Science.gov

Sample records for aid policy makers

  1. Briefly Speaking: An Introduction to Student Financial Aid in California for Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eureka Project, Sacramento, CA.

    Designed to help educational policy makers understand student financial aid in California, this booklet covers the importance of aid, how it has changed, current programs, need analysis, packaging, public and student views, graduate aid, and politics and problems of aid. As student financial aid became a larger and more complex educational…

  2. Psychologist as Policy-Maker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saks, Michael J.

    Perhaps the most effective way to increase the utilization of behavioral science knowledge by policy-makers is for the behavioral scientist to become one. The psychologist who serves as a policy-maker becomes aware of the policy issues in addition to relevant empirical evidence. The author, a psychologist, relates his experience as a member of a…

  3. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Young Adults. and Update on AIDS for Teachers and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.; Newschwander, Gregg E.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles on the topics of (1) sexually transmitted diseases and (2) acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Yarber discusses how these topics should be taught to young people, with emphasis on health education as opposed to morality. Newschwander states the facts related to AIDS, including risks of enrolling infected students.…

  4. Advancing Policy Makers' Expertise in Evidence-Use: A New Approach to Enhancing the Role Research Can Have in Aiding Educational Policy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of evidence-informed policy making and the factors that have hindered its development in the UK to date. It then explores Flyvbjerg's notion of "phronetic" expertise and hypothesises that the learning that accrues from engaging with multiple cases could also lead to policy-makers developing competency…

  5. To notify or not to notify: decision aid for policy makers on whether to make an infectious disease mandatorily notifiable.

    PubMed

    Bijkerk, Paul; Fanoy, Ewout B; Kardamanidis, Katina; van der Plas, Simone M; Te Wierik, Margreet J; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E; Haringhuizen, George B; van Vliet, Hans J; van der Sande, Marianne A

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory notification can be a useful tool to support infectious disease prevention and control. Guidelines are needed to help policymakers decide whether mandatory notification of an infectious disease is appropriate. We developed a decision aid, based on a range of criteria previously used in the Netherlands or in other regions to help decide whether to make a disease notifiable. Criteria were categorised as being effective, feasible and necessary with regard to the relevance of mandatory notification. Expert panels piloted the decision aid. Here we illustrate its use for three diseases (Vibrio vulnificus infection, chronic Q fever and dengue fever) for which mandatory notification was requested. For dengue fever, the expert panel advised mandatory notification; for V. vulnificus infection and chronic Q fever, the expert panel concluded that mandatory notification was not (yet) justified. Use of the decision aid led to a structured, transparent decision making process and a thorough assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of mandatory notification of these diseases. It also helped identify knowledge gaps that required further research before a decision could be made. We therefore recommend use of this aid for public health policy making.

  6. Can scientists and policy makers work together?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, B.; Pang, T.; Lin, V.; Puska, P.; Sherman, G.; Goddard, M.; Ackland, M.; Sainsbury, P.; Stachenko, S.; Morrison, H.; Clottey, C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses a fundamental question in evidence based policy making—can scientists and policy makers work together? It first provides a scenario outlining the different mentalities and imperatives of scientists and policy makers, and then discusses various issues and solutions relating to whether and how scientists and policy makers can work together. Scientists and policy makers have different goals, attitudes toward information, languages, perception of time, and career paths. Important issues affecting their working together include lack of mutual trust and respect, different views on the production and use of evidence, different accountabilities, and whether there should be a link between science and policy. The suggested solutions include providing new incentives to encourage scientists and policy makers to work together, using knowledge brokers (translational scientists), making organisational changes, defining research in a broader sense, re-defining the starting point for knowledge transfer, expanding the accountability horizon, and finally, acknowledging the complexity of policy making. It is hoped that further discussion and debate on the partnership idea, the need for incentives, recognising the incompatibility problems, the role of civil society, and other related themes will lead to new opportunities for further advancing evidence based policy and practice. PMID:16020638

  7. Can scientists and policy makers work together?

    PubMed

    Choi, Bernard C K; Pang, Tikki; Lin, Vivian; Puska, Pekka; Sherman, Gregory; Goddard, Michael; Ackland, Michael J; Sainsbury, Peter; Stachenko, Sylvie; Morrison, Howard; Clottey, Clarence

    2005-08-01

    This paper addresses a fundamental question in evidence based policy making--can scientists and policy makers work together? It first provides a scenario outlining the different mentalities and imperatives of scientists and policy makers, and then discusses various issues and solutions relating to whether and how scientists and policy makers can work together. Scientists and policy makers have different goals, attitudes toward information, languages, perception of time, and career paths. Important issues affecting their working together include lack of mutual trust and respect, different views on the production and use of evidence, different accountabilities, and whether there should be a link between science and policy. The suggested solutions include providing new incentives to encourage scientists and policy makers to work together, using knowledge brokers (translational scientists), making organisational changes, defining research in a broader sense, re-defining the starting point for knowledge transfer, expanding the accountability horizon, and finally, acknowledging the complexity of policy making. It is hoped that further discussion and debate on the partnership idea, the need for incentives, recognising the incompatibility problems, the role of civil society, and other related themes will lead to new opportunities for further advancing evidence based policy and practice. PMID:16020638

  8. Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV and AIDS in low- and middle-income countries: policy makers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Olinyk, Shannon; Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate the impact and transform gender relations. However, the effects of these policies have been less than successful. In March 2010 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the Agenda for accelerated country level action on women, girls, gender equality and HIV (the Agenda), an operational plan on how to integrate women, girls and gender equality into the HIV response. This paper explores the perspectives of those involved in developing and implementing the Agenda to understand its strengths and limitations. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 16 individuals involved in the development and implementation of the Agenda. The data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Facilitators of the Agenda centred on the Agenda's ability to create political space for women and girls within the global HIV/AIDS response and the collaborative process of developing the Agenda. Barriers to the implementation and development of the Agenda include the limited financial and non-financial resources, the top-down nature of the Agenda's development and implementation and a lack of political will from within UNAIDS to implement it. We suggest that the Agenda achieved many goals, but its effect was constrained by a wide range of factors.

  9. Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV and AIDS in low- and middle-income countries: policy makers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Olinyk, Shannon; Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate the impact and transform gender relations. However, the effects of these policies have been less than successful. In March 2010 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the Agenda for accelerated country level action on women, girls, gender equality and HIV (the Agenda), an operational plan on how to integrate women, girls and gender equality into the HIV response. This paper explores the perspectives of those involved in developing and implementing the Agenda to understand its strengths and limitations. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 16 individuals involved in the development and implementation of the Agenda. The data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Facilitators of the Agenda centred on the Agenda's ability to create political space for women and girls within the global HIV/AIDS response and the collaborative process of developing the Agenda. Barriers to the implementation and development of the Agenda include the limited financial and non-financial resources, the top-down nature of the Agenda's development and implementation and a lack of political will from within UNAIDS to implement it. We suggest that the Agenda achieved many goals, but its effect was constrained by a wide range of factors. PMID:25388974

  10. Health Needs of People Living with HIV/AIDS: From the Perspective of Policy Makers, Physicians and Consultants, and People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    MORADI, Ghobad; MOHRAZ, Minoo; GOUYA, Mohammad Mehdi; DEJMAN, Masoumeh; SEYEDALINAGHI, SeyedAhmad; KHOSHRAVESH, Sahar; MALEKAFZALI ARDAKANI, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV/AIDS has been concentrated among injecting drug users in the country. This study aimed to investigate and identify health and treatment needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2012 in Iran. The study groups consisted of experts, practitioners, and consultants working with People Living with HIV/AIDS and their families. Data was collected through Focus Group Discussions and deep interviews. Data were analyzed using content analysis method. Results The findings of this study included the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS, which were classified in three main categories. The first category was prevention and counseling services with several sub-groups such as education and public and available consultation, distribution of condoms to vulnerable groups, increasing counseling centers in urban areas, providing appropriate psychological and supportive counseling, and family planning services. The second category included diagnostic and treatment services and had several sub-groups such as full retroviral treatment, Tuberculosis treatment and continuing care, providing care and treatment for patients with hepatitis, and providing dental services. The third category included rehabilitation services and had some sub-categories such as home care, social and psychological support, nutritional support, and empowering positive clubs. Conclusions This study puts emphasis on making plans based on the priorities to meet the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran. PMID:26060705

  11. Making predictive ecology more relevant to policy makers and practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, William J.; Freckleton, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the aims of ecology is to aid policy makers and practitioners through the development of testable predictions of relevance to society. Here, we argue that this capacity can be improved in three ways. Firstly, by thinking more clearly about the priority issues using a range of methods including horizon scanning, identifying policy gaps, identifying priority questions and using evidence-based conservation to identify knowledge gaps. Secondly, by linking ecological models with models of other systems, such as economic and social models. Thirdly, by considering alternative approaches to generate and model data that use, for example, discrete or categorical states to model ecological systems. We particularly highlight that models are essential for making predictions. However, a key to the limitation in their use is the degree to which ecologists are able to communicate results to policy makers in a clear, useful and timely fashion. PMID:22144394

  12. Automation: Decision Aid or Decision Maker?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skitka, Linda J.

    1998-01-01

    This study clarified that automation bias is something unique to automated decision making contexts, and is not the result of a general tendency toward complacency. By comparing performance on exactly the same events on the same tasks with and without an automated decision aid, we were able to determine that at least the omission error part of automation bias is due to the unique context created by having an automated decision aid, and is not a phenomena that would occur even if people were not in an automated context. However, this study also revealed that having an automated decision aid did lead to modestly improved performance across all non-error events. Participants in the non- automated condition responded with 83.68% accuracy, whereas participants in the automated condition responded with 88.67% accuracy, across all events. Automated decision aids clearly led to better overall performance when they were accurate. People performed almost exactly at the level of reliability as the automation (which across events was 88% reliable). However, also clear, is that the presence of less than 100% accurate automated decision aids creates a context in which new kinds of errors in decision making can occur. Participants in the non-automated condition responded with 97% accuracy on the six "error" events, whereas participants in the automated condition had only a 65% accuracy rate when confronted with those same six events. In short, the presence of an AMA can lead to vigilance decrements that can lead to errors in decision making.

  13. Women as decision and policy makers. Asia.

    PubMed

    1995-09-01

    The focus of this news brief is on the Community-based Sustainable Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project promoted in Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal, and the Philippines. The project emphasizes women's involvement as policy makers and evaluators. The aim is to involve women at all project levels as part of an effort to correct gender imbalances. Programs are being directed toward sustainability. Women are placed in positions at each level of the tiered system of steering committees, which range from local village committees to central committees. Men may still retain the top positions, but women are given decision making power at the highest levels of policy and program development and implementation. The Asia region is challenged by quality of care issues related to reproductive health services. Program expansion is proceeding into rural areas with outreach services and fee charging. Projects are community-based, which means mobilization of community people. The community approach is suitable to an Asian culture that does not adhere to strict rules of privacy. Women's groups are eager to discuss sensitive issues such as contraception and to offer personal experiences and solutions to problems. Mass meetings and individual counseling sessions are available. IEC materials are available to the Asian FP/MCH program from JOICFP. Some of these materials promote the concept of the Asian community spirit as a building block of development. The Asian approach is an alternative to Western models and may be valid for other regions.

  14. Is Twitter a forum for disseminating research to health policy makers?

    PubMed

    Kapp, Julie M; Hensel, Brian; Schnoring, Kyle T

    2015-12-01

    Findings from scientific research largely remain inside the scientific community. Research scientists are being encouraged to use social media, and especially Twitter, for dissemination of evidence. The potential for Twitter to narrow the gap on evidence translated into policy presents new opportunities. We explored the innovative question of the feasibility of Twitter as a tool for the scientific community to disseminate to and engage with health policy makers for research impact. We created a list of federal "health policy makers." In December 2014, we identified members using several data sources, then collected and summarized their Twitter usage data. Nearly all health policy makers had Twitter accounts. Their communication volume varied broadly. Policy makers are more likely to push information via Twitter than engage with constituents, although usage varied broadly. Twitter has the potential to aid the scientific community in dissemination of health-related research to health policy makers, after understanding how to effectively (and selectively) use Twitter.

  15. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  16. School Boards as Policy-Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Peter

    Decision-making in general and policy decisions in particular are the prime responsibility of school boards because policies are control mechanisms by which trustees assert local control. Policy decisions differ from others in their concern with values and purposes and the legitimization of the organization to society at large. Additionally, they…

  17. Controversial Issues: Concerns for Policy Makers. ERIC Digest No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kay K.

    Intended for educational policy makers, this publication considers the teaching of controversial topics. Specifically discussed are what issues are considered controversial, why controversial topics should be taught, court decisions, ways educators can prepare for community response or complaints, and questions to address when making curriculum…

  18. Administrators' and Policy Makers' Views of Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Larry E., Ed.; Decker, Virginia A., Ed.

    This compilation of articles presents the views of policy makers and administrators about community education. Following the introduction by Larry Decker titled "Community Education: The Basic Tenets," the articles are contained in three sections. Section 1 (The Potential of Community Education) contains articles titled as follows: "Tomorrow's…

  19. Providing Climate Policy Makers With a Strong Scientific Base (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, E.

    2009-12-01

    Scientists can and should inform public policy decisions in the Arctic. But the pace of climate change in the polar world has been occurring far more quickly than most scientists have been able to predict. This creates problems for decision-makers who recognize that difficult management decisions have to be made in matters pertaining to wildlife management, cultural integrity and economic development. With sea ice melting, glaciers receding, permafrost thawing, forest fires intensifying, and disease and invasive species rapidly moving north, the challenge for scientists to provide climate policy makers with a strong scientific base has been daunting. Clashing as this data sometimes does with the “traditional knowledge” of indigenous peoples in the north, it can also become very political. As a result the need to effectively communicate complex data is more imperative now than ever before. Here, the author describes how the work of scientists can often be misinterpreted or exploited in ways that were not intended. Examples include the inappropriate use of scientific data in decision-making on polar bears, caribou and other wildlife populations; the use of scientific data to debunk the fact that greenhouse gases are driving climate change, and the use of scientific data to position one scientist against another when there is no inherent conflict. This work will highlight the need for climate policy makers to increase support for scientists working in the Arctic, as well as illustrate why it is important to find new and more effective ways of communicating scientific data. Strategies that might be considered by granting agencies, scientists and climate policy decision-makers will also be discussed.

  20. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the

  1. Turkey's Educational Policies in Central Asia and Caucasia: Perceptions of Policy Makers and Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcali, Pinar; Engin-Demir, Cennet

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the educational policies of Turkey in Central Asia and Caucasia in the post-Soviet era in terms of their successes and failures as perceived by some of the relevant professional policy makers in this field as well as experts from various think-tank institutions in Turkey who are interested in the region.…

  2. Policy Makers and Researchers Schooling Each Other: Lessons in Educational Policy from New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Deborah H.; Wyckoff, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Policy makers and researchers are intrigued with but also frequently frustrated by each other. Although these differences are understandable and predictable, it is clear that research on a variety of educational issues has been both influential and valuable in the development of policy and practice. There is much to suggest that researchers and…

  3. Informing in the Information Age: How to Communicate Measurement Concepts to Education Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Forte, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Current educational policies rely on educational assessments. However, the technical aspects of assessments are often unknown to policy makers, which is dangerous because sound assessment policy requires knowledge of the strengths and limitations of educational tests. In this article, we discuss the importance of informing policy makers of…

  4. Dosing schedules for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: considerations for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Cynthia G; Goldblatt, David; O'Brien, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Since second generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting 10 and 13 serotypes became available in 2010, the number of national policy makers considering these vaccines has steadily increased. An important consideration for a national immunization program is the timing and number of doses-the schedule-that will best prevent disease in the population. Data on disease epidemiology and the efficacy or effectiveness of PCV schedules are typically considered when choosing a schedule. Practical concerns, such as the existing vaccine schedule, and vaccine program performance are also important. In low-income countries, pneumococcal disease and deaths typically peak well before the end of the first year of life, making a schedule that provides PCV doses early in life (eg, a 6-, 10- and 14-week schedule) potentially the best option. In other settings, a schedule including a booster dose may address disease that peaks in the second year of life or may be seen to enhance a schedule already in place. A large and growing body of evidence from immunogenicity studies, as well as clinical trials and observational studies of carriage, pneumonia and invasive disease, has been systematically reviewed; these data indicate that schedules of 3 or 4 doses all work well, and that the differences between these regimens are subtle, especially in a mature program in which coverage is high and indirect (herd) effects help enhance protection provided directly by a vaccine schedule. The recent World Health Organization policy statement on PCVs endorsed a schedule of 3 primary doses without a booster or, as a new alternative, 2 primary doses with a booster dose. While 1 schedule may be preferred in a particular setting based on local epidemiology or practical considerations, achieving high coverage with 3 doses is likely more important than the specific timing of doses.

  5. Social values and solar energy policy: the policy maker and the advocate

    SciTech Connect

    Shama, A.; Jacobs, K.

    1980-07-01

    Solar energy policy makers and advocates have significantly different hierarchies (clusters) of values upon which they evaluate the adoption of solar technologies. Content analysis, which examines the frequency with which policy makers identify different types of values, indicates that they hold economic values to be of primary importance. Environmental, social, and national security values are also substantial elements of the policy makers' value clusters associated with solar energy. This finding is confirmed by a qualitative analysis of policy makers' values. Advocates, on the other hand, assign almost equal weights (33%) to economic values and social values, slightly less weight to environmental values, and significant attention to ethical and security values as well. These results of frequency analysis are made somewhat more complicated by a qualitative interpretation of the advocates' positions. As part of their more holistic approach, several of the advocates indicated that all values discussed by them are instrumental toward achieving higher-order, ethical and environmental values. In addition, our preliminary investigation indicates that neither group is entirely homogeneous. Testing this and other propositions, as well as obtaining a similar picture of the values which the public associates with solar energy, are topics of future research.

