literature. Then, we provide a relatively sententious overview on updated patents of recent nanostructured delivery systems for antiretroviral drugs. Finally, we discuss low-cost therapy (such as antioxidants and immune modulators) for the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. PMID:26559551

  15. 23 CFR 973.214 - Indian lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Transportation demand management measures; (B) Traffic operational improvements; (C) Public transportation... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands congestion management system (CMS). 973.214... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION...

  16. Definition of Management Zones for Enhancing Cultivated Land Conservation Using Combined Spatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Hao-Xiang; Li, Feng; Li, Hong-Yi

    2013-10-01

    The loss of cultivated land has increasingly become an issue of regional and national concern in China. Definition of management zones is an important measure to protect limited cultivated land resource. In this study, combined spatial data were applied to define management zones in Fuyang city, China. The yield of cultivated land was first calculated and evaluated and the spatial distribution pattern mapped; the limiting factors affecting the yield were then explored; and their maps of the spatial variability were presented using geostatistics analysis. Data were jointly analyzed for management zone definition using a combination of principal component analysis with a fuzzy clustering method, two cluster validity functions were used to determine the optimal number of cluster. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 3,620 soil sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. It was shown that there existed great potential for increasing grain production, and the amount of cultivated land played a key role in maintaining security in grain production. Organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, elevation, thickness of the plow layer, and probability of irrigation guarantee were the main limiting factors affecting the yield. The optimal number of management zones was three, and there existed significantly statistical differences between the crop yield and field parameters in each defined management zone. Management zone I presented the highest potential crop yield, fertility level, and best agricultural production condition, whereas management zone III lowest. The study showed that the procedures used may be effective in automatically defining management zones; by the development of different management zones, different strategies of cultivated land management and practice in each zone could be determined, which is of great importance to enhance cultivated land conservation

  17. Decision Support Systems (DSSs) For Contaminated Land Management - Gaps And Challenges

    EPA Science Inventory

    A plethora of information is available when considering decision support systems for risk-based management of contaminated land. Broad issues of what is contaminated land, what is a brownfield, and what is remediation are discussed in EU countries and the U.S. Making decisions ...

  18. 25 CFR 227.11 - Bureau of Land Management to be furnished copy of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bureau of Land Management to be furnished copy of lease. 227.11 Section 227.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to...

  19. 25 CFR 227.11 - Bureau of Land Management to be furnished copy of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Bureau of Land Management to be furnished copy of lease. 227.11 Section 227.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to...

  20. 25 CFR 227.11 - Bureau of Land Management to be furnished copy of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bureau of Land Management to be furnished copy of lease. 227.11 Section 227.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to...

  1. 25 CFR 227.11 - Bureau of Land Management to be furnished copy of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bureau of Land Management to be furnished copy of lease. 227.11 Section 227.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to...

  2. 25 CFR 227.11 - Bureau of Land Management to be furnished copy of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bureau of Land Management to be furnished copy of lease. 227.11 Section 227.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING How to...

  3. 78 FR 65962 - Revision of the Land Management Plan for the Flathead National Forest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Flathead National Forest. SUMMARY: The Flathead National Forest, located in Montana, is initiating the forest planning process pursuant to the 2012 Forest Planning Rule. This process results in a Forest Land... Forest Service Revision of the Land Management Plan for the Flathead National Forest AGENCY:...

  4. Private land manager capacity to conserve threatened communities under climate change.

    PubMed

    Raymond, C M; Lechner, A M; Lockwood, M; Carter, O; Harris, R M B; Gilfedder, L

    2015-08-15

    Major global changes in vegetation community distributions and ecosystem processes are expected as a result of climate change. In agricultural regions with a predominance of private land, biodiversity outcomes will depend on the adaptive capacity of individual land managers, as well as their willingness to engage with conservation programs and actions. Understanding adaptive capacity of landholders is critical for assessing future prospects for biodiversity conservation in privately owned agricultural landscapes globally, given projected climate change. This paper is the first to develop and apply a set of statistical methods (correlation and bionomial regression analyses) for combining social data on land manager adaptive capacity and factors associated with conservation program participation with biophysical data describing the current and projected-future distribution of climate suitable for vegetation communities. We apply these methods to the Tasmanian Midlands region of Tasmania, Australia and discuss the implications of the modelled results on conservation program strategy design in other contexts. We find that the integrated results can be used by environmental management organisations to design community engagement programs, and to tailor their messages to land managers with different capacity types and information behaviours. We encourage environmental agencies to target high capacity land managers by diffusing climate change and grassland management information through well respected conservation NGOs and farm system groups, and engage low capacity land managers via formalized mentoring programs. PMID:26067646

  5. Beyond Impervious: Urban Land-Cover Pattern Variation and Implications for Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Scott M.; McHale, Melissa R.; Hess, George R.

    2016-07-01

    Impervious surfaces degrade urban water quality, but their over-coverage has not explained the persistent water quality variation observed among catchments with similar rates of imperviousness. Land-cover patterns likely explain much of this variation, although little is known about how they vary among watersheds. Our goal was to analyze a series of urban catchments within a range of impervious cover to evaluate how land-cover varies among them. We then highlight examples from the literature to explore the potential effects of land-cover pattern variability for urban watershed management. High-resolution (1 m2) land-cover data were used to quantify 23 land-cover pattern and stormwater infrastructure metrics within 32 catchments across the Triangle Region of North Carolina. These metrics were used to analyze variability in land-cover patterns among the study catchments. We used hierarchical clustering to organize the catchments into four groups, each with a distinct landscape pattern. Among these groups, the connectivity of combined land-cover patches accounted for 40 %, and the size and shape of lawns and buildings accounted for 20 %, of the overall variation in land-cover patterns among catchments. Storm water infrastructure metrics accounted for 8 % of the remaining variation. Our analysis demonstrates that land-cover patterns do vary among urban catchments, and that trees and grass (lawns) are divergent cover types in urban systems. The complex interactions among land-covers have several direct implications for the ongoing management of urban watersheds.

  6. Integrated modelling and the impacts of water management on land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorner, W.; Spachinger, K.; Metzka, R.

    2008-11-01

    River systems and the quantity and quality of water depend on the catchment, its structure and land use. In central Europe especially land is a scarce resource. This causes conflicts between different types of land use, but also with the interests of flood protection, nature conservation and the protection of water resources and water bodies in the flood plain and on a catchment scale. ILUP - Integrated Land Use Planning and River Basin Management was a project, funded by the European Union, to address the problems of conflicting interests within a catchment. It addressed the problems of conflicting land use from a hydrological perspective and with regard to the resulting problems of water management. Two test river basins, Vils and Rott, both with a catchment size of about 1000 square kilometres, were considered for the German part of the project. Objective of the project was to identify means of managing land use with regard to water management objectives and adapt planning strategies and methodologies of water management authorities to the new needs of catchment management and planning. Catchment models were derived to simulate hydrological processes, assess the safety of dams and improve the control strategy of detention reservoirs with regard to land use in the lower system. Hydrodynamic models provided the basis to assess flood prone areas, evaluate flood protection measures and analyze the impacts of river training and discharge on morphology. Erosion and transport models were used to assess the impacts of land use on water quality. Maps were compiled from model results to provide a basis for decision making. In test areas new ways of planning and implementation of measures were tested. As a result of model scenarios in combination with the socio economic situation in the catchment new methods of land management and land use management were derived and implemented in model areas. The results of the project show that new ways of managing land use in river

  7. Integration of land use and land cover inventories for landscape management and planning in Italy.

    PubMed

    Sallustio, Lorenzo; Munafò, Michele; Riitano, Nicola; Lasserre, Bruno; Fattorini, Lorenzo; Marchetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    There are both semantic and technical differences between land use (LU) and land cover (LC) measurements. In cartographic approaches, these differences are often neglected, giving rise to a hybrid classification. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding and characterization of the two classification schemes using a comparison that allows maximization of the informative power of both. The analysis was carried out in the Molise region (Central Italy) using sample information from the Italian Land Use Inventory (IUTI). The sampling points were classified with a visual interpretation of aerial photographs for both LU and LC in order to estimate surfaces and assess the changes that occurred between 2000 and 2012. The results underscore the polarization of land use and land cover changes resulting from the following: (a) recolonization of natural surfaces, (b) strong dynamisms between the LC classes in the natural and semi-natural domain and (c) urban sprawl on the lower hills and plains. Most of the observed transitions are attributable to decreases in croplands, natural grasslands and pastures, owing to agricultural abandonment. The results demonstrate that a comparison between LU and LC estimates and their changes provides an understanding of the causes of misalignment between the two criteria. Such information may be useful for planning policies in both natural and semi-natural contexts as well as in urban areas. PMID:26687091

  8. Green Residential Demolitions: Case Study of Vacant Land Reuse in Storm Water Management in Cleveland

    EPA Science Inventory

    The demolition process impacts how vacant land might be reused for storm water management. For five residential demolition sites (Cleveland, Ohio), an enhanced green demolition process was observed in 2012, and soil physical and hydrologic characteristics were measured predemolit...

  9. Land-use history, historical connectivity, and land management interact to determine longleaf pine woodland understory richness and composition.

    SciTech Connect

    Brudvig, Lars A.; Damschen, Ellen L.

    2010-08-13

    Restoration and management activities targeted at recovering biodiversity can lead to unexpected results. In part, this is due to a lack of understanding of how site-level characteristics, landscape factors, and land-use history interact with restoration and management practices to determine patterns of diversity. For plants, such factors may be particularly important since plant populations often exhibit lagged responses to habitat loss and degradation. Here, we assess the importance of site-level, landscape, and historical effects for understory plant species richness and composition across a set of 40 longleaf pine Pinus palustris woodlands undergoing restoration for the federally endangered red-cockaded woodpecker in the southeastern United States. Land-use history had an overarching effect on richness and composition. Relative to historically forested sites, sites with agricultural histories (i.e. former pastures or cultivated fields) supported lower species richness and an altered species composition due to fewer upland longleaf pine woodland community members. Landscape effects did not influence the total number of species in either historically forested or post-agricultural sites; however, understory species composition was affected by historical connectivity, but only for post-agricultural sites. The influences of management and restoration activities were only apparent once land-use history was accounted for. Prescribed burning and mechanical overstory thinning were key drivers of understory composition and promoted understory richness in post-agricultural sites. In historically forested sites these activities had no impact on richness and only prescribed fire influenced composition. Our findings reveal complex interplays between site-level, landscape, and historical effects, suggest fundamentally different controls over plant communities in longleaf pine woodlands with varying land-use history, and underscore the importance of considering land

  10. Channelling science into policy: enabling best practices from research on land degradation and sustainable land management in dryland Africa.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Lindsay C; Dougill, Andrew J

    2013-01-15

    Demands are increasing for scientific research to be explicitly and demonstrably policy relevant. Research funders are requiring greater returns on their investments and scientists are expected to demonstrate clearly how their research can inform policy and regulation to deliver positive consequences for societal, economic and environmental wellbeing. Within the co-evolving context of environmental management research in dryland Africa and the policy approaches designed to mitigate land degradation, few academic analyses have deconstructed the practical 'bottom-up' actions that can help to channel scientific research into national decision-making and policy. Similarly, while international platforms developed by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification have started to facilitate greater knowledge exchange between scientists and policymakers, analyses have failed to consider the powerful informal actions that scientists can take to allow their research to inform evidence-based international policy. Drawing on examples in the literature from research on land degradation and sustainable land management across sub-Saharan African drylands, we identify key enabling activities that help make scientific research more visible, accessible to, and compatible with, policy processes at local, national and international levels. We argue that these enablers are applicable to other environmental research areas beyond land degradation, and suggest that improved understanding of science into policy processes that look across multiple scales and levels will help researchers and policy-makers to better match information supply and demand to the mutual benefit of both groups. PMID:23158525

  11. Implications of Land-Use and Land-Management Changes for Nitrogen Losses in South American Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarakas, C.

    2015-12-01

    South America has experienced extensive land-use and land-management changes, which accelerated in the 19th century and are projected to continue in the future. As a result, increased anthropogenic nitrogen (N) inputs via cultivation of nitrogen-fixing crops and application of fertilizer and manure have altered the terrestrial-aquatic N cycle. Anthropogenic perturbations to the N cycle propagate through the ecosystem, impacting downstream freshwater and coastal life, terrestrial and riverine N2O emissions, and carbon cycling throughout the system. We used the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory LM3-TAN (Terrestrial-Aquatic Nitrogen) model to simulate anthropogenic influences on nitrogen losses across terrestrial and riverine systems in South America from 1700 to 2050. The model's representation of ecological, hydrological, and biogeochemical processes captures the transport and transformation of nitrogen throughout the vegetation-soil-river continuum, enabling a more comprehensive accounting of nitrogen losses than previous estimates. We find that land-use and land-management changes increase nitrogen losses and explore the difference in regional patterns between the Amazon and La Plata basins. We highlight the importance of biological fixation and demonstrate that historical changes in nitrogen losses have been more driven by the type of crop introduced than by the amount of fertilizer used.

  12. Prevalence and clinical management of cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS patients in shanghai, china

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a common AIDS-associated illness, leading to blindness in up to 30% of patients. This study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical management of the cytomegalovirus retinitis associated with AIDS in a large municipality of China. Methods Clinical and laboratory data from 23 cytomegalovirus retinitis patients (35 eyes) out of 303 hospitalized AIDS individuals in a single medical center were analyzed retrospectively. Two of 23 patients were diagnosed cytomegalovirus retinitis just before hospitalization without anti-CMV therapy. Ganciclovir combined with the high active anti-retroviral therapy was installed for treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis after diagnosis was confirmed. The data were analyzed by specialists and statistics was also applied. Results The prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis in hospitalized AIDS patients was 7.6% in this study. The level of CD4+ T lymphocytes was correlated well with the occurrence of cytomegalovirus retinitis, showing 16.8% (19/113) (95% confidence interval: 10.4,25.0), 5.4% (3/56) (95% confidence interval: 1.1,14.9), and 1.4% (1/69) (95% confidence interval: 0.0,7.8) occurrence in the patients with CD4+ T lymphocyte counts < 50, 50~99, and 100~199 cells/μl, respectively. The mean CD4+ T lymphocyte counts was 31.7 ± 38.6 cells/μl in 23 AIDS patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis. Median CD4+ T lymphocyte count is 20 cells/μl with inter-quartile range as (5, 36). Seven patients died (11 eyes) and 16 patients (24 eyes) survived. The proportion of blindness and low vision in eyes infected with cytomegalovirus retinitis respectively was 20.8% (5/24) and 29.2% (7/24) when they were diagnosed in survivors. The ganciclovir therapy was effective in 16 patients (24 eyes). Clinical recovery of cytomegalovirus retinitis was 41.7% (10/24) and clinical improvement 58.3% (14/24). After anti-CMV treatment, the proportion of blindness or low vision was 16.7% (4/24). Conclusions The AIDS

  13. Comparison of soil bacterial communities under diverse agricultural land management and crop production practices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tiehang; Chellemi, Dan O; Graham, Jim H; Martin, Kendall J; Rosskopf, Erin N

    2008-02-01

    The composition and structure of bacterial communities were examined in soil subjected to a range of diverse agricultural land management and crop production practices. Length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) of bacterial DNA extracted from soil was used to generate amplicon profiles that were analyzed with univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Five land management programs were initiated in July 2000: conventional, organic, continuous removal of vegetation (disk fallow), undisturbed (weed fallow), and bahiagrass pasture (Paspalum notatum var Argentine). Similar levels in the diversity of bacterial 16S rDNA amplicons were detected in soil samples collected from organically and conventionally managed plots 3 and 4 years after initiation of land management programs, whereas significantly lower levels of diversity were observed in samples collected from bahiagrass pasture. Differences in diversity were attributed to effects on how the relative abundance of individual amplicons were distributed (evenness) and not on the total numbers of bacterial 16S rDNA amplicons detected (richness). Similar levels of diversity were detected among all land management programs in soil samples collected after successive years of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivation. A different trend was observed after a multivariate examination of the similarities in genetic composition among soil bacterial communities. After 3 years of land management, similarities in genetic composition of soil bacterial communities were observed in plots where disturbance was minimized (bahiagrass and weed fallow). The genetic compositions in plots managed organically were similar to each other and distinct from bacterial communities in other land management programs. After successive years of tomato cultivation and damage from two major hurricanes, only the composition of soil bacterial communities within organically managed plots continued to maintain a high degree of similarity

  14. Managing for soil protection and bioenergy production on agricultural lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy systems are needed that can aid in meeting the growing energy demands of the expanding human population without sacrificing the long-term sustainability, productivity and quality of the underlying natural resources. Agriculture, like the forestry sector, will produce the feedstocks. While ...

  15. Prioritizing land management efforts at a landscape scale: a case study using prescribed fire in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Hmielowski, Tracy L; Carter, Sarah K; Spaul, Hannah; Helmers, David; Radeloff, Volker C; Zedler, Paul

    2016-06-01

    One challenge in the effort to conserve biodiversity is identifying where to prioritize resources for active land management. Cost-benefit analyses have been used successfully as a conservation tool to identify sites that provide the greatest conservation benefit per unit cost. Our goal was to apply cost-benefit analysis to the question of how to prioritize land management efforts, in our case the application of prescribed fire to natural landscapes in Wisconsin, USA. We quantified and mapped frequently burned communities and prioritized management units based on a suite of indices that captured ecological benefits, management effort, and the feasibility of successful long-term management actions. Data for these indices came from LANDFIRE, Wisconsin's Wildlife Action Plan, and a nationwide wildland-urban interface assessment. We found that the majority of frequently burned vegetation types occurred in the southern portion of the state. However, the highest priority areas for applying prescribed fire occurred in the central, northwest, and northeast portion of the state where frequently burned vegetation patches were larger and where identified areas of high biological importance area occurred. Although our focus was on the use of prescribed fire in Wisconsin, our methods can be adapted to prioritize other land management activities. Such prioritization is necessary to achieve the greatest possible benefits from limited funding for land management actions, and our results show that it is feasible at scales that are relevant for land management decisions. PMID:27509745

  16. Designing economic and legal mechanism of land management in oil and gas companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibulnikova, M. R.; Pogharnitskaya, O. V.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-02-01

    The article deals with the problem of economic and legal relationship in the sphere of land management provided by Russian government. The gas pipeline construction serves as an example to analyze the problems connected with leasing of both federal and privately owned lands. Comparative analysis of costs made by Gazprom to lease the lands at the stage of construction has been conducted. It has been concluded that the government should regulate relationships within the land sector to harmonize the interests of the Federation and private landowners.

  17. Biosolids management strategies: an evaluation of energy production as an alternative to land application.

    PubMed

    Egan, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    Currently, more than half of the biosolids produced within the USA are land applied. Land application of biosolids introduces organic contaminants into the environment. There are potential ecological and human health risks associated with land application of biosolids. Biosolids may be used as a renewable energy source. Nutrients may be recovered from biosolids used for energy generation for use as fertilizer. The by-products of biosolids energy generation may be used beneficially in construction materials. It is recommended that energy generation replace land application as the leading biosolids management strategy. PMID:23529399

  18. Application of receptor-specific risk distribution in the arsenic contaminated land management.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-chun; Ng, Shane; Wang, Gen-shuh; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2013-11-15

    Concerns over health risks and financial costs have caused difficulties in the management of arsenic contaminated land in Taiwan. Inflexible risk criteria and lack of economic support often result in failure of a brownfields regeneration project. To address the issue of flexible risk criteria, this study is aimed to develop maps with receptor-specific risk distribution to facilitate scenario analysis of contaminated land management. A contaminated site risk map model (ArcGIS for risk assessment and management, abbreviated as Arc-RAM) was constructed by combining the four major steps of risk assessment with Geographic Information Systems. Sampling of contaminated media, survey of exposure attributes, and modeling of multimedia transport were integrated to produce receptor group-specific maps that depicted the probabilistic spatial distribution of risks of various receptor groups. Flexible risk management schemes can then be developed and assessed. In this study, a risk management program that took into account the ratios of various land use types at specified risk levels was explored. A case study of arsenic contaminated land of 6.387 km(2) has found that for a risk value between 1.00E-05 and 1.00E-06, the proposed flexible risk management of agricultural land achieves improved utilization of land. Using this method, the investigated case can reduce costs related to compensation for farmland totaling approximately NTD 5.94 million annually. PMID:22884730

  19. An attempt at the computer-aided management of HIV infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, A.; Oharu, Y.; Sankey, O.

    2007-07-01

    The immune system is a complex and diverse system in the human body and HIV virus disrupts and destroys it through extremely complicated but surprisingly logical process. The purpose of this paper is to make an attempt to present a method for the computer-aided management of HIV infection process by means of a mathematical model describing the dynamics of the host pathogen interaction with HIV-1. Treatments for the AIDS disease must be changed to more efficient ones in accordance with the disease progression and the status of the immune system. The level of progression and the status are represented by parameters which are governed by our mathematical model. It is then exhibited that our model is numerically stable and uniquely solvable. With this knowledge, our mathematical model for HIV disease progression is formulated and physiological interpretations are provided. The results of our numerical simulations are visualized, and it is seen that our results agree with medical aspects from the point of view of antiretroviral therapy. It is then expected that our approach will take to address practical clinical issues and will be applied to the computer-aided management of antiretroviral therapies.

  20. Anomaly in the rainfall-runoff behaviour of the Meuse catchment. Climate, land-use, or land-use management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenicia, F.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Avdeeva, Y.

