Science.gov

Sample records for aid policy makers

  1. Engaging with Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, R.; Miller, S.; Heward, A.

    2011-10-01

    The need to engage with Europe's policy makers is more crucial now than ever. MEPs' understanding of the contribution and importance of planetary science to European research, industry, culture, education and job-creation may have major implications for both the direction of research and future funding for Europe's planetary science community. The mid-term review of the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme is currently in progress and these discussions will feed into the drafting of Framework Eight. With space-going nations around the world redefining priorities, Europe may have an opportunity to take a lead in planetology on a global scale. This should be taken into account when considering planetology within the frameworks of the European Space Policy. This panel discussion, hosted by Dr Robert Massey, Deputy Executive of the Royal Astronomical Session, will look at engaging with policy makers from the point of view of those working in the European Parliament, European Commission, industry, as well as the planetary community.

  2. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Young Adults. and Update on AIDS for Teachers and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.; Newschwander, Gregg E.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles on the topics of (1) sexually transmitted diseases and (2) acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Yarber discusses how these topics should be taught to young people, with emphasis on health education as opposed to morality. Newschwander states the facts related to AIDS, including risks of enrolling infected students.…

  3. Psychologist as Policy-Maker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saks, Michael J.

    Perhaps the most effective way to increase the utilization of behavioral science knowledge by policy-makers is for the behavioral scientist to become one. The psychologist who serves as a policy-maker becomes aware of the policy issues in addition to relevant empirical evidence. The author, a psychologist, relates his experience as a member of a…

  4. Advancing Policy Makers' Expertise in Evidence-Use: A New Approach to Enhancing the Role Research Can Have in Aiding Educational Policy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of evidence-informed policy making and the factors that have hindered its development in the UK to date. It then explores Flyvbjerg's notion of "phronetic" expertise and hypothesises that the learning that accrues from engaging with multiple cases could also lead to policy-makers developing competency…

  5. Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV and AIDS in low- and middle-income countries: policy makers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Olinyk, Shannon; Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate the impact and transform gender relations. However, the effects of these policies have been less than successful. In March 2010 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the Agenda for accelerated country level action on women, girls, gender equality and HIV (the Agenda), an operational plan on how to integrate women, girls and gender equality into the HIV response. This paper explores the perspectives of those involved in developing and implementing the Agenda to understand its strengths and limitations. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 16 individuals involved in the development and implementation of the Agenda. The data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Facilitators of the Agenda centred on the Agenda's ability to create political space for women and girls within the global HIV/AIDS response and the collaborative process of developing the Agenda. Barriers to the implementation and development of the Agenda include the limited financial and non-financial resources, the top-down nature of the Agenda's development and implementation and a lack of political will from within UNAIDS to implement it. We suggest that the Agenda achieved many goals, but its effect was constrained by a wide range of factors. PMID:25388974

  6. Health Needs of People Living with HIV/AIDS: From the Perspective of Policy Makers, Physicians and Consultants, and People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    MORADI, Ghobad; MOHRAZ, Minoo; GOUYA, Mohammad Mehdi; DEJMAN, Masoumeh; SEYEDALINAGHI, SeyedAhmad; KHOSHRAVESH, Sahar; MALEKAFZALI ARDAKANI, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV/AIDS has been concentrated among injecting drug users in the country. This study aimed to investigate and identify health and treatment needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2012 in Iran. The study groups consisted of experts, practitioners, and consultants working with People Living with HIV/AIDS and their families. Data was collected through Focus Group Discussions and deep interviews. Data were analyzed using content analysis method. Results The findings of this study included the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS, which were classified in three main categories. The first category was prevention and counseling services with several sub-groups such as education and public and available consultation, distribution of condoms to vulnerable groups, increasing counseling centers in urban areas, providing appropriate psychological and supportive counseling, and family planning services. The second category included diagnostic and treatment services and had several sub-groups such as full retroviral treatment, Tuberculosis treatment and continuing care, providing care and treatment for patients with hepatitis, and providing dental services. The third category included rehabilitation services and had some sub-categories such as home care, social and psychological support, nutritional support, and empowering positive clubs. Conclusions This study puts emphasis on making plans based on the priorities to meet the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran. PMID:26060705

  7. Interviews: Perceptions of Professionals and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Bruce R.; And Others

    This report presents a summary of exploratory interviews with teachers and educational policy makers conducted to identify issues, problems, and opportunities for constructive change in inservice teacher education (ISTE). Teachers were questioned on (1) feelings toward ISTE in general (relevance, definition, and organization); (2) roles of…

  8. Intellectual Property: Policies and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Diana W.

    2001-01-01

    Used modified version of 1978 National Association of College and University Business Officers survey instrument to investigate intellectual-property policies at 38 (of 210) 4-year institutions of higher education in the 15 Southern Regional Education Board states. Finds, for example, that in the majority of institutions, top administrators are…

  9. Making predictive ecology more relevant to policy makers and practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, William J.; Freckleton, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the aims of ecology is to aid policy makers and practitioners through the development of testable predictions of relevance to society. Here, we argue that this capacity can be improved in three ways. Firstly, by thinking more clearly about the priority issues using a range of methods including horizon scanning, identifying policy gaps, identifying priority questions and using evidence-based conservation to identify knowledge gaps. Secondly, by linking ecological models with models of other systems, such as economic and social models. Thirdly, by considering alternative approaches to generate and model data that use, for example, discrete or categorical states to model ecological systems. We particularly highlight that models are essential for making predictions. However, a key to the limitation in their use is the degree to which ecologists are able to communicate results to policy makers in a clear, useful and timely fashion. PMID:22144394

  10. Automation: Decision Aid or Decision Maker?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skitka, Linda J.

    1998-01-01

    This study clarified that automation bias is something unique to automated decision making contexts, and is not the result of a general tendency toward complacency. By comparing performance on exactly the same events on the same tasks with and without an automated decision aid, we were able to determine that at least the omission error part of automation bias is due to the unique context created by having an automated decision aid, and is not a phenomena that would occur even if people were not in an automated context. However, this study also revealed that having an automated decision aid did lead to modestly improved performance across all non-error events. Participants in the non- automated condition responded with 83.68% accuracy, whereas participants in the automated condition responded with 88.67% accuracy, across all events. Automated decision aids clearly led to better overall performance when they were accurate. People performed almost exactly at the level of reliability as the automation (which across events was 88% reliable). However, also clear, is that the presence of less than 100% accurate automated decision aids creates a context in which new kinds of errors in decision making can occur. Participants in the non-automated condition responded with 97% accuracy on the six "error" events, whereas participants in the automated condition had only a 65% accuracy rate when confronted with those same six events. In short, the presence of an AMA can lead to vigilance decrements that can lead to errors in decision making.

  11. Is Twitter a forum for disseminating research to health policy makers?

    PubMed

    Kapp, Julie M; Hensel, Brian; Schnoring, Kyle T

    2015-12-01

    Findings from scientific research largely remain inside the scientific community. Research scientists are being encouraged to use social media, and especially Twitter, for dissemination of evidence. The potential for Twitter to narrow the gap on evidence translated into policy presents new opportunities. We explored the innovative question of the feasibility of Twitter as a tool for the scientific community to disseminate to and engage with health policy makers for research impact. We created a list of federal "health policy makers." In December 2014, we identified members using several data sources, then collected and summarized their Twitter usage data. Nearly all health policy makers had Twitter accounts. Their communication volume varied broadly. Policy makers are more likely to push information via Twitter than engage with constituents, although usage varied broadly. Twitter has the potential to aid the scientific community in dissemination of health-related research to health policy makers, after understanding how to effectively (and selectively) use Twitter. PMID:26460202

  12. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  13. Media Agendas: The Impact on Citizens and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Margaret T.; And Others

    The effect of a televised investigative news report on opinions of members of the general public, interest group elites, and governmental policy makers and on eventual public policy was studied. By collaboration with an investigative news team, the researchers learned in advance of the subject and air time of an "NBC News Magazine" segment…

  14. Administrators' and Policy Makers' Views of Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Larry E., Ed.; Decker, Virginia A., Ed.

    This compilation of articles presents the views of policy makers and administrators about community education. Following the introduction by Larry Decker titled "Community Education: The Basic Tenets," the articles are contained in three sections. Section 1 (The Potential of Community Education) contains articles titled as follows: "Tomorrow's…

  15. Providing Climate Policy Makers With a Strong Scientific Base (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, E.

    2009-12-01

    Scientists can and should inform public policy decisions in the Arctic. But the pace of climate change in the polar world has been occurring far more quickly than most scientists have been able to predict. This creates problems for decision-makers who recognize that difficult management decisions have to be made in matters pertaining to wildlife management, cultural integrity and economic development. With sea ice melting, glaciers receding, permafrost thawing, forest fires intensifying, and disease and invasive species rapidly moving north, the challenge for scientists to provide climate policy makers with a strong scientific base has been daunting. Clashing as this data sometimes does with the “traditional knowledge” of indigenous peoples in the north, it can also become very political. As a result the need to effectively communicate complex data is more imperative now than ever before. Here, the author describes how the work of scientists can often be misinterpreted or exploited in ways that were not intended. Examples include the inappropriate use of scientific data in decision-making on polar bears, caribou and other wildlife populations; the use of scientific data to debunk the fact that greenhouse gases are driving climate change, and the use of scientific data to position one scientist against another when there is no inherent conflict. This work will highlight the need for climate policy makers to increase support for scientists working in the Arctic, as well as illustrate why it is important to find new and more effective ways of communicating scientific data. Strategies that might be considered by granting agencies, scientists and climate policy decision-makers will also be discussed.

  16. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the

  17. Policy Makers and Researchers Schooling Each Other: Lessons in Educational Policy from New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Deborah H.; Wyckoff, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Policy makers and researchers are intrigued with but also frequently frustrated by each other. Although these differences are understandable and predictable, it is clear that research on a variety of educational issues has been both influential and valuable in the development of policy and practice. There is much to suggest that researchers and…

  18. Turkey's Educational Policies in Central Asia and Caucasia: Perceptions of Policy Makers and Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcali, Pinar; Engin-Demir, Cennet

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the educational policies of Turkey in Central Asia and Caucasia in the post-Soviet era in terms of their successes and failures as perceived by some of the relevant professional policy makers in this field as well as experts from various think-tank institutions in Turkey who are interested in the region.…

  19. Informing in the Information Age: How to Communicate Measurement Concepts to Education Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Forte, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Current educational policies rely on educational assessments. However, the technical aspects of assessments are often unknown to policy makers, which is dangerous because sound assessment policy requires knowledge of the strengths and limitations of educational tests. In this article, we discuss the importance of informing policy makers of…

  20. Social values and solar energy policy: the policy maker and the advocate

    SciTech Connect

    Shama, A.; Jacobs, K.

    1980-07-01

    Solar energy policy makers and advocates have significantly different hierarchies (clusters) of values upon which they evaluate the adoption of solar technologies. Content analysis, which examines the frequency with which policy makers identify different types of values, indicates that they hold economic values to be of primary importance. Environmental, social, and national security values are also substantial elements of the policy makers' value clusters associated with solar energy. This finding is confirmed by a qualitative analysis of policy makers' values. Advocates, on the other hand, assign almost equal weights (33%) to economic values and social values, slightly less weight to environmental values, and significant attention to ethical and security values as well. These results of frequency analysis are made somewhat more complicated by a qualitative interpretation of the advocates' positions. As part of their more holistic approach, several of the advocates indicated that all values discussed by them are instrumental toward achieving higher-order, ethical and environmental values. In addition, our preliminary investigation indicates that neither group is entirely homogeneous. Testing this and other propositions, as well as obtaining a similar picture of the values which the public associates with solar energy, are topics of future research.

  1. A Meeting Place for Policy-Makers and Researchers: The Transatlantic Forum on Inclusive Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Jan; Vandekerckhove, Ankie

    2015-01-01

    While policy-makers and researchers in the field of early childhood education and care (ECEC) often seem to speak different languages, overwhelming research evidence on how quality ECEC can play a key role in alleviating the effects of disadvantage can be extremely relevant for policy-makers. In this article, we focus on how philanthropic…

  2. AIDS policy modeling for the 21st century: an overview of key issues.

    PubMed

    Rauner, M S; Brandeau, M L

    2001-09-01

    Decisions about HIV prevention and treatment programs are based on factors such as program costs and health benefits, social and ethical issues, and political considerations. AIDS policy models--that is, models that evaluate the monetary and non-monetary consequences of decisions about HIV/AIDS interventions--can play a role in helping policy makers make better decisions. This paper provides an overview of the key issues related to developing useful AIDS policy models. We highlight issues of importance for researchers in the field of AIDS policy modeling as well as for policy makers. These include geographic area, setting, target groups, interventions, affordability and effectiveness of interventions, type and time horizon of policy model, and type of economic analysis. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the AIDS policy modeling literature, although many papers from the literature are discussed as examples; rather, we aim to convey the composition, achievements, and challenges of AIDS policy modeling. PMID:11519843

  3. It's All in the Lens: Differences in Views on Obesity Prevention between Advocates and Policy Makers

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ellen; Nguyen, Leah; Kong, Jooyoung; Brownson, Ross C.; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intervention strategies to reduce obesity include policy and environmental changes that are designed to provide opportunities, support, and cues to help people develop healthier behaviors. Policy changes at the state level are one way to influence access, social norms, and opportunities for better nutrition and increased physical activity among the population. Methods: Ten states were selected for a broad variance in obesity rates and number of enacted obesity prevention policies during the years of 2006–2009. Within the selected states, a purely qualitative study of attitudes of childhood obesity policy using semistructured telephone interviews was conducted. Interviews were conducted with state policy makers who serve on public health committees. A set of six states that had more than eight childhood obesity policies enacted were selected for subsequent qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of well-established advocates. Results: Policy makers in states where there was more childhood obesity policy action believed in the evidence behind obesity policy proposals. Policy makers also varied in the perception of obesity as a constituent priority. The major differences between advocates and policy makers included a disconnect in information dissemination, opposition, and effectiveness of these policies. Conclusions: The findings from this study show differences in perceptions among policy makers in states with a greater number of obesity prevention bills enacted. There are differences among policy makers and advocates regarding the role and effectiveness of state policy on obesity prevention. This presents an opportunity for researchers and practitioners to improve communication and translation of evidence to policy makers, particularly in states with low legislation. PMID:22799551

  4. Hiring relatives as caregivers in two states: developing an education and research agenda for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Simon-Rusinowitz, Lori; Garcia, Genevieve Martínez; Martin, Dana; Sadler, Michele Debarthe; Tilly, Jane; Marks, Lori N; Loughlin, Dawn M; Mahoney, Kevin J

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the long-term care needs of the growing aging population is a priority policy issue in the United States. Yet, hiring relatives as caregivers remains a controversial policy issue. This two-state case study reports findings about views from policy experts regarding a policy option to hire family caregivers in home- and community-based long-term care programs. Policy makers also discussed information needed by other states considering this option and effective approaches to disseminate findings about this option from the Cash and Counseling Demonstration Evaluation. Based on the study results, we present an education and research agenda to communicate these findings to policy makers. PMID:20391251

  5. Financial aid policy: lessons from research.

    PubMed

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. Aid now flows not only to traditional college students but also to part-time students, older students, and students who never graduated from high school. Today aid is available not only to low-income students but also to middle- and even high-income families, in the form of grants, subsidized loans, and tax credits. The increasing size and complexity of the nation's student aid system has generated questions about effectiveness, heightened confusion among students and parents, and raised concerns about how program rules may interact. In this article, Susan Dynarski and Judith Scott-Clayton review what is known, and just as important, what is not known, about how well various student aid programs work. The evidence, the authors write, clearly shows that lowering costs can improve college access and completion. But this general rule is not without exception. First, they note, the complexity of program eligibility and delivery appears to moderate the impact of aid on college enrollment and persistence after enrollment. Second, for students who have already decided to enroll, grants that tie financial aid to academic achievement appear to boost college outcomes such as persistence more than do grants with no strings attached. Third, compared with grant aid, relatively little rigorous research has been conducted on the effectiveness of student loans. The paucity of evidence on student loans is particularly problematic both because they represent a large share of student aid overall and because their low cost (relative to grant aid) makes them an attractive option for policy makers. Future research is likely to focus on several issues: the importance of program design and delivery, whether there are unanticipated interactions between

  6. Conference Brings Together Scientists, Policy Makers, and Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, Erik

    2013-08-01

    Incorporating Earth and space science research into policy is integral to supporting any nation's public safety, security, and economy. To help bridge the science and policy fields, AGU convened its second annual Science Policy Conference as a means to engage stakeholders. The meeting, held 24-26 June in Washington, D. C., featured experts from government, industry, academia, media, and nonprofits.

  7. Teacher Education Research and Education Policy-Makers: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Simone

    2016-01-01

    As teacher educators, we want our research to be influential in contributing to educational policy and practice, but there remains little understanding about ways in which teacher educators might more productively engage with each other and policy-makers so as to maximise their research impact. Drawing on an empirical study and policy document…

  8. The importance of engaging policy-makers at the outset to guide research on and introduction of vaccines: the use of policy-maker surveys.

    PubMed

    DeRoeck, Denise

    2004-09-01

    Face-to-face surveys of policy-makers and other influential leaders are a useful tool to identify, at an early stage, (a) major issues regarding the introduction of a new vaccine, (b) persons and groups in a country who play a major decision-making or influential role in the introduction of vaccines, (c) potential obstacles to the introduction of vaccines, and (d) data-needs of policy-makers to overcome these obstacles. By surveying the opinions and beliefs of those who will make or influence decisions on whether to introduce a new vaccine, these studies can help ensure that research activities respond to the needs of policy-makers in countries endemic for the target diseases. These surveys can also inform vaccine-introduction strategies by identifying financially and politically feasible means of distributing, targeting, and financing the vaccines. This paper describes the methodology used in conducting such surveys and discusses methodological issues. It also presents lessons learnt from two policy-maker surveys carried out in several Asian countries in regard to new-generation vaccines against cholera, typhoid fever, and shigellosis; and future vaccines against dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever. PMID:15609785

  9. Getting Research to the Policy Table: A Qualitative Study With Public Health Researchers on Engaging With Policy Makers

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Elizabeth A.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Siddiqi, Sameer; Quinn, Emilee L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little attention has been given to how researchers can best provide evidence to policy makers so that it informs policy making. The objectives of this study were to increase understanding about the current state of public health nutrition and obesity researcher practices, beliefs, barriers, and facilitators to communicating and engaging with policy makers, and to identify best practices and suggest improvements. Methods Eighteen semistructured interviews were conducted from 2011 to 2013 with public health nutrition and obesity researchers who were highly involved in communicating research to policy makers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed to identify common themes. Results Study participants described wide variation in practices for communicating and engaging with policy makers and had mixed beliefs about whether and when researchers should engage. Besides a lack of formal policy communication training, barriers noted were promotion and tenure processes and a professional culture that does not value communicating and engaging with policy makers. Study participants cited facilitators to engaging with policy makers as ranging from the individual level (eg, desire to make a difference, relationships with collaborators) to the institutional level (eg, training/mentorship support, institutional recognition). Other facilitators identified were research- and funding-driven. Promising strategies suggested to improve policy engagement were more formal training, better use of intermediaries, and learning how to cultivate relationships with policy makers. Conclusion Study findings provide insights into the challenges that will need to be overcome and the strategies that might be tried to improve communication and engagement between public health researchers and policy makers. PMID:25927604

  10. HIV/AIDS policy agenda setting in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khodayari - Zarnaq, Rahim; Ravaghi, Hamid; Mohammad Mosaddeghrad, Ali; Sedaghat, Abbas; Mohraz, Minoo

    2016-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS control are one of the most important goals of the health systems. The aim of this study was to determine how HIV/AIDS control was initiated among policy makers’ agenda setting in Iran. Methods: A qualitative research (semi-structured interview) was conducted using Kingdon’s framework (problem, policy and politics streams, and policy windows and policy entrepreneurs) to analysis HIV/AIDS agenda setting in Iran. Thirty-two policy makers, managers, specialists, and researchers were interviewed. Also, 30 policy documents were analyzed. Framework analysis method was used for data analysis. Results: the increase of HIV among Injecting drug users (IDUs) and Female Sex Workers (FSWs), lack of control of their high-risk behaviors, and exceeding the HIV into concentrated phase were examples of problem stream. Policy stream was evidence-based solutions that highlighted the need for changing strategies for dealing with such a problem and finding technically feasible and acceptable solutions. Iran’s participation in United Nations General Assembly special sessions on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS), the establishment of National AIDS Committee; highlighting AIDS control in Iran’s five years development program and the support of the judiciary system of harm reduction policies were examples of politics stream. Policy entrepreneurs linking these streams put the HIV/AIDS on the national agenda (policy windows) and provide their solutions. Conclusion: There were mutual interactions among these three streams and sometimes, they weakened or reinforced each other. Future studies are recommended to understand the interactions between these streams’ parts and perhaps develop further Kingdon’s framework, especially in the health sector. PMID:27579283

  11. Creating a High-Skills Society during Recession: Issues for Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panagiotakopoulos, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    The present study looks at the skill formation policies adopted by policy makers in Greece in order to create a high-skills society. It examines empirically the demand side of the skill creation process within 300 small enterprises in order to understand how far supply-side measures have influenced the demand for well-trained staff within small…

  12. AIDS, the Schools, and Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the discovery of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and describes the biology of the disease. The problem of AIDS among children is discussed and implications for school policy decisions are cited. (Author/MT)

  13. Papal policy, poverty, and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Morley, D

    1990-06-30

    Papal "pronouncements" have been a major cause of the Philippines' increasing poverty, and of its failure to promote the only method proved to limit the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Kenya has a growth rate of 3-4% and will double its population in 17 years. The UK has an average family size of 1.8 children. This is due to contraceptive usage. The poor lack knowledge and funds to ignore the rulings of the Catholic Church. Families will have 7 or more children without access to modern contraceptives. The Philippine elite are 90% Catholic, and disregard church policy and use contraceptives. Therefore, they have small families. Abortion is widely used in Latin America. It is the leading cause of death of women aged 15-39. The Philippines is industrializing rapidly; businessmen, however, do not see a future in producing condoms here. Widespread availability of condoms would limit the spread of AIDS. Mainly surveys show that in 1989 only 5 to 10/1000 prostitutes were positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Other Asian countries have shown large increases in HIV infection occurrence in 2-3 years. Pope John Paul has been telling young people in Burkina Faso that they "must face the plagues of modern times." He did not identify these plaques. However, Monsignore Carlo Cafara, dean of John Paul II's Institute for Marriage and Family Studies at the Vatican, told a recent conference that when 1 partner of a married couple is positive for AIDS, it is preferable to risk catching the AIDS virus than to use condoms. St. Paul would have approved the use of modern contraceptive methods. PMID:2390554

  14. Canadian policy makers' views on pharmaceutical reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts from drug manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Thomson, Paige A; Daw, Jamie R; Friesen, Melissa K

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical policy makers are increasingly negotiating reimbursement contracts that include confidential price terms that may be affected by drug utilization volumes, patterns, or outcomes. Though such contracts may offer a variety of benefits, including the ability to tie payment to the actual performance of a product, they may also create potential policy challenges. Through telephone interviews about this type of contract, we studied the views of officials in nine of ten Canadian provinces. Use of reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts is new in Canada and ideas about power and equity emerged as cross-cutting themes in our interviews. Though confidential rebates can lower prices and thereby increase coverage of new medicines, several policy makers felt they had little power in the decision to negotiate rebates. Study participants explained that the recent rise in the use of rebates had been driven by manufacturers' pricing tactics and precedent set by other jurisdictions. Several policy makers expressed concerns that confidential rebates could result in inter-jurisdictional inequities in drug pricing and coverage. Policy makers also noted un-insured and under-insured patients must pay inflated "list prices" even if rebates are negotiated by drug plans. The establishment of policies for disciplined negotiations, inter-jurisdictional cooperation, and provision of drug coverage for all citizens are potential solutions to the challenges created by this new pharmaceutical pricing paradigm. PMID:23809914

  15. Getting from Here to There: The Roles of Policy Makers and Principals in Increasing Science Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ji; Gerard, Libby; Bowyer, Jane

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate how federal and state policy makers, and school principals are working to improve science teacher quality. Interviews, focused discussions, and policy documents serve as the primary data source. Findings suggest that both policy makers and principals prioritize increasing incentives for teachers entering the science…

  16. How to develop a company AIDS policy.

    PubMed

    Bompey, S H

    1986-07-01

    It is for most businesses only a matter of time before they will have experience with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and the experience could be very costly for companies which fail to implement an effective AIDS policy. Potential AIDS problems include: antidiscrimination suits based on firing or failing to hire an individual who had AIDS or carries the AIDS virus antibodies; defamation suits from employees who are wrongly identified; disability claims that do not fit the pattern for other diseases; civil rights penalties in some situations when AIDS victims are prevented from working; and run-ins with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Labor Relations Board if healthy workers refuse to work alongside AIDS victims. A company needs to think through its AIDS policy, but that does not mean establishing a "special" AIDS policy which may create paranoia among employees. The best approach is to develop a health policy that includes all catastrophic illnesses, not just AIDS. There have been few court decisions involving AIDS because AIDS is a recent illness, victims often do not live long enough to pursue the matter, and it often pays to settle AIDS cases out of court. Employers need to know that judges, administrative agencies, and arbitrators take the position that AIDS is a disability. As such, AIDS is treated under the anti-handicap discrimination laws on the books of most states. Additionally, the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination against the disabled by companies that contract with the federal government or receive federal financial assistance. It usually is illegal to discriminate against the disabled workers, and in some states against workers who are perceived to have a disability. The best defense against the fear of working alongside and AIDs sufferer is education. PMID:12315303

  17. EDUsummIT: A Global Knowledge Building Community for Educational Researchers, Practitioners, and Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kwok-Wing; Voogt, Joke; Knezek, Gerald; Gibson, David

    2016-01-01

    The International Summit on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education (EDUsummIT) is a global knowledge building community of researchers, educational practitioners, and policy makers aiming to create and disseminate ideas and knowledge to promote the integration of ICT in education. Four EDUsummITs have been convened in The…

  18. Before You Decide: What Families Would Like Policy Makers to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Marsha J.; Kendrick, Martie; Chamberlain, Linda; Chesley, Esther; Clement, Stacie; Cummings, Dawn; Henri-Mackenzie, Sue; Labbe, Tonya; MacDonald, Janice; McNally, Diana; Niles, Nancy; Raymond, Roberta; Russell, Candice

    This booklet, developed by parents of children with developmental disabilities, is intended to help policy makers understand major parental concerns about raising a child with a disability. The specific issues addressed are: (1) the special needs of families with a disabled child; (2) the right to community integration; (3) the continuing…

  19. Syneducational Transactions among Students, Parents, Educators and Policy Makers: The Transdisciplinary Program SYNTHESIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kekes, Ioannis; Mylonakou, Iro

    2006-01-01

    Modern society is characterized by complexity, uncertainty and fuzziness, and people need to re-examine their strategies as well as their way of thinking as a whole in order to cope with the problems that emerge. This project attempts to reinforce syneducational transactions among people (students, parents, educators, policy makers) who are…

  20. Implementing State Standards for Science Education: What District Policy Makers Make of the Hoopla.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Callahan, Karen A.

    2000-01-01

    Explores school districts' responses to state science standards and examines the ideas about science education that district policy makers construct from these standards. A cause of failing to implement state science standards, rarely examined in the literature, concerns the ways in which local implementers miss or misconstrue the intent of policy…

  1. Class Size: The Issue for Policy Makers in the State of Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishi, Shannon

    A review of literature on class size is the purpose of this report. Included are a summary of four meta analyses (Robinson and Wittebols 1986), (Cone 1978), and (Glass and Smith 1978 and 1979); a discussion of research methodologies; recommendations for policy makers; and alternative strategies for class size reduction. Appendices present…

  2. When health services researchers and policy makers interact: tales from the tectonic plates.

    PubMed

    Martens, Patricia J; Roos, Noralou P

    2005-09-01

    There has been a strong push over the last decade for health services researchers to become "relevant," to work with policy makers to translate evidence into action. What has been learned from this interaction? The pooled experiences of health services researchers across the country, including those at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP), suggest five key lessons. First, policy makers pay more attention to research findings if they have invested their own funds and time. Second, researchers must make major investments in building relationships with policy makers, because there are inevitable tensions between what the two parties need and do. Third, researchers must be able to figure out and communicate the real meaning of their results. Fourth, health services researchers need a "back-pocket" mindset, as they cannot count on immediate uptake of results; because the issues never go away, evidence, if known and easily retrievable, is likely to have an eventual impact. Finally, getting evidence into the policy process does not come cheaply or easily, but it can be done. The overriding lesson learned by health services researchers is the importance of relationship-building, whether in formalizing contractual relationships, building and maintaining personal trust, having a communications strategy or increasing the involvement of users in the research process. PMID:19308104

  3. Natural Hazards and Climate Change: Making the Link for Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folger, P.

    2003-04-01

    Debate about global warming in the U.S. Congress often deteriorates when proposals for restricting consumption of fossil fuels, and thus curtailing carbon dioxide emissions, is mentioned. The negative economic implications of curtailing CO2 emissions often stifle Congressional thinking about strategies to deal with climate change. Some policy makers often malign climate change research as irrelevant to their citizens, e.g. why is simulating temperature trends 100 years into the future meaningful to their voters? An alternative approach is to connect climate change with ongoing natural events such as severe weather, drought and floods. These extreme events may or may not be exacerbated by anthropogenic CO2 emissions, but policy makers can debate and legislate approaches to mitigate against natural hazards now without mentioning carbon. What strategy might connect research results on understanding climate change and natural hazards mitigation in their minds? 1. Identify a specific situation where a key legislator's voters are threatened or affected by extreme natural phenomena, 2. Suggest a policy approach that provides protection or relief for those constituents, 3. Help the policy maker vet the idea within and without the scientific community, 4.Turn that idea into legislation and advocate for its passage.

  4. Literacy and life skills education for vulnerable youth: What policy makers can do

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Anna Caroline; Yorozu, Rika; Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn

    2014-04-01

    In countries with a high concentration of youth with low literacy levels, the policy and programming task related to education and training is particularly daunting. This note briefly presents policies and practices which have been put in place to provide vulnerable youth with literacy and life skills education. It is based on a multi-country research study undertaken by the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) in cooperation with the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD Canada; previously Canadian International Development Agency, CIDA), and on subsequent policy dialogue forums with policy makers, practitioners, researchers and youth representatives held in Africa, the Arab region and Asia. Built on this review of existing policies and their implementation, this note provides lessons for innovative practices and suggests six concrete ways to address the needs of vulnerable youth through literacy and life skills education.

  5. Communicating Scientific Findings to Lawyers, Policy-Makers, and the Public (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.

  6. Factors that explain how policy makers distribute resources to mental health services.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Watson, Amy C

    2003-04-01

    Advocates hope to influence the resource allocation decisions of legislators and other policy makers to capture more resources for mental health programs. Findings from social psychological research suggest factors that, if pursued, may improve advocacy efforts. In particular, allocation decisions are affected by policy makers' perceptions of the scarcity of resources, effectiveness of specific programs, needs of people who have problems that are served by these programs, and extent of personal responsibility for these problems. These perceptions are further influenced by political ideology. Conservatives are motivated by a tendency to punish persons who are perceived as having personal responsibility for their problems by withholding resources, whereas liberals are likely to avoid tough allocation decisions. Moreover, these perceptions are affected by political accountability, that is, whether politicians perceive that their constituents will closely monitor their decisions. Just as the quality of clinical interventions improves when informed by basic research on human behavior, the efforts of mental health advocates will be advanced when they understand the psychological forces that affect policy makers' decisions about resources. PMID:12663837

  7. Knowledge and Attitudes of a Number of Iranian Policy-makers towards Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Shamshiri-Milani, Hourieh; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Akbari, Feizollah

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Unsafe and illegal abortions are the third leading cause of maternal death. It affects physical, emotional and social health of women and their families. Abortion is a multi-dimensional phenomenon with several social, legal, and religious implications. The views of policy-makers affect the approach to abortion in every society. Understanding the attitudes and knowledge of high-ranking decision makers towards abortion was the purpose of this study. Materials and Methods A qualitative research was implemented by carrying out individual interviews with 29 out of a selection of 80 presidents of medical sciences universities, senior executive managers in the legal system, forensic medicine and decision-makers in the health system and a number of top Muslim clerics, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data gathering. Content analysis revealed the results. Results There were considerable unwillingness and reluctance among the interviewees to participate in the study. The majority of participants fairly knew about the prevalence of illegal abortions and their complications. There was strong agreement on abortion when health of the mother or the fetus was at risk. Abortion for reproductive health reasons was supported by a minority of the respondents. The majority of them disagreed with abortion when pregnancy was the result of a rape, temporary marriage or out of wedlock affairs. Making decision for abortion by the pregnant mother, as a matter of her right, did not gain too much approval. Conclusion It seemed that physical health of the mother or the fetus was of more importance to the respondents than their mental or social health. The mother's hardship was not any indication for induced abortion in the viewpoints of the interviewed policy-makers. Strengthening family planning programs, making appropriate laws in lines with religious orders and advocacy programs targeting decision makers are determined as strategies for improving women's health rights

  8. Green buildings in Malaysia towards greener environment: challenges for policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaida, M. S.; Tan, K. L.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    The launch of the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) in 2009 is a manifesto of the government's seriousness in implementing "green" initiatives for the country. Specifically for buildings, the government promotes the application of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) and the application of green building index. With the introduction of Low Carbon Cities Framework, Green Pass, Green Neighbourhood, Green Building Index by various agencies and organisations in Malaysia, it is time to look back and see how all these tools could come together. This paper attempts to identify the challenges in harmonising the green initiatives for policy makers toward greener environment for sustainability.

  9. How do the public and policy makers communicate their perceptions of environmental risk to academics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    This paper investigates the ways that the public and policy makers talk about environmental risk to academics. The case study is heavy-metal contamination of food in Zambia, Southern Africa. In several localities in Zambia, urban agriculture is practised using heavy-metal contamination wastewater for irrigation. This leads to contaminated food crops that are subsequently consumed. One case study site where this occurs is Chunga, situated in the northwest of the Zambian capital: Lusaka. For members of the public, six focus groups were carried out at the Chunga, Zambia study site, involving a total of 48 participants. The participants were those involved in urban agriculture through cultivation, selling and consumption of food crops. Urban agriculturalist focus group participants were recruited through key field informants. Focus group discussion starter questions involved pollution awareness, health impacts of pollution in the area and who is responsible for communicating environmental contamination risks to the general population. For policy stakeholders, 39 semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals from various organisations including government ministries, non-governmental organisations, community based organisations and international institutions. Semi-structured interviews investigated the perceived major health issues in Zambia, food safety, environmental contamination and specifically heavy-metal contamination. Policy stakeholders were identified through policy mapping and organisations mentioned in focus group discussions and other interviews. The results at the Chunga study site show that members of the public perceive: (i) heavy metal pollution is not an issue in Lusaka and for their irrigation practices, (ii) dirty food can cause illness, (iii) heavy metals in foods can cause illness but they are not present at the Chunga site. Amongst urban agriculturalists the quantity of food available is the greatest issue, with some saying that they

  10. Views of City, County, and State Policy Makers About Childhood Obesity in New York State, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Rebecca; Lundell, Helen; Meyerson, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction No single solution exists to reduce rates of childhood obesity in the United States, but public policy action is essential. A greater understanding of policy maker views on childhood obesity would provide insight into ways that public health advocates can overcome barriers to propose, enact, and implement obesity prevention policies. Methods We conducted 48 in-depth, qualitative interviews with town/city, county, and state policy makers in the state of New York from December 14, 2010, through June 10, 2011. We used a semistructured interview protocol to solicit policy maker views on the causes of, solutions to, and responsibility for addressing the issue of childhood obesity. Results Most policy makers considered the issue of childhood obesity to be of high importance. Respondents cited changes to family structures as a major cause of childhood obesity, followed by changes in the external environment and among children themselves. Respondents offered varied solutions for childhood obesity, with the most common type of solution being outside of the respondent’s sphere of policy influence. Policy makers cited the need for joint responsibility among parents, government, schools, and the food industry to address childhood obesity. Conclusion Beliefs of many policy makers about childhood obesity are similar to those of the general public. Findings highlight the need for future research to inform the development of communication strategies to promote policy action among those with authority to pass and implement it. PMID:24262027

  11. Communicating Prevention Messages to Policy Makers: The Role of Stories in Promoting Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Katherine A.; McBride, Timothy D.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2014-01-01

    Background While effective interventions to promote physical activity have been identified, efforts to translate these interventions into policy have lagged behind. In order to improve the translation of evidence into policy, researchers and public health practitioners need to consider new ways for communicating health promoting messages to state and local policymakers. Methods In this article, we describe issues related to the translation of evidence supporting physical activity promotion, and offer some communication approaches and tools that are likely to be beneficial in translating research to policy. Results We discuss the use of narrative (i.e., stories) and describe its potential role in improving communication of research in policy-making settings. In addition, we provide an outline for the development and design of policy briefs on physical activity, and for how to target these briefs effectively to policy-oriented audiences. Conclusions Improvements in researchers' and practitioners' abilities to translate the evidence they generate into high-quality materials for policy makers can greatly enhance efforts to enact policies that promote physical activity. PMID:20440020

  12. Communicating Geosciences with Policy-makers: a Grand Challenge for Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, W. J.; Walls, M. R.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists interested in the broader societal impacts of their research can make a meaningful contribution to policy making in our changing world. Nevertheless, policy and public decision making are the least frequently cited Broader Impacts in proposals and funded projects within NSF's Geosciences Directorate. Academic institutions can play a lead role by introducing this societal dimension of our profession to beginning students, and by enabling interdisciplinary research and promoting communication pathways for experienced career geoscientists. Within the academic environment, the public interface of the geosciences can be presented through curriculum content and creative programs. These include undergraduate minors in economics or public policy designed for scientists and engineers, and internships with policy makers. Federal research institutions and other organizations provide valuable policy-relevant experiences for students. Academic institutions have the key freedom of mission to tackle interdisciplinary research challenges at the interface of geoscience and policy. They develop long-standing relationships with research partners, including national laboratories and state geological surveys, whose work may support policy development and analysis at local, state, regional, and national levels. CSM's Payne Institute for Earth Resources awards mini-grants for teams of researchers to develop collaborative research efforts between engineering/science and policy researchers. Current work in the areas of nuclear generation and the costs of climate policy and on policy alternatives for capturing fugitive methane emissions are examples of work at the interface between the geosciences and public policy. With academic engagement, geoscientists can steward their intellectual output when non-scientists translate geoscience information and concepts into action through public policies.