  6. A Meeting Place for Policy-Makers and Researchers: The Transatlantic Forum on Inclusive Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Jan; Vandekerckhove, Ankie

    2015-01-01

    While policy-makers and researchers in the field of early childhood education and care (ECEC) often seem to speak different languages, overwhelming research evidence on how quality ECEC can play a key role in alleviating the effects of disadvantage can be extremely relevant for policy-makers. In this article, we focus on how philanthropic…

  7. Education Aid to Developing Countries: A General or Differentiated Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Andreas; Postlethwaite, T. Neville

    1989-01-01

    Grouping developing countries by financial and educational indicators for receiving educational aid is discussed. An example is given of the way in which existing information on such indicators can be used in secondary analysis to derive relationships that policy makers can use at the international level. (SLD)

  8. Financial aid policy: lessons from research.

    PubMed

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. Aid now flows not only to traditional college students but also to part-time students, older students, and students who never graduated from high school. Today aid is available not only to low-income students but also to middle- and even high-income families, in the form of grants, subsidized loans, and tax credits. The increasing size and complexity of the nation's student aid system has generated questions about effectiveness, heightened confusion among students and parents, and raised concerns about how program rules may interact. In this article, Susan Dynarski and Judith Scott-Clayton review what is known, and just as important, what is not known, about how well various student aid programs work. The evidence, the authors write, clearly shows that lowering costs can improve college access and completion. But this general rule is not without exception. First, they note, the complexity of program eligibility and delivery appears to moderate the impact of aid on college enrollment and persistence after enrollment. Second, for students who have already decided to enroll, grants that tie financial aid to academic achievement appear to boost college outcomes such as persistence more than do grants with no strings attached. Third, compared with grant aid, relatively little rigorous research has been conducted on the effectiveness of student loans. The paucity of evidence on student loans is particularly problematic both because they represent a large share of student aid overall and because their low cost (relative to grant aid) makes them an attractive option for policy makers. Future research is likely to focus on several issues: the importance of program design and delivery, whether there are unanticipated interactions between

  9. Financial aid policy: lessons from research.

    PubMed

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. Aid now flows not only to traditional college students but also to part-time students, older students, and students who never graduated from high school. Today aid is available not only to low-income students but also to middle- and even high-income families, in the form of grants, subsidized loans, and tax credits. The increasing size and complexity of the nation's student aid system has generated questions about effectiveness, heightened confusion among students and parents, and raised concerns about how program rules may interact. In this article, Susan Dynarski and Judith Scott-Clayton review what is known, and just as important, what is not known, about how well various student aid programs work. The evidence, the authors write, clearly shows that lowering costs can improve college access and completion. But this general rule is not without exception. First, they note, the complexity of program eligibility and delivery appears to moderate the impact of aid on college enrollment and persistence after enrollment. Second, for students who have already decided to enroll, grants that tie financial aid to academic achievement appear to boost college outcomes such as persistence more than do grants with no strings attached. Third, compared with grant aid, relatively little rigorous research has been conducted on the effectiveness of student loans. The paucity of evidence on student loans is particularly problematic both because they represent a large share of student aid overall and because their low cost (relative to grant aid) makes them an attractive option for policy makers. Future research is likely to focus on several issues: the importance of program design and delivery, whether there are unanticipated interactions between

  10. Teacher Education Research and Education Policy-Makers: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Simone

    2016-01-01

    As teacher educators, we want our research to be influential in contributing to educational policy and practice, but there remains little understanding about ways in which teacher educators might more productively engage with each other and policy-makers so as to maximise their research impact. Drawing on an empirical study and policy document…

  11. Nuclear energy: the accuracy of policy makers' perceptions of public beliefs

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.; Swaton, E.; Fishbein, M.; Otway, H.J.

    1980-09-01

    The policy makers' attitudes were found to be significantly more favorable than those of the total public sample. The policy makers were able to shift their own (personal) responses in the directions indicated by their role-play assignments to reproduce accurately the overall attitudes of the PRO and CON groups on this controversial topic, although there was a tendency to overestimate the positive attitudes of the PRO nuclear public.

  12. HIV/AIDS policy agenda setting in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khodayari - Zarnaq, Rahim; Ravaghi, Hamid; Mohammad Mosaddeghrad, Ali; Sedaghat, Abbas; Mohraz, Minoo

    2016-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS control are one of the most important goals of the health systems. The aim of this study was to determine how HIV/AIDS control was initiated among policy makers’ agenda setting in Iran. Methods: A qualitative research (semi-structured interview) was conducted using Kingdon’s framework (problem, policy and politics streams, and policy windows and policy entrepreneurs) to analysis HIV/AIDS agenda setting in Iran. Thirty-two policy makers, managers, specialists, and researchers were interviewed. Also, 30 policy documents were analyzed. Framework analysis method was used for data analysis. Results: the increase of HIV among Injecting drug users (IDUs) and Female Sex Workers (FSWs), lack of control of their high-risk behaviors, and exceeding the HIV into concentrated phase were examples of problem stream. Policy stream was evidence-based solutions that highlighted the need for changing strategies for dealing with such a problem and finding technically feasible and acceptable solutions. Iran’s participation in United Nations General Assembly special sessions on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS), the establishment of National AIDS Committee; highlighting AIDS control in Iran’s five years development program and the support of the judiciary system of harm reduction policies were examples of politics stream. Policy entrepreneurs linking these streams put the HIV/AIDS on the national agenda (policy windows) and provide their solutions. Conclusion: There were mutual interactions among these three streams and sometimes, they weakened or reinforced each other. Future studies are recommended to understand the interactions between these streams’ parts and perhaps develop further Kingdon’s framework, especially in the health sector. PMID:27579283

  13. Creating a High-Skills Society during Recession: Issues for Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panagiotakopoulos, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    The present study looks at the skill formation policies adopted by policy makers in Greece in order to create a high-skills society. It examines empirically the demand side of the skill creation process within 300 small enterprises in order to understand how far supply-side measures have influenced the demand for well-trained staff within small…

  14. AIDS, the Schools, and Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the discovery of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and describes the biology of the disease. The problem of AIDS among children is discussed and implications for school policy decisions are cited. (Author/MT)

  15. 120 years of nanosilver history: implications for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Bernd; Krug, Harald F; Height, Murray

    2011-02-15

    Nanosilver is one nanomaterial that is currently under a lot of scrutiny. Much of the discussion is based on the assumption that nanosilver is something new that has not been seen until recently and that the advances in nanotechnology opened completely new application areas for silver. However, we show in this analysis that nanosilver in the form of colloidal silver has been used for more than 100 years and has been registered as a biocidal material in the United States since 1954. Fifty-three percent of the EPA-registered biocidal silver products likely contain nanosilver. Most of these nanosilver applications are silver-impregnated water filters, algicides, and antimicrobial additives that do not claim to contain nanoparticles. Many human health standards for silver are based on an analysis of argyria occurrence (discoloration of the skin, a cosmetic condition) from the 1930s and include studies that considered nanosilver materials. The environmental standards on the other hand are based on ionic silver and may need to be re-evaluated based on recent findings that most silver in the environment, regardless of the original silver form, is present in the form of small clusters or nanoparticles. The implications of this analysis for policy of nanosilver is that it would be a mistake for regulators to ignore the accumulated knowledge of our scientific and regulatory heritage in a bid to declare nanosilver materials as new chemicals, with unknown properties and automatically harmful simply on the basis of a change in nomenclature to the term "nano".

  16. Canadian policy makers' views on pharmaceutical reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts from drug manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Thomson, Paige A; Daw, Jamie R; Friesen, Melissa K

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical policy makers are increasingly negotiating reimbursement contracts that include confidential price terms that may be affected by drug utilization volumes, patterns, or outcomes. Though such contracts may offer a variety of benefits, including the ability to tie payment to the actual performance of a product, they may also create potential policy challenges. Through telephone interviews about this type of contract, we studied the views of officials in nine of ten Canadian provinces. Use of reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts is new in Canada and ideas about power and equity emerged as cross-cutting themes in our interviews. Though confidential rebates can lower prices and thereby increase coverage of new medicines, several policy makers felt they had little power in the decision to negotiate rebates. Study participants explained that the recent rise in the use of rebates had been driven by manufacturers' pricing tactics and precedent set by other jurisdictions. Several policy makers expressed concerns that confidential rebates could result in inter-jurisdictional inequities in drug pricing and coverage. Policy makers also noted un-insured and under-insured patients must pay inflated "list prices" even if rebates are negotiated by drug plans. The establishment of policies for disciplined negotiations, inter-jurisdictional cooperation, and provision of drug coverage for all citizens are potential solutions to the challenges created by this new pharmaceutical pricing paradigm.

  17. Canadian policy makers' views on pharmaceutical reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts from drug manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Thomson, Paige A; Daw, Jamie R; Friesen, Melissa K

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical policy makers are increasingly negotiating reimbursement contracts that include confidential price terms that may be affected by drug utilization volumes, patterns, or outcomes. Though such contracts may offer a variety of benefits, including the ability to tie payment to the actual performance of a product, they may also create potential policy challenges. Through telephone interviews about this type of contract, we studied the views of officials in nine of ten Canadian provinces. Use of reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts is new in Canada and ideas about power and equity emerged as cross-cutting themes in our interviews. Though confidential rebates can lower prices and thereby increase coverage of new medicines, several policy makers felt they had little power in the decision to negotiate rebates. Study participants explained that the recent rise in the use of rebates had been driven by manufacturers' pricing tactics and precedent set by other jurisdictions. Several policy makers expressed concerns that confidential rebates could result in inter-jurisdictional inequities in drug pricing and coverage. Policy makers also noted un-insured and under-insured patients must pay inflated "list prices" even if rebates are negotiated by drug plans. The establishment of policies for disciplined negotiations, inter-jurisdictional cooperation, and provision of drug coverage for all citizens are potential solutions to the challenges created by this new pharmaceutical pricing paradigm. PMID:23809914

  18. EDUsummIT: A Global Knowledge Building Community for Educational Researchers, Practitioners, and Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kwok-Wing; Voogt, Joke; Knezek, Gerald; Gibson, David

    2016-01-01

    The International Summit on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education (EDUsummIT) is a global knowledge building community of researchers, educational practitioners, and policy makers aiming to create and disseminate ideas and knowledge to promote the integration of ICT in education. Four EDUsummITs have been convened in The…

  19. Before You Decide: What Families Would Like Policy Makers to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Marsha J.; Kendrick, Martie; Chamberlain, Linda; Chesley, Esther; Clement, Stacie; Cummings, Dawn; Henri-Mackenzie, Sue; Labbe, Tonya; MacDonald, Janice; McNally, Diana; Niles, Nancy; Raymond, Roberta; Russell, Candice

    This booklet, developed by parents of children with developmental disabilities, is intended to help policy makers understand major parental concerns about raising a child with a disability. The specific issues addressed are: (1) the special needs of families with a disabled child; (2) the right to community integration; (3) the continuing…

  20. Class Size: The Issue for Policy Makers in the State of Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishi, Shannon

    A review of literature on class size is the purpose of this report. Included are a summary of four meta analyses (Robinson and Wittebols 1986), (Cone 1978), and (Glass and Smith 1978 and 1979); a discussion of research methodologies; recommendations for policy makers; and alternative strategies for class size reduction. Appendices present…

  1. Scientist and policy-maker response types and times in suburban watersheds.

    PubMed

    Wolosoff, Steven E; Endreny, Theodore A

    2002-06-01

    Differences between scientist and policy-maker response types and times, or the "how" and "when" of action, constrain effective water resource management in suburbanizing watersheds. Policy-makers are often rushed to find a single policy that can be applied across an entire, homogeneous, geopolitical region, whereas scientists undertake multiyear research projects to appreciate the complex interactions occurring within heterogeneous catchments. As a result, watershed management is often practiced with science and policy out of synch. Meanwhile, development pressures in suburban watersheds create changes in the social and physical fabric and pose a moving target for science and policy. Recent and anticipated advances in the scientific understanding of urbanized catchment hydrology and pollutant transport suggest that management should become increasingly sensitive to spatial heterogeneities in watershed features, such as soil types, terrain slopes, and seasonal watertable profiles. Toward this end, policy-makers should encourage funding scientific research that characterizes the impacts of these watershed heterogeneities within a geopolitical zoning and development framework.

  2. When health services researchers and policy makers interact: tales from the tectonic plates.

    PubMed

    Martens, Patricia J; Roos, Noralou P

    2005-09-01

    There has been a strong push over the last decade for health services researchers to become "relevant," to work with policy makers to translate evidence into action. What has been learned from this interaction? The pooled experiences of health services researchers across the country, including those at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP), suggest five key lessons. First, policy makers pay more attention to research findings if they have invested their own funds and time. Second, researchers must make major investments in building relationships with policy makers, because there are inevitable tensions between what the two parties need and do. Third, researchers must be able to figure out and communicate the real meaning of their results. Fourth, health services researchers need a "back-pocket" mindset, as they cannot count on immediate uptake of results; because the issues never go away, evidence, if known and easily retrievable, is likely to have an eventual impact. Finally, getting evidence into the policy process does not come cheaply or easily, but it can be done. The overriding lesson learned by health services researchers is the importance of relationship-building, whether in formalizing contractual relationships, building and maintaining personal trust, having a communications strategy or increasing the involvement of users in the research process. PMID:19308104

  3. Key Policy Makers' Awareness of Tobacco Taxation Effectiveness through a Sensitization Program.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Ebn Ahmady, Arezoo; Lando, Harry A; Chamyani, Fahimeh; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Shadmehr, Mohammad B; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of 5 of the 6 WHO MPOWER program in Iran is satisfactory; the only notable shortcoming is the lack of tobacco taxation increases. This study was designed to increase key policy makers' awareness of tobacco taxation effectiveness through a sensitization program in Iran. This analytical and semi-experimental study in 2014 included 110 tobacco control key policy makers, who were trained and received educational materials on the importance of tobacco taxation. A valid and reliable questionnaire was completed before and three months after intervention. Data were analyzed using mean (SD), t-Test and analysis of variance. The mean (SD) scores at pre- and post-test were 2.7 ± 3 and 8.8 ± 1 out of 10, respectively. Paired t-tests demonstrated a significant difference in the pre- post-test knowledge scores. Increasing knowledge and promoting favorable attitudes of policy makers can lead to greater attention which could in turn change tobacco taxation policies. PMID:26621018

  4. Natural Hazards and Climate Change: Making the Link for Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folger, P.

    2003-04-01

    Debate about global warming in the U.S. Congress often deteriorates when proposals for restricting consumption of fossil fuels, and thus curtailing carbon dioxide emissions, is mentioned. The negative economic implications of curtailing CO2 emissions often stifle Congressional thinking about strategies to deal with climate change. Some policy makers often malign climate change research as irrelevant to their citizens, e.g. why is simulating temperature trends 100 years into the future meaningful to their voters? An alternative approach is to connect climate change with ongoing natural events such as severe weather, drought and floods. These extreme events may or may not be exacerbated by anthropogenic CO2 emissions, but policy makers can debate and legislate approaches to mitigate against natural hazards now without mentioning carbon. What strategy might connect research results on understanding climate change and natural hazards mitigation in their minds? 1. Identify a specific situation where a key legislator's voters are threatened or affected by extreme natural phenomena, 2. Suggest a policy approach that provides protection or relief for those constituents, 3. Help the policy maker vet the idea within and without the scientific community, 4.Turn that idea into legislation and advocate for its passage.

  5. Literacy and life skills education for vulnerable youth: What policy makers can do

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Anna Caroline; Yorozu, Rika; Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn

    2014-04-01

    In countries with a high concentration of youth with low literacy levels, the policy and programming task related to education and training is particularly daunting. This note briefly presents policies and practices which have been put in place to provide vulnerable youth with literacy and life skills education. It is based on a multi-country research study undertaken by the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) in cooperation with the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD Canada; previously Canadian International Development Agency, CIDA), and on subsequent policy dialogue forums with policy makers, practitioners, researchers and youth representatives held in Africa, the Arab region and Asia. Built on this review of existing policies and their implementation, this note provides lessons for innovative practices and suggests six concrete ways to address the needs of vulnerable youth through literacy and life skills education.

  6. Communicating Scientific Findings to Lawyers, Policy-Makers, and the Public (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.

  7. STATE AID AND SCHOOL FISCAL POLICY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAMTER, EUGENE C.

    THE EFFECTS OF A 1962 NEW YORK STATE AID TO EDUCATION ACT WERE INVESTIGATED IN RELATION TO AN OLD FOUNDATION PROGRAM. THIS STATE AID TO EDUCATION ACT WAS BASED ON THE CONCEPT OF SHARED COST. BOTH NEW AND OLD PROGRAMS WERE APPRAISED WITH RESPECT TO THE OBJECTIVES OF SCHOOL FISCAL POLICY--EQUITY OF SUPPORT (EQUAL TREATMENT OF EQUALS), EQUALIZATION…

  8. AIDS Policies and Resources for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Ralph; Klein, Charlie

    This report was developed to assist California community college districts in developing policies and educational programs to prevent the further spread of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). First, the report discusses the epidemiology of AIDS, and outlines institutional and legislative actions taken to provide public education about the…

  9. Ecological rationality: a framework for understanding and aiding the aging decision maker.

    PubMed

    Mata, Rui; Pachur, Thorsten; von Helversen, Bettina; Hertwig, Ralph; Rieskamp, Jörg; Schooler, Lael

    2012-01-01

    The notion of ecological rationality sees human rationality as the result of the adaptive fit between the human mind and the environment. Ecological rationality focuses the study of decision making on two key questions: First, what are the environmental regularities to which people's decision strategies are matched, and how frequently do these regularities occur in natural environments? Second, how well can people adapt their use of specific strategies to particular environmental regularities? Research on aging suggests a number of changes in cognitive function, for instance, deficits in learning and memory that may impact decision-making skills. However, it has been shown that simple strategies can work well in many natural environments, which suggests that age-related deficits in strategy use may not necessarily translate into reduced decision quality. Consequently, we argue that predictions about the impact of aging on decision performance depend not only on how aging affects decision-relevant capacities but also on the decision environment in which decisions are made. In sum, we propose that the concept of the ecological rationality is crucial to understanding and aiding the aging decision maker.

  10. Green buildings in Malaysia towards greener environment: challenges for policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaida, M. S.; Tan, K. L.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    The launch of the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) in 2009 is a manifesto of the government's seriousness in implementing "green" initiatives for the country. Specifically for buildings, the government promotes the application of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) and the application of green building index. With the introduction of Low Carbon Cities Framework, Green Pass, Green Neighbourhood, Green Building Index by various agencies and organisations in Malaysia, it is time to look back and see how all these tools could come together. This paper attempts to identify the challenges in harmonising the green initiatives for policy makers toward greener environment for sustainability.