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the time variability of catchment characteristics in the Meuse basin through its effect on catchment response. The approach uses a conceptual model to represent rainfall-runoff behaviour of this catchment, and evaluates possible time-dependence of model parameters. The main hypothesis is that conceptual model parameters, although not measurable quantities, are representative of specific catchment attributes (e.g. geology, land-use, land management, topography). Hence, we assume that eventual trends in model parameters are representative of catchment attributes that may have changed over time. The available hydrological record involves ninety years of data, starting in 1911. During this period the Meuse catchment has undergone significant modifications. The catchment structural modifications, although documented, are not available as "hard-data". Hence, our results should be considered as "plausible hypotheses". The main motivation of this work is the "anomaly" found in the rainfall runoff behaviour of the Meuse basin, where ninety years of rainfall-runoff simulations show a consistent overestimation of the runoff in the period between 1930 and 1965. Different authors have debated possible causes for the "anomaly", including climatic variability, land-use change and data errors. None of the authors considered the way in which the land is used by for instance agricultural and forestry practises. This aspect influenced the model design, which has been configured to account for different evaporation demand of growing forest. As a result of our analysis, we conclude that the lag time of the catchment has decreased significantly over time, which we attribute to more intensive drainage and river training works. Furthermore, we hypothesise that forest rotation has had a significant impact on the evaporation of the catchment. These results contrast with previous studies, where the effect of land-use change on the hydrological

  1. The Land Potential Knowledge System: Application of earth observation data for sustainable land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Africa is facing numerous challenges including a rapidly growing population, soil erosion, declining soil fertility and climate change. In the face of all these problems, the need to feed the growing population has led to expansion of land for agriculture and pasture production rather than increasin...

  2. Development and Implementation of Critical Loads for Atmospheric Deposition: Federal Land Management Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, E. M.

    2004-12-01

    Critical loads for atmospheric deposition have been widely developed and used in Europe, Canada, and other countries. Critical loads are used to influence air pollution emissions reductions, thereby protecting and restoring aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In the United States, federal land management agencies are adopting the critical load concept as a potentially valuable resource management tool. Certain parks and wilderness areas are currently being affected by anthropogenic nitrogen and sulfur deposition. Effects of excess deposition include acidification, nitrogen enrichment, toxicity, and changes in biotic communities. Streams in both Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks are experiencing chronic and episodic acidification and brook trout fisheries in Shenandoah have been affected. High elevation ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park are undergoing subtle changes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems attributable to atmospheric deposition. Natural resources in many other federal areas have been affected or are at risk from deposition. Federal land managers are refining strategies for critical loads that include working with scientists to identify resources sensitive to deposition, defining resource protection criteria that will meet management objectives, and estimating and implementing critical loads. Critical loads will be used in resource management decisions and federal land management planning. They will be used to evaluate management actions and assess progress towards meeting management goals. Federal land managers will also communicate critical loads information to air pollution regulatory agencies to inform emissions management strategies for clean air.

  3. Land Management Restrictions and Options for Change in Perpetual Conservation Easements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissman, Adena; Bihari, Menka; Hamilton, Christopher; Locke, Christina; Lowenstein, David; Motew, Melissa; Price, Jessica; Smail, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Conservation organizations rely on conservation easements for diverse purposes, including protection of species and natural communities, working forests, and open space. This research investigated how perpetual conservation easements incorporated property rights, responsibilities, and options for change over time in land management. We compared 34 conservation easements held by one federal, three state, and four nonprofit organizations in Wisconsin. They incorporated six mechanisms for ongoing land management decision-making: management plans (74 %), modifications to permitted landowner uses with discretionary consent (65 %), amendment clauses (53 %), easement holder rights to conduct land management (50 %), reference to laws or policies as compliance terms (47 %), and conditional use permits (12 %). Easements with purposes to protect species and natural communities had more ecological monitoring rights, organizational control over land management, and mechanisms for change than easements with general open space purposes. Forestry purposes were associated with mechanisms for change but not necessarily with ecological monitoring rights or organizational control over land management. The Natural Resources Conservation Service-Wetland Reserve Program had a particularly consistent approach with high control over land use and some discretion to modify uses through permits. Conservation staff perceived a need to respond to changing social and ecological conditions but were divided on whether climate change was likely to negatively impact their conservation easements. Many conservation easements involved significant constraints on easement holders' options for altering land management to achieve conservation purposes over time. This study suggests the need for greater attention to easement drafting, monitoring, and ongoing decision processes to ensure the public benefits of land conservation in changing landscapes.

  4. Sea-level rise modeling handbook: Resource guide for coastal land managers, engineers, and scientists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Chivoiu, Bogdan; Enwright, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Global sea level is rising and may accelerate with continued fossil fuel consumption from industrial and population growth. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted more than 30 training and feedback sessions with Federal, State, and nongovernmental organization (NGO) coastal managers and planners across the northern Gulf of Mexico coast to evaluate user needs, potential benefits, current scientific understanding, and utilization of resource aids and modeling tools focused on sea-level rise. In response to the findings from the sessions, this sea-level rise modeling handbook has been designed as a guide to the science and simulation models for understanding the dynamics and impacts of sea-level rise on coastal ecosystems. The review herein of decision-support tools and predictive models was compiled from the training sessions, from online research, and from publications. The purpose of this guide is to describe and categorize the suite of data, methods, and models and their design, structure, and application for hindcasting and forecasting the potential impacts of sea-level rise in coastal ecosystems. The data and models cover a broad spectrum of disciplines involving different designs and scales of spatial and temporal complexity for predicting environmental change and ecosystem response. These data and models have not heretofore been synthesized, nor have appraisals been made of their utility or limitations. Some models are demonstration tools for non-experts, whereas others require more expert capacity to apply for any given park, refuge, or regional application. A simplified tabular context has been developed to list and contrast a host of decision-support tools and models from the ecological, geological, and hydrological perspectives. Criteria were established to distinguish the source, scale, and quality of information input and geographic datasets; physical and biological constraints and relations; datum characteristics of water and land components

  5. The Savannah River: Site Description, Land Use and Management History

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Gaines, K.F.

    2000-10-01

    Aboriginal and early European settlement were primarily along streams where much of the farming and timber cutting occurred. Woodland grazing occurred in the upland and lowlands. Land use intensity increased after the Civil War and peaked in the 1920's. The impact of agricultural and timber cutting practices left little land untouched. Grazing and the reduction in fire limited reproduction of longleaf pine. After 1951, a massive reforestation effort was implemented. Over the last decades efforts have shifted to recovering the red-cockaded woodpecker and restoring other habitats.

  6. ADVANCED BIOTELEMETRY FOR RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ON MILITARY LANDS (CS-759)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The process of natural resource management and planning begins with a thorough inventory and description of a natural system's flora and fauna. This information is critical for the development and implementation of effective integrated natural resource management plans. Such plan...

  7. Landing-Time-Controlled Management Of Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Tobias, Leonard

    1988-01-01

    Conceptual system controls aircraft with old and new guidance equipment. Report begins with overview of concept, then reviews controller-interactive simulations. Describes fuel-conservative-trajectory algorithm, based on equations of motion for controlling landing time. Finally, presents results of piloted simulations.

  8. [Effects of land management measures on nutrients emission].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi-Gong; Xi, Bei-Dou; Yu, Hui-Bin; Tang, Zhen-Wu; Gao, Ru-Tai; Xia, Xun-Feng

    2009-11-01

    The SWAT model, coupled with a GIS, was applied to simulate the effects of fertilizer application, contour planting and returning land for farming to forestry on nutrients discharges. The results showed that when nitrogen fertilizer of agricultural land increased from 630 to 955 kg/hm2, and phosphorus fertilizer increased from 200 to 300 kg/hm2, nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient emissions have shown a growing trend. Nitrate nitrogen loads reached to 3 776.59 kg which increased 19.7% and the rate of changes was the largest. The change rate of inorganic phosphorus was the smallest which increased only 2.7%. The impact of emission loads on nitrogen and phosphorus was the smallest if contour planting was adopted. When slope farmland which slope is greater than 25% all returned land for farming to forestry, the emission loads of various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus decreased, organic phosphorus decreased 16.3% among them. Organic nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen and inorganic phosphorus compared with before returning land for farming to forestry, decreased 22.7%, 25.4% and 27.9% respectively. In small basin of Zhangjiachong, returning farmlands to forests and reducing the amount of chemical fertilizer on the slope farmlands which slopes are larger than 25% have played a prominent role. PMID:20063735

  9. Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation’s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

  10. A Thesaurus of Land Use and Resource Management Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Robert D.

    This thesaurus is designed to be a vocabulary for indexing and retrieving bibliographic material concerning any aspect of land use or resource planning. The scope of the vocabulary is interdisciplinary. Economics, geography, history, demography, and sociological terms are included as well as a large number of scientific, technical, and natural…

  11. Coal resources in environmentally-sensitive lands under federal management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, William D.; Tully, John K.; Moser, Edward N.; Dee, David P.; Bryant, Karen; Schall, Richard; Allan, Harold A.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents estimates of coal-bearing acreage and coal tonnage in environmentally-sensitive areas. The analysis was conducted to provide data for rulemaking by the Federal Office of Surface Mining (Watson and others, 1995). The rulemaking clarifies conditions under which coal can be mined in environmentally-sensitive areas. The area of the U.S. is about 2.3 billion acres. Contained within that acreage are certain environmentally-sensitive and unique areas (including parks, forests, and various other Federal land preserves). These areas are afforded special protection under Federal and State law. Altogether these protected areas occupy about 400 million acres. This report assesses coal acreage and coal tonnage in these protected Federal land preserves. Results are presented in the form of 8 map-displays prepared using GIS methods at a national scale. Tables and charts that accompany each map provide estimates of the total acreage in Federal land preserve units that overlap or fall within coal fields, coal-bearing acreage in each unit, and coal tonnage in each unit. Summary charts, compiled from the maps, indicate that about 8% of the Nation's coal reserves are located within environmentally-sensitive Federal land preserves.

  12. Livestock grazing for management of reclaimed land at Navajo Mine: Animal response

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, D.C.; Gadzia, K.L.; Raisbeck, M.F.

    1997-12-31

    Livestock responses dining grazing of reclaimed land were monitored at the Navajo Mine since 1994. The Navajo Mine Grazing Management Program (GNP) began in 1991 to prepare for bond release and return of reclaimed land to the Navajo Nation by demonstrating the ability of the land to sustain the post-mining land use of livestock grazing. Local Navajos, whose livestock are used in the GMP, are interested in the ability of the land to sustain their livestock. Sustainable livestock grazing implies the ability of animals to thrive, successfully reproduce and maintain the health of the land. Daily care and monitoring of livestock health was carried out by herders hired by the mining company. General animal health parameters including blood selenium levels were monitored quarterly. Livestock responses to grazing reclaimed land have been largely positive. Cows have produced healthy offspring and owners indicate satisfaction with calf size, and overall performance of the cows. Selenium and other blood testing parameters indicate no adverse effect on animal health to date. Hazards associated with reclamation and ongoing mining activities are important considerations for lands being reclaimed for livestock grazing as a post-mining land use and must be monitored carefully during any grazing program. Preliminary results indicate that planned grazing by cattle on reclaimed land at Navajo Mine is feasible and does not adversely affect animal health.

  13. Integrating land cover modeling and adaptive management to conserve endangered species and reduce catastrophic fire risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breininger, David; Duncan, Brean; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Johnson, Fred; Nichols, James

    2014-01-01

    Land cover modeling is used to inform land management, but most often via a two-step process, where science informs how management alternatives can influence resources, and then, decision makers can use this information to make decisions. A more efficient process is to directly integrate science and decision-making, where science allows us to learn in order to better accomplish management objectives and is developed to address specific decisions. Co-development of management and science is especially productive when decisions are complicated by multiple objectives and impeded by uncertainty. Multiple objectives can be met by the specification of tradeoffs, and relevant uncertainty can be addressed through targeted science (i.e., models and monitoring). We describe how to integrate habitat and fuel monitoring with decision-making focused on the dual objectives of managing for endangered species and minimizing catastrophic fire risk. Under certain conditions, both objectives might be achieved by a similar management policy; other conditions require tradeoffs between objectives. Knowledge about system responses to actions can be informed by developing hypotheses based on ideas about fire behavior and then applying competing management actions to different land units in the same system state. Monitoring and management integration is important to optimize state-specific management decisions and to increase knowledge about system responses. We believe this approach has broad utility and identifies a clear role for land cover modeling programs intended to inform decision-making.

  14. Institutionalising cost sharing for catchment management: lessons from land and water management planning in Australia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, G R

    2002-01-01

    A recurring theme in recent Australian reports on integrated catchment management (ICM) has been the need to institutionalise more formally the cost-sharing commitments made within this domain. This represents a significant departure from earlier visions of ICM as essentially promoting voluntary uptake of resource-conservation measures. Two important questions raised by this nascent policy shift are addressed in this paper. Firstly, how might cost-sharing arrangements be given greater formality without undermining the efforts of ICM to increase the preparedness of civil stakeholders to voluntarily, or informally, accept responsibility for sharing costs? Secondly, how is it possible to formalise cost-sharing arrangements so that the transaction costs of enforcing compliance with them remain affordable? Answers to these questions are explored through a case study of the Land and Water Management Planning Program now being successfully implemented in the irrigation districts of the central-Murray region of southern inland New South Wales (NSW) surrounding Deniliquin. The sophisticated system of institutional arrangements introduced in the program to facilitate monitoring, enforcement and adaptive management of cost-sharing commitments is discussed, and insights into how informally motivated cooperation can enhance the affordability and political feasibility of formal arrangements are presented. PMID:12171341

  15. Implementing ecosystem management in public agencies: lessons from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Tomas M; Bodine, Jennifer

    2008-02-01

    Ecosystem management was formally adopted over a decade ago by many U.S. natural resource agencies, including the Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management. This approach calls for management based on stakeholder collaboration; interagency cooperation; integration of scientific, social, and economic information; preservation of ecological processes; and adaptive management. Results of previous studies indicate differences in the extent to which particular components of ecosystem management would be implemented within the U.S. Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management and suggest a number of barriers thought to impede implementation. Drawing on survey and interview data from agency personnel and stakeholders, we compared levels of ecosystem-management implementation in the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management and identified the most important barriers to implementation. Agency personnel perceived similarly high levels of implementation on many ecosystem-management components, whereas stakeholders perceived lower levels. Agencies were most challenged by implementation of preservation of ecological processes, adaptive management, and integration of social and economic information, whereas the most significant barriers to implementation were political, cultural, and legal. PMID:18254853

  16. A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual.

    PubMed

    Wantland, Dean J; Holzemer, William L; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Willard, Suzanne S; Arudo, John; Kirksey, Kenn M; Portillo, Carmen J; Corless, Inge B; Rosa, María E; Robinson, Linda L; Nicholas, Patrice K; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Sefcik, Elizabeth F; Human, Sarie; Rivero, Marta M; Maryland, Mary; Huang, Emily

    2008-09-01

    This study investigates whether using an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual with self-care strategies for 21 common symptoms, compared to a basic nutrition manual, had an effect on reducing symptom frequency and intensity. A 775-person, repeated measures, randomized controlled trial was conducted over three months in 12 sites from the United States, Puerto Rico, and Africa to assess the relationship between symptom intensity with predictors for differences in initial symptom status and change over time. A mixed model growth analysis showed a significantly greater decline in symptom frequency and intensity for the group using the symptom management manual (intervention) compared to those using the nutrition manual (control) (t=2.36, P=0.018). The models identified three significant predictors for increased initial symptom intensities and in intensity change over time: (1) protease inhibitor-based therapy (increased mean intensity by 28%); (2) having comorbid illness (nearly twice the mean intensity); and (3) being Hispanic receiving care in the United States (increased the mean intensity by 2.5 times). In addition, the symptom manual showed a significantly higher helpfulness rating and was used more often compared to the nutrition manual. The reduction in symptom intensity scores provides evidence of the need for palliation of symptoms in individuals with HIV/AIDS, as well as symptoms and treatment side effects associated with other illnesses. The information from this study may help health care providers become more aware of self-management strategies that are useful to persons with HIV/AIDS and help them to assist patients in making informed choices. PMID:18400461

  17. Can We Make Use of Abandoned Land for Carbon Management and Ecosystem Restoration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, Y.; Shoyama, K.

    2014-12-01

    Potential conflicts between biodiversity conservation and climate-change mitigation can result in trade-offs in multiple-use land management. This study aimed to detect possible changes in land-use patterns in response to biodiversity conservation and climate-change mitigation measures and the effects on ecosystem services across a watershed. For that purpose, we have developed a new method to combine land-use change scenarios and ecosystem service assessments. We analyzed land-cover change based on past and future scenarios in the rural Kushiro watershed in northern Japan. The analysis showed that if no conservation measures were implemented and the timber and agricultural industry remained small until 2060, supporting and provisioning services would decline due to less land management. Although biodiversity conservation measures are predicted to improve three of the ecosystem services that we studied, carbon sequestration and timber production would be improved to a greater degree by climate-change mitigation measures. The greatest land-cover changes are likely to occur in the unprotected area around the middle reaches of the Kushiro River, and such changes could affect the provision of ecosystem services throughout the entire watershed. Thus, our findings indicate that land-use decisions for the middle reaches of the watershed are particularly important for managing the integrated ecosystem services of the entire watershed for the future.

  18. Manage Hydrologic Fluxes Instead of Land Cover in Watershed Services Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.; Ponette-González, A. G.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Farley, K. A.; Weathers, K. C.; Young, K. R.; Curran, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Payments for Watershed Services (PWS), Water Funds, and other payment schemes intended to increase the delivery of hydrologic ecosystem services have great potential for ensuring water resources for downstream beneficiaries while improving livelihoods for upstream residents. However, it is often ambiguous which land-management options should be promoted to enhance watershed service delivery. In many watershed investment programs, specific land covers are promoted as proxies for water service delivery. This approach is based on assumed relationships between land cover and water service outcomes. When land cover does not sufficiently describe ecosystem characteristics that affect water flow, however, desired water services may not be delivered. The use of land cover proxies is especially problematic for watershed investments in the tropics, where many projects are located, because these proxies rely on generalizations about landscape hydrology established for temperate zones. Based on an extensive review of hydrologic fluxes in the high-elevation tropics, we argue that direct management of hydrologic fluxes is a good design for achieving quantifiable results. We use case studies from sites in the Caribbean and Latin American tropics to illustrate how designers of watershed payment projects can manage hydrologic fluxes. To do so, projects must explicitly articulate the water service of interest based on the specific social setting. Projects must also explicitly account for the particulars of the geographic setting. Finally, outcomes must be assessed relative to water services delivered under an alternative land use or land cover scenario.

  19. Effectiveness and Comparison of Various Audio Distraction Aids in Management of Anxious Dental Paediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Johri, Nikita; Khan, Suleman Abbas; Singh, Rahul Kumar; Chadha, Dheera; Navit, Pragati; Sharma, Anshul; Bahuguna, Rachana

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental anxiety is a widespread phenomenon and a concern for paediatric dentistry. The inability of children to deal with threatening dental stimuli often manifests as behaviour management problems. Nowadays, the use of non-aversive behaviour management techniques is more advocated, which are more acceptable to parents, patients and practitioners. Therefore, this present study was conducted to find out which audio aid was the most effective in the managing anxious children. Aims and Objectives The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of audio-distraction aids in reducing the anxiety of paediatric patients while undergoing various stressful and invasive dental procedures. The objectives were to ascertain whether audio distraction is an effective means of anxiety management and which type of audio aid is the most effective. Materials and Methods A total number of 150 children, aged between 6 to 12 years, randomly selected amongst the patients who came for their first dental check-up, were placed in five groups of 30 each. These groups were the control group, the instrumental music group, the musical nursery rhymes group, the movie songs group and the audio stories group. The control group was treated under normal set-up & audio group listened to various audio presentations during treatment. Each child had four visits. In each visit, after the procedures was completed, the anxiety levels of the children were measured by the Venham’s Picture Test (VPT), Venham’s Clinical Rating Scale (VCRS) and pulse rate measurement with the help of pulse oximeter. Results A significant difference was seen between all the groups for the mean pulse rate, with an increase in subsequent visit. However, no significant difference was seen in the VPT & VCRS scores between all the groups. Audio aids in general reduced anxiety in comparison to the control group, and the most significant reduction in anxiety level was observed in the audio stories group

  20. Using Modern Digital Photography Tools to Guide Management Decisions on Forested Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Brandon; Barlow, Rebecca; Kush, John; Hemard, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Forestland management depends on assessing changes that occur over time. Long-term photo point monitoring is a low-cost method for documenting these changes. Using forestry as an example, this article highlights the idea that long-term photo point monitoring can be used to improve many types of land management decision making. Guidance on…

  1. 75 FR 81561 - Huron-Manistee National Forests, Michigan, Land and Resource Management Plan Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Management Plan alternative that would ban firearm hunting and snowmobile use (subject to existing rights) on National Forest System lands within Semiprimitive Nonmotorized Management Areas and would ban firearm... Service would ban firearm hunting and snowmobile use in some portion of the 13 existing...

  2. Hydogeomorphic Processes in Mountainous Terrain: Effects of Land Management and Implications for Sustainability and Hazards

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evolving science of hydrogeomorphology encompasses the interaction of water with landforms in time and space. This includes the processes of surface and mass erosion as well as the effects of land management. These hydrogeomorphic processes and management effects are examined...