  13. Climate Change Boot Camps: Targeting Policy Makers and Outreach Trainers in Arizona to Improve Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Guido, Z. S.; Buizer, J.; Roy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Bringing climate change issues into focus for decision makers is a growing challenge. Decision makers are often confronted with unique informational needs, a lack of useable information, and needs for customized climate change training, among other issues. Despite significant progress in improving climate literacy among certain stakeholders such as water managers, recent reports have highlighted the growing demand for climate-change information in regions and sectors across the US. In recent years many ventures have sprung up to address these gaps and have predominantly focused on K-12 education and resource management agencies such as the National Park Service and National Weather Service. However, two groups that are critical for integrating climate information into actions have received less attention: (1) policy makers and (2) outreach experts, such as Cooperative Extension agents. Climate Change Boot Camps (CCBC) is a joint effort between the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS)—a NOAA Regionally Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) program—and researchers at Arizona State University to diagnose climate literacy and training gaps in Arizona and develop a process that converts these deficiencies into actionable knowledge among the two aforementioned groups. This presentation will highlight the initial phases of the CCBC process, which has as its outcomes the identification of effective strategies for reaching legislators, climate literacy and training needs for both policy makers and trainers, and effective metrics to evaluate the success of these efforts. Specific attention is given to evaluating the process from initial needs assessment to the effectiveness of the workshops. Web curriculum and training models made available on the internet will also be developed, drawing on extensive existing Web resources for other training efforts and converted to meet the needs of these two groups. CCBC will also leverage CLIMAS’ long history of

  14. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  15. Pups in the Shark Tank: how marine studies graduates influence Washington's policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, A. J.; Conathan, M.; English, C. A.; Mace, A.; Meyer, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Since established in 1979, nearly 900 graduate students have been awarded a John A. Knauss Sea Grant Marine Policy Fellowship. Named after former Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Dean of Oceanography at University of Rhode Island, and one of the founders of Sea Grant, this annual fellowship places post-graduate degree students in offices within the executive and legislative branches of government to work on ocean policy issues in Washington, DC. Fellows serve as professional staff within their offices and work on a wide range of tasks including advising agency and Congressional leadership on marine science and policy issues, synthesizing scientific information for use in a decision making context, and overseeing enactment of legislation. Alumni are now infused into every level of the ocean world and play prominent roles in national and international marine policy development, acting in various venues ranging from NGO leaders to Congressional staff, academia to natural resource agency decision-makers. In fact, NOAA's current Chief of Staff is a former Knauss fellow. Here we describe this unique educational experience, lessons learned navigating ocean and climate issues at the science-policy interface, and how early career policy fellowships strengthen and catalyze the link between science and policy in a world where such connections are increasingly important.

  16. Policy Scholars Are from Venus: Policy Makers Are from Mars. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert

    This paper rebuts four common assumptions underlying criticisms of higher education policy scholarship and policy making. The first assumption, policymakers agree on the nature of policy problems and therefore on the kinds of research needed, is rebutted by noting that actually, there is no way to identify and research all possible future policy…

  17. Monitoring and Predicting Railway Noise and its Large-Scale Impact on the Environment; a Tool for Policy-Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, G.

    1996-05-01

    The social pressure to decrease noise nuisance caused by rail transport lines is growing rapidly. The solutions realized by the railway companies are often only effective locally and are specified without taking note of future European transport flows. In order to evolve their new policy the Dutch Railway company (NS) is developing a special purpose Geographical Information System. By means of this system it is possible to calculate the acoustic consequences of different future plans on a national or international scale. The input parameters of the system are the number of trains to be expected on the different lines, train speeds, train types, the noise nuisance law concerned, and the amount of sound reduction on specific trains and tracks. The acoustic consequences are quantified either as costs for noise barriers and sound-insulating measures in houses or as the area or number of people living within one specific equal noise level contour. The system gives policy-makers insight into the effects of certain sound reduction measures, of changes in the noise nuisance law and future transport flows. Results of studies show that the system can be a useful aid when making choices between investing in certain acoustic measures to be taken at the source or taking measures along the propagation path. In addition the system is useful as a monitoring system. Thus it is possible to quantify the effects of policy implementation and independent developments.

  18. Students with Disabilities: Financial Aid Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanin, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes some of the special financial aid needs of students with disabilities and the policy implications of those needs. It focuses on the financial burdens of having a disability, the time demands faced by those with disabilities, the multiple and complex sources from which students with disabilities derive support, and the…

  19. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Berentzen, C A; van Montfrans, G A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Design Observational study. Setting 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university hospitals. Intervention A standard hot meal collected from the institutional staff canteens on three random days. Main outcome measure Salt content of the meals measured with an ion selective electrode assay. Results The mean salt content of the meals (7.1 g, SE 0.2 g) exceeded the total daily recommended salt intake of 6 g and was high at all locations: 6.9 g (0.4 g) at the Department of Health and National Health Council; 6.0 g (0.9 g) at the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority; 7.4 g (0.5 g) at university hospital staff canteens; and 7.0 g (0.3 g) at non-university hospital staff canteens. With data from a national food consumption survey, the estimated total mean daily salt intake in people who ate these meals was 15.4 g. This translates into a 23-36% increase in premature cardiovascular mortality compared with people who adhere to the recommended levels of salt intake. Conclusion If salt policy makers eat at their institutional canteens they might consume too much salt, which could put their health at risk. PMID:22187322

  20. Media, Health Workers, and Policy Makers' Relationship and Their Impact on Antimalarial Policy Adoption: A Population Genetics Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Malisa, Allen; Pearce, Richard; Mutayoba, Benezeth; Abdullah, Salim; Mshinda, Hassan; Kachur, Patrick; Bloland, Peter; Roper, Cally

    2011-01-01

    Drug resistance negatively impacts malaria treatments, making treatment policy revision unavoidable. So far, studies relating sociopolitical and technical issues on policy change with malaria parasite genetic change are lacking. We have quantified the effect of malaria treatment policy on drug pressure and the influence of the media, policy makers, and health worker relationship on parasite population genetic change in Kilombro/Ulanga district. Cross-sectional surveys of asymptomatic infections conducted before, during and after the switch from chloroquine to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine were used for genetic analysis of SP resistance genes in 4,513 asymptomatic infections identified, and their frequency change was compared with retrospective study of the documented process of policy change. Highly significant changes of dhfr and dhps resistance alleles occurred within one year of switch to SP first line, followed by a decline of their rate of selection caused by reduction of SP usage, as a result of negative media reports on SP usage and lack of adequate preparations. PMID:22347670

  1. Reproductive tourism in Argentina: clinic accreditation and its implications for consumers, health professionals and policy makers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elise; Behrmann, Jason; Martin, Carolina; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2010-08-01

    A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To date, the focus of attention has been on the thriving medical and reproductive tourism sectors in Asia and Eastern Europe; there has been much less consideration given to more recent 'players' in Latin America, notably fertility clinics in Chile, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. In this paper, we examine the context-specific ethical and policy implications of private Argentinean fertility clinics that market reproductive services via the internet. Whether or not one agrees that reproductive services should be made available as consumer goods, the fact is that they are provided as such by private clinics around the world. We argue that basic national regulatory mechanisms are required in countries such as Argentina that are marketing fertility services to local and international publics. Specifically, regular oversight of all fertility clinics is essential to ensure that consumer information is accurate and that marketed services are safe and effective. It is in the best interests of consumers, health professionals and policy makers that the reproductive tourism industry adopts safe and responsible medical practices. PMID:19508291

  2. Lessons from Oil Pollution Research: Consensus, Controversy, and Education of Policy Makers and the Public.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    Controversies concerning scientific research findings, consensus of a majority of expert scientists, and attempts by vested interest groups to offer alternative interpretations from the consensus with the goal of influencing policy makers" and the public's understanding is not a new phenomenon with respect to complex environmental issues. For example, controversies about new scientific research findings from studies of oil spills and other aspects of petroleum and petroleum refined product inputs, fates and effects in the marine environment intensified in the late 1960s to early 1970s and continues today as evidenced by ongoing debates surrounding the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. This paper provides an overview of the interactions between authentic new scientific findings with respect to oil pollution in the marine environment in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the consensus gained in the ensuing years by continued research, and through various science - policy processes, and a spectrum of concomitant public education efforts. Lessons learned from this ongoing process may be instructive to current debates in other arenas of environmental science.

  3. The Policy Maker's Anguish: Regulating Personal Data Behavior Between Paradoxes and Dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compañó, Ramón; Lusoli, Wainer

    Regulators in Europe and elsewhere are paying great attention to identity, privacy and trust in online and converging environments. Appropriate regulation of identity in a ubiquitous information environment is seen as one of the major drivers of the future Internet economy. Regulation of personal identity data has come to the fore including mapping conducted on digital personhood by the OECD; work on human rights and profiling by the Council of Europe andmajor studies by the European Commission with regard to self-regulation in the privacy market, electronic identity technical interoperability and enhanced safety for young people. These domains overlap onto an increasingly complex model of regulation of individuals' identity management, online and offline. This chapter argues that policy makers struggle to deal with issues concerning electronic identity, due to the apparently irrational and unpredictable behavior of users when engaging in online interactions involving identity management. Building on empirical survey evidence from four EU countries, we examine the first aspect in detail - citizens' management of identity in a digital environment. We build on data from a large scale (n = 5,265) online survey of attitudes to electronic identity among young Europeans (France, Germany, Spain, UK) conducted in August 2008. The survey asked questions about perceptions and acceptance of risks, general motivations, attitudes and behaviors concerning electronic identity. Four behavioral paradoxes are identified in the analysis: a privacy paradox (to date well known), but also a control paradox, a responsibility paradox and an awareness paradox. The chapter then examines the paradoxes in relation of three main policy dilemmas framing the debate on digital identity. The paper concludes by arguing for an expanded identity debate spanning policy circles and the engineering community.

  4. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2006-01-01

    require patients who have been successfully treated with heroin in Canada, to be forced to move back to less effective treatments (treatments that failed to be efficacious in the past)? This essay discusses this dilemma and places it in the broader context of ethics, science, and health policy. It makes the case for continuation of the current successful patients in heroin treatment and the institution of heroin treatment to all Canadian patients living with active addictions who qualify. PMID:16670010

  5. Lessons learnt for Public Policy Maker from Relocation of Tsunami Affected Villagers in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamthonkiat, Daroonwan; Thuy Vu, Tuong

    2013-04-01

    facilities such as water, electricity and dumping area were not enough supported in some donated areas. 3)A lot of fishermen had turned to wage-earners or unfamiliar jobs to earn for their living. Some were jobless more than a year after relocation because of less skill for other jobs, high competition for less vacancies and no capital to start their small business. 4)After a few years of relocation and adaptation in the donated houses, we found that old and young generation became a major residence while much of the working generation fishermen went back to their villages for their fishing career. Some of them leaved the right of living in the donated houses by renting out to non-tsunami impact people or leaving their houses abandoned. As a lesson learnt from the relocation of the tsunami impact villagers in Thailand during 2005 - 2010, we could summarize some critical concerns for government policy makers as listed; 1)The government may support the certificate of the ownership or title deed with some conditions to the villagers who occupied on their lands before the conservative zones were announced. They should have the right to stay further and do eco-friendly activities for earning their lives. The villagers have no right to transfer the title deed or certificate to the third parties. Only eco-friendly equipments are permitted for fishing in this area. 2)After relocation to the higher ground, basic facilities (such as water, electricity and dumping area) should be sufficiently furnished. 3)Not only skill practicing for career options should be supported, finding job vacancy should run in parallel to ensure that the tsunami impact villagers can afford their living. 4)For reducing the right transfer or leaving the donated houses abandoned, annual or continuous survey to these residences should be conducted by government sectors until 80% of them had settled on their careers and adaptations. Location analysis should be conducted before construction of houses for disaster

  6. Lessons learnt for Public Policy Maker from Relocation of Tsunami Affected Villagers in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamthonkiat, Daroonwan; Thuy Vu, Tuong

    2013-04-01

    facilities such as water, electricity and dumping area were not enough supported in some donated areas. 3)A lot of fishermen had turned to wage-earners or unfamiliar jobs to earn for their living. Some were jobless more than a year after relocation because of less skill for other jobs, high competition for less vacancies and no capital to start their small business. 4)After a few years of relocation and adaptation in the donated houses, we found that old and young generation became a major residence while much of the working generation fishermen went back to their villages for their fishing career. Some of them leaved the right of living in the donated houses by renting out to non-tsunami impact people or leaving their houses abandoned. As a lesson learnt from the relocation of the tsunami impact villagers in Thailand during 2005 - 2010, we could summarize some critical concerns for government policy makers as listed; 1)The government may support the certificate of the ownership or title deed with some conditions to the villagers who occupied on their lands before the conservative zones were announced. They should have the right to stay further and do eco-friendly activities for earning their lives. The villagers have no right to transfer the title deed or certificate to the third parties. Only eco-friendly equipments are permitted for fishing in this area. 2)After relocation to the higher ground, basic facilities (such as water, electricity and dumping area) should be sufficiently furnished. 3)Not only skill practicing for career options should be supported, finding job vacancy should run in parallel to ensure that the tsunami impact villagers can afford their living. 4)For reducing the right transfer or leaving the donated houses abandoned, annual or continuous survey to these residences should be conducted by government sectors until 80% of them had settled on their careers and adaptations. Location analysis should be conducted before construction of houses for disaster

  7. More of the same? Conflicting perspectives of obesity causation and intervention amongst overweight people, health professionals and policy makers.

    PubMed

    Greener, Joe; Douglas, Flora; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted in the United Kingdom of the perceptions of overweight individuals, as well as health professionals and policy makers working in the area of obesity prevention and weight management. In 2006-2007, we conducted interviews with 34 men and women (18-50 years old) who self identified as being overweight; 20 health professionals; and 9 policy makers. We explored their understandings of the causes of obesity/overweight; beliefs about factors that enabled or inhibited weight loss/gain; and opinions regarding effective obesity/overweight interventions. We found a range of views, which corresponded with biomedical and socio-ecological perspectives of health and disease. The lay overweight respondents viewed the problem of obesity arising from their personal shortcomings (i.e. motivational and physical), juxtaposed to blame-absolving accounts often involving specific challenges associated with day-to-day living. All respondents presented personal stories of complex battles of short-term weight loss and longer-term weight gain, usually characterised by a sense of failure. All expressed a strong sense of personal responsibility to overcome their weight problems, and looked to another not-yet-tried, technocratic weight loss programme to address the problem, despite all reporting past failures. Health professionals and policy makers on the other hand viewed obesity as a socio-ecologically determined problem, detailing social and environmental explanations. Health professionals were more inclined towards individual-orientated weight management interventions as effective responses. Policy makers considered environmental and social policy changes as most likely to make a substantial difference to current obesity trends, but considered it unlikely that such policies would be implemented without the political will and popular support. Our data highlight dissonance between policy maker, health professional and public

  8. Considering the cumulative risk of mixtures of chemicals – A challenge for policy makers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The current paradigm for the assessment of the health risk of chemical substances focuses primarily on the effects of individual substances for determining the doses of toxicological concern in order to inform appropriately the regulatory process. These policy instruments place varying requirements on health and safety data of chemicals in the environment. REACH focuses on safety of individual substances; yet all the other facets of public health policy that relate to chemical stressors put emphasis on the effects of combined exposure to mixtures of chemical and physical agents. This emphasis brings about methodological problems linked to the complexity of the respective exposure pathways; the effect (more complex than simple additivity) of mixtures (the so-called 'cocktail effect'); dose extrapolation, i.e. the extrapolation of the validity of dose-response data to dose ranges that extend beyond the levels used for the derivation of the original dose-response relationship; the integrated use of toxicity data across species (including human clinical, epidemiological and biomonitoring data); and variation in inter-individual susceptibility associated with both genetic and environmental factors. Methods In this paper we give an overview of the main methodologies available today to estimate the human health risk of environmental chemical mixtures, ranging from dose addition to independent action, and from ignoring interactions among the mixture constituents to modelling their biological fate taking into account the biochemical interactions affecting both internal exposure and the toxic potency of the mixture. Results We discuss their applicability, possible options available to policy makers and the difficulties and potential pitfalls in implementing these methodologies in the frame of the currently existing policy framework in the European Union. Finally, we suggest a pragmatic solution for policy/regulatory action that would facilitate the evaluation of

  9. Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers. J.Bouma Em. Prof. Soil Science, Wageningen University, the Netherlands During the last decade, the spectacular development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has strongly increased the accessible amount of data and information for stakeholders and policy makers and the science community is struggling to adjust to these developments. In the Netherlands not only industry has now a major impact on the research agenda but this is now to be extended to citizens at large. Rather than complain about an apparent "gap" between science and society and wrestle with the challenge to bridge it in a rather reactive manner, the science community would be well advised to initiate a proactive approach, showing that knowledge implies a deep understanding of issues and processes that does not necessarily follow from having data and information. The "gap" certainly applies to soil research in the context of sustainable development where many often well informed stakeholders are involved with widely different opinions, norms and values. Changes are suggested in the manner in which we frame our work: (i) longer involvement with projects from initiation to implementation in practice; (ii) active role of "knowledge brokers" who inject the right type of knowledge during the entire project run in a joint-learning mode, and (iii) not proposing new research from a science perspective but demonstrating a clear need because existing knowledge is inadequate. Yet more conceptual discussions about e.g. inter- and transdisciplinarity, worrysome soil degradation and lack of professional recognition are less meaningful than specific case studies demonstrating the crucial role of soil science when analysing land-based environmental problems. New narratives are needed instead of statistics, openness to learn from best practices and pilot projects as a necessary next step beyond awareness raising. Soil

  10. Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates: Outreach for the public and policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Yannick

    2010-05-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), via its official collaborating center in Norway, GRID-Arendal, is in the process of implementing a Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates. Global reservoirs of methane gas have long been the topic of scientific discussion both in the realm of environmental issues such as natural forces of climate change and as a potential energy resource for economic development. Of particular interest are the volumes of methane locked away in frozen molecules known as clathrates or hydrates. Our rapidly evolving scientific knowledge and technological development related to methane hydrates makes these formations increasingly prospective to economic development. In addition, global demand for energy continues, and will continue to outpace supply for the foreseeable future, resulting in pressure to expand development activities, with associated concerns about environmental and social impacts. Understanding the intricate links between methane hydrates and 1) natural and anthropogenic contributions to climate change, 2) their role in the carbon cycle (e.g. ocean chemistry) and 3) the environmental and socio-economic impacts of extraction, are key factors in making good decisions that promote sustainable development. As policy makers, environmental organizations and private sector interests seek to forward their respective agendas which tend to be weighted towards applied research, there is a clear and imminent need for a an authoritative source of accessible information on various topics related to methane gas hydrates. The 2008 United Nations Environment Programme Annual Report highlighted methane from the Arctic as an emerging challenge with respect to climate change and other environmental issues. Building upon this foundation, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, in conjunction with experts from national hydrates research groups from Canada, the US, Japan, Germany, Norway, India and Korea, aims to provide a multi-thematic overview of the key

  11. Small area comparisons of health: applications for policy makers and challenges for researchers.

    PubMed

    Veugelers, Paul J; Hornibrook, Shane

    2002-01-01

    It is a challenge to researchers to present their results in a way that serves the needs of health policy makers. Small area maps of life expectancy provide an insightful presentation. In this study, we pursued small area comparisons on a scale that is smaller than is currently available on a province-wide basis. We visualized Nova Scotia's provincial variation in health and identified the Cape Breton Regional Municipality and Halifax's disadvantaged "North End" neighbourhood as areas with major health concerns. The observed health differences are only partially explained by socioeconomic factors such as income and unemployment. The study also demonstrated the feasibility of small area comparisons at the level of census consolidated subdivisions and neighbourhoods. There are various methodological challenges for researchers, however: allocation procedures such as the postal code-conversion-file may introduce substantial error; the application of appropriate spatial smoothing procedures is crucial to the interpretation of regional variation in health; and the migration of frail individuals to nursing homes affects the geographic variation in health. PMID:12443566

  12. Meeting the Induction Needs of Beginning Music Teachers: What Can Policy-Makers and Program Designers Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Colleen M.

    Using data from a longitudinal study of beginning music teachers in Michigan, this paper examines how policy makers and induction program designers can provide for the content-specific induction needs of music teachers. The study examined beginning music teachers' early teaching experiences, how school districts and communities supported their…

  13. What Can Instructors and Policy Makers Learn about Web-Supported Learning through Web-Usage Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Anat; Nachmias, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a Web-log based tool for evaluating pedagogical processes occurring in Web-supported academic instruction and students' attitudes. The tool consists of computational measures which demonstrate what instructors and policy makers can learn about Web-supported instruction through Web-usage mining. The tool can provide different…

  14. Incorporating Youth Development Principles into Adolescent Health Programs: A Guide for State-Level Practitioners & Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Becky

    2006-01-01

    The youth development approach has gained traction over the past twenty-plus years, across a range of youth-serving fields, including public health. While it is important for Adolescent Health Coordinators, other practitioners and policy makers focused on youth to be familiar with youth development concepts, it is critically important that they…

  15. AIDS: Setting Policy, Educating Employees at Bank of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagel, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how Bank of America has responded to the problem of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the workplace by devising a comprehensive policy on life-threatening illnesses and initiating an employee education program on AIDS. (CH)

  16. AIDS and Herpes Carry Weighty Policy Implications for Your Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Few schools have policies to deal specifically with herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Discusses some schools and states that have developed such policies and includes a source list for more information. (MD)

  17. Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy: Partnering with Decision-Makers in Climate Change Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D.; Trainor, S.; Walsh, J.; Gerlach, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP; www.uaf.edu/accap) is one of several, NOAA funded, Regional Integrated Science and Policy (RISA) programs nation-wide (http://www.climate.noaa.gov/cpo_pa/risa/). Our mission is to assess the socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate variability in Alaska, make this information available to local and regional decision-makers, and improve the ability of Alaskans to adapt to a changing climate. We partner with the University of Alaska?s Scenario Network for Alaska Planning (SNAP; http://www.snap.uaf.edu/), state and local government, state and federal agencies, industry, and non-profit organizations to communicate accurate and up-to-date climate science and assist in formulating adaptation and mitigation plans. ACCAP and SNAP scientists are members of the Governor?s Climate Change Sub-Cabinet Adaptation and Mitigation Advisory and Technical Working Groups (http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/), and apply their scientific expertise to provide down-scaled, state-wide maps of temperature and precipitation projections for these groups. An ACCAP scientist also serves as co-chair for the Fairbanks North Star Borough Climate Change Task Force, assisting this group as they work through the five-step model for climate change planning put forward by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (http://www.investfairbanks.com/Taskforces/climate.php). ACCAP scientists work closely with federal resource managers in on a range of projects including: partnering with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to analyze hydrologic changes associated with climate change and related ecological impacts and wildlife management and development issues on Alaska?s North Slope; partnering with members of the Alaska Interagency Wildland Fire Coordinating Group in statistical modeling to predict seasonal wildfire activity and coordinate fire suppression resources state-wide; and working with Alaska Native Elders and

  18. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  19. [The Physical Therapy Aide: Collection of Guidelines and Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Physical Therapy Association, New York, NY.

    Materials in this collection include a policy statement for the training and utilization of the physical therapy aide, guidelines for training, and a sample form for reporting information about a training program to the American Physical Therapy Association. The policy statement defines the aide as an unlicensed worker who has completed on-the-job…

  20. Optimal Financial Aid Policies for a Selective University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Sherman, Daniel R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper provides a model of optimal financial aid policies for a selective university. The model implies that the financial aid package to be offered to each category of admitted applicants depends on the elasticity of the fraction who accept offers of admission with respect to the financial aid package offered them. (Author/SSH)

  1. Does Institutional Aid Compensate for or Comply with State Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.; Delaney, Jennifer A.; Naughton, Blake Alan

    2009-01-01

    To what extent does state policy for student financial aid affect the distribution of institutional aid awarded to students at public institutions? Using data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey we employ a Tobit model to investigate the relationship between student characteristics, including family income and academic…

  2. Visualisation and communication of probabilistic climate forecasts to renewable-energy policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Sophie; Lowe, Rachel; Davis, Melanie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Despite the strong dependence on weather and climate variability of the renewable-energy industry, and the existence of several initiatives towards demonstrating the added benefits of integrating probabilistic forecasts into energy decision-making processes, weather and climate forecasts are still under-utilised within the sector. Improved communication is fundamental to stimulate the use of climate forecast information within decision-making processes, in order to adapt to a highly climate dependent renewable-energy industry. This work focuses on improving the visualisation of climate forecast information, paying special attention to seasonal time scales. This activity is central to enhance climate services for renewable energy and to optimise the usefulness and usability of inherently complex climate information. In the realm of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) initiative, and subsequent European projects: Seasonal-to-Decadal Climate Prediction for the Improvement of European Climate Service (SPECS) and the European Provision of Regional Impacts Assessment in Seasonal and Decadal Timescales (EUPORIAS), this paper investigates the visualisation and communication of seasonal forecasts with regards to their usefulness and usability, to enable the development of a European climate service. The target end user is the group of renewable-energy policy makers, who are central to enhance climate services for the energy industry. The overall objective is to promote the wide-range dissemination and exchange of actionable climate information based on seasonal forecasts from Global Producing Centres (GPCs). It examines the existing main barriers and deficits. Examples of probabilistic climate forecasts from different GPC's are used to make a catalogue of current approaches, to assess their advantages and limitations and, finally, to recommend better alternatives. Interviews have been conducted with renewable-energy stakeholders to receive feedback for the

  3. The visualisation and communication of probabilistic climate forecasts to renewable energy policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doblas-Reyes, F.; Steffen, S.; Lowe, R.; Davis, M.; Rodó, X.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the strong dependence of weather and climate variability on the renewable energy industry, and several initiatives towards demonstrating the added benefits of integrating probabilistic forecasts into energy decision making process, they are still under-utilised within the sector. Improved communication is fundamental to stimulate the use of climate forecast information within decision-making processes, in order to adapt to a highly climate dependent renewable energy industry. This paper focuses on improving the visualisation of climate forecast information, paying special attention to seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. This is central to enhance climate services for renewable energy, and optimise the usefulness and usability of inherently complex climate information. In the realm of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) initiative, and subsequent European projects: Seasonal-to-Decadal Climate Prediction for the Improvement of European Climate Service (SPECS) and the European Provision of Regional Impacts Assessment in Seasonal and Decadal Timescales (EUPORIAS), this paper investigates the visualisation and communication of s2d forecasts with regards to their usefulness and usability, to enable the development of a European climate service. The target end user will be renewable energy policy makers, who are central to enhance climate services for the energy industry. The overall objective is to promote the wide-range dissemination and exchange of actionable climate information based on s2d forecasts from Global Producing Centres (GPC's). Therefore, it is crucial to examine the existing main barriers and deficits. Examples of probabilistic climate forecasts from different GPC's were used to prepare a catalogue of current approaches, to assess their advantages and limitations and finally to recommend better alternatives. In parallel, interviews were conducted with renewable energy stakeholders to receive feedback for the improvement of existing

  4. Increasing the scale and adoption of population health interventions: experiences and perspectives of policy makers, practitioners, and researchers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Decisions to scale up population health interventions from small projects to wider state or national implementation is fundamental to maximising population-wide health improvements. The objectives of this study were to examine: i) how decisions to scale up interventions are currently made in practice; ii) the role that evidence plays in informing decisions to scale up interventions; and iii) the role policy makers, practitioners, and researchers play in this process. Methods Interviews with an expert panel of senior Australian and international public health policy-makers (n = 7), practitioners (n = 7), and researchers (n = 7) were conducted in May 2013 with a participation rate of 84%. Results Scaling up decisions were generally made through iterative processes and led by policy makers and/or practitioners, but ultimately approved by political leaders and/or senior executives of funding agencies. Research evidence formed a component of the overall set of information used in decision-making, but its contribution was limited by the paucity of relevant intervention effectiveness research, and data on costs and cost effectiveness. Policy makers, practitioners/service managers, and researchers had different, but complementary roles to play in the process of scaling up interventions. Conclusions This analysis articulates the processes of how decisions to scale up interventions are made, the roles of evidence, and contribution of different professional groups. More intervention research that includes data on the effectiveness, reach, and costs of operating at scale and key service delivery issues (including acceptability and fit of interventions and delivery models) should be sought as this has the potential to substantially advance the relevance and ultimately usability of research evidence for scaling up population health action. PMID:24735455

  5. Training Higher Education Policy Makers and Leaders: A Graduate Program Perspective. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Diane, Ed.; Miller, Michael T., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Higher Education is a vibrant, changing field of study. With roots in multiple disciplines, these degree programs prepare the administrators, faculty, and policy makers who direct the current and future higher education enterprise. At a time when higher education is changing rapidly, these programs are poised to frame the future of an educated…

  6. Enhancing the Capacity of Policy-Makers to Develop Evidence-Informed Policy Brief on Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background: The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP). The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods: A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = "grossly inadequate," 4 = "very adequate" was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A one-day evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results: The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF]) and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research evidence synthesis by each

  7. Does Federal Financial Aid Policy Influence the Institutional Aid Policies of Four-Year Colleges and Universities? An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kwon, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical work that examines the relationships between federal financial aid policy and institutional financial aid priorities and expenditures. This study uses Resource Dependency Theory to explore whether changes the amount of financial aid awarded by colleges and universities during the last fifty years are best explained…

  8. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... navigational aids; (c) Airport environmental factors such as local weather conditions and adjacent...

  9. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... navigational aids; (c) Airport environmental factors such as local weather conditions and adjacent...

  10. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... navigational aids; (c) Airport environmental factors such as local weather conditions and adjacent...

  11. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... navigational aids; (c) Airport environmental factors such as local weather conditions and adjacent...

  12. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... navigational aids; (c) Airport environmental factors such as local weather conditions and adjacent...

  13. Financial Aid Policy: Lessons from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. Aid now flows not only to traditional college students but also to part-time students, older students, and…

  14. Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Michael A; Fretheim, Atle; Maïga, Diadié

    2007-01-01

    Background Research findings are increasingly being recognized as an important input in the formation of health policy. There is concern that research findings are not being utilized by health policy-makers to the extent that they could be. The factors influencing the utilization of various types of research by health policy-makers are beginning to emerge in the literature, however there is still little known about these factors in developing countries. The object of this study was to explore these factors by examining the policy-making process for a pharmaceutical policy common in developing countries; an essential medicines list. Methods A study of the selection and updating of Mali's national essential medicines list was undertaken using qualitative methods. In-depth semi-structured interviews and a natural group discussion were held with national policy-makers, most specifically members of the national commission that selects and updates the country's list. The resulting text was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A document analysis was also performed. Results Several factors emerged from the textual data that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings for these policy-makers. These factors include: access to information, relevance of the research, use of research perceived as a time consuming process, trust in the research, authority of those who presented their view, competency in research methods, priority of research in the policy process, and accountability. Conclusion Improving the transfer of research to policy will require effort on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and third parties. This will include: collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased production and dissemination of relevant and useful research, and continued and improved technical support from networks and multi-national organizations. Policy-makers from developing countries will then be better equipped to make informed decisions

  15. Making Health System Performance Measurement Useful to Policy Makers: Aligning Strategies, Measurement and Local Health System Accountability in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Veillard, Jeremy; Huynh, Tai; Ardal, Sten; Kadandale, Sowmya; Klazinga, Niek S.; Brown, Adalsteinn D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experience of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in enhancing its stewardship and performance management role by developing a health system strategy map and a strategy-based scorecard through a process of policy reviews and expert consultations, and linking them to accountability agreements. An evaluation of the implementation and of the effects of the policy intervention has been carried out through direct policy observation over three years, document analysis, interviews with decision-makers and systematic discussion of findings with other authors and external reviewers. Cascading strategies at health and local health system levels were identified, and a core set of health system and local health system performance indicators was selected and incorporated into accountability agreements with the Local Health Integration Networks. despite the persistence of such challenges as measurement limitations and lack of systematic linkage to decision-making processes, these activities helped to strengthen substantially the ministry's performance management function. PMID:21286268

  16. The Use of Social Ecological Hotspots Mapping: Co-Developing Adaptation Strategies for Resource Management by Communities and Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessa, L.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, adaptation is based on a set of trade-offs rather than optimal conditions, something that is rarely seen in messy social ecological systems (SES). In this talk, we discuss the role of spatial hot-spot mapping using social and biophysical data to understand the feedbacks in SES. We review the types of data needed, their means of acquisition and the analytic methods involved. In addition, we outline the challenges faced in co-developing this type of inquiry based on lessons learned from several long-term programs. Finally, we present the utility of SES hotspots in developing adaptation strategies on the ground by communities and policy makers.

  17. Literacy and Life Skills Education for Vulnerable Youth: What Policy Makers Can Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Anna Caroline; Yorozu, Rika; Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In countries with a high concentration of youth with low literacy levels, the policy and programming task related to education and training is particularly daunting. This note briefly presents policies and practices which have been put in place to provide vulnerable youth with literacy and life skills education. It is based on a multi-country…

  18. The Policy-Science Interface for Land Management in a Changing Climate -- Closing the Gap Between Scientists, Natural Resource Managers and Policy Makers. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley-Laursen, S. B.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and related perturbations present significant challenges and opportunities for effective communications among natural resource managers, scientists and policy makers. Communication is important because of the potential dire and sometimes irreversible impacts of climate change, but challenges abound because of the lack of perceived immediacy and direct impact upon the public and land managers. The USGS national network of eight Climate Science Centers endeavors to increase communications among scientists, managers and policy makers through processes of consultation during the establishment of a science agenda and science prioritization based on inputs from a broad array of stakeholders. A Climate Science Boot Camp also fosters open dialogue and working relationships between early career climate scientists and an array of practicing natural resource managers. Professor of Natural Resources, former Dean of NR and University President Interim, PI Northwest Climate Science Center, Director Northwest Knowledge Network, Federal Relations Officer

  19. Maximizing Enrollment Yield through Financial Aid Packaging Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Randy; Olswang, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Using institutional data, this paper presents a model to enable researchers and enrollment managers to assess the effectiveness of financial aid packaging policies in light of student characteristics and institutional market position. The model uses discriminant analysis and a series of hypothetical financial aid award scenarios to predict the…

  20. Holding Policy-Makers to Account: Exploring "Soft" and "Hard" Policy and the Implications for Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kerry J.; Chan, Jacqueline Kin-sang; Fok, Ping Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum implementation as both an educational practice and a policy conundrum has been the focus of academic research since the 1970s. A new perspective is taken in this article by borrowing from the literature on policy implementation in multilevel systems of government. The concepts of "hard" and "soft" policy are used to show that…

  1. Policy makers will need a way to update bundled payments that reflects highly skewed spending growth of various care episodes.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Allison B; Aizcorbe, Ana; Ryu, Alexander J; Nestoriak, Nicole; Cutler, David M; Chernew, Michael E

    2013-05-01

    Bundled payment entails paying a single price for all services delivered as part of an episode of care for a specific condition. It is seen as a promising way to slow the growth of health care spending while maintaining or improving the quality of care. To implement bundled payment, policy makers must set base payment rates for episodes of care and update the rates over time to reflect changes in the costs of delivering care and the components of care. Adopting the fee-for-service paradigm of adjusting payments with uniform update rates would be fair and accurate if costs increased at a uniform rate across episodes. But our analysis of 2003 and 2007 US commercial claims data showed spending growth to be highly skewed across episodes: 10 percent of episodes accounted for 82.5 percent of spending growth, and within-episode spending growth ranged from a decline of 75 percent to an increase of 323 percent. Given that spending growth was much faster for some episodes than for others, a situation known as skewness, policy makers should not update episode payments using uniform update rates. Rather, they should explore ways to address variations in spending growth, such as updating episode payments one by one, at least at the outset. PMID:23650329

  2. Are We Losing the Morals that Guide Student Aid Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draeger, Justin

    2012-01-01

    America's moral compass guiding student aid policy is being co-opted by short-sighted, budget-cutting and deficit-reduction policies. This moral compass was threatened, but had "not altogether disappeared" by 1996, according to an article written that year by Thomas A. Flint, then-vice president for financial services at Robert Morris College…

  3. Supporting the needs of state health policy makers through university partnerships.

    PubMed

    Heller, David J; Hoffman, Catherine; Bindman, Andrew B

    2014-06-01

    State Medicaid programs and other state health agencies need to monitor and evaluate changes in health insurance coverage, access to care, financing, and the quality of health care delivery. The availability of new financial resources through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is accompanied by raised expectations for such accountability. While state agencies often contract with universities on an ad hoc basis for specific policy projects, fourteen states have established formal state-university partnerships so that their analytic and technical needs can be addressed more readily. After a brief overview of these partnerships, this article provides examples of their projects, which most often affect Medicaid policy, including work on program eligibility, provider payments, and optional benefits. State-university partnerships are working on policy-relevant projects that influence decision making. Like the variation in Medicaid programs across the country, no two partnerships are alike. They thrive in a mix of structures, using different means of contracting, and with varied degrees of data access. All partnerships are interested in building a national network to share innovative practices and projects, spawn comparative policy studies across states, and support the development of new state-university partnerships. PMID:24603085

  4. Principles of Antipsychotic Prescribing for Policy Makers, Circa 2008. Translating Knowledge to Promote Individualized Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Joseph; Radke, Alan; Parker, George; Foti, May-Ellen; Eilers, Robert; Diamond, Mary; Svendsen, Dale; Tandon, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    Findings from 2 pivotal government-funded studies of comparative antipsychotic effectiveness undermine assumptions about the marked superiority of the more expensive second-generation “atypical” medications in comparison to the less expensive first-generation “typical” drugs. Because this assumption was the basis for the almost universal recommendation that these newer antipsychotics be used preferentially resulting in a 10-fold increase in state governmental expenditures on this class of medications over the past decade, a reassessment of policy is called for. To address the issue, the Medical Directors Council of the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors critically reviewed findings of these studies in the context of other data and considered policy implications in the light of the obligations of state government to make available best possible and individually optimized treatment that is cost-effective. The Medical Directors Council unanimously adopted a set of recommendations to promote appropriate access, efficient utilization, and best practice use. We present our policy statement, in which we provide a succinct background, articulate general principles, and describe a set of 4 broad recommendations. We then summarize our understanding of the current state of knowledge about comparative antipsychotic effectiveness, best antipsychotic practice, and considerations for state policy that represent the basis of our position statement. PMID:18385207

  5. Development assistance for health: should policy-makers worry about its macroeconomic impact?

    PubMed

    Cavagnero, Eleonora; Lane, Christopher; Evans, David B; Carrin, Guy

    2008-11-01

    Many low-income countries need to substantially increase expenditure to meet universal coverage goals for essential health services but, because they have very low-incomes, most will be unable to raise adequate funds exclusively from domestic sources in the short to medium term. Increased aid for health will be required. However, there has long been a concern that the rapid arrival of large amounts of foreign exchange in a country could lead to an increase in inflation and loss of international competitiveness, with an adverse impact on exports and economic growth, an economic phenomenon termed 'Dutch disease'. We review cross-country and country-level empirical studies and propose a simple framework to gauge the extent of macroeconomic risks. Of the 15 low-income countries that are increasing aid-financed health spending, 7 have high macroeconomic risks that may constrain the sustained expansion of spending. These conditions also apply in one-quarter of the 42 countries not presently increasing spending. Health authorities should be aware of the multiple risk factors at play, including factors that are health-sector specific and others that generally are not. They should also realize that there are effective means for mitigating the risk of Dutch disease associated with increasing development assistance for health. International partners also have an important role to play since more sustainable and predictable flows of donor funding will allow more productivity enhancing investment in physical and human capital, which will also contribute to ensuring there are few harmful macroeconomic effects of increases in aid. PMID:19030692

  6. AIDS, Contact Notification, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejowski, Edmund F.

    The concept of contact tracing and notification once used for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is being mentioned for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Some professional organizations have supported contact notification; others have opposed it. Initially, states were free to establish their own contact notification programs. More…

  7. Critical Issues: Sounding Like More Than Background Noise to Policy Makers: Qualitative Researchers in the Policy Arena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Cathy M.; Long, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the relationships of qualitative researchers to the policy-making process. Uses the example of the Reading Excellence Act to demonstrate that qualitative researchers have many points of access to the policy-making process. Suggests qualitative researchers must provide relevant information, communicate in a straightforward manner,…

  8. Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

    2011-05-08

    The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

  9. Round Six Of Partners Investing In Nursing's Future: Implications For The Health Sector, Policy Makers, And Foundations.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, Paul S; Reinhardt, Renee J; Ladden, Maryjoan D; Salmon, Marla E

    2015-07-01

    In its 2011 report on the future of nursing, the Institute of Medicine issued recommendations to position nursing to meet the challenges of twenty-first-century health care. Following release of the report, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded eleven local and regional partnerships of nurses, foundations, and other stakeholders to begin implementing some of the recommendations in their regions. A qualitative evaluation of these partnerships found that although not all goals were met, most of the partnerships achieved meaningful gains. Partnership participants emphasized the value of engaging foundations and other stakeholders from outside nursing in the implementation process, the necessity of funding for implementation, the need for policy makers to address constraints that local and regional partnerships by themselves cannot address, and the unique leadership and convening role that local and regional foundations can play to help their regions respond to complex challenges for the nursing profession. PMID:26153320

  10. Understanding EMRAM and how it can be used by policy-makers, hospital CIOs and their IT teams.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Lorren

    2013-01-01

    The Electronic Medical Record Adoption Model (EMRAM)SM developed by HIMSS Analytics has become a universally recognized maturation model of a hospital's electronic medical record (EMR) environment. Numerous health care organizations (HCOs) throughout the world spend significant time and resources to improve their EMRAM standing. Yet, to the health care information technology (HIT) outsider, the value of the EMRAM and the outcomes of the efforts tied to advancing EMR capabilities are virtually unknown. This is a significant concern when efforts around the EMR compete for scarce health care resources. This article purposes to establish the EMRAM as a valuable framework for policy-makers and hospital leaders. To accomplish this end, we begin with a necessarily brief description of the EMRAM process and stages. Our attention will then turn to examples of the model's use and presence throughout the world, before ending on the ERMAM's benefits for varied health care audiences. PMID:24377140

  11. Equity-focused health impact assessment: A tool to assist policy makers in addressing health inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Sarah . E-mail: sarah.simpson@unsw.edu.au; Mahoney, Mary; Harris, Elizabeth; Aldrich, Rosemary; Stewart-Williams, Jenny

    2005-10-15

    In Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for improved policy development is comparatively new. The public health workforce do not routinely assess the potential health and equity impacts of proposed policies or programs. The Australasian Collaboration for Health Equity Impact Assessment was funded to develop a strategic framework for equity-focused HIA (EFHIA) with the intent of strengthening the ways in which equity is addressed in each step of HIA. The collaboration developed a draft framework for EFHIA that mirrored, but modified the commonly accepted steps of HIA; tested the draft framework in six different health service delivery settings; analysed the feedback about application of the draft EFHIA framework and modified it accordingly. The strategic framework shows promise in providing a systematic process for identifying potential differential health impacts and assessing the extent to which these are avoidable and unfair. This paper presents the EFHIA framework and discusses some of the issues that arose in the case study sites undertaking equity-focused HIA.