  11. How do the public and policy makers communicate their perceptions of environmental risk to academics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    This paper investigates the ways that the public and policy makers talk about environmental risk to academics. The case study is heavy-metal contamination of food in Zambia, Southern Africa. In several localities in Zambia, urban agriculture is practised using heavy-metal contamination wastewater for irrigation. This leads to contaminated food crops that are subsequently consumed. One case study site where this occurs is Chunga, situated in the northwest of the Zambian capital: Lusaka. For members of the public, six focus groups were carried out at the Chunga, Zambia study site, involving a total of 48 participants. The participants were those involved in urban agriculture through cultivation, selling and consumption of food crops. Urban agriculturalist focus group participants were recruited through key field informants. Focus group discussion starter questions involved pollution awareness, health impacts of pollution in the area and who is responsible for communicating environmental contamination risks to the general population. For policy stakeholders, 39 semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals from various organisations including government ministries, non-governmental organisations, community based organisations and international institutions. Semi-structured interviews investigated the perceived major health issues in Zambia, food safety, environmental contamination and specifically heavy-metal contamination. Policy stakeholders were identified through policy mapping and organisations mentioned in focus group discussions and other interviews. The results at the Chunga study site show that members of the public perceive: (i) heavy metal pollution is not an issue in Lusaka and for their irrigation practices, (ii) dirty food can cause illness, (iii) heavy metals in foods can cause illness but they are not present at the Chunga site. Amongst urban agriculturalists the quantity of food available is the greatest issue, with some saying that they

  12. Views of City, County, and State Policy Makers About Childhood Obesity in New York State, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Rebecca; Lundell, Helen; Meyerson, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction No single solution exists to reduce rates of childhood obesity in the United States, but public policy action is essential. A greater understanding of policy maker views on childhood obesity would provide insight into ways that public health advocates can overcome barriers to propose, enact, and implement obesity prevention policies. Methods We conducted 48 in-depth, qualitative interviews with town/city, county, and state policy makers in the state of New York from December 14, 2010, through June 10, 2011. We used a semistructured interview protocol to solicit policy maker views on the causes of, solutions to, and responsibility for addressing the issue of childhood obesity. Results Most policy makers considered the issue of childhood obesity to be of high importance. Respondents cited changes to family structures as a major cause of childhood obesity, followed by changes in the external environment and among children themselves. Respondents offered varied solutions for childhood obesity, with the most common type of solution being outside of the respondent’s sphere of policy influence. Policy makers cited the need for joint responsibility among parents, government, schools, and the food industry to address childhood obesity. Conclusion Beliefs of many policy makers about childhood obesity are similar to those of the general public. Findings highlight the need for future research to inform the development of communication strategies to promote policy action among those with authority to pass and implement it. PMID:24262027

  13. Communicating Geosciences with Policy-makers: a Grand Challenge for Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, W. J.; Walls, M. R.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists interested in the broader societal impacts of their research can make a meaningful contribution to policy making in our changing world. Nevertheless, policy and public decision making are the least frequently cited Broader Impacts in proposals and funded projects within NSF's Geosciences Directorate. Academic institutions can play a lead role by introducing this societal dimension of our profession to beginning students, and by enabling interdisciplinary research and promoting communication pathways for experienced career geoscientists. Within the academic environment, the public interface of the geosciences can be presented through curriculum content and creative programs. These include undergraduate minors in economics or public policy designed for scientists and engineers, and internships with policy makers. Federal research institutions and other organizations provide valuable policy-relevant experiences for students. Academic institutions have the key freedom of mission to tackle interdisciplinary research challenges at the interface of geoscience and policy. They develop long-standing relationships with research partners, including national laboratories and state geological surveys, whose work may support policy development and analysis at local, state, regional, and national levels. CSM's Payne Institute for Earth Resources awards mini-grants for teams of researchers to develop collaborative research efforts between engineering/science and policy researchers. Current work in the areas of nuclear generation and the costs of climate policy and on policy alternatives for capturing fugitive methane emissions are examples of work at the interface between the geosciences and public policy. With academic engagement, geoscientists can steward their intellectual output when non-scientists translate geoscience information and concepts into action through public policies.

  14. Evidence summaries tailored to health policy-makers in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Glenton, Claire; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Abalos, Edgardo; Mignini, Luciano; Young, Taryn; Althabe, Fernando; Ciapponi, Agustín; Marti, Sebastian Garcia; Meng, Qingyue; Wang, Jian; la Hoz Bradford, Ana Maria De; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Pariyo, George W; Flottorp, Signe; Oxman, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe how the SUPPORT collaboration developed a short summary format for presenting the results of systematic reviews to policy-makers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods We carried out 21 user tests in six countries to explore users’ experiences with the summary format. We modified the summaries based on the results and checked our conclusions through 13 follow-up interviews. To solve the problems uncovered by the user testing, we also obtained advisory group feedback and conducted working group workshops. Findings Policy-makers liked a graded entry format (i.e. short summary with key messages up front). They particularly valued the section on the relevance of the summaries for LMICs, which compensated for the lack of locally-relevant detail in the original review. Some struggled to understand the text and numbers. Three issues made redesigning the summaries particularly challenging: (i) participants had a poor understanding of what a systematic review was; (ii) they expected information not found in the systematic reviews and (iii) they wanted shorter, clearer summaries. Solutions included adding information to help understand the nature of a systematic review, adding more references and making the content clearer and the document quicker to scan. Conclusion Presenting evidence from systematic reviews to policy-makers in LMICs in the form of short summaries can render the information easier to assimilate and more useful, but summaries must be clear and easy to read or scan quickly. They should also explain the nature of the information provided by systematic reviews and its relevance for policy decisions. PMID:21346891

  15. Climate Change Boot Camps: Targeting Policy Makers and Outreach Trainers in Arizona to Improve Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Guido, Z. S.; Buizer, J.; Roy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Bringing climate change issues into focus for decision makers is a growing challenge. Decision makers are often confronted with unique informational needs, a lack of useable information, and needs for customized climate change training, among other issues. Despite significant progress in improving climate literacy among certain stakeholders such as water managers, recent reports have highlighted the growing demand for climate-change information in regions and sectors across the US. In recent years many ventures have sprung up to address these gaps and have predominantly focused on K-12 education and resource management agencies such as the National Park Service and National Weather Service. However, two groups that are critical for integrating climate information into actions have received less attention: (1) policy makers and (2) outreach experts, such as Cooperative Extension agents. Climate Change Boot Camps (CCBC) is a joint effort between the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS)—a NOAA Regionally Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) program—and researchers at Arizona State University to diagnose climate literacy and training gaps in Arizona and develop a process that converts these deficiencies into actionable knowledge among the two aforementioned groups. This presentation will highlight the initial phases of the CCBC process, which has as its outcomes the identification of effective strategies for reaching legislators, climate literacy and training needs for both policy makers and trainers, and effective metrics to evaluate the success of these efforts. Specific attention is given to evaluating the process from initial needs assessment to the effectiveness of the workshops. Web curriculum and training models made available on the internet will also be developed, drawing on extensive existing Web resources for other training efforts and converted to meet the needs of these two groups. CCBC will also leverage CLIMAS’ long history of

  16. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  17. Navigating public health chemicals policy in Australia: a policy maker's and practitioner's guide.

    PubMed

    Capon, Adam; Smith, Wayne; Gillespie, James A

    2013-03-01

    Chemicals are ubiquitous in everyday life. Environmental health practitioners rely on a complex web of regulators and policy bodies to ensure the protection of public health, yet few understand the full extent of this web. A lack of understanding can hamper public health response and impede policy development. In this paper we map the public health chemicals policy landscape in Australia and conclude that an understanding of this system is essential for effective environmental health responses and policy development.

  18. Evaluation and Resource Management: A Policy-Maker's Guide to Using Program Data in Policy Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucco, Robert J.

    The educational administrator must often straddle the gap between empirically sound and politically expedient decisions, employing policy assessment as a hedge against adopting ill-conceived policies. The resource allocation model (RAM) attempts to remedy this dilemma by tying program evaluation and policy analysis into a single conceptual yet…

  19. Policy Scholars Are from Venus: Policy Makers Are from Mars. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert

    This paper rebuts four common assumptions underlying criticisms of higher education policy scholarship and policy making. The first assumption, policymakers agree on the nature of policy problems and therefore on the kinds of research needed, is rebutted by noting that actually, there is no way to identify and research all possible future policy…

  20. Federal Policy and Adolescent AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Brian L.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that federal policy on adolescent Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome health care and research is nonexistent or piecemeal. Despite the work of the Centers for Disease Control, efforts at preventive education are uncoordinated, resulting from the decentralized nature of the public health and education systems, and are hampered by social…

  1. A Framework for Using Qualitative Research To Inform Policy-Makers and Empower Practitioners: Lessons from Madagascar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heneveld, Ward; Craig, Helen

    National education policy reforms often do not translate into changes at the classroom level. This paper presents a conceptual framework developed for Sub-Saharan Africa to assist policy-makers in bridging the gap between school practice and national policies. It also describes how the framework was applied to current school-improvement efforts in…

  2. National Policy Makers: New Directions in the Social Scientific Study of Policies Effecting Equity and Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Irving Louis

    The document examines social science influence in the policy-making process through interviews with proponents of various major positions in the policy arena. A wide variety of responses is presented in order to more clearly assess needs of a changing society, investigate how social science education might be changed to reflect those needs, record…

  3. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Berentzen, C A; van Montfrans, G A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Design Observational study. Setting 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university hospitals. Intervention A standard hot meal collected from the institutional staff canteens on three random days. Main outcome measure Salt content of the meals measured with an ion selective electrode assay. Results The mean salt content of the meals (7.1 g, SE 0.2 g) exceeded the total daily recommended salt intake of 6 g and was high at all locations: 6.9 g (0.4 g) at the Department of Health and National Health Council; 6.0 g (0.9 g) at the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority; 7.4 g (0.5 g) at university hospital staff canteens; and 7.0 g (0.3 g) at non-university hospital staff canteens. With data from a national food consumption survey, the estimated total mean daily salt intake in people who ate these meals was 15.4 g. This translates into a 23-36% increase in premature cardiovascular mortality compared with people who adhere to the recommended levels of salt intake. Conclusion If salt policy makers eat at their institutional canteens they might consume too much salt, which could put their health at risk. PMID:22187322

  4. Informing Health Policy Decision Makers: A Nebraska Scope of Practice Case Study.

    PubMed

    Lazure, Linda L; Cramer, Mary E; Hoebelheinrich, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    Medicare patients seeking care from nurse practitioners (NPs) increased 15-fold from 1998 to 2010, and a 2.5-fold patient increase was recorded in states that have eased the regulatory environment for NPs. It is increasingly important that state regulatory and licensing boards-charged with protecting the public through the assurance of a qualified health-care workforce-examine whether their state regulatory environment restricts or promotes public access to quality health care. This article presents a case study of a statutory scope of practice credentialing review process for NPs in Nebraska. It examines in depth what individuals involved in policy change processes found most useful for informed decision making. The methodology included observation of the process, review of submitted documents, and a survey to individuals involved in the decision-making process (n = 22/48). The study findings have application for those seeking scope of practice policy changes, with specific suggestions for how to better prepare themselves and present information in formats that are helpful to decision makers. Our results also shed new light on what specific evidence submitted during a scope of practice review process is most valued for promoting the understanding of decision makers to effect change. PMID:27540082

  5. Federal Tuition Tax Credits and State Higher Education Policy: A Guide for State Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Kristin D.

    The federal government enacted the Taxpayer Relief Act in 1997. Whereas other federal student aid programs have used grants, scholarships, and loans to help students and their families finance college, the new law has made college more affordable by providing new federal income tax credits, savings incentives, and deductions for interest paid on…

  6. Students with Disabilities: Financial Aid Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanin, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes some of the special financial aid needs of students with disabilities and the policy implications of those needs. It focuses on the financial burdens of having a disability, the time demands faced by those with disabilities, the multiple and complex sources from which students with disabilities derive support, and the…

  7. Voices of decision makers on evidence-based policy: A case of evolving TB/HIV co-infection policy in India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Srikanth; Sahay, Seema

    2016-01-01

    This study explores decision makers' perspectives on evidence-based policy (EBP) development using the case of TB/HIV co-infection in India. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively selected key national and international policy decision makers in India. Verbatim transcripts were processed and analysed thematically using QSR (NUD*IST 6). The decision makers were unequivocal in recognizing the TB/HIV co-infection as an important public health issue in India and stated the problem to be different than Africa. The need of having a "third programme" for co-infection was not felt. According to them, the public health management of this co-infection must be within the realm of these two programmes. The study also emphasized on decision makers' perspectives on evidence and the process of utilization of evidence for decision-making for co-infection. Study findings showed global evidence was not always accepted by the decision makers and study shows several examples of decision makers demanding local evidence for policy decisions. Decision makers did make interim policies based on global evidence but most of the time their mandate was to get local evidence. Thus, operations research/implementation science especially multi-centric studies emerge as important strategy for EBP development. Researcher-policy maker interface was a gap where role of researcher as aggressive communicator of research findings was expected.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and barriers of physicians, policy makers/regulators regarding use of opioids for cancer pain management in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srisawang, Pornsuree; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Hirosawa, Tomoya; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of opioids for cancer pain has been proven and the World Health Organization (WHO) three-step ladder has been recommended for cancer pain relief. However, undertreatment of cancer pain has still been reported in Thailand. Identification of barriers to opioid use by the physicians and policy makers/regulators, and their level of knowledge and attitudes concerning its use are influential factors for cancer pain management (CPM). This study was performed to assess the knowledge and attitudes physicians and policy makers/regulators have regarding use of opioids for CPM. Barriers to opioid availability were also studied. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 300 physicians and distributed to 58 policy makers/regulators from September to October 2011. A total of 219 physicians and 47 policy makers/ regulators completed the questionnaire. Of the physicians 62.1% had inadequate knowledge and 33.8% had negative attitudes. Physicians who did not know the WHO three-step ladder were more likely to have less knowledge than those having used the WHO three-step ladder (OR = 13.0, p < 0.001). Policy makers/regulators also had inadequate knowledge (74.5%) and negative attitudes (66.0%). Policy makers/ regulators who never had CPM training were likely to have more negative attitudes than those having had training within less than one year (OR = 35.0, p = 0.005). Lack of training opportunities and periodic shortages of opioids were the greatest barriers to opioid availability for physicians and policy makers/ regulators, respectively. The strengthening of ongoing educational programs regarding opioid use for CPM, and cooperation among key groups are needed.

  9. Reproductive tourism in Argentina: clinic accreditation and its implications for consumers, health professionals and policy makers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elise; Behrmann, Jason; Martin, Carolina; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2010-08-01

    A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To date, the focus of attention has been on the thriving medical and reproductive tourism sectors in Asia and Eastern Europe; there has been much less consideration given to more recent 'players' in Latin America, notably fertility clinics in Chile, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. In this paper, we examine the context-specific ethical and policy implications of private Argentinean fertility clinics that market reproductive services via the internet. Whether or not one agrees that reproductive services should be made available as consumer goods, the fact is that they are provided as such by private clinics around the world. We argue that basic national regulatory mechanisms are required in countries such as Argentina that are marketing fertility services to local and international publics. Specifically, regular oversight of all fertility clinics is essential to ensure that consumer information is accurate and that marketed services are safe and effective. It is in the best interests of consumers, health professionals and policy makers that the reproductive tourism industry adopts safe and responsible medical practices.

  10. Communicating the Urgency of Climate Change to Local Government Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A.

    2004-12-01

    What are the challenges and obstacles in conveying scientific research and uncertainties about climate change to local government policy makers? What information do scientists need from local government practitioners to guide research efforts into producing more relevant information for the local government audience? What works and what doesn't in terms of communicating climate change science to non-technical audiences? Based on over a decade of experience working with local governments around the world on greenhouse gas mitigation, ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability has developed a unique perspective and valuable insight into effective communication on climate science that motivates policy action. In the United States practical actions necessary to mitigate global climate change occur largely at the local level. As the level of government closest to individual energy consumers, local governments play a large role in determining the energy intensity of communities. How can local governments be persuaded to make greenhouse gas mitigation a policy priority over the long-term? Access to relevant information is critical to achieving that commitment. Information that will persuade local officials to pursue climate protection commitments includes specific impacts of global warming to communities, the costs of adaptation versus mitigation, and the potential benefits of implementing greenhouse gas-reducing initiatives. The manner in which information is conveyed is also critically important. The scientific community is loath to advocate for specific policies, or to make determinate statements on topics for which research is ongoing. These communication hurdles can be overcome if the needs of local policy practitioners can be understood by the scientific community, and research goals can be cooperatively defined.

  11. Lessons from Oil Pollution Research: Consensus, Controversy, and Education of Policy Makers and the Public.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    Controversies concerning scientific research findings, consensus of a majority of expert scientists, and attempts by vested interest groups to offer alternative interpretations from the consensus with the goal of influencing policy makers" and the public's understanding is not a new phenomenon with respect to complex environmental issues. For example, controversies about new scientific research findings from studies of oil spills and other aspects of petroleum and petroleum refined product inputs, fates and effects in the marine environment intensified in the late 1960s to early 1970s and continues today as evidenced by ongoing debates surrounding the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. This paper provides an overview of the interactions between authentic new scientific findings with respect to oil pollution in the marine environment in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the consensus gained in the ensuing years by continued research, and through various science - policy processes, and a spectrum of concomitant public education efforts. Lessons learned from this ongoing process may be instructive to current debates in other arenas of environmental science.

  12. The Policy Maker's Anguish: Regulating Personal Data Behavior Between Paradoxes and Dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compañó, Ramón; Lusoli, Wainer

    Regulators in Europe and elsewhere are paying great attention to identity, privacy and trust in online and converging environments. Appropriate regulation of identity in a ubiquitous information environment is seen as one of the major drivers of the future Internet economy. Regulation of personal identity data has come to the fore including mapping conducted on digital personhood by the OECD; work on human rights and profiling by the Council of Europe andmajor studies by the European Commission with regard to self-regulation in the privacy market, electronic identity technical interoperability and enhanced safety for young people. These domains overlap onto an increasingly complex model of regulation of individuals' identity management, online and offline. This chapter argues that policy makers struggle to deal with issues concerning electronic identity, due to the apparently irrational and unpredictable behavior of users when engaging in online interactions involving identity management. Building on empirical survey evidence from four EU countries, we examine the first aspect in detail - citizens' management of identity in a digital environment. We build on data from a large scale (n = 5,265) online survey of attitudes to electronic identity among young Europeans (France, Germany, Spain, UK) conducted in August 2008. The survey asked questions about perceptions and acceptance of risks, general motivations, attitudes and behaviors concerning electronic identity. Four behavioral paradoxes are identified in the analysis: a privacy paradox (to date well known), but also a control paradox, a responsibility paradox and an awareness paradox. The chapter then examines the paradoxes in relation of three main policy dilemmas framing the debate on digital identity. The paper concludes by arguing for an expanded identity debate spanning policy circles and the engineering community.

  13. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2006-01-01

    require patients who have been successfully treated with heroin in Canada, to be forced to move back to less effective treatments (treatments that failed to be efficacious in the past)? This essay discusses this dilemma and places it in the broader context of ethics, science, and health policy. It makes the case for continuation of the current successful patients in heroin treatment and the institution of heroin treatment to all Canadian patients living with active addictions who qualify. PMID:16670010

  14. Lessons learnt for Public Policy Maker from Relocation of Tsunami Affected Villagers in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamthonkiat, Daroonwan; Thuy Vu, Tuong

    2013-04-01

    facilities such as water, electricity and dumping area were not enough supported in some donated areas. 3)A lot of fishermen had turned to wage-earners or unfamiliar jobs to earn for their living. Some were jobless more than a year after relocation because of less skill for other jobs, high competition for less vacancies and no capital to start their small business. 4)After a few years of relocation and adaptation in the donated houses, we found that old and young generation became a major residence while much of the working generation fishermen went back to their villages for their fishing career. Some of them leaved the right of living in the donated houses by renting out to non-tsunami impact people or leaving their houses abandoned. As a lesson learnt from the relocation of the tsunami impact villagers in Thailand during 2005 - 2010, we could summarize some critical concerns for government policy makers as listed; 1)The government may support the certificate of the ownership or title deed with some conditions to the villagers who occupied on their lands before the conservative zones were announced. They should have the right to stay further and do eco-friendly activities for earning their lives. The villagers have no right to transfer the title deed or certificate to the third parties. Only eco-friendly equipments are permitted for fishing in this area. 2)After relocation to the higher ground, basic facilities (such as water, electricity and dumping area) should be sufficiently furnished. 3)Not only skill practicing for career options should be supported, finding job vacancy should run in parallel to ensure that the tsunami impact villagers can afford their living. 4)For reducing the right transfer or leaving the donated houses abandoned, annual or continuous survey to these residences should be conducted by government sectors until 80% of them had settled on their careers and adaptations. Location analysis should be conducted before construction of houses for disaster

  15. Lessons learnt for Public Policy Maker from Relocation of Tsunami Affected Villagers in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamthonkiat, Daroonwan; Thuy Vu, Tuong

    2013-04-01

    facilities such as water, electricity and dumping area were not enough supported in some donated areas. 3)A lot of fishermen had turned to wage-earners or unfamiliar jobs to earn for their living. Some were jobless more than a year after relocation because of less skill for other jobs, high competition for less vacancies and no capital to start their small business. 4)After a few years of relocation and adaptation in the donated houses, we found that old and young generation became a major residence while much of the working generation fishermen went back to their villages for their fishing career. Some of them leaved the right of living in the donated houses by renting out to non-tsunami impact people or leaving their houses abandoned. As a lesson learnt from the relocation of the tsunami impact villagers in Thailand during 2005 - 2010, we could summarize some critical concerns for government policy makers as listed; 1)The government may support the certificate of the ownership or title deed with some conditions to the villagers who occupied on their lands before the conservative zones were announced. They should have the right to stay further and do eco-friendly activities for earning their lives. The villagers have no right to transfer the title deed or certificate to the third parties. Only eco-friendly equipments are permitted for fishing in this area. 2)After relocation to the higher ground, basic facilities (such as water, electricity and dumping area) should be sufficiently furnished. 3)Not only skill practicing for career options should be supported, finding job vacancy should run in parallel to ensure that the tsunami impact villagers can afford their living. 4)For reducing the right transfer or leaving the donated houses abandoned, annual or continuous survey to these residences should be conducted by government sectors until 80% of them had settled on their careers and adaptations. Location analysis should be conducted before construction of houses for disaster

  16. More of the same? Conflicting perspectives of obesity causation and intervention amongst overweight people, health professionals and policy makers.