  3. Assessing Land Management Change Effects on Forest Carbon and Emissions Under Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    There has been limited focus on fine-scale land management change effects on forest carbon under future environmental conditions (climate, nitrogen deposition, increased atmospheric CO2). Forest management decisions are often made at the landscape to regional levels before analyses have been conducted to determine the potential outcomes and effectiveness of such actions. Scientists need to evaluate plausible land management actions in a timely manner to help shape policy and strategic land management. Issues of interest include species-level adaptation to climate, resilience and vulnerability to mortality within forested landscapes and regions. Efforts are underway to improve land system model simulation of future mortality related to climate, and to develop and evaluate plausible land management options that could help mitigate or avoid future die-offs. Vulnerability to drought-related mortality varies among species and with tree size or age. Predictors of species ability to survive in specific environments are still not resolved. A challenge is limited observations for fine-scale (e.g. 4 km2) modeling, particularly physiological parameters. Uncertainties are primarily associated with future land management and policy decisions. They include the interface with economic factors and with other ecosystem services (biodiversity, water availability, wildlife habitat). The outcomes of future management scenarios should be compared with business-as-usual management under the same environmental conditions to determine the effects of management changes on forest carbon and net emissions to the atmosphere. For example, in the western U.S., land system modeling and life cycle assessment of several management options to reduce impacts of fire reduced long-term forest carbon gain and increased carbon emissions compared with business-as-usual management under future environmental conditions. The enhanced net carbon uptake with climate and reduced fire emissions after thinning

  4. First Approximations of Prescribed Fire Risks Relative to Other Management Techniques Used on Private Lands

    PubMed Central

    Twidwell, Dirac; Wonkka, Carissa L.; Sindelar, Michael T.; Weir, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is widely recognized as a critical ecological and evolutionary driver that needs to be at the forefront of land management actions if conservation targets are to be met. However, the prevailing view is that prescribed fire is riskier than other land management techniques. Perceived risks associated with the application of fire limits its use and reduces agency support for prescribed burning in the private sector. As a result, considerably less cost-share support is given for prescribed fire compared to mechanical techniques. This study tests the general perception that fire is a riskier technique relative to other land management options. Due to the lack of data available to directly test this notion, we use a combination of approaches including 1) a comparison of fatalities resulting from different occupations that are proxies for techniques employed in land management, 2) a comparison of fatalities resulting from wildland fire versus prescribed fire, and 3) an exploration of causal factors responsible for wildland fire-related fatalities. This approach establishes a first approximation of the relative risk of fatality to private citizens using prescribed fire compared to other management techniques that are readily used in ecosystem management. Our data do not support using risks of landowner fatalities as justification for the use of alternative land management techniques, such as mechanical (machine-related) equipment, over prescribed fire. Vehicles and heavy machinery are consistently leading reasons for fatalities within occupations selected as proxies for management techniques employed by ranchers and agricultural producers, and also constitute a large proportion of fatalities among firefighters. Our study provides the foundation for agencies to establish data-driven decisions regarding the degree of support they provide for prescribed burning on private lands. PMID:26465329

  5. Carbon Consequences of Land Management in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystems (GYE) over the Past Three Decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F.; Huang, C.; Zhu, Z.; Hawbaker, T.; Reed, B.

    2013-12-01

    Natural disturbances and land management directly change C stored in biomass and soil pools, and can have indirect impacts on long-term C balance. In this study we compared C stocks in National Parks (Yellowstone and Grand Teton) and neighboring National Forests (Caribou-Targhee, Teton, and Shoshone) to quantify carbon effects of natural disturbances and land management within National Parks (NPs) and National Forests (NFs). We used the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) to evaluate carbon effects of natural disturbances and land management. The original FVS was developed to predict stand dynamics in the mixed forests of the mountainous regions in Idaho and Montana. Since then it has been widely used for forest management and carbon studies. Major disturbances and land-management activities considered in this study include forest fires, mountain pine beetle outbreaks, harvesting (clear-cuts and thinning), and fuel treatments. To account for the direct C fluxes from land management, areas of forest harvesting identified from time series Landsat images was used to calculate the average harvest rate in different stand type, which was defined by a combination of forest type, age and topography. Fuel treatment records obtained from local NF offices was used to estimate biomass change resulting from fuel treatments. The frequency and severity of the disturbances and land-management activities, derived through the disturbance mapping from time series Landsat images, was used to develop distributions of management and disturbance events in FVS, which would allow for calculation of their effects on C stocks through time in the NFs and NPs. This approach was applied to the entire GYE region and the results will be introduced at the conference.

  6. First Approximations of Prescribed Fire Risks Relative to Other Management Techniques Used on Private Lands.

    PubMed

    Twidwell, Dirac; Wonkka, Carissa L; Sindelar, Michael T; Weir, John R

    2015-01-01

    Fire is widely recognized as a critical ecological and evolutionary driver that needs to be at the forefront of land management actions if conservation targets are to be met. However, the prevailing view is that prescribed fire is riskier than other land management techniques. Perceived risks associated with the application of fire limits its use and reduces agency support for prescribed burning in the private sector. As a result, considerably less cost-share support is given for prescribed fire compared to mechanical techniques. This study tests the general perception that fire is a riskier technique relative to other land management options. Due to the lack of data available to directly test this notion, we use a combination of approaches including 1) a comparison of fatalities resulting from different occupations that are proxies for techniques employed in land management, 2) a comparison of fatalities resulting from wildland fire versus prescribed fire, and 3) an exploration of causal factors responsible for wildland fire-related fatalities. This approach establishes a first approximation of the relative risk of fatality to private citizens using prescribed fire compared to other management techniques that are readily used in ecosystem management. Our data do not support using risks of landowner fatalities as justification for the use of alternative land management techniques, such as mechanical (machine-related) equipment, over prescribed fire. Vehicles and heavy machinery are consistently leading reasons for fatalities within occupations selected as proxies for management techniques employed by ranchers and agricultural producers, and also constitute a large proportion of fatalities among firefighters. Our study provides the foundation for agencies to establish data-driven decisions regarding the degree of support they provide for prescribed burning on private lands. PMID:26465329

  7. Sensitivity maps for impacts of land management on an extreme flood in the Hodder catchment, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, G.; Ewen, J.; O'Connell, P. E.

    It is increasingly recognised that the management of land and the management of water are strongly interdependent, and that integrated management approaches are needed. There is evidence that modern land management practices have an effect on runoff generation in rural upland areas, so there is the potential to use land management control as a tool in flood risk mitigation programmes. Flooding from historical extreme rainfall events must be considered when designing mitigation programmes, especially if the designs have to take into account the possibility that such events will become more frequent in the future. The largest 90 min rainfall ever recorded in the UK was 117 mm, recorded in 1967 in the Dunsop tributary (25 km 2) of the Hodder catchment, northwest England. Extensive land management changes have recently been made in the catchment, including peat restoration, tree planting and reductions in sheep stocking density, and the analysis of the flooding in 1967 has been undertaken as part of a wider study on the potential impact of the recent changes. A method is demonstrated in which maps of sensitivity are plotted which show how peak flows for extreme events are affected by spatial patterns of changes in runoff generation. This method uses a gridded model for runoff generation containing an embedded hydraulic model of the river network which can calculate sensitivities efficiently and accurately using reverse algorithmic differentiation. The modelling examines the sensitivity of the hydrograph peak at the catchment outlet to changes in flashy runoff generation, which can be affected by land management practices including the blocking of open drainage channels in peat moorland. It is concluded that, as a result of hydraulic and geomorphologic dispersion in the network, changes in land management that affect the flashiness of runoff generation at small scales would probably have had only a relatively minor effect on the flow peaks at the outlet from the

  8. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2014-09-22

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool to explore how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore » States over approximately a 170 year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual plots growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored, compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5% and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less

  9. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2015-04-09

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool for exploring how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore » States over approximately a 170-year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual subgrids (the equivalent of a field plot) growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5 and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less

  10. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2014-09-01

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool to explore how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental United States over approximately a 170 year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual plots growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored, compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5% and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.

  11. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2015-04-01

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool for exploring how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental United States over approximately a 170-year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual subgrids (the equivalent of a field plot) growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5 and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.

  12. Empowered: Renewable energy, western states and the Bureau of Land Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buthman, James Douglas

    Renewable Energy (RE) increasingly influences electrical markets throughout the United States. The public lands, those lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), are being used for the placement of utility-scale (20+ Megawatts) RE facilities, particularly solar, wind, and geothermal power plants. This dissertation uses Kingdon's (1984) multiple streams theory (MS) as a framework to examine state influence on the implementation phase of the federal policy process. This is a comparative case study of four western states (Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah). Three theories guide the examination of the three streams of governmental action: problems = new institutionalism; policies = cooperative federalism; and politics = networks. The research question asks: How do state governments affect the implementation phase of the federal policy process concerning the use of the public lands for utility-scale RE?

  13. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  14. Facility management of computer-aided design, drafting/manufacturing systems (CADD/M)

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing systems have been installed in thousands of companies, applying CADD/M capabilities to many applications. This has been done with varying degrees of success even among companies with identical applications. Investigation of individual companies reveals a gap between the capabilities of CADD/M systems and the actual usage by industry of those capabilities. This company usage often determines the degree of success or failure of an interactive graphics facility and is largely controlled by management. The responsibilities of the interactive graphics facility managemant team are explained in detail. Proper management of a CADD/M facility is more critical to the success or failure of the facility than any other factor.

  15. Automatic photointerpretation for land use management in Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanlund, G. D. (Principal Investigator); Pile, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Minnesota Iron Range area was selected as one of the land use areas to be evaluated. Six classes were selected: (1) hardwood; (2) conifer; (3) water (including in mines); (4) mines, tailings and wet areas; (5) open area; and (6) urban. Initial classification results show a correct classification of 70.1 to 95.4% for the six classes. This is extremely good. It can be further improved since there were some incorrect classifications in the ground truth.

  16. CAMEO-Valdez: A user's perspective. [Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, T.J.

    1990-01-11

    On the morning of March 24, 1989, the tanker EXXON VALDEZ ran aground on Bligh Reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound. The vessel was carrying over 53 million gallons of North Slope crude oil of which almost 11 million gallons were spilled in the water. The immediately impacted area included most of the western part of the Sound, but eventually, the area expanded to include parts of Seward, Homer, and Kodiak. This event constituted the worst oil spill in the history of this country, and was identified as a 'spill of national significance.' A major response to clean up the oil by EXXON, which was closely monitored by Federal and State agencies and various interest groups, was necessary. Early in the response it was obvious to the Federal On-Scene Coordinator (FOSC) that a computer-aided management system was necessary to monitor the progress of the spill clean-up operations. This paper will describe CAMEO (Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations) - Valdez, developed for the FOSC by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration acting in its role as the Scientific Support Coordinator (SSC). A discussion of how CAMEO was used and an evaluation of its effectiveness will also be presented.

  17. Effect of Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge of School Teachers regarding First Aid Management in Selected Schools of Bangalore.

    PubMed

    De, Piyali

    2014-01-01

    Safe childhood is the foundation of a good future. Children face different kinds of accidents at school premises while playing. Prevention of these accidents and their management is essential. A study was therefore conducted among school teachers at Anekal Taluk, Bangalore to make them aware about different accidents of children at school premises and their first aid management. The sample consisted of 30 primary and higher primary school teachers selected by convenience sampling technique. The analysis showed that improvement of knowledge occurred after administering structured teaching programme (STP) on first aid management. Nursing professionals can benefit from the study result at the area of community, administration, research and education. PMID:26182823

  18. 75 FR 6257 - Watts Bar Reservoir Land Management Plan, Loudon, Meigs, Rhea, and Roane Counties, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ...This notice is provided in accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality's regulations (40 CFR parts 1500 to 1508) and TVA's procedures for implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). TVA has updated its 1988 land management plan (1988 Plan) for 16,036 acres of TVA public land on Watts Bar Reservoir in Tennessee. On November 19, 2009, the TVA Board of Directors (TVA......

  19. Decision-support systems for natural-hazards and land-management issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinitz, Laura; Forney, William; Byrd, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS Western Geographic Science Center are developing decision-support systems (DSSs) for natural-hazards and land-management issues. DSSs are interactive computer-based tools that use data and models to help identify and solve problems. These systems can provide crucial support to policymakers, planners, and communities for making better decisions about long-term natural hazards mitigation and land-use planning.

  20. Beyond Impervious: Urban Land-Cover Pattern Variation and Implications for Watershed Management.

    PubMed

    Beck, Scott M; McHale, Melissa R; Hess, George R

    2016-07-01

    Impervious surfaces degrade urban water quality, but their over-coverage has not explained the persistent water quality variation observed among catchments with similar rates of imperviousness. Land-cover patterns likely explain much of this variation, although little is known about how they vary among watersheds. Our goal was to analyze a series of urban catchments within a range of impervious cover to evaluate how land-cover varies among them. We then highlight examples from the literature to explore the potential effects of land-cover pattern variability for urban watershed management. High-resolution (1 m(2)) land-cover data were used to quantify 23 land-cover pattern and stormwater infrastructure metrics within 32 catchments across the Triangle Region of North Carolina. These metrics were used to analyze variability in land-cover patterns among the study catchments. We used hierarchical clustering to organize the catchments into four groups, each with a distinct landscape pattern. Among these groups, the connectivity of combined land-cover patches accounted for 40 %, and the size and shape of lawns and buildings accounted for 20 %, of the overall variation in land-cover patterns among catchments. Storm water infrastructure metrics accounted for 8 % of the remaining variation. Our analysis demonstrates that land-cover patterns do vary among urban catchments, and that trees and grass (lawns) are divergent cover types in urban systems. The complex interactions among land-covers have several direct implications for the ongoing management of urban watersheds. PMID:27094440

  1. A randomized controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual for depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Eller, Lucille S; Kirksey, Kenn M; Nicholas, Patrice K; Corless, Inge B; Holzemer, William L; Wantland, Dean J; Willard, Suzanne S; Robinson, Linda; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Sefcik, Elizabeth F; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH), and are associated with poorer health outcomes. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of the HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual self-care symptom management strategies compared with a nutrition manual on depressive symptoms in an international sample of PLWH. The sample consisted of a sub-group (N=222) of participants in a larger study symptom management study who reported depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms of the intervention (n=124) and control (n=98) groups were compared over three months: baseline, one-month, and two-months. Use and effectiveness of specific strategies were examined. Depressive symptom frequency at baseline varied significantly by country (χ (2) 12.9; p=0.04). Within the intervention group there were significant differences across time in depressive symptom frequency [F(2, 207) = 3.27, p=0.05], intensity [F(2, 91) = 4.6, p=0.01], and impact [F(2, 252) = 2.92, p= 0.05), and these were significantly lower at one month but not at two months, suggesting that self-care strategies are effective in reducing depressive symptoms, however effects may be short term. Most used and most effective self-care strategies were distraction techniques and prayer. This study suggests that people living with HIV can be taught and will employ self-care strategies for management of depressive symptoms and that these strategies are effective in reducing these symptoms. Self-care strategies are noninvasive, have no side-effects, and can be readily taught as an adjunct to other forms of treatment. Studies are needed to identify the most effective self-care strategies and quantify optimum dose and frequency of use as a basis for evidence-based practice. PMID:22880943

  2. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  3. 43 CFR 3503.20 - What if another Federal agency manages the lands I am interested in?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...'s decision, we will suspend the time for filing an appeal under 43 CFR parts 4 and 1840 until the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What if another Federal agency manages the... Managed by Others § 3503.20 What if another Federal agency manages the lands I am interested in?...

  4. 43 CFR 3503.20 - What if another Federal agency manages the lands I am interested in?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...'s decision, we will suspend the time for filing an appeal under 43 CFR parts 4 and 1840 until the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What if another Federal agency manages the... Managed by Others § 3503.20 What if another Federal agency manages the lands I am interested in?...

  5. 43 CFR 3503.20 - What if another Federal agency manages the lands I am interested in?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...'s decision, we will suspend the time for filing an appeal under 43 CFR parts 4 and 1840 until the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What if another Federal agency manages the... Managed by Others § 3503.20 What if another Federal agency manages the lands I am interested in?...

  6. 43 CFR 3503.20 - What if another Federal agency manages the lands I am interested in?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...'s decision, we will suspend the time for filing an appeal under 43 CFR parts 4 and 1840 until the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What if another Federal agency manages the... Managed by Others § 3503.20 What if another Federal agency manages the lands I am interested in?...

  7. New findings and setting the research agenda for soil and water conservation for sustainable land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Argaman, Eli; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Quinton, John

    2014-05-01

    The session on soil and water conservation for sustainable land management provides insights into the current research producing viable measures for sustainable land management and enhancing the lands role as provider of ecosystem services. The insights into degradation processes are essential for designing and implementing feasible measures to mitigate against degradation of the land resource and adapt to the changing environment. Land degradation occurs due to multiple pressures on the land, such as population growth, land-use and land-cover changes, climate change and over exploitation of resources, often resulting in soil erosion due to water and wind, which occurs in many parts of the world. Understanding the processes of soil erosion by wind and water and the social and economic constraints faced by farmers forms an essential component of integrated land development projects. Soil and water conservation measures are only viable and sustainable if local environmental and socio-economic conditions are taken into account and proper enabling conditions and policies can be achieved. Land degradation increasingly occurs because land use, and farming systems are subject to rapid environmental and socio-economic changes without implementation of appropriate soil and water conservation technologies. Land use and its management are thus inextricably bound up with development; farmers must adapt in order to sustain the quality of their, and their families, lives. In broader perspective, soil and water conservation is needed as regulating ecosystem service and as a tool to enhance food security and biodiversity. Since land degradation occurs in many parts of the world and threatens food production and environmental stability it affects those countries with poorer soils and resilience in the agriculture sector first. Often these are the least developed countries. Therefore the work from researchers from developing countries together with knowledge from other disciplines

  8. Real options analysis for land use management: Methods, application, and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Regan, Courtney M; Bryan, Brett A; Connor, Jeffery D; Meyer, Wayne S; Ostendorf, Bertram; Zhu, Zili; Bao, Chenming

    2015-09-15

    Discounted cash flow analysis, including net present value is an established way to value land use and management investments which accounts for the time-value of money. However, it provides a static view and assumes passive commitment to an investment strategy when real world land use and management investment decisions are characterised by uncertainty, irreversibility, change, and adaptation. Real options analysis has been proposed as a better valuation method under uncertainty and where the opportunity exists to delay investment decisions, pending more information. We briefly review the use of discounted cash flow methods in land use and management and discuss their benefits and limitations. We then provide an overview of real options analysis, describe the main analytical methods, and summarize its application to land use investment decisions. Real options analysis is largely underutilized in evaluating land use decisions, despite uncertainty in policy and economic drivers, the irreversibility and sunk costs involved. New simulation methods offer the potential for overcoming current technical challenges to implementation as demonstrated with a real options simulation model used to evaluate an agricultural land use decision in South Australia. We conclude that considering option values in future policy design will provide a more realistic assessment of landholder investment decision making and provide insights for improved policy performance. PMID:26164637

  9. Through a mirror, darkly-using climate change information for land management

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, T.F.

    1995-09-01

    The writer Bruce Hutchison uses the phrase: {open_quotes}The land, always the land!{close_quotes} The land is a common denominator linking the ages. But the {open_quotes}land{close_quotes} in the broadest sense is a vast collection of natural components, events, and interconnections. It is complex, only partially understood, and ever-changing. Our ultimate challenge at this time is to SEE, as we look into the mirror of time. Regardless of the shadows of uncertainty, we must peer hopefully into the mirror to make meaningful connections between the past, the present, and the future. This is not easy. Traditional resource planning has been based on the short-term focus of today and tomorrow. That focus is beginning to change through a concept now popularized as {open_quotes}ecosystem management.{close_quotes} BLM recently has begun applying this concept in the formulation of the Eastern Utah Ecosystem Planning Initiative that is intended to give expanded dimensions to the planning and management of public land resources. These dimensions will give more attention to spatial (regional) and temporal (long-term) expectations. This paper investigates the theoretical and practical problems in linking the past to the future, using as the example the new planning initiative for Eastern Utah. It provides insights which may be applied to land-use planning and management, through new perspectives regarding changing climate and ecosystem patterns.

  10. Carbon stewardship: land management decisions and the potential for carbon sequestration in Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Failey, Elisabeth L.; Dilling, Lisa

    2010-04-01

    Land use and its role in reducing greenhouse gases is a key element of policy negotiations to address climate change. Calculations of the potential for enhanced terrestrial sequestration have largely focused on the technical characteristics of carbon stocks, such as vegetation type and management regime, and to some degree, on economic incentives. However, the actual potential for carbon sequestration critically depends on who owns the land and additional land management decision drivers. US land ownership patterns are complex, and consequently land use decision making is driven by a variety of economic, social and policy incentives. These patterns and incentives make up the 'carbon stewardship landscape'—that is, the decision making context for carbon sequestration. We examine the carbon stewardship landscape in the US state of Colorado across several public and private ownership categories. Achieving the full potential for land use management to help mitigate carbon emissions requires not only technical feasibility and financial incentives, but also effective implementing mechanisms within a suite of often conflicting and hard to quantify factors such as multiple-use mandates, historical precedents, and non-monetary decision drivers.