  12. Confidentiality and treatment decisions of minor clients: a health professional's dilemma & policy makers challenge.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Margot Karen; Burns, Katharina Kovacs; Richter, Magdalena S

    2014-01-01

    Issues relating to confidentiality and consent for physical and mental health treatment with minor clients can pose challenges health care providers. Decisions need to be made regarding these issues despite the absence of clear, direct, or comprehensive policies and legislation. In order to fully understand the scope of this topic, a systemic review of several pieces of legislation and guidelines related to this topic are examined. These include the: Canadian Human Rights Act, Children's Rights: International and National Laws and Practices, Health Information Act, Gillick Competence and Medical Emancipation, Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act, Child, Youth and Family Enhancement Act, Common Law Mature Minor Doctrine, and Alberta Health Services Consent to Treatment/Practice(s) Minor/Mature Minor. In order to assist health professionals with decisions regarding confidentiality and treatment with minor clients a case study and guide for decision-making is also presented. PMID:25032089

  13. Implementing AIDS policy in post-apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H; Stein, J

    2001-03-01

    In common with the rest of the Southern African sub-continent. South Africa is currently experiencing a serious HIV epidemic. When it came into power in 1994, the new, Mandela-led government immediately mobilised funds and adopted a far-reaching AIDS Plan for the country. However, the implementation of AIDS policy in the first four years after 1994 has been characterised by a lack of progress and a breakdown of trust and co-operation, both within government and between government and NGOs. This paper outlines the political context which shaped the development of the AIDS Policy, then examines the difficulties of implementing a comprehensive response to AIDS in a country undergoing restructuring at every level. It questions the notion of "inadequate political will" as an explanation for lack of progress. Involvement by politicians has, in fact, been experienced as a double-edged sword in South Africa, with inappropriate, "quick-fix" actions creating conflict and hampering a more longer-term, effective response. The paper also highlights the importance of groupings outside of government in promoting effective policy actions, and the types of leadership required to mobilise a broad range of actors around a common vision. It concludes by emphasising the need to develop approaches to policy implementation rooted in the possibilities and constraints of the local situation, rather than relying on universal blue-prints developed out of context. PMID:11218176

  14. 76 FR 27649 - HIV/AIDS Bureau Policy Notice 11-01 (Replaces Policy Notice 99-02)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau Policy Notice 11-01...: Final Notice. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau (HAB) Policy Notice 99-02 established policies for the use of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program funds authorized under...

  15. Preferences for a potential longer-acting injectable contraceptive: perspectives from women, providers, and policy makers in Kenya and Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, Elizabeth E; McKenna, Kevin; Mackenzie, Caroline; Ngabo, Fidele; Munyambanza, Emmanuel; Arcara, Jennet; Rademacher, Kate H; Lendvay, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Between 1995 and 2005, injectable use doubled worldwide. However, discontinuation rates remain high, partly because of side effects but also because of missed appointments for reinjection. A longer-acting injectable (LAI) may improve compliance by reducing the required number of reinjection visits, thereby reducing unintentional discontinuation. This study examined acceptability of LAI characteristics comprising the target product profile (TPP). Methods: In 2012, we conducted qualitative case studies in Kenya and Rwanda, consisting of 19 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 177 current, previous, or never users of injectables and 46 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with providers, program implementers, and policy makers. FGDs and IDIs assessed current injectable experiences; attitudes toward potential LAI products; and perceptions of TPP attributes, including ranking preferences for the most and least important characteristics. In addition, we obtained completed electronic surveys from 28 international family planning opinion leaders about the perceived need for an LAI, important product characteristics, and challenges to LAI development or introduction. Results: Many FGD participants and interviewees spontaneously expressed strong interest in an LAI, but there was some variation in TPP preferences. The majority of participants ranked effectiveness as the most important TPP attribute. Providers were generally more concerned about side effects than potential users; some potential users suggested that side effects were related less to the product than to their own body chemistry and that side effects were acceptable as long as they did not last a long time or disrupt daily activities. Women and providers, especially in Kenya, preferred a method with a predictable return to fertility. Some participants associated amenorrhea with delayed or reduced fertility. Most women and providers preferred delivery of the LAI in a single, prepackaged, disposable injection

  16. Aid and Innovation: How Federal Financial Aid Policy Impacts Student Success and How States Can Respond. Policy Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    From Washington to Connecticut, Arkansas to Indiana, state policymakers and community college leaders are focused on building completion pathways to ensure that more students succeed in postsecondary education and make smooth transitions to careers. Financial aid is both an effective and a necessary policy lever to promote this goal. Not only do…

  17. AIDS--Policies and Prospects: I. The Failure of AIDS--Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannemeyer, William E.; Franc, Michael G

    1989-01-01

    Discusses failure of education programs to affect spread of AIDS by intravenous drug users in inner cities. Suggests following policy responses: confidential, identity-linked reporting of HIV test results; programs to alert the sexual partners of HIV-positive persons; elimination of barriers to HIV testing; routine offering of HIV testing; and…

  18. A decision aid regarding long-term tube feeding targeting substitute decision makers for cognitively impaired older persons in Japan: A small-scale before-and-after study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Japan, there is no decision-making guide regarding long-term tube feeding that specifically targets individuals making decisions on behalf of cognitively impaired older persons (substitute decision makers). The objective of this study was to describe the development and evaluation of such a decision aid. Methods In this before-and-after study, participants comprised substitute decision makers for 13 cognitively impaired inpatients aged 65 years and older who were being considered for placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube in acute care hospitals and mixed-care hospitals in Japan. Questionnaires were used to compare substitute decision makers’ knowledge, decisional conflict, and predisposition regarding feeding tube placement before and after exposure to a decision aid. The acceptability of the decision aid was also assessed. Paired t-tests were used to compare participants’ knowledge and decisional conflict scores before and after using the decision aid. Results Substitute decision makers showed significantly increased knowledge (P < .001) and decreased decisional conflict (P < .01) regarding long-term tube feeding after using the decision aid. All substitute decision makers found the decision aid helpful and acceptable. Conclusions The decision aid facilitated the decision-making process of substitute decision makers by decreasing decisional conflict and increasing knowledge. PMID:24495735

  19. Digital catchment observatories: A platform for engagement and knowledge exchange between catchment scientists, policy makers, and local communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, E. B.; Wilkinson, M. E.; Macleod, C. J. A.; Beven, K.; Percy, B. J.; Macklin, M. G.; Quinn, P. F.; Stutter, M.; Haygarth, P. M.

    2015-06-01

    Increasing pressures on the hydrological cycle from our changing planet have led to calls for a refocus of research in the sciences of hydrology and water resources. Opportunities for new and innovative research into these areas are being facilitated by advances in the use of cyberinfrastructure, such as the development of digital catchment observatories. This is enabling research into hydrological issues such as flooding to be approached differently. The ability to combine different sources of data, knowledge, and modeling capabilities from different groups such as scientists, policy makers, and the general public has the potential to provide novel insights into the way individual catchments respond at different temporal and spatial scales. While the potential benefits of the digital catchment observatory are large, this new way of carrying out research into hydrological sciences is likely to prove challenging on many levels. Along with the obvious technical and infrastructural challenges to this work, an important area for consideration is how to enable a digital observatory to work for a range of potential end-users, paving the way for new areas of research through developing a platform effective for engagement and knowledge exchange. Using examples from the recent local-scale hydrological exemplar in the Environmental Virtual Observatory pilot project (http://www.evo-uk.org), this commentary considers a number of issues around the communication between and engagement of different users, the use of local knowledge and uncertainty with cloud-based models, and the potential for decision support and directions for future research.

  20. Relationships between Theorists/Researchers and Policy Makers/Practitioners: Rethinking the Two-Cultures Thesis and the Possibility of Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Mark B.; Gorostiaga, Jorge M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the limited communication between educational theorists and researchers, on the one hand, and policy makers and practitioners, on the other. Discounts the "two cultures" thesis for explaining the communication gap, arguing that the groups are heterogeneous and overlap. Discusses six approaches to closing the communication gap, and…

  1. Equality? Inclusion? Do They Go Hand-in-Hand? Policy Makers' Perceptions of Inclusion of Pupils with Special Needs--An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avissar, Gilada; Licht, Perach; Vogel, Gila

    2016-01-01

    Using Critical Discourse Analysis, this study aims to elicit and expose the perceptions and attitudes of different policy makers in leadership positions at the Ministry of Education in Israel with regard to inclusion. The first stage of the research consisted of individual in-depth semi-structured interviews (N = 8). In the second stage the…

  2. Americans Speak out: Are Educators and Policy Makers Listening?--The 40th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushaw, William J.; Gallup, Alec M.

    2008-01-01

    Parents, educators, political leaders--all Americans need the information contained in this article. But why this poll? First, it's not just a quick snapshot of public perception. Rather, it is a serious research tool, conducted annually, that allows Phi Delta Kappa (PDK) members and other educators and policy makers to track public opinion from…

  3. Integration of Research and Practice in Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Findings from Focus Groups of Clinicians, Researchers, Educators, Administrators, and Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Todd C.; Daood, Christopher; Catlin, Lynn; Abelson, Alissa

    2005-01-01

    Clinicians, researchers, educators, administrators, and policy makers, who represented stakeholders in the substance abuse treatment field, participated in 5 focus groups. Four general areas regarding integration of research and practice were investigated: definition of research, training/education, current integration, and future integration.…

  4. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Government & Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for government and policy-makers from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and…

  5. 16 CFR 1500.134 - Policy on first aid labeling for saline emesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy on first aid labeling for saline... REGULATIONS § 1500.134 Policy on first aid labeling for saline emesis. (a) This section states the Consumer Product Safety Commission's policy concerning first aid instructions for the use of a salt solution...

  6. 16 CFR 1500.134 - Policy on first aid labeling for saline emesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy on first aid labeling for saline... REGULATIONS § 1500.134 Policy on first aid labeling for saline emesis. (a) This section states the Consumer Product Safety Commission's policy concerning first aid instructions for the use of a salt solution...

  7. 16 CFR 1500.134 - Policy on first aid labeling for saline emesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy on first aid labeling for saline... REGULATIONS § 1500.134 Policy on first aid labeling for saline emesis. (a) This section states the Consumer Product Safety Commission's policy concerning first aid instructions for the use of a salt solution...

  8. HIV/AIDS Students in the Public Schools: Policy Development and Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coose, Lee

    Educators are faced with policy development issues that will allow children with AIDS to be educated, provide AIDS education in the schools, and educate groups whose lack of information may cause difficulties for educators trying to implement these policies. This paper provides guidelines for development of a HIV/AIDS policy. The premises of…

  9. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989)

    PubMed Central

    de Barros, Sandra Garrido; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. PMID:27463255

  10. Border restrictions and HIV / AIDS: a public health policy disaster.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Some governments restrict people with HIV/AIDS from entering their countries, claiming that doing so reduced HIV transmission. Yet, this claim does not stand to reason in the US which has the world's highest number of AIDS cases or in countries with no reported AIDS cases since some people may already be HIV infected. Some countries require HIV testing for people crossing borders. Yet, some people cross borders illegally. Further, HIV tests only detect HIV antibodies, but they are not present for a period after HIV infection. Some countries claim that people with HIV/AIDS burden the pubic health system. Yet, the countries do not apply this economic standard to travelers with other life-threatening diseases, thus, it is discriminatory. Besides, it is immaterial for short-term visitors and visitors with health insurance. HIV-related border restrictions violate the human right of freedom of movement. Some countries require HIV testing of just certain travelers, often based on country of origin or sexual orientation another form of discrimination. These practices set a bad precedent and encourage local governments to adopt like measures, leading to discrimination of HIV seropositive citizens. These national policies may keep tourists from traveling to some countries, perhaps affecting national revenues. Compulsory testing is very costly and takes money away from needed HIV prevention programs. People in countries with low HIV prevalence often think they are not at risk because HIV-infected foreigners are kept out of their country, so those who partake in risky behavior do not examine this behavior. Further, citizens from such countries will not consider AIDS information necessary. In those cases where HIV/AIDS information is presented in combination with mandatory testing, people will tend not to be interested in the messages. In conclusion, border restrictions based on HIV testing are counter productive and impede efforts to contain the pandemic. PMID:12286989

  11. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: What can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-01-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  12. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: what can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    PubMed

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-02-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  13. 75 FR 6672 - HIV/AIDS Bureau; Policy Notice 99-02 Amendment #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau; Policy Notice 99-02... Notice 99-02, Amendment 1. SUMMARY: The HRSA HIV/AIDS Bureau (HAB) Policy Notice 99-02 established.../AIDS Program funds for housing referral services and short-term or emergency housing needs. Amendment...

  14. Chinese College Student Aid Policy: A Case Study of "H" University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Guoxing

    2008-01-01

    The research findings have made it clear that Chinese college student aid policy has several characteristics. Generally speaking, student financial aid is increasing up to some extent. The government financial aids focus mostly on improving equality of educational opportunity in higher education. However, aids from the government are inadequate,…

  15. Federal Student Aid Programs: A Briefing Paper on Impacts and Policy Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linney, Thomas; Ross, Kathleen

    The history and development of federal student aid policies for higher education are examined in this paper, along with how current policy affects institutions at the campus level, and current and future policy options from which federal and institutional policies will be drawn. The historical analysis concerns the initial federal policy after…

  16. HIV/AIDS policy-making in Kyrgyzstan: a stakeholder analysis.

    PubMed

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan has adopted a number of policy initiatives to deal with an accelerating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainability of the national response will be in question. PMID:24342741

  17. Evolution of information-driven HIV/AIDS policies in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xinhua; Lu, Fan; Wu, Zunyou; Poundstone, Katharine; Zeng, Gang; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Dapeng; Liu, Kangmai; Liau, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Background As China continues to commit to universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care services, its HIV/AIDS policies have become increasingly information driven. We review China’s key national-level HIV/AIDS policies and discuss policy gaps and challenges ahead. Methods We conducted a desk review of key national-level policies that have had a major impact on China’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, and examined recent epidemiological data relevant to China’s HIV response. Results National-level policies that have had a major impact on China’s HIV/AIDS response include: ‘Four Frees and One Care’; 5-year action plans; and HIV/AIDS regulation. These landmark policies have facilitated massive scaling up of services over the past decade. For example, the number of drug users provided with methadone maintenance treatment significantly increased from 8116 in 2005 to 241 975 in 2009; almost a 30-fold increase. The ‘Four Frees and One Care’ policy has increased the number of people living with AIDS on anti-retroviral treatment from some 100 patients in 2003 to over 80 000 in 2009. However, stigma and discrimination remains major obstacles for people living with HIV/AIDS trying to access services. Conclusions China’s current national policies are increasingly information driven and responsive to changes in the epidemic. However, gaps remain in policy implementation, and new policies are needed to meet emerging challenges. PMID:21113036

  18. AIDS policy responsiveness in Africa: evidence from opinion surveys.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M

    2014-01-01

    As a result of massive scale-up efforts in developing countries, millions of people living with HIV are now receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, countries have been uneven in their scale-up efforts with ART coverage rates exceeding expectations in some places and lagging behind expectation in others. This paper develops a model that explains ART scale-up as a function of the responsiveness of political parties to their primary constituents. Specifically, the paper argues that, faced with a perilous 'threat to the nation', countries responded in one of two ways, both of which were designed to appeal to their primary constituents--either adopting a 'Geneva Consensus' response, or depicting the epidemic as a Western disease and adopting a 'pan-African' response. The article tests this theory using Afrobarometer data for eleven countries. The paper finds that HIV/AIDS is generally a non-partisan issue in most countries. However, the analysis does uncover some differences in partisan support for HIV/AIDS responses in both countries that have adopted Geneva Consensus and pan-African responses, though not in the direction hypothesised. The lack of congruence in policy preferences between the public and their governments suggests a democratic deficit in that these governments have acted independently of the preferences of core constituents. PMID:24502399

  19. Do new cancer drugs offer good value for money? The perspectives of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population

    PubMed Central

    Dilla, Tatiana; Lizan, Luís; Paz, Silvia; Garrido, Pilar; Avendaño, Cristina; Cruz-Hernández, Juan J; Espinosa, Javier; Sacristán, José A

    2016-01-01

    Background In oncology, establishing the value of new cancer treatments is challenging. A clear definition of the different perspectives regarding the drivers of innovation in oncology is required to enable new cancer treatments to be properly rewarded for the value they create. The aim of this study was to analyze the views of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population regarding the value of new cancer treatments. Methods An exploratory and qualitative study was conducted through structured interviews to assess participants’ attitudes toward cost and outcomes of cancer drugs. First, the participants were asked to indicate the minimum survival benefit that a new treatment should have to be funded by the Spanish National Health System (NHS). Second, the participants were requested to state the highest cost that the NHS could afford for a medication that increases a patient’s quality of life (QoL) by twofold with no changes in survival. The responses were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results The minimum improvement in patient survival means that justified inclusions into the NHS were 5.7, 8.2, 9.1, and 10.4 months, which implied different ICERs for oncologists (€106,000/quality-adjusted life year [QALY]), patients (€73,520/QALY), the general population (€66,074/QALY), and health care policy makers (€57,471/QALY), respectively. The costs stated in the QoL-enhancing scenario were €33,167, €30,200, €26,000, and €17,040, which resulted in ICERs of €82,917/QALY for patients, €75,500/QALY for the general population, €65,000/QALY for oncologists, and €42,600/QALY for health care policy makers, respectively. Conclusion All estimated ICER values were higher than the thresholds previously described in the literature. Oncologists most valued gains in survival, whereas patients assigned a higher monetary value to treatments that enhanced QoL. Health care policy makers were less

  20. The Politics of Determining Merit Aid Eligibility Criteria: An Analysis of the Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Erik C.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the scholarly attention on the effects of merit aid on college access and choice, particularly on the significant effect that states' varied eligibility criteria play, no studies have examined the policy process through which merit aid criteria are determined. This is surprising given the recent attention to state-level policy dynamics and…

  1. 16 CFR 1500.134 - Policy on first aid labeling for saline emesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy on first aid labeling for saline emesis. 1500.134 Section 1500.134 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES; ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.134 Policy on first aid...

  2. Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome, AIDS, and the Development of School Board Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jean Marie

    1989-01-01

    Public schools in Illinois have been developing policies for students and employees with AIDS or AIDS-Related Complex (ARC). Following national and state guidelines and recommendations, boards of education have adopted approaches that include procedures and policies for individual determinations regarding students and personnel, curriculum…

  3. Handbook of Student Financial Aid: Programs, Procedures, and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Robert H.; And Others

    The full range of topics relevant to student financial aid are covered in this book by a variety of experts in financial aid administration and scholarship. The volume details how to organize, implement and assess a financial aid program--including how to determine student need, deal with student bankruptcy and aid termination, and improve…

  4. Silencing women’s sexuality: global AIDS policies and the case of the female condom

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Anny JTP; van Driel, Francien TM; Jansen, Willy HM

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The female condom is the only evidence-based AIDS prevention technology that has been designed for the female body; yet, most women do not have access to it. This is remarkable since women constitute the majority of all HIV-positive people living in sub-Saharan Africa, and gender inequality is seen as a driving force of the AIDS epidemic. In this study, we analyze how major actors in the AIDS prevention field frame the AIDS problem, in particular the female condom in comparison to other prevention technologies, in their discourse and policy formulations. Our aim is to gain insight into the discursive power mechanisms that underlie the thinking about AIDS prevention and women’s sexual agency. Methods We analyze the AIDS policies of 16 agencies that constitute the most influential actors in the global response to AIDS. Our study unravels the discursive power of these global AIDS policy actors, when promoting and making choices between AIDS prevention technologies. We conducted both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of how the global AIDS epidemic is being addressed by them, in framing the AIDS problem, labelling of different categories of people for targeting AIDS prevention programmes and in gender marking of AIDS prevention technologies. Results We found that global AIDS policy actors frame the AIDS problem predominantly in the context of gender and reproductive health, rather than that of sexuality and sexual rights. Men’s sexual agency is treated differently from women’s sexual agency. An example of such differentiation and of gender marking is shown by contrasting the framing and labelling of male circumcision as an intervention aimed at the prevention of HIV with that of the female condom. Conclusions The gender-stereotyped global AIDS policy discourse negates women’s agency in sexuality and their sexual rights. This could be an important factor in limiting the scale-up of female condom programmes and hampering universal access to

  5. The Virtual Environmental Microbiology Center - A Social Network for Enhanced Communication between Water Researchers and Policy Makers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective communication within and between organizations involved in research and policy making activities is essential. Sharing information across organizational and geographic boundaries can also facilitate coordination and collaboration, promote a better understanding of tech...

  6. Ageing and dementia in low and middle income countries - Using research to engage with public and policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Arizaga, Raul; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, Ks; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z.; Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Sousa, Renata; Uwakwe, Richard; Van Der Poel, Rikus; Williams, Joseph; Wortmann, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Abstract While two thirds of the 24 million people with dementia worldwide live in low and middle income countries, very little research has been conducted to support policy making in these regions. Among the non-communicable diseases, dementia (in common with other chronic NCDs linked more to long-term disability than to mortality) has been relatively under-prioritized. International agreements, plans and policy guidelines have called for an end to ageist discrimination and a focus upon reducing disadvantage arising from poverty and the consequences of ill health. Social protection, access to good quality age-appropriate healthcare and addressing the problem of disability are all key issues. However, as yet, little progress has been made in addressing these concerns. In this review we outline the current international policy agenda for older individuals, and its specific relevance to those with dementia and other disabling non-communicable diseases. We consider the potential for epidemiological research to raise awareness, refine the policy agenda, and promote action, using the example of the dissemination strategy developed by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group. PMID:18925482

  7. Middlemen and Midwives of Reform: The In-Between Worlds of Albanian Educational Policy-Makers and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardinier, Meg P.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a vertical case study in post-communist Albania, this article examines how three local experts become "in-betweens" who strategically mediate processes of social change. For example, they negotiate constructions of time and place, East and West, policy and practice, state and society. As they localise global educational models,…

  8. Why Do Policy-Makers Adopt Global Education Policies? Toward a Research Framework on the Varying Role of Ideas in Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is profoundly altering the education policy landscape. It introduces new problems in education agendas, compresses time and space in policy processes, and revitalizes the role of a range of supra-national players in educational reform. This deterritorialization of the education policy process has important theoretical and…

  9. PPD-QALY-an index for cost-effectiveness in orthopedics: providing essential information to both physicians and health care policy makers for appropriate allocation of medical resources.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Christopher P; Howard, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Because of the increasing health care costs and the need for proper allocation of resources, it is important to ensure the best use of health benefits for sick and injured people of the population. An index or indicator is needed to help us quantify what is being spent so that comparisons with other options can be implemented. Cost-effective analysis seems to be well suited to provide this essential information to health care policy makers and those charged with distributing disability funds so that the proper allocation of resources can be achieved. There is currently no such index to show whether the benefits paid out are the most cost-effective. By comparing the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of a treatment method to the disability an individual would experience, on the basis of lost wages as measure of disability, we provide decision makers more information for the basis of cost allocation in health care. To accomplish this, we describe a new term, the PPD-QALY (permanent partial disability-quality of life year). This term was developed to establish an index to which musculoskeletal care can be compared, to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a treatment on the basis of the monetary value of the disability. This term serves to standardize the monetary value of an injury. Cost-effective analysis in arthroscopic surgery may prove to be a valuable asset in this role and to provide decision makers the information needed to determine the societal benefit from new arthroscopic procedures as they are developed and implemented. PMID:23924750

  10. Decision-makers, donors and data: factors influencing the development of mental health and psychosocial policy in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Zwi, Anthony B; Blignault, Ilse; Bunde-Birouste, Anne W; Ritchie, Jan E; Silove, Derrick M

    2011-07-01

    Mental disorders and psychosocial problems are common, and present a significant public health burden globally. Increasingly, attention has been devoted to these issues in the aftermath of violent conflict. The Solomon Islands, a small Pacific island nation, has in recent years experienced periods of internal conflict. This article examines how policy decisions regarding mental health and wellbeing were incorporated into the national agenda in the years which followed. The study reveals the policy shifts, contextual influences and players responsible. The Solomon Islands' experience reflects incremental change, built upon longstanding but modest concern with mental health and social welfare issues, reinforced by advocacy from the small mental health team. Armed conflict and ethnic tensions from 1998 to 2003 promoted wider recognition of unmet mental health needs and psychosocial problems. Additional impetus was garnered through the positioning of key health leaders, some of whom were trained in public health. Working together, with an understanding of culture and politics, and drawing on external support, they drove the agenda. Contextual factors, notably further violence and the ongoing risk of instability, a growing youth population, and emerging international and local evidence, also played a part. PMID:21115459

  11. Film-Makers' Cooperative Catalogue Number Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Film-Makers' Cooperative, New York, NY.

    The Film-Makers' Cooperative services as a film depository and rental agency for any film-makers who may choose to make their work available to the general public. Approximately 1,600 films are listed in film-maker sequence. Excerpts of film reviews are provided for each entry. An index by film title and policies and procedures for film rental are…

  12. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  13. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  14. Crafting AIDS policy in Brazil and Russia: State-civil societal ties, institutionalised morals, and foreign policy aspiration.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2016-10-01

    During the 1990s, Brazil and Russia diverged in their policy response to AIDS. This is puzzling considering that both nations were globally integrated emerging economies transitioning to democracy. This article examines to what extent international pressures and partnerships with multilateral donors motivated these governments to increase and sustain federal spending and policy reforms. Contrary to this literature, the cases of Brazil and Russia suggest that these external factors were not important in achieving these outcomes. Furthermore, it is argued that Brazil's policy response was eventually stronger than Russia's and that it had more to do with domestic political and social factors: specifically, AIDS officials' efforts to cultivate a strong partnership with NGOs, the absence of officials' moral discriminatory outlook towards the AIDS community, and the government's interest in using policy reform as a means to bolster its international reputation in health. PMID:27564438

  15. Children's knowledge of packaged and fast food brands and their BMI. Why the relationship matters for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, T Bettina; McAlister, Anna R; Polmear-Swendris, Nancy

    2014-10-01

    Studies regarding the advancing challenges of obesity in many countries are beginning to converge on the importance of early food exposure and consumption patterns. Across two studies (Study 1, 34 boys, 35 girls; Study 2, 40 boys, 35 girls, ages 3-6), child knowledge of brands offering products high in sugar, salt and fat was shown to be a significant predictor of child BMI, even after controlling for their age and gender and when also considering the extent of their TV viewing. Additionally, two different collage measures of brand knowledge (utilized across the two studies) performed similarly, suggesting that this measure may be serving as a surrogate indicator of an overall pattern of product exposure and consumption. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:24972133

  16. Gaps between HIV/AIDS policies and treatment in correctional facilities.

    PubMed

    Amankwaa, A A; Bavon, A L; Amankwaa, L C

    2001-01-01

    In this article the authors examined correctional policy and its impact on the incidence of HIV/AIDS in prison population. Using data from the Florida Correctional System, they find that HIV/AIDS is still the leading cause of death. Improved treatment and care may have led to declines in AIDS-related mortality but the prison population continues to experience a much higher risk of mortality than he general population in spite of changes in the treatment and provision of care to infected patients. The dominance of HIV-related deaths indicates that treatment and voluntary testing policy have been ineffective. The authors argue that the persistence of HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths is largely attributable to continuing unequal distribution of health care resources between identified and unidentified HIV-infected inmates. Their analysis suggests that future changes in HIV/AIDS policy ib testing and treatment can contribute to improvement in health conditions of infected inmates. PMID:12638386

  17. The Effect of State Financial Aid Policies on College Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, Sheri E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, state legislatures provided $6 billion in financial aid to 2 million low-income young adults. When low-income young adults receive state financial aid and do not complete college, states lose their investment because fewer people with degrees will contribute to the state's economy. Declining states' budgets have led to (a) the rising cost…

  18. Designing Student Aid Policies for the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jane Louise

    1980-01-01

    The student financial aid mechanism has been considered the form of subsidy more likely to provide both access and choice since it can target aid to students most in need of it and lets student choose the college of their choice. The Tuition Assistance Program in New York is discussed. (MLW)

  19. Daring to dream: reactions to tobacco endgame ideas among policy-makers, media and public health practitioners

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    approaches. The current framing of tobacco as a risky but legal commodity was noted as an important potential barrier to implementing endgame approaches. Conclusions Endgame tobacco control approaches were considered to be viable policy options. Further policy analysis, research and public discussion are needed to develop endgame approaches. A significant change in the public framing of tobacco may be a prerequisite for implementing endgame solutions. PMID:21774829

  20. Community College Students' Experiences with Financial Aid Policies and Practices: A Critical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes community college students' experiences with governmental financial aid policies and institutional financial aid processes at an urban community college campus in the Northeastern United States. Drawing from theories of social justice, conceptions of social capital, and institutionalist analyses of the community…

  1. The Impact of Federal Financial Aid Policy upon Higher Education Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dannielle Joy; Green-Derry, Lisa Celeste; Jones, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the history of financial aid policy from the Higher Education Act of 1965 to its reauthorisation in 1992 and the subsequent ramifications upon African-American students. It considers issues of race and class with regard to college access. This work concludes with a look at contemporary aid, as well as offers race- and…

  2. Sound Policies and Expert Advice Are Your Best Protection against AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1986-01-01

    A panel of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) experts at a recent conference sponsored by the National School Boards Association provided useful advice and information to school officials on medical, legal, and policy-related issues raised by the AIDS epidemic. Highlights of the conference are discussed. (TE)

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Aid Policies for Human Resource Development: United States and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickert, Sarah; Kuroda, Kazuo

    Official Development Assistance (ODA) is an increasingly important part of foreign aid budgets. Countries that offer foreign aid to other nations do so for many, often contradictory reasons that range from national security and economic self-interest to humanitarian concerns. Every donor state uses ODA as an instrument of its foreign policy. This…

  4. Fixing New York's State Education Aid Dinosaur: A Proposal. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yinger, John

    New York State provides aid to local schools in a way that is unfair to the neediest school districts with high educational needs or low property wealth. Proposed in this policy brief is a new formula for state aid based on a comprehensive educational cost index and a school performance index that reflects an average passing rate on the new…

  5. Grants Versus Loans: Recent Proposals for Change in Student Aid Policy in Great Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hexter, Holly

    Recent attempts of the British government to shift its student aid programs from grants to loans are discussed, along with parallels between developments in student aid policy in both Britain and the United States. Great Britain's higher education structure, access to education, and enrollments are briefly described. In Britain over 90 percent of…

  6. Globalization, Public Policy, and "Knowledge Gap": Ethiopian Youth and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetene, Getnet Tizazu; Dimitriadis, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Set against trans- or supra-national policy initiatives which have framed the HIV/AIDS pandemic as in part a pedagogical issue, this paper critically explores local understandings of sexual practices (generally) as well as of HIV/AIDS (more specifically) among young people in the sub-Saharan African country of Ethiopia. Ethiopia has the third…

  7. Measuring equity in household's health care payments (Tehran-Iran 2013): technical points for health policy decision makers

    PubMed Central

    Rezapour, Aziz; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Azami Aghdash, Saber; Tanoomand, Asghar; Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Morteza; Yousefzadeh, Negar; Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Households’ financial protection against health payments and expenditures and equity in utilization of health care services are of the most important tasks of governments. This study aims to measuring equity in household’s health care payments according to fairness in financial contribution (FFC) and Kakwani indices in Tehran-Iran, 2013. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014.The study sample size was estimated to be 2200 households. Households were selected using stratified-cluster sampling including typical families who reside in the city of Tehran. The data were analyzed through Excel and Stata v.11software. Recall period for the inpatient care was 1 year and for outpatient1 month. Results: The indicator of FFC for households in health financing was estimated to be 0.68 and the trend of the indicator was ascending by the rise in the ranking of households’ financial level. The Kakwani index was estimated to be a negative number (-0.00125) which indicated the descending trend of health financing system. By redistribution of incomes or the exempt of the poorest quintiles from health payments, Kakwani index was estimated to be a positive number (0.090555) which indicated the ascending trend of health financing system. Conclusion: According to this study, the equity indices in health care financing denote injustice and a descending trend in the health care financing system. This finding clearly shows that deliberate policy making in health financing by national health authorities and protecting low-income households against health expenditures are required to improve the equity in health. PMID:26793637

  8. Mapping health in the Great Lakes areas of concern: a user-friendly tool for policy and decision makers.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, S J; Eyles, J; DeLuca, P

    2001-01-01

    The role of the physical environment as a determinant of health is a major concern reported by the general public as well as by many policymakers. However, it remains one of the health determinants for which few available measures or indicators are readily available. This lack of data is compounded by the fact that evidence for direct cause-and-effect relationships in the literature is often equivocal, leading to feelings of uncertainty among the lay public and often leading to indecision among policymakers. In this article we examine one aspect of the physical environment--water pollution in the Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs)--and its potential impacts on a wide range of (plausible) human health outcomes. Essentially, the International Joint Commission, the international agency that oversees Great Lakes water quality and related issues, worked with Health Canada to produce a report for each of the 17 AOCs on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes, outlining a long list of health outcomes and the potential relationships these might have with environmental exposures known or suspected to exist in the Great Lakes basin. These reports are based solely on secondary health data and a thorough review of the environmental epidemiologic literature. The use of these reports by local health policymakers as well as by public health officials in the AOCs was limited, however, by the presentation of vast amounts of data in a series of tables with various outcome measures. The reports were therefore not used widely by the audience for whom they were intended. In this paper we report the results of an undertaking designed to reduce the data and present them in a more policy-friendly manner, using a geographic information system. We do not attempt to answer directly questions related to cause and effect vis-à-vis the relationships between environment and health in the Great Lakes; rather, this work is a hypothesis-generating exercise that will help sharpen the focus of

  9. Aid Like a Paycheck: Incremental Aid to Promote Student Success. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Michelle; Weissman, Evan; McDermott, Drew

    2013-01-01

    Aid Like A Paycheck is based on a simple idea that is gaining national attention: after tuition and fees have been paid to a college, disburse the remaining financial aid to students evenly throughout the term--like a paycheck. The goals of the program are to help students achieve a good balance between time in work and school, and think about…

  10. Introducing economic evaluation as a policy tool in Korea: will decision makers get quality information? : a critical review of published Korean economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun-Sei; Brouwer, Werner B F; Lee, Sang-Il; Koo, Hye-Won

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the use of economic evaluations in Korea as an aid for healthcare decision makers has been growing rapidly since the financial crisis of the Korean National Health Insurance fund and the separation in 2000 of the roles of prescribing and dispensing drugs. The Korean Health Insurance Review Agency (HIRA) is considering making it mandatory for pharmaceutical companies to submit the results of an economic evaluation when demanding reimbursement of new pharmaceuticals. The usefulness of the results of economic evaluations depends highly on the quality of the studies. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to provide a critical review of economic evaluations of healthcare technologies published in the Korean context. Our results show that many studies did not meet international standards. Study designs were suboptimal, study perspectives and types were often stated incompletely, time periods were often too short, and outcome measures were often less than ideal. In addition, some articles did not distinguish between measurement and valuation of resource use. Capital, overhead and productivity costs were often omitted. Only half of the studies performed sensitivity analyses. In order to further rationalise resource allocation in the Korean healthcare sector, the quality of the information provided through economic evaluations needs to improve. Developing clear guidelines and educating and training researchers in performing economic evaluations is necessary. PMID:15987227

  11. The "Spread" of Merit-Based College Aid: Politics, Policy Consortia, and Interstate Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Ingle, William Kyle; Levine, Amy Albee; Spence, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Many political scientists maintain that public policies diffuse across states and that proximate states, in particular, influence one another's policy activities. Using state-funded merit aid for college as its case, this article takes a new approach to the study of the diffusion phenomenon, leaving behind conventional techniques used by…

  12. AIDS, policy analysis, and the electorate: the role of schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N; Lashof, J C

    1988-04-01

    Current debates concerning appropriate policy to combat the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have raised critical questions regarding the role that schools of public health and individual public health professionals should play, if any, in AIDS-related policy analysis and social advocacy. In the summer of 1986, the School of Public Health at the University of California at Berkeley initiated a telegram sent by the Deans of all 23 schools of public health to protest US Department of Justice AIDS policy and, in the subsequent fall, the school expanded its public educational role in an unprecedented manner by initiating and issuing, with California's other three schools of public health, a policy analysis of Proposition 64, the LaRouche AIDS Quarantine Initiative. That analysis exposed the proposition's fallacious claims regarding casual transmission of AIDS and served to educate the electorate on the likely public health impact of this deleterious legislation. Based on these experiences, and in light of ongoing national controversy regarding AIDS, we believe schools of public health have an important role to play in policy analysis, and individual public health professionals have a role to play in social advocacy. PMID:3348472

  13. AIDS, policy analysis, and the electorate: the role of schools of public health.

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, N; Lashof, J C

    1988-01-01

    Current debates concerning appropriate policy to combat the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have raised critical questions regarding the role that schools of public health and individual public health professionals should play, if any, in AIDS-related policy analysis and social advocacy. In the summer of 1986, the School of Public Health at the University of California at Berkeley initiated a telegram sent by the Deans of all 23 schools of public health to protest US Department of Justice AIDS policy and, in the subsequent fall, the school expanded its public educational role in an unprecedented manner by initiating and issuing, with California's other three schools of public health, a policy analysis of Proposition 64, the LaRouche AIDS Quarantine Initiative. That analysis exposed the proposition's fallacious claims regarding casual transmission of AIDS and served to educate the electorate on the likely public health impact of this deleterious legislation. Based on these experiences, and in light of ongoing national controversy regarding AIDS, we believe schools of public health have an important role to play in policy analysis, and individual public health professionals have a role to play in social advocacy. PMID:3348472

  14. From marginal to marginalised: The inclusion of men who have sex with men in global and national AIDS programmes and policy.