    PubMed

    Greener, Joe; Douglas, Flora; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted in the United Kingdom of the perceptions of overweight individuals, as well as health professionals and policy makers working in the area of obesity prevention and weight management. In 2006-2007, we conducted interviews with 34 men and women (18-50 years old) who self identified as being overweight; 20 health professionals; and 9 policy makers. We explored their understandings of the causes of obesity/overweight; beliefs about factors that enabled or inhibited weight loss/gain; and opinions regarding effective obesity/overweight interventions. We found a range of views, which corresponded with biomedical and socio-ecological perspectives of health and disease. The lay overweight respondents viewed the problem of obesity arising from their personal shortcomings (i.e. motivational and physical), juxtaposed to blame-absolving accounts often involving specific challenges associated with day-to-day living. All respondents presented personal stories of complex battles of short-term weight loss and longer-term weight gain, usually characterised by a sense of failure. All expressed a strong sense of personal responsibility to overcome their weight problems, and looked to another not-yet-tried, technocratic weight loss programme to address the problem, despite all reporting past failures. Health professionals and policy makers on the other hand viewed obesity as a socio-ecologically determined problem, detailing social and environmental explanations. Health professionals were more inclined towards individual-orientated weight management interventions as effective responses. Policy makers considered environmental and social policy changes as most likely to make a substantial difference to current obesity trends, but considered it unlikely that such policies would be implemented without the political will and popular support. Our data highlight dissonance between policy maker, health professional and public

  17. Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers. J.Bouma Em. Prof. Soil Science, Wageningen University, the Netherlands During the last decade, the spectacular development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has strongly increased the accessible amount of data and information for stakeholders and policy makers and the science community is struggling to adjust to these developments. In the Netherlands not only industry has now a major impact on the research agenda but this is now to be extended to citizens at large. Rather than complain about an apparent "gap" between science and society and wrestle with the challenge to bridge it in a rather reactive manner, the science community would be well advised to initiate a proactive approach, showing that knowledge implies a deep understanding of issues and processes that does not necessarily follow from having data and information. The "gap" certainly applies to soil research in the context of sustainable development where many often well informed stakeholders are involved with widely different opinions, norms and values. Changes are suggested in the manner in which we frame our work: (i) longer involvement with projects from initiation to implementation in practice; (ii) active role of "knowledge brokers" who inject the right type of knowledge during the entire project run in a joint-learning mode, and (iii) not proposing new research from a science perspective but demonstrating a clear need because existing knowledge is inadequate. Yet more conceptual discussions about e.g. inter- and transdisciplinarity, worrysome soil degradation and lack of professional recognition are less meaningful than specific case studies demonstrating the crucial role of soil science when analysing land-based environmental problems. New narratives are needed instead of statistics, openness to learn from best practices and pilot projects as a necessary next step beyond awareness raising. Soil

  18. Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates: Outreach for the public and policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Yannick

    2010-05-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), via its official collaborating center in Norway, GRID-Arendal, is in the process of implementing a Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates. Global reservoirs of methane gas have long been the topic of scientific discussion both in the realm of environmental issues such as natural forces of climate change and as a potential energy resource for economic development. Of particular interest are the volumes of methane locked away in frozen molecules known as clathrates or hydrates. Our rapidly evolving scientific knowledge and technological development related to methane hydrates makes these formations increasingly prospective to economic development. In addition, global demand for energy continues, and will continue to outpace supply for the foreseeable future, resulting in pressure to expand development activities, with associated concerns about environmental and social impacts. Understanding the intricate links between methane hydrates and 1) natural and anthropogenic contributions to climate change, 2) their role in the carbon cycle (e.g. ocean chemistry) and 3) the environmental and socio-economic impacts of extraction, are key factors in making good decisions that promote sustainable development. As policy makers, environmental organizations and private sector interests seek to forward their respective agendas which tend to be weighted towards applied research, there is a clear and imminent need for a an authoritative source of accessible information on various topics related to methane gas hydrates. The 2008 United Nations Environment Programme Annual Report highlighted methane from the Arctic as an emerging challenge with respect to climate change and other environmental issues. Building upon this foundation, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, in conjunction with experts from national hydrates research groups from Canada, the US, Japan, Germany, Norway, India and Korea, aims to provide a multi-thematic overview of the key

  19. Artificial Neural Networks and risk stratification models in Emergency Departments: The policy maker's perspective.

    PubMed

    Casagranda, Ivo; Costantino, Giorgio; Falavigna, Greta; Furlan, Raffaello; Ippoliti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of Emergency Department (ED) physicians is to discriminate between individuals at low risk, who can be safely discharged, and patients at high risk, who require prompt hospitalization. The problem of correctly classifying patients is an issue involving not only clinical but also managerial aspects, since reducing the rate of admission of patients to EDs could dramatically cut costs. Nevertheless, a trade-off might arise due to the need to find a balance between economic interests and the health conditions of patients. This work considers patients in EDs after a syncope event and presents a comparative analysis between two models: a multivariate logistic regression model, as proposed by the scientific community to stratify the expected risk of severe outcomes in the short and long run, and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), an innovative model. The analysis highlights differences in correct classification of severe outcomes at 10 days (98.30% vs. 94.07%) and 1 year (97.67% vs. 96.40%), pointing to the superiority of Neural Networks. According to the results, there is also a significant superiority of ANNs in terms of false negatives both at 10 days (3.70% vs. 5.93%) and at 1 year (2.33% vs. 10.07%). However, considering the false positives, the adoption of ANNs would cause an increase in hospital costs, highlighting the potential trade-off which policy makers might face.

  20. Global environmental change and human health: new challenges to scientist and policy-maker.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    1994-01-01

    Human health may not remain sustainable if damage to the global environment continues. The argument is simple: Earth is essentially a closed system; humans are proliferating and commandeering more surface area, food and energy; the resultant accumulation of waste gases, depletion of soil and water, and loss of biodiversity is starting to overload Earth's carrying capacity. There are limits in any closed system and our species is now pressing against some of them. These are new problems and we cannot be certain of the consequences for human health. A warmer world will probably have more frequent heatwaves, unstable weather, increased spread of mosquito-borne infectious diseases, and disruptions to agriculture. Ozone depletion, if sustained, may cause moderate increases in skin cancer and cataracts, and may damage crop growth and marine stocks. Depletion of agricultural resources, overfishing, and loss of genetic resources from species extinction all entail potentially serious consequences for human health. The manifest uncertainties of these global change processes and the need for prediction, rather than empirical observation, create new challenges to health scientists. Likewise, policy-makers will have to deal with best estimates and long time-frames, informed by understanding of ecological realities.

  1. A Wind Energy Blueprint for Policy Makers (case study: Santa Barbara County, CA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prull, D. S.; Ling, F.; Valencia, A.; Kammen, D.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past 5 years wind power has been the fastest-growing energy source worldwide with an annual average growth rate exceeding 30%. In 2006, 3,400 megawatts of new capacity are expected in the United States alone, representing a 40% growth rate. At a present cost of 3-7ȩnt per kilowatt hour, wind energy has become a viable option in the energy market. Despite this rapid growth, many city and county policy makers know little about their local potential for wind development. As a case study, a wind energy blueprint was created for Santa Barbara County, California. A detailed GIS analysis shows that Santa Barbara County has a gross onshore wind resource of over 1815 MW (with a ~32% capacity factor) although only 10-12% is suitable for utility-scale development (class 3 winds or higher). This 216 MW resource represents 163 tons of avoided CO_2 emissions resulting from coal fire electrical production each year (assuming the national average of 1.5lbs CO_2 emitted per kWh). In addition, potential offshore wind sites within 50 nautical miles of the Santa Barbara County coast could supply up to 15 GW, far exceeding the energy demands of the county (~570 MW). An economic impact analysis indicates that more than 600 jobs would be created as a result of onshore development. We address concerns such as impacts on wildlife, noise, and view shed. This wind energy blueprint can serve as an example on how to effectively relate technical issues to both policy members and the public.

  2. What Influences the Utilisation of Educational Research by Policy-Makers and Practitioners?: The Perspectives of Academic Educational Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Adrian; Povey, Jenny; Head, Brian; Boreham, Paul; Ferguson, Michele

    2012-01-01

    In the field of education much has been made of the need for academics to engage more closely with policy-makers and practitioners in the process of knowledge production and research uptake. This paper reports results from a survey of academic educational researchers in Australia on their experience of research uptake and engagement with…

  3. What Can Instructors and Policy Makers Learn about Web-Supported Learning through Web-Usage Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Anat; Nachmias, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a Web-log based tool for evaluating pedagogical processes occurring in Web-supported academic instruction and students' attitudes. The tool consists of computational measures which demonstrate what instructors and policy makers can learn about Web-supported instruction through Web-usage mining. The tool can provide different…

  4. Incorporating Youth Development Principles into Adolescent Health Programs: A Guide for State-Level Practitioners & Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Becky

    2006-01-01

    The youth development approach has gained traction over the past twenty-plus years, across a range of youth-serving fields, including public health. While it is important for Adolescent Health Coordinators, other practitioners and policy makers focused on youth to be familiar with youth development concepts, it is critically important that they…

  5. International exchange of emergency phase information and assessments: an aid to national/international decision makers.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Thomas J; Chino, Masamichi; Ehrhardt, Joachim; Shershakov, Vyacheslav

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a collaborative project (1) to demonstrate the feasibility and benefit of a system seeking early review, in a 'quasi peer review' mode, of nuclear accident plume and dose assessment predictions by four major international nuclear accident emergency response systems before release of calculations to respective national authorities followed by (2) sharing these results with responsible national/international authorities, (3) development of an affordable/accessible system to distribute results to countries without prediction capabilities and (4) utilisation for exercises and collaboration studies. The project exploits Internet browser technology and low-cost PC hardware, incorporates an Internet node, with access control, for depositing a minimal set of XML-based graphics files for presentation in an identical map format. Side-by-side viewing and televideo conferencing will permit rapid evaluation, data elaboration and recalculation (if necessary) and should produce strong consensus among decision makers. Successful completion affords easy utilisation by national/international organisations and non-nuclear states at risk of trans-boundary incursion.

  6. International Exchange of Emergency Phase Information and Assessment: An Aid to Inter/National Decision Makers

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T J; Chino, M; Ehrhardt, J; Shershakov, V

    2003-09-01

    This paper discusses a collaborative project whose purpose is (1) to demonstrate the technical feasibility and mutual benefit of a system seeking early review or preview, in a ''quasi peer review'' mode, of nuclear accident plume and dose assessment predictions by four major international nuclear accident emergency response systems before release of their calculations to their respective national authorities followed by (2) sharing these results with responsible international authorities. The extreme sensitivity of the general public to any nuclear accident information has been a strong motivation to seek peer review prior to public release. Another intended objective of this work is (3) the development of an affordable/accessible system for distribution of prediction results to countries having no prediction capabilities and (4) utilization of the link for exercises and collaboration studies. The project exploits the Internet as a ubiquitous communications medium, browser technology as a simple, user friendly interface, and low-cost PC level hardware. The participants are developing a web based dedicated node with ID and password access control, where the four systems can deposit a minimal set of XML-based data and graphics files, which are then displayed in a common identical map format. Side-by-side viewing and televideo conferencing will permit rapid evaluation, correction or elaboration of data, recalculation (if necessary) and should produce a strong level of consensus to assist international decision makers. Successful completion of this work could lead to easy utilization by national and international organizations, such as the IAEA and WHO, as well as by non-nuclear states at risk of a trans-boundary incursion on their territory.

  7. Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy: Partnering with Decision-Makers in Climate Change Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D.; Trainor, S.; Walsh, J.; Gerlach, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP; www.uaf.edu/accap) is one of several, NOAA funded, Regional Integrated Science and Policy (RISA) programs nation-wide (http://www.climate.noaa.gov/cpo_pa/risa/). Our mission is to assess the socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate variability in Alaska, make this information available to local and regional decision-makers, and improve the ability of Alaskans to adapt to a changing climate. We partner with the University of Alaska?s Scenario Network for Alaska Planning (SNAP; http://www.snap.uaf.edu/), state and local government, state and federal agencies, industry, and non-profit organizations to communicate accurate and up-to-date climate science and assist in formulating adaptation and mitigation plans. ACCAP and SNAP scientists are members of the Governor?s Climate Change Sub-Cabinet Adaptation and Mitigation Advisory and Technical Working Groups (http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/), and apply their scientific expertise to provide down-scaled, state-wide maps of temperature and precipitation projections for these groups. An ACCAP scientist also serves as co-chair for the Fairbanks North Star Borough Climate Change Task Force, assisting this group as they work through the five-step model for climate change planning put forward by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (http://www.investfairbanks.com/Taskforces/climate.php). ACCAP scientists work closely with federal resource managers in on a range of projects including: partnering with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to analyze hydrologic changes associated with climate change and related ecological impacts and wildlife management and development issues on Alaska?s North Slope; partnering with members of the Alaska Interagency Wildland Fire Coordinating Group in statistical modeling to predict seasonal wildfire activity and coordinate fire suppression resources state-wide; and working with Alaska Native Elders and

  8. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  9. AIDS and Herpes Carry Weighty Policy Implications for Your Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Few schools have policies to deal specifically with herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Discusses some schools and states that have developed such policies and includes a source list for more information. (MD)

  10. Visualisation and communication of probabilistic climate forecasts to renewable-energy policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Sophie; Lowe, Rachel; Davis, Melanie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Despite the strong dependence on weather and climate variability of the renewable-energy industry, and the existence of several initiatives towards demonstrating the added benefits of integrating probabilistic forecasts into energy decision-making processes, weather and climate forecasts are still under-utilised within the sector. Improved communication is fundamental to stimulate the use of climate forecast information within decision-making processes, in order to adapt to a highly climate dependent renewable-energy industry. This work focuses on improving the visualisation of climate forecast information, paying special attention to seasonal time scales. This activity is central to enhance climate services for renewable energy and to optimise the usefulness and usability of inherently complex climate information. In the realm of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) initiative, and subsequent European projects: Seasonal-to-Decadal Climate Prediction for the Improvement of European Climate Service (SPECS) and the European Provision of Regional Impacts Assessment in Seasonal and Decadal Timescales (EUPORIAS), this paper investigates the visualisation and communication of seasonal forecasts with regards to their usefulness and usability, to enable the development of a European climate service. The target end user is the group of renewable-energy policy makers, who are central to enhance climate services for the energy industry. The overall objective is to promote the wide-range dissemination and exchange of actionable climate information based on seasonal forecasts from Global Producing Centres (GPCs). It examines the existing main barriers and deficits. Examples of probabilistic climate forecasts from different GPC's are used to make a catalogue of current approaches, to assess their advantages and limitations and, finally, to recommend better alternatives. Interviews have been conducted with renewable-energy stakeholders to receive feedback for the

  11. The visualisation and communication of probabilistic climate forecasts to renewable energy policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doblas-Reyes, F.; Steffen, S.; Lowe, R.; Davis, M.; Rodó, X.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the strong dependence of weather and climate variability on the renewable energy industry, and several initiatives towards demonstrating the added benefits of integrating probabilistic forecasts into energy decision making process, they are still under-utilised within the sector. Improved communication is fundamental to stimulate the use of climate forecast information within decision-making processes, in order to adapt to a highly climate dependent renewable energy industry. This paper focuses on improving the visualisation of climate forecast information, paying special attention to seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. This is central to enhance climate services for renewable energy, and optimise the usefulness and usability of inherently complex climate information. In the realm of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) initiative, and subsequent European projects: Seasonal-to-Decadal Climate Prediction for the Improvement of European Climate Service (SPECS) and the European Provision of Regional Impacts Assessment in Seasonal and Decadal Timescales (EUPORIAS), this paper investigates the visualisation and communication of s2d forecasts with regards to their usefulness and usability, to enable the development of a European climate service. The target end user will be renewable energy policy makers, who are central to enhance climate services for the energy industry. The overall objective is to promote the wide-range dissemination and exchange of actionable climate information based on s2d forecasts from Global Producing Centres (GPC's). Therefore, it is crucial to examine the existing main barriers and deficits. Examples of probabilistic climate forecasts from different GPC's were used to prepare a catalogue of current approaches, to assess their advantages and limitations and finally to recommend better alternatives. In parallel, interviews were conducted with renewable energy stakeholders to receive feedback for the improvement of existing

  12. Optimal Financial Aid Policies for a Selective University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Sherman, Daniel R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper provides a model of optimal financial aid policies for a selective university. The model implies that the financial aid package to be offered to each category of admitted applicants depends on the elasticity of the fraction who accept offers of admission with respect to the financial aid package offered them. (Author/SSH)

  13. Training Higher Education Policy Makers and Leaders: A Graduate Program Perspective. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Diane, Ed.; Miller, Michael T., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Higher Education is a vibrant, changing field of study. With roots in multiple disciplines, these degree programs prepare the administrators, faculty, and policy makers who direct the current and future higher education enterprise. At a time when higher education is changing rapidly, these programs are poised to frame the future of an educated…

  14. Enhancing the Capacity of Policy-Makers to Develop Evidence-Informed Policy Brief on Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background: The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP). The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods: A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = "grossly inadequate," 4 = "very adequate" was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A one-day evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results: The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF]) and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research evidence synthesis by each

  15. Does Federal Financial Aid Policy Influence the Institutional Aid Policies of Four-Year Colleges and Universities? An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kwon, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical work that examines the relationships between federal financial aid policy and institutional financial aid priorities and expenditures. This study uses Resource Dependency Theory to explore whether changes the amount of financial aid awarded by colleges and universities during the last fifty years are best explained…

  16. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General...