  11. A design for a new catalog manager and associated file management for the Land Analysis System (LAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhagen, Cheryl

    1986-01-01

    Due to the larger number of different types of files used in an image processing system, a mechanism for file management beyond the bounds of typical operating systems is necessary. The Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) Catalog Manager was written to meet this need. Land Analysis System (LAS) users at the EROS Data Center (EDC) encountered some problems in using the TAE catalog manager, including catalog corruption, networking difficulties, and lack of a reliable tape storage and retrieval capability. These problems, coupled with the complexity of the TAE catalog manager, led to the decision to design a new file management system for LAS, tailored to the needs of the EDC user community. This design effort, which addressed catalog management, label services, associated data management, and enhancements to LAS applications, is described. The new file management design will provide many benefits including improved system integration, increased flexibility, enhanced reliability, enhanced portability, improved performance, and improved maintainability.

  12. Effects of land management strategies on the dispersal pattern of a beneficial arthropod.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Chiara; Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Loeschcke, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Several arthropods are known to be highly beneficial to agricultural production. Consequently it is of great relevance to study the importance of land management and land composition for the conservation of beneficial aphid-predator arthropod species in agricultural areas. Therefore our study focusing on the beneficial arthropod Bembidion lampros had two main purposes: I) identifying the physical barriers to the species' dispersal in the agricultural landscape, and II) assessing the effect of different land management strategies (i.e. use of pesticides and intensiveness) on the dispersal patterns. The study was conducted using genetic analysis (microsatellite markers) applied to samples from two agricultural areas (in Denmark) with different agricultural intensity. Land management effects on dispersal patterns were investigated with particular focus on: physical barriers, use of pesticide and intensity of cultivation. The results showed that Bembidion lampros disperse preferably through hedges rather than fields, which act as physical barriers to gene flow. Moreover the results support the hypothesis that organic fields act as reservoirs for the re-colonization of conventional fields, but only when cultivation intensity is low. These results show the importance of non-cultivated areas and of low intensity organic managed areas within the agricultural landscape as corridors for dispersal (also for a species typically found within fields). Hence, the hypothesis that pesticide use cannot be used as the sole predictor of agriculture's effect on wild species is supported as land structure and agricultural intensity can be just as important. PMID:23776633

  13. Multifaceted Roles of Management on Land-Atmosphere Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldocchi, D. D.; Knox, S. H.; Oikawa, P. Y.; Dronova, I.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Verfaillie, J.

    2015-12-01

    To the first degree the exchange of mass and energy between vegetated canopies and the atmosphere are driven by environmental factors. But when one compares fluxes of a mesoscale network of flux towers in a common climate area, the impacts of management emerge. In this talk we will develop a vocabulary for evaluating the roles of management on fluxes, as it remains lacking in the assessment of data in the literature. Examples, will be drawn from our work across a network of agricultural and wetland sites in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Delta and from examples drawn from the AmeriFlux and FluxNet networks. Planting date, type of irrigation, burning, grazing, plowing/discing/no till, herbicide application and harvesting will be some of the management practices discussed. In sum, different management practices affect timing of phenology, the state of leaf area index and the activity of soil reservoirs. These factors modulate photosynthesis, and in turn can perturb ecosystem respiration and methane production. With regards of mass and energy exchange, different management practices can affect the state of the atmosphere and its feedback on surface fluxes.

  14. Reviews on land use change induced effects on regional hydrological ecosystem services for integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Gui; Wang, Pei; Zhao, Tao; Bai, Yuping; Zhao, Chunhong; Chen, Dongdong

    This paper proposed to provide valuable information for integrated water resources management through evaluating the research on the interaction mechanism among land use changes, regional hydrological ecosystem services and human well-being. Firstly, the driving mechanism of land use and land cover changes was introduced in this paper. Secondly, the overview of the interaction mechanism among land use and land cover changes, regional hydrological ecosystem services and human well-being was given. Based on the meta-analysis, land use changes have a profound influence on regional hydrological ecosystem services, and the variation of hydrological ecosystem could benefit or impair human well-being. Finally, two suggestions were emphasized for managers or policy makers for the future integrated water resources management: (1) Proper land use makes for the water resource management; (2) Blindly pursuing the provisioning services weakens other services of hydrological ecosystem.

  15. Application of Skylab EREP data for land use management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonett, D. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The 1.09-1.19 micron band proved to be very valuable for discriminating a variety of land use categories, including agriculture, forest, and urban classes. The 1.55-1.75 micron band proved very useful in combination with the 1.09-1.19 micron band. Misregistration between spectral bands, even by as little as 1/2 pixel, may degrade classification accuracy. Identification accuracy of boundary or border pixels was as much as 13% lower than the accuracy for identifying internal field pixels. The principal conclusion with respect to the S190B camera system is that the higher resolution of the S190B system in comparison to previous space photography (Gemini, Apollo), to the S190A system (Skylab), and to LANDSAT imagery significantly increases the range of additional discrimination achievable.

  16. DeMAID: A Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1989-01-01

    A design problem is viewed as a complex system divisible into modules. Before the design of a complex system can begin, the couplings among modules and the presence of iterative loops is determined. This is important because the design manager must know how to group the modules into subsystems and how to assign subsystems to design teams so that changes in one subsystem will have predictable effects on other subsystems. Determining these subsystems is not an easy, straightforward process and often important couplings are overlooked. Moreover, the planning task must be repeated as new information become available or as the design specifications change. The purpose of this research is to develop a knowledge-based tool called the Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID) to act as an intelligent advisor for the design manager. DeMaid identifies the subsystems of a complex design problem, orders them into a well-structured format, and marks the couplings among the subsystems to facilitate the use of multilevel tools. DeMAID also provides the design manager with the capability of examining the trade-offs between sequential and parallel processing. This type of approach could lead to a substantial savings or organizing and displaying a complex problem as a sequence of subsystems easily divisible among design teams. This report serves as a User's Guide for the program.

  17. Policy initiatives for electric-utility load management in AID-assisted countries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The demand for electricity has been growing at a rate of over 7 percent per year, on average, for developing countries (in contrast, demand has been rising by less than 3% annually in the United States). While developing nations have traditionally relied on building new power plants to satisfy their increasing needs for electricity, the strategy has proven to be expensive, consuming over one-quarter of their development budgets and over a quarter of their foreign borrowings. Load management, whereby an electric utility modifies its customers' demand characteristics, offers developing countries an alternative for reducing the need to construct new generating capacity and for better utilizing their existing supply facilities. To mitigate the problems associated with high energy growth rates, especially in the power sector, the lack of investment capital for the electricity sector, and the growing concern for environmental hazards including global climate change, the Office of Energy promotes energy efficiency, the role of private power and other supply options to ensure sustainable development. In view of these objectives, the report examines the rationale for load management in the electricity sector and summarizes the positive U.S. experience with these techniques. Additionally, it recommends a strategy for achieving energy efficiency via load management. Lastly, it recommends to A.I.D. a method for identifying priority Agency-assisted countries as candidates for load management assistance.

  18. Managing Carbon on Federal Public Lands: Opportunities and Challenges in Southwestern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, Lisa; Kelsey, Katharine C.; Fernandez, Daniel P.; Huang, Yin D.; Milford, Jana B.; Neff, Jason C.

    2016-08-01

    Federal lands in the United States have been identified as important areas where forests could be managed to enhance carbon storage and help mitigate climate change. However, there has been little work examining the context for decision making for carbon in a multiple-use public land environment, and how science can support decision making. This case study of the San Juan National Forest and the Bureau of Land Management Tres Rios Field Office in southwestern Colorado examines whether land managers in these offices have adequate tools, information, and management flexibility to practice effective carbon stewardship. To understand how carbon was distributed on the management landscape we added a newly developed carbon map for the SJNF-TRFO area based on Landsat TM texture information (Kelsey and Neff in Remote Sens 6:6407-6422. doi: 10.3390/rs6076407, 2014). We estimate that only about 22 % of the aboveground carbon in the SJNF-TRFO is in areas designated for active management, whereas about 38 % is in areas with limited management opportunities, and 29 % is in areas where natural processes should dominate. To project the effects of forest management actions on carbon storage, staff of the SJNF are expected to use the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) and extensions. While identifying FVS as the best tool generally available for this purpose, the users and developers we interviewed highlighted the limitations of applying an empirically based model over long time horizons. Future research to improve information on carbon storage should focus on locations and types of vegetation where carbon management is feasible and aligns with other management priorities.

  19. Managing Carbon on Federal Public Lands: Opportunities and Challenges in Southwestern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Dilling, Lisa; Kelsey, Katharine C; Fernandez, Daniel P; Huang, Yin D; Milford, Jana B; Neff, Jason C

    2016-08-01

    Federal lands in the United States have been identified as important areas where forests could be managed to enhance carbon storage and help mitigate climate change. However, there has been little work examining the context for decision making for carbon in a multiple-use public land environment, and how science can support decision making. This case study of the San Juan National Forest and the Bureau of Land Management Tres Rios Field Office in southwestern Colorado examines whether land managers in these offices have adequate tools, information, and management flexibility to practice effective carbon stewardship. To understand how carbon was distributed on the management landscape we added a newly developed carbon map for the SJNF-TRFO area based on Landsat TM texture information (Kelsey and Neff in Remote Sens 6:6407-6422. doi: 10.3390/rs6076407 , 2014). We estimate that only about 22 % of the aboveground carbon in the SJNF-TRFO is in areas designated for active management, whereas about 38 % is in areas with limited management opportunities, and 29 % is in areas where natural processes should dominate. To project the effects of forest management actions on carbon storage, staff of the SJNF are expected to use the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) and extensions. While identifying FVS as the best tool generally available for this purpose, the users and developers we interviewed highlighted the limitations of applying an empirically based model over long time horizons. Future research to improve information on carbon storage should focus on locations and types of vegetation where carbon management is feasible and aligns with other management priorities. PMID:27272016

  20. Global climate change, land management, and biosolids application to semiarid grasslands

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    Global climate change combined with improper land management, including over-grazing, can lead to a severe reduction in plant cover and soil productivity. This process is especially common in arid and semiarid regions with sparse vegetation cover. New and innovative methods of land management are needed to restore and maintain these ecosystems in a productive and sustainable state. Research conducted in New Mexico on the Rio Puerco Resource Area and the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge has shown that biosolids (municipal sewage sludge) application to semiarid grasslands can increase soil nutrient availability, increase plant cover and productivity, and decrease surface runoff and soil erosion without harming environmental quality.

  1. Effects of land-management practices on sediment yields in northeastern Guilford County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Streamflow, precipitation, and suspended-sediment data were collected from two small agricultural basins in the Piedmont province of North Carolina. The data were used to determine the effects of land-management practices on sediment yield. One basin of 7.4 acres represents best land-management practices with strip cropping, crop rotation, contour farming, and grassed waterways. The other basin of 4.8 acres represents standard land-management practices with down-slope row orientation, unmaintained grassed waterways, and without crop rotation. Data collected during the 1985-87 water years were used to develop regression equations to describe the relation between suspended-sediment discharge and water discharge. Data sets consisting of suspended-sediment concentrations and corresponding instantaneous water-discharge data were developed. There were two data sets from each basin, one representing data collected during the growing season, May through September, and the other representing data collected during the nongrowing season, October through April. Four regression equations were developed, one for each data set, and were tested for goodness-of-fit by use of graphical analysis, influence diagnostics, significance tests, and residuals analysis. Following acceptance of the four equations, the slope of each individual line was tested to determine if season was a significant variable. Seasonally, the average sediment yields (2.7 tons per acre) from the basin having best land-management practices were only about one-seventh of those (20 tons per acre) from the basin having standard land-management practices. Comparison of annual sediment yields in the agricultural basins against the yield from a nearby forested basin, which represents a nearly undisturbed basin, indicates a 10- to 100-fold increase in sediment yields from the study basins. The forested basin sediment yield was 0.1 ton per acre in the 1987 water year. Sheet erosion, which represents soil moving from high

  2. Research Needs for Carbon Management in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negra, C.; Lovejoy, T.; Ojima, D. S.; Ashton, R.; Havemann, T.; Eaton, J.

    2009-12-01

    Improved management of terrestrial carbon in agriculture, forestry, and other land use sectors is a necessary part of climate change mitigation. It is likely that governments will agree in Copenhagen in December 2009 to incentives for improved management of some forms of terrestrial carbon, including maintaining existing terrestrial carbon (e.g., avoiding deforestation) and creating new terrestrial carbon (e.g., afforestation, soil management). To translate incentives into changes in land management and terrestrial carbon stocks, a robust technical and scientific information base is required. All terrestrial carbon pools (and other greenhouse gases from the terrestrial system) that interact with the atmosphere at timescales less than centuries, and all land uses, have documented mitigation potential, however, most activity has focused on above-ground forest biomass. Despite research advances in understanding emissions reduction and sequestration associated with different land management techniques, there has not yet been broad-scale implementation of land-based mitigation activity in croplands, peatlands, grasslands and other land uses. To maximize long-term global terrestrial carbon volumes, further development of relevant data, methodologies and technologies are needed to complement policy and financial incentives. The Terrestrial Carbon Group, in partnership with UN-REDD agencies, the World Bank and CGIAR institutions, is reviewing literature, convening leading experts and surveying key research institutions to develop a Roadmap for Terrestrial Carbon: Research Needs for Implementation of Carbon Management in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses. This work will summarize the existing knowledge base for emissions reductions and sequestration through land management as well as the current availability of tools and methods for measurement and monitoring of terrestrial carbon. Preliminary findings indicate a number of areas for future work. Enhanced information

  3. A land manager's guide to point counts of birds in the Southeast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamel, P.B.; Smith, W.P.; Twedt, D.J.; Woehr, J.R.; Morris, E.; Hamilton, R.B.; Cooper, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Current widespread concern for the status of neotropical migratory birds has sparked interest in techniques for inventorying and monitoring populations of these and other birds in southeastern forest habitats. The present guide gives detailed instructions for conducting point counts of birds. It further presents a detailed methodology for the design and conduct of inventorial and monitoring surveys based on point counts, including discussion of sample size determination, distribution of counts among habitats, cooperation among neighboring land managers, vegetation sampling, standard data format, and other topics. Appendices provide additional information, making this guide a stand-alone text for managers interested in developing inventories of bird populations on their lands.

  4. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smucker, Nathan J.; Kuhn, Anne; Charpentier, Michael A.; Cruz-Quinones, Carlos J.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Whorley, Sarah B.; Jicha, Terri M.; Serbst, Jonathan R.; Hill, Brian H.; Wehr, John D.

    2016-03-01

    Watershed management and policies affecting downstream ecosystems benefit from identifying relationships between land cover and water quality. However, different data sources can create dissimilarities in land cover estimates and models that characterize ecosystem responses. We used a spatially balanced stream study (1) to effectively sample development and urban stressor gradients while representing the extent of a large coastal watershed (>4400 km2), (2) to document differences between estimates of watershed land cover using 30-m resolution national land cover database (NLCD) and <1-m resolution land cover data, and (3) to determine if predictive models and relationships between water quality and land cover differed when using these two land cover datasets. Increased concentrations of nutrients, anions, and cations had similarly significant correlations with increased watershed percent impervious cover (IC), regardless of data resolution. The NLCD underestimated percent forest for 71/76 sites by a mean of 11 % and overestimated percent wetlands for 71/76 sites by a mean of 8 %. The NLCD almost always underestimated IC at low development intensities and overestimated IC at high development intensities. As a result of underestimated IC, regression models using NLCD data predicted mean background concentrations of NO3 - and Cl- that were 475 and 177 %, respectively, of those predicted when using finer resolution land cover data. Our sampling design could help states and other agencies seeking to create monitoring programs and indicators responsive to anthropogenic impacts. Differences between land cover datasets could affect resource protection due to misguided management targets, watershed development and conservation practices, or water quality criteria.

  5. A conceptual framework of agricultural land use planning with BMP for integrated watershed management.

    PubMed

    Qi, Honghai; Altinakar, Mustafa S

    2011-01-01

    Land use planning is an important element of the integrated watershed management approach. It not only influences the environmental processes such as soil and stream bed erosion, sediment and nutrient concentrations in streams, quality of surface and ground waters in a watershed, but also affects social and economic development in that region. Although its importance in achieving sustainable development has long been recognized, a land use planning methodology based on a systems approach involving realistic computational modeling and meta-heuristic optimization is still lacking in the current practice of integrated watershed management. The present study proposes a new approach which attempts to combine computational modeling of upland watershed processes, fluvial processes and modern heuristic optimization techniques to address the water-land use interrelationship in its full complexity. The best land use allocation is decided by a multi-objective function that minimizes sediment yields and nutrient concentrations as well as the total operation/implementation cost, while the water quality and the production benefits from agricultural exploitation are maximized. The proposed optimization strategy considers also the preferences of land owners. The runoff model AnnAGNPS (developed by USDA), and the channel network model CCHE1D (developed by NCCHE), are linked together to simulate sediment/pollutant transport process at watershed scale based on any assigned land use combination. The greedy randomized adaptive Tabu search heuristic is used to flip the land use options for finding an optimum combination of land use allocations. The approach is demonstrated by applying it to a demonstrative case study involving USDA Goodwin Creek experimental watershed located in northern Mississippi. The results show the improvement of the tradeoff between benefits and costs for the watershed, after implementing the proposed optimal land use planning. PMID:20863609

  6. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management.

    PubMed

    Smucker, Nathan J; Kuhn, Anne; Charpentier, Michael A; Cruz-Quinones, Carlos J; Elonen, Colleen M; Whorley, Sarah B; Jicha, Terri M; Serbst, Jonathan R; Hill, Brian H; Wehr, John D

    2016-03-01

    Watershed management and policies affecting downstream ecosystems benefit from identifying relationships between land cover and water quality. However, different data sources can create dissimilarities in land cover estimates and models that characterize ecosystem responses. We used a spatially balanced stream study (1) to effectively sample development and urban stressor gradients while representing the extent of a large coastal watershed (>4400 km(2)), (2) to document differences between estimates of watershed land cover using 30-m resolution national land cover database (NLCD) and <1-m resolution land cover data, and (3) to determine if predictive models and relationships between water quality and land cover differed when using these two land cover datasets. Increased concentrations of nutrients, anions, and cations had similarly significant correlations with increased watershed percent impervious cover (IC), regardless of data resolution. The NLCD underestimated percent forest for 71/76 sites by a mean of 11 % and overestimated percent wetlands for 71/76 sites by a mean of 8 %. The NLCD almost always underestimated IC at low development intensities and overestimated IC at high development intensities. As a result of underestimated IC, regression models using NLCD data predicted mean background concentrations of NO3 (-) and Cl(-) that were 475 and 177 %, respectively, of those predicted when using finer resolution land cover data. Our sampling design could help states and other agencies seeking to create monitoring programs and indicators responsive to anthropogenic impacts. Differences between land cover datasets could affect resource protection due to misguided management targets, watershed development and conservation practices, or water quality criteria. PMID:26614349

  7. Fully self-contained vision-aided navigation and landing of a micro air vehicle independent from external sensor inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockers, Roland; Susca, Sara; Zhu, David; Matthies, Larry

    2012-06-01

    Direct-lift micro air vehicles have important applications in reconnaissance. In order to conduct persistent surveillance in urban environments, it is essential that these systems can perform autonomous landing maneuvers on elevated surfaces that provide high vantage points without the help of any external sensor and with a fully contained on-board software solution. In this paper, we present a micro air vehicle that uses vision feedback from a single down looking camera to navigate autonomously and detect an elevated landing platform as a surrogate for a roof top. Our method requires no special preparation (labels or markers) of the landing location. Rather, leveraging the planar character of urban structure, the landing platform detection system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect landing targets and produce approach waypoints for autonomous landing. The vehicle control algorithm uses a Kalman filter based approach for pose estimation to fuse visual SLAM (PTAM) position estimates with IMU data to correct for high latency SLAM inputs and to increase the position estimate update rate in order to improve control stability. Scale recovery is achieved using inputs from a sonar altimeter. In experimental runs, we demonstrate a real-time implementation running on-board a micro aerial vehicle that is fully self-contained and independent from any external sensor information. With this method, the vehicle is able to search autonomously for a landing location and perform precision landing maneuvers on the detected targets.

  8. Fully Self-Contained Vision-Aided Navigation and Landing of a Micro Air Vehicle Independent from External Sensor Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockers, Roland; Susca, Sara; Zhu, David; Matthies, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Direct-lift micro air vehicles have important applications in reconnaissance. In order to conduct persistent surveillance in urban environments, it is essential that these systems can perform autonomous landing maneuvers on elevated surfaces that provide high vantage points without the help of any external sensor and with a fully contained on-board software solution. In this paper, we present a micro air vehicle that uses vision feedback from a single down looking camera to navigate autonomously and detect an elevated landing platform as a surrogate for a roof top. Our method requires no special preparation (labels or markers) of the landing location. Rather, leveraging the planar character of urban structure, the landing platform detection system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect landing targets and produce approach waypoints for autonomous landing. The vehicle control algorithm uses a Kalman filter based approach for pose estimation to fuse visual SLAM (PTAM) position estimates with IMU data to correct for high latency SLAM inputs and to increase the position estimate update rate in order to improve control stability. Scale recovery is achieved using inputs from a sonar altimeter. In experimental runs, we demonstrate a real-time implementation running on-board a micro aerial vehicle that is fully self-contained and independent from any external sensor information. With this method, the vehicle is able to search autonomously for a landing location and perform precision landing maneuvers on the detected targets.

  9. 76 FR 8479 - National Forest System Land Management Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... transition provisions to be in effect until a new planning rule is issued (74 FR 67062). While the 2000... rulemaking; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture is proposing a new planning rule... Forest Service to adapt management to changing conditions and to improve plans based on new...