    PubMed

    McKay, Tara

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, gay men and other men who have sex with men (msm) have come to the fore of global policy debates about AIDS prevention. In stark contrast to programmes and policy during the first two decades of the epidemic, which largely excluded msm outside of the Western countries, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS now identifies gay men and other msm as 'marginalized but not marginal' to the global response. Drawing on archival data and five waves of United Nations Country Progress Reports on HIV/AIDS (2001-2012), this paper examines the productive power of international organisations in the development and diffusion of the msm category, and considers how international organisations have shaped the interpretation of msm in national policies and programmes. These data show that the increasing separation of sexual identity and sexual behaviour at the global level helped to construct notions of risk and disease that were sufficiently broad to accommodate the diverse interests of global policy-makers, activists, and governments. However, as various international and national actors have attempted to develop prevention programmes for msm, the failure of the msm category to map onto lived experience is increasingly apparent. PMID:26878655

  15. Funding policies for HIV and AIDS: time for change.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, M; Layzell, S

    1993-01-01

    Funding for HIV and AIDS in England has been allocated to regions by a formula based on the number of cases of AIDS and HIV infection and on population size. Regions have distributed the resources directly to hospitals and community services. A survey of staff and managers in North East Thames region showed that funding arrangements have led to unsatisfactory development of services for HIV and AIDS. Firstly, because hospitals are funded according to current numbers of patients services are highly developed at the central London hospitals and underdeveloped in outer districts. Secondly, specialised community care teams have been established rather than integrating care for HIV and AIDS into generic primary care. Thirdly, the information on district of residence of infected patients is inaccurate, limiting allocation of funds according to population needs. Fourthly, prevention of infection has been given far less attention than treatment and care despite the lack of effective treatment. In future allocations for HIV and AIDS should be made to purchasers rather than directly to providers. Images p368-a p369-a PMID:8374421

  16. The Impact of Aid on Education Policy in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher; De, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, large numbers of children in India remained out of school. International commitments to achieve education for all (EFA) globally meant that India was an important case for donors. India was pressed to accept aid for primary education, and agreed with some reluctance. Although subsequent donor involvement was substantial and…

  17. Early Commitment Financial Aid Programs: Promises, Practices, and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2005-01-01

    Student financial assistance has long been a means to promote access to postsecondary education and attainment of college degrees. Numerous types of financial aid programs have proliferated over the years, including a relatively new concept that specifically targets high-risk, low-income students, focusing not just on getting them to go to college…

  18. Exploring readiness for the adoption of new molecular water quality tests: Insights from interviews with policy makers, laboratory managers and watershed managers.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Natalie; Holmes, Bev; Isaac-Renton, Judith; Prystajecky, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Adoption of molecular-based water quality tests has been limited despite their advantage over traditional culture-based tests. A better understanding of the factors affecting adoption of these tests is needed for effective implementation. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was used to analyze interviews with policy makers, watershed managers and laboratory managers in British Columbia (BC), Canada about their perceptions of molecular water tests currently under development in order to assess readiness for adoption and identify factors that may impact implementation. Many of the CFIR constructs were addressed by study participants, thus confirming their validity in the water-testing context. Other constructs were not mentioned, which suggests that awareness about these constructs need to be increased to ensure that they are incorporated into implementation strategies. In general, there was much enthusiasm for the new tests, which were seen to provide valuable information that could enable improved management of watersheds and treatment of source water. However, prior to adopting the tests, stakeholders would require evidence supporting the tests' validity and reliability, would need to assess the complexity of introducing the tests into laboratories and water sampling processes, and would require support interpreting the test results. Even if all the aforementioned issues are satisfactorily addressed, the tests may not be adopted unless regulations and policies were changed to allow the use of these test results to inform decision making. The results support that implementation of new technologies, such as these water quality tests, need to address potential barriers that could hinder uptake despite the advantages of the new product. PMID:26826358

  19. Children and Families in an Era of Rapid Change: Creating a Shared Agenda for Researchers, Practitioners and Policy Makers. Summary of Conference Proceedings: Head Start's National Research Conference (4th, Washington, DC, July 9-12, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb-Parker, Faith, Ed.; Hagen, John, Ed.; Robinson, Ruth, Ed.; Clark, Cheryl, Ed.

    This report summarizes the conference proceedings of the fourth Head Start National Research Conference. The focus of the conference was on creating a shared agenda for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers related to serving children and families in an era of rapid change. Keynote topics and speakers are: "Countering the Health Effects of…

  20. Player or referee? Aid effectiveness and the governance of health policy development: Lessons from Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Rebecca; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Viet Nam is one of the brightest stars in the constellation of developing countries. Its remarkable achievements in reducing poverty and improving health and education outcomes are well known, and as a result it has enjoyed generous aid programmes. Viet Nam also has a reputation for taking a strong lead in disciplining its donors and pushing for more efficient and effective forms of aid delivery, both at home and internationally. This article discusses how efforts to improve the effectiveness of aid intersect with policy-making processes in the health sector. It presents a quantitative review of health aid flows in Viet Nam and a qualitative analysis of the aid environment using event analysis, participant observation and key informant interviews. The analysis reveals a complex and dynamic web of incentives influencing the implementation of the aid effectiveness agenda in the health sector. There are contradictory forces within the Ministry of Health, within government as a whole, within the donor community and between donors and government. Analytical frameworks drawn from the study of policy networks and governance can help explain these tensions. They suggest that governance of health aid in Viet Nam is characterised by multiple, overlapping 'policy networks' which cut across the traditional donor-government divide. The principles of aid effectiveness make sense for some of these communities, but for others they are irrational and may lead to a loss of influence and resources. However, sustained engagement combined with the building of strategic coalitions can overcome individual and institutional incentives. This article suggests that aid reform efforts should be understood not as a technocratic agenda but as a political process with all the associated tensions, perverse incentives and challenges. Partners thus need to recognise - and find new ways of making sense of - the complexity of forces affecting aid delivery. PMID:21623508

  1. Research and policy agendas: an AIDS world adrift?

    PubMed

    Ronald, A

    1992-01-01

    This editorial lists several questions prompted by the Eighth International Conference on AIDS in Amsterdam in 1992. The writer wonders whether it is time to proceed with interventions rather than blame bureaucracies for endless research. He asks if research should explore a sociocultural basis for lack of individual responsibility in curbing the epidemic. He deplores the waste of 4-70% of funds in Western programs. The possibility that traditional practitioners could be effective in AIDS prevention or care is raised. Similarly religious and nongovernmental organizations could play a larger role if they were recognized. Ways for the primary health care system to be better managed, better funded, and better equipped with appropriate technology must be found. The effectiveness of male circumcision to prevent HIV transmission must be addressed. The efficiency of communication by means of expert committees, scientific journals, and conferences is questioned. PMID:12286017

  2. On avoiding framing effects in experienced decision makers.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Dhami, Mandeep K

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) demonstrate the effect of positive-negative framing on experienced criminal justice decision makers, (b) examine the debiasing effect of visually structured risk messages, and (c) investigate whether risk perceptions mediate the debiasing effect of visual aids on decision making. In two phases, 60 senior police officers estimated the accuracy of a counterterrorism technique in identifying whether a known terror suspect poses an imminent danger and decided whether they would recommend the technique to policy makers. Officers also rated their confidence in this recommendation. When information about the effectiveness of the counterterrorism technique was presented in a numerical format, officers' perceptions of accuracy and recommendation decisions were susceptible to the framing effect: The technique was perceived to be more accurate and was more likely to be recommended when its effectiveness was presented in a positive than in a negative frame. However, when the information was represented visually using icon arrays, there were no such framing effects. Finally, perceptions of accuracy mediated the debiasing effect of visual aids on recommendation decisions. We offer potential explanations for the debiasing effect of visual aids and implications for communicating risk to experienced, professional decision makers. PMID:23098268

  3. Local Demand for a Global Intervention: Policy Priorities in the Time of AIDS

    PubMed Central

    DIONNE, KIM YI

    2012-01-01

    Summary — The success of global health and development interventions ultimately depends on local reception. This paper documents local demand for HIV/AIDS interventions in Africa and seeks to explain patterns of demand using data from a country hard-hit by AIDS. As international agencies and national governments scale up HIV/AIDS interventions in Africa, I find HIV-positive respondents more highly prioritize HIV/AIDS programs, however, cross-national opinion data paired with interviews of villagers and their headmen in rural Malawi show weak prioritization of HIV/AIDS. The data illustrate a misalignment of policy preferences in the global-to-local hierarchy, highlighting the import of studying preferences of intended beneficiaries. PMID:23585707

  4. HIV / AIDS in the workplace: principles, planning, policy, programmes and project participation.

    PubMed

    Smart, R

    1999-01-01

    15 years ago, most business, labor, government, and nongovernment representatives would have had only a small idea of what AIDS was, and let alone why it should concern them. However, companies have since lost top managers, workers have lost colleagues, and considerable time, energy, and emotion have been spent upon issues of illness and loss. Entire families have collapsed, as companies struggle against a background of chronic poverty. The HIV/AIDS pandemic has forced a reconsideration of whether disease prevention and health promotion are business concerns. AIDS causes illness, disability, and death to workers, as well as severe economic and emotional disruptions to their families. It also increases the cost of doing business. As South Africa faces a large epidemic, business must take prompt and incisive action against AIDS. A list of 10 workplace principles is presented and a 3-stage process recommended to ensure optimal workplace HIV/AIDS/STD and tuberculosis policies and programs. PMID:12295124

  5. An unassuming revelation: Cuba's social policy toward the AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Binns, L A

    2013-01-01

    The thrust of this essay is nestled in Cuba's complimentary approach to the treatment of HIV/AIDS virus. In a comprehensive and comparative fashion, the contents herein give credence to a developing nation that demonstrates expedience and emphasizes a history of continuity with remarkable results. Underlying the report is a journey that enlightens the reader to a process rich in application and outcome during a period in which the plaque of HIV has transformed the Caribbean and Latin America community. Meanwhile, it also speaks to a collaborative effort inclusive of government , medical agencies, laboratories, international organizations and the public toward a common good. The country, nonetheless, is not without its shortcomings and therefore monetary constraints and matters of confidentiality and discrimination are pivotal to the presentation. In fact, an elaborate characterization accentuates a 50-year old commercial interdiction as a deterrent that contributes to the disruption of affordability and accessibility to the exchange of goods, services and information. Against all likelihood, a contrasting analysis of regional states inclusive of the United States of America documents Cuba's astonishing success in restricting HIV/AIDS. The Cuban model as described is an exemplary work in progress but likewise the fulfillment of the socialist philosophy toward humanity. PMID:24761474

  6. Circus monkeys or change agents? Civil society advocacy for HIV/AIDS in adverse policy environments.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Neil; Harmer, Andrew; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the factors enabling and undermining civil society efforts to advocate for policy reforms relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs in three countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. It examines how political contexts and civil society actors' strengths and weaknesses inhibit or enable advocacy for policy change - issues that are not well understood in relation to specific policy areas such as HIV/AIDS, or particular regions of the world where national policies are believed to be major drivers of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The study is based on in-depth interviews with representatives of civil society organizations (CSOs) (n = 49) and national level informants including government and development partners (n = 22). Our policy analysis identified a culture of fear derived from concerns for personal safety but also risk of losing donor largesse. Relations between CSOs and government were often acrimonious rather than synergistic, and while we found some evidence of CSO collective action, competition for external funding - in particular for HIV/AIDS grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was often divisive. Development partners and government tend to construct CSOs as service providers rather than advocates. While some advocacy was tolerated by governments, CSO participation in the policy process was, ultimately, perceived to be tokenistic. This was because there are financial interests in maintaining prohibitionist legislation: efforts to change punitive laws directed at the behaviors of minority groups such as injecting drug users have had limited impact. PMID:22036298

  7. Beliefs and attitudes towards AIDS policies and educational programs among Japanese businesses.

    PubMed

    Muto, T; Fukuwatari, Y; Onoda, K

    1996-10-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the beliefs and attitudes of Japanese businesses towards AIDS. Questionnaires were mailed to 1,655 Japanese companies listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange in June 1993, and the response rate was 38% (n = 620). About 60% of the responding companies had already implemented or were developing AIDS measures. Only 7% of the companies had an AIDS policy, and 5% of the companies were developing one. Eighty-five per cent of the companies perceived AIDS education as necessary, while 53% of the companies replied that HIV testing was unnecessary. As reasons for providing AIDS education, avoiding discrimination and anxiety in the workplace were frequently cited. Ninety-five per cent of the companies wanted guidelines or manuals for AIDS to be developed by the Ministry of Labour, or to have training courses for personnel in charge of education or counselling provided by the Ministry. Although AIDS measures are currently unsatisfactory in Japanese businesses, they are expected to develop effective measures, considering their high recognition of the need for AIDS education. PMID:8918150

  8. Adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies: an analysis of industry/sector variations.

    PubMed

    Bakuwa, Rhoda

    2010-12-01

    Addressing HIV and AIDS is the responsibility of many stakeholders including private sector companies. However, increasing evidence reveals that the majority of companies around the world are yet to acknowledge and respond to HIV and AIDS as a workplace issue. One factor that has been identified in the literature as playing a role in determining whether a company responds to HIV and AIDS, or not, is the industry/sector in which a company operates. This study therefore sought to empirically examine whether in the context of Malawi there were significant variations in the adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies based on the industry/sector in which a company was operating, as well as analyse the dynamics underlying such variations. Using survey data collected from 152 randomly selected private sector companies in Malawi, the results of this study revealed significant variations in the adoption of HIV and AIDS workplace policies among companies operating in various sectors. Companies in the service sector were leading the adoption compared to companies in other sectors such as the trading sector. Furthermore, the evidence from this study showed that differences in staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions may explain the industry/sector variations. These results provide an important avenue to scale up company responses to HIV and AIDS by intensifying staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions. Such institutions appear to play a vital role of providing up to date HIV-and AIDS-related information upon which companies are able to develop a business case for responding to the epidemic. PMID:21409305

  9. Policies of containment: immigration in the era of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, A L; Tynan, E A

    1994-01-01

    The US Public Health Service began the medical examination of immigrants at US ports in 1891. By 1924, national origin had become a means to justify broad-based exclusion of immigrants after Congress passed legislation restricting immigration from southern and eastern European countries. This legislation was passed based on the alleged genetic inferiority of southern and eastern Europeans. Since 1987, the United States has prohibited the entrance of immigrants infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). On the surface, a policy of excluding individuals with an inevitably fatal "communicable disease of public health significance" rests solidly in the tradition of protecting public health. But excluding immigrants with HIV is also a policy that, in practice, resembles the 1924 tradition of selective racial restriction of immigrants from "dangerous nations." Since the early 1980s, the United States has erected barriers against immigrants from particular Caribbean and African nations, whose citizens were thought to pose a threat of infecting the US blood supply with HIV. Images p2012-a p2014-a PMID:7998650

  10. Purged: Undocumented Students, Financial Aid Policies, and Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Strong, Daysi; Gomez, Christina; Luna-Duarte, Maria E.; Meiners, Erica R.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how the denial of financial aid constrains undocumented students from pursuing higher education and discusses the interlocking relationship between federal immigration and higher education policies. Reporting on research data identifying that undocumented students pay for their education through work, family contributions,…

  11. The Effects of Financial Aid Policies on Student Persistence in Taiwanese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ching-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of financial aid policies on student persistence between the first and second year at a private four-year postsecondary institution in Taiwan. A two-phase sequential research design was employed with priority was given to the quantitative data--structural equation modeling (SEM). While the…

  12. Developing Policy for HIV/AIDS in Sport: Separating Fact from Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, Karin A. E.; Sankaran, Gopal; Bonsall, Dale R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines issues regarding rights, obligations, risks, privacy, and policy related to HIV/AIDS in sports, discussing the growing dilemma for sports professionals to weigh an athlete's right to privacy against their own duty to warn in the decision-making process; describing mandatory HIV testing for athletes; and providing guidelines based on…

  13. New Hampshire Educators' Handbook: A Guide for Developing HIV/AIDS Curriculum and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire State Dept. of Education, Concord.

    This handbook was developed to facilitate the task school districts face in developing and implementing effective Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) curriculum and policy. Organized into five sections, the guide begins with an introduction that includes the New Hampshire State Board of Education HIV/AIDS…

  14. Sharpening the Dialogue: Engaging Policymakers in the Alignment of Appropriations, Tuition, and Financial Aid Policy. Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demaree K.

    2006-01-01

    This issue of "Exchanges" highlights a number of issues in the challenge to align appropriations, tuition and financial aid (AFTA) policy. Two distinct trends in the nature of the American student population are identified: significant demographic shifts and the emerging necessity of serving adult learners. These shifts are prompting state…

  15. Perceptions of College Financial Aid among California Latino Youth. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarate, Maria Estela; Pachon, Harry P.

    2006-01-01

    The Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) survey of California Latino youth perceptions of college financial aid reveals: (1) Ninety-eight percent of respondents felt it was important to have a college education; (2) Thirty-eight percent of respondents did not feel the benefits of college outweigh the costs; (3) Not being able to work and incurring…

  16. A Public Policy Approach to Local Models of HIV/AIDS Control in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Andreia; Costa-Couto, Maria-Helena; Thoenig, Jean-Claude; Fleury, Sonia; de Camargo, Kenneth; Larouzé, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated involvement and cooperation patterns of local Brazilian AIDS program actors and the consequences of these patterns for program implementation and sustainability. Methods. We performed a public policy analysis (documentary analysis, direct observation, semistructured interviews of health service and nongovernmental organization [NGO] actors) in 5 towns in 2 states, São Paulo and Pará. Results. Patterns suggested 3 models. In model 1, local government, NGOs, and primary health care services were involved in AIDS programs with satisfactory response to new epidemiological trends but a risk that HIV/AIDS would become low priority. In model 2, mainly because of NGO activism, HIV/AIDS remained an exceptional issue, with limited responses to new epidemiological trends and program sustainability undermined by political instability. In model 3, involvement of public agencies and NGOs was limited, with inadequate response to epidemiological trends and poor mobilization threatening program sustainability. Conclusions. Within a common national AIDS policy framework, the degree of involvement and cooperation between public and NGO actors deeply impacts population coverage and program sustainability. Specific processes are required to maintain actor mobilization without isolating AIDS programs. PMID:19372523

  17. The impacts of AIDS movements on the policy responses to HIV/AIDS in Brazil and South Africa: A comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Nattrass, Nicoli; Cornwall, Alexandra; Gruskin, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    Brazil and South Africa were among the first countries profoundly impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic and had similar rates of HIV infection in the early 1990s. Today, Brazil has less than 1% adult HIV prevalence, implemented treatment and prevention programmes early in the epidemic, and now has exemplary HIV/AIDS programmes. South Africa, by contrast, has HIV prevalence of 18% and was, until recently, infamous for its delayed and inappropriate response to the HIV/ AIDS epidemic. This article explores how differing relationships between AIDS movements and governments have impacted the evolving policy responses to the AIDS epidemic in both countries, including through AIDS programme finance, leadership and industrial policy related to production of generic medicines. PMID:23137055

  18. Conceptualizing a Human Right to Prevention in Global HIV/AIDS Policy

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Brugh, Kristen Nichole; Halima, Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    Given current constraints on universal treatment campaigns, recent advances in public health prevention initiatives have revitalized efforts to stem the tide of HIV transmission. Yet, despite a growing imperative for prevention—supported by the promise of behavioral, structural and biomedical approaches to lower the incidence of HIV—human rights frameworks remain limited in addressing collective prevention policy through global health governance. Assessing the evolution of rights-based approaches to global HIV/AIDS policy, this review finds that human rights have shifted from collective public health to individual treatment access. While the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic gave meaning to rights in framing global health policy, the application of rights in treatment access litigation came at the expense of public health prevention efforts. Where the human rights framework remains limited to individual rights enforced against a state duty bearer, such rights have faced constrained application in framing population-level policy to realize the public good of HIV prevention. Concluding that human rights frameworks must be developed to reflect the complementarity of individual treatment and collective prevention, this article conceptualizes collective rights to public health, structuring collective combination prevention to alleviate limitations on individual rights frameworks and frame rights-based global HIV/AIDS policy to assure research expansion, prevention access and health system integration. PMID:23226723

  19. FAmily CEntered (FACE) advance care planning: Study design and methods for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for patients with HIV/AIDS and their surrogate decision-makers

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Allison L.; Wang, Jichuan; Scott, Rachel; Briggs, Linda; Lyon, Maureen E.

    2016-01-01

    Although the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has become a chronic illness, disease-specific advance care planning has not yet been evaluated for the palliative care needs of adults with HIV/AIDS. This prospective, longitudinal, randomized, two-arm controlled clinical trial aims to test the efficacy of FAmily CEntered Advance Care Planning among adults living with AIDS and/or HIV with co-morbidities on congruence in treatment preferences, healthcare utilization, and quality of life. The FAmily CEntered intervention arm is two face-to-face sessions with a trained, certified facilitator: Session 1) Disease-Specific Advance Care Planning Respecting Choices Interview; Session 2) Completion of advance directive. The Healthy Living control arm is: Session 1) Developmental/Relationship History; Session 2) Nutrition. Follow-up data will be collected at 3, 6, 12, and 18-month post-intervention. A total of 288 patient/surrogate dyads will be enrolled from five hospital-based, out-patient clinics in Washington, District of Columbia. Participants will be HIV positive and ≥21 years of age; surrogates will be ≥18 years of age. Exclusion criteria are homicidality, suicidality, psychosis, and impaired cognitive functioning. We hypothesize that this intervention will enhance patient-centered communication with a surrogate decision-maker about end of life treatment preferences over time, enhance patient quality of life and decrease health care utilization. We further hypothesize that this intervention will decrease health disparities for Blacks in completion of advance directives. If proposed aims are achieved, the benefits of palliative care, particularly increased treatment preferences about end-of-life care and enhanced quality of life, will be extended to people living with AIDS. PMID:26044463

  20. Remote hearing aid fitting: Tele-audiology in the context of Brazilian Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    Penteado, Silvio Pires; Ramos, Sueli de Lima; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo; Marone, Silvio Antonio Monteiro; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Currently, the Brazilian government has certificated nearly 140 specialized centers in hearing aid fittings through the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). Remote fitting through the Internet can allow a broader and more efficient coverage with a higher likelihood of success for patients covered by the SUS, as they can receive fittings from their own homes instead of going to the few and distant specialized centers. Aim: To describe a case of remote fitting between 2 cities, with revision of the literature. Method: Computer gears, a universal interface, and hearing aids were used. Case study: An audiologist located in a specialized center introduced a new hearing aid and its fitting procedure to a remote center (200 km away). The specialized center helped the remote center in fitting a hearing aid in 2 patients, and performed fitting in one of its own patients. The whole process was done through the Internet with audio and video in real time. Results: Three patients were fitted remotely. Three audiologists were remotely trained on how to fit the hearing aids. Conclusions: Remote fitting of hearing aids is possible through the Internet, as well as further supplying technical training to a remote center about the fitting procedures. Such a technological approach can help the government advance public policies on hearing rehabilitation, as patients can be motivated about maintaining their use of hearing aids with the option to ask for help in the comfort of their own homes. PMID:25991960

  1. Here Today, Gone Tomorrow? Investigating Rates and Patterns of Financial Aid Renewal among College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Kelli; Castleman, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    College affordability continues to be a top concern among prospective students, their families, and policy makers. Prior work has demonstrated that a significant share of prospective students forgo financial aid because they did not complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA); recent federal policy efforts have focused on…

  2. The impact of the International Monetary Fund's macroeconomic policies on the AIDS pandemic.

    PubMed

    Baker, Brook K

    2010-01-01

    Expansion of funding for HIV/AIDS, especially treatment, is under attack over concerns about cost effectiveness and financial constraints. The International Monetary Fund is deeply implicated in the history of the AIDS pandemic, the underlying weakness of health systems, and the ideology of constrained resources that underlies most attacks on AIDS funding. The IMF imposed structural violence on developing countries in the 1980s and 1990s through neoliberal and macroeconomic reforms that intensified individual and communal vulnerability to infection and dismantled already weak health systems. This same macroeconomic fundamentalism has recently been repackaged and renamed. IMF fundamentalist policies continue to prioritize low inflation, constricted government spending, robust foreign currency reserves, and prompt repayment of debt at the expense of investments in health and more expansionary, pro-growth and job-creation policies. Several recent surveys have concluded that the IMF reluctantly relaxed overly restrictive policy prescriptions in response to the global economic crisis, but this relaxation was temporary at best and only extended to countries previously acceding to IMF orthodoxy. AIDS activists are campaigning for billions of dollars to fulfill the promise of universal access. If IMF pressures persist, developing countries will continue to undermine the additionality of donor health financing by substituting donor for domestic financing, refusing to invest in recurrent costs for medicines and health workers, and neglecting needed investments in health infrastructure and health system strengthening. PMID:20440979

  3. TAC-maker: Transit Analytical Curve maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Vladev, A.; Yotov, V.

    2013-03-01

    TAC-maker allows for rapid and interactive calculation of synthetic planet transits by numerical computations of the integrals, allowing the use of an arbitrary limb-darkening law of the host star. This advantage together with the practically arbitrary precision of the calculations makes the code a valuable tool for the continuously increasing photometric precision of ground-based and space observations.

  4. State Decision-Makers Guide for Hazardous Waste Management: Defining Hazardous Wastes, Problem Recognition, Land Use, Facility Operations, Conceptual Framework, Policy Issues, Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Alan; And Others

    Presented are key issues to be addressed by state, regional, and local governments and agencies in creating effective hazardous waste management programs. Eight chapters broadly frame the topics which state-level decision makers should consider. These chapters include: (1) definition of hazardous waste; (2) problem definition and recognition; (3)…

  5. AIDS and HIV. Policy Guidelines for Boards. Campus Life Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The report is designed to inform members of college and university and administration governing boards about facts and issues surrounding acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) so that they may develop education and prevention programs for their institutions and ensure protection from accidental…

  6. Migration, Aid and Trade: Policy Coherence for Development. Policy Brief No. 28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton-Johnson, Jeff; Katseli, Louka T.

    2006-01-01

    Many Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries recruit internationally skilled workers for their health, education, or public administration sectors and the subsequent emigration of such workers can cause critical shortages in developing countries, even as these countries receive substantial aid from those same OECD…

  7. 75 FR 55341 - Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Assistance and Fire Management Assistance AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... comments on Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire...

  8. AIDS, policy and bioethics: ethical dilemmas facing China in HIV prevention: a report from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Guang

    1997-01-01

    The present situation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is very grim in China. The probability of China becoming a country with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS cannot be excluded because there have been factors which promote the wide spread of HIV if we fail to take timely action to prevent it at the opportune moment. However, China's HIV prevention policy is inadequate. Health professionals and programmers believed that they could take a conventional public health approach to cope with the HIV epidemic. They simply ignored the fact that HIV infection is an epidemic so special that their approach is not effective to deter the epidemic. Many health professionals and programmers bypassed ethical issues that had emerged in the prevention of the HIV epidemic. Even some health educators, sexologists and officials believe that 'AIDS is the punishment for promiscuity', and this belief has led to discrimination and stigmatization of AIDS patients, HIV positive people, their family members and high risk groups. Although homosexuality is not illegal, the police can always find any reason to detain homosexuals. A difficult ethical issue is about the laws prohibiting prostitution and drug use in China which force prostitutes and intravenous drug users underground, giving them no chance to access information, education and the services needed to protect them. The dilemma facing China is whether to stay with a restrictive policy for the reason of ideology cleansing or to turn to a more supportive policy. It is necessary to have some change in the ethical framework to evaluate the action in HIV prevention. Tolerance should be the first ethical principle. PMID:11654786

  9. Child Care and Public Policy: A Dilemma at All Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Tom

    This report provides an analysis of public policy issues associated with state and federal child care developments, laws, regulations, and bills. It is intended to aid policy makers, government officials, consumers, and practitioners of child care programs. The report examines three major areas of policy: (1) federal legislative action which…

  10. Forward to AIDS 2014: Now is the Time to Unite for the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    As AIDS activists, advocates, researchers, practitioners, scientists, and policy makers from around the world prepare for the forthcoming 20th International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2014) which takes place from 20-25 July in Melbourne, Australia, Gregory Pappas, MD, PhD, former Executive Director of the Washington DC’s local Host Committee, International AIDS Society (IAS) organizing committee member, and Director, HIV/AIDS Program in the District of Columbia, Washington, DC, USA, reflects, for the first time, on his experiences hosting the world conference and bringing AIDS conference to United States after 22 years. He shares some of the key challenges and opportunities confronting program planners, policy makers and advocates in the efforts to address the global epidemic.

  11. Physician-facilitated designation of proxy decision maker.

    PubMed

    Arora, Amit; Cummings, Laura; Crome, Peter

    2016-01-01

    With vast improvements in healthcare in recent decades, people are living longer but often with higher rates of morbidity and chronic illnesses. This has resulted in a higher proportion of the population who may benefit from early end-of-life 'conversation and planning', but also gives healthcare professionals more time during which these discussions are relevant, as people live longer with their chronic diseases. A survey conducted by Lifshitz et al (Isr J Health Policy Res 5:6, 2016) sought to assess physician awareness and willingness to discuss designating a proxy decision-maker with patients, in order to aid end-of-life care in the event that the patient is rendered unable to make or communicate these decisions later in life. Their article suggests that proxy decision-maker designation is only one aspect of end-of-life care; a challenging area littered with ethical and moral dilemmas. Without early, open and frank discussions with patients regarding their wishes at the end of life, proxy decision-makers may be in no better position than physicians or a court appointed proxy to make decisions in the patients' best interests/benefits. This commentary also touches upon the use of health and care passports being developed or in early phases in the United Kingdom, and whether these may be utilised in the field of palliative care in Israel. PMID:27358723

  12. Exploring the Relationship between State Financial Aid Policy and Postsecondary Enrollment Choices: A Focus on Income and Race Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jiyun

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between state financial aid policies and postsecondary enrollment for high school graduates (or equivalent diploma holders). Utilizing an event history modeling for a nationally representative sample from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88/2000) in addition to state-level policy variables, this…

  13. Funding Special Education by Total District Enrollment: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Policy Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhuey, Elizabeth; Lipscomb, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Several states and the federal government distribute aid for special education programs based primarily on total district enrollment and a fixed aid amount per student, a method called "census funding." In this policy brief, we address three questions to help policy makers, educators, and researchers better understand census-funding…

  14. Strengthening the research to policy and practice interface: exploring strategies used by research organisations working on sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This commentary introduces the HARPS supplement on getting research into policy and practice in sexual and reproductive health (SRH). The papers in this supplement have been produced by the Sexual Health and HIV Evidence into Practice (SHHEP) collaboration of international research, practitioner and advocacy organizations based in research programmes funded by the UK Department for International Development. The commentary describes the increasing interest from research and communication practitioners, policy makers and funders in expanding the impact of research on policy and practice. It notes the need for contextually embedded understanding of ways to engage multiple stakeholders in the politicized, sensitive and often contested arenas of sexual and reproductive health. The commentary then introduces the papers under their respective themes: (1) The theory and practice of research engagement (two global papers); (2) Applying policy analysis to explore the role of research evidence in SRH and HIV/AIDS policy (two papers with examples from Ghana, Malawi, Uganda and Zambia); (3) Strategies and methodologies for engagement (five papers on Kenya, South Africa, Ghana, Tanzania and Swaziland respectively); (4) Advocacy and engagement to influence attitudes on controversial elements of sexual health (two papers, Bangladesh and global); and (5) Institutional approaches to inter-sectoral engagement for action and strengthening research communications (two papers, Ghana and global). The papers illustrate the many forms research impact can take in the field of sexual and reproductive health. This includes discursive changes through carving out legitimate spaces for public debate; content changes such as contributing to changing laws and practices, procedural changes such as influencing how data on SRH are collected, and behavioural changes through partnerships with civil society actors such as advocacy groups and journalists. The contributions to this supplement provide a

  15. Home Health Aides' Experience With Client Death: The Role of Employer Policy.

    PubMed

    Boerner, Kathrin; Gleason, Hayley; Barooah, Adrita

    2016-04-01

    Home health aides (HHAs) are members of a rapidly growing occupation. They often develop close ties to patients and their family and can experience significant grief when a patient dies. Yet agencies often provide little support or structure to help staff cope during this time. For instance, home care agencies do not always notify their staff of client death and some have policies in place to prevent any follow-up contact with a deceased client's family. Little is known about how these agency factors affect HHAs' work experience. This mixed-method study explored the experiences of 78 HHAs working either at an agency with a restrictive policy regarding contact with a client's family after client death or an agency without such a policy in place. Data were collected through semistructured in-person interviews. Employment outcomes included various aspects of job satisfaction and intention to change jobs. HHAs' responses to client death were assessed with measures of grief and grief processing, and with open-ended questions exploring their experiences in this context. Findings indicated that HHAs from the restrictive agency were significantly more likely to be considering other job options. They also reported significantly lower satisfaction with received supervision, and significantly less grief processing activity. Findings suggest that HHAs from the agency without a contact-restrictive policy had a more positive experience at work and more opportunity to process the client's death. PMID:27023294

  16. Caught in the middle: the contested politics of HIV/AIDS and health policy in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jennifer S; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-02-01

    Drawing on the changing landscape of responses to HIV in Vietnam, this article describes the key players and analyzes the relationships between global players and local interests, including both the omnipresent state and an emerging civil society presence. We discuss the critical importance of timing for policy intervention and the role of health policy in shaping the broader social terrain. The interventions of external actors such as the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund were instrumental in improving both policies and programs at a critical juncture, when the national responses to the epidemic had been ineffective. At the same time, those global interventions met resistance and led to unintended consequences, both welcome and unwelcome. Furthermore, the looming specter of donor withdrawal and the very gradually emerging national ownership raise many questions about capacity for scale-up and sustainability of the significant achievements to date. Further monitoring and in-depth analysis of the Vietnamese responses to the HIV epidemic in the next few years or so, we contend, have the potential to provide unique insights into the challenges faced by developing countries caught in the complex webs of health politics and policies at both the global and the national levels. PMID:25480849

  17. MakerBot

    NASA Video Gallery

    Langley’s new Personal Fabrication Laboratory now has a MakerBot. In this video, the 3D printer is making a space shuttle out of glow-in-the-dark plastic material. In real-time, the process took...