  17. Aid to Libraries: Policies and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clow, David V.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the scope and nature of aid for information and library development and analyzes contributions of bilateral and multilateral aid agencies and nongovernmental agencies. Forms of library aid are discussed, including consultancy, book and periodical donations, gifts of furniture, equipment and buildings, and provision of education and…

  18. Financial Aid Policy: Lessons from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. Aid now flows not only to traditional college students but also to part-time students, older students, and…

  19. Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Michael A; Fretheim, Atle; Maïga, Diadié

    2007-01-01

    Background Research findings are increasingly being recognized as an important input in the formation of health policy. There is concern that research findings are not being utilized by health policy-makers to the extent that they could be. The factors influencing the utilization of various types of research by health policy-makers are beginning to emerge in the literature, however there is still little known about these factors in developing countries. The object of this study was to explore these factors by examining the policy-making process for a pharmaceutical policy common in developing countries; an essential medicines list. Methods A study of the selection and updating of Mali's national essential medicines list was undertaken using qualitative methods. In-depth semi-structured interviews and a natural group discussion were held with national policy-makers, most specifically members of the national commission that selects and updates the country's list. The resulting text was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A document analysis was also performed. Results Several factors emerged from the textual data that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings for these policy-makers. These factors include: access to information, relevance of the research, use of research perceived as a time consuming process, trust in the research, authority of those who presented their view, competency in research methods, priority of research in the policy process, and accountability. Conclusion Improving the transfer of research to policy will require effort on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and third parties. This will include: collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased production and dissemination of relevant and useful research, and continued and improved technical support from networks and multi-national organizations. Policy-makers from developing countries will then be better equipped to make informed decisions

  20. Making Health System Performance Measurement Useful to Policy Makers: Aligning Strategies, Measurement and Local Health System Accountability in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Veillard, Jeremy; Huynh, Tai; Ardal, Sten; Kadandale, Sowmya; Klazinga, Niek S.; Brown, Adalsteinn D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experience of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care in enhancing its stewardship and performance management role by developing a health system strategy map and a strategy-based scorecard through a process of policy reviews and expert consultations, and linking them to accountability agreements. An evaluation of the implementation and of the effects of the policy intervention has been carried out through direct policy observation over three years, document analysis, interviews with decision-makers and systematic discussion of findings with other authors and external reviewers. Cascading strategies at health and local health system levels were identified, and a core set of health system and local health system performance indicators was selected and incorporated into accountability agreements with the Local Health Integration Networks. despite the persistence of such challenges as measurement limitations and lack of systematic linkage to decision-making processes, these activities helped to strengthen substantially the ministry's performance management function. PMID:21286268

  1. The Use of Social Ecological Hotspots Mapping: Co-Developing Adaptation Strategies for Resource Management by Communities and Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessa, L.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, adaptation is based on a set of trade-offs rather than optimal conditions, something that is rarely seen in messy social ecological systems (SES). In this talk, we discuss the role of spatial hot-spot mapping using social and biophysical data to understand the feedbacks in SES. We review the types of data needed, their means of acquisition and the analytic methods involved. In addition, we outline the challenges faced in co-developing this type of inquiry based on lessons learned from several long-term programs. Finally, we present the utility of SES hotspots in developing adaptation strategies on the ground by communities and policy makers.

  2. Literacy and Life Skills Education for Vulnerable Youth: What Policy Makers Can Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Anna Caroline; Yorozu, Rika; Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In countries with a high concentration of youth with low literacy levels, the policy and programming task related to education and training is particularly daunting. This note briefly presents policies and practices which have been put in place to provide vulnerable youth with literacy and life skills education. It is based on a multi-country…

  3. "Hearing from all sides" How legislative testimony influences state level policy-makers in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Barbero, Colleen; Andersen, Stephanie; Geary, Nora; Dodson, Elizabeth A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper investigates whether state legislators find testimony influential, to what extent testimony influences policy-makers’ decisions, and defines the features of testimony important in affecting policy-makers’ decisions. Methods: We used a mixed method approach to analyze responses from 862 state-level legislators in the United States (U.S.). Data were collected via a phone survey from January-October, 2012. Qualitative data were analyzed using a general inductive approach and codes were designed to capture the most prevalent themes. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were also completed on thematic and demographic data to identify additional themes. Results: Most legislators, regardless of political party and other common demographics, find testimony influential, albeit with various definitions of influence. While legislators reported that testimony influenced their awareness or encouraged them to take action like conducting additional research, only 6% reported that testimony changes their vote. Among those legislators who found testimony influential, characteristics of the presenter (e.g., credibility, knowledge of the subject) were the most important aspects of testimony. Legislators also noted several characteristics of testimony content as important, including use of credible, unbiased information and data. Conclusion: Findings from this study can be used by health advocates, researchers, and individuals to fine tune the delivery of materials and messages to influence policy-makers during legislative testimony. Increasing the likelihood that information from scholars will be used by policy-makers may lead to the adoption of more health policies that are informed by scientific and practice-based evidence. PMID:25674572

  4. The Policy-Science Interface for Land Management in a Changing Climate -- Closing the Gap Between Scientists, Natural Resource Managers and Policy Makers. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley-Laursen, S. B.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and related perturbations present significant challenges and opportunities for effective communications among natural resource managers, scientists and policy makers. Communication is important because of the potential dire and sometimes irreversible impacts of climate change, but challenges abound because of the lack of perceived immediacy and direct impact upon the public and land managers. The USGS national network of eight Climate Science Centers endeavors to increase communications among scientists, managers and policy makers through processes of consultation during the establishment of a science agenda and science prioritization based on inputs from a broad array of stakeholders. A Climate Science Boot Camp also fosters open dialogue and working relationships between early career climate scientists and an array of practicing natural resource managers. Professor of Natural Resources, former Dean of NR and University President Interim, PI Northwest Climate Science Center, Director Northwest Knowledge Network, Federal Relations Officer

  5. College Aid Policy and Competition for Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melguizo, Tatiana; Chung, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to identify differences in the freshman financial aid packages of low-income, high-achieving minority students in public and private institutions. Our results suggest that private and selective institutions can offer better financial aid packages that enable them to recruit higher numbers of low-income,…

  6. Maximizing Enrollment Yield through Financial Aid Packaging Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Randy; Olswang, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Using institutional data, this paper presents a model to enable researchers and enrollment managers to assess the effectiveness of financial aid packaging policies in light of student characteristics and institutional market position. The model uses discriminant analysis and a series of hypothetical financial aid award scenarios to predict the…

  7. Navigating tissue banking regulation: conceptual frameworks for researchers, administrators, regulators and policy-makers.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Wendy

    2005-11-01

    In the "post-genomic" age of biomedical research, researchers often wish to utilise collections of human tissue. This type of research raises many ethical and legal issues and anyone wishing to use such collections is faced with an enormously complex set of regulatory requirements, many of which are still ambiguous, reflecting ongoing ethical and legal debate. Whilst there is no way of entirely avoiding such regulatory complexity and ambiguity, conceptual frameworks can assist those who wish to use, administer, authorise and generate policy on tissue banking research. Two conceptual frameworks are described here: a taxonomy of tissue banking practices, aimed at assisting those who need to ensure that tissue banks meet ethical and legal requirements; and a "syncretic" approach to policy-making, for those who wish to generate new policy, or streamline existing policy relating to tissue banking research.

  8. Holding Policy-Makers to Account: Exploring "Soft" and "Hard" Policy and the Implications for Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kerry J.; Chan, Jacqueline Kin-sang; Fok, Ping Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum implementation as both an educational practice and a policy conundrum has been the focus of academic research since the 1970s. A new perspective is taken in this article by borrowing from the literature on policy implementation in multilevel systems of government. The concepts of "hard" and "soft" policy are used to show that…

  9. Development of policies for Natura 2000 sites: a multi-criteria approach to support decision makers.

    PubMed

    Cortina, Carla; Boggia, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to present a methodology to support decision makers in the choice of Natura 2000 sites needing an appropriate management plan to ensure a sustainable socio-economic development. In order to promote sustainable development in the Natura 2000 sites compatible with nature preservation, conservation measures or management plans are necessary. The main issue is to decide when only conservation measures can be applied and when the sites need an appropriate management plan. We present a case study for the Italian Region of Umbria. The methodology is based on a multi-criteria approach to identify the biodiversity index (BI), and on the development of a human activities index (HAI). By crossing the two indexes for each site on a Cartesian plane, four groups of sites were identified. Each group corresponds to a specific need for an appropriate management plan. Sites in the first group with a high level both of biodiversity and human activities have the most urgent need of an appropriate management plan to ensure sustainable development. The proposed methodology and analysis is replicable in other regions or countries by using the data available for each site in the Natura 2000 standard data form. A multi-criteria analysis is especially suitable for supporting decision makers when they deal with a multidimensional decision process. We found the multi-criteria approach particularly sound in this case, due to the concept of biodiversity itself, which is complex and multidimensional, and to the high number of alternatives (Natura 2000 sites) to be assessed.

  10. Are We Losing the Morals that Guide Student Aid Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draeger, Justin

    2012-01-01

    America's moral compass guiding student aid policy is being co-opted by short-sighted, budget-cutting and deficit-reduction policies. This moral compass was threatened, but had "not altogether disappeared" by 1996, according to an article written that year by Thomas A. Flint, then-vice president for financial services at Robert Morris College…

  11. Principles of antipsychotic prescribing for policy makers, circa 2008. Translating knowledge to promote individualized treatment.

    PubMed

    Parks, Joseph; Radke, Alan; Parker, George; Foti, May-Ellen; Eilers, Robert; Diamond, Mary; Svendsen, Dale; Tandon, Rajiv

    2009-09-01

    Findings from 2 pivotal government-funded studies of comparative antipsychotic effectiveness undermine assumptions about the marked superiority of the more expensive second-generation "atypical" medications in comparison to the less expensive first-generation "typical" drugs. Because this assumption was the basis for the almost universal recommendation that these newer antipsychotics be used preferentially resulting in a 10-fold increase in state governmental expenditures on this class of medications over the past decade, a reassessment of policy is called for. To address the issue, the Medical Directors Council of the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors critically reviewed findings of these studies in the context of other data and considered policy implications in the light of the obligations of state government to make available best possible and individually optimized treatment that is cost-effective. The Medical Directors Council unanimously adopted a set of recommendations to promote appropriate access, efficient utilization, and best practice use. We present our policy statement, in which we provide a succinct background, articulate general principles, and describe a set of 4 broad recommendations. We then summarize our understanding of the current state of knowledge about comparative antipsychotic effectiveness, best antipsychotic practice, and considerations for state policy that represent the basis of our position statement.

  12. Evaluation Report of the Course for Distance Education Policy-Makers in Southern Africa. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagula, Cisco

    2002-01-01

    The evaluator was contracted to determine whether the online or face-to-face course components met course participants' needs and increased their understanding and knowledge of policy development processes, and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of delivery strategies. In addition, the course evaluator was asked to look at the…

  13. Development assistance for health: should policy-makers worry about its macroeconomic impact?

    PubMed

    Cavagnero, Eleonora; Lane, Christopher; Evans, David B; Carrin, Guy

    2008-11-01

    Many low-income countries need to substantially increase expenditure to meet universal coverage goals for essential health services but, because they have very low-incomes, most will be unable to raise adequate funds exclusively from domestic sources in the short to medium term. Increased aid for health will be required. However, there has long been a concern that the rapid arrival of large amounts of foreign exchange in a country could lead to an increase in inflation and loss of international competitiveness, with an adverse impact on exports and economic growth, an economic phenomenon termed 'Dutch disease'. We review cross-country and country-level empirical studies and propose a simple framework to gauge the extent of macroeconomic risks. Of the 15 low-income countries that are increasing aid-financed health spending, 7 have high macroeconomic risks that may constrain the sustained expansion of spending. These conditions also apply in one-quarter of the 42 countries not presently increasing spending. Health authorities should be aware of the multiple risk factors at play, including factors that are health-sector specific and others that generally are not. They should also realize that there are effective means for mitigating the risk of Dutch disease associated with increasing development assistance for health. International partners also have an important role to play since more sustainable and predictable flows of donor funding will allow more productivity enhancing investment in physical and human capital, which will also contribute to ensuring there are few harmful macroeconomic effects of increases in aid. PMID:19030692

  14. Critical Issues: Sounding Like More Than Background Noise to Policy Makers: Qualitative Researchers in the Policy Arena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Cathy M.; Long, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the relationships of qualitative researchers to the policy-making process. Uses the example of the Reading Excellence Act to demonstrate that qualitative researchers have many points of access to the policy-making process. Suggests qualitative researchers must provide relevant information, communicate in a straightforward manner,…

  15. Teachers as Frontline Researchers and Policy Makers--A Midyear Perspective from the First IMPACT II Teacher Policy Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberberg, Mark; And Others

    The five essays included in this document focus on the First IMPACT II Teacher Policy Institute (50 New York City Public School teachers "committed to affecting real change in educational policy in this city"). "Teachers as Researchers" (Mark Silberberg) discusses the relationship between teaching and research, particularly with regard to policy…

  16. Judgments of policies designed to elicit local cooperation on LLRW disposal siting: Comparing the public and decision makers

    SciTech Connect

    Bord, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The study reported here solicited the opinions of the general public of the State of Pennsylvania and of key decision makers in environmental, civic, industry, and health groups, on various policy issues connected with the establishment of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Specifically, the focus was on their judgment of options designed to elicit local cooperation and their trust in various officials and agencies. The data indicates that the general public views both compensation and power sharing options as important in promoting local cooperation. However, power sharing options are viewed as more important than incentives. The general public consistently demonstrates a preference for options which put control of the site in the hands of locals. On the other hand, influential decision-makers, with the exception of those representing environmental advocacy organizations, tend to view compensation as more important than local power sharing. Their preferences mirror those programs currently being pursued by federal and state officials. Preferences exhibited by leaders of environmental advocacy organizations parallel those of the general public.

  17. Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

    2011-05-08

    The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

  18. Equity-focused health impact assessment: A tool to assist policy makers in addressing health inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Sarah . E-mail: sarah.simpson@unsw.edu.au; Mahoney, Mary; Harris, Elizabeth; Aldrich, Rosemary; Stewart-Williams, Jenny

    2005-10-15

    In Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for improved policy development is comparatively new. The public health workforce do not routinely assess the potential health and equity impacts of proposed policies or programs. The Australasian Collaboration for Health Equity Impact Assessment was funded to develop a strategic framework for equity-focused HIA (EFHIA) with the intent of strengthening the ways in which equity is addressed in each step of HIA. The collaboration developed a draft framework for EFHIA that mirrored, but modified the commonly accepted steps of HIA; tested the draft framework in six different health service delivery settings; analysed the feedback about application of the draft EFHIA framework and modified it accordingly. The strategic framework shows promise in providing a systematic process for identifying potential differential health impacts and assessing the extent to which these are avoidable and unfair. This paper presents the EFHIA framework and discusses some of the issues that arose in the case study sites undertaking equity-focused HIA.

  19. European decision-maker perspective with regard to influenza prevention policies.

    PubMed

    Lopalco, P L

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is a public health priority in Europe. The impact of influenza pandemics on public health is very high, but seasonal influenza also constitutes an important burden in terms of hospitalisation and excess deaths. Influenza vaccination is a fundamental pillar of disease prevention. In the absence of a clear decision-making process for vaccination policies, EU institutions have, in recent years, fostered collaboration among Member States. Such collaboration was closer during the 2009 pandemic, which constituted a clear cross-border threat to EU citizens' health. The EU institutions have been supporting national vaccination programmes by providing evidence of the effectiveness and safety of influenza vaccination. Decision 1082/2013 was a major step toward EU collaboration, in that it highlighted the role of pandemic vaccination in the field of preparedness and emergency response, in which concerted action is clearly valuable. PMID:27346941

  20. Confidentiality and treatment decisions of minor clients: a health professional's dilemma & policy makers challenge.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Margot Karen; Burns, Katharina Kovacs; Richter, Magdalena S

    2014-01-01

    Issues relating to confidentiality and consent for physical and mental health treatment with minor clients can pose challenges health care providers. Decisions need to be made regarding these issues despite the absence of clear, direct, or comprehensive policies and legislation. In order to fully understand the scope of this topic, a systemic review of several pieces of legislation and guidelines related to this topic are examined. These include the: Canadian Human Rights Act, Children's Rights: International and National Laws and Practices, Health Information Act, Gillick Competence and Medical Emancipation, Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act, Child, Youth and Family Enhancement Act, Common Law Mature Minor Doctrine, and Alberta Health Services Consent to Treatment/Practice(s) Minor/Mature Minor. In order to assist health professionals with decisions regarding confidentiality and treatment with minor clients a case study and guide for decision-making is also presented.

  1. Community health insurance amidst abolition of user fees in Uganda: the view from policy makers and health service managers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This paper investigates knowledge of Community Health Insurance (CHI) and the perception of its relevance by key policy makers and health service managers in Uganda. Community Health Insurance schemes currently operate in the private-not-for-profit sector, in settings where church-based facilities function. They operate in a wider policy environment where user fees in the public sector have been abolished. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted during the second half of 2007 with District Health Officers (DHOs) and senior staff of the Ministry of Health (MOH). The qualitative data collected were analyzed using the framework method, facilitated by EZ-Text software. Results There is poor knowledge and understanding of CHI activities by staff of the MOH headquarters and DHOs. However, a comparison of responses reveals a relatively high level of awareness of CHI principles among DHOs compared to that of MOH staff. All the DHOs in the districts with schemes had a good understanding of CHI principles compared to DHOs in districts without schemes. Out-of-pocket expenditure remains an important feature of health care financing in Uganda despite blanket abolition of user fees in government facilities. Conclusion CHI is perceived as a relevant policy option and potential source of funds for health care. It is also considered a means of raising the quality of health care in both public and private health units. To assess whether it is also feasible to introduce CHI in the public sector, there is an urgent need to investigate the willingness and readiness of stakeholders, in particular high level political authorities, to follow this new path. The current ambiguity and contradictions in the health financing policy of the Uganda MOH need to be addressed and clarified. PMID:20132539

  2. Implementing AIDS policy in post-apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H; Stein, J

    2001-03-01

    In common with the rest of the Southern African sub-continent. South Africa is currently experiencing a serious HIV epidemic. When it came into power in 1994, the new, Mandela-led government immediately mobilised funds and adopted a far-reaching AIDS Plan for the country. However, the implementation of AIDS policy in the first four years after 1994 has been characterised by a lack of progress and a breakdown of trust and co-operation, both within government and between government and NGOs. This paper outlines the political context which shaped the development of the AIDS Policy, then examines the difficulties of implementing a comprehensive response to AIDS in a country undergoing restructuring at every level. It questions the notion of "inadequate political will" as an explanation for lack of progress. Involvement by politicians has, in fact, been experienced as a double-edged sword in South Africa, with inappropriate, "quick-fix" actions creating conflict and hampering a more longer-term, effective response. The paper also highlights the importance of groupings outside of government in promoting effective policy actions, and the types of leadership required to mobilise a broad range of actors around a common vision. It concludes by emphasising the need to develop approaches to policy implementation rooted in the possibilities and constraints of the local situation, rather than relying on universal blue-prints developed out of context.

  3. 76 FR 27649 - HIV/AIDS Bureau Policy Notice 11-01 (Replaces Policy Notice 99-02)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau Policy Notice 11-01...: Final Notice. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau (HAB) Policy Notice 99-02 established policies for the use of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program funds authorized under...