  10. Remote sensing in Michigan for land resource management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sattinger, I. J.; Istvan, L. B.; Roller, N. E. G.; Lowe, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    An extensive program was conducted to establish practical uses of NASA earth resource survey technology in meeting resource management problems throughout Michigan. As a result, a broad interest in and understanding of the usefulness of remote sensing methods was developed and a wide variety of applications was undertaken to provide information needed for informed decision making and effective action.

  11. Municipal Solid Waste Management using Geographical Information System aided methods: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Debishree; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan

    2014-11-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental challenges in developing countries. Many efforts to reduce and recover the wastes have been made, but still land disposal of solid wastes is the most popular one. Finding an environmentally sound landfill site is a challenging task. This paper addresses a mini review on various aspects of MSWM (suitable landfill site selection, route optimization and public acceptance) using the Geographical Information System (GIS) coupled with other tools. The salient features of each of the integrated tools with GIS are discussed in this paper. It is also addressed how GIS can help in optimizing routes for collection of solid wastes from transfer stations to disposal sites to reduce the overall cost of solid waste management. A detailed approach on performing a public acceptance study of a proposed landfill site is presented in this study. The study will help municipal authorities to identify the most effective method of MSWM. PMID:25352293

  12. Cross-boundary management between national parks and surrounding lands: A review and discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonewald-Cox, Christine; Buechner, Marybeth; Sauvajot, Raymond; Wilcox, Bruce A.

    1992-03-01

    Protecting biodiversity on public lands is difficult, requiring the management of a complex array of factors. This is especially true when the ecosystems in question are affected by, or extend onto, lands outside the boundaries of the protected area. In this article we review recent developments in the cross-boundary management of protected natural resources, such as parks, wildlife reserves, and designated wilderness areas. Five ecological and 11 anthropic techniques have been suggested for use in cross-boundary management. The categories are not mutually exclusive, but each is a distinct and representative approach, suggested by various authors from academic, managerial, and legal professions. The ecological strategies stress the collection of basic data and documentation of trends. The anthropic techniques stress the usefulness of cooperative guidelines and the need to develop a local constituency which supports park goals. However, the situation is complex and the needed strategies are often difficult to implement. Diverse park resources are influenced by events in surrounding lands. The complexity and variability of sources, the ecological systems under protection, and the uncertainty of the effects combine to produce situations for which there are no simple answers. The solution to coexistence of the park and surrounding land depends upon creative techniques and recommendations, many still forthcoming. Ecological, sociological, legal, and economic disciplines as well as the managing agency should all contribute to these recommendations. Platforms for change include legislation, institutional policies, communication, education, management techniques, and ethics.

  13. Dry land tree management for improved household livelihoods: farmer managed natural regeneration in Niger.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Eric; Ndjeunga, Jupiter; Snook, Laura; Pasternak, Dov

    2011-07-01

    Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR), a set of practices farmers use to foster the growth of indigenous trees on agricultural land, has drawn substantial attention as a contributing factor to a trend of increasing vegetation greenness in the Republic of Niger. This paper identifies drivers of FMNR adoption and assesses its impacts on rural households in the Region of Maradi, Niger, an area covering 42,000 square kilometers. The results show that 26% of households practice a form of FMNR involving both pruning and protecting woody vegetation. Adoption is strongly linked to soil type, market access, and the education level of the head of household. FMNR raises household income and increases crop diversity, household migration rates, and the density and diversity of trees on farmland. It is estimated that FMNR raises the annual gross income of the region by between 17 and 21 million USD and has contributed an additional 900,000 to 1,000,000 trees to the local environment. These findings support the value of continued promotion of FMNR as an inexpensive means of enhancing rural livelihoods and an attractive alternative to reforestation efforts relying on tree planting. PMID:21458910

  14. A GIS-based multicriteria evaluation for aiding risk management Pinus pinaster Ait. forests: a case study in Corsican Island, western Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk (M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration-Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)-for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions. PMID:21499931

  15. A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  16. Management of Chronic Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cross-Fertilisation between HIV/AIDS and Diabetes Care

    PubMed Central

    van Olmen, Josefien; Schellevis, François; Van Damme, Wim; Kegels, Guy; Rasschaert, Freya

    2012-01-01

    There is growing attention for chronic diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and for bridges between the management of HIV/AIDS and other (noncommunicable) chronic diseases. This becomes more urgent with increasing numbers of people living with both HIV/AIDS and other chronic conditions. This paper discusses the commonalities between chronic diseases by reviewing models of care, focusing on the two most dominant ones, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and HIV/AIDS. We argue that in order to cope with care for HIV patients and diabetes patients, health systems in SSA need to adopt new strategies taking into account essential elements of chronic disease care. We developed a “chronic dimension framework,” which analyses the “disease dimension,” the “health provider dimension,” the patient or “person dimension,” and the “environment dimension” of chronic diseases. Applying this framework to HIV/AIDS and DM2 shows that it is useful to think about management of both in tandem, comparing care delivery platforms and self-management strategies. A literature review on care delivery models for diabetes and HIV/AIDS in SSA revealed potential elements for cross-fertilisation: rapid scale-up approaches through the public health approach by simplification and decentralisation; community involvement, peer support, and self-management strategies; and strengthening health services. PMID:23209477

  17. Human-resources strategies for managing HIV/AIDS: the case of the South African forestry industry.

    PubMed

    Gow, Jeff; Grant, Bligh

    2010-09-01

    Previous work has focused on HIV prevalence among forestry workers and the impact of HIV/AIDS on the sustainability of forest resources. Following a review of work examining the impacts of HIV/AIDS on the South African economy, this article presents original qualitative research examining the responses of company management to the HIV epidemic across a range of enterprises in the South African forestry industry, including large companies, contractors and cooperatives. At the level of the enterprise, management occupies a critical nexus, at which the intersecting requirements of complex government legislation, the wellbeing of workers and the demands of the business must be met. The research demonstrates that large forestry companies tend to provide only a small fraction of their workforces with HIV/AIDS education, prevention or treatment services, as they have essentially outsourced the requirement through the use of labour-supply contractors who, by and large, provide workers with scant HIV/AIDS-related programmes or benefits. Moreover, the extent to which the different types of forestry enterprises incorporate the management of HIV/AIDS in the workforce with the management of the business is highly variable, and in most instances falls short of legislative requirements that have been in place for over a decade. The implications of this for the forestry industry in South Africa are acute. PMID:25860632

  18. The development and application of a decision support system for land management in the Lake Tahoe Basin—The Land Use Simulation Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forney, William M.; Oldham, I. Benson; Crescenti, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This report describes and applies the Land Use Simulation Model (LUSM), the final modeling product for the long-term decision support project funded by the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act and developed by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Western Geographic Science Center for the Lake Tahoe Basin. Within the context of the natural-resource management and anthropogenic issues of the basin and in an effort to advance land-use and land-cover change science, this report addresses the problem of developing the LUSM as a decision support system. It includes consideration of land-use modeling theory, fire modeling and disturbance in the wildland-urban interface, historical land-use change and its relation to active land management, hydrologic modeling and the impact of urbanization as related to the Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board’s recently developed Total Maximum Daily Load report for the basin, and biodiversity in urbanizing areas. The LUSM strives to inform land-management decisions in a complex regulatory environment by simulating parcel-based, land-use transitions with a stochastic, spatially constrained, agent-based model. The tool is intended to be useful for multiple purposes, including the multiagency Pathway 2007 regional planning effort, the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA) Regional Plan Update, and complementary research endeavors and natural-resource-management efforts. The LUSM is an Internet-based, scenario-generation decision support tool for allocating retired and developed parcels over the next 20 years. Because USGS staff worked closely with TRPA staff and their “Code of Ordinances” and analyzed datasets of historical management and land-use practices, this report accomplishes the task of providing reasonable default values for a baseline scenario that can be used in the LUSM. One result from the baseline scenario for the model suggests that all vacant parcels could be allocated within 12 years. Results also include

  19. Getting into the brain: Potential of nanotechnology in the management of NeuroAIDS.

    PubMed

    Nair, Madhavan; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Kaushik, Ajeet; Sagar, Vidya

    2016-08-01

    In spite of significant advances in antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, the elimination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reservoirs from the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS) remains a formidable task. The incapability of ARV to go across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after systemic administration makes the brain one of the dominant HIV reservoirs. Thus, screening, monitoring, and elimination of HIV reservoirs from the brain remain a clinically daunting and key task. The practice and investigation of nanomedicine possesses potentials for therapeutics against neuroAIDS. This review highlights the advancements in nanoscience and nanotechnology to design and develop specific size therapeutic cargo for efficient navigation across BBB so as to recognize and eradicate HIV brain reservoirs. Different navigation and drug release strategies, their biocompatibility and efficacy with related challenges and future prospects are also discussed. This review would be an excellent platform to understand nano-enable multidisciplinary research to formulate efficient nanomedicine for the management of neuroAIDS. PMID:26944096

  20. Managing external resources in Mozambique: building new aid relationships on shifting sands?

    PubMed

    Pavignani, E; Durão, J R

    1999-09-01

    The Mozambican health sector is recovering from war and general disruption. This massive endeavour is supported by several donor agencies, which contribute a substantial proportion of national health expenditure. The final years of the war and the transition period have seen an extreme fragmentation of the health sector. To correct it, serious efforts to coordinate the plethora of aid agencies and related external inputs have taken place. This paper reviews the actors present on the Mozambican health scene and their interactions. The existing aid management mechanisms are described and their effectiveness appraised. The factors affecting both the process and its outcomes are analyzed. Given the prevailing complexity, this research presents a number of tentative conclusions. First, the evidence suggests that coordination efforts have paid off. However, progress has required intense and sustained work. Incremental approaches, where donor demands are progressively raised as the system is strengthened, have been crucial. The initiative has come mainly from donors, with the Ministry of Health receptive and reactive. When the recipient administration has been able to take advantage of donor initiatives, success has ensued. Individual people have been crucial in shaping the process. Critical factors contributing to positive developments on both sides of the donor-recipient relationship have been frankness, risk-taking and a long-term perspective. PMID:10621241

  1. Management of hearing aid assembly by urban-dwelling hearing-impaired adults in a developed country: implications for a self-fitting hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Convery, Elizabeth; Keidser, Gitte; Hartley, Lisa; Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

    2011-12-01

    A self-fitting hearing aid, designed to be assembled and programmed without audiological or computer support, could bring amplification to millions of people in developing countries, who remain unaided due to the lack of a local, professional, audiological infrastructure. The ability to assemble and insert a hearing aid is fundamental to the successful use of a self-fitting device. In this study, the management of such tasks was investigated. Eighty older, urban-dwelling, hearing-impaired adults in a developed country were asked to follow a set of written, illustrated instructions to assemble two slim-fit behind-the-ear hearing aids. Participants were allowed to access assistance with the task from an accompanying partner. A range of personal and audiometric variables was measured through the use of structured questionnaires and standardized tests of health literacy, cognitive function, and manual dexterity. The results showed that 99% of participants were able to complete the hearing aid assembly task, either on their own or with assistance. Health literacy, or the ability to read and understand health-related text, and gender most strongly influenced participants' ability to complete the assembly task independently and accurately. Higher levels of health literacy were associated with an increased likelihood of independent and successful task completion. Male participants were more likely to complete the task on their own, while female participants were more likely to assemble the device without errors. The results of this study will inform future work regarding development of educational material for the self-fitting hearing aid as well as candidacy for such a device. PMID:22200734

  2. Water governance across competing scales: Coupling land and water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, Katherine A.; Barreteau, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    Water governance is becoming an increasingly important area of study for hydrologists, as the impacts of human decisions on water flows and their various management scales are recognised. Hydrology has long tackled issues of water flow and quality across basins-from rain to soil and sub-soil, from upstream to downstream, between surface water and groundwater systems, and through interlinked watersheds-with the understanding that these stocks and flows can be modified en-route due to the actions of people, including through organised water management and governance processes. In this setting, one common aim of water governance is to develop management processes and infrastructure systems that can control hydrological variability at different levels of spatial and temporal scales. For example, water storages, distribution systems and drainage networks are developed for long-term seasonal and inter-decadal variability-in the case of large dams and irrigation systems-as well as shorter-term variability, such as flooding events, that may take place over hours (e.g. urban flash floods), days (e.g. catchment-based river flooding) or months (e.g. basin-wide flood-plain inundation events). Particularly when looking at water supply issues, water allocation rules are elaborated and negotiated in order to provide water to people when and where they most need it, rather than when and where it would naturally be available.

  3. Ecological energetics of the diara land ecosystem and its management

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, H.K.

    1997-04-01

    Ecological energetics involve energy`s relationship with the ecosystem. From the standpoint of energetics, it is necessary to express biomass in terms of calories, so that the relationship between the rate of energy flow and average standing biomass can be established. Net annual energy fixation by green plants on diara land at the natural field site 1 (wild vegetation) was 3,408.53 Kcal/m{sup 2} y and at the mixed cultivated field site 2 (edible vegetation with wild species) was 19,714.3 Kcal/m{sup 2} y. These values, measured on an area-weighted average basis, were 285.09 {times} 10{sup 5} KJ/ha y at site 1 and 5,771.16 {times} 10{sup 5} KJ/ha y at site 2. The energy conserving efficiency was 0.13% at site 1 and 2.7% at site 2. The ecological efficiency of the livestock community was 0.004%, and energy transfer efficiency was 0.14%. The allometric relationship between the biomass component (independent) and caloric content (dependent) was found to be highly significant with standing dead and total biomass at site 1 and with aboveground parts, standing dead, and total biomass at site 2.

  4. Land-use change and floods: what do we need most, research or management?

    PubMed

    Tollan, Arne

    2002-01-01

    Land-cover change (urbanisation, deforestation, and cultivation) results in increased flood frequency and severity. Mechanisms include reduced infiltration capacity, lower soil porosity, loss of vegetation, and forest clearing, meaning lower evapotranspiration. Major research challenges lie in quantification of effects in terms of flood characteristics under various conditions, ascertaining the combined effects of gradual changes over long time periods, and developing model tools suitable for land-use management. Large floods during the 1990s gave a new focus on these problems. Reference is made to the Norwegian HYDRA research programme on human impacts on floods and flood damage. The paper concludes that land-use change effects on floods are most pronounced at small scale and for frequent flood magnitudes. Model simulations of effects of land-use change can now be used to reduce flood risk. Modern flood management strategies have abandoned the position that dams and dikes are the only answers to mitigating flood disasters. Today, the strategic approach is more often: do not keep the water away from the people, keep people away from the water. Flood management strategies should include flood warnings, efficient communication, risk awareness, civil protection and flood preparedness routines, effective land-use policies, flood risk mapping, ... as well as structural measures. PMID:12019819

  5. An Exploration of Scenarios to Support Sustainable Land Management Using Integrated Environmental Socio-economic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleskens, L.; Nainggolan, D.; Stringer, L. C.

    2014-11-01

    Scenario analysis constitutes a valuable deployment method for scientific models to inform environmental decision-making, particularly for evaluating land degradation mitigation options, which are rarely based on formal analysis. In this paper we demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modeling framework with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots. Starting with an initial assessment representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat instances of land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are most biophysically appropriate and most financially viable in which locations; we term these the "technology scenarios"; (2) how policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and financial viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these the "policy scenarios"; and (3) how technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these the "global scenarios". Technology scenarios help choose the best technology for a given area in biophysical and financial terms, thereby outlining where policy support may be needed to promote adoption; policy scenarios assess whether a policy alternative leads to a greater extent of technology adoption; while global scenarios demonstrate how implementing technologies may serve wider sustainable development goals. Scenarios are applied to assess spatial variation within study sites as well as to compare across different sites. Our results show significant scope to combat land degradation and raise agricultural productivity at moderate cost. We conclude that scenario assessment can provide informative input to multi-level land management decision-making processes.

  6. San Juan National Forest Land Management Planning Support System (LMPSS) requirements definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werth, L. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The role of remote sensing data as it relates to a three-component land management planning system (geographic information, data base management, and planning model) can be understood only when user requirements are known. Personnel at the San Juan National Forest in southwestern Colorado were interviewed to determine data needs for managing and monitoring timber, rangelands, wildlife, fisheries, soils, water, geology and recreation facilities. While all the information required for land management planning cannot be obtained using remote sensing techniques, valuable information can be provided for the geographic information system. A wide range of sensors such as small and large format cameras, synthetic aperture radar, and LANDSAT data should be utilized. Because of the detail and accuracy required, high altitude color infrared photography should serve as the baseline data base and be supplemented and updated with data from the other sensors.

  7. Sustainable land and water management of River Oases along the Tarim River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disse, Markus

    2016-05-01

    The Tarim Basin in Xinjiang province in northwest China is characterized by a hyper arid climate. Climate change and a strong increase in agricultural land use are major challenges for sustainable water management. The largest competition for water resources exists between irrigated fields and natural riparian vegetation, which is dependent on seasonal flooding of the Tarim River. In addition to numerous water management measures implemented by the Chinese government, the Sino-German project SuMaRiO (Sustainable Management of River Oases along the Tarim River) provided a decision support system based on ecosystem services for the Chinese stakeholders. This tool will help to implement sustainable land and water management measures in the next 5-year plan.

  8. Biodiversity conservation and indigenous land management in the era of self-determination.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Paige M; Peterson, Markus J

    2009-12-01

    Indigenous people inhabit approximately 85% of areas designated for biodiversity conservation worldwide. They also continue to struggle for recognition and preservation of cultural identities, lifestyles, and livelihoods--a struggle contingent on control and protection of traditional lands and associated natural resources (hereafter, self-determination). Indigenous lands and the biodiversity they support are increasingly threatened because of human population growth and per capita consumption. Application of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to tribal lands in the United States provides a rich example of the articulation between biodiversity conservation and indigenous peoples' struggle for self-determination. We found a paradoxical relationship whereby tribal governments are simultaneously and contradictory sovereign nations; yet their communities depend on the U.S. government for protection through the federal-trust doctrine. The unique legal status of tribal lands, their importance for conserving federally protected species, and federal environmental regulations' failure to define applicability to tribal lands creates conflict between tribal sovereignty, self-determination, and constitutional authority. We reviewed Secretarial Order 3206, the U.S. policy on "American Indian tribal rights, federal-tribal trust responsibilities, and the ESA," and evaluated how it influences ESA implementation on tribal lands. We found improved biodiversity conservation and tribal self-determination requires revision of the fiduciary relationship between the federal government and the tribes to establish clear, legal definitions regarding land rights, applicability of environmental laws, and financial responsibilities. Such actions will allow provision of adequate funding and training to tribal leaders and resource managers, government agency personnel responsible for biodiversity conservation and land management, and environmental policy makers. Increased capacity, cooperation, and

  9. Creating a strategic plan for configuration management using computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.; Sarfaty, R.

    1993-05-01

    This paper provides guidance in the definition, documentation, measurement, enhancement of processes, and validation of a strategic plan for configuration management (CM). The approach and methodology used in establishing a strategic plan is the same for any enterprise, including the Department of Energy (DOE), commercial nuclear plants, the Department of Defense (DOD), or large industrial complexes. The principles and techniques presented are used world wide by some of the largest corporations. The authors used industry knowledge and the areas of their current employment to illustrate and provide examples. Developing a strategic configuration and information management plan for DOE Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID) facilities is discussed in this paper. A good knowledge of CM principles is the key to successful strategic planning. This paper will describe and define CM elements, and discuss how CM integrates the facility`s physical configuration, design basis, and documentation. The strategic plan does not need the support of a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. However, the use of the CASE tool provides a methodology for consistency in approach, graphics, and database capability combined to form an encyclopedia and a method of presentation that is easily understood and aids the process of reengineering. CASE tools have much more capability than those stated above. Some examples are supporting a joint application development group (JAD) to prepare a software functional specification document and, if necessary, provide the capability to automatically generate software application code. This paper briefly discusses characteristics and capabilities of two CASE tools that use different methodologies to generate similar deliverables.

  10. Sustainable Phosphorus Management in Land Applied Reclaimed Water Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinkam, G.

    2015-12-01

    Florida leads the nation in wastewater effluent/reclaimed water use, at over 700 million gallons per day, of which 75% is land applied. While these effluent waters are treated to reduce pathogen loads, phosphorus (P) concentrations can still be substantial in long term application scenarios. Currently an estimated 1.5 million kg of P are reintroduced to the landscape yearly (at effluent = 2 mg P/L), compared to only 23,000 kg that would be applied if landscapes were irrigated with ground water (at ground water = 0.03 mg P/L). Research suggests that under long term applications of P systems can reach a state at which they are no longer able to assimilate further loading, potentially resulting in landscapes that are actively leaching and eroding P rich particulate matter to receiving hydrologic systems. This can be especially relevant in Florida given the large proportion of sandy soils that contain, relatively, low physical and chemical ion exchange capacity and high hydraulic conductivity, thus increasing the potential for water quality impairment. Due to increasingly stringent surface water P concentrations allowances, and the many uncertainties regarding the long term fate and transport of P, this research seeks to determine how different soil conditions and reclaimed water loading amounts can alter P leaching profiles in Florida. Field sampling at reclaimed water sprayfield sites are used to determine the relative change in P sequestration potential using soil-phosphorus saturation capacity (SPSC) analyses and potential leaching risk is determined by soil core experimentation. The resulting information improves fundamental understanding of soil-phosphorus transport dynamics and provides insights into alternative techniques for long term environmental sustainability of reclaimed wastewater usage.