  18. HIV Testing, Human Rights, and Global AIDS Policy: Exceptionalism and Its Discontents

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Ronald; Edington, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Two years ago, in May 2007, UNAIDS and WHO issued new guidelines on HIV testing. Prepared to meet the demands of the AIDS pandemic and the prospects of extending the benefits of antiretroviral therapy to regions where such treatment had been all but out of reach, the new guidance was the product of an extended period of sometimes acrimonious controversy both within the two UN agencies and globally. Those pressing for change had argued that a paradigm of testing that had emerged at a time when little could be done for those infected with HIV was inappropriate to the current moment. Those who viewed with skepticism, if not hostility, the claims that current practice and stringent ethical standards had become an impediment to effectively confronting the challenge of AIDS saw in the proposed changes a threat to the bedrock ethical principles of informed consent. In the end, of course, decisions about HIV testing will be taken by nation – states, with the recommendations of international organizations constituting but one element, however important, that will shape policy. Nevertheless, an examination of the history and the dynamics of the recent controversy and its outcome will provide a unique resource to those faced with policy choices; it will also provide a unique opportunity to lay bare the complex and politically charged relationships evolving between public health and human rights. PMID:19451406

  19. "Rule of Thumb Methods No Longer Suffice": Development of British Coal Industry Education and Training 1900-circa 1970 and Lessons for Present-Day Education Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martyn A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the origins and development of coal mining education and training in Britain from 1900 to the 1970s, by which time the coal industry had substantially declined. It looks at the progress from working-class self-help to national policy in support of education and training. The research makes use of college prospectuses and…

  20. Potential impact of adjustment policies on vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    De Vogli, Roberto; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2005-06-01

    This paper evaluates the potential impact of adjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank on the vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. A conceptual framework, composed of five different pathways of causation, is used for the evaluation. These five pathways connect changes at the macro level (e.g. removal of food subsidies) with effects at the meso (e.g. higher food prices) and micro levels (e.g. exposure of women and children to commercial sex) that influence the vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS. Published literature on adjustment policies and socioeconomic determinants of HIV/AIDS among women and children in sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed to explore the cause-effect relationships included in the theoretical framework. Evidence suggests that adjustment policies may inadvertently produce conditions facilitating the exposure of women and children to HIV/AIDS. Complex research designs are needed to further investigate this relationship. A shift in emphasis from an individual approach to a socioeconomic approach in the study of HIV infection among women and children in the developing world is suggested. Given the potential for adjustment policies to exacerbate the AIDS pandemic among women and children, a careful examination of the effects of these policies on maternal and child welfare is urgently needed. PMID:16117362

  1. Why the Critics of Poor Health Service Delivery Are the Causes of Poor Service Delivery: A Need to Train the Policy-makers

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This comment on Professor Fotaki’s Editorial agrees with her arguments that training health professionals in more compassionate, caring and ethically sound care will have little value unless the system in which they work changes. It argues that for system change to occur, senior management, government members and civil servants themselves need training so that they learn to understand the effects that their policies have on health professionals. It argues that these people are complicit in the delivery of unethical care, because they impose requirements that contradict health professionals’ desire to deliver compassionate and ethical forms of care. PMID:26340498

  2. The National Strategic Plan of South Africa: what are the prospects of success after the repeated failure of previous AIDS policy?

    PubMed

    Wouters, Edwin; van Rensburg, H C J; Meulemans, H

    2010-05-01

    Hitherto, the story of HIV/AIDS in South Africa is, to a large extent, one of lost opportunities. Whereas the country has one of the worst epidemics in the world, consecutive national AIDS strategies have been repeatedly marked by failure over almost three decades. Understandably, South Africa's most recent HIV/AIDS policy, the HIV & AIDS and STI Strategic Plan for South Africa, 2007-2011 (NSP), has been greeted with general acclaim. However, what are its real prospects of success against the backdrop of the repeated failures of the past? The first objective of this review is to systematically identify the core reasons for past policy failures. Using a comprehensive analytical framework, this article presents a systematic review of the literature on postapartheid AIDS policy in South Africa. The analysis demonstrates that a complex interplay among the content, context, actors and process of AIDS policy created a gap between policy making and policy implementation, which rendered near-ideal AIDS policies ineffective. Secondly, we evaluate the chances of success of the current NSP by examining both the policy-making phase and the resulting policy document in light of the reasons for past policy failures. Our analysis shows that the NSP contains dynamic and comprehensive policy content, sensitive to the socio-economic and cultural dimensions of HIV/AIDS. However, many of the political actors that hampered treatment implementation in the past, and who deepened the gap between government and civil society, are still in office. Monetary and human resource shortages also create a policy context that is infertile for the implementation of a comprehensive HIV/AIDS strategy, as envisaged in the NSP. Finally, these health system restrictions have a clear negative impact on the process of policy implementation. Without the mobilization of people living with HIV/AIDS and their communities, the NSP will be ineffective in bridging the gap between policy intentions and policy

  3. Genome Annotation and Curation Using MAKER and MAKER-P

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Michael S.; Holt, Carson; Moore, Barry; Yandell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This unit describes how to use the genome annotation and curation tools MAKER and MAKER-P to annotate protein coding and non-coding RNA genes in newly assembled genomes, update/combine legacy annotations in light of new evidence, add quality metrics to annotations from other pipelines, and map existing annotations to a new assembly. MAKER and MAKER-P can rapidly annotate genomes of any size, and scale to match available computational resources. PMID:25501943

  4. United States global health policy: HIV/AIDS, maternal and child health, and The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).

    PubMed

    Leeper, Sarah C; Reddi, Anand

    2010-09-10

    The Obama administration has unveiled a new 6-year, $63 billion Global Health Initiative. In addition to the reauthorization of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) to fund HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, the plan also supports maternal and child health (MCH) initiatives that are rooted in a proposal known as the Mother and Child Campaign. The architects of the Obama administration's Global Health Initiative recommend funding the Mother and Child Campaign at the expense of future funding increases for PEPFAR. The idea that differing global health initiatives must compete with each other lacks not only ethical legitimacy but also scientific merit. We believe that MCH need not to be framed in opposition to PEPFAR. Confronting illness in isolation - whether by funding PEPFAR at the expense of programs that target MCH or vice versa - cannot be our way forward. Given the intimate connection between HIV/AIDS and MCH, we affirm supporting PEPFAR and MCH programs together. We argue that policies that de-emphasize PEPFAR threaten to undermine, rather than support, MCH in countries with high HIV/AIDS prevalence. PEPFAR has directly and indirectly supported the care and treatment of other milieu specific diseases, including those afflicting mothers and children, bringing about broad benefits to the primary healthcare systems of recipient countries. We advocate the vertical integration of MCH initiatives into PEPFAR in order to create a comprehensive approach to addressing MCH against the global backdrop of HIV/AIDS. PMID:20606571

  5. Policies in Sync: Appropriations, Tuition, and Financial Aid for Higher Education. A Compilation of Selected Papers. Changing Direction: Integrating Higher Education Financial Aid and Financing Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.

    These four papers look into a system comprised of integrated financial and financing policies. Each paper examines a different aspect that is critical to alignment. "Financing in Sync: Aligning Fiscal Policy with State Objectives" (Dennis Jones), identifies distinct elements of financing policy, describes alternative forms of these elements, and…

  6. CDC’s Second National Report on Biochemical Indicators of Diet and Nutrition in the US Population is a valuable tool for researchers and policy makers123

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Haynes, Bridgette M.H.; Rybak, Michael E.; Pirkle, James L.

    2016-01-01

    The CDC’s National Report on Biochemical Indicators of Diet and Nutrition in the US Population (Nutrition Report) is a serial publication that provides ongoing assessment of the population’s nutritional status. The Nutrition Report presents data on blood and urine biomarker concentrations (selected water- and fat-soluble vitamins and nutrients, trace elements, dietary bioactive compounds) from a representative sample of the population participating in the NHANES. The Second Nutrition Report (released in 2012) contains reference information (means and percentiles) for 58 biomarkers measured during all or part of 2003–2006, stratified by age, sex, and race-ethnicity. Where available, we presented cutpoint-based prevalence data during 2003–2006, and data on changes in biomarker concentrations or prevalence since 1999. Blood vitamin concentrations were generally higher in older (≥60 y) compared to younger (20–39 y) adults and lower in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic blacks compared to non-Hispanic whites. Nearly 80% of Americans (≥6 y) were not at risk for deficiencies in any of the 7 vitamins studied (A, B-6, B-12, C, D, E and folate). Deficiency rates varied by age, sex, and race-ethnicity. About 90% of women (12–49 y) were not at risk for iron deficiency, but only 68% were not at risk for deficiencies in iron and all 7 vitamins. Young women (20–39 y) had median urine iodine concentrations bordering on insufficiency. First-time data are presented on plasma concentrations of 24 saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Tabulation and graphical presentation of NHANES data in the Second Nutrition Report benefits those organizations involved in developing and evaluating nutrition policy. PMID:23596164

  7. A Broken Promise: Examining the Merit-Aid Policy and Implementation Gap in the Michigan Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun-Barnet, Nathan; Hermsen, Albert; Vedder, Lori; Mabry, Beth

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Michigan changed their traditional merit award to a credit contingent program based upon successful completion of 60 college credits. The Michigan Promise Scholarship was crafted by state policymakers without input from the financial aid community. This case study suggests that the change in policy resulted in two unintended consequences:…

  8. The Irony of Open Access: An Examination of a New York State Financial Aid Policy and Its Effect on Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baksh-Jarrett, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Open access institutions have achieved the goal of providing higher education to all who seek it. To compete in a global economy, these higher educational institutions must do more than open the door; they must ensure that admitted students succeed. This study examined effects of New York State's financial aid policy that requires…

  9. Financial Aid, Access & Equity, and State Policy: An Interview with Richard Freeland, Commissioner of Higher Education for Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many states are looking at effective ways to use financial incentives to encourage students to complete a postsecondary credential. JFF's new report, "Statewide Aid Policies to Improve College Access and Success", originally commissioned by the Massachusetts Department of Higher Education's Vision Project, has provided valuable background for that…

  10. Moving Towards Inclusive Education Policies and Practices? Basic Education for AIDS Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue; Kanyanta, Sylvester Bonaventure

    2007-01-01

    The global spread of HIV and AIDS has presented a major threat to development, affecting the health of the poor and many aspects of social and economic development. The greatest impact of the epidemic has been felt in sub-Saharan Africa, and Zambia ranks among the worst hit countries. The Free Basic Education Policy in Zambia upholds the right of…

  11. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and procedure. 209.325 Section 209.325 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation...

  12. An Assessment of the Policies and Programmes of Zimbabwe in Addressing the HIV/Aids Epidemic in the Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rembe, Symphorosa

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the policies, strategic plans and structures that have been put in place in Zimbabwe to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the education sector. It also examined the comprehensiveness of projects and programmes currently being implemented by the government in collaboration with partner organisations and NGOs. The findings show…

  13. From GRID to gridlock: the relationship between scientific biomedical breakthroughs and HIV/AIDS policy in the US Congress

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Matthew B; Platt, Manu O

    2013-01-01

    Introduction From the travel ban on people living with HIV (PLHIV) to resistance to needle exchange programmes, there are many examples where policy responses to HIV/AIDS in the United States seem divorced from behavioural, public health and sociological evidence. At its root, however, the unknowns about HIV/AIDS lie at biomedical science, and scientific researchers have made tremendous progress over the past 30 years of the epidemic by using antiretroviral therapy to increase the life expectancy of PLHIV almost to the same level as non-infected individuals; but a relationship between biomedical science discoveries and congressional responses to HIV/AIDS has not been studied. Using quantitative approaches, we directly examine the hypothesis that progress in HIV/AIDS biomedical science discoveries would have a correlative relationship with congressional response to HIV/AIDS from 1981 to 2010. Methods This study used original data on every bill introduced, hearing held and law passed by the US Congress relating to HIV/AIDS over 30 years (1981–2010). We combined congressional data with the most cited and impactful biomedical research scientific publications over the same time period as a metric of biomedical science breakthroughs. Correlations between congressional policy and biomedical research were then analyzed at the aggregate and individual levels. Results Biomedical research advancements helped shape both the level and content of bill sponsorship on HIV/AIDS, but they had no effect on other stages of the legislative process. Examination of the content of bills and biomedical research indicated that science helped transform HIV/AIDS bill sponsorship from a niche concern of liberal Democrats to a bipartisan coalition when Republicans became the majority party. The trade-off for that expansion has been an emphasis on the global epidemic to the detriment of domestic policies and programmes. Conclusions Breakthroughs in biomedical science did associate with the

  14. Policy Analysis Implications of a Model to Improve the Delivery of Financial Aid to Disadvantaged Students. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Robert H.; Porter, John D.

    The role of institutional research in policy analysis regarding the operation of a computer model for delivery of financial aid to disadvantaged students is considered. A student financial aid model at Arizona State University is designed to develop a profile of late appliers for aid funds and also those who file inaccurate or incomplete…

  15. Aligning faith-based and national HIV/AIDS prevention responses? Factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process and response of faith-based NGOs in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Rosemary; Green, Andrew; Boesten, Jelke

    2014-05-01

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long tradition of providing HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation services in Africa. The overall response of FBOs, however, has been controversial, particularly in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention and FBO's rejection of condom use and promotion, which can conflict with and negatively influence national HIV/AIDS prevention response efforts. This article reports the findings from a study that explored the factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process within faith-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) of different faiths. These factors were examined within three faith-based NGOs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania-a Catholic, Anglican and Muslim organization. The research used an exploratory, qualitative case-study approach, and employed a health policy analysis framework, examining the context, actor and process factors and how they interact to form content in terms of policy and its implementation within each organization. Three key factors were found to influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention response in terms of both policy and its implementation: (1) the faith structure in which the organizations are a part, (2) the presence or absence of organizational policy and (3) the professional nature of the organizations and its actors. The interaction between these factors, and how actors negotiate between them, was found to shape the organizations' HIV/AIDS prevention response. This article reports on these factors and analyses the different HIV/AIDS prevention responses found within each organization. By understanding the factors that influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention policy process, the overall faith-based response to HIV/AIDS, and how it corresponds to national response efforts, is better understood. It is hoped that by doing so the government will be better able to identify how to best work with FBOs to meet national HIV/AIDS prevention targets, improving the overall role of FBOs in the fight against

  16. The Diamond Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, Robert M.

    1999-08-01

    Since time immemorial, we have treasured diamonds for their exquisite beauty and unrivaled hardness. Yet, most of the earth's diamonds lie deep underground and totally unaccessible to us--if only we knew how to fabricate them! In The Diamond Makers Robert Hazen vividly recounts the very human desire to exceed nature and create a synthetic diamond. Spanning centuries of ground-breaking science, instances of bitter rivalry, cases of outright fraud and self-delusion, Hazen blends drama and science to reveal the extraordinary technological advances and devastating failures of the diamond industry. Along the way, readers will be introduced to the brilliant, often eccentric and controversial, pioneers of high-pressure research who have harnessed crushing pressures and scorching temperatures to transform almost any carbon-rich material, from road tar to peanut butter, into the most prized of all gems. Robert M. Hazen is the author of fifteen books, including the bestseller, Science Matters: Achieving Scientific Literacy, which he wrote with James Trefil. Dr. Hazen has won numerous awards for his research and scientific writing.

  17. Bridging the gap between evidence and policy for infectious diseases: How models can aid public health decision-making.

    PubMed

    Knight, Gwenan M; Dharan, Nila J; Fox, Gregory J; Stennis, Natalie; Zwerling, Alice; Khurana, Renuka; Dowdy, David W

    2016-01-01

    The dominant approach to decision-making in public health policy for infectious diseases relies heavily on expert opinion, which often applies empirical evidence to policy questions in a manner that is neither systematic nor transparent. Although systematic reviews are frequently commissioned to inform specific components of policy (such as efficacy), the same process is rarely applied to the full decision-making process. Mathematical models provide a mechanism through which empirical evidence can be methodically and transparently integrated to address such questions. However, such models are often considered difficult to interpret. In addition, models provide estimates that need to be iteratively re-evaluated as new data or considerations arise. Using the case study of a novel diagnostic for tuberculosis, a framework for improved collaboration between public health decision-makers and mathematical modellers that could lead to more transparent and evidence-driven policy decisions for infectious diseases in the future is proposed. The framework proposes that policymakers should establish long-term collaborations with modellers to address key questions, and that modellers should strive to provide clear explanations of the uncertainty of model structure and outputs. Doing so will improve the applicability of models and clarify their limitations when used to inform real-world public health policy decisions. PMID:26546234

  18. Keeping up with the Joneses: Institutional Changes Following the Adoption of a Merit Aid Policy. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing use by private colleges and universities of financial aid based on "merit", as opposed to based solely on financial need has caused many to raise concerns that this type of aid will go mainly to higher income students crowding out aid to lower income students. However, some analysts suggest that by attracting more "almost…

  19. Financial Aid Policy: Lessons from Research. NBER Working Paper No. 18710

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. The increasing size and complexity of the nation's student aid system has generated questions about…

  20. Indigenous Youth as Language Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Romero-Little, Mary Eunice; Warhol, Larisa; Zepeda, Ofelia

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a grounded view of language shift as experienced by Native American youth across a range of early- to late-shift settings. Drawing on data from a long-term ethnographic study, we demonstrate that the linguistic ecologies in which youth language choices play out are more complex than a unidirectional notion of shift might…

  1. Parents as Policy Makers: Challenges for Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focal Point, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on the theme of fostering collaboration between parents and professionals in meeting the mental health needs of children. Structured group interviews (focus groups) were held with both parents and professionals who have been members of decision making boards and committees. Interview excerpts illustrate findings that…

  2. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  3. Kenya AIDS Indicator Surveys 2007 and 2012: Implications for Public Health Policies for HIV Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Maina, William K.; Kim, Andrea A.; Rutherford, George W.; Harper, Malayah; K’Oyugi, Boniface O.; Sharif, Shahnaaz; Kichamu, George; Muraguri, Nicholas M.; Akhwale, Willis; De Cock, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    AIDS Indicator Surveys are standardized surveillance tools used by countries with generalized HIV epidemics to provide, in a timely fashion, indicators for effective monitoring of HIV. Such data should guide responses to the HIV epidemic, meet program reporting requirements, and ensure comparability of findings across countries and over time. Kenya has conducted 2 AIDS Indicator Surveys, in 2007 (KAIS 2007) and 2012–2013 (KAIS 2012). These nationally representative surveys have provided essential epidemiologic, socio-demographic, behavioral, and biologic data on HIV and related indicators to evaluate the national HIV response and inform policies for prevention and treatment of the disease. We present a summary of findings from KAIS 2007 and KAIS 2012 and the impact that these data have had on changing HIV policies and practice. PMID:24732817

  4. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of current situation, prevention and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Han-Zhu; Schumacher, Joseph E; Chen, Huey T; Ruan, Yu-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU), and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasingly important drug consuming market. About half of China's 1.14 million documented drug users inject, and many share needles. IDU has contributed to 42% of cumulatively reported HIV/AIDS cases thus far. Drug trafficking is illegal in China and can lead to the death penalty. The public security departments adopt "zero tolerance" approach to drug use, which conflict with harm reduction policies of the public health departments. Past experience in China suggests that cracking down on drug smuggling and prohibiting drug use alone can not prevent or solve all illicit drug related problems in the era of globalization. In recent years, the central government has outlined a series of pragmatic policies to encourage harm reduction programs; meanwhile, some local governments have not fully mobilized to deal with drug abuse and HIV/AIDS problems seriously. Strengthening government leadership at both central and local levels; scaling up methadone substitution and needle exchange programs; making HIV voluntary counseling and testing available and affordable to both urban and rural drug users; and increasing utilization of outreach and nongovernmental organizations are offered as additional strategies to help cope with China's HIV and drug abuse problem. PMID:16451717

  5. Black-White Disparities in HIV/AIDS:The Role of Drug Policy and the Corrections System

    PubMed Central

    Blankenship, Kim M.; Smoyer, Amy B.; Bray, Sarah J.; Mattocks, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    African Americans in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. We focus in this paper on the structural and contextual sources of HIV/AIDS risk, and suggest that among the most important of these sources are drug policy and the corrections system. In particular, high rates of exposure to the corrections system (including incarceration, probation, and parole) spurred in large part by federal and state governments’ self-styled war on drugs in the United States, have disproportionately affected African Americans. We review a wide range of research literature to suggest how exposure to the corrections system may affect the HIV/AIDS related risks of drug users in general, and the disproportionate HIV risk faced by African Americans in particular. We then discuss the implications of the information reviewed for structural interventions to address African American HIV-related risk. Future research must further our understanding of the relations among drug policy, corrections, and race-based disparities in HIV/AIDS. PMID:16327113

  6. The Impact of State AIDS Drug Assistance Policies on Clinical and Economic Outcomes of People With HIV.

    PubMed

    Snider, Julia Thornton; Goldman, Dana P; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Seekins, Daniel; Juday, Timothy; Sanchez, Yuri; Wu, Yanyu; Peneva, Desi; Romley, John A

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the effect of changes to state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) policies, which govern access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), on clinical and economic outcomes among low-income people living with HIV/AIDS. Retrospective analyses of ART access were conducted on state ADAP policies, using data from ADAP Monitoring Reports and Kaiser Family Foundation from 2006 to 2010. We found stricter eligibility requirements reduce the number of HIV-positive individuals with ART access through ADAP, and decreased ART use increases mortality by 2.67 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per beneficiary. If the ADAP income eligibility cutoff were decreased by 50 percentage points in each state, 4,626 individuals would lose ART access nationwide. Based on a $22,143 cost/QALY, this policy would save $274 million in health care expenditures (2012 dollars), but result in 12,352 QALYs lost, valued at $1.2 billion. Therefore, states should exercise caution in restricting programs that increase ART access for low-income people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26537525

  7. Examining the Impact of a Highly Targeted State Administered Merit Aid Program on Brain Drain: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis of Missouri's Bright Flight Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, James R.; Muñoz, José; Curs, Bradley R.; Ehlert, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of state-funded merit-based aid programs has become increasingly popular among policy-makers, particularly in the southeastern part of the United States. One of the primary rationales of state-funded merit-based aid is to provide scholarships to the best and brightest students as a means to retain high quality human capital in the…

  8. Lifting the Fog on Inequitable Financial Aid Policies: A Companion Brief to "Priced out: How the Wrong Financial Aid Policies Hurt Low-Income Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mamie; Engle, Jennifer; Cruz, Jose L.

    2011-01-01

    A lack of situational awareness has been blamed for many of the most counterproductive decisions American policymakers have made on the battlefield, in response to natural and man-made disasters, and in the design and implementation of domestic policies. There are two key elements such disparate events as the escalation of the Vietnam war, the…

  9. Federal policy: Ryan White, OAR, testing newborns. Office of AIDS Research.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1996-05-01

    AIDS advocacy groups won four of the five HIV/AIDS issues on the table in the budget negotiations for fiscal year 1996. Congress and the White House have agreed to increase funding for the Ryan White CARE Act, with the AIDS Drug Assistance Program receiving an increase of $52 million, and an overall $30 million increase for the program. The budget compromise also repeals the law introduced by Congressman Robert Dornan (R-CA) which would have required the military to discharge military personnel living with HIV. Also, the AIDS Education and Training Centers will not be eliminated, although the program will receive cuts. The Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS (HOPWA) is flat funded for fiscal 1996. Negotiations for fiscal 1997 are currently underway. The issue that AIDS advocacy groups lost in the budget negotiation was the consolidated budget authority for the Office of AIDS Research (OAR). On a separate issue, Congress is likely to require states with more than 10 percent of the nation's pediatric AIDS cases to begin mandatory HIV-antibody testing of newborns in 2 years, unless each state can first meet certain standards through voluntary testing programs. Current language in the legislation requires counseling for pregnant women and voluntary HIV testing, measures long advocated by AIDS and public health groups as the best approach for reducing perinatal infection. PMID:11363487

  10. Connecting Geoscience and Decision Makers Through a Common Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Wood, C.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists and decision makers often use different words to describe the same thing. The American Geosciences Institute has developed a consistent definition for the geosciences (Wilson, 2014); however this definition often varies from how decision maker groups at the national, state, local, and regional levels often categorize geoscience topics. Where geoscientists may to refer to "geoscience," decision makers may use terms like "energy," "environment," and "natural resources." How may the geoscience community provide geoscience information to decision makers in a context they understand while at the same time providing a simple, yet consistent representation of all that the geosciences include? The American Geoscience Institute's (AGI's) Critical Issues program's main goal is to connect decision makers at all levels with decision-relevant, impartial, expert information from across the geosciences. The program uses a multi-faceted approach to reach different decision maker groups, including policy makers and government employees at the federal, state and local level. We discuss the challenges the Critical Issues program has overcome in representing the geosciences to decision makers in a cohesive fashion such that decision makers can access the information they need, while at the same time becoming aware of the breadth of information the geosciences has to offer, and the value of including geoscience in the decision-making process. References: Wilson, C.E. (2014) Status of the Geoscience Workforce 2014. American Geological Institute. Alexandria, VA.

  11. Relationships between Financial Aid Policies, Practices and Procedures at Texas Public Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Desiree Kornrum

    2006-01-01

    The economic success of the state of Texas is dependent upon future market participants having access to higher education. The ability of Texas citizens to access higher education is dependent upon access to financial aid resources to pay for higher education. Much is known about the impact of particular financial aid outcomes on access and…

  12. Enrollment Management and Financial Aid Part Two: A Public Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kalsbeek, David

    2008-01-01

    In our previous essay, we considered the role of institutional financial aid and the practice of enrollment management. In that essay we explored the use of financial aid as a tool to enhance equity increase prestige, as a revenue enhancement tool and as a means to shape institutional image in the various markets that comprise our diverse system…

  13. A Triumph of Hope over Reason? Aid Accords and Education Policy in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher; Webb, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Despite a long history of post-independence aid to education, Kenya's relationships with overseas donors have, until recently, been markedly fractious. Donors' concerns about transparency and corruption, in the context of a political regime which became increasingly authoritarian, led to sharp reductions in aid to Kenyan education during the…

  14. Walking a Policy Tightrope: Balancing Educational Opportunity and Criminal Justice in Federal Student Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, M. Christopher, II; Lane, Jason E.; Rogers, Kimberly R.

    2002-01-01

    The Higher Education Act's Drug-Free Student Aid Provision denies federal aid to anyone convicted of possessing or selling controlled substances. The criminalization of certain offenses and exclusion of others appears to accompany unstated racial and socioeconomic biases. Because minority and poor people are more likely to be convicted of drug…

  15. [The Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria 5-y: evaluation policy issues].

    PubMed

    Kerouedan, D

    2010-05-01

    The Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) was founded in 2002 in the context of increased political and financial commitments towards health and development, in the aftermath of the Millennium Declaration, and on track to implement the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As of today, the institution has mobilized over 16 billion US dollars through its partnership, and spent over 8 billion dollars through 620 contracts in 140 countries for these three diseases. Principles at inception were to accelerate and expand HIV, TB, and Malaria prevention and awareness, care, and treatment related activities, in the poorest and the most affected countries worldwide, with a special emphasis on Africa, being the continent with the highest disease burden, especially with respect to HIV/AIDS and its dreadful social and economic consequences. In 2006, a Technical and Evaluation Reference Group was set up. This group responding to the GFATM Board in relation to the 5-year evaluation, defined the Terms of reference for the 5-year evaluation. Macro International, a firm based in Washington DC, was given the contract to conduct three studies over the period 2006-2009, looking at: (i) GFATM organizational effectiveness, (ii) partnerships at international and global levels, as well as systems effects, (iii) collective impact of the GFATM, the World Bank and (PEPFAR) funds on HIV, TB, and Malaria control. Twenty-five countries participated all together in the evaluation, out of which 18 in study area 3. Total budget for the evaluation amounted almost 17 million US dollars. This paper outlines: (i) the results of study areas 2 and 3 as well as the 5-year Evaluation Synthesis report, contents, and (ii) comments on the results and potential policy implications of the GFATM 5-year evaluation findings, as well as first responses prepared by the GF Secretariat shared at the GFATM Board meeting held in Ethiopia in November 2009. The evaluators raised the weaknesses of

  16. Educational Goods and Values: A Framework for Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry; Ladd, Helen F.; Loeb, Susanna; Swift, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This article articulates a framework suitable for use when making decisions about education policy. Decision makers should establish what the feasible options are and evaluate them in terms of their contribution to the development, and distribution, of educational goods in children, balanced against the negative effect of policies on important…

  17. Federal Student Aid Policy: Can We Learn from Experience? Proceedings of the New York Education Policy Seminar (3rd, Albany, New York, October 1985). [and Discussant Comments]. Rockefeller Institute Conference Proceedings, Number 7, Spring 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Michael S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of determining how effective student aid programs have been in promoting the college enrollment of lower income and disadvantaged students and analyzes the institutional means through which federal aid policies have been implemented. The importance of considering the key role of state and institutional responses to…

  18. Healthy food procurement policy: an important intervention to aid the reduction in chronic noncommunicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm; Duhaney, Tara; Arango, Manuel; Ashley, Lisa A; Bacon, Simon L; Gelfer, Mark; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Mang, Eric; Morris, Dorothy; Nagpal, Seema; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Willis, Kevin J

    2014-11-01

    In 2010, unhealthy diets were estimated to be the leading risk for death and disability in Canada and globally. Although important, policies aimed at improving individual's skills in selecting and eating healthy foods has had a limited effect. Policies that create healthy eating environments are strongly recommended but have not yet been effectively and/or broadly implemented in Canada. Widespread adoption of healthy food procurement policies are strongly recommended in this policy statement from the Hypertension Advisory Committee with support from 15 major national health organizations. The policy statement calls on governments to take a leadership role, but also outlines key roles for the commercial and noncommercial sectors including health and scientific organizations and the Canadian public. The policy statement is based on a systematic review of healthy food procurement interventions that found them to be almost uniformly effective at improving sales and purchases of healthy foods. Successful food procurement policies are nearly always accompanied by supporting education programs and some by pricing policies. Ensuring access and availability to affordable healthy foods and beverages in public and private sector settings could play a substantive role in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases and health risks such as obesity, hypertension, and ultimately improve cardiovascular health. PMID:25442442

  19. The Effect of Policy Changes of State Scholarship Programs on Enrollment and Financial Aid Awards to Students Attending Two-Year Technical Colleges in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Tonya F.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a policy evaluation of the HOPE Grant Program in the state of Georgia. It examines if the HOPE Grant policy change related to the shifts in enrollment and financial aid awards at two-year technical colleges in Georgia. It particularly focuses on the FY2011 policy change where the GPA was raised from a 2.0 to a 3.0 as a…

  20. AIDS: there's hope.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices. PMID:12179231

  1. HIV/AIDS policies, practices and conditions in South African prisons: Criticisms and alternatives. Towards a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Goyer, K C; Gow, J

    2002-01-01

    The level of HIV infection in South African prisoners is unknown. However, given that 4.2 million citizens or 20% of the adult population are infected by HIV then the problem of infection within the prison system would seem to be a large and a significant management issue. Policies to treat HIV+ prisoners and prevent HIV transmission have been developed. However, the efficacy of those programmes implemented to prevent HIV transmission is questionable. The reasons for this situation include lack of resources like condoms, lubricant, disinfectants and availability of testing. Prison conditions also militate against success especially overcrowding, poor health care and nutrition. Little research has been undertaken into HIV within the prison system and the lack of transparency in management of the system is a major hindrance in achieving better public policy outcomes. The issues of importance to policy research on HIV/AIDS in prison, which should receive early attention, include: 1) Prevalence rate determination; 2) Treatment of HIV+ prisoners; 3) Education programmes; and 4) Early release policy and practices. PMID:25871711

  2. The social impact of HIV/AIDS in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Danziger, R

    1994-10-01

    This paper highlights some of the main areas of social impact of HIV and AIDS in developing countries and suggests that these must constitute priority areas for action among international and national policy makers, as well as others concerned with HIV and AIDS. The areas of impact which are considered are: economic and demographic; labour productivity; agricultural production and development; pressures on the health sector; the role of families and households; children; women; HIV/AIDS discrimination; and the impact of HIV/AIDS on the individual. Some of the responses which have already been developed to the impact of HIV and AIDS are considered, and many of these are seen to be at least partially effective ways of addressing some of the consequences of pandemic. The paper concludes however that the escalating cost of HIV and AIDS, in personal, social and economic terms, demands a greater degree of considered, concerted and coordinated action by international, national and local agencies. PMID:7992124

  3. Public Service Announcements and the Fight against AIDS: A Survey of Radio Broadcasters' Attitudes and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Douglas J.

    A pilot study surveyed radio broadcasters in Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas to further an understanding of their role as gatekeepers for public service announcements (PSA) to educate audiences about AIDS and bring about "safe" behavior. A total of 300 stations were in the sample. Respondents were asked to provide information about their…

  4. Managing Risk and Experiencing Danger: Tensions between Government AIDS Education Policy and Young Women's Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Janet; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Government AIDS education programs in Britain have focused on nonheterosexual behavior. Protection of population depends on changes in high-risk sexual practices among heterosexuals. The part played by young women has received little attention. Reviews data from a survey of young women's sexual beliefs and behavior and suggests that appropriate…

  5. Making College More Expensive: The Unintended Consequences of Federal Tuition Aid. Policy Analysis. No. 531

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Gary

    2005-01-01

    As Congress debates the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act (HEA), it should heed Friedrich Hayek's warning that democracy is "peculiarly liable, if not guided by accepted common principles, to produce over-all results that nobody wanted." One result of the federal government's student financial aid programs is higher tuition costs at the…

  6. United States aid policy and induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Patrick; Miller, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether the Mexico City Policy, a United States government policy that prohibits funding to nongovernmental organizations performing or promoting abortion, was associated with the induced abortion rate in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Women in 20 African countries who had induced abortions between 1994 and 2008 were identified in Demographic and Health Surveys. A country’s exposure to the Mexico City Policy was considered high (or low) if its per capita assistance from the United States for family planning and reproductive health was above (or below) the median among study countries before the policy’s reinstatement in 2001. Using logistic regression and a difference-in-difference design, the authors estimated the differential change in the odds of having an induced abortion among women in high exposure countries relative to low exposure countries when the policy was reinstated. Findings The study included 261 116 women aged 15 to 44 years. A comparison of 1994–2000 with 2001–2008 revealed an adjusted odds ratio for induced abortion of 2.55 for high-exposure countries versus low-exposure countries under the policy (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.76–3.71). There was a relative decline in the use of modern contraceptives in the high-exposure countries over the same time period. Conclusion The induced abortion rate in sub-Saharan Africa rose in high-exposure countries relative to low-exposure countries when the Mexico City Policy was reintroduced. Reduced financial support for family planning may have led women to substitute abortion for contraception. Regardless of one’s views about abortion, the findings may have important implications for public policies governing abortion. PMID:22271944

  7. The Maker Movement in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Erica Rosenfeld; Sheridan, Kimberly M.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay, Erica Halverson and Kimberly Sheridan provide the context for research on the maker movement as they consider the emerging role of making in education. The authors describe the theoretical roots of the movement and draw connections to related research on formal and informal education. They present points of tension between making…

  8. Film Makers On Film Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

    This collection includes essays by and interviews with more than 30 film-makers, both classic and contemporary, on the subjects of their major interests and procedures in making films. The directors are: Louis Lumiere, Cecil Hepworth, Edwin S. Porter, Mack Sennett, David W. Griffith, Robert Flaherty, Charles Chaplin, Eric von Stroheim, Dziga…

  9. Getting ocean acidification on decision makers' to-do lists: dissecting the process through case studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Sarah R.; Jewett, Elizabeth B.; Reichert, Julie; Robbins, Lisa L.; Shrestha, Gyami; Wieczorek, Dan; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the detailed, incremental knowledge being generated by current scientific research on ocean acidification (OA) does not directly address the needs of decision makers, who are asking broad questions such as: Where will OA harm marine resources next? When will this happen? Who will be affected? And how much will it cost? In this review, we use a series of mainly US-based case studies to explore the needs of local to international-scale groups that are making decisions to address OA concerns. Decisions concerning OA have been made most naturally and easily when information needs were clearly defined and closely aligned with science outputs and initiatives. For decisions requiring more complex information, the process slows dramatically. Decision making about OA is greatly aided (1) when a mixture of specialists participates, including scientists, resource users and managers, and policy and law makers; (2) when goals can be clearly agreed upon at the beginning of the process; (3) when mixed groups of specialists plan and create translational documents explaining the likely outcomes of policy decisions on ecosystems and natural resources; (4) when regional work on OA fits into an existing set of priorities concerning climate or water quality; and (5) when decision making can be reviewed and enhanced.

  10. Studying the Impact of Federal and State Changes in Student Aid Policy at the Campus Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Robert H.; Dillon, Kathryn A.; Porter, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that shifts in government policies can produce unintended consequences for needy students and the institutions they attend, and illustrates how campus units can cooperate to examine the impact of these changes through creation of longitudinal databases and data warehousing techniques. Describes the approach used and results of a study at…

  11. Federal Aid to the Disadvantaged. What Future for Chapter 1? Education Policy Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Denis P., Ed.; Cooper, Bruce S., Ed.

    This document presents the recommendations of a national group of policy analysts on strategies for improving compensatory education and the Educational Improvement and Consolidation Act (ECIA) Chapter 1. The historical context of the Federal and state roles in providing compensatory education programs is presented, old assumptions are reviewed,…

  12. HIV and AIDS in Suburban Asian and Pacific Islander Communities: Factors Influencing Self-Efficacy in HIV Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Lois M.; Magalong, Michelle G.; DeBell, Paula; Fasudhani, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Though AIDS case rates among Asian Pacific Islander Americans (APIs) in the United States remain relatively low, the number has been steadily increasing. Scholars, policy makers, and service providers still know little about how confident APIs are in carrying out different HIV risk reduction strategies. This article addresses this gap by…

  13. Report and policy brief from the 4th Africa Conference on Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research: innovations in access to prevention, treatment and care in HIV/AIDS, Kisumu, Kenya, 29 April - 3 May 2007.

    PubMed

    Setswe, G; Peltzer, K; Banyini, M; Skinner, D; Seager, J; Maile, S; Sedumedi, S; Gomis, D; van der Linde, I

    2007-08-01

    About 520 delegates from all over Africa and 21 countries attended the conference. This report and policy brief summarises the key findings and suggested policy options that emerged from rapporteur reports of conference proceedings including the following themes: (1) Orphans and vulnerable children, (2) Treatment, (3) Prevention, (4) Gender and male involvement, (5) Male circumcision, (6) People living with HIV/AIDS, (7) Food and nutrition, (8) Socioeconomics, and (9) Politics/policy. Two (11.8%) of the 17 OVC projects from the three countries were classified as best practice interventions. Of the 83 abstracts that were accepted at the conference, only 7 (8.4%) were dealing with antiretroviral therapy (ART). There has been tremendous effort by various organisations to provide information about prevention of HIV/AIDS. Information received by adolescents has been effective in increasing their knowledge, but without positive sexual behaviour change. The conference noted the contribution of gender discrimination and violence to the HIV epidemic and the different risks that men and women face in relation to the epidemic. Social scientists need to study the deep cultural meanings attached to male circumcision among different ethnic groups to be able to guide the debate on the latest biomedical findings on the protective effect of circumcision against HIV. Palliative care and support is crucial for coping among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in order to deal with medical and psychological issues. Results from several countries have helped researchers to explore alternative ways of examining poverty in the context of HIV and AIDS. Policy frameworks which are likely to succeed in combating HIV/AIDS need to be updated to cover issues of access, testing, disclosure and stigma. In general, the conference was successful in identifying innovations in access to prevention, treatment and care in HIV/AIDS. PMID:18071616

  14. EEOC policy statement aids workers seeking to avoid arbitration. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

    PubMed

    1997-09-19

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) issued a policy statement condemning a prevalent practice among U.S. employers--new hires are asked to sign an agreement obligating them to submit Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) claims to binding arbitration. By signing the clause, an employee virtually forfeits his or her rights to bring an ADA claim to court. The EEOC compares these employment clauses to conditions of employment rather than voluntary agreements between worker and employer. Employers argue that the binding arbitration process is fast and equitable. Opponents argue that the process is unfair. The EEOC instructed its investigators to proceed with administrative charges regardless of whether or not the complainant signed a binding arbitration agreement. The EEOC policy statement argues against mandatory arbitration clauses, noting that the arbitration process limits the rights of employees and weighs heavily in favor of employers. PMID:11364672

  15. Negotiating exclusion: MSM, identity, and blood policy in the age of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Martucci, Jessica

    2010-04-01

    In the US, blood donors face a variety of restrictions that leave many people excluded entirely from the donor pool. This paper explores the specific circumstances and meanings surrounding the donor ban on Men-who-have-Sex-with-Men (MSM). The ban on MSM is one of the few existing donor guidelines to receive considerable criticism on grounds that it effectively prohibits any sexually active gay man from donating blood and thus discriminates against gays. Due in part to these questions of fairness, the Blood Products Advisory Committee (BPAC) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) met to reconsider the decades-old policy, first in 1997 and again in 2000. The FDA asked its advisory committee to address the efficacy and utility of the MSM ban in light of technological developments in blood-banking, epidemiological data on the spread of HIV, and mounting pressures from gay rights and blood-banking organizations to update the policy. Through a detailed reading of meeting and conference transcripts that took place between 1997 and 2000, I argue that 'MSM' became a contested definitional category during the FDA's reappraisal of the policy. During and between the Committee's discussions, presenters and experts debated the differences between sexual behavior and sexual identity in relation to HIV and, eventually, HHV-8, a virus known to cause Kaposi's sarcoma in immunosuppressed individuals. I argue that the underlying flexibility in the meanings behind the term 'MSM' allowed Committee members, in the end, to retract their more nuanced discussions of human behavior and HIV and to uphold the contested policy. Finally, I suggest how the debates surrounding the MSM donor ban can help us to better understand the place of sexuality in discussions and claims of biopolitical citizenship in early 21st-century America. PMID:20527321

  16. Post-Secondary Attendance by Parental Income in the U.S. and Canada: What Role for Financial Aid Policy? NBER Working Paper No. 17218

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belley, Philippe; Frenette, Marc; Lochner, Lance

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of tuition and need-based financial aid policies for family income--post-secondary (PS) attendance relationships. We first conduct a parallel empirical analysis of the effects of parental income on PS attendance for recent high school cohorts in both the U.S. and Canada using data from the 1997 Cohort of the…

  17. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate.