  4. Preferences for a potential longer-acting injectable contraceptive: perspectives from women, providers, and policy makers in Kenya and Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, Elizabeth E; McKenna, Kevin; Mackenzie, Caroline; Ngabo, Fidele; Munyambanza, Emmanuel; Arcara, Jennet; Rademacher, Kate H; Lendvay, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Between 1995 and 2005, injectable use doubled worldwide. However, discontinuation rates remain high, partly because of side effects but also because of missed appointments for reinjection. A longer-acting injectable (LAI) may improve compliance by reducing the required number of reinjection visits, thereby reducing unintentional discontinuation. This study examined acceptability of LAI characteristics comprising the target product profile (TPP). Methods: In 2012, we conducted qualitative case studies in Kenya and Rwanda, consisting of 19 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 177 current, previous, or never users of injectables and 46 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with providers, program implementers, and policy makers. FGDs and IDIs assessed current injectable experiences; attitudes toward potential LAI products; and perceptions of TPP attributes, including ranking preferences for the most and least important characteristics. In addition, we obtained completed electronic surveys from 28 international family planning opinion leaders about the perceived need for an LAI, important product characteristics, and challenges to LAI development or introduction. Results: Many FGD participants and interviewees spontaneously expressed strong interest in an LAI, but there was some variation in TPP preferences. The majority of participants ranked effectiveness as the most important TPP attribute. Providers were generally more concerned about side effects than potential users; some potential users suggested that side effects were related less to the product than to their own body chemistry and that side effects were acceptable as long as they did not last a long time or disrupt daily activities. Women and providers, especially in Kenya, preferred a method with a predictable return to fertility. Some participants associated amenorrhea with delayed or reduced fertility. Most women and providers preferred delivery of the LAI in a single, prepackaged, disposable injection

  5. A decision aid regarding long-term tube feeding targeting substitute decision makers for cognitively impaired older persons in Japan: A small-scale before-and-after study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Japan, there is no decision-making guide regarding long-term tube feeding that specifically targets individuals making decisions on behalf of cognitively impaired older persons (substitute decision makers). The objective of this study was to describe the development and evaluation of such a decision aid. Methods In this before-and-after study, participants comprised substitute decision makers for 13 cognitively impaired inpatients aged 65 years and older who were being considered for placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube in acute care hospitals and mixed-care hospitals in Japan. Questionnaires were used to compare substitute decision makers’ knowledge, decisional conflict, and predisposition regarding feeding tube placement before and after exposure to a decision aid. The acceptability of the decision aid was also assessed. Paired t-tests were used to compare participants’ knowledge and decisional conflict scores before and after using the decision aid. Results Substitute decision makers showed significantly increased knowledge (P < .001) and decreased decisional conflict (P < .01) regarding long-term tube feeding after using the decision aid. All substitute decision makers found the decision aid helpful and acceptable. Conclusions The decision aid facilitated the decision-making process of substitute decision makers by decreasing decisional conflict and increasing knowledge. PMID:24495735

  6. Aid and Innovation: How Federal Financial Aid Policy Impacts Student Success and How States Can Respond. Policy Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    From Washington to Connecticut, Arkansas to Indiana, state policymakers and community college leaders are focused on building completion pathways to ensure that more students succeed in postsecondary education and make smooth transitions to careers. Financial aid is both an effective and a necessary policy lever to promote this goal. Not only do…

  7. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Government & Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for government and policy-makers from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and…

  8. Equality? Inclusion? Do They Go Hand-in-Hand? Policy Makers' Perceptions of Inclusion of Pupils with Special Needs--An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avissar, Gilada; Licht, Perach; Vogel, Gila

    2016-01-01

    Using Critical Discourse Analysis, this study aims to elicit and expose the perceptions and attitudes of different policy makers in leadership positions at the Ministry of Education in Israel with regard to inclusion. The first stage of the research consisted of individual in-depth semi-structured interviews (N = 8). In the second stage the…

  9. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989)

    PubMed Central

    de Barros, Sandra Garrido; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. PMID:27463255

  10. Exposure ethics: does HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis raise ethical problems for the health care provider and policy maker?

    PubMed

    Venter, Francois; Allais, Lucy; Richter, Marlise

    2014-07-01

    The last few years have seen dramatic progress in the development of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). These developments have been met by ethical concerns. HIV interventions are often thought to be ethically difficult. In a context which includes disagreements over human rights, controversies over testing policies, and questions about sexual morality and individual responsibility, PrEP has been seen as an ethically complex intervention. We argue that this is mistaken, and that in fact, PrEP does not raise new ethical concerns. Some of the questions posed by PrEP are not specific to HIV prophylaxis, but simply standard public health considerations about resource allocation and striking a balance between individual benefit and public good. We consider sexual disinhibition in the context of private prescriptions, and conclude that only unjustified AIDS-exceptionalism or inappropriate moralism about sex supports thinking that PrEP raises new ethical problems. This negative conclusion is significant in a context where supposed ethical concerns about PrEP have been raised, and in the context of HIV exceptionalism.

  11. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: what can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    PubMed

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-02-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  12. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: what can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    PubMed

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-02-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  13. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: What can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-01-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  14. 14 CFR 151.15 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting runway or taxiway remarking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General Requirements § 151.15 Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting runway or taxiway remarking. No project...

  15. Chinese College Student Aid Policy: A Case Study of "H" University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Guoxing

    2008-01-01

    The research findings have made it clear that Chinese college student aid policy has several characteristics. Generally speaking, student financial aid is increasing up to some extent. The government financial aids focus mostly on improving equality of educational opportunity in higher education. However, aids from the government are inadequate,…

  16. Effect of Financial Aid Processing Policies on Student Enrollment, Retention and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCallum, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive survey of the California community college financial aid offices and data from the California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office provide insight into how financial aid office characteristics and financial aid policies and procedures affect the enrollment, retention, and success of financial aid students at the…

  17. Policy responses to HIV/AIDS in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The countries of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) are confronted with one of the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemics worldwide, largely driven through injecting drug use. This article, based on a review of academic and grey literature, explores how they have responded. We find major similarities and differences across the region. At one extreme is Turkmenistan, which denies that there is any problem, does not offer harm reduction services or HIV/AIDS treatment and does not report any meaningful data to the international community. Uzbekistan is also pretty closed to outside influences, has discontinued its opioid substitution project and shares with Turkmenistan the legal prohibition of male-to-male sex. Kyrgyzstan originally led many progressive approaches in the region and, like neighbouring Tajikistan, has received substantial assistance by international agencies, in particular the Global Fund. Kazakhstan, with a much higher gross domestic product per capita, has taken on the financing of harm reduction activities through its national budget and has liberalised its drug policies. Yet, across the region punitive approaches to injecting drug use and people living with HIV/AIDS persist as do stigma and discrimination, while coverage with harm reduction programmes and treatment services is still low although with substantial variation across countries.

  18. Policy responses to HIV/AIDS in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The countries of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) are confronted with one of the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemics worldwide, largely driven through injecting drug use. This article, based on a review of academic and grey literature, explores how they have responded. We find major similarities and differences across the region. At one extreme is Turkmenistan, which denies that there is any problem, does not offer harm reduction services or HIV/AIDS treatment and does not report any meaningful data to the international community. Uzbekistan is also pretty closed to outside influences, has discontinued its opioid substitution project and shares with Turkmenistan the legal prohibition of male-to-male sex. Kyrgyzstan originally led many progressive approaches in the region and, like neighbouring Tajikistan, has received substantial assistance by international agencies, in particular the Global Fund. Kazakhstan, with a much higher gross domestic product per capita, has taken on the financing of harm reduction activities through its national budget and has liberalised its drug policies. Yet, across the region punitive approaches to injecting drug use and people living with HIV/AIDS persist as do stigma and discrimination, while coverage with harm reduction programmes and treatment services is still low although with substantial variation across countries. PMID:26189875

  19. HIV/AIDS policy-making in Kyrgyzstan: a stakeholder analysis.

    PubMed

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan has adopted a number of policy initiatives to deal with an accelerating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainability of the national response will be in question.

  20. Evolution of information-driven HIV/AIDS policies in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xinhua; Lu, Fan; Wu, Zunyou; Poundstone, Katharine; Zeng, Gang; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Dapeng; Liu, Kangmai; Liau, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Background As China continues to commit to universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care services, its HIV/AIDS policies have become increasingly information driven. We review China’s key national-level HIV/AIDS policies and discuss policy gaps and challenges ahead. Methods We conducted a desk review of key national-level policies that have had a major impact on China’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, and examined recent epidemiological data relevant to China’s HIV response. Results National-level policies that have had a major impact on China’s HIV/AIDS response include: ‘Four Frees and One Care’; 5-year action plans; and HIV/AIDS regulation. These landmark policies have facilitated massive scaling up of services over the past decade. For example, the number of drug users provided with methadone maintenance treatment significantly increased from 8116 in 2005 to 241 975 in 2009; almost a 30-fold increase. The ‘Four Frees and One Care’ policy has increased the number of people living with AIDS on anti-retroviral treatment from some 100 patients in 2003 to over 80 000 in 2009. However, stigma and discrimination remains major obstacles for people living with HIV/AIDS trying to access services. Conclusions China’s current national policies are increasingly information driven and responsive to changes in the epidemic. However, gaps remain in policy implementation, and new policies are needed to meet emerging challenges. PMID:21113036

  1. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive health services should include

  2. Do new cancer drugs offer good value for money? The perspectives of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population

    PubMed Central

    Dilla, Tatiana; Lizan, Luís; Paz, Silvia; Garrido, Pilar; Avendaño, Cristina; Cruz-Hernández, Juan J; Espinosa, Javier; Sacristán, José A

    2016-01-01

    Background In oncology, establishing the value of new cancer treatments is challenging. A clear definition of the different perspectives regarding the drivers of innovation in oncology is required to enable new cancer treatments to be properly rewarded for the value they create. The aim of this study was to analyze the views of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population regarding the value of new cancer treatments. Methods An exploratory and qualitative study was conducted through structured interviews to assess participants’ attitudes toward cost and outcomes of cancer drugs. First, the participants were asked to indicate the minimum survival benefit that a new treatment should have to be funded by the Spanish National Health System (NHS). Second, the participants were requested to state the highest cost that the NHS could afford for a medication that increases a patient’s quality of life (QoL) by twofold with no changes in survival. The responses were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results The minimum improvement in patient survival means that justified inclusions into the NHS were 5.7, 8.2, 9.1, and 10.4 months, which implied different ICERs for oncologists (€106,000/quality-adjusted life year [QALY]), patients (€73,520/QALY), the general population (€66,074/QALY), and health care policy makers (€57,471/QALY), respectively. The costs stated in the QoL-enhancing scenario were €33,167, €30,200, €26,000, and €17,040, which resulted in ICERs of €82,917/QALY for patients, €75,500/QALY for the general population, €65,000/QALY for oncologists, and €42,600/QALY for health care policy makers, respectively. Conclusion All estimated ICER values were higher than the thresholds previously described in the literature. Oncologists most valued gains in survival, whereas patients assigned a higher monetary value to treatments that enhanced QoL. Health care policy makers were less

  3. The School Social Worker As A Policy-Maker In The Schools--A Recent Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Katherine B.; Anderson, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    This review of the literature examines the school social worker's role and the area of policy. In the area of policy the focus will be on the school social worker as a change agent, theories of change, strategies and difficulties in initiating change, and accountability. (Author)

  4. The Virtual Environmental Microbiology Center - A Social Network for Enhanced Communication between Water Researchers and Policy Makers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective communication within and between organizations involved in research and policy making activities is essential. Sharing information across organizational and geographic boundaries can also facilitate coordination and collaboration, promote a better understanding of tech...

  5. 75 FR 6672 - HIV/AIDS Bureau; Policy Notice 99-02 Amendment #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... family to gain or maintain access and compliance with HIV-related medical care and treatment. Necessity... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau; Policy Notice 99-02... Notice 99-02, Amendment 1. SUMMARY: The HRSA HIV/AIDS Bureau (HAB) Policy Notice 99-02...

  6. Study of the Impact of Federal Student Financial Aid Policies on State Decisions. Final Report. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolfi, George J.; And Others

    The impact of federal student financial aid policy on states and state responses to federal programs are assessed. After reviewing federal and state student aid during the past decade, the State Student Incentive Grant program (SSIG), is discussed, along with the effect of federal policy on SSIG. Perspectives of the state legislatures, governors,…

  7. Institutional Aid in the 1990s: The Consequences of Policy Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reindl, Travis; Redd, Kenneth

    This report discusses the policy implications of the increasing role played by grants provided by colleges and universities as a source of financial aid for students and their families. It underscores the direct and indirect connections between changes in federal and state policy and institutions' aid programs, focusing on the effects of the…

  8. The Politics of Determining Merit Aid Eligibility Criteria: An Analysis of the Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Erik C.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the scholarly attention on the effects of merit aid on college access and choice, particularly on the significant effect that states' varied eligibility criteria play, no studies have examined the policy process through which merit aid criteria are determined. This is surprising given the recent attention to state-level policy dynamics and…

  9. Silencing women’s sexuality: global AIDS policies and the case of the female condom

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Anny JTP; van Driel, Francien TM; Jansen, Willy HM

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The female condom is the only evidence-based AIDS prevention technology that has been designed for the female body; yet, most women do not have access to it. This is remarkable since women constitute the majority of all HIV-positive people living in sub-Saharan Africa, and gender inequality is seen as a driving force of the AIDS epidemic. In this study, we analyze how major actors in the AIDS prevention field frame the AIDS problem, in particular the female condom in comparison to other prevention technologies, in their discourse and policy formulations. Our aim is to gain insight into the discursive power mechanisms that underlie the thinking about AIDS prevention and women’s sexual agency. Methods We analyze the AIDS policies of 16 agencies that constitute the most influential actors in the global response to AIDS. Our study unravels the discursive power of these global AIDS policy actors, when promoting and making choices between AIDS prevention technologies. We conducted both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of how the global AIDS epidemic is being addressed by them, in framing the AIDS problem, labelling of different categories of people for targeting AIDS prevention programmes and in gender marking of AIDS prevention technologies. Results We found that global AIDS policy actors frame the AIDS problem predominantly in the context of gender and reproductive health, rather than that of sexuality and sexual rights. Men’s sexual agency is treated differently from women’s sexual agency. An example of such differentiation and of gender marking is shown by contrasting the framing and labelling of male circumcision as an intervention aimed at the prevention of HIV with that of the female condom. Conclusions The gender-stereotyped global AIDS policy discourse negates women’s agency in sexuality and their sexual rights. This could be an important factor in limiting the scale-up of female condom programmes and hampering universal access to

  10. Policies, Practices, and Procedures in Graduate Student Aid: A Report on the 1998 NASFAA SOGAPPP Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the 1998 Survey of Graduate Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures (SOGAPPP) of the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA). Finds that professional programs at private institutions have highest tuitions; most students in professional programs receive financial aid; loans are the overwhelming type of aid…

  11. Effects of an evidence service on health-system policy makers' use of research evidence: A protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health-system policy makers need timely access to synthesised research evidence to inform the policy-making process. No efforts to address this need have been evaluated using an experimental quantitative design. We developed an evidence service that draws inputs from Health Systems Evidence, which is a database of policy-relevant systematic reviews. The reviews have been (a) categorised by topic and type of review; (b) coded by the last year searches for studies were conducted and by the countries in which included studies were conducted; (c) rated for quality; and (d) linked to available user-friendly summaries, scientific abstracts, and full-text reports. Our goal is to evaluate whether a "full-serve" evidence service increases the use of synthesized research evidence by policy analysts and advisors in the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC) as compared to a "self-serve" evidence service. Methods/design We will conduct a two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT), along with a follow-up qualitative process study in order to explore the findings in greater depth. For the RCT, all policy analysts and policy advisors (n = 168) in a single division of the MOHLTC will be invited to participate. Using a stratified randomized design, participants will be randomized to receive either the "full-serve" evidence service (database access, monthly e-mail alerts, and full-text article availability) or the "self-serve" evidence service (database access only). The trial duration will be ten months (two-month baseline period, six-month intervention period, and two month cross-over period). The primary outcome will be the mean number of site visits/month/user between baseline and the end of the intervention period. The secondary outcome will be participants' intention to use research evidence. For the qualitative study, 15 participants from each trial arm (n = 30) will be purposively sampled. One-on-one semi-structured interviews will be conducted by

  12. Middlemen and Midwives of Reform: The In-Between Worlds of Albanian Educational Policy-Makers and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardinier, Meg P.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a vertical case study in post-communist Albania, this article examines how three local experts become "in-betweens" who strategically mediate processes of social change. For example, they negotiate constructions of time and place, East and West, policy and practice, state and society. As they localise global educational models,…

  13. Why Do Policy-Makers Adopt Global Education Policies? Toward a Research Framework on the Varying Role of Ideas in Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is profoundly altering the education policy landscape. It introduces new problems in education agendas, compresses time and space in policy processes, and revitalizes the role of a range of supra-national players in educational reform. This deterritorialization of the education policy process has important theoretical and…

  14. PPD-QALY-an index for cost-effectiveness in orthopedics: providing essential information to both physicians and health care policy makers for appropriate allocation of medical resources.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Christopher P; Howard, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Because of the increasing health care costs and the need for proper allocation of resources, it is important to ensure the best use of health benefits for sick and injured people of the population. An index or indicator is needed to help us quantify what is being spent so that comparisons with other options can be implemented. Cost-effective analysis seems to be well suited to provide this essential information to health care policy makers and those charged with distributing disability funds so that the proper allocation of resources can be achieved. There is currently no such index to show whether the benefits paid out are the most cost-effective. By comparing the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of a treatment method to the disability an individual would experience, on the basis of lost wages as measure of disability, we provide decision makers more information for the basis of cost allocation in health care. To accomplish this, we describe a new term, the PPD-QALY (permanent partial disability-quality of life year). This term was developed to establish an index to which musculoskeletal care can be compared, to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a treatment on the basis of the monetary value of the disability. This term serves to standardize the monetary value of an injury. Cost-effective analysis in arthroscopic surgery may prove to be a valuable asset in this role and to provide decision makers the information needed to determine the societal benefit from new arthroscopic procedures as they are developed and implemented. PMID:23924750

  15. PPD-QALY-an index for cost-effectiveness in orthopedics: providing essential information to both physicians and health care policy makers for appropriate allocation of medical resources.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Christopher P; Howard, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Because of the increasing health care costs and the need for proper allocation of resources, it is important to ensure the best use of health benefits for sick and injured people of the population. An index or indicator is needed to help us quantify what is being spent so that comparisons with other options can be implemented. Cost-effective analysis seems to be well suited to provide this essential information to health care policy makers and those charged with distributing disability funds so that the proper allocation of resources can be achieved. There is currently no such index to show whether the benefits paid out are the most cost-effective. By comparing the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of a treatment method to the disability an individual would experience, on the basis of lost wages as measure of disability, we provide decision makers more information for the basis of cost allocation in health care. To accomplish this, we describe a new term, the PPD-QALY (permanent partial disability-quality of life year). This term was developed to establish an index to which musculoskeletal care can be compared, to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a treatment on the basis of the monetary value of the disability. This term serves to standardize the monetary value of an injury. Cost-effective analysis in arthroscopic surgery may prove to be a valuable asset in this role and to provide decision makers the information needed to determine the societal benefit from new arthroscopic procedures as they are developed and implemented.