  11. 75 FR 11505 - Revision of Land and Resource Management Plan for the National Forests in Mississippi

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...As directed by the National Forest Management Act, the USDA Forest Service is preparing the National Forests in Mississippi (NFsMS) revised land management plan (Forest Plan) and will also prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for this revised plan. This notice briefly describes the background history of NFsMS plan revision process to date, the nature of the decision to be made, the......

  12. LiDAR Applications in Resource Geology and Benefits for Land Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulovsky, R. P.; De La Fuente, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The US Forest Service (US Department of Agriculture) manages a broad range of geologic resources and hazards on National Forests and Grass Lands throughout the United States. Resources include rock and earth materials, groundwater, caves and paleontological resources, minerals, energy resources, and unique geologic areas. Hazards include landslides, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and naturally hazardous materials (e.g., asbestos, radon). Forest Service Geologists who address these issues are Resource Geologists. They have been exploring LiDAR as a revolutionary tool to efficiently manage all of these hazards and resources. However, most LiDAR applications for management have focused on timber and fuels management, rather than landforms. This study shows the applications and preliminary results of using LiDAR for managing geologic resources and hazards on public lands. Applications shown include calculating sediment budgets, mapping and monitoring landslides, mapping and characterizing borrow pits or mines, determining landslide potential, mapping faults, and characterizing groundwater dependent ecosystems. LiDAR can be used to model potential locations of groundwater dependent ecosystems with threatened or endangered plant species such as Howellia aquatilis. This difficult to locate species typically exists on the Mendocino National Forest within sag ponds on landslide benches. LiDAR metrics of known sites are used to model potential habitat. Thus LiDAR can link the disciplines of geology, hydrology, botany, archaeology and others for enhanced land management. As LiDAR acquisition costs decrease and it becomes more accessible, land management organizations will find a wealth of applications with potential far-reaching benefits for managing geologic resources and hazards.

  13. Effects of agricultural land-management practices on water quality in northeastern Guilford County, North Carolina, 1985-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of different agricultural land- management practices on sediment, nutrients, and selected pesticides in surface water, and on nutrients and pesticides in ground water were studied in four small basins in the Piedmont of North Carolina. The basins included two adjacent basins in row-crop fields, a mixed land-use basin, and a forested basin. One of the row-crop fields was farmed using conservation land-management practices, including strip cropping, contour plowing, field borders, and grassed waterways. The other field was farmed using standard land- management practices, including continuous cropping, straight-row plowing, and ungrassed waterways. The sediment yield for the standard land-management basin was 2.3 times that for the conservation land-management basin, 14.1 times that for the mixed land-use basin, and 19.5 times that for the forested basin. Nutrient concentra- tions in surface water from the row-crop and mixed land-use basins were higher than those in surface water for the forested basin. Nutrient concentra- tions in soil water and ground water beneath the row-crop basins were lower than those in surface- water runoff for these basins. The lowest nutrient concentrations measured in the row-crop basins generally were in soil-water samples collected just below the root zone (3-foot depth) and in ground water. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were identified between the surface-water runoff from the standard land- management basin and that from the conservation land-management basin. Concentrations of the soil pesticides isopropalin and flumetralin were higher in the standard land-management basin than in the conservation land-management basin.

  14. Selecting multi-objective land management measures in the Ripon catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullis, Jo; Pygott, Katherine; Asadullah, Anita; Pacey, Jeff; Forman, Charles

    2010-05-01

    The Ripon catchment covers an area of 140 square kilometres west of the town of Ripon (North Yorkshire, England). The rivers Laver and Skell rise in the North Pennine Moors and flow 15km towards their confluence in Ripon. The Skell then flows through Ripon before joining the River Ure. The town of Ripon is considered to be at high flood risk and has recently suffered from a number of severe flood events. As a result, the Ripon Flood Alleviation Scheme has been designed to provide flood protection to properties in Ripon and consists of a flood storage area on the Laver and hard defences within Ripon. The Ripon Multi Objective Project (Ripon MOP) aims to investigate the potential to deliver flood risk management elsewhere in the catchment, through land use and land management changes, while also pursuing resource protection, biodiversity and other opportunities. Ripon MOP Phase 1 started in September 2004, commissioned by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). Defra handed the project over to the Environment Agency for Phase 2, the focus of this paper. Ripon MOP Phase 2 developed a strategy to implement and deliver future multi-objective land management change in the Ripon catchment to reduce flood risk. The main output of the project was the development of an innovative new spreadsheet tool which enables different land management measures to be prioritised. The tool scores the potential benefits (reduced runoff, reduced erosion, water quality improvements, carbon storage, and enhanced biodiversity) and the ease of delivery for each measure. To score benefits, a series of specific questions were asked and scores given, based on scientific evidence were possible and also professional judgement. To establish the ease of delivery a generic set of questions were asked: How easy is the measure to implement? What is the cost of implementing the measure? How much maintenance is required? Is there any legislative or policy support for the measure? Is

  15. Relative impacts of land-use, management intensity and fertilization on microbial community structure in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of agricultural land management practices on soil prokaryotic diversity have not been well described. Soil microbial communities under three agricultural management systems (conventionally tilled cropland, hayed pasture, and grazed pasture) and two fertilizer systems [inorganic fertilizer (I...

  16. 77 FR 38267 - Information Collection; Request for Comment; Objections to New Land Management Plans, Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Request for Comment; Objections to New Land Management Plans, Plan Amendments, and Plan Revisions AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: Under the Paperwork... plans, plan amendments, and plan revisions. DATES: Comments must be received in writing on or...

  17. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR 650, subpart C, National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). (b) The BMS shall be designed to fit... include: (i) The inventory data required by the NBIS (23 CFR 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  18. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR 650, subpart C, National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). (b) The BMS shall be designed to fit... include: (i) The inventory data required by the NBIS (23 CFR 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  19. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR 650, subpart C, National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). (b) The BMS shall be designed to fit... include: (i) The inventory data required by the NBIS (23 CFR 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  20. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR 650, subpart C, National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). (b) The BMS shall be designed to fit... include: (i) The inventory data required by the NBIS (23 CFR 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  1. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 650, subpart C, National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). (b) The BMS shall be designed to fit... include: (i) The inventory data required by the NBIS (23 CFR 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  2. 43 CFR 24.4 - Resource management and public activities on Federal lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Recreation and conservation or enhancement of fish and wildlife resources are often designated project... wildlife conservation. However, this authority to manage lands for fish and wildlife values is not a... administered by BLM and the Department of Defense, for the conservation and rehabilitation of fish and...

  3. 78 FR 59913 - Revision of the Land Management Plan for the Francis Marion National Forest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... develop a preliminary ``need for change'' and a proposed action for the land management plan revision.... Public meetings associated with the development of the preliminary ``need for change'' and a proposed... ecological conditions of the planning area, which is documented in an assessment report. A draft of...

  4. Citizen Participation -- A Tool for Conflict Management on the Public Lands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irland, Lloyd C.

    1975-01-01

    The search for harmony in public land-use planning is a hopeless pursuit. A more realistic approach is a conflict management strategy that emphasizes concern for the planning process, rather than for the plan itself. The search for legitimate planning processes calls for the conscious building of citizen participation. (JG)

  5. Economic and Societal Benefits of Soil Carbon Management: Cropland and Grazing Land Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides both a historic perspective of US land use as well as to address the role of agricultural technologies for enhanced soil carbon management and how these are economically and environmentally beneficial. Increasingly soil C sequestration is linked to its role in helping to ...

  6. Monitoring Contrasting Land Management in the Savanna Landscapes of Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Donald C.; Petty, Aaron M.; Williamson, Grant J.; Brook, Barry W.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2008-04-01

    We compared measures of ecosystem state across six adjacent land-tenure groups in the intact tropical savanna landscapes of northern Australia. Tenure groups include two managed by Aboriginal owners, two national parks, a cluster of pastoral leases, and a military training area. This information is of relevance to the debate about the role of indigenous lands in the Australian conservation estate. The timing and frequency of fire was determined by satellite imagery; the biomass and composition of the herb-layer and the abundance of large feral herbivores by field surveys; and weediness by analysis of a Herbarium database. European tenures varied greatly in fire frequencies but were consistently burnt earlier in the dry season than the two Aboriginal tenures, the latter having intermediate fire frequencies. Weeds were more frequent in the European tenures, whilst feral animals were most abundant in the Aboriginal tenures. This variation strongly implies a signature of current management and/or recent environmental history. We identify indices suitable for monitoring of management outcomes in an extensive and sparsely populated landscape. Aboriginal land offers a unique opportunity for the conservation of biodiversity through the maintenance of traditional fire regimes. However, without financial support, traditional practices may prove unsustainable both economically and because exotic weeds and feral animals will alter fire regimes. An additional return on investment in Aboriginal land management is likely to be improved livelihoods and health outcomes for these disadvantaged communities.

  7. 75 FR 60340 - Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 100 Subsistence Management Regulations for Public Lands in Alaska CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as of...

  8. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... National Bridge Inspection Standards (23 CFR part 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the severity... alternative strategies to improve bridge condition, safety and serviceability; (2) Estimate the costs of any... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  9. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... National Bridge Inspection Standards (23 CFR part 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the severity... alternative strategies to improve bridge condition, safety and serviceability; (2) Estimate the costs of any... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  10. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... National Bridge Inspection Standards (23 CFR part 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the severity... alternative strategies to improve bridge condition, safety and serviceability; (2) Estimate the costs of any... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  11. On Food, Farming and Land Management: Towards a Research Agenda to Reconnect Urban and Rural Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Justin; Rickinson, Mark; Sanders, Dawn; Teamey, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Science education has a key role to play in helping people to develop their understanding of the local and global dimensions of food, farming and land management. Based on a review of the literature on what is known about young people's (3-19) views towards and learning about these topics, a research agenda is outlined for consideration by the…

  12. Comparison of soil bacterial communities under diverse agricultural land management and crop production practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition and structure of bacterial communities was examined in soil subjected to a range of diverse agricultural land management and crop production practices. Length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) of bacterial DNA extracted from soil was used to generate amplicon profile...

  13. Discriminating the effects of agricultural land management practices on soil fungal communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The structure of fungal communities was examined in soil subjected to five years of different agricultural land management and tomato production practices. Length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) of fungal rDNA internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions was used to create genomic...

  14. 75 FR 23804 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Alaska State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, AK...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Completion published in the Federal Register (73 FR 47224, August 13, 2008) with the addition of another... published in the Federal Register (73 FR 47224, August 13, 2008) is corrected by substituting paragraphs 3..., Bureau of Land Management; Museum of the Aleutians; University of Wisconsin; and the...

  15. 76 FR 80394 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Alaska State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Bureau of Land Management (BLM) that are housed at the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL... NAGPRA, 25 U.S.C. 3003(d)(3). The determinations in this notice are the sole responsibility of the museum, institution, or Federal agency that has control of the Native American human remains. The National...

  16. Land Use and Management Practices Impact on Plant Biomass Carbon and Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use and management practices may influence plant C input and soil CO2 emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. We evaluated the effect of a combination of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization on plant biomass (leaves + stems) C, soil temperature and water ...

  17. Carbon Input and Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission Affected by Land Use and Management Practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use and management practices may influence C inputs and soil CO2 emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Carbon inputs and soil CO2 emission were monitored from crop- and grassland with various irrigation and cropping systems from 2006 to 2008 in western North Dakota, USA. Tr...

  18. 77 FR 472 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Forest Service National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule; Correction AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The... FR doc. 2011- 33535, on page 81911, in the first column, correct the ``Dates'' caption to...

  19. Effect of land management on soil properties in flood irrigated citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugán-Coronado, A.; García-Orenes, F.; Cerdà, A.

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural land management greatly affects soil properties. Microbial soil communities are the most sensitive and rapid indicators of perturbations in land use and soil enzyme activities are sensitive biological indicators of the effects of soil management practices. Citrus orchards frequently have degraded soils and this paper evaluates how land management in citrus orchards can improve soil quality. A field experiment was performed in an orchard of orange trees (Citrus Sinensis) in the Alcoleja Experimental Station (Eastern Spain) with clay-loam agricultural soils to assess the long-term effects of herbicides with inorganic fertilizers (H), intensive ploughing and inorganic fertilizers (P) and organic farming (O) on the soil microbial properties, and to study the relationship between them. Nine soil samples were taken from each agricultural management plot. In all the samples the basal soil respiration, soil microbial biomass carbon, water holding capacity, electrical conductivity, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, aggregate stability, cation exchange capacity, pH, texture, macronutrients (Na, Ca and Mg), micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu), calcium carbonate equivalent, calcium carbonate content of limestone and enzimatic activities (urease, dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase) were determined. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial properties, which were highly associated with soil organic matter content. The management practices including herbicides and intensive ploughing had similar results on microbial soil properties. O management contributed to an increase in the soil biology quality, aggregate stability and organic matter content.

  20. Integrated modelling of management impacts on land-based GHG emissions and removals in EU countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Hannes; Frank, Stefan; Havlik, Petr; Lauri, Pekka; Witzke, Peter; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Emissions and removals of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from land use activities play a significant role in the total GHG cycling. In the EU, the land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) sector removes the equivalent of 9% of GHGs emitted in other parts of the economy. This net sink is the sum of emissions and removals from afforestation, deforestation, and forest, cropland and grassland management The European Commission has recently proposed that emissions and removals from LULUCF be incorporated into EU climate policy. Successful mitigation policy and GHG management strategies as well as accounting rules require anticipation of future developments of land emissions. In particular an estimation of the direct human impact of present management and concrete management options at the landscape level is needed. Such information is essential for disentangling direct and indirect human induced effects, the aim of this session, e.g. by comparing model results with national inventory information and aggregated measured data. We provide model-based estimates for the recent past, current and future emission pathways of land use activities, taking into account important drivers such as demand for food and wood, bioenergy demand, conservation policies etc. but also forest age class structure and past management. By carrying out sensitivity analyses in which these drivers are varied and by producing counterfactual reference scenarios, direct management change effects can be determined at the landscape level in a quantitative manner. The estimates cover the period 2000 to 2050 and include estimates for emissions from afforestation, deforestation, forest management, cropland management, grassland management and harvested wood products. We use a global land use model with detailed resolution at national level for EU28 countries also to assess mitigation potentials in the LULUCF sector and its cost effectiveness in competition with emission reductions by bioenergy use and

  1. Climate change adaptation & mitigation strategies for Water-Energy-Land Nexus management in Mediterranean region: Case study of Catalunya (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-04-01

    water where it is a scarce resource. Linkage of water & Energy to the land has been established through irrigated agriculture which has seen an increasing trend in the case study area. A detail scenario planning for regional water-energy demand and supply in conjunction with different climate change and economic growth scenarios are considered. For each future scenario of climate change, the goal is to obtain a ranking of a set of possible actions with regards to different types of indicators (costs, environmental etc.). The analytical method used is based on outranking models for decision aid with hierarchical structures of criteria and ranking alternatives using partial preorders based on pairwise preference relations. The proposed method has several advantages such as the management of heterogeneous scales of measurement without requiring any artificial transformation and the management of uncertainty by means of comparisons at a qualitative level in terms of the decision maker preferences. Result shows that such an integrated ("nexus") approach is likely to build resilience and reduces vulnerability to the combination of pressures acting upon the Mediterranean region's water systems, including climate-related shocks.

  2. Crowd-Sourcing Management Activity Data to Drive GHG Emission Inventories in the Land Use Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paustian, K.; Herrick, J.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the land use sector constitute the largest source category for many countries in Africa. Enhancing C sequestration and reducing GHG emissions on managed lands in Africa has to potential to attract C financing to support adoption of more sustainable land management practices that, in addition to GHG mitigation, can provide co-benefits of more productive and climate-resilient agroecosystems. However, robust systems to measure and monitor C sequestration/GHG reductions are currently a significant barrier to attracting more C financing to land use-related mitigation efforts.Anthropogenic GHG emissions are driven by a variety of environmental factors, including climate and soil attributes, as well as human-activities in the form of land use and management practices. GHG emission inventories typically use empirical or process-based models of emission rates that are driven by environmental and management variables. While a lack of field-based flux and C stock measurements are a limiting factor for GHG estimation, we argue that an even greater limitation may be availabiity of data on the management activities that influence flux rates, particularly in developing countries in Africa. In most developed countries there is a well-developed infrastructure of agricultural statistics and practice surveys that can be used to drive model-based GHG emission estimations. However, this infrastructure is largely lacking in developing countries in Africa. While some activity data (e.g. land cover change) can be derived from remote sensing, many key data (e.g., N fertilizer practices, residue management, manuring) require input from the farmers themselves. The explosive growth in cellular technology, even in many of the poorest parts of Africa, suggests the potential for a new crowd-sourcing approach and direct engagement with farmers to 'leap-frog' the land resource information model of developed countries. Among the many benefits of this approach

  3. A multi-scale modelling procedure to quantify hydrological impacts of upland land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; Jackson, B.; Bulygina, N.; Ballard, C.; McIntyre, N.; Marshall, M.; Frogbrook, Z.; Solloway, I.; Reynolds, B.

    2008-12-01

    Recent UK floods have focused attention on the effects of agricultural intensification on flood risk. However, quantification of these effects raises important methodological issues. Catchment-scale data have proved inadequate to support analysis of impacts of land management change, due to climate variability, uncertainty in input and output data, spatial heterogeneity in land use and lack of data to quantify historical changes in management practices. Manipulation experiments to quantify the impacts of land management change have necessarily been limited and small scale, and in the UK mainly focused on the lowlands and arable agriculture. There is a need to develop methods to extrapolate from small scale observations to predict catchment-scale response, and to quantify impacts for upland areas. With assistance from a cooperative of Welsh farmers, a multi-scale experimental programme has been established at Pontbren, in mid-Wales, an area of intensive sheep production. The data have been used to support development of a multi-scale modelling methodology to assess impacts of agricultural intensification and the potential for mitigation of flood risk through land use management. Data are available from replicated experimental plots under different land management treatments, from instrumented field and hillslope sites, including tree shelter belts, and from first and second order catchments. Measurements include climate variables, soil water states and hydraulic properties at multiple depths and locations, tree interception, overland flow and drainflow, groundwater levels, and streamflow from multiple locations. Fine resolution physics-based models have been developed to represent soil and runoff processes, conditioned using experimental data. The detailed models are used to calibrate simpler 'meta- models' to represent individual hydrological elements, which are then combined in a semi-distributed catchment-scale model. The methodology is illustrated using field

  4. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Katima Mulilo has the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in Namibia. Due to several constraints of the antiretroviral therapy programme, HIV-infected persons still use ethnomedicines to manage AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Despite the reliance on plants to manage HIV/AIDS in Katima Mulilo, there have been no empirical studies to document the specific plant species used by traditional healers to treat AIDS-related opportunistic infections. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to record the various plant families, species, and plant parts used to manage different HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. The results showed that a total of 71 plant species from 28 families, mostly the Combretaceae (14%), Anacardiaceae (8%), Mimosaceae (8%), and Ebanaceae (7%), were used to treat conditions such as herpes zoster, diarrhoea, coughing, malaria, meningitis, and tuberculosis. The most plant parts used were leaves (33%), bark (32%), and roots (28%) while the least used plant parts were fruits/seeds (4%). Further research is needed to isolate the plants' active chemical compounds and understand their modes of action. PMID:20831821

  5. 76 FR 31979 - Notice of Interim Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands Managed by the Ukiah Field Office in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...In accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Ukiah Field Office Approved Resource Management Plan (RMP), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Ukiah Field Office, is issuing interim final supplementary rules and requesting comments. These interim final supplementary rules will apply to public lands within the Ukiah Field Office's jurisdiction. The BLM has determined that these......

  6. 77 FR 25734 - 30-Day Extension of Call for Nominations for the Bureau of Land Management's California Desert...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 19, 2012 (77 FR 2755). Council members provide advice and... California Desert District Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) California Desert District is extending the call...