  18. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-05-21

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate. 4 figures.

  19. Policy initiatives for electric-utility load management in AID-assisted countries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    The demand for electricity has been growing at a rate of over 7 percent per year, on average, for developing countries (in contrast, demand has been rising by less than 3% annually in the United States). While developing nations have traditionally relied on building new power plants to satisfy their increasing needs for electricity, the strategy has proven to be expensive, consuming over one-quarter of their development budgets and over a quarter of their foreign borrowings. Load management, whereby an electric utility modifies its customers' demand characteristics, offers developing countries an alternative for reducing the need to construct new generating capacity and for better utilizing their existing supply facilities. To mitigate the problems associated with high energy growth rates, especially in the power sector, the lack of investment capital for the electricity sector, and the growing concern for environmental hazards including global climate change, the Office of Energy promotes energy efficiency, the role of private power and other supply options to ensure sustainable development. In view of these objectives, the report examines the rationale for load management in the electricity sector and summarizes the positive U.S. experience with these techniques. Additionally, it recommends a strategy for achieving energy efficiency via load management. Lastly, it recommends to A.I.D. a method for identifying priority Agency-assisted countries as candidates for load management assistance.

  20. Challenges to successful implementation of HIV and AIDS-related health policies in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Djellouli, Nehla; Quevedo-Gómez, María Cristina

    2015-05-01

    The Caribbean region presents the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS worldwide after sub-Saharan Africa; leading to serious social, economic and health consequences at the local scale but also at the regional and global levels. In Colombia, a national plan to tackle the epidemic was formulated with little evidence that its implementation in the local context is effective. This study focused on Cartagena - one of Colombia's largest cities and an international touristic hub - that presents one of the highest HIV prevalences in the country, to investigate whether the national plan accounts for local specificities and what are the barriers to local implementation. Based on the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT), this qualitative research relied upon 27 interviews and 13 life stories of local inhabitants and stakeholders, collected in a first fieldwork in 2006-2007. A follow-up data collection took place in 2013 with 10 participants: key policymakers and implementers, NGO representatives and local inhabitants. Barriers identified by the participants included: local population's understandings and beliefs on condom use; stigma and discrimination; lack of collaboration from the Church, the education sector and local politicians; corruption; high staff turnover; frequent changes in leadership; lack of economic and human resources; and barriers to health care access. The findings suggest that global influences also have an impact on the CIT framework (e.g. international organisations as a major financier in HIV prevention). The participants put forward several feasible solutions to implementation barriers. We discuss how several of the proposed solutions have been applied in other Latin American and Caribbean countries and yielded positive results. However, further research is needed to find possible ways of overcoming certain barriers identified by this study such as corruption, the lack of collaboration of the Church and barriers to health care access. PMID:25840048

  1. Design-to-fabricate: maker hardware requires maker software.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ryan; Ratto, Matt

    2013-01-01

    As a result of consumer-level 3D printers' increasing availability and affordability, the audience for 3D-design tools has grown considerably. However, current tools are ill-suited for these users. They have steep learning curves and don't take into account that the end goal is a physical object, not a digital model. A new class of "maker"-level design tools is needed to accompany this new commodity hardware. However, recent examples of such tools achieve accessibility primarily by constraining functionality. In contrast, the meshmixer project is building tools that provide accessibility and expressive power by leveraging recent computer graphics research in geometry processing. The project members have had positive experiences with several 3D-design-to-print workshops and are exploring several design-to-fabricate problems. This article is part of a special issue on 3D printing. PMID:24808128

  2. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  3. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection. Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement. Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure. PMID:19811671

  4. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science.

    PubMed

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric; Brown, Glen; Kort, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection.Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement.Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure. PMID:19811671

  5. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  6. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  7. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  8. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  9. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  10. Strategies for Implementing AIDS/HIV Policy Guidelines in Developmental and Mental Health Services: A Background and Checklist for Advocates. AIDS Technical Report, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, David C.

    This technical report is part of a series on AIDS/HIV (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and is intended to help link various legal advocacy organizations providing services to persons with mental illness or developmental disabilities. Through a series of case examples, questions, background information, and…

  11. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To effectively resolve many current ecological policy issues, decision-makers require an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists to decision-maker...

  12. Focusing Biodiversity Research on the Needs of Decision Makers

    PubMed

    SMYTHE; BERNABO; CARTER; JUTRO

    1996-11-01

    / The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers articulated concerns related to four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; and the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading natural and social scientists then identified the research required to address the decision makers' needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. The BURN participants identified several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity. Research and assessment efforts should be: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical (multiple scales), and problem- and region-specific. The activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. Meta-analysis of existing data is needed on all fronts to assess the state of the science. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability-for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations were developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that

  13. Focusing biodiversity research on the needs of decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, Katie D.; Bernabo, J. Christopher; Carter, Thomas B.; Jutro, Peter R.

    1996-11-01

    The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers articulated concerns related to four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; and the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading natural and social scientists then identified the research required to address the decision makers' needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. The BURN participants identified several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity. Research and assessment efforts should be: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical (multiple scales), and problem- and region-specific. The activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. Meta-analysis of existing data is needed on all fronts to assess the state of the science. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability—for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations were developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that

  14. Aid Agency Influence in National Education Policy-Making: A Case from Nepal's "Education for All" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatta, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the nexus between foreign aid and Nepal's primary education in order to understand how aid agencies affect national educational development. It argues that after 1990, when global education targets provided the basic framework for all donor agency funding to primary education and the subsequent use of a sector-wide approach…

  15. Public Service Announcements and the Fight against AIDS: A National Survey of Television and Radio Broadcasters' Attitudes and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Douglas J.

    A follow-up national study surveyed 500 television and radio broadcasters to further understanding of their role as gatekeepers for public service announcements (PSAs) to educate audiences about AIDS, and to bring about "safe" behavior. Respondents were asked to provide information about their stations, and their stations' use of HIV/AIDS PSAs. Of…

  16. SuccessMaker[R]. WWC Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The SuccessMaker[R] program is a set of computer-based courses used to supplement regular classroom reading instruction in grades K-8. Using adaptive lessons tailored to a student's reading level, SuccessMaker[R] aims to improve understanding in areas such as phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and concepts of…

  17. Education: the key to curb HIV and AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, D N; Aryal, U R; Khanal, K

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelming impact has been established among different aspects and burden of incurable HIV and AIDS is increasing day-by-day globally. The aim of this article is to discuss the potential benefits and strengths of an education system in the absence of remedy and help to develop future strategies. Education has great impact on HIV and AIDS and vice-versa. An education plays a vital role to curb the transmission of HIV and AIDS thorough capacity building, provides information, reduces vulnerability, empowerment, improve life skill, maintain equity, reduce dependence, stigma, and discrimination, where are abundance foundations for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS has role for devastation of education system and level which has great impact on productivity, economic growth, demand, supply and daily life of human being. Low and middle income countries needs to be improve recording and reporting systems related to impact of HIV and AIDS on education. By analyzing preceding evidences, policy makers or governance feels to reformulate policies relating to education and health. Evidence based policy and program will be more useful to address distressing squall of epidemic. PMID:24096225

  18. Pilot decision making in a computer-aided flight management situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Y. Y.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental representation of a computer-aided multi-task flight management situation has been developed. A computer aiding program was implemented to serve as a back-up decision maker. An experiment was conducted with a balanced design of several subject runs for different workload levels. This was achieved using three levels of subsystem event arrival rates, three levels of control task involvement, and three levels of availability of computer aiding. Experimental results compared quite favorably with those from a computer simulation which employed a queueing model. It was shown that the aiding had enhanced system performance as well as subjective ratings, and that the adaptive aiding policy further reduced subsystem delay.

  19. ROLE OF GRID-BASED, REACTIVE AIR QUALITY MODELING IN POLICY ANALYSIS: PERSPECTIVES AND IMPLICATIONS, AS DRAWN FROM A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A primary objective of this study is to improve the understanding of the role of performance quality in determiniug a model's acceptability and usefulness to thc policy maker, and thus to aid in developing soundly-based expectations of the modeling process. The vehicle for pursui...

  20. Inculcating safe sex attitudes in South African adolescents: a directive for the government's anti-HIV/AIDS policy.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Jayesh

    2010-01-01

    South Africa has one of the highest rates of HIV/AIDS in the world. Much blame for this has been laid on the apathy of the South African government and the cultural traits of South Africans. AIDS prevention research calls for early childhood education to raise awareness of the causes, dangers, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. This study involved surveys among a select sample of South African adolescents to determine their sexual attitudes before and after a cognitive-behavioral intervention. Overall, the results did not make a significant difference in their attitudes, suggesting pre-adolescent sex education might prove to be a more useful tool in anti-HIV/AIDS education. Risky sexual behavior, under the influence of alcohol, also serves as a warning to educate young consumers of alcohol. PMID:22192941

  1. Policy for prevention of oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS: the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Program.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P-E

    2006-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic has become a human and social disaster, particularly affecting the developing countries of Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. By the end of 2004, about 40 million people were estimated to be infected by HIV globally. The health sectors in many affected countries are facing severe shortages of human and financial resources, and are struggling to cope with the growing impact of HIV/AIDS. In most developed countries, the availability of antiretroviral treatment has resulted in a dramatic reduction in HIV/AIDS-related mortality and morbidity. In contrast, in the developing countries, there is little access to treatment, and access to HIV-prevention services is poor. The '3 by 5' initiative was launched by the WHO and UNAIDS in 2003 with the aim of providing antiretrovirals to three million people in developing countries by the year 2005. HIV infection has a significant negative impact on oral health, with approximately 40-50% of HIV-positive persons developing oral fungal, bacterial, or viral infections early in the course of the disease. Oral health services and professionals can contribute effectively to the control of HIV/AIDS through health education and health promotion, patient care, effective infection control, and surveillance. The WHO Global Oral Health Program has strengthened its work for prevention of HIV/AIDS-related oral disease. The WHO co-sponsored conference, Oral Health and Disease in AIDS, held in Phuket, Thailand (2004), issued a declaration calling for action by national and international health authorities. The aim is to strengthen oral health promotion and the care of HIV-infected persons, and to encourage research on the impact that HIV/AIDS, public health initiatives, and surveillance have on oral health. PMID:16672544

  2. Mapping a research agenda for home care safety: perspectives from researchers, providers, and decision makers.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be described; consequently, gaining insight from various stakeholders about safety issues relevant to the home care sector is necessary in order to inform strategic directions for future research. To begin to map a research agenda, a three-part environmental scan was conducted: (a) a pilot study with home care recipients and providers; (b) key informant interviews with researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers; and (c) a review of literature in three topic areas. Only the results of the key informant interviews are reported here. PMID:24650672

  3. Aid for Trade: an opportunity to increase fruit and vegetable supply.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; Priyadarshi, Shishir

    2013-01-01

    Low fruit and vegetable consumption is an important contributor to the global burden of disease. In the wake of the United Nations High-level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), held in September 2011, a rise in the consumption of fruits and vegetables is foreseeable and this increased demand will have to be met through improved supply. The World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Bank have highlighted the potential for developing countries to benefit nutritionally and economically from the increased production and export of fruit and vegetables.Aid for Trade, launched in 2005 as an initiative designed to link development aid and trade holistically, offers an opportunity for the health and trade sectors to work jointly to enhance health and development. The Aid for Trade work programme stresses the importance of policy coherence across sectors, yet the commonality of purpose driving the Aid for Trade initiative and NCD prevention efforts has not been explored.In this paper food supply chain analysis was used to show health policy-makers that Aid for Trade can provide a mechanism for increasing the supply of fruits and vegetables in developing countries. Aid for Trade is an existing funding channel with clear accountability and reporting mechanisms, but its priorities are determined with little or no input from the health sector. The paper seeks to enable public health policy-makers, practitioners and advocates to improve coherence between trade and public health policies by highlighting Aid for Trade's potential role in this endeavour. PMID:23397351

  4. Aid for Trade: an opportunity to increase fruit and vegetable supply

    PubMed Central

    Priyadarshi, Shishir

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Low fruit and vegetable consumption is an important contributor to the global burden of disease. In the wake of the United Nations High-level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), held in September 2011, a rise in the consumption of fruits and vegetables is foreseeable and this increased demand will have to be met through improved supply. The World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Bank have highlighted the potential for developing countries to benefit nutritionally and economically from the increased production and export of fruit and vegetables. Aid for Trade, launched in 2005 as an initiative designed to link development aid and trade holistically, offers an opportunity for the health and trade sectors to work jointly to enhance health and development. The Aid for Trade work programme stresses the importance of policy coherence across sectors, yet the commonality of purpose driving the Aid for Trade initiative and NCD prevention efforts has not been explored. In this paper food supply chain analysis was used to show health policy-makers that Aid for Trade can provide a mechanism for increasing the supply of fruits and vegetables in developing countries. Aid for Trade is an existing funding channel with clear accountability and reporting mechanisms, but its priorities are determined with little or no input from the health sector. The paper seeks to enable public health policy-makers, practitioners and advocates to improve coherence between trade and public health policies by highlighting Aid for Trade’s potential role in this endeavour. PMID:23397351

  5. Formulating Recruitment and Retention Policies at the University of Delaware: From Affirmative Action to Diversity in Financial Aid and Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Johnie A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the United States Supreme Court decided on two cases that involved affirmative action policies for admission to the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor Law School and the College of Literature, Science and the Arts. Those cases, "Gratz v. Bollinger" (2003) and "Grutter v. Bollinger" (2003) had implications for the policies universities…

  6. Focusing biodiversity research on the needs of decision makers

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, K.D.; Bernabo, J.C.; Carter, T.B.; Jutro, P.R.

    1996-11-01

    The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers had concerns about four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading scientists identified research required to address these needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. Several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity were identified: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical, and problem- and region-specific. Activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability-for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations wee developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that require biodiversity research to address their needs-whether to develop policy, manage natural resources, or make other decisions affecting biodiversity. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  7. In Support of Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devitt, James

    1995-01-01

    Concerns about cuts in federal student loan and grant programs are outlined, and ways in which institutions can act to influence policy are examined. Basic facts about potential cuts, their effects, federal spending on student aid, aid recipients, public opinion, and aid policy's effects on tuition are discussed. (MSE)

  8. The Role of Aid to Medical, Osteopathic, and Dental Students in a New Health Manpower Education Policy. Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Current and future financial aid to students of medicine, osteopathy, and dentistry (MODs) is discussed in the context of federal health manpower objectives. Options for providing financial access to such students are analyzed. The report was prepared for the Senate Budget Committee in response to a request by Senator Lawton Chiles as part of…

  9. States in the Driver's Seat: Leveraging State Aid to Align Policies and Promote Access, Success, and Affordability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Brian T.; Longanecker, David A.

    2014-01-01

    With increasingly widespread calls to raise educational attainment levels without substantially growing public investment in higher education, policymakers and others have devoted growing attention to the role of financial aid programs in providing access to, promoting affordability for, and incentivizing success in college. Given relative levels…

  10. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  11. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  12. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  13. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  14. The Chinese government's response to drug use and HIV/AIDS: A review of policies and programs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use has become popular in China. Acknowledging the challenge of illicit drug use, China has adopted several new policies on the management of illicit drug use in recent years. This study reviews the current policies on drug use and assesses the harm reduction interventions among drug users in China. The review documents that the new policies on drug use provide a variety of choices of detoxification treatment for drug users. The methadone maintenance treatment and needle exchange programs have been adopted as harm reduction models in China. Most of the reviewed harm reduction programs have been successfully implemented and yielded positive effects in reducing drug related risk behaviors among drug users. Although there remain barriers to the effective implementation of policies on drug use and harm reduction programs, Chinese government has shown their commitment to support the expansion of harm reduction interventions for drug users throughout the country. PMID:20205729

  15. A scientist's guide to engaging decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.

  16. Key Lessons about Induction for Policy Makers and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to digest the core chapters of this volume, which draws together some of the most sophisticated thinking on new teacher induction from the last decade. This chapter attends to five key understandings about induction programs, including their context, design, implementation, and outcomes. These understandings emerge…

  17. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries [1]. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals [2]. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and consistently administered, limit the promulgation of corrupt practices. Other major contributing factors are the inconsistency in documentation of procedures, lack of public availability of such documentation, and inadequacies in monitoring and evaluation. What is most critical from this study is the identification of areas that still remain permeable to corruption and, perhaps, where more appropriate checks and balances are needed from the Nigerian government and the international community. PMID:19874613

  18. CLIL Implementation: From Policy-Makers to Individual Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zarobe, Yolanda Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    Since Do Coyle and Hugo Baetens Beardsmore published their Special Issue on "Research on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)" in the "International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism" in 2007, there has been a great deal of interest and debate about the approach, which under the umbrella term of Content and Language…

  19. Policy Makers Must Recognize Higher Education's 2-Tiered System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morphew, Christopher C.

    2008-01-01

    The news media have extensively documented how many college applicants receive rejection letters from the country's most-elite higher-education institutions. The coverage has focused on the effort and expense that students and their parents put forth, only to be turned away. While many private colleges and universities have always been highly…

  20. A weatherization manual for LIHEAP policy makers and program administrators

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, M.J.; Marabate, R.; Weinhaus, M.; Eisenberg, J.F.

    1993-09-01

    This manual is designed to provide Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) directors with information about weatherization and innovative ways they can utilize LIHEAP funds for weatherization activities. It contains a description of innovative weatherization programs which demonstrate creative uses of LIHEAP funds in weatherization activities. In many of the innovative examples, state and local administrators are coordinating their LIHEAP funds with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program`s funding and with a variety of other federal, state and utility company resources. The innovative programs demonstrate how LIHEAP funds can be used in client education, targeting high energy users, staff training, assessment and audits for weatherization services. The reader will find in the appendices lists of contact persons and further descriptions of the programs highlighted. Although designed with LIHEAP directors in mind, the practices and programs highlighted in this manual are of practical use to any state, local or utility weatherization program administrator. The glossary at the end of the descriptive chapters will assist readers with the terminology used throughout the manual. This manual and the many resource entities cited in its appendices provide ready access to a wealth of state-of-the-art information which could lead to a more cost-effective expenditure of LIBEAP weatherization dollars.

  1. Floods, Climate Change, and Urban Resilience: One Policy Maker's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-06-01

    When Hurricane Sandy battered the U.S. Atlantic Seaboard in October 2012, strong winds generated a storm surge that caused waters from the Hudson River to wash across Hoboken, N.J. Those waters flooded about 80% of the city, population 50,000, that lies across the river from Manhattan. The flooding caused more than 100 million in private property damage and more than 10 million in municipal property damage while impairing the region's transportation system.

  2. Resilience by Design: Bringing Science to Policy Makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Lucile M.

    2015-01-01

    No one questions that Los Angeles has an earthquake problem. The “Big Bend” of the San Andreas fault in southern California complicates the plate boundary between the North American and Pacific plates, creating a convergent component to the primarily transform boundary. The Southern California Earthquake Center Community Fault Model has over 150 fault segments, each capable of generating a damaging earthquake, in an area with more than 23 million residents (Fig. 1). A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) analysis of the expected losses from all future earthquakes in the National Seismic Hazard Maps (Petersen et al., 2014) predicts an annual average of more than $3 billion per year in the eight counties of southern California, with half of those losses in Los Angeles County alone (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2008). According to Swiss Re, one of the world’s largest reinsurance companies, Los Angeles faces one of the greatest risks of catastrophic losses from earthquakes of any city in the world, eclipsed only by Tokyo, Jakarta, and Manila (Swiss Re, 2013).

  3. Thinking Outside the Box: Policy Strategies for Readiness, Access, and Success. Changing Direction: Integrating Higher Education Financial Aid and Financing Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.; Jones, Dennis P.; Longanecker, David A.; Michelau, Demaree K.

    2007-01-01

    In partnership with the American Council on Education's Center for Policy Analysis, the National Conference of State Legislatures, and the State Higher Education Executive Officers, the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) has been working to advance the overarching goal of the Changing Direction project, which was to examine…

  4. 17 CFR 240.11a1-5 - Transactions by registered competitive market makers and registered equity market makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... registered equity market makers. Any transaction by a New York Stock Exchange registered competitive market maker or an American Stock Exchange registered equity market maker effected in compliance with their... competitive market makers and registered equity market makers. 240.11a1-5 Section 240.11a1-5 Commodity...

  5. Evidence-based approach to HIV/AIDS policy and research prioritization in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Feizzadeh, A; Nedjat, S; Asghari, S; Keshtkar, A; Heshmat, R; Setayesh, H; Majdzadeh, R

    2010-03-01

    In formulating the second national strategic plan for prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Islamic Republic of Iran a more evidence-based approach was needed. This paper reports on a systematic review of the local evidence about the determinants of HIV/AIDS transmission in 3 categories: poor knowledge and negative attitudes about HIV transmission; injection drug use; and sexual promiscuity. Of 93 reports reviewed, 53 met the inclusion criteria. Information about the prevalence and magnitude of effect for the 3 risk determinants at the national and regional level was scarce. Heterogeneity between studies, even in the same sub-population, was significant. An improved research base and better sharing of information are needed within countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. PMID:20795438

  6. Discursive Enactments of the World Health Organization's Policies: Competing Cultural Models in Tanzanian HIV/AIDS Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Christina

    2010-01-01

    In the healthcare arena, language policy-related research has thus far been limited to questions about "language access," i.e., whether individuals are supplied with health information in their languages, and whether interpreters for doctor-patient consultations are provided (Martinez 2008; Ngo-Metzger et al. 2003; Partida 2007; Vahabi 2007). This…

  7. Money Matters: A Study on the Relationship between Financial Aid Programs and Policies on Student Persistence in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Emily L.

    2010-01-01

    Persistence theorists emphasize the importance of faculty and staff interactions with students. Yet many overlook how affordability influences a student's decision to remain enrolled. As a result this qualitative, grounded theory study addresses the relationship between private college and university financial assistance policies and programs to…

  8. Computer Aided Assessment of Mathematics for Undergraduates with Specific Learning Difficulties--Issues of Inclusion in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkin, Glynis; Beacham, Nigel; Croft, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This paper opens up a debate about policy and practice in computer-assisted assessment (CAA) of mathematics for undergraduates with specific learning difficulties e.g. dyslexia. Guidelines for designing assessments for such students are emerging and some may be transferable to CAA. Whether mathematics brings with it particular issues is unclear.…

  9. The Morality of University Decision-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatier, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Ethical failures in UK higher education have recently made the news but are not a recent development. University decision-makers can, in order to adopt an ethical way of reasoning, resort to several ethical traditions. This article focuses, through the use of concrete examples, on three which have had a significant impact in recent higher…

  10. [Social actors in HIV/AIDS prevention: opposition and interests in educational policy in Mexico, 1994-2000].

    PubMed

    Granados-Cosme, José Arturo; Nasaiya, Kittipong; Brambila, Alberto Torres

    2007-03-01

    Studies and recommendations by health agencies have emphasized the importance of education in HIV-AIDS prevention. Mexico has included topics on sexuality and HIV-AIDS in school programs, triggering resistance by some social actors. The current study seeks to clarify the various positions and interests and their influence on the textbook content. A literature search was conducted on the period during which the last educational reform was implemented in Mexico. The discourse analysis focused on the ethnography of communication, which identified: the various actors' positions, arguments, actions, economic and political power, and relations to others. The results show that those who oppose the inclusion of these themes in the school curriculum base their position on tradition, contrary to modernization and secularization of social life, and that their positions range from refusal to raising conditions. Networks have been formed that provide such groups with significant economic and political power. Government has given in to some demands by partially modifying the textbook contents. The current analysis proposes to reflect on the potential repercussions of such actions on the control of the epidemic. PMID:17334568

  11. Annotated bibliography on participatory consultations to help aid the inclusion of marginalized perspectives in setting policy agendas.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Faraz Rahim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present studies from peer-reviewed and grey literature that used consultations and other participatory strategies to capture a community's perspective of their health priorities, and of techniques used to elevate participation from the implementation phase to a more upstream phase of prioritization, policymaking and agenda setting. The focus here is of those studies that worked with marginalized populations or sub-populations. This bibliography contains four areas of research. It begins by first offering some philosophical and conceptual frameworks that link participatory interventions with inclusive policy making or agenda setting, and a rationale for prioritizing marginalized populations in such an undertaking. After situating ourselves in this manner, the second section looks at various participatory instruments for participatory consultations, for reaching out to marginalized populations, and for communicating the results to policymakers. Two sets of distinctions are made here: one between external (non-invitation) and internal (stifling of opinions) exclusion, and between mere participation and from active inclusion within consultations and within the policies. In the third section, examples of consultations that created or changed policy in various jurisdictions are shared, followed by a final section on a reflective and evaluative look at the recruitment, instruments and examples. An earlier iteration of this bibliography was created to assist a multi-country research project by the author to inform the UN Post-2015 development framework of the views of several diverse and highly marginalized populations around the world on their health-related priorities. PMID:25532831

  12. Best of enemies: Using social network analysis to explore a policy network in European smoke-free policy.

    PubMed

    Weishaar, Heide; Amos, Amanda; Collin, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    Networks and coalitions of stakeholders play a crucial role in the development and implementation of policies, with previous research highlighting that networks in tobacco control are characterised by an antagonism between supporters and opponents of comprehensive tobacco control policies. This UK-based study used quantitative and qualitative network analysis (drawing on 176 policy submissions and 32 interviews) to systematically map and analyse a network of actors involved in the development of European Union (EU) smoke-free policy. Policy debates were dominated by two coalitions of stakeholders with starkly opposing positions on the issue. One coalition, consisting primarily of health-related organisations, supported comprehensive EU smoke-free policy, whereas the other, led by tobacco manufacturers' organisations, opposed the policy initiative. The data suggest that, aided by strong political commitment of EU decision makers to develop smoke-free policy, advocates supporting comprehensive EU policy were able to frame policy debates in ways which challenged the tobacco industry's legitimacy. They then benefited from the stark polarisation between the two coalitions. The paper provides empirical evidence of the division between two distinct coalitions in tobacco policy debates and draws attention to the complex processes of consensus-seeking, alliance-building and strategic action which are integral to the development of EU policy. Highlighting network polarisation and industry isolation as factors which seemed to increase tobacco control success, the study demonstrates the potential significance and value of FCTC article 5.3 for tobacco control policy-making. PMID:25863723

  13. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

  14. AIDS in Connecticut: Recommendations for a State Policy Response. Report to the Governor's Human Services Cabinet to Governor William O'Neill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Barbara; Omilian, Susan

    The first part of this five-part report on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in Connecticut defines the public health challenge presented by AIDS and describes the roles of community-based AIDS organizations, the Connecticut state government, and the Governor's Human Services Cabinet in addressing that challenge. Part II, "The AIDS Problem…

  15. Eco-informatics for decision makers advancing a research agenda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Brandt, L.; Gregg, V.; Spengler, S.; Borning, A.; Delcambre, L.; Bowker, G.; Frame, M.; Fulop, J.; Hert, C.; Hovy, E.; Jones, J.; Landis, E.; Schnase, J.L.; Schweik, C.; Sonntag, W.

    2005-01-01

    Resource managers often face significant information technology (IT) problems when integrating ecological or environmental information to make decisions. At a workshop sponsored by the NSF and USGS in December 2004, university researchers, natural resource managers, and information managers met to articulate IT problems facing ecology and environmental decision makers. Decision making IT problems were identified in five areas: 1) policy, 2) data presentation, 3) data gaps, 4) tools, and 5) indicators. To alleviate those problems, workshop participants recommended specific informatics research in modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. This paper reports the workshop findings, and briefly compares these with research that traditionally falls under the emerging eco-informatics rubric. ?? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

  16. PUBLIC AWARENESS OF HIV/AIDS: HOW MEDIA PLAY A ROLE?.

    PubMed

    Sern, Tham Jen; Zanuddin, Hasmah

    2015-07-01

    Abstract. This paper examines the effectiveness of media in public awareness of the HIV/AIDS issue among the public in an area in central Selangor, comprising Kuala Lumpur and its surroundings and suburbs in Malaysia. Cross-sectional survey questionnaires were distributed to 384 respondents about accessing the public awareness of modes of HIV transmission, perceptions and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS, as well as people's understanding about government policies to curb HIV/AIDS. Health care practitioners and newspapers were the preferred sources of information seeking on HIV/AIDS among the public. Most of the respondents were aware of the modes of HIV transmission. However, they were some respondents who still have misconceptions about the modes of transmission. Most of the respondents were not aware about the government's significant policies to address HIV/AIDS in the region. Overall, the respondents had certain knowledge about HIV transmission modes and moderate positive perceptions and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS. Future studies should be conducted to examine about who sets the agenda in the media, and apart from gatekeepers, who are the real decision makers in deciding what is important to inform the public. PMID:26867387

  17. Living with AIDS: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…

  18. Oregon's experience with aid in dying: findings from the death with dignity laboratory.

    PubMed

    Coombs Lee, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    With passage of the Death with Dignity Act in 1994, Oregon became the first jurisdiction to authorize and regulate aid in dying. Data from that experience are comprehensive and bountiful, and answer a multitude of questions and concerns about whether the benefits of recognizing the medical practice of aid in dying justify the risks. An exhaustive description of findings from Oregon's aid-in-dying experience is beyond the scope of this or any single article on the subject. This article provides a summary of data highlights, gleaned from scientific investigations and governmental reporting. It organizes highlighted reports along subjects so that readers may see what various sources have to teach on a number of questions important to policy makers. PMID:25082569

  19. Exponential gradient maker using a disposable syringe.

    PubMed

    Domingo, A

    1990-08-15

    With a simple modification, any disposable syringe can become a reliable and easy to use exponential gradient maker. The modification consists of two notches, made with a razor blade, in the borders of the rubber sealing tip of the plunger. A clamp in the tube connected to the syringe allows control over solution flow. With the clamp prohibiting drainage, the body of the syringe is filled with the desired volume of starting solution I. A magnetic stir bar, small enough to spin inside the syringe is included. The notched plunger is introduced until no air space remains. This forms the fixed volume, closed mixing chamber, while the rest of the volume of the syringe forms the open chamber. The two chambers are connected through the notches in the plunger. The ending solution II is poured after the introduction of the plunger. Opening the clamp allows solution I in the closed chamber to flow out, and the solution II in the open chamber flows through the notches and mixes with solution I. This exponential gradient maker can be reused many times, but the low cost of the components makes it potentially disposable. This feature is especially useful when using toxic chemicals, or when pouring polyacrylamide gradient gels, since the apparatus may be disposed of after contamination or eventual polymerization. PMID:2278394

  20. Religious leaders' response to AIDS in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ucheaga, D N; Hartwig, K A

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, faith-based organisations are being asked to participate in HIV prevention and care activities. This paper presents formative research on HIV/AIDS prevention messages, activities and policies within six religious institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria, at urban and rural sites. Data collection methods included a review of written HIV policies gathered from national church and mosque offices and 48 key informant interviews. The study highlights differences in messages between mainstream and Pentecostal Christians and Muslims. Although all groups stated a core message of abstinence outside marriage and faithfulness within marriage, Pentecostal churches tended to have more messages of punishment and condemnation for people infected with HIV. Urban churches/mosques tended to have more HIV resources and programmes. Attitudes towards condom use varied by denomination and individual; although few saw a role for religious institutions to promote condoms there were exceptions voiced. These findings indicate that religious organisations are already playing a role in HIV prevention but their responses are not uniform. Public health organisations and policy-makers should be aware of these denominational differences as they engage with religious institutions and leaders in HIV prevention and care. PMID:20155545

  1. AIDS Federal Policy Act of 1987. Hearings on S. 1575: To Amend the Public Health Service Act To Establish a Grant Program To Provide for Counseling and Testing Services Relating to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and To Establish Certain Prohibitions for the Purpose of Protecting Individuals with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or Related Conditions. Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document presents the text from two Senate hearings on the AIDS Federal Policy Act of 1987 which concerns voluntary testing for AIDS virus, education and counseling to stop the spread of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), and confidentiality and discrimination against AIDS victims. In the first hearing, opening statements are…

  2. SOURCES OF DATA FOR IMPROVED SURVEILLANCE OF HIV/AIDS IN CHINA

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yujiang; Lu, Fan; Sun, Xinhua; Vermund, Sten H

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the evolution of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance in mainland China, with a focus on reviewing the sources of data being used for improved surveillance of HIV/AIDS. We review the development of HIV/AIDS surveillance and its multiple data sources to monitor the dynamics of HIV/AIDS in China. The surveillance system for HIV/AIDS in China was initiated in 1986. It has evolved in three stages: (1) passive surveillance, (2) HIV sentinel surveillance with coexisting active surveillance and passive surveillance, and (3) comprehensive surveillance. In parallel with the evolution of the surveillance system itself, the HIV epidemic in China has gone through increasing stages of complexity, through an Introduction Phase, a Spreading Phase, and a Rapidy Spreading Phase. More reliable data from improved surveillance suggest that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is expanding in China. HIV infections among 2005 estimates remain concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs), those buying and selling sex, and men who have sex with men. Better HIV/AIDS surveillance synthesizes multiple data sources to provide a more accurate picture of the dynamics of specific HIV/AIDS circumstances in different areas of China. Improved surveillance is meaningful insofar as data are used to implement more effective HIV prevention programs in China. Support for surveillance and strategic analyses can enable policy decision makers to make more effective program choices and mobilize adequate resources to contain HIV. PMID:18613545

  3. Modular self-dispensing frozen confectionary maker

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.

    1988-04-12

    A self-dispensing frozen confectionary maker is described comprising: (a) a container defining a mixing chamber with an open end, the container having a hollow chamber at least partially filled with a freezable solution; (b) a coupling means rotatably mounted in the container; (c) means for driving the coupling means to rotate in either of first and second directions, the second direction being opposite to the first direction; (d) means for displacing a fluid in the mixing chamber, the fluid-displacing means being arranged in the mixing chamber and rotatably coupled to the coupling means; (e) cover means for securely covering the open end, the cover means having outlet means incorporated therein; and (f) means for supporting the container in first and second positions, wherein the fluid-displacing means has an axis of rotation which is generally vertical when the container is in the first position and generally horizontal when the container is in the second position.

  4. Quantum decision-maker theory and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, Michail; Meyers, Ronald E.; Deacon, Keith S.

    2000-07-01

    A quantum device simulating the human decision making process is introduced. It consists of quantum recurrent nets generating stochastic processes which represent the motor dynamics, and of classical neural nets describing the evolution of probabilities of these processes which represent the mental dynamics. The autonomy of the decision making process is achieved by a feedback from the mental to motor dynamics which changes the stochastic matrix based upon the probability distribution. This feedback replaces unavailable external information by an internal knowledge- base stored in the mental model in the form of probability distributions. As a result, the coupled motor-mental dynamics is described by a nonlinear version of Markov chains which can decrease entropy without an external source of information. Applications to common sense based decisions as well as to evolutionary games are discussed. An example exhibiting self-organization is computed using quantum computer simulation. Force on force and mutual aircraft engagements using the quantum decision maker dynamics are considered.

  5. Policy-Related Research on Women in the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Janice; And Others

    The document briefly discusses approaches to research of benefit to policy makers and reviews current policy-related research on and by women in the southwestern United States. The authors suggest that research would better benefit policy makers if it included alternative policy solutions to problems rather than suggesting further research needs…

  6. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  7. Assessing ground-water vulnerability to contamination: Providing scientifically defensible information for decision makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, Michael J.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the United States increasing demands for safe drinking water and requirements to maintain healthy ecosystems are leading policy makers to ask complex social and scientific questions about how to assess and manage our water resources. This challenge becomes particularly difficult as policy and management objectives require scientific assessments of the potential for ground-water resources to become contaminated from anthropogenic, as well as natural sources of contamination. Assessments of the vulnerability of ground water to contamination range in scope and complexity from simple, qualitative, and relatively inexpensive approaches to rigorous, quantitative, and costly assessments. Tradeoffs must be carefully considered among the competing influences of the cost of an assessment, the scientific defensibility, and the amount of acceptable uncertainty in meeting the objectives of the water-resource decision maker.