  16. Deliberating International Science Policy Controversies: Uncertainty and AIDS in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paroske, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    International science policy controversies involve disputes over cultural differences in the assessment of knowledge claims and competing visions of the policy-making process between different nations. This essay analyzes these dynamics in the recent controversy surrounding AIDS policy in South Africa. It develops the notion of an epistemological…

  17. Decision-makers, donors and data: factors influencing the development of mental health and psychosocial policy in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Zwi, Anthony B; Blignault, Ilse; Bunde-Birouste, Anne W; Ritchie, Jan E; Silove, Derrick M

    2011-07-01

    Mental disorders and psychosocial problems are common, and present a significant public health burden globally. Increasingly, attention has been devoted to these issues in the aftermath of violent conflict. The Solomon Islands, a small Pacific island nation, has in recent years experienced periods of internal conflict. This article examines how policy decisions regarding mental health and wellbeing were incorporated into the national agenda in the years which followed. The study reveals the policy shifts, contextual influences and players responsible. The Solomon Islands' experience reflects incremental change, built upon longstanding but modest concern with mental health and social welfare issues, reinforced by advocacy from the small mental health team. Armed conflict and ethnic tensions from 1998 to 2003 promoted wider recognition of unmet mental health needs and psychosocial problems. Additional impetus was garnered through the positioning of key health leaders, some of whom were trained in public health. Working together, with an understanding of culture and politics, and drawing on external support, they drove the agenda. Contextual factors, notably further violence and the ongoing risk of instability, a growing youth population, and emerging international and local evidence, also played a part. PMID:21115459

  18. Children's knowledge of packaged and fast food brands and their BMI. Why the relationship matters for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, T Bettina; McAlister, Anna R; Polmear-Swendris, Nancy

    2014-10-01

    Studies regarding the advancing challenges of obesity in many countries are beginning to converge on the importance of early food exposure and consumption patterns. Across two studies (Study 1, 34 boys, 35 girls; Study 2, 40 boys, 35 girls, ages 3-6), child knowledge of brands offering products high in sugar, salt and fat was shown to be a significant predictor of child BMI, even after controlling for their age and gender and when also considering the extent of their TV viewing. Additionally, two different collage measures of brand knowledge (utilized across the two studies) performed similarly, suggesting that this measure may be serving as a surrogate indicator of an overall pattern of product exposure and consumption. Policy implications are discussed.

  19. Children's knowledge of packaged and fast food brands and their BMI. Why the relationship matters for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, T Bettina; McAlister, Anna R; Polmear-Swendris, Nancy

    2014-10-01

    Studies regarding the advancing challenges of obesity in many countries are beginning to converge on the importance of early food exposure and consumption patterns. Across two studies (Study 1, 34 boys, 35 girls; Study 2, 40 boys, 35 girls, ages 3-6), child knowledge of brands offering products high in sugar, salt and fat was shown to be a significant predictor of child BMI, even after controlling for their age and gender and when also considering the extent of their TV viewing. Additionally, two different collage measures of brand knowledge (utilized across the two studies) performed similarly, suggesting that this measure may be serving as a surrogate indicator of an overall pattern of product exposure and consumption. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:24972133

  20. Daring to dream: reactions to tobacco endgame ideas among policy-makers, media and public health practitioners

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    approaches. The current framing of tobacco as a risky but legal commodity was noted as an important potential barrier to implementing endgame approaches. Conclusions Endgame tobacco control approaches were considered to be viable policy options. Further policy analysis, research and public discussion are needed to develop endgame approaches. A significant change in the public framing of tobacco may be a prerequisite for implementing endgame solutions. PMID:21774829

  1. Crafting AIDS policy in Brazil and Russia: State-civil societal ties, institutionalised morals, and foreign policy aspiration.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2016-10-01

    During the 1990s, Brazil and Russia diverged in their policy response to AIDS. This is puzzling considering that both nations were globally integrated emerging economies transitioning to democracy. This article examines to what extent international pressures and partnerships with multilateral donors motivated these governments to increase and sustain federal spending and policy reforms. Contrary to this literature, the cases of Brazil and Russia suggest that these external factors were not important in achieving these outcomes. Furthermore, it is argued that Brazil's policy response was eventually stronger than Russia's and that it had more to do with domestic political and social factors: specifically, AIDS officials' efforts to cultivate a strong partnership with NGOs, the absence of officials' moral discriminatory outlook towards the AIDS community, and the government's interest in using policy reform as a means to bolster its international reputation in health. PMID:27564438

  2. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities.

  3. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  4. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  5. HIV & AIDS and Educator Development, Conduct and Support. Good Policy and Practice in HIV & AIDS and Education. Booklet 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attawell, Kathy; Elder, Katharine

    2006-01-01

    Although there is a need for enhanced evidence-based information on successful HIV and AIDS education interventions, much has already been learnt about good practices and policies in the education sector's response to the pandemic. This booklet, to be used in tandem with others in the series, aims to further expand our knowledge by highlighting…

  6. Measuring equity in household's health care payments (Tehran-Iran 2013): technical points for health policy decision makers

    PubMed Central

    Rezapour, Aziz; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Azami Aghdash, Saber; Tanoomand, Asghar; Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Morteza; Yousefzadeh, Negar; Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Households’ financial protection against health payments and expenditures and equity in utilization of health care services are of the most important tasks of governments. This study aims to measuring equity in household’s health care payments according to fairness in financial contribution (FFC) and Kakwani indices in Tehran-Iran, 2013. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014.The study sample size was estimated to be 2200 households. Households were selected using stratified-cluster sampling including typical families who reside in the city of Tehran. The data were analyzed through Excel and Stata v.11software. Recall period for the inpatient care was 1 year and for outpatient1 month. Results: The indicator of FFC for households in health financing was estimated to be 0.68 and the trend of the indicator was ascending by the rise in the ranking of households’ financial level. The Kakwani index was estimated to be a negative number (-0.00125) which indicated the descending trend of health financing system. By redistribution of incomes or the exempt of the poorest quintiles from health payments, Kakwani index was estimated to be a positive number (0.090555) which indicated the ascending trend of health financing system. Conclusion: According to this study, the equity indices in health care financing denote injustice and a descending trend in the health care financing system. This finding clearly shows that deliberate policy making in health financing by national health authorities and protecting low-income households against health expenditures are required to improve the equity in health. PMID:26793637

  7. The Effect of State Financial Aid Policies on College Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, Sheri E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, state legislatures provided $6 billion in financial aid to 2 million low-income young adults. When low-income young adults receive state financial aid and do not complete college, states lose their investment because fewer people with degrees will contribute to the state's economy. Declining states' budgets have led to (a) the rising cost…

  8. Mapping health in the Great Lakes areas of concern: a user-friendly tool for policy and decision makers.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, S J; Eyles, J; DeLuca, P

    2001-01-01

    The role of the physical environment as a determinant of health is a major concern reported by the general public as well as by many policymakers. However, it remains one of the health determinants for which few available measures or indicators are readily available. This lack of data is compounded by the fact that evidence for direct cause-and-effect relationships in the literature is often equivocal, leading to feelings of uncertainty among the lay public and often leading to indecision among policymakers. In this article we examine one aspect of the physical environment--water pollution in the Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs)--and its potential impacts on a wide range of (plausible) human health outcomes. Essentially, the International Joint Commission, the international agency that oversees Great Lakes water quality and related issues, worked with Health Canada to produce a report for each of the 17 AOCs on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes, outlining a long list of health outcomes and the potential relationships these might have with environmental exposures known or suspected to exist in the Great Lakes basin. These reports are based solely on secondary health data and a thorough review of the environmental epidemiologic literature. The use of these reports by local health policymakers as well as by public health officials in the AOCs was limited, however, by the presentation of vast amounts of data in a series of tables with various outcome measures. The reports were therefore not used widely by the audience for whom they were intended. In this paper we report the results of an undertaking designed to reduce the data and present them in a more policy-friendly manner, using a geographic information system. We do not attempt to answer directly questions related to cause and effect vis-à-vis the relationships between environment and health in the Great Lakes; rather, this work is a hypothesis-generating exercise that will help sharpen the focus of

  9. Globalization, Public Policy, and "Knowledge Gap": Ethiopian Youth and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetene, Getnet Tizazu; Dimitriadis, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Set against trans- or supra-national policy initiatives which have framed the HIV/AIDS pandemic as in part a pedagogical issue, this paper critically explores local understandings of sexual practices (generally) as well as of HIV/AIDS (more specifically) among young people in the sub-Saharan African country of Ethiopia. Ethiopia has the third…

  10. Community College Students' Experiences with Financial Aid Policies and Practices: A Critical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes community college students' experiences with governmental financial aid policies and institutional financial aid processes at an urban community college campus in the Northeastern United States. Drawing from theories of social justice, conceptions of social capital, and institutionalist analyses of the community…

  11. The Impact of Federal Financial Aid Policy upon Higher Education Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dannielle Joy; Green-Derry, Lisa Celeste; Jones, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the history of financial aid policy from the Higher Education Act of 1965 to its reauthorisation in 1992 and the subsequent ramifications upon African-American students. It considers issues of race and class with regard to college access. This work concludes with a look at contemporary aid, as well as offers race- and…

  12. Fixing New York's State Education Aid Dinosaur: A Proposal. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yinger, John

    New York State provides aid to local schools in a way that is unfair to the neediest school districts with high educational needs or low property wealth. Proposed in this policy brief is a new formula for state aid based on a comprehensive educational cost index and a school performance index that reflects an average passing rate on the new…

  13. Aid Like a Paycheck: Incremental Aid to Promote Student Success. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Michelle; Weissman, Evan; McDermott, Drew

    2013-01-01

    Aid Like A Paycheck is based on a simple idea that is gaining national attention: after tuition and fees have been paid to a college, disburse the remaining financial aid to students evenly throughout the term--like a paycheck. The goals of the program are to help students achieve a good balance between time in work and school, and think about…

  14. The "Spread" of Merit-Based College Aid: Politics, Policy Consortia, and Interstate Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Ingle, William Kyle; Levine, Amy Albee; Spence, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Many political scientists maintain that public policies diffuse across states and that proximate states, in particular, influence one another's policy activities. Using state-funded merit aid for college as its case, this article takes a new approach to the study of the diffusion phenomenon, leaving behind conventional techniques used by…

  15. AIDS/HIV Infection Policies for Early Childhood and School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Public Health, Boston.

    This volume of policies related to children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) describes appropriate ways to guarantee students' rights while maintaining public health, and answers questions for parents, educators, and caregivers. Section 1 presents policy guidelines for infants, toddlers, and…

  16. The Causes and Consequences of the Federal Student Financial Aid Policy Shift from Grants to Loans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Matt; Stick, Sheldon

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the history of student financial aid's emergence as a major issue in American education, including why a policy of financial assistance was initiated, what it sought to accomplish, how national priorities influence those policies, and its current status. Explores how the shift from grants to loans is influencing access, underrepresented…

  17. AIDS, policy analysis, and the electorate: the role of schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N; Lashof, J C

    1988-04-01

    Current debates concerning appropriate policy to combat the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have raised critical questions regarding the role that schools of public health and individual public health professionals should play, if any, in AIDS-related policy analysis and social advocacy. In the summer of 1986, the School of Public Health at the University of California at Berkeley initiated a telegram sent by the Deans of all 23 schools of public health to protest US Department of Justice AIDS policy and, in the subsequent fall, the school expanded its public educational role in an unprecedented manner by initiating and issuing, with California's other three schools of public health, a policy analysis of Proposition 64, the LaRouche AIDS Quarantine Initiative. That analysis exposed the proposition's fallacious claims regarding casual transmission of AIDS and served to educate the electorate on the likely public health impact of this deleterious legislation. Based on these experiences, and in light of ongoing national controversy regarding AIDS, we believe schools of public health have an important role to play in policy analysis, and individual public health professionals have a role to play in social advocacy.

  18. AIDS, policy analysis, and the electorate: the role of schools of public health.

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, N; Lashof, J C

    1988-01-01

    Current debates concerning appropriate policy to combat the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have raised critical questions regarding the role that schools of public health and individual public health professionals should play, if any, in AIDS-related policy analysis and social advocacy. In the summer of 1986, the School of Public Health at the University of California at Berkeley initiated a telegram sent by the Deans of all 23 schools of public health to protest US Department of Justice AIDS policy and, in the subsequent fall, the school expanded its public educational role in an unprecedented manner by initiating and issuing, with California's other three schools of public health, a policy analysis of Proposition 64, the LaRouche AIDS Quarantine Initiative. That analysis exposed the proposition's fallacious claims regarding casual transmission of AIDS and served to educate the electorate on the likely public health impact of this deleterious legislation. Based on these experiences, and in light of ongoing national controversy regarding AIDS, we believe schools of public health have an important role to play in policy analysis, and individual public health professionals have a role to play in social advocacy. PMID:3348472

  19. From marginal to marginalised: The inclusion of men who have sex with men in global and national AIDS programmes and policy.

    PubMed

    McKay, Tara

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, gay men and other men who have sex with men (msm) have come to the fore of global policy debates about AIDS prevention. In stark contrast to programmes and policy during the first two decades of the epidemic, which largely excluded msm outside of the Western countries, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS now identifies gay men and other msm as 'marginalized but not marginal' to the global response. Drawing on archival data and five waves of United Nations Country Progress Reports on HIV/AIDS (2001-2012), this paper examines the productive power of international organisations in the development and diffusion of the msm category, and considers how international organisations have shaped the interpretation of msm in national policies and programmes. These data show that the increasing separation of sexual identity and sexual behaviour at the global level helped to construct notions of risk and disease that were sufficiently broad to accommodate the diverse interests of global policy-makers, activists, and governments. However, as various international and national actors have attempted to develop prevention programmes for msm, the failure of the msm category to map onto lived experience is increasingly apparent. PMID:26878655

  20. Children and Families in an Era of Rapid Change: Creating a Shared Agenda for Researchers, Practitioners and Policy Makers. Summary of Conference Proceedings: Head Start's National Research Conference (4th, Washington, DC, July 9-12, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb-Parker, Faith, Ed.; Hagen, John, Ed.; Robinson, Ruth, Ed.; Clark, Cheryl, Ed.

    This report summarizes the conference proceedings of the fourth Head Start National Research Conference. The focus of the conference was on creating a shared agenda for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers related to serving children and families in an era of rapid change. Keynote topics and speakers are: "Countering the Health Effects of…

  1. State Financial Aid: Policies to Enhance Articulation and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Bridget Terry

    2005-01-01

    Financing and financial aid issues in higher education continue to plague state policymakers and higher education leaders. Every year, they struggle with questions of how to meet growing needs through state allocations, how best to ensure shared and equitable responsibility for paying for higher education, and how best to use subsidies such as…

  2. The Impact of Aid on Education Policy in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher; De, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, large numbers of children in India remained out of school. International commitments to achieve education for all (EFA) globally meant that India was an important case for donors. India was pressed to accept aid for primary education, and agreed with some reluctance. Although subsequent donor involvement was substantial and…

  3. Early Commitment Financial Aid Programs: Promises, Practices, and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2005-01-01

    Student financial assistance has long been a means to promote access to postsecondary education and attainment of college degrees. Numerous types of financial aid programs have proliferated over the years, including a relatively new concept that specifically targets high-risk, low-income students, focusing not just on getting them to go to college…

  4. After the famine: food aid policy and management issues in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Stephens, T W

    1986-08-01

    The large amount of food aid that was required to meet Africa's emergency food situation resulted in the postponement of some fundamental decisions that were being taken about food aid use in sub-Saharan Africa. Now the donor community and recipient governments are again giving priority to integrating food aid with other available resources in order to meet longer-term food policy and wider development objectives. This paper looks at some of the policy and management issues which need to be addressed if the effectiveness of food aid assistance is to be improved in the current African context. Shortages of locally qualified personnel to administer project food aid have proven to be a major bottleneck in most sub-Saharan countries. Most sub-Saharan states receive food aid from a variety of sources: multilateral, bilateral and a few private-voluntary organizations. As a result, countervailing priorities are set by the donors themselves and give rise to conflicts. The recent drought and famine conditions have compounded an image problem in which food aid is narrowly identified by recipient governments as a project resource to be used primarily for nutrition interventions and for the rural sector. The image problem often limits project selection and overlooks innovative uses of food aid. Many sub-Saharan countries are starting to acquire considerable amounts of counterpart funds from program food aid. However, their use is not coherently integrated with the total aid flow. Multi-year programming has emerged as a management issue which has unnecessarily divided the food aid donor community. The fundamental issue is flexibility in programming, not multi-year programming. The major policy objective now facing the food aid donor community and recipient countries is how to lower emergency allocations while simultaneously increasing project and program aid. Most nonfood-aid donor agencies and their constituent bodies do not treat food aid as a valid economic resource, thereby

  5. Establishing a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities to sustainably manage environmental health risks in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Sustainably Managing Environmental Health Risk in Ecuador project was launched in 2004 as a partnership linking a large Canadian university with leading Cuban and Mexican institutes to strengthen the capacities of four Ecuadorian universities for leading community-based learning and research in areas as diverse as pesticide poisoning, dengue control, water and sanitation, and disaster preparedness. Methods In implementing curriculum and complementary innovations through application of an ecosystem approach to health, our interdisciplinary international team focused on the question: “Can strengthening of institutional capacities to support a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities produce positive health outcomes and improved capacities to sustainably translate knowledge?” To assess progress in achieving desired outcomes, we review results associated with the logic framework analysis used to guide the project, focusing on how a community of practice network has strengthened implementation, including follow-up tracking of program trainees and presentation of two specific case studies. Results By 2009, train-the-trainer project initiation involved 27 participatory action research Master’s theses in 15 communities where 1200 community learners participated in the implementation of associated interventions. This led to establishment of innovative Ecuadorian-led master’s and doctoral programs, and a Population Health Observatory on Collective Health, Environment and Society for the Andean region based at the Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar. Building on this network, numerous initiatives were begun, such as an internationally funded research project to strengthen dengue control in the coastal community of Machala, and establishment of a local community eco-health centre focusing on determinants of health near Cuenca. Discussion Strengthening capabilities for producing and applying knowledge through direct

  6. Barriers to the participation of people with psychosocial disability in mental health policy development in South Africa: a qualitative study of perspectives of policy makers, professionals, religious leaders and academics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper outlines stakeholder views on environmental barriers that prevent people who live with psychosocial disability from participating in mental health policy development in South Africa. Method Fifty-six semi-structured interviews with national, provincial and local South African mental health stakeholders were conducted between August 2006 and August 2009. Respondents included public sector policy makers, professional regulatory council representatives, and representatives from non-profit organisations (NPOs), disabled people’s organisations (DPOs), mental health interest groups, religious organisations, professional associations, universities and research institutions. Results Respondents identified three main environmental barriers to participation in policy development: (a) stigmatization and low priority of mental health, (b) poverty, and (c) ineffective recovery and community supports. Conclusion A number of attitudes, practices and structures undermine the equal participation of South Africans with psychosocial disability in society. A human rights paradigm and multi-system approach is required to enable full social engagement by people with psychosocial disability, including their involvement in policy development. PMID:23497079

  7. An unassuming revelation: Cuba's social policy toward the AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Binns, L A

    2013-01-01

    The thrust of this essay is nestled in Cuba's complimentary approach to the treatment of HIV/AIDS virus. In a comprehensive and comparative fashion, the contents herein give credence to a developing nation that demonstrates expedience and emphasizes a history of continuity with remarkable results. Underlying the report is a journey that enlightens the reader to a process rich in application and outcome during a period in which the plaque of HIV has transformed the Caribbean and Latin America community. Meanwhile, it also speaks to a collaborative effort inclusive of government , medical agencies, laboratories, international organizations and the public toward a common good. The country, nonetheless, is not without its shortcomings and therefore monetary constraints and matters of confidentiality and discrimination are pivotal to the presentation. In fact, an elaborate characterization accentuates a 50-year old commercial interdiction as a deterrent that contributes to the disruption of affordability and accessibility to the exchange of goods, services and information. Against all likelihood, a contrasting analysis of regional states inclusive of the United States of America documents Cuba's astonishing success in restricting HIV/AIDS. The Cuban model as described is an exemplary work in progress but likewise the fulfillment of the socialist philosophy toward humanity.