  7. Novel ideas for maximising dew collection to aid plant establishment to combat desertification and restore degraded dry and arid lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzen, Benz

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on the potential of dew to provide water to plants and potentially to people as well in remote and difficult to reach areas where rainfall and underground water cannot be harvested. The combat of desertification and the restoration of degraded and desertified dry and arid lands has never been more urgent. A key practical component of this strategy is the restoration of habitat with planting. But for habitat and planting to survive there needs to be an adequate supply of water. In most cases providing water to the plant's roots is vital. In some areas where habitats have been destroyed, sufficient water is immediately available, for example through seasonal rainfall, or it can be harvested to concentrate adequate supplies of water to the roots. However, in arid and hyper arid areas, as well as in some dryland areas, a consistent and adequate supply of water cannot be provided by any conventional proven method. Thus, as the need to combat desertification and to restore desertified dry and arid land increases, so the need to find novel methods of establishing and maintaining planting and thus habitat increases. In more traditional land management scenarios this can be achieved through manipulating landform on a micro and macro scale, for example, by creating catchments, thereby collecting precipitation and directing it to the plants. Where this cannot be done, other means of water supply are usually required. Bainbridge (2007) and others have shown that supplying water to plants is possible through a number of traditional methods, for example, using clay pots. But most of these techniques require an introduced source of water, for example, obtained through water harvesting methods or by delivering water to site in tanks and by water bowser. This can work but requires continuous manpower. It is expensive and can be physically prohibitive in areas where access is difficult and/or remote. The concept of using dew to supply water in drylands is not new

  8. Novel ideas for maximising dew collection to aid plant establishment to combat desertification and restore degraded dry and arid lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzen, Benz

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on the potential of dew to provide water to plants and potentially to people as well in remote and difficult to reach areas where rainfall and underground water cannot be harvested. The combat of desertification and the restoration of degraded and desertified dry and arid lands has never been more urgent. A key practical component of this strategy is the restoration of habitat with planting. But for habitat and planting to survive there needs to be an adequate supply of water. In most cases providing water to the plant's roots is vital. In some areas where habitats have been destroyed, sufficient water is immediately available, for example through seasonal rainfall, or it can be harvested to concentrate adequate supplies of water to the roots. However, in arid and hyper arid areas, as well as in some dryland areas, a consistent and adequate supply of water cannot be provided by any conventional proven method. Thus, as the need to combat desertification and to restore desertified dry and arid land increases, so the need to find novel methods of establishing and maintaining planting and thus habitat increases. In more traditional land management scenarios this can be achieved through manipulating landform on a micro and macro scale, for example, by creating catchments, thereby collecting precipitation and directing it to the plants. Where this cannot be done, other means of water supply are usually required. Bainbridge (2007) and others have shown that supplying water to plants is possible through a number of traditional methods, for example, using clay pots. But most of these techniques require an introduced source of water, for example, obtained through water harvesting methods or by delivering water to site in tanks and by water bowser. This can work but requires continuous manpower. It is expensive and can be physically prohibitive in areas where access is difficult and/or remote. The concept of using dew to supply water in drylands is not new

  9. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon for Agricultural Land Use Under Various Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotamarthi, V. R.; Drewniak, B.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Jacob, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    Bioenergy is generating tremendous interest as an alternative energy source that is both environmentally friendly and economically competitive. The amount of land designated for agriculture is expected to expand, including changes in the current distribution of crops, as demand for biofuels increases as a carbon neutral alternative fuel source. However, the influence of agriculture on the carbon cycle is complex, and varies depending on land use change and management practices. The purpose of this research is to integrate agriculture in the carbon-nitrogen based Community Land Model (CLM) to evaluate the above and below ground carbon storage for corn, soybean, and wheat crop lands. The new model, CLM-Crop simulates carbon allocation during four growth stages, a soybean nitrogen fixation scheme, fertilizer, and harvest practices. We present results from this model simulation, which includes the impact of a new dynamic roots module to simulate the changing root structure and depth with growing season based on the availability of water and nitrogen in the root zone and a retranslocation scheme to simulate redistribution of nitrogen from leaves, roots, and stems to grain during organ development for crop yields, leaf area index (LAI), carbon allocation, and changes in soil carbon budgets under various practices such as fertilizer and residue management. Simulated crop yields for corn, soybean and wheat are in general agreement with measurements. Initial model results indicate a loss of soil organic carbon over cultivated lands after removal of natural vegetation which continues in the following years. Soil carbon in crop lands is a strong function of the residue management and has the potential to impact crop yields significantly.

  10. New England reservoir management: Land use/vegetation mapping in reservoir management (Merrimack River Basin). [Massachusetts and New Hamshire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, S. (Principal Investigator); Mckim, H. L.; Gatto, L. W.; Merry, C. J.; Anderson, D. M.; Marlar, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It is evident from this comparison that for land use/vegetation mapping the S190B Skylab photography compares favorably with the RB-57 photography and is much superior to the ERTS-1 and Skylab 190A imagery. For most purposes the 12.5 meter resolution of the S190B imagery is sufficient to permit extraction of the information required for rapid land use and vegetation surveys necessary in the management of reservoir or watershed. The ERTS-1 and S190A data products are not considered adequate for this purpose, although they are useful for rapid regional surveys at the level 1 category of the land use/vegetation classification system.

  11. Medically important venomous animals: biology, prevention, first aid, and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Junghanss, Thomas; Bodio, Mauro

    2006-11-15

    Venomous animals are a significant health problem for rural populations in many parts of the world. Given the current level of the international mobility of individuals and the inquisitiveness of travelers, clinicians and travel clinics need to be able to give advice on the prevention, first aid, and clinical management of envenoming. Health professionals often feel overwhelmed by the taxonomy of venomous animals; however, venomous animals can be grouped, using a simple set of criteria, into cnidarians, venomous fish, sea snakes, scorpions, spiders, hymenoterans, and venomous terrestrial snakes. Geographic distribution, habitats, and circumstances of accidents further reduce the range of culprits that need to be considered in any single event. Clinical management of envenomed patients relies on supportive therapy and, if available, specific antivenoms. Supplies of life-saving antivenoms are scarce, and this scarcity particularly affects rural populations in resource-poor settings. Travel clinics and hospitals in highly industrialized areas predominantly see patients with injuries caused by accidents involving marine animals: in particular, stings by venomous fish and skin damage caused by jellyfish. However, globally, terrestrial venomous snakes are the most important group of venomous animals. PMID:17051499

  12. Cognitive Aids for Role Definition (CARD) to improve interprofessional team crisis resource management: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Renna, Tania Di; Crooks, Simone; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann; Clarkin, Chantalle; Fraser, Amy B; Bunting, Alexandra C; Bould, M Dylan; Boet, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the perceived value of the Cognitive Aids for Role Definition (CARD) protocol for simulated intraoperative cardiac arrests. Sixteen interprofessional operating room teams completed three consecutive simulated intraoperative cardiac arrest scenarios: current standard, no CARD; CARD, no CARD teaching; and CARD, didactic teaching. Each team participated in a focus group interview immediately following the third scenario; data were transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analysed. After 6 months, participants formed eight new teams randomised to two groups (CARD or no CARD) and completed a retention intraoperative cardiac arrest simulation scenario. All simulation sessions were video recorded and expert raters assessed team performance. Qualitative analysis of the 16 focus group interviews revealed 3 thematic dimensions: role definition in crisis management; logistical issues; and the "real life" applicability of CARD. Members of the interprofessional team perceived CARD very positively. Exploratory quantitative analysis found no significant differences in team performance with or without CARD (p > 0.05). In conclusion, qualitative data suggest that the CARD protocol clarifies roles and team coordination during interprofessional crisis management and has the potential to improve the team performance. The concept of a self-organising team with defined roles is promising for patient safety. PMID:27294389

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practices of students about first aid epilepsy seizures management in a Northern Indian City

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Sonu; Singh, Navpreet; Lal, Vivek; Singh, Amarjeet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about epilepsy and its management is not satisfactory among school students in developing countries. The present study was planned to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding first-aid management of epilepsy seizures in school setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 177 students of government schools of Chandigarh, a city of northern India, were taken. They were administered with a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire (for knowledge and attitude assessment) and an observational checklist after role play (for practice assessment) on first-aid management of epilepsy. A scoring system was devised to quantify the knowledge and practices of students. Results: Seventy-one percent of them had either heard or read about epilepsy. Half of the students believed epilepsy as a hindrance to education. Ayurvedic treatment was preferred by more than half of the students; however, many believed that visit to religious places and exorcism as ways to cure epilepsy. Nearly 74% of students would call a doctor as first-aid measure for seizure in a person with epilepsy. Conclusion: We concluded that the knowledge about various aspects of epilepsy was average among school students in Chandigarh. However, there was no significant difference in knowledge, attitude and practice between students who lived in urban, urban slum and rural areas. It is recommended that first-aid management of seizures in epilepsy should be a part of school curriculum. PMID:24339575

  14. USDA Regional Climate Hubs - Partnering to bring information and tools to managers of working lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R.

    2014-12-01

    In February 2014, USDA announced the location of seven Regional Hubs for Risk Adaptation and Mitigation to Climate Change (Climate Hubs) and three "Sub Hubs". The mission of these Climate Hubs is to develop and deliver science-based region-specific information and technologies to agricultural and natural resource managers that enable climate-smart decision-making and to direct land managers to USDA programs that can assist them in implementing those decisions. This mission is similar to that of Cooperative Extension and the Agricultural Experiment Stations (both of which benefit from USDA funding); therefore it is crucial that we partner with Land Grant Universities in order to achieve this mission. As USDA stands up these Climate Hubs we are working closely with USDA agencies, Land Grant Universities, other federal climate science programs, and other partners to determine how best to provide usable information and tools to farmers, ranchers and forest land managers to enable them to make climate-smart decisions.

  15. Effects of climate and land management change on streamflow in the driftless area of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, P.F.; Hunt, R.J.; Anderson, M.P.; Robertson, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Baseflow and precipitation in the Kickapoo River Watershed, located in the Driftless Area of Wisconsin, exhibit a step increase around 1970, similar to minimum and median flows in many other central and eastern USA streams. Potential effects on streamflow due to climatic and land management changes were evaluated by comparing volumetric changes in the hydrologic budget before and after 1970. Increases in precipitation do not fully account for the increase in baseflow, which appears to be offset by a volumetric decrease in stormflow. This suggests that factors that influence the partitioning of precipitation into overland runoff or infiltration have changed. A transition from relatively more intensive to relatively less intensive agricultural land use is generally associated with higher infiltration rates, and likely influences partitioning of flow. Changes in agricultural land management practices in the Driftless Area, which began in the mid-1930s, do not coincide with the abrupt increase in baseflow around 1970. Instead, the timing of hydrologic change appears to coincide with changes in precipitation, whereas the magnitude of the change in baseflow and stormflow was likely amplified by changes in agricultural land management. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pastoral wildfires in the Mediterranean: understanding their linkages to land cover patterns in managed landscapes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Jabier; Martínez-Fernández, Jesús; Vega-García, Cristina

    2012-05-15

    The pastoral use of fire to regenerate rangelands is a major cause of wildfires in many Mediterranean countries. Despite producing important environmental impacts, this phenomenon has hardly ever been studied separately from other wildfire ignition causes. As extensive livestock breeding relies on the available pasture resources, we hypothesised that a higher rate of pastoral wildfire ignitions could be associated with land cover patterns, as these reflect the spatial arrangement of human activities in managed landscapes. To investigate these patterns, we studied landscape structure and the pastoral wildfires recorded between 1988 and 2000 in 24 Nature Park landscapes in Andalusia (Spain). The CORINE Land Cover map was reclassified according to five levels of grazing use and landscape metrics were calculated. Neural networks were developed to model the relationship between landscape metrics and pastoral wildfires, obtaining a set of significant variables which are discussed in the frame of land and livestock management in the region. We conclude that pastoral wildfire ignitions are more likely in landscapes where the pattern of being dominated by a matrix composed of several large patches of low to moderate grazing use, and having abundant small and elongated patches of higher grazing use, is more extreme. This pattern could be reflecting the persistence of numerous small livestock farms within an increasingly abandoned agrarian landscape. To prevent pastoral wildfires, land management could attempt to enlarge and merge those small patches of higher grazing use, reducing the amount of interface and their intermixture with the surrounding poorer pasture resources. PMID:22245863

  17. The effect of carbon credits on savanna land management and priorities for biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Lucinda L; Possingham, Hugh P; Carwardine, Josie; Klein, Carissa J; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2011-01-01

    Carbon finance offers the potential to change land management and conservation planning priorities. We develop a novel approach to planning for improved land management to conserve biodiversity while utilizing potential revenue from carbon biosequestration. We apply our approach in northern Australia's tropical savanna, a region of global significance for biodiversity and carbon storage, both of which are threatened by current fire and grazing regimes. Our approach aims to identify priority locations for protecting species and vegetation communities by retaining existing vegetation and managing fire and grazing regimes at a minimum cost. We explore the impact of accounting for potential carbon revenue (using a carbon price of US$14 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent) on priority areas for conservation and the impact of explicitly protecting carbon stocks in addition to biodiversity. Our results show that improved management can potentially raise approximately US$5 per hectare per year in carbon revenue and prevent the release of 1-2 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent over approximately 90 years. This revenue could be used to reduce the costs of improved land management by three quarters or double the number of biodiversity targets achieved and meet carbon storage targets for the same cost. These results are based on generalised cost and carbon data; more comprehensive applications will rely on fine scale, site-specific data and a supportive policy environment. Our research illustrates that the duel objective of conserving biodiversity and reducing the release of greenhouse gases offers important opportunities for cost-effective land management investments. PMID:21935363

  18. The Effect of Carbon Credits on Savanna Land Management and Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Douglass, Lucinda L.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Carwardine, Josie; Klein, Carissa J.; Roxburgh, Stephen H.; Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Wilson, Kerrie A.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon finance offers the potential to change land management and conservation planning priorities. We develop a novel approach to planning for improved land management to conserve biodiversity while utilizing potential revenue from carbon biosequestration. We apply our approach in northern Australia's tropical savanna, a region of global significance for biodiversity and carbon storage, both of which are threatened by current fire and grazing regimes. Our approach aims to identify priority locations for protecting species and vegetation communities by retaining existing vegetation and managing fire and grazing regimes at a minimum cost. We explore the impact of accounting for potential carbon revenue (using a carbon price of US$14 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent) on priority areas for conservation and the impact of explicitly protecting carbon stocks in addition to biodiversity. Our results show that improved management can potentially raise approximately US$5 per hectare per year in carbon revenue and prevent the release of 1–2 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent over approximately 90 years. This revenue could be used to reduce the costs of improved land management by three quarters or double the number of biodiversity targets achieved and meet carbon storage targets for the same cost. These results are based on generalised cost and carbon data; more comprehensive applications will rely on fine scale, site-specific data and a supportive policy environment. Our research illustrates that the duel objective of conserving biodiversity and reducing the release of greenhouse gases offers important opportunities for cost-effective land management investments. PMID:21935363

  19. Considerations and techniques for incorporating remotely sensed imagery into the land resource management process.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooner, W. G.; Nichols, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of a scheme for utilizing remote sensing technology in an operational program for regional land use planning and land resource management program applications. The scheme utilizes remote sensing imagery as one of several potential inputs to derive desired and necessary data, and considers several alternative approaches to the expansion and/or reduction and analysis of data, using automated data handling techniques. Within this scheme is a five-stage program development which includes: (1) preliminary coordination, (2) interpretation and encoding, (3) creation of data base files, (4) data analysis and generation of desired products, and (5) applications.

  20. Land use and land management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean agricultural areas (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle. Agriculture contributes to carbon sequestration through photosynthesis and the incorporation of carbon into carbohydrates. Soil management is one of the best tools for climate change mitigation. Small increases or decreases in soil carbon content due to changes in land use or management practices, may result in a significant net exchange of carbon between the soil carbon pool and the atmosphere. In the last decades arable crops (AC) have been transformed into olive grove cultivations (OG) or vineyards (V) in Mediterranean areas. A field study was conducted to determine long-term effects of land use change (LUC) (AC by OG and V) on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr) in Mediterranean conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS An unirrigated farm in Montilla-Moriles (Córdoba, Spain) cultivated under conventional tillage (animal power with lightweight reversible plows and non-mineral fertilization or pesticides) was selected for study in 1965. In 1966, the farm was divided into three plots with three different uses (AC, OG and V). The preliminary analyses were realized in 1965 for AC (AC1), and the second analyses were realized in 2011 for AC (AC2 - winter crop rotation with annual wheat and barley, receiving mineral fertilization or pesticides), OG (annual passes with disk harrow and cultivator in the spring, followed by a tine harrow in the summer receiving mineral fertilization and weed control with residual herbicides), and V (with three or five chisel passes a year from early spring to early autumn with mineral fertilization or pesticides.). In all cases (AC1, AC2, OG and V) were collected soil entire profiles. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, bulk density, SOC, TN, C:N ratio, stocks and SRs. The statistical significance of the differences in the variables between land use practices was tested using the

  1. Integrating Green and Blue Water Management Tools for Land and Water Resources Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, G. P. W.

    2009-04-01

    The role of land use and land use change on the hydrological cycle is well known. However, the impacts of large scale land use change are poorly considered in water resources planning, unless they require direct abstraction of water resources and associated development of infrastructure e.g. Irrigation Schemes. However, large scale deforestation for the supply of raw materials, expansion of the areas of plantation forestry, increasing areas under food production and major plans for cultivation of biofuels in many developing countries are likely to result in extensive land use change. Given the spatial extent and temporal longevity of these proposed developments, major impacts on water resources are inevitable. It is imperative that managers and planners consider the consequences for downstream ecosystems and users in such developments. However, many popular tools, such as the vitual water approach, provide only coarse scale "order of magnitude" type estimates with poor consideration of, and limited usefulness, for land use planning. In this paper, a framework for the consideration of the impacts of large scale land use change on water resources at a range of temporal and spatial scales is presented. Drawing on experiences from South Africa, where the establishment of exotic commercial forest plantations is only permitted once a water use license has been granted, the framework adopts the "green water concept" for the identification of potential high impact areas of land use change and provides for integration with traditional "blue water" water resources planning tools for more detailed planning. Appropriate tools, ranging from simple spreadsheet solutions to more sophisticated remote sensing and hydrological models are described, and the application of the framework for consideration of water resources impacts associated with the establishment of large scale tectona grandis, sugar cane and jatropha curcas plantations is illustrated through examples in Mozambique

  2. Assessment of the land use and water management induced changes in baseflow series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowicz, Renata; Osuch, Marzena

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that it is very difficult to distinguish human-induced changes from those caused by natural forcing. In this paper we try to quantify land use and water management influence on low flows of the Upper Narew River in north-east Poland. In recent years both a reduction of mean flows and shorter flooding periods have been observed in the Upper Narew River, resulting in a serious threat to the rich wetland ecosystems in the National Narew Park (NNP). These undesirable changes have been caused by changes in local climate, manifested as mild winters and a reduction in annual rainfall that have resulted in a reduction of the valley's groundwater resources. Additionally, river regulation works performed in the river reach downstream from NNP have lowered water levels in the NNP. Flood peaks are also reduced by a water storage reservoir constructed upstream of NNP in Siemianówka (near Bondary). However, our knowledge of the possible causes of the wetland ecosystems depletion is not sufficient to develop effective methods to deal with the problem, as there is no information available on how the changes in land use and water management influence the water balance in the catchment. Application of a simple black box Stochastic Transfer Function model to describe daily flow routing between the Narew and Suraż gauging stations indicates changes in flow regime for low flows, but does not give any consistent changes in model parameters for whole years from the periods before and after the reservoir was built. In order to explain the nature of influence of land use and water management on low flows, we applied baseflow separation techniques including the Wittenberg nonlinear storage model, the Chapman linear filter and the Log-Transformed Low Flow (LTLF) model. The LTLF model in particular, provides uncertainty bounds for the baseflow estimates. The methods are applied to flow data from different time periods, before and after the reservoir Siemian

  3. Management of carbon across sectors and scales: Insights from land use decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, L.; Failey, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon management is increasingly becoming a topic of interest among policy circles and business entrepreneurs alike. In the United States, while no binding regulatory framework exists, carbon management is nonetheless being pursued both by voluntary actions at a variety of levels, from the individual to the national level, and through mandatory policies at state and local levels. Controlling the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere for climate purposes will ultimately require a form of governance that will ensure that the actions taken and being rewarded financially are indeed effective with respect to the global atmosphere on long time scales. Moreover, this new system of governance will need to interface with existing governance structures and decision criteria that have been established to arbitrate among various societal values and priorities. These existing institutions and expressed values will need to be examined against those proposed for effective carbon governance, such as the permanence of carbon storage, the additionality of credited activities, and the prevention of leakage, or displacement of prohibited activities to another region outside the governance boundary. The latter issue suggests that interactions among scales of decision making and governance will be extremely important in determining the ultimate success of any future system of carbon governance. The goal of our study is to understand the current context of land use decision making in different sectors and examine the potential for future carbon policy to be effective given this context. This study examined land use decision making in the U.S. state of Colorado from a variety of ownership perspectives, including US Federal land managers, individual private owners, and policy makers involved in land use at a number of different scales. This paper will report on the results of interviews with land managers and provide insight into the policy context for carbon management through land

  4. Using multi-species occupancy models in structured decision making on managed lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, John R.; Blank, Peter J.; Zipkin, Elise F.; Fallon, Jane E.; Fallon, Frederick W.

    2013-01-01

    Land managers must balance the needs of a variety of species when manipulating habitats. Structured decision making provides a systematic means of defining choices and choosing among alternative management options; implementation of a structured decision requires quantitative approaches to predicting consequences of management on the relevant species. Multi-species occupancy models provide a convenient framework for making structured decisions when the management objective is focused on a collection of species. These models use replicate survey data that are often collected on managed lands. Occupancy can be modeled for each species as a function of habitat and other environmental features, and Bayesian methods allow for estimation and prediction of collective responses of groups of species to alternative scenarios of habitat management. We provide an example of this approach using data from breeding bird surveys conducted in 2008 at the Patuxent Research Refuge in Laurel, Maryland, evaluating the effects of eliminating meadow and wetland habitats on scrub-successional and woodland-breeding bird species using summed total occupancy of species as an objective function. Removal of meadows and wetlands decreased value of an objective function based on scrub-successional species by 23.3% (95% CI: 20.3–26.5), but caused only a 2% (0.5, 3.5) increase in value of an objective function based on woodland species, documenting differential effects of elimination of meadows and wetlands on these groups of breeding birds. This approach provides a useful quantitative tool for managers interested in structured decision making.