  8. Redesigning State Financial Aid: Principles to Guide State Aid Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingel, Sarah; Sponsler, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Several factors create a challenging environment for individuals seeking financial support to complete a postsecondary degree program. In recognition of the challenges of paying for higher education, decision-makers at the federal and state levels support college-going with public policy. Through direct institutional allocations, need and…

  9. Action Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Murray, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific…

  10. Improving Tobacco-Free Advocacy on College Campuses: A Novel Strategy to Aid in the Understanding of Student Perceptions about Policy Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Chapp, Christopher B.; Henley, Whitney B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Tobacco-control policy proposals are usually met with opposition on college campuses. Research to understand students' viewpoints about health-related policy proposals and messaging strategies, however, does not exist. This study investigated students' perceptions about a smoke-free policy proposal to help understand their…

  11. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  12. Addressing Future Epidemics: Historical Human Rights Lessons from the AIDS Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ambar; Quinn, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Ebola epidemic in West Africa sparked many ethical and polarizing public health questions on how to adequately control transmission of the virus. These deliberations had and will continue to influence patients, healthcare workers, public perceptions of disease, and governmental responses. Such extensive and potential ramifications warranted an analysis of prior epidemics to sufficiently inform policy makers and prepare them and other authorities for future epidemics. We analyzed how the general public, medical institutions, federal government, and patients themselves responded during the early stages of the AIDS pandemic in two different countries and cultures, the United States and India. Discussion Our analysis identified four key findings pertaining to the human rights of patients and healthcare workers and to the crucial roles of the government and medical community. The first demands that authoritative officials acknowledge the presence of high-risk behaviors and properly educate the public without stigmatizing groups of individuals. For this task, the medical community and federal government must form and display to the public a respectful and collaborative partnership towards battling the epidemic. These two synergistic endeavors will then allow appropriate officials to implement effective, yet civil, interventions for limiting transmission. Finally, the same officials must ensure that their interventions maintain the human rights of high-risk populations and of healthcare workers. Conclusions Applying these findings to future epidemics of infectious diseases can aid policy makers in navigating complicated ethical and public health questions, and help prevent them from repeating past mistakes in handling epidemics. PMID:27284578

  13. The medical decision model and decision maker tools for management of radiological and nuclear incidents.

    PubMed

    Koerner, John F; Coleman, C Norman; Murrain-Hill, Paula; FitzGerald, Denis J; Sullivan, Julie M

    2014-06-01

    Effective decision making during a rapidly evolving emergency such as a radiological or nuclear incident requires timely interim decisions and communications from onsite decision makers while further data processing, consultation, and review are ongoing by reachback experts. The authors have recently proposed a medical decision model for use during a radiological or nuclear disaster, which is similar in concept to that used in medical care, especially when delay in action can have disastrous effects. For decision makers to function most effectively during a complex response, they require access to onsite subject matter experts who can provide information, recommendations, and participate in public communication efforts. However, in the time before this expertise is available or during the planning phase, just-in-time tools are essential that provide critical overview of the subject matter written specifically for the decision makers. Recognizing the complexity of the science, risk assessment, and multitude of potential response assets that will be required after a nuclear incident, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, in collaboration with other government and non-government experts, has prepared a practical guide for decision makers. This paper illustrates how the medical decision model process could facilitate onsite decision making that includes using the deliberative reachback process from science and policy experts and describes the tools now available to facilitate timely and effective incident management. PMID:24776895

  14. Circulation Aide Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Alan O.

    This training manual provides instruction on shelving and other duties for student assistants in the learning resources center at the College of Dupage, located in Illinois. It is noted that prospective student circulation aides are required to read the manual and pass a written test on policies and procedures before they are allowed to shelve…

  15. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... emergency means of stopping cargo transfer required under 33 CFR 155.780; and (5) At the feeder distribution... miscellaneous vessel must have a manually operated contact maker for the general emergency alarm system: (1) In... operated contact maker for the general emergency alarm system: (1) In the navigating bridge; (2) At...

  16. Job Grading Standard for Model Maker, WG-4714.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The pamphlet explains the different job requirements for different grades of model maker (WG-14 and WG-15) and contrasts them to the position of premium journeyman. It includes comment on what a model maker is (a nonsupervisory job involved in planning and fabricating complex research and prototype models which are made from a variety of materials…

  17. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... emergency means of stopping cargo transfer required under 33 CFR 155.780; and (5) At the feeder distribution... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of contact makers. 113.25-5 Section 113.25-5... ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-5 Location of contact makers....

  18. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... emergency means of stopping cargo transfer required under 33 CFR 155.780; and (5) At the feeder distribution... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of contact makers. 113.25-5 Section 113.25-5... ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-5 Location of contact makers....

  19. Maker Movement Spreads Innovation One Project at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppler, Kylie; Bender, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The maker movement consists of a growing culture of hands-on making, creating, designing, and innovating. A hallmark of the maker movement is its do-it-yourself (or do-it-with-others) mindset that brings individuals together around a range of activities, both high- and low-tech, all involving some form of creation or repair. The movement's…

  20. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  1. Moral Character and Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  2. The Current Mind-Set of Federal Information Security Decision-Makers on the Value of Governance: An Informative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroup, Jay Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mind-set or perceptions of organizational leaders and decision-makers is important to ascertaining the trends and priorities in policy and governance of the organization. This study finds that a significant shift in the mind-set of government IT and information security leaders has started and will likely result in placing a…

  3. Examining the Educative Aims and Practices of Decision-Makers in Sport for Development and Peace Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Per G.; Hancock, Meg G.; Hums, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) policy-makers and practitioners continue to offer ambitious claims regarding the potential role of sport-based programs for promoting social change. Yet, it is important to put sport under a critical lens in order to develop a more balanced and realistic understanding of the role of sport in society. Whether…

  4. Evidence and Impact: How Scholarship Can Improve Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingenfelter, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers, policy makers, and practitioners share a sincere interest in improving the human condition. Academics may be tempted to fault irrationality, ideology, or ignorance for the failure of research to inform policy and practice more powerfully, but policy makers and practitioners want academics to tell them "what works" in order to find a…

  5. A Review of HIV/AIDS Research in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Koh, K C

    2014-08-01

    Two hundred fifty seven articles related to HIV/AIDS were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. One hundred seventy one articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. This review of literature has been divided into six sections, namely, epidemiology, risk behaviour, clinical features and opportunistic infections, management, diagnosis and discussion. Wherever possible, the reviewed articles have been presented in a chronological order to provide a historical perspective to the reader as many of the results of earlier publications, which are common knowledge now, were relatively unknown then. Since the early days of the HIV epidemic in Malaysia, there have been rapid advances in the understanding and the management of the epidemic in Malaysia based on the insights derived from the results of these research. These insights are invaluable tools for policy makers, advocators, healthcare providers, researchers and everyone and anyone who are involved in the care of individuals with HIV/AIDS. Attempts have been made to identify gaps in certain research areas with the hope of providing directions for future research in HIV/AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:25417954

  6. An analytical framework to assist decision makers in the use of forest ecosystem model predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larocque, Guy R.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Ascough, J.C.; Liu, J.; Luckai, N.; Mailly, D.; Archambault, L.; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    The predictions from most forest ecosystem models originate from deterministic simulations. However, few evaluation exercises for model outputs are performed by either model developers or users. This issue has important consequences for decision makers using these models to develop natural resource management policies, as they cannot evaluate the extent to which predictions stemming from the simulation of alternative management scenarios may result in significant environmental or economic differences. Various numerical methods, such as sensitivity/uncertainty analyses, or bootstrap methods, may be used to evaluate models and the errors associated with their outputs. However, the application of each of these methods carries unique challenges which decision makers do not necessarily understand; guidance is required when interpreting the output generated from each model. This paper proposes a decision flow chart in the form of an analytical framework to help decision makers apply, in an orderly fashion, different steps involved in examining the model outputs. The analytical framework is discussed with regard to the definition of problems and objectives and includes the following topics: model selection, identification of alternatives, modelling tasks and selecting alternatives for developing policy or implementing management scenarios. Its application is illustrated using an on-going exercise in developing silvicultural guidelines for a forest management enterprise in Ontario, Canada. ?? 2010.

  7. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  8. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  9. Caregiver supportive policies to improve child outcomes in the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: an analysis of the gap between what is needed and what is available in 25 high prevalence countries

    PubMed Central

    Kidman, Rachel; Heymann, Jody

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, caregivers are struggling to support HIV-affected children. For reasons of equity and efficiency, their needs can be best met through strong social protections and policies. This paper presents a conceptual framework to help address the needs of HIV-affected caregivers and to prioritize policies. We describe the needs that are common across diverse caregiving populations (e.g., economic security); the needs which are intensified (e.g., leave to care for sick children) or unique to providing care to HIV-affected children (e.g., ARV treatment). The paper then explores the types of social policies that would facilitate families meeting these needs. We outline a basic package of policies that would support HIV-affected families, and would meet goals agreed to by national governments. We examine the availability of these policies in 25 highly affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of countries guarantee short-term income protection during illness, free primary school, and educational inclusion of children with special needs. However, there are significant gaps in areas critical to family economic security and healthy child development. Fewer than half of the countries we analyzed guarantee a minimum wage that will enable families to escape poverty; only six have eliminated tuition fees for secondary school; and only three offer paid leave to care for sick children. Filling these policy gaps, as well as making mental health and social services more widely available, is essential to support caregiving by families for HIV-affected children. As part of the HIV agenda, the global community can help national governments advance towards their policy targets. This would provide meaningful protection for families affected by HIV, as well as for millions of other vulnerable families and children across the region. PMID:27392009

  10. Caregiver supportive policies to improve child outcomes in the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: an analysis of the gap between what is needed and what is available in 25 high prevalence countries.

    PubMed

    Kidman, Rachel; Heymann, Jody

    2016-03-01

    In the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, caregivers are struggling to support HIV-affected children. For reasons of equity and efficiency, their needs can be best met through strong social protections and policies. This paper presents a conceptual framework to help address the needs of HIV-affected caregivers and to prioritize policies. We describe the needs that are common across diverse caregiving populations (e.g., economic security); the needs which are intensified (e.g., leave to care for sick children) or unique to providing care to HIV-affected children (e.g., ARV treatment). The paper then explores the types of social policies that would facilitate families meeting these needs. We outline a basic package of policies that would support HIV-affected families, and would meet goals agreed to by national governments. We examine the availability of these policies in 25 highly affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of countries guarantee short-term income protection during illness, free primary school, and educational inclusion of children with special needs. However, there are significant gaps in areas critical to family economic security and healthy child development. Fewer than half of the countries we analyzed guarantee a minimum wage that will enable families to escape poverty; only six have eliminated tuition fees for secondary school; and only three offer paid leave to care for sick children. Filling these policy gaps, as well as making mental health and social services more widely available, is essential to support caregiving by families for HIV-affected children. As part of the HIV agenda, the global community can help national governments advance towards their policy targets. This would provide meaningful protection for families affected by HIV, as well as for millions of other vulnerable families and children across the region. PMID:27392009

  11. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  12. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  13. Policy and ethical issues in applying medical biotechnology in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Macer, Darryl R J

    2003-02-01

    A brief review of some of the key issues in policy relating to the ethical issues raised by medical biotechnology in developing countries is presented, using India as an example. A series of some key issues is discussed, including information obtained from interviewing Indian government policy makers. Some of the issues discussed include: Economic and social incentives to encourage biotechnology; Health policy and ethics review; Patents on drugs; Medical genetics; Relationship to traditional medical practices; Positive public attitudes to biotechnology; Limited public participation; Infrastructural hurdles; Indian progress in stem cell research; and dilemmas of expensive technologies. The results show that although the needs of developing countries are different to those of rich countries, government policy utilizing guidelines and ethics committees has evolved as mechanisms to aid ethical health care delivery in India. In all countries there may be some of these concerns that are raised here, however, the integration of traditional medicine and advanced medical technology, and access to medical services by people in need, are particularly important challenges in developing countries. Better public involvement in policy making will require education and infrastructural organization as well as mutual willingness on the part of policy makers and citizens. PMID:12601306

  14. An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Direct Investment Policy and Economic Development. A.I.D. Discussion Paper No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsten, C. Fred; De Castro, Bruce

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze U.S. policies toward financial investment in developing nations. The paper is presented in two sections. In section I, the controversial effects of direct foreign investment on development are discussed. Case studies of investment policies toward India, the Philippines, Ghana, Guatemala, and Argentina are…

  15. Clarity versus complexity: land-use modeling as a practical tool for decision-makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has seen a remarkable increase in the number of modeling tools available to examine future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change. Integrated modeling frameworks, agent-based models, cellular automata approaches, and other modeling techniques have substantially improved the representation of complex LULC systems, with each method using a different strategy to address complexity. However, despite the development of new and better modeling tools, the use of these tools is limited for actual planning, decision-making, or policy-making purposes. LULC modelers have become very adept at creating tools for modeling LULC change, but complicated models and lack of transparency limit their utility for decision-makers. The complicated nature of many LULC models also makes it impractical or even impossible to perform a rigorous analysis of modeling uncertainty. This paper provides a review of land-cover modeling approaches and the issues causes by the complicated nature of models, and provides suggestions to facilitate the increased use of LULC models by decision-makers and other stakeholders. The utility of LULC models themselves can be improved by 1) providing model code and documentation, 2) through the use of scenario frameworks to frame overall uncertainties, 3) improving methods for generalizing key LULC processes most important to stakeholders, and 4) adopting more rigorous standards for validating models and quantifying uncertainty. Communication with decision-makers and other stakeholders can be improved by increasing stakeholder participation in all stages of the modeling process, increasing the transparency of model structure and uncertainties, and developing user-friendly decision-support systems to bridge the link between LULC science and policy. By considering these options, LULC science will be better positioned to support decision-makers and increase real-world application of LULC modeling results.

  16. The experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care of AIDS patients in the Bophirima district, North West province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Makhele, M F; Mulaudzi, F M

    2012-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic put significant strain on healthcare services in the country. Hospitals were no longer coping with the escalating number of AIDS patients. This resulted in the early discharge of patients, with some patients, too ill to be nursed at home, being sent to hospices for continued care. The Batswana had mixed feelings about hospice care, because their beliefs on patient care are based on the ubuntu philosophy, which emphasises the principle of caring for one another. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care for patients in the Thlabane township in the province of the North West as well as to make recommendations to policy-makers to ensure that hospices are accepted by community members and utilised effectively. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was applied. Purposive sampling was applied to select study participants with whom in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. A qualitative data analysis was done by categorising, ordering, and summarising the data, and describing the findings. The findings indicated that families of patients in hospice care experienced such care as foreign to their culture. These families also experienced stigmatisation, firstly owing to the stigma associated with AIDS and secondly because they opted for hospice care. However, they also observed the high quality of care provided by the hospice and understood its benefits for AIDS patients. The study concluded that hospice care relieved families of terminally ill AIDS patients of the burden of care and enabled them to keep on working and earning a living. Recommendations to policy-makers included enhancing hospice care and ensuring the provisioning of culturally safe hospice care. PMID:23237045

  17. Living with HIV/AIDS in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedletter, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter article is concerned with understanding what schools can and must do to sustain life in the age of human immunodeficiency virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The article looks at the incidence of AIDS and reviews legislation related to AIDS infection and school attendance. School policy as it relates to…

  18. Employment Considerations of AIDS in Dental Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumpler, Diane C.; Carey, Moses

    1987-01-01

    Policies governing the employment of health care workers with AIDS, and the AIDS employment issue facing dental practitioners, administrators, and educators are discussed. Legal considerations of AIDS in the workplace are addressed as to HIV testing, employee rights to gain and/or retain employment, economic considerations, and confidentiality…

  19. 3. VIEW OF MAKERS PLATE ATTACHED TO UPPER CHORD MEMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF MAKERS PLATE ATTACHED TO UPPER CHORD MEMBER WHICH STATES 'HUSTON AND CLEVELAND CONTRACTORS, COLUMBUS, OHIO, 1904.' - Main Street Parker Pony Truss Bridge, Main Street (Route 170) spanning Yellow Creek, Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  20. Make Energy at the Bay Area Maker Faire

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-06-24

    Think. Make. Innovate. A festival of invention, creativity and resourcefulness that gathers makers of all kinds. Scientists are seeking to find innovative solutions to the energy challenges in the world.

  1. 4. DETAIL OF TRUSS END AND MAKER'S PLATE WHICH STATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF TRUSS END AND MAKER'S PLATE WHICH STATES 'BRACKETT BRIDGE CO., BUILDERS, CINCINNATI, O. 1894.' - Town Creek Truss-leg Bedstead Bridge, Spanning Town Creek at County Route 82, Van Wert, Van Wert County, OH

  2. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER CHORD MEMBER, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER CHORD MEMBER, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE STATING 'KING IRON BRIDGE & MFG. CO., K & F & Z KING PATENT, CLEVELAND, O.' - Smith Road Bowstring Arch Bridge, Spanning Sycamore Creek at Smith Road (TR 62), Lykens, Crawford County, OH

  3. 3. BARREL VIEW, LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF BRIDGE, SHOWING MAKER'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BARREL VIEW, LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF BRIDGE, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE, DECORATIVE SCROLLWORK AND URN FINIALS ON NORTHEAST PORTAL - "Forder" Pratt Through Truss Bridge, Spanning Maumee River at County Route 73, Antwerp, Paulding County, OH

  4. 24. DETAIL VIEW OF CASTIRON MAKER'S PLATE ON CHIMNEY IDENTIFYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL VIEW OF CAST-IRON MAKER'S PLATE ON CHIMNEY IDENTIFYING 'ALPHONS CUSTOBIS CHIMNEY CONSTRUCTION CO., BENNETT BUILDING, NEW YORK.' - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  5. The ichnogenus Rhizocorallium: Classification, trace makers, palaeoenvironments and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaust, Dirk

    2013-11-01

    Rhizocorallium is one of the oldest known trace fossils, with wide distribution through the Phanerozoic and all over the world. Originally introduced from the epicontinental Triassic of central Germany, its high morphological lability gave reason for the subsequent erection of about twenty ichnospecies. The study of newly collected material from the type area and many specimens from various collections permits the conclusion that Rhizocorallium jenense and Rhizocorallium commune are the only valid ichnospecies of Rhizocorallium. The type ichnospecies, R. jenense, is a comparatively small, inclined and heavily scratched firmground burrow with passive fill, while R. commune consists of extensive, more or less horizontal burrows with occasionally scratched marginal tubes and an actively filled spreite between the tubes. The faecal pellets Coprulus oblongus are typically associated with R. commune. Morphological variations of R. commune are captured in ichnosubspecies and varieties of this ichnospecies and can aid a refined reconstruction of palaeoenvironments. A review of more than 180 records from the literature reveals the common confusion of both ichnospecies, which has consequences for the application of Rhizocorallium in facies interpretations. The end members of both ichnospecies may be linked by transitional forms, which suggests the same kind of trace maker. Polychaetes are the most likely producers of marine Rhizocorallium, based on their long-ranging occurrence, morphological features, appearance of faecal pellets, associated soft-body remains, and modern analogues. R. commune occurs from Early Cambrian to Holocene, while R. jenense just appears after the end-Permian mass extinction, probably as a consequence of an adapted firmground burrowing lifestyle of its producer. Fluvial R. jenense are probably produced by mayfly larvae in homology to marine polychaete burrows. A consequent application of the newly established classification scheme allows for a more

  6. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S

    1991-01-01

    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival. PMID:1786270

  7. How can models better aid the decision processes for the management of water resources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnach, M.; Pahl-Wostl, C.

    2007-12-01

    Despite the long history of development and use of models in policy making, there is still a poor integration between modeling and the decision process. This is influenced by several factors, such as a lack of understanding of models from policy makers, limitations in the applicability and use of models, modeller's behaviour, and a lack of stakeholder involvement in the whole modelling process. But, most relevant of all, is the fact that models are perceived as non reliable tools for policy making, due to the uncertainty associated with them and the lack of confidence this uncertainty generates. Commonly, in fields like natural resource management, and in particular water management, models are build to predict, in space or time, the state of the system to be managed (e.g. real time flood forecasting). These models are then used by policy makers as a surrogate of a real system to inform their decisions. In this view, the efficacy of a model depends on how well it can approximate reality and how much confidence policy makers can have on model's results. However, even though predictive models can be used to convey scientific argumentation that can aid decision making, these models fall short in supporting the processes of negotiation, learning, and communication, which constitute the basis for policy making. In this presentation we explore and discuss the relationship between models used in water resource management and policy making: how models can be used and how uncertainty should be treated depending on the purpose models are supposed to serve. We identify four major modeling purposes that are important for understanding and managing complex environmental systems: prediction, exploratory analysis, communication and learning, and investigate the implications of the different purposes in dealing with uncertainty. In predictive models, the presence of uncertainty is understood as a critical constraint for decision making, and as such it ought to be eliminated or

  8. Peircean Decision Aid

    2008-08-14

    The Peircean decision aid (PDA) is a decision support architecture and embedded functionality that supports a decision maker in very complex environments dealing with massive amounts of disparate data, information and knowledge. The solution generated is a hybrid system solution employing a number of technologies that are based on Peircean reasoning, modal logic, and formal concept analysis. The system convolves data/information with knowledge to create a virtual belief state that is passed to a decisionmore » maker for consideration. The system can capture categorized knowledge or it can inductively learn or acquire new knowledge from suites of observations. Captured knowledge is used to abductively generate hypotheses that are potential explanations to observations or collected data. The zero order modal logic architecture is designed to augment knowledge update and belief revision and can be extended to include disjunctive screening of collected data. While intended to be a library for integration into a decision support architecture it possesses a basic stand-alone GUI for use as an analysis support tool.« less

  9. Alternative American foreign policy for Ukraine. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.G.

    1993-06-01

    American policy makers have largely ignored Ukraine in their global policy planning. This lack of consideration shows a neglect of the potential for conflict in Eastern Europe. American foreign policy toward Ukraine, that is rooted in the START and NPT Treaties, is doomed to fail, and will actually sow the seeds of chaos, unless the United States: (1) comes to understand the motivations that drive Ukrainian foreign policy, and (2) facilitate significant positive alterations to the security and economic environment that has developed since the breakup of the Soviet Union. This thesis examines Western security goals and analyzes the current means available to achieve those goals. The contention of this thesis is that present Western policy pursuits will lead to a regenerated authoritarian Russian superpower that will be a threat to the security of Ukraine and Europe. The potentially dangerous consequences of an authoritarian Russia could be avoided by facilitating the development of a strong and stable Ukraine to act as a balance to Russian power in Eastern Europe. United States, Ukraine, Foreign policy, Nuclear arms negotiations, Economic aid, Russia.

  10. Developing a quality criteria framework for patient decision aids: online international Delphi consensus process

    PubMed Central

    Elwyn, Glyn; O'Connor, Annette; Stacey, Dawn; Volk, Robert; Edwards, Adrian; Coulter, Angela; Thomson, Richard; Barratt, Alexandra; Barry, Michael; Bernstein, Steven; Butow, Phyllis; Clarke, Aileen; Entwistle, Vikki; Feldman-Stewart, Deb; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Moumjid, Nora; Mulley, Al; Ruland, Cornelia; Sepucha, Karen; Sykes, Alan; Whelan, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Objective To develop a set of quality criteria for patient decision support technologies (decision aids). Design and setting Two stage web based Delphi process using online rating process to enable international collaboration. Participants Individuals from four stakeholder groups (researchers, practitioners, patients, policy makers) representing 14 countries reviewed evidence summaries and rated the importance of 80 criteria in 12 quality domains ona1to9 scale. Second round participants received feedback from the first round and repeated their assessment of the 80 criteria plus three new ones. Main outcome measure Aggregate ratings for each criterion calculated using medians weighted to compensate for different numbers in stakeholder groups; criteria rated between 7 and 9 were retained. Results 212 nominated people were invited to participate. Of those invited, 122 participated in the first round (77 researchers, 21 patients, 10 practitioners, 14 policy makers); 104/122 (85%) participated in the second round. 74 of 83 criteria were retained in the following domains: systematic development process (9/9 criteria); providing information about options (13/13); presenting probabilities (11/13); clarifying and expressing values (3/3); using patient stories (2/5); guiding/coaching (3/5); disclosing conflicts of interest (5/5); providing internet access (6/6); balanced presentation of options (3/3); using plain language (4/6); basing information on up to date evidence (7/7); and establishing effectiveness (8/8). Conclusions Criteria were given the highest ratings where evidence existed, and these were retained. Gaps in research were highlighted. Developers, users, and purchasers of patient decision aids now have a checklist for appraising quality. An instrument for measuring quality of decision aids is being developed. PMID:16908462

  11. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  12. A constitution for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  13. Policy as Boundary Object: A New Way to Look at Educational Policy Design and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emad, Gholamreza; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2009-01-01

    Policy implementation research in general and educational policy in particular is loosely connected to policy-making processes. There is a gap particularly in the field of vocational education. This often leads to conflicts and contradictions between policy-maker objectives and end-user implementation. To avoid such a disconnect, the relation…

  14. Theorizing the Implementation of the HIV/AIDS Curriculum in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musingarabwi, Starlin; Blignaut, Sylvan

    2015-01-01

    A growing need for utilizing school-based HIV/AIDS interventions the world over has been acknowledged as the most cost-effective means for arresting the spread of the HIV/AIDS pandemic among the vulnerable youth. However, the question on how teachers as educational change agents and cognitive sense-makers of HIV/AIDS curricula situated in a…

  15. Attendees Discuss Science Policy Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, Erik

    2014-02-01

    The 2013 Fall Meeting provided participants with many opportunities to increase their involvement in Earth and space science policy. Whether attendees were interested in outreach campaigns, concerned about recent legal attacks on science, or fascinated by the prospect of working with policy makers, the meeting teemed with opportunities to learn and become more involved.

  16. Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

  17. ECOLOGICAL POLICY: DEFINING APPROPRIATE ROLES FOR SCIENCE AND SCIENTISTS - 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resolving typical ecological policy issues requires an array of scientific information as part of the input provided to decision-makers. The ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform policy deliberations diminishes when what is offered as "scienc...

  18. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY - MAY 16, 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving many current ecological policy issues requires an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists. The ability of scientists (and sc...

  19. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: SUBVERTING DEVELOPMENT OF SOUND FISHERIES POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical fisheries policy issue requires an array of scientific information as part of the input provided to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform fisheries policy deliberations...

  20. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform ecological policy deliberations has been diminish...

  1. Muted voices: HIV/AIDS and the young people of Burkina Faso and Senegal.

    PubMed

    Rosendal Østergaard, Lise; Samuelsen, Helle

    2004-11-01

    This article explores the discrepancies between the vocal public discourse on HIV/AIDS and sexuality as generally encouraged by policy-makers and donor communities in Africa, and the often hushed voices of their target groups: young people in African communities. Based on fieldwork among urban youth in Senegal and Burkina Faso, we describe the silence of young people with regard to HIV/AIDS and sexuality as a social phenomenon, with focus given to family relations, peer relations and gender aspects in partnerships. Drawing on Foucault and Morrell, an inability and unwillingness to speak about HIV/AIDS and sexuality are analysed as a response to an everyday life characterised by uncertainty. This response represents a certain degree of resistance, while it constitutes a major barrier to any HIV/AIDS prevention effort. Finally, we stress that despite great constraints in their everyday lives, young people have some room to manoeuvre and are able to apply some negotiating strategies to reduce sexually-related health risks. PMID:25875058

  2. After the Global Fund: who can sustain the HIV/AIDS response in Peru and how?

    PubMed

    Amaya, Ana B; Caceres, Carlos F; Spicer, Neil; Balabanova, Dina

    2014-01-01

    Peru has received around $70 million from Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). Recent economic growth resulted in grant ineligibility, enabling greater government funding, yet doubts remain concerning programme continuity. This study examines the transition from Global Fund support to increasing national HIV/AIDS funding in Peru (2004-2012) by analysing actor roles, motivations and effects on policies, identifying recommendations to inform decision-makers on priority areas. A conceptual framework, which informed data collection, was developed. Thirty-five in-depth interviews were conducted from October to December 2011 in Lima, Peru, among key stakeholders involved in HIV/AIDS work. Findings show that Global Fund involvement led to important breakthroughs in the HIV/AIDS response, primarily concerning treatment access, focus on vulnerable populations and development of a coordination body. Nevertheless, reliance on Global Fund financing for prevention activities via non-governmental organisations, compounded by lack of government direction and weak regional governance, diluted power and caused role uncertainty. Strengthening government and regional capacity and fostering accountability mechanisms will facilitate an effective transition to government-led financing. Only then can achievements gained from the Global Fund presence be maintained, providing lessons for countries seeking to sustain programmes following donor exit. PMID:24499125

  3. Policies for solidarity. A personal view of the Second International Conference for non governmental organizations working on AIDS, Paris 1-4 November 1990.

    PubMed

    Lucas, S

    1991-01-01

    A summary of events at the Second International Conference for Non-Governmental Organizations working on AIDS, held in Paris November 1-4, 1990 is presented with comments on the effectiveness of arrangement, planning and sessions. The meeting was fraught with obstacles, the worst of which was a change of venue from San Francisco to Paris at the last minute, with serious consequences to speakers whose U.S. travel funds had to be found elsewhere. The goal of the conference was to facilitate international networking among AIDS Service, national and regional organizations. To this end 44 sessions were held informally. Plenary sessions were marked by moving presentations of such items as an international memorial quilt, and topics such as how children and women are affected by HIV, and how human rights abuses are often unseen. The need for solidarity among NGOs was stressed by Dr. J. Mann, who noted that NGOs perform up to half the health care in some countries. The major substance of the conference was 5 Seminar tracks of 5.5 hours duration on the topics of services and care, education and prevention, drugs and treatment, human rights, and organizational development. Human rights recognized internationally were described, but in some places lack of resources makes them a privilege. Illegal drug programs, decriminalization and research on cultural obstacles were within the broad range of issues addressed under services and care. While traditional symptomatic treatments and older drugs such as gentian violet as a treatment for candidiasis are being developed in African countries, serious social problems arise when people sell their possessions for a few doses of AZT or Kemron there. In the seminars on organizational development useful exchanges between major donors and project organizers explored professional methods of applying for grants, as well as accounting for funds spent later. ICASO the International Council of AIDS Service Organizations was ratified and a

  4. The improved code TAC maker for modeling of planet transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Vladev, A.

    We present improvements of the code TAC-maker for modeling of planet transits. While the initial version of the code calculated synthetic transits for certain values of the input parameters, the new version TAC-maker 1.1.0 gives a possibility to obtain simultaneously numerous synthetic transits corresponding to chosen ranges of values for each fitted parameter. The most valuable property of the improved version of the code is the ability to obtain the global minimum of χ^{2} in the multidimensional parametric space and to estimate the errors of the searched parameters.

  5. The Roles of Lesser-Known American Telescope Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Trudy E.

    A history of lesser-known telescope makers. The following makers, owners, dealers and firms are discussed: Henry Fitz, William S. Van Duzee, Lewis M. Rutherford, Charles A. Spencer, A. K. Eaton, John Byrne, Robert B. Tolles, Buff and Berger of Boston, Fauth and Co., George N. Saegmuller, E. Kubel (Kübel), Chester S. Lyman, Stackpole and Brother, William Wurdemann (Würdemann), William J. Young, Gundlach of Rochester, William Kahler, Stendicke of NYC, Walther of Philadelphia, Worcester R. Warner, Ambrose Swasey, William T. Gregg, Phelps and Gurley of Troy, H. G. Sedgewick, Benjamin Pike, William Mogey, David Mogey, and James A. Queen.

  6. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism.

    PubMed

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers' levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers' levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified. PMID:26441775

  7. The Role of the National Academy of Sciences in Supporting Climate Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfring, C.

    2009-12-01

    Established in 1863 by Congress under the Lincoln Administration, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a nongovernmental organization that plays a unique role in providing scientific information to decision makers. The NAS brings together the nation’s top experts, as volunteers, to provide objective scientific analysis and advice on a wide variety of critical issues, including climate change. The Academy’s climate change-related studies range from early reports such as Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment (1979) to current activities such as America’s Climate Choices (in process). Studies have or are addressing climate forcings and feedbacks, statistics, predictability, ecological impacts, the structure of federal climate research programs, decision-making, transportation planning, and other aspects of understanding and responding to climate change. Requests for studies come primarily from Congress and federal agencies, yet the NAS is able generate a wide variety of products and reports for policy-makers, government agencies, states, and the public. With so many special interests and advocacy organizations now speaking on climate issues, the role of NAS as an objective source of information and guidance is more important than ever. This talk will highlight a range of past and ongoing Academy reports, both technical and policy-oriented, to illustrate the kinds of questions we address, the processes used to gather information and reach consensus, how we deal with multidisciplinary questions, the impacts of our studies, and the ways we are evolving to meet the needs of a changing society.

  8. Compulsory Attendance Policies: About Age or Intervention? SREB Focus Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, SREB state policy-makers have focused on actions to reduce dropout rates and increase high school graduation rates. Some policy-makers have suggested that raising their state's compulsory attendance age (often called the dropout age) to require students to stay in school until age 17 or 18 is an important step. However,…

  9. Forecasting Social Trends as a Basis for Formulating Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Arthur J.

    The paper describes how information regarding future trends is collected and made available to educational policy makers. Focusing on educational implications of social and population trends, the paper is based on data derived from use of trend forecasting by educational policy makers in Florida and other southeastern states. The document is…

  10. Participant-Observation and the Development of Urban Neighborhood Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    The urban neighborhood, long of interest to city planners and sociologists, has in recent years become of increasing concern to public policy-makers. This new concern has called attention to a large gap in the municipal policy-maker's information resources. Social scientists have employed a field method, participant-observation, that can…

  11. Improving the policy application of footprint indicators to support Europe's transition to a one planet economy: the development of the EUREAPA tool.

    PubMed

    Roelich, Katy; Owen, Anne; Thompson, David; Dawkins, Elena; West, Chris

    2014-05-15

    Environmentally extended multi-regional input-output (EE-MRIO) models provide us with a wealth of data relating to consumption-based environmental impacts at a national level. The results can identify the categories of consumption and sectors of production that contribute most to environmental impact allowing policy makers to prioritise intervention into particular areas. However, these data are not readily accessible to policy makers and civil society, making it difficult to extract and communicate the important messages it contains. The web-based tool - EUREAPA - was created as a usable, task-oriented interface to improve access to environmental and economic data held within a complex EE-MRIO model and make it more relevant to policy makers and civil society. The project team of scientists and IT specialists used an iterative, agile and participatory approach to engage potential end-users in the specification and testing of the tool. The engagement process identified two principal functions that were essential for the EUREAPA tool: viewing data and creating scenarios. The viewing data function allows users to analyse the wealth of data held within the model and present results from a range of perspectives. This helps to understand the causes of environmental pressure and identify priorities for policy intervention. The scenario function helps to communicate how changes in consumption and production might affect the future environmental impact of citizens of the EU, and facilitates long-term planning. Through this dialogue process the project has been able to ensure EUREAPA is relevant, user-friendly and fit-for-purpose. It is intended that EUREAPA will be adopted by policy makers and civil society as an important policy planning and assessment aid in the complex field of sustainable consumption and production. PMID:24238813

  12. Changes in the Former Soviet Union: Debating U.S. Aid. Choices for the 21st Century. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

    This unit of study allows students and teachers to step back from the confusing media reports of the day-to-day turmoil in the former Soviet Union (FSU) and to examine it from a more thoughtful vantage point. The unit focuses on the most important instrument of U.S. policy toward the FSU--economic assistance. At the core of the unit are four…

  13. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  14. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  15. AIDS Treatment In Brazil: Impacts And Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy Stewart; Fonseca, Elize Massard da; Bastos, Francisco I.; Gruskin, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Brazil has one of the developing world's largest, and arguably most successful, AIDS treatment programs. In this paper we review the treatment program, including controversial policies that Brazil has used to promote widespread local and global access to AIDS treatment. We also examine the lessons learned from this program and highlight the challenges Brazil faces, including the rising costs of AIDS treatment and changes in donors' funding priorities. Finally, we explore the relevance of Brazil's treatment program for other countries and its broad implications for global AIDS and health policy. PMID:19597210

  16. Communication with U.S. federal decision makers : a primer with notes on the use of computer models as a means of communication.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Erik Karl; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2009-10-01

    This document outlines ways to more effectively communicate with U.S. Federal decision makers by outlining the structure, authority, and motivations of various Federal groups, how to find the trusted advisors, and how to structure communication. All three branches of Federal governments have decision makers engaged in resolving major policy issues. The Legislative Branch (Congress) negotiates the authority and the resources that can be used by the Executive Branch. The Executive Branch has some latitude in implementation and prioritizing resources. The Judicial Branch resolves disputes. The goal of all decision makers is to choose and implement the option that best fits the needs and wants of the community. However, understanding the risk of technical, political and/or financial infeasibility and possible unintended consequences is extremely difficult. Primarily, decision makers are supported in their deliberations by trusted advisors who engage in the analysis of options as well as the day-to-day tasks associated with multi-party negotiations. In the best case, the trusted advisors use many sources of information to inform the process including the opinion of experts and if possible predictive analysis from which they can evaluate the projected consequences of their decisions. The paper covers the following: (1) Understanding Executive and Legislative decision makers - What can these decision makers do? (2) Finding the target audience - Who are the internal and external trusted advisors? (3) Packaging the message - How do we parse and integrate information, and how do we use computer simulation or models in policy communication?

  17. Creating windows of opportunity for policy change: Incorporating evidence into decentralized planning in Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Ashford, Lori S.; Smith, Rhonda R.; De Souza, Roger-Mark; Fikree, Fariyal F.; Yinger, Nancy V.

    2006-01-01

    PROBLEM: Because researchers and policy-makers work in different spheres, policy decisions in the health arena are often not based on available scientific evidence. APPROACH: We describe a model that illustrates the policy process and how to work strategically to translate knowledge into policy actions. Several types of activity--agenda-setting, coalition building and policy learning--together can create a window of opportunity for policy change. LOCAL SETTING: Activities were undertaken as part of the Kenyan Ministry of Health's new decentralized planning-process. The objective was to ensure that the results of a national assessment of health services were used in the preparation of district-level health plans. RELEVANT CHANGES: Following the intervention, 70 district-level, evidence-based work plans were developed and approved by the Kenyan Ministry of Health. LESSONS LEARNED: Substantial investment and effort are needed to bring stakeholders together to work towards policy change. More in-depth evaluation of these efforts can aid understanding of how systematic approaches to policy change can be replicated elsewhere. PMID:16917657

  18. Guiding Science and Policy Through the Global Climate Change Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silson, J.; Bullock, M. A.; Frodeman, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    Facing the possibility of global climate change, policy makers are forced to make decisions about the research and application of science and technology to mitigate both the causes and effects of an evolving global climate. In the past, when deciding what kinds of research to fund, policy makers have relied on the criteria of feasibility and possible effectiveness in choosing areas to support. However, given both the complexity of the climate and its sensitivity to human decisions, future policy makers will need to develop a variety of criteria for choosing which subjects are worth pursuing. One issue that policy makers are likely to consider is the restriction of some areas of research based on the possible dangers that they may entail. This talk considers the question of whether and how policy makers should make such decisions within the context of global climate change.

  19. 10 CFR 429.45 - Automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automatic commercial ice makers. 429.45 Section 429.45 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER... represented value of maximum energy use or other measure of energy consumption of a basic model for...

  20. 10 CFR 429.45 - Automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic commercial ice makers. 429.45 Section 429.45 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER... represented value of maximum energy use or other measure of energy consumption of a basic model for...

  1. 10 CFR 429.45 - Automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic commercial ice makers. 429.45 Section 429.45 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER... represented value of maximum energy use or other measure of energy consumption of a basic model for...

  2. The Education of the Film-Maker: An International View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This book presents a world view of trends, needs, and potentials concerning the education of film and television directors, who are perceived as image makers who play a central role in the present and future sociocultural development of all societies. Work is based on the papers and discussions of a 1972 meeting, organized by UNESCO, on the…

  3. Understanding Narratives of Nationhood: Film-Makers and Culloden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, John R.; Gold, Margaret M.

    2002-01-01

    Film audiences have long been invited to view Scotland and Scottish life through a historic lens. Influenced by the pre-existing literary traditions of tartanry and kailyard, film-makers have focused nostalgically on the myths and legends of the Highland and pre-industrial Scotland, with the implications that this approach has for representations…

  4. Archives and Records Management for Decision Makers: A RAMP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazikana, Peter C.

    Intended to highlight those aspects of the archival field that government officials should be aware of, this report on the Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) outlines the major principles of records management and archives administration, identifies the information needs of the decision makers, and assesses the ways in which records…

  5. Overcoming Fear: Helping Decision Makers Understand Risk in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haras, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The long history of outdoor education does little to alleviate the fears of many parents, teachers, principals and superintendents who believe that outdoor education is too risky. These decision makers often lack both the knowledge to make informed decisions and the time and resources to investigate their assumptions. Pair these circumstances with…

  6. Imaginative Thinking: Addressing Social Justice Issues through MovieMaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…

  7. Coco Nut Meets the Gadget Maker. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, P.

    The adventures of Coco Nut, a coconut which has fallen from a palm tree in Florida, are illustrated in this booklet for elementary school students. His fall into a canal and ensuing encounters with dead and alive fish and a gadget maker (industry) are used to portray the effects of water pollution. What man can do to stop such pollution and…

  8. Infants and Toddlers as Members, Makers, Interpreters: A Philosophical Journey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, June Moss

    This book explores how young children, within their cultural imperatives, struggle to discover who they are as cultural "members" interacting with others, as "makers" trying out and creating, and as "interpreters" making meaning and making new connections. Chapters in Part 1 emphasize the significance of a philosophical approach and its…

  9. The Promise of the Maker Movement for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The Maker Movement is a community of hobbyists, tinkerers, engineers, hackers, and artists who creatively design and build projects for both playful and useful ends. There is growing interest among educators in bringing making into K-12 education to enhance opportunities to engage in the practices of engineering, specifically, and STEM more…

  10. The Virtual Workplace Ethnography: Positioning Student Writers as Knowledge Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Virtual Workplace Ethnography is a first-year composition assignment that positions students as knowledge makers by requiring them to apply a theoretical lens ("Working Knowledge") to a video representation of a workplace. The lens provides multiple terms for analysis of workplace behaviors in context, providing a scaffolding for…

  11. Education Policy-Making and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the global policy convergence toward high-stakes testing in schools and the use of test results to "steer at a distance", particularly as it applies to policy-makers' promise to improve teacher quality. Using Deleuze's three syntheses of time in the context of the Australian policy blueprint Quality…

  12. Teachers, Curriculum Innovation, and Policy Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bascia, Nina; Carr-Harris, Shasta; Fine-Meyer, Rose; Zurzolo, Cara

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly understood that policy makers make curriculum policy and teachers implement it. Some teachers, however, have been in on the ground floor of curriculum policy development. Driven by events in their life histories and teaching contexts, these teachers develop and teach original course material in their own classrooms. Over time they…

  13. Foundations for Policy in Guidance and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Edwin L., Ed.; Pinson, Nancy M., Ed.

    This book provides educators, counselors, policy makers, and community members with information about the state of the art of federal and state policy in guidance and counseling. The two chapters in part 1, Overview, are: "Foundations for Policy in Guidance and Counseling: An Introduction", by Edwin L. Herr and Nancy M. Pinson; and "A Counselor…

  14. Research and Policy in Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Colin

    2006-01-01

    It has long been acknowledged that adult and lifelong educators have exercised little influence over national education policies. This article addresses the issue, with particular reference to the research elements of policy advocacy. Researchers and policy-makers are distinguished and related as communities of practice and intellectual categories…

  15. National policy development for cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Malawi, Uganda and Zambia: the relationship between Context, Evidence and Links

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several frameworks have been constructed to analyse the factors which influence and shape the uptake of evidence into policy processes in resource poor settings, yet empirical analyses of health policy making in these settings are relatively rare. National policy making for cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) preventive therapy in developing countries offers a pertinent case for the application of a policy analysis lens. The provision of cotrimoxazole as a prophylaxis is an inexpensive and highly efficacious preventative intervention in HIV infected individuals, reducing both morbidity and mortality among adults and children with HIV/AIDS, yet evidence suggests that it has not been quickly or evenly scaled-up in resource poor settings. Methods Comparative analysis was conducted in Malawi, Uganda and Zambia, using the case study approach. We applied the ‘RAPID’ framework developed by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), and conducted a total of 47 in-depth interviews across the three countries to examine the influence of context (including the influence of donor agencies), evidence (both local and international), and the links between researcher, policy makers and those seeking to influence the policy process. Results Each area of analysis was found to have an influence on the creation of national policy on cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) in all three countries. In relation to context, the following were found to be influential: government structures and their focus, donor interest and involvement, healthcare infrastructure and other uses of cotrimoxazole and related drugs in the country. In terms of the nature of the evidence, we found that how policy makers perceived the strength of evidence behind international recommendations was crucial (if evidence was considered weak then the recommendations were rejected). Further, local operational research results seem to have been taken up more quickly, while randomised controlled

  16. Scenarios use to engage scientists and decision-makers in a changing Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, O. A.; Eicken, H.; Payne, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Scenarios provide a framework to develop more adaptive Arctic policies that allow decision makers to consider the best available science to address complex relationships and key uncertainties in drivers of change. These drivers may encompass biophysical factors such as climate change, socioeconomic drivers, and wild-cards that represent low likelihood but influential events such as major environmental disasters. We outline some of the lessons learned from the North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI) scenarios project that could help in the development of adaptive science-based policies. Three spatially explicit development scenarios were identified corresponding to low, medium and high resource extraction activities on the North Slope and adjacent seas. In the case of the high energy development scenario science needs were focused on new technology, oil spill response, and the effects of offshore activities on marine mammals important for subsistence. Science needs related to community culture, erosion, permafrost degradation and hunting and trapping on land were also identified for all three scenarios. The NSSI science needs will guide recommendations for future observing efforts, and data from these observing activities could subsequently improve policy guidance for emergency response, subsistence management and other issues. Scenarios at pan-Arctic scales may help improve the development of international policies for resilient northern communities and encourage the use of science to reduce uncertainties in plans for adapting to change in the Arctic.

  17. Emodnet Med Sea Check-Point - Indicators for decision- maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnard, Sophie; Claverie, Vincent; Blanc, Frédérique

    2015-04-01

    The Emodnet Checkpoint projects aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness, reliability and utility of the existing monitoring at the sea basin level. This involves the development of monitoring system indicators and a GIS Platform to perform the assessment and make it available. Assessment or production of Check-Point information is made by developing targeted products based on the monitoring data and determining whether the products are meeting the needs of industry and public authorities. Check-point users are the research community, the 'institutional' policy makers for IMP and MSFD implementation, the 'intermediate users', i.e., users capable to understand basic raw data but that benefit from seeing the Checkpoint targeted products and the assessment of the fitness for purpose. We define assessment criteria aimed to characterize/depict the input datasets in terms of 3 territories capable to show performance and gaps of the present monitoring system, appropriateness, availability and fitness for purpose. • Appropriateness: What is made available to users? What motivate/decide them to select this observation rather than this one. • Availability: How this is made available to the user? Place to understand the readiness and service performance of the EU infrastructure • Fitness for use / fitness for purpose: Ability for non-expert user to appreciate the data exploitability (feedback on efficiency & reliability of marine data) For each territory (appropriateness, Availability and Fitness for purpose / for use), we define several indicators. For example, for Availability we define Visibility, Accessibility and Performance. And Visibility is itself defined by "Easily found" and "EU service". So these indicators can be classified according to their territory and sub-territory as seen above, but also according to the complexity to build them. Indicators are built from raw descriptors in 3 stages:  Stage 1: to give a neutral and basic status directly computed from

  18. Student Financial Aid and Women: Equity Dilemma? ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 5, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Mary

    The impact of student aid policies on women is assessed. Differences in the conditions affecting men's and women's need for aid are identified, along with actions that could improve women's participation in student aid programs. Gender issues in student aid policy include: loan burden, default, and bankruptcy; the award of merit scholarships;…

  19. Apartheid and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, A T

    1989-11-25

    To persuade South Africa to abolish its apartheid policy several measures have been taken by the international community, including economic sanctions. The harm done by sanctions to the South African economy is obvious. As economic activity has slowed down, unemployment, especially in the black community, has risen. For the unemployed poverty and hunger are harsh realities while for those lucky enough to have jobs income remains quite high. Prostitution has become a way of redistributing income and for many families it is the only way to avoid starvation. With prostitution, however, has come AIDS: it is estimated that HIV infection is doubling every 5-8 months. On 1 calculation 85% of sexually active blacks could be infected with HIV by 1996; most would proceed to AIDS and die, leaving millions of children without parents. Although economic sanctions have speeded up some measure of reform in South Africa they are now harming the very people they were intended to help. Furthermore insidious voices are already being heard saying the government should stop all reform processes and anti-AIDS campaigns and just "sit it out" for the next few years. A further consequence of an ailing economy is the unavailability of funding for those who wish to curb the spread of AIDS via educational and other programs. [Full text] PMID:2573792

  20. A systematic review of factors influencing fertility desires and intentions among people living with HIV/AIDS: implications for policy and service delivery.

    PubMed

    Nattabi, Barbara; Li, Jianghong; Thompson, Sandra C; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Earnest, Jaya

    2009-10-01

    With availability of antiretroviral treatments, HIV is increasingly recognised as a chronic disease people live with for many years. This paper critically reviews the current literature on fertility desires and reproductive intentions among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) and critiques the theoretical frameworks and methodologies used. A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases: ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, Proquest, Jstor and CINAHL for articles published between 1990 and 2008. The search terms used were fertility desire, pregnancy, HIV, reproductive decision making, reproductive intentions, motherhood, fatherhood and parenthood. Twenty-nine studies were reviewed. Fertility desires were influenced by a myriad of demographic, health, stigma-associated and psychosocial factors. Cultural factors were also important, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Future research that examines fertility desires among PLHIV should include cultural beliefs and practices in the theoretical framework in order to provide a holistic understanding and to enable development of services that meet the reproductive needs of PLHIV. PMID:19330443

  1. LCFM - LIVING COLOR FRAME MAKER: PC GRAPHICS GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.

    1994-01-01

    Computer graphics are often applied for better understanding and interpretation of data under observation. These graphics become more complicated when animation is required during "run-time", as found in many typical modern artificial intelligence and expert systems. Living Color Frame Maker is a solution to many of these real-time graphics problems. Living Color Frame Maker (LCFM) is a graphics generation and management tool for IBM or IBM compatible personal computers. To eliminate graphics programming, the graphic designer can use LCFM to generate computer graphics frames. The graphical frames are then saved as text files, in a readable and disclosed format, which can be easily accessed and manipulated by user programs for a wide range of "real-time" visual information applications. For example, LCFM can be implemented in a frame-based expert system for visual aids in management of systems. For monitoring, diagnosis, and/or controlling purposes, circuit or systems diagrams can be brought to "life" by using designated video colors and intensities to symbolize the status of hardware components (via real-time feedback from sensors). Thus status of the system itself can be displayed. The Living Color Frame Maker is user friendly with graphical interfaces, and provides on-line help instructions. All options are executed using mouse commands and are displayed on a single menu for fast and easy operation. LCFM is written in C++ using the Borland C++ 2.0 compiler for IBM PC series computers and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The program requires a mouse and an EGA/VGA display. A minimum of 77K of RAM is also required for execution. The documentation is provided in electronic form on the distribution medium in WordPerfect format. A sample MS-DOS executable is provided on the distribution medium. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools

  2. Spectrally Resolved Maker Fringes in High-Order Harmonic Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyl, C. M.; Güdde, J.; Höfer, U.; L'Huillier, A.

    2011-07-01

    We investigate macroscopic interference effects in high-order harmonic generation using a Ti:sapphire laser operating at a 100 kHz repetition rate. The structure and behavior of spectral and spatial interference fringes are explained and analytically described by transient phase matching of the long electron trajectory contribution. Time-frequency mapping due to the temporal chirp of the harmonic emission allows us to observe Maker fringes directly in the spectral domain.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in a violin maker.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Heather D; Fogelman, Joshua P; Ramsay, David L; Cohen, David E

    2002-02-01

    Allergy to colophony is well noted in the literature, however, there have been few case reports of allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in musicians and instrument makers. We report a case of a stringed instrument craftsman who developed allergic contact dermatitis to propolis, a component of Italian varnish. A review of the components, applications, and the clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to propolis are presented. PMID:11807465

  4. James Henry Marriott: New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.

    2015-11-01

    James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.

  5. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  6. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  7. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

  8. Writing in Policy, Writing out Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machawira, Patricia; Pillay, Venitha

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we argue that education policy on HIV and AIDS is policy about life. As such, the contexts and the realities of teachers and learners in the classroom need to be embedded in the policy. We make a case that HIV and AIDS policy needs to extend beyond the prevention mode to one that includes care and support in the policy context.…

  9. Children, Teachers and the AIDS Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silin, Jonathan G.

    For schools, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) initially represented a policy problem requiring legal and public health experts to assess their ability to exclude students or staff infected with the human immuno-deficiency virus. As the crisis over the potential presence of people with AIDS in the schools abated and with the growing…

  10. AIDS, Alcohol & Health Care. Chapter 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains 10 papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TC) that deal with a variety of health-related subjects. Papers include: (1) "AIDS among IV Drug Users: Epidemiology, Natural History & TC Experiences" (Don C. Des Jarlais, et al.); (2) "AIDS and Therapeutic Communities: Policy Implications" (Don C. Des…

  11. Student Financial Aid and Women. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Mary

    The impact of student aid policies on women is assessed. Patterns of enrollment and economic profiles differ for male and female students. Women, for example, far surpass men as adult, part-time, independent, and unclassified students, the categories most likely to present barriers to participating in most financial aid programs. Gender issues in…

  12. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult learners. The…

  13. ICT Policy Planning in a Context of Curriculum Reform: Disentanglement of ICT Policy Domains and Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinde, Ruben; van Braak, Johan; Dexter, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers around the world are increasingly acknowledging the importance of developing a school-based ICT policy plan to facilitate the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in education. Despite this interest, not much is known about how schools can develop their local ICT policy capacity and how to…

  14. An Introduction to Policy Analysis from an Hispanic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Emily G.

    Up until now Hispanics have not gotten involved in the policy analysis field. By learning to specifically assess the actual or potential impact of alternate policies or programs, it will be possible to help decision makers adopt policies which are more equitable to Hispanics. The following steps may help an individual carry out policy analysis:…

  15. How much donor financing for health is channelled to global versus country-specific aid functions?

    PubMed

    Schäferhoff, Marco; Fewer, Sara; Kraus, Jessica; Richter, Emil; Summers, Lawrence H; Sundewall, Jesper; Yamey, Gavin; Jamison, Dean T

    2015-12-12

    The slow global response to the Ebola crisis in west Africa suggests that important gaps exist in donor financing for key global functions, such as support for health research and development for diseases of poverty and strengthening of outbreak preparedness. In this Health Policy, we use the International Development Statistics databases to quantify donor support for such functions. We classify donor funding for health into aid for global functions (provision of global public goods, management of cross-border externalities, and fostering of leadership and stewardship) versus country-specific aid. We use a new measure of donor funding that combines official development assistance (ODA) for health with additional donor spending on research and development (R&D) for diseases of poverty. Much R&D spending falls outside ODA--ie, the assistance that is conventionally reported through ODA databases of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. This expanded definition, which we term health ODA plus, provides a more comprehensive picture of donor support for health that could reshape how policy makers will approach their support for global health. PMID:26178405

  16. Bridging the Gap between NASA Earth Observations and Decision Makers through the NASA DEVELOP National Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favors, J. E.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Ruiz, M. L.; Miller, T. N.; Crepps, G.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society by building capacity in both participants and partner organizations who collaborate to conduct projects. These rapid feasibility projects highlight the capabilities of satellite and aerial Earth observations to enhance decision making on a local level. DEVELOP partners with a wide variety of organizations, including state and local governments, federal agencies, regional entities, tribal governments, international organizations and governments, NGOs and private companies. Immersion of decision and policy makers in these feasibility projects increases awareness of the capabilities of Earth observations, and contributes to the tools and resources available to support enhanced decision making. This presentation will highlight best practices, feedback from project end-users, and case studies of successful adoption of methods in the decision making process.

  17. Bridging the Gap Between NASA Earth Observations and Decision Makers Through the NASA Develop National Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillard, C. M.; Madden, M.; Favors, J.; Childs-Gleason, L.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Ruiz, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society by building capacity in both participants and partner organizations that collaborate to conduct projects. These rapid feasibility projects highlight the capabilities of satellite and aerial Earth observations. Immersion of decision and policy makers in these feasibility projects increases awareness of the capabilities of Earth observations and contributes to the tools and resources available to support enhanced decision making. This paper will present the DEVELOP model, best practices, and two case studies, the Colombia Ecological Forecasting project and the Miami-Dade County Ecological Forecasting project, that showcase the successful adoption of tools and methods for decision making. Through over 90 projects each year, DEVELOP is always striving for the innovative, practical, and beneficial use of NASA Earth science data.

  18. New Hampshire Sugar Makers Participate in Climate Change Study of Acer Saccharum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, B. N.; Carlson, M.

    2012-12-01

    A dozen maple sugar producers in New Hampshire have participated for the past three years in a study of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its response to climate-related and other stress agents. A dominant tree in the northeastern temperate forest, the sugar maple is projected to lose 52% of its range in the United States due to climate change stresses in this century. The species is already severely stressed by acid deposition as well as a wide array of environmental predators and pathogens. Engaging the public in studies of climate change is of pressing importance. Climate change is ubiquitous and is expressed in a wide variety of phenomena—changing patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation, more severe storms, changing atmospheric chemistry, phenologic chemistry change, ecotone shifts and new invasive competitors and predators. Scientists need citizen partners who are trained observers and who are familiar with protocols for monitoring, reporting and questioning what they observe. There is also a growing need for a public that is informed about climate change and variability so citizens can understand and support policy changes as needed to address climate change. In New Hampshire, sugar makers have collected maple sap samples at four times early in the sap season each year since 2010. The samples are collected and stored according to strict chemical protocols. The sugar makers have provided UNH and U.S. Forest Service chemists with significant numbers of sap samples for analysis of their phenolic chemistry. Correlating the sap chemistry with high spectral resolution reflectance measures of maple foliage, we are exploring whether changes in sap phenolics may signal distress or of long-term health of the trees. In addition, the sugar makers have provided access to their sugar orchards for monthly sampling of leaves and buds, beginning in May and continuing through the Fall. The three years of data are building long-term evidence of changes in maple

  19. Population policy.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  20. Replicating PEPFAR's success: how interventions shown to be effective abroad can be applied to the AIDS epidemic in the US.

    PubMed

    Fu, Joe; Gavaghan, Ann; Millett, Gregorio; Walsh, Tom

    2012-07-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), which began in 2003, initially responded to the global AIDS epidemic by applying lessons learned in treating the disease in the United States to addressing the emergency abroad. As the program expanded, it evolved to support interventions increasingly tailored to local needs in countries receiving PEPFAR assistance. This global experience has created a knowledge base of how to provide HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment services in low-resource settings. It underscored the importance of treatment adherence, family-centered care, and integration of HIV into broader health care delivery systems. Applying these lessons can help US policy makers address existing gaps in HIV care in the United States, where the availability of HIV treatment has at times masked the continued need for testing, early diagnosis, targeted prevention for key populations, and a solid array of social services for people living with HIV/AIDS and their families. This article identifies PEPFAR practices that merit further exploration for adoption in the United States, including strategies to increase adherence to drug treatment regimens and to ensure that HIV services are broadly integrated with other aspects of health care. PMID:22778349

  1. Involving decision-makers in the research process: Challenges of implementing the accountability for reasonableness approach to priority setting at the district level in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Maluka, Stephen; Kamuzora, Peter; Ndawi, Benedict; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2014-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a growing call for researchers, policy-makers and health care providers to collaborate in efforts to bridge the gaps between research, policy and practice. However, there has been a little attention focused on documenting the challenges of dealing with decision-makers in the course of implementing a research project. This paper highlights a collaborative research project aiming to implement the accountability for reasonableness (AFR) approach to priority setting in accordance with the Response to Accountable Priority Setting for Trust in Health Systems (REACT) project in Tanzania. Specifically, the paper examines the challenges of dealing with decision-makers during the project-implementation process and shows how the researchers dealt with the decision-makers to facilitate the implementation of the REACT project. Key informant interviews were conducted with the Council Health Management Team (CHMT), local government officials and other stakeholders, using a semi-structured interview guide. Minutes of the Action Research Team and CHMT were analysed. Additionally, project-implementation reports were analysed and group priority-setting processes in the district were observed. The findings show that the characteristics of the REACT research project, the novelty of some aspects of the AFR approach, such as publicity and appeals, the Action Research methodology used to implement the project and the traditional cultural contexts within which the project was implemented, created challenges for both researchers and decision-makers, which consequently slowed down the implementation of the REACT project. While collaboration between researchers and decision-makers is important in bridging gaps between research and practice, it is imperative to understand the challenges of dealing with decision-makers in the course of implementing a collaborative research project. Such analyses are crucial in designing proper strategies for improved communication

  2. Informing Education Policy in Afghanistan: Using Design of Experiments and Data Envelopment Analysis to Provide Transparency in Complex Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Education planning provides the policy maker and the decision maker a logical framework in which to develop and implement education policy. At the international level, education planning is often confounded by both internal and external complexities, making the development of education policy difficult. This research presents a discrete event…

  3. [Beyond dissemination: lessons from the interaction between researchers and decision-makers during a research project in Bogotá, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bello, Amparo; Vega-Romero, Román

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the experiences and conceptual and theoretical lessons learned during interaction between researchers, policy-makers, program beneficiaries, and other actors in a research project on social protection, health, and forced displacement in Bogotá, Colombia. The article begins by presenting the methodological approach and a description of interaction between various actors. This experience provides the basis for a conceptual discussion on the factors and determinants of research use. The article also highlights the need for taking an epistemological view beyond the positivist and rationalist underpinnings of the dominant explanations concerning interaction between researchers and decision-makers. PMID:17086341

  4. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  5. Financial Aid and Enrollment: Questions for Boards to Consider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    This white paper encourages board members to take a step back and think about long-term strategies for ensuring that financial aid policies are consistent with institutional mission at the same time that they serve fiscal and enrollment goals. While board members can determine financial aid and enrollment policies only at the broadest level, it is…

  6. Expanding Equal Opportunity: The Princeton Experience with Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilghman, Shirley M.

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, Shirley M. Tilghman discusses the purpose, design, and impact of Princeton University's no-loan financial aid policy, which was enacted in 2001. As the centerpiece of an aid and recruitment strategy that seeks to improve college access despite growing socioeconomic stratification, the policy obliges Princeton to meet all student…

  7. Digital stereoscopic photography using StereoData Maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toeppen, John; Sykes, David

    2009-02-01

    Stereoscopic digital photography has become much more practical with the use of USB wired connections between a pair of Canon cameras using StereoData Maker software for precise synchronization. StereoPhoto Maker software is now used to automatically combine and align right and left image files to produce a stereo pair. Side by side images are saved as pairs and may be viewed using software that converts the images into the preferred viewing format at the time of display. Stereo images may be shared on the internet, displayed on computer monitors, autostereo displays, viewed on high definition 3D TVs, or projected for a group. Stereo photographers are now free to control composition using point and shoot settings, or are able to control shutter speed, aperture, focus, ISO, and zoom. The quality of the output depends on the developed skills of the photographer as well as their understanding of the software, human vision and the geometry they choose for their cameras and subjects. Observers of digital stereo images can zoom in for greater detail and scroll across large panoramic fields with a few keystrokes. The art, science, and methods of taking, creating and viewing digital stereo photos are presented in a historic and developmental context in this paper.

  8. Training conservation practitioners to be better decision makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Williams, James H.; Jensen, Gitte H.; Madsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Traditional conservation curricula and training typically emphasizes only one part of systematic decision making (i.e., the science), at the expense of preparing conservation practitioners with critical skills in values-setting, working with decision makers and stakeholders, and effective problem framing. In this article we describe how the application of decision science is relevant to conservation problems and suggest how current and future conservation practitioners can be trained to be better decision makers. Though decision-analytic approaches vary considerably, they all involve: (1) properly formulating the decision problem; (2) specifying feasible alternative actions; and (3) selecting criteria for evaluating potential outcomes. Two approaches are available for providing training in decision science, with each serving different needs. Formal education is useful for providing simple, well-defined problems that allow demonstrations of the structure, axioms and general characteristics of a decision-analytic approach. In contrast, practical training can offer complex, realistic decision problems requiring more careful structuring and analysis than those used for formal training purposes. Ultimately, the kinds and degree of training necessary depend on the role conservation practitioners play in a decision-making process. Those attempting to facilitate decision-making processes will need advanced training in both technical aspects of decision science and in facilitation techniques, as well as opportunities to apprentice under decision analysts/consultants. Our primary goal should be an attempt to ingrain a discipline for applying clarity of thought to all decisions.

  9. Origins and Outcomes: An Essay on the History of Student Aid in California. The Eureka Project: A Review of Student Financial Aid in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eureka Project, Sacramento, CA.

    The history of student aid policies in California is reviewed by the Eureka Project to help guide policy formation and review developments that have accounted for past consensus about the state's role in providing student aid. Attention is directed to: the demographic facts that have made student aid important to California; the evolution of…

  10. The Impact of Institutional Grant Aid on College Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I exploit exogenous differences in institutional policies regarding the treatment of home equity in grant aid allocation to estimate a causal impact of institutional grant aid on college choice. Because institutional grant aid is typically not awarded randomly, the college-estimated home equity value serves as an instrumental…

  11. Using a Latino Lens to Reimagine Aid Design and Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Federal financial aid is critical to student access and success in postsecondary education for many students, including most Latinos. However, three current realities are challenging the effectiveness of federal financial aid policy today: (1) the inability of federal aid to keep pace with the increase in college costs for students; (2) the…

  12. Attitude toward Homosexuality and Attention to News about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennamer, J. David; Honnold, Julie A.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that lower attention to news about AIDS was predicted by negative attitudes toward homosexuality, conservative AIDS policy attitudes, lower perceived risk of getting AIDS, in addition to being male, older, white, and better educated. Finds that the model predicted media attention better for men than for women. (SR)

  13. AIDS: what should we do?

    PubMed

    Sorensen, A

    1990-08-01

    There is no 1 AIDS epidemic in the US. The 1st epidemic includes gay and bisexual men. The 2nd consists of intravenous (IV) drug users and their infants, pimps, lovers, and customers. The 3rd and most recent epidemic affects individuals who are exclusively heterosexual who have never had a blood transfusion, never used IV drugs, and have not had sex with those who did any of these things. The former director of the Center for AIDS Research in Baltimore, MD put out 8 proposals that, if implemented, would reduce the transmission of HIV and provide adequate medical care for AIDS patients. Health and educational professionals must develop improved AIDS education programs directed to those at risk. Since many of them are functionally illiterate, television should carry AIDS education messages. In addition, all AIDS prevention and educational programs need to be evaluated strongly so the country can focus on those activities which are most effective. Those who determine public policy should heed the advice of those who truly understand AIDS. Government, drug companies, and university scientists should all increase research to develop antiretroviral drugs that are not dependent on refrigeration, can be transported rapidly, and are inexpensive. Scientists also need to continue working on a vaccine and determine if an HIV vaccine can indeed immunize entire populations. Moreover affordable health care must be available to all AIDS patients. The present haphazard structure of AIDS treatment services must be recognized and integrated into a system that provides patients with coordinated medical and social services. Likewise, all research, treatment and education programs at federal, state, and local levels must be coordinated so that various players do not bicker over priorities. PMID:12283707

  14. Fighting AIDS the Cuban way.

    PubMed

    Hughes, N S

    1995-01-01

    Cuba is using elements of classical public health practice in its national AIDS control program. Its AIDS policy appears to be successful. Cuba has 927 HIV-positive cases and 187 AIDS cases (111 deaths) in a population of more than 10 million. Its neighbors have cumulative AIDS prevalence rates at least on par with those of the US. Puerto Rico (around 3 million population) has more than 8000 AIDS cases. Cuba's health system provides for a family physician for every 12 apartment blocks. This physician lives in the community and makes home visits. Medical testing and screenings, including HIV screening, are routine in Cuba. Cuba has the most comprehensive HIV testing program in the world. This program detects fewer than 125 new HIV-positive cases annually. Cuba's successful health system existed before the advent of AIDS. More than 60% of HIV-positive persons are heterosexuals. Many were infected while serving abroad (internationalists) or as sexual partners of internationalists. Cuba considered AIDS as just another health threat and handled it accordingly. It did not worry about offending high risk populations. HIV-infected persons living in the HIV/AIDS sanatoria receive full salaries regardless of their work status and are expected to follow rules that serve to benefit themselves as well as Cuban society. They must accept the three safe sex commandments of the sanatoria before being allowed to leave after completion of a 6-month probationary period. Some patients are allowed to return home after the probationary period. Residents who practice unsafe sex lose their right to leave unchaperoned. All residents receive an individually tailored regimen, which regimen includes exercise, interferon or AZT, and a high calorie and protein diet (5000 kc/day). The Cuban AIDS program focuses on protecting gays, women, and children. PMID:12319588

  15. 75 FR 82127 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Gauguin: Maker of Myth”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Gauguin: Maker of Myth'' SUMMARY..., I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Gauguin: Maker of...

  16. 7 CFR 1940.303 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true General policy. 1940.303 Section 1940.303 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.303 General policy. (a) FmHA or its successor... decision-makers with both the technical and human aspects of environmental planning. (c) When...

  17. 7 CFR 1940.303 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true General policy. 1940.303 Section 1940.303 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.303 General policy. (a) FmHA or its successor... decision-makers with both the technical and human aspects of environmental planning. (c) When...

  18. 7 CFR 1940.303 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true General policy. 1940.303 Section 1940.303 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.303 General policy. (a) FmHA or its successor... decision-makers with both the technical and human aspects of environmental planning. (c) When...

  19. 7 CFR 1940.303 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General policy. 1940.303 Section 1940.303 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.303 General policy. (a) FmHA or its successor... decision-makers with both the technical and human aspects of environmental planning. (c) When...

  20. 7 CFR 1940.303 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General policy. 1940.303 Section 1940.303 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.303 General policy. (a) FmHA or its successor... decision-makers with both the technical and human aspects of environmental planning. (c) When...

  1. 39 CFR 775.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act, as amended, and the NEPA Regulations. (b) Make the NEPA process useful to Postal Service decision makers and the public. (c) Emphasize environmental issues and alternatives in the... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES §...

  2. 39 CFR 775.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act, as amended, and the NEPA Regulations. (b) Make the NEPA process useful to Postal Service decision makers and the public. (c) Emphasize environmental issues and alternatives in the... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES §...

  3. 39 CFR 775.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act, as amended, and the NEPA Regulations. (b) Make the NEPA process useful to Postal Service decision makers and the public. (c) Emphasize environmental issues and alternatives in the... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES §...

  4. 39 CFR 775.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act, as amended, and the NEPA Regulations. (b) Make the NEPA process useful to Postal Service decision makers and the public. (c) Emphasize environmental issues and alternatives in the... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES §...

  5. 39 CFR 775.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act, as amended, and the NEPA Regulations. (b) Make the NEPA process useful to Postal Service decision makers and the public. (c) Emphasize environmental issues and alternatives in the... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES §...

  6. Marijuana: A Study of State Policies & Penalties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Columbia, MD.

    This study is a comprehensive analysis of issues concerning marijuana that are of importance to state policy makers. It reviews the medical, legal, and historical dimensions of marijuana use and examines the range of policy approaches toward marijuana possession and use which state officials have considered. Attention is directed to the experience…

  7. Conceptualizing Education Policy in Democratic Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Laura B.

    2009-01-01

    Although theorists and policy makers agree that schooling should be democratic, what this exactly means often varies. This article establishes a conceptual model for analyzing education policy in democratic societies, based on the key concepts of equality, diversity, participation, choice, and cohesion. The model facilitates the design,…

  8. District Policy and Teachers' Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Russell, Jennifer Lin

    2008-01-01

    Policy makers increasingly include provisions aimed at fostering professional community as part of reform initiatives. Yet little is known about the impact of policy on teachers' professional relations in schools. Drawing theoretically from social capital theory and methodologically from qualitative social network analysis, this article explores…

  9. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system: lessons for clinicians and policy makers.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L; Parkhouse, R M E; Short, Brooke; Dua, Tarun

    2016-04-01

    Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited settings. The burden of these diseases is amplified as survivors are often left with neurologic sequelae affecting mobility, sensory organs, and cognitive functions, as well as seizures/epilepsy. These diseases inflict suffering by causing lifelong disabilities, reducing economic productivity, and causing social stigma. The complexity of parasitic life cycles and geographic specificities, as well as overlapping clinical manifestations in the host reflecting the diverse pathogenesis of parasites, can present diagnostic challenges. We herein provide an overview of these parasitic diseases and summarize clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and recent milestones, and aspects related to prevention and control. PMID:26894629

  10. Geospatial Issues in Energy-Climate Modeling: Implications for Modelers, Economists, Climate Scientists and Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, R. L.; Arent, D.; Sullivan, P.; Short, W.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate characterizations of renewable energy technologies, particularly wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass, require an increasingly sophisticated understanding of location-specific attributes, including generation or production costs and the cost of transmission or transportation to a point of use, and climate induced changes to the resource base. Capturing these site-specific characteristics in national and global models presents both unique opportunities and challenges. National and global decisions, ideally, should be informed by geospatially rich data and analysis. Here we describe issues related to and initial advances in representing renewable energy technologies in global models, and the resulting implications for climate stabilization analysis and global assessments, including IPCC’s Assessment Round 5 and IEA’s World Energy Outlook.

  11. Adoption by Policy Makers of Knowledge from Educational Research: An Alternative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The phrase knowledge adoption refers to the ways in which policymakers take up and use evidence. Whilst frameworks and models have been put forward to explain knowledge adoption activity, this paper argues that current approaches are flawed and do not address the complexities affecting the successful realisation of knowledge-adoption efforts.…

  12. "Seeing" the School Reform Elephant: Connecting Policy Makers, Parents, Practioners, and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Tony; Sconyers, Nancy

    This report is part of a multi-year project conducted by the Institute for Responsive Education (IRE) and Boston University components of the Center on Families, Communities, Schools and Children's Learning. The report draws on results of a series of focus groups and interviews conducted in 1994 and 1995 to explore how policymakers and parents,…

  13. Title IX Athletics Policies: Issues and Data for Education Decision Makers. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education.

    In 2002, the U.S. Department of Education established the Commission on Opportunity in Athletics to collect information, analyze issues, and obtain public input related to improving the application of current standards for measuring equal opportunity for boys and girls to participate in athletics under Title IX. The National Coalition of Woman and…

  14. New Zealand's Standard-Based Assessment for Secondary Schools (NCEA): Implications for Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Tumen, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the different features of New Zealand's National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) that can affect student outcomes. Despite the huge public debate surrounding its implementation, very little research has been carried out on the features and effectiveness of the NCEA. By analysing the…

  15. Hardware Systems in Distance Education: What the Policy Makers and Managers Must Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the distinctions made between hardware and technology as applied to distance education. Highlights include hardware and technology in the planning process, media-delivery systems in higher education, communication in teaching and learning, and new definitions of educational technology. (LRW)

  16. Human genetics for non-scientists: Practical workshops for policy makers and opinion leaders

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    These workshops form part of a series of workshops that the Banbury and the DNA Learning Centers of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory have held for a number of years, introducing genetics, and the ways in which scientific research is done, to non-scientists. The purpose of the workshops as stated in the grant application was: {open_quotes}Our objective is to foster a better understanding of the societal impact of human genome research by providing basic information on genetics to non-scientists whose professions or special interests interface with genetic technology.... Participants will be chosen for their interest in human genetics and for their roles as opinion leaders in their own communities. Primary care physicians are of particular interest to us for this series of workshops.{close_quotes} Two workshops were held under this grant. The first was held in 21-24 April, 1994 and attended by 20 participants, and the second was held 16-19 November, 1995, and attended by 16 participants. In each case, there was a combination of concept lectures on the foundations of human molecular genetics; lectures by invited specialists; and laboratory experiments to introduce non-scientists to the techniques used in molecular genetics.

  17. A Call for: Educational Leadership and Action. Essential Information on North Dakota Education for Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Staff members of the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction have partnered with members of the P-16 Education Task Force, and support the various principles developed by task force members. The task force was initiated by the joint boards on public education in September of 2005 whose vision is "All North Dakota students will be educated in…

  18. Empirical Studies on Software Notices to Inform Policy Makers and Usability Designers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossklags, Jens; Good, Nathan

    We evaluate the usability of End User License Agreements (EULAs) of popular consumer programs. Results from an empirical evaluation of 50 popular programs show the lack of accessibility and readability of notices. Our data from a recent study with 64 users involved in installation tasks confirms the public perception that notice to and consent by the user is not achieved.

  19. How Teaching Influences Learning: Implications for Educational Researchers, Teachers, Teacher Educators and Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alton-Lee, Adrienne

    2006-01-01

    This article is a tribute to Graham Nuthall's contribution to classroom research from his early experimental studies through to his recent work on theory integration. It also explains the potential of the methodology, findings and theory building in our collaborative work to make a substantial positive difference for diverse students. The article…

  20. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system: lessons for clinicians and policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L.; Parkhouse, R. M. E.; Short, Brooke; Dua, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited settings. The burden of these diseases is amplified as survivors are often left with neurologic sequelae affecting mobility, sensory organs, and cognitive functions, as well as seizures/epilepsy. These diseases inflict suffering by causing lifelong disabilities, reducing economic productivity, and causing social stigma. The complexity of parasitic life cycles and geographic specificities, as well as overlapping clinical manifestations in the host reflecting the diverse pathogenesis of parasites, can present diagnostic challenges. We herein provide an overview of these parasitic diseases and summarize clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and recent milestones, and aspects related to prevention and control. PMID:26894629