  5. Climate Change and Land Management in the Rangelands of Central Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzburg, Megan K.; Halofsky, Jessica E.; Halofsky, Joshua S.; Christopher, Treg A.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change, along with exotic species, disturbances, and land use change, will likely have major impacts on sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western U.S. over the next century. To effectively manage sagebrush steppe landscapes for long-term goals, managers need information about the interacting impacts of climate change, disturbances and land management on vegetation condition. Using a climate-informed state-and-transition model, we evaluated the potential impacts of climate change on rangeland condition in central Oregon and the effectiveness of multiple management strategies. Under three scenarios of climate change, we projected widespread shifts in potential vegetation types over the twenty-first century, with declining sagebrush steppe and expanding salt desert shrub likely by the end of the century. Many extreme fire years occurred under all climate change scenarios, triggering rapid vegetation shifts. Increasing wildfire under climate change resulted in expansion of exotic grasses but also decreased juniper encroachment relative to projections without climate change. Restoration treatments in warm-dry sagebrush steppe were ineffective in containing exotic grass, but juniper treatments in cool-moist sagebrush steppe substantially reduced the rate of juniper encroachment, particularly when prioritized early in the century. Overall, climate-related shifts dominated future vegetation patterns, making management for improved rangeland condition more difficult. Our approach allows researchers and managers to examine long-term trends and uncertainty in rangeland vegetation condition and test the effectiveness of alternative management actions under projected climate change.

  6. Climate change and land management in the rangelands of central Oregon.

    PubMed

    Creutzburg, Megan K; Halofsky, Jessica E; Halofsky, Joshua S; Christopher, Treg A

    2015-01-01

    Climate change, along with exotic species, disturbances, and land use change, will likely have major impacts on sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western U.S. over the next century. To effectively manage sagebrush steppe landscapes for long-term goals, managers need information about the interacting impacts of climate change, disturbances and land management on vegetation condition. Using a climate-informed state-and-transition model, we evaluated the potential impacts of climate change on rangeland condition in central Oregon and the effectiveness of multiple management strategies. Under three scenarios of climate change, we projected widespread shifts in potential vegetation types over the twenty-first century, with declining sagebrush steppe and expanding salt desert shrub likely by the end of the century. Many extreme fire years occurred under all climate change scenarios, triggering rapid vegetation shifts. Increasing wildfire under climate change resulted in expansion of exotic grasses but also decreased juniper encroachment relative to projections without climate change. Restoration treatments in warm-dry sagebrush steppe were ineffective in containing exotic grass, but juniper treatments in cool-moist sagebrush steppe substantially reduced the rate of juniper encroachment, particularly when prioritized early in the century. Overall, climate-related shifts dominated future vegetation patterns, making management for improved rangeland condition more difficult. Our approach allows researchers and managers to examine long-term trends and uncertainty in rangeland vegetation condition and test the effectiveness of alternative management actions under projected climate change. PMID:25216989

  7. Land Use Manager Application Ensures Protectiveness Following Remediation on the Oak Ridge Reservation - 13355

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, Sid; Brown, Sally; Sims, Lynn; Darby, Jason

    2013-07-01

    Long-term stewardship is the set of activities necessary to return contaminated land to safe and beneficial use. The activities include physical and legal controls to prevent inappropriate exposure to contamination left in place at a site. It is the longest phase of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management Program and ensures the protection of human health and the environment for varied end uses. At the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation an automated program has been developed and implemented that tracks the multitude of long-term stewardship activities. The Oak Ridge Reservation is a large site that currently has over 50 actions requiring long-term stewardship activities. The Oak Ridge Reservation consists primarily of three plant sites, and long-term stewardship will enable these sites to be leased to private entities (East Tennessee Technology Park), modernized for an evolving national security mission (Y-12 National Security Complex), and revitalized to continue multi-disciplinary research (Oak Ridge National Laboratory). The varied site end uses of the individual plant sites coupled with the multitude of controls required by leaving waste in place presents challenges. A single remedial action may include surveillance and maintenance activities, media monitoring, property record notices as well as physical controls such as fences and signs. Thus, the array of long-term stewardship activities is complex and intermingled (over 200 inspections each year at various frequencies are required currently) and requires an effective tracking program, termed the Land Use Manager. The Land Use Manager is a web-based data management application for use by personnel responsible for implementing, maintaining, and verifying engineering and land use controls on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The program is a data entry and tracking tool, as well as a notification tool. The status and performance of engineering and land use controls are checked annually for

  8. Psychometric Properties of a Symptom Management Self-Efficacy Scale for Women Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Webel, Allison R.; Okonsky, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Context Many people with HIV/AIDS find it difficult to manage the symptoms of the disease, but by adopting effective symptom management behavior, they increase the potential of alleviating the burden of those symptoms. Self-efficacy is a recognized mediator of successful behavior change and is utilized by many researchers and clinicians when developing symptom management interventions. Despite this, an instrument measuring the self-efficacy of symptom management behavior specifically for people living with HIV/AIDS has not yet been made available. Objective To introduce and test the psychometric properties of the HIV Symptom Management Self-Efficacy for Women Scale (HSM-SEWS) for women with HIV/AIDS. This scale, a new 9-item measurement instrument, was modified from the Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scale. Methods In this study, psychometric testing focused on the reliability and validity of the HSM-SEWS instrument. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. Exploratory factor analysis with oblique promax rotation was used to examine validity and test hypothetical associations. Results Eighty-nine HIV-positive women were recruited and asked to complete the scale every four weeks for a total of 16 weeks. Factor analysis supported a one-factor solution explaining 93% of the variance among items. Internal consistency of the nine items was found to range from 0.83–0.93, with an overall Cronbach’s alpha of 0.92. Conclusions Psychometric analyses suggest that the HIV Symptom Management Self-Efficacy for Women Scale is a reliable and valid instrument that measures the self-efficacy of symptom management behavior in women with HIV/AIDS and can be used during interventions and in research targeting this area of health care research. PMID:21145198

  9. The rationale for simple approaches for sustainability assessment and management in contaminated land practice.

    PubMed

    Bardos, R Paul; Bone, Brian D; Boyle, Richard; Evans, Frank; Harries, Nicola D; Howard, Trevor; Smith, Jonathan W N

    2016-09-01

    The scale of land-contamination problems, and of the responses to them, makes achieving sustainability in contaminated land remediation an important objective. The Sustainable Remediation Forum in the UK (SuRF-UK) was established in 2007 to support more sustainable remediation practice in the UK. The current international interest in 'sustainable remediation' has achieved a fairly rapid consensus on concepts, descriptions and definitions for sustainable remediation, which are now being incorporated into an ISO standard. However the sustainability assessment methods being used remain diverse with a range of (mainly) semi-quantitative and quantitative approaches and tools developed, or in development. Sustainability assessment is site specific and subjective. It depends on the inclusion of a wide range of considerations across different stakeholder perspectives. Taking a tiered approach to sustainability assessment offers important advantages, starting from a qualitative assessment and moving through to semi-quantitative and quantitative assessments on an 'as required' basis only. It is also clear that there are a number of 'easy wins' that could improve performance against sustainability criteria right across the site management process. SuRF-UK has provided a checklist of 'sustainable management practices' that describes some of these. This paper provides the rationale for, and an outline of, and recently published SuRF-UK guidance on preparing for and framing sustainability assessments; carrying out qualitative sustainability assessment; and simple good management practices to improve sustainability across contaminated land management activities. PMID:26765509

  10. Status report on the land processes aircraft science management operations working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, James G.; Mann, Lisa J.

    1991-01-01

    Since its inception three years ago, the Land Processes Aircraft Science Management Operations Working Group (MOWG) provided recommendations on the optimal use of the Agency's aircraft in support of the Land Processes Science Program. Recommendations covered topics such as aircraft and sensor usage, development of long-range plans, Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MAC), program balance, aircraft sensor databases, new technology and sensor development, and increased University scientist participation in the program. Impacts of these recommendations improved the efficiency of various procedures including the flight request process, tracking of flight hours, and aircraft usage. The group also created a bibliography focused on publications produced by Land Processes scientists from the use of the aircraft program, surveyed NASA funded PI's on their participation in the aircraft program, and developed a planning template for multi-sensor airborne campaigns. Benefits from these activities are summarized.

  11. The use of a spatial information system in the management of HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Busgeeth, Karishma; Rivett, Ulrike

    2004-01-01

    Background South Africa is experiencing an HIV/AIDS pandemic of shattering dimensions. The availability and provision of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs could bring relief to the situation, but the treatment is unfortunately complex with each patient being assigned a different antiretroviral therapy varying in diet-medication regiment. The context of South Africa, its variety of urban and rural settings adds to the challenge of administering and monitoring the HIV+ person throughout the treatment, which will last for the rest of their lives. The lack of physical infrastructure, reliable statistics and adequate resources hinder the efficient management of HIV/AIDS. Results The collection of reliable data will be a first step to assess the status of HIV/AIDS in communities. A number of hospitals have started this process using the conventional approach to collect information about their patients using a paper-based system. Since time is of essence in the fight against the pandemic, data exchange between various hospitals, municipalities and decision-making bodies is becoming more and more important. The logical response to such a need is a computerised system, which will collect and administer HIV/AIDS related information within the local context and allow a monitored access to the data from a number of stakeholders. Conclusions The purpose of this study was to design and develop an HIV/AIDS database, which is embedded in a Spatial Information Management System. The pilot study area is the Gugulethu township in Cape Town where more than 27% of the 325 000 residents are HIV+. It is shown that the implementation of the HIV/AIDS database and the Spatial Information Management System can play a critical role in determining where and when to intervene, improving the quality of care for HIV+ patients, increasing accessibility of service and delivering a cost-effective mode of information. PMID:15239839

  12. How can models better aid the decision processes for the management of water resources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnach, M.; Pahl-Wostl, C.

    2007-12-01

    Despite the long history of development and use of models in policy making, there is still a poor integration between modeling and the decision process. This is influenced by several factors, such as a lack of understanding of models from policy makers, limitations in the applicability and use of models, modeller's behaviour, and a lack of stakeholder involvement in the whole modelling process. But, most relevant of all, is the fact that models are perceived as non reliable tools for policy making, due to the uncertainty associated with them and the lack of confidence this uncertainty generates. Commonly, in fields like natural resource management, and in particular water management, models are build to predict, in space or time, the state of the system to be managed (e.g. real time flood forecasting). These models are then used by policy makers as a surrogate of a real system to inform their decisions. In this view, the efficacy of a model depends on how well it can approximate reality and how much confidence policy makers can have on model's results. However, even though predictive models can be used to convey scientific argumentation that can aid decision making, these models fall short in supporting the processes of negotiation, learning, and communication, which constitute the basis for policy making. In this presentation we explore and discuss the relationship between models used in water resource management and policy making: how models can be used and how uncertainty should be treated depending on the purpose models are supposed to serve. We identify four major modeling purposes that are important for understanding and managing complex environmental systems: prediction, exploratory analysis, communication and learning, and investigate the implications of the different purposes in dealing with uncertainty. In predictive models, the presence of uncertainty is understood as a critical constraint for decision making, and as such it ought to be eliminated or

  13. Effect of land management on soil microbial properties in agricultural terraces of Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Cerdà, Artemi; Garcia-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    Soil quality is important for the sustainable development of terrestrial ecosystems. Agricultural land management is one of most important anthropogenic activities that greatly alters soil characteristics, including physical, chemical, and microbiological properties. The unsuitable land management can lead to a soil fertility loss and to a reduction in the abundance and diversity of soil microorganisms. However, ecological practices and some organic amendments can promote the activities of soil microbial communities, and increase its biodiversity. The microbial soil communities are the most sensitive and rapid indicators of perturbations in land use and soil enzyme activities are sensitive biological indicators of the effects of soil management practices. In this study, a field experiment was performed at clay-loam agricultural soil with an orchard of orange trees in Alcoleja (eastern Spain) to assess the long-term effects of inorganic fertilizers (F), intensive ploughing (P) and sustainable agriculture (S) on the soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), enzyme activities (Urease, ß-glucosidase and phosphatase), basal soil repiration (BSR) and the relationship between them, and soil fertility in agro-ecosystems of Spain. Nine soil samples were taken from each agricultural management plot. In all the samples were determined the basal soil respiration, soil microbial biomass carbon, water holding capacity, electrical conductivity, soil organic carbon, nitrogen, available phosphorus, aggregate stability, cation exchange capacity, phosphorous, pH, texture, carbonates, active limestone and as enzimatic activities: Urease, ß-glucosidase and phosphatase. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial properties, in terms of management practices, which was highly associated with soil organic matter content. The most marked variation in the different parameters studied appears to be related to sustainable agriculture terrace. The management

  14. Participatory evaluation of monitoring and modeling of sustainable land management technologies in areas prone to land degradation.

    PubMed

    Stringer, L C; Fleskens, L; Reed, M S; de Vente, J; Zengin, M

    2014-11-01

    Examples of sustainable land management (SLM) exist throughout the world. In many cases, SLM has largely evolved through local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted on the basis of scientific evidence. This means that SLM technologies are often only adopted across small areas. The DESIRE (DESertIfication mitigation and REmediation of degraded land) project combined local traditional knowledge on SLM with empirical evaluation of SLM technologies. The purpose of this was to evaluate and select options for dissemination in 16 sites across 12 countries. It involved (i) an initial workshop to evaluate stakeholder priorities (reported elsewhere), (ii) field trials/empirical modeling, and then, (iii) further stakeholder evaluation workshops. This paper focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on the scientific monitoring and modeling results from 15 study sites. It analyses workshop outcomes to evaluate how scientific results affected stakeholders' perceptions of local SLM technologies. It also assessed the potential of this participatory approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of empirical measurements and modeling assessments of each technology. Two workshop examples are presented in depth to: (a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and (b) discuss stakeholders' suggestions on how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled. The overall multi-stakeholder participatory approach taken is then evaluated. It is concluded that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be viewed alongside traditional beliefs and both scrutinized with equal rigor; and the knowledge of all kinds of experts must be

  15. Assessing the homogenization of urban land management with an application to US residential lawn care.

    PubMed

    Polsky, Colin; Grove, J Morgan; Knudson, Chris; Groffman, Peter M; Bettez, Neil; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Hall, Sharon J; Heffernan, James B; Hobbie, Sarah E; Larson, Kelli L; Morse, Jennifer L; Neill, Christopher; Nelson, Kristen C; Ogden, Laura A; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath; Pataki, Diane E; Chowdhury, Rinku Roy; Steele, Meredith K

    2014-03-25

    Changes in land use, land cover, and land management present some of the greatest potential global environmental challenges of the 21st century. Urbanization, one of the principal drivers of these transformations, is commonly thought to be generating land changes that are increasingly similar. An implication of this multiscale homogenization hypothesis is that the ecosystem structure and function and human behaviors associated with urbanization should be more similar in certain kinds of urbanized locations across biogeophysical gradients than across urbanization gradients in places with similar biogeophysical characteristics. This paper introduces an analytical framework for testing this hypothesis, and applies the framework to the case of residential lawn care. This set of land management behaviors are often assumed--not demonstrated--to exhibit homogeneity. Multivariate analyses are conducted on telephone survey responses from a geographically stratified random sample of homeowners (n = 9,480), equally distributed across six US metropolitan areas. Two behaviors are examined: lawn fertilizing and irrigating. Limited support for strong homogenization is found at two scales (i.e., multi- and single-city; 2 of 36 cases), but significant support is found for homogenization at only one scale (22 cases) or at neither scale (12 cases). These results suggest that US lawn care behaviors are more differentiated in practice than in theory. Thus, even if the biophysical outcomes of urbanization are homogenizing, managing the associated sustainability implications may require a multiscale, differentiated approach because the underlying social practices appear relatively varied. The analytical approach introduced here should also be productive for other facets of urban-ecological homogenization. PMID:24616515

  16. An exploration of scenarios to support sustainable land management using integrated environmental socio-economic models.

    PubMed

    Fleskens, L; Nainggolan, D; Stringer, L C

    2014-11-01

    Scenario analysis constitutes a valuable deployment method for scientific models to inform environmental decision-making, particularly for evaluating land degradation mitigation options, which are rarely based on formal analysis. In this paper we demonstrate such an assessment using the PESERA-DESMICE modeling framework with various scenarios for 13 global land degradation hotspots. Starting with an initial assessment representing land degradation and productivity under current conditions, options to combat instances of land degradation are explored by determining: (1) Which technologies are most biophysically appropriate and most financially viable in which locations; we term these the "technology scenarios"; (2) how policy instruments such as subsidies influence upfront investment requirements and financial viability and how they lead to reduced levels of land degradation; we term these the "policy scenarios"; and (3) how technology adoption affects development issues such as food production and livelihoods; we term these the "global scenarios". Technology scenarios help choose the best technology for a given area in biophysical and financial terms, thereby outlining where policy support may be needed to promote adoption; policy scenarios assess whether a policy alternative leads to a greater extent of technology adoption; while global scenarios demonstrate how implementing technologies may serve wider sustainable development goals. Scenarios are applied to assess spatial variation within study sites as well as to compare across different sites. Our results show significant scope to combat land degradation and raise agricultural productivity at moderate cost. We conclude that scenario assessment can provide informative input to multi-level land management decision-making processes. PMID:24263675

  17. Development of Ecological Land Classification and mapping in support of forest management in northern Newfoundland, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bajzak, D; Roberts, B A

    1996-01-01

    For the sustainable development of forest land, as recently prescribed by the Canadian Forest Strategy, a land classification project in northern Newfoundland was initiated to support the local forest management activities. The method adopted here is a modification of the Canadian Committee for Ecological Land Classification's (CCELC) system, and it applies various levels of mapping to uniform areas based on geomorphology, soils, vegetation, climate, water, and fauna.In this study, all CCELC levels were mapped; resulting maps were digitized and imported into a Geographic Informations System (GIS). The GIS data base contained the following maps: 1) digital terrain model, 2) bedrock geology, 3) surficial geology, 4) forest inventory, and 5) various levels of the ecological land classification, including Vegetation Types at the lowest level. In addition to the mapping, mensurational data were analyzed to provide stand and stock tables for each of the forest types, including growth curves that could be entered into specific forest growth modelling systems to predict wood supply scenarios based upon different management interventions. PMID:24198006

  18. Temporal change in land use by irrigation source in Tamil Nadu and management implications.

    PubMed

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Kajisa, Kei; Mohammed, Irshad A; Whitbread, Anthony M; Nelson, Andrew; Rala, Arnel; Palanisami, K

    2015-01-01

    Interannual variation in rainfall throughout Tamil Nadu has been causing frequent and noticeable land use changes despite the rapid development in groundwater irrigation. Identifying periodically water-stressed areas is the first and crucial step to minimizing negative effects on crop production. Such analysis must be conducted at the basin level as it is an independent water accounting unit. This paper investigates the temporal variation in irrigated area between 2000-2001 and 2010-2011 due to rainfall variation at the state and sub-basin level by mapping and classifying Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 8-day composite satellite imagery using spectral matching techniques. A land use/land cover map was drawn with an overall classification accuracy of 87.2%. Area estimates between the MODIS-derived net irrigated area and district-level statistics (2000-2001 to 2007-2008) were in 95% agreement. A significant decrease in irrigated area (30-40%) was observed during the water-stressed years of 2002-2003, 2003-2004, and 2009-2010. Major land use changes occurred three times during 2000 to 2010. This study demonstrates how remote sensing can identify areas that are prone to repeated land use changes and pin-point key target areas for the promotion of drought-tolerant varieties, alternative water management practices, and new cropping patterns to ensure sustainable agriculture for food security and livelihoods. PMID:25481120

  19. Office of Inspector General report on audit of proposal to acquire land at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-05

    The US Department of Energy (Department) obtained an appraisal and developed a cost estimate to acquire 78 to 100 acres of privately-held land adjoining the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) as an additional buffer for a waste disposal facility. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the proposed purchase of land was essential to support the site`s mission. The Department obtained an appraisal and developed a cost estimate to acquire the additional land without confirming that av lid need for the land existed. If the land is acquired, the Department could spend between $655,000 and $2.2 million unnecessarily. Additionally, the Department could incur unnecessary maintenance and security costs to maintain the land after acquisition. It was recommended that the Manager, Ohio Field Office, dismiss the proposal to acquire the additional land. Management agreed with the recommendation, stating that the acquisition could not be justified at this time. However, management did not agree with the finding that the Department obtained an appraisal and developed a cost estimate without confirming that a valid need for the land existed. Management stated that the appraisal and cost estimate were principal and necessary to determining whether a need for the land existed. It was concluded that the appraisal and cost estimate should not have been performed because a valid need for the land was never established. Also, it was concluded that it would be inappropriate to reconsider the proposal to acquire the land at a later date if additional funds become available, unless a valid need for the land is first established.

  20. Land use efficiency: anticipating future demand for land-sector greenhouse gas emissions abatement and managing trade-offs with agriculture, water, and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Brett A; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Li, Jing; Navarro, Javier; Connor, Jeffery D

    2015-11-01

    Competition for land is increasing, and policy needs to ensure the efficient supply of multiple ecosystem services from land systems. We modelled the spatially explicit potential future supply of ecosystem services in Australia's intensive agricultural land in response to carbon markets under four global outlooks from 2013 to 2050. We assessed the productive efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions abatement, agricultural production, water resources, and biodiversity services and compared these to production possibility frontiers (PPFs). While interacting commodity markets and carbon markets produced efficient outcomes for agricultural production and emissions abatement, more efficient outcomes were possible for water resources and biodiversity services due to weak price signals. However, when only two objectives were considered as per typical efficiency assessments, efficiency improvements involved significant unintended trade-offs for the other objectives and incurred substantial opportunity costs. Considering multiple objectives simultaneously enabled the identification of land use arrangements that were efficient over multiple ecosystem services. Efficient land use arrangements could be selected that meet society's preferences for ecosystem service provision from land by adjusting the metric used to combine multiple services. To effectively manage competition for land via land use efficiency, market incentives are needed that effectively price multiple ecosystem services. PMID:26147156