  8. Trade, aid and migrations: some basic policy issues.

    PubMed

    Faini, R; Venturini, A

    1993-04-01

    The link between trade policy and international migration is explored using data from the United States and Europe. "We conclude that restrictive trade policies in industrialised countries have most likely added to migration pressures. We then turn to the broader question of the effects of income growth in the sending countries on the propensity to migrate. We argue that, in relatively poor countries, an increase in income will be associated with higher migration flows. For middle income countries, however, income growth will lead to lower migrations. In the medium run, therefore, the relationship between development levels, as measured by GDP per capita, and the propensity to migrate follows an inverse-U pattern. Econometric analysis of aggregate migration flows from Southern Europe provides considerable support for such conjecture."

  9. Circus monkeys or change agents? Civil society advocacy for HIV/AIDS in adverse policy environments.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Neil; Harmer, Andrew; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the factors enabling and undermining civil society efforts to advocate for policy reforms relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs in three countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. It examines how political contexts and civil society actors' strengths and weaknesses inhibit or enable advocacy for policy change - issues that are not well understood in relation to specific policy areas such as HIV/AIDS, or particular regions of the world where national policies are believed to be major drivers of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The study is based on in-depth interviews with representatives of civil society organizations (CSOs) (n = 49) and national level informants including government and development partners (n = 22). Our policy analysis identified a culture of fear derived from concerns for personal safety but also risk of losing donor largesse. Relations between CSOs and government were often acrimonious rather than synergistic, and while we found some evidence of CSO collective action, competition for external funding - in particular for HIV/AIDS grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was often divisive. Development partners and government tend to construct CSOs as service providers rather than advocates. While some advocacy was tolerated by governments, CSO participation in the policy process was, ultimately, perceived to be tokenistic. This was because there are financial interests in maintaining prohibitionist legislation: efforts to change punitive laws directed at the behaviors of minority groups such as injecting drug users have had limited impact.

  10. Circus monkeys or change agents? Civil society advocacy for HIV/AIDS in adverse policy environments.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Neil; Harmer, Andrew; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the factors enabling and undermining civil society efforts to advocate for policy reforms relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs in three countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. It examines how political contexts and civil society actors' strengths and weaknesses inhibit or enable advocacy for policy change - issues that are not well understood in relation to specific policy areas such as HIV/AIDS, or particular regions of the world where national policies are believed to be major drivers of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The study is based on in-depth interviews with representatives of civil society organizations (CSOs) (n = 49) and national level informants including government and development partners (n = 22). Our policy analysis identified a culture of fear derived from concerns for personal safety but also risk of losing donor largesse. Relations between CSOs and government were often acrimonious rather than synergistic, and while we found some evidence of CSO collective action, competition for external funding - in particular for HIV/AIDS grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was often divisive. Development partners and government tend to construct CSOs as service providers rather than advocates. While some advocacy was tolerated by governments, CSO participation in the policy process was, ultimately, perceived to be tokenistic. This was because there are financial interests in maintaining prohibitionist legislation: efforts to change punitive laws directed at the behaviors of minority groups such as injecting drug users have had limited impact. PMID:22036298

  11. Adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies: an analysis of industry/sector variations.

    PubMed

    Bakuwa, Rhoda

    2010-12-01

    Addressing HIV and AIDS is the responsibility of many stakeholders including private sector companies. However, increasing evidence reveals that the majority of companies around the world are yet to acknowledge and respond to HIV and AIDS as a workplace issue. One factor that has been identified in the literature as playing a role in determining whether a company responds to HIV and AIDS, or not, is the industry/sector in which a company operates. This study therefore sought to empirically examine whether in the context of Malawi there were significant variations in the adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies based on the industry/sector in which a company was operating, as well as analyse the dynamics underlying such variations. Using survey data collected from 152 randomly selected private sector companies in Malawi, the results of this study revealed significant variations in the adoption of HIV and AIDS workplace policies among companies operating in various sectors. Companies in the service sector were leading the adoption compared to companies in other sectors such as the trading sector. Furthermore, the evidence from this study showed that differences in staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions may explain the industry/sector variations. These results provide an important avenue to scale up company responses to HIV and AIDS by intensifying staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions. Such institutions appear to play a vital role of providing up to date HIV-and AIDS-related information upon which companies are able to develop a business case for responding to the epidemic.

  12. Adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies: an analysis of industry/sector variations.

    PubMed

    Bakuwa, Rhoda

    2010-12-01

    Addressing HIV and AIDS is the responsibility of many stakeholders including private sector companies. However, increasing evidence reveals that the majority of companies around the world are yet to acknowledge and respond to HIV and AIDS as a workplace issue. One factor that has been identified in the literature as playing a role in determining whether a company responds to HIV and AIDS, or not, is the industry/sector in which a company operates. This study therefore sought to empirically examine whether in the context of Malawi there were significant variations in the adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies based on the industry/sector in which a company was operating, as well as analyse the dynamics underlying such variations. Using survey data collected from 152 randomly selected private sector companies in Malawi, the results of this study revealed significant variations in the adoption of HIV and AIDS workplace policies among companies operating in various sectors. Companies in the service sector were leading the adoption compared to companies in other sectors such as the trading sector. Furthermore, the evidence from this study showed that differences in staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions may explain the industry/sector variations. These results provide an important avenue to scale up company responses to HIV and AIDS by intensifying staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions. Such institutions appear to play a vital role of providing up to date HIV-and AIDS-related information upon which companies are able to develop a business case for responding to the epidemic. PMID:21409305

  13. Policies of containment: immigration in the era of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, A L; Tynan, E A

    1994-01-01

    The US Public Health Service began the medical examination of immigrants at US ports in 1891. By 1924, national origin had become a means to justify broad-based exclusion of immigrants after Congress passed legislation restricting immigration from southern and eastern European countries. This legislation was passed based on the alleged genetic inferiority of southern and eastern Europeans. Since 1987, the United States has prohibited the entrance of immigrants infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). On the surface, a policy of excluding individuals with an inevitably fatal "communicable disease of public health significance" rests solidly in the tradition of protecting public health. But excluding immigrants with HIV is also a policy that, in practice, resembles the 1924 tradition of selective racial restriction of immigrants from "dangerous nations." Since the early 1980s, the United States has erected barriers against immigrants from particular Caribbean and African nations, whose citizens were thought to pose a threat of infecting the US blood supply with HIV. Images p2012-a p2014-a PMID:7998650

  14. 16 CFR 1500.134 - Policy on first aid labeling for saline emesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Product Safety Commission's policy concerning first aid instructions for the use of a salt solution to... have contained a statement that this should be accomplished by drinking a solution of salt (sodium chloride) in warm water. At one time, this direction was considered medically acceptable. However,...

  15. Sharpening the Dialogue: Engaging Policymakers in the Alignment of Appropriations, Tuition, and Financial Aid Policy. Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demaree K.

    2006-01-01

    This issue of "Exchanges" highlights a number of issues in the challenge to align appropriations, tuition and financial aid (AFTA) policy. Two distinct trends in the nature of the American student population are identified: significant demographic shifts and the emerging necessity of serving adult learners. These shifts are prompting state…

  16. A Public Policy Approach to Local Models of HIV/AIDS Control in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Andreia; Costa-Couto, Maria-Helena; Thoenig, Jean-Claude; Fleury, Sonia; de Camargo, Kenneth; Larouzé, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated involvement and cooperation patterns of local Brazilian AIDS program actors and the consequences of these patterns for program implementation and sustainability. Methods. We performed a public policy analysis (documentary analysis, direct observation, semistructured interviews of health service and nongovernmental organization [NGO] actors) in 5 towns in 2 states, São Paulo and Pará. Results. Patterns suggested 3 models. In model 1, local government, NGOs, and primary health care services were involved in AIDS programs with satisfactory response to new epidemiological trends but a risk that HIV/AIDS would become low priority. In model 2, mainly because of NGO activism, HIV/AIDS remained an exceptional issue, with limited responses to new epidemiological trends and program sustainability undermined by political instability. In model 3, involvement of public agencies and NGOs was limited, with inadequate response to epidemiological trends and poor mobilization threatening program sustainability. Conclusions. Within a common national AIDS policy framework, the degree of involvement and cooperation between public and NGO actors deeply impacts population coverage and program sustainability. Specific processes are required to maintain actor mobilization without isolating AIDS programs. PMID:19372523

  17. Financial Aid Policies and Practices at Medical and Dental Schools: Current Trends and Future Concerns. Synopsis: Higher Education Research Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators sponsored the 1998 Survey of Graduate Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures (SOGAPPP), which asked aid administrators at graduate and professional programs to provide information on the types and sources of financial assistance they distributed to their students during the…

  18. FAmily CEntered (FACE) advance care planning: Study design and methods for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for patients with HIV/AIDS and their surrogate decision-makers

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Allison L.; Wang, Jichuan; Scott, Rachel; Briggs, Linda; Lyon, Maureen E.

    2016-01-01

    Although the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has become a chronic illness, disease-specific advance care planning has not yet been evaluated for the palliative care needs of adults with HIV/AIDS. This prospective, longitudinal, randomized, two-arm controlled clinical trial aims to test the efficacy of FAmily CEntered Advance Care Planning among adults living with AIDS and/or HIV with co-morbidities on congruence in treatment preferences, healthcare utilization, and quality of life. The FAmily CEntered intervention arm is two face-to-face sessions with a trained, certified facilitator: Session 1) Disease-Specific Advance Care Planning Respecting Choices Interview; Session 2) Completion of advance directive. The Healthy Living control arm is: Session 1) Developmental/Relationship History; Session 2) Nutrition. Follow-up data will be collected at 3, 6, 12, and 18-month post-intervention. A total of 288 patient/surrogate dyads will be enrolled from five hospital-based, out-patient clinics in Washington, District of Columbia. Participants will be HIV positive and ≥21 years of age; surrogates will be ≥18 years of age. Exclusion criteria are homicidality, suicidality, psychosis, and impaired cognitive functioning. We hypothesize that this intervention will enhance patient-centered communication with a surrogate decision-maker about end of life treatment preferences over time, enhance patient quality of life and decrease health care utilization. We further hypothesize that this intervention will decrease health disparities for Blacks in completion of advance directives. If proposed aims are achieved, the benefits of palliative care, particularly increased treatment preferences about end-of-life care and enhanced quality of life, will be extended to people living with AIDS. PMID:26044463

  19. FAmily CEntered (FACE) advance care planning: Study design and methods for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for patients with HIV/AIDS and their surrogate decision-makers.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, Allison L; Wang, Jichuan; Scott, Rachel K; Briggs, Linda; Lyon, Maureen E

    2015-07-01

    Although the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has become a chronic illness, disease-specific advance care planning has not yet been evaluated for the palliative care needs of adults with HIV/AIDS. This prospective, longitudinal, randomized, two-arm controlled clinical trial aims to test the efficacy of FAmily CEntered advance care planning among adults living with AIDS and/or HIV with co-morbidities on congruence in treatment preferences, healthcare utilization, and quality of life. The FAmily CEntered intervention arm is two face-to-face sessions with a trained, certified facilitator: Session 1) Disease-Specific Advance Care Planning Respecting Choices Interview; Session 2) Completion of advance directive. The Healthy Living Control arm is: Session 1) Developmental/Relationship History; Session 2) Nutrition. Follow-up data will be collected at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-intervention. A total of 288 patient/surrogate dyads will be enrolled from five hospital-based, out-patient clinics in Washington, District of Columbia. Participants will be HIV positive and ≥ 21 years of age; surrogates will be ≥ 18 years of age. Exclusion criteria are homicidality, suicidality, psychosis, and impaired cognitive functioning. We hypothesize that this intervention will enhance patient-centered communication with a surrogate decision-maker about end of life treatment preferences over time, enhance patient quality of life and decrease health care utilization. We further hypothesize that this intervention will decrease health disparities for Blacks in completion of advance directives. If proposed aims are achieved, the benefits of palliative care, particularly increased treatment preferences about end-of-life care and enhanced quality of life, will be extended to people living with AIDS.

  20. Conceptualizing a Human Right to Prevention in Global HIV/AIDS Policy

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Brugh, Kristen Nichole; Halima, Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    Given current constraints on universal treatment campaigns, recent advances in public health prevention initiatives have revitalized efforts to stem the tide of HIV transmission. Yet, despite a growing imperative for prevention—supported by the promise of behavioral, structural and biomedical approaches to lower the incidence of HIV—human rights frameworks remain limited in addressing collective prevention policy through global health governance. Assessing the evolution of rights-based approaches to global HIV/AIDS policy, this review finds that human rights have shifted from collective public health to individual treatment access. While the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic gave meaning to rights in framing global health policy, the application of rights in treatment access litigation came at the expense of public health prevention efforts. Where the human rights framework remains limited to individual rights enforced against a state duty bearer, such rights have faced constrained application in framing population-level policy to realize the public good of HIV prevention. Concluding that human rights frameworks must be developed to reflect the complementarity of individual treatment and collective prevention, this article conceptualizes collective rights to public health, structuring collective combination prevention to alleviate limitations on individual rights frameworks and frame rights-based global HIV/AIDS policy to assure research expansion, prevention access and health system integration. PMID:23226723

  1. Remote hearing aid fitting: Tele-audiology in the context of Brazilian Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    Penteado, Silvio Pires; Ramos, Sueli de Lima; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo; Marone, Silvio Antonio Monteiro; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Currently, the Brazilian government has certificated nearly 140 specialized centers in hearing aid fittings through the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). Remote fitting through the Internet can allow a broader and more efficient coverage with a higher likelihood of success for patients covered by the SUS, as they can receive fittings from their own homes instead of going to the few and distant specialized centers. Aim: To describe a case of remote fitting between 2 cities, with revision of the literature. Method: Computer gears, a universal interface, and hearing aids were used. Case study: An audiologist located in a specialized center introduced a new hearing aid and its fitting procedure to a remote center (200 km away). The specialized center helped the remote center in fitting a hearing aid in 2 patients, and performed fitting in one of its own patients. The whole process was done through the Internet with audio and video in real time. Results: Three patients were fitted remotely. Three audiologists were remotely trained on how to fit the hearing aids. Conclusions: Remote fitting of hearing aids is possible through the Internet, as well as further supplying technical training to a remote center about the fitting procedures. Such a technological approach can help the government advance public policies on hearing rehabilitation, as patients can be motivated about maintaining their use of hearing aids with the option to ask for help in the comfort of their own homes. PMID:25991960

  2. Prioritizing groundwater remediation policies: a fuzzy compatibility analysis decision aid.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Fuzhan; Huang, Gordon; Fuller, Norma

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of groundwater remediation strategies in contaminated areas includes not only a cost-benefit analysis and an environmental risk assessment but also another type of study called compatibility analysis. A compatibility analysis targets the interactions between remediation technologies and site characteristics, such as the types of active contaminants and their concentrations, soil composition and geological features, etc. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the most compatible remediation plan for the contaminated site. In this paper, we introduce a decision support system for the prioritization of remediation plans based on their estimated compatibility index. As this model receives data in terms of linguistic judgments and experts' opinions, we use fuzzy sets theory to deal with these uncertainties. First, we break down the concept of compatibility into the measurable factors. Then by using a multiple-attribute decision-making (MADM) outline, we compute a factorial, regional and overall compatibility indicator for each plan. Finally, by comparing these generated indicators, we rank the remediation policies.

  3. Here Today, Gone Tomorrow? Investigating Rates and Patterns of Financial Aid Renewal among College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Kelli; Castleman, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    College affordability continues to be a top concern among prospective students, their families, and policy makers. Prior work has demonstrated that a significant share of prospective students forgo financial aid because they did not complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA); recent federal policy efforts have focused on…

  4. The impact of the International Monetary Fund's macroeconomic policies on the AIDS pandemic.

    PubMed

    Baker, Brook K

    2010-01-01

    Expansion of funding for HIV/AIDS, especially treatment, is under attack over concerns about cost effectiveness and financial constraints. The International Monetary Fund is deeply implicated in the history of the AIDS pandemic, the underlying weakness of health systems, and the ideology of constrained resources that underlies most attacks on AIDS funding. The IMF imposed structural violence on developing countries in the 1980s and 1990s through neoliberal and macroeconomic reforms that intensified individual and communal vulnerability to infection and dismantled already weak health systems. This same macroeconomic fundamentalism has recently been repackaged and renamed. IMF fundamentalist policies continue to prioritize low inflation, constricted government spending, robust foreign currency reserves, and prompt repayment of debt at the expense of investments in health and more expansionary, pro-growth and job-creation policies. Several recent surveys have concluded that the IMF reluctantly relaxed overly restrictive policy prescriptions in response to the global economic crisis, but this relaxation was temporary at best and only extended to countries previously acceding to IMF orthodoxy. AIDS activists are campaigning for billions of dollars to fulfill the promise of universal access. If IMF pressures persist, developing countries will continue to undermine the additionality of donor health financing by substituting donor for domestic financing, refusing to invest in recurrent costs for medicines and health workers, and neglecting needed investments in health infrastructure and health system strengthening. PMID:20440979

  5. State Decision-Makers Guide for Hazardous Waste Management: Defining Hazardous Wastes, Problem Recognition, Land Use, Facility Operations, Conceptual Framework, Policy Issues, Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Alan; And Others

    Presented are key issues to be addressed by state, regional, and local governments and agencies in creating effective hazardous waste management programs. Eight chapters broadly frame the topics which state-level decision makers should consider. These chapters include: (1) definition of hazardous waste; (2) problem definition and recognition; (3)…

  6. Migration, Aid and Trade: Policy Coherence for Development. Policy Brief No. 28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton-Johnson, Jeff; Katseli, Louka T.

    2006-01-01

    Many Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries recruit internationally skilled workers for their health, education, or public administration sectors and the subsequent emigration of such workers can cause critical shortages in developing countries, even as these countries receive substantial aid from those same OECD…

  7. The demographic transition revisited: lessons for foreign aid and U.S. immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, V

    1993-12-01

    "The completed demographic transitions in industrialized countries inspired a model which underlies many well-meant policies affecting the Third World. However, the model's postulate--modernization and prosperity will lower fertility rates--has exacerbated rather than helped control worldwide population growth and the associated environmental degradation. Here we show that perceived economic opportunity leads to raising family size targets and to discarding elements of traditional cultures which formerly held fertility rates in check. Conversely, fertility rates fall when limits are recognized. These observations imply that a liberal immigration policy and large-scale foreign aid are counterproductive for restoring balance between population size and carrying capacity."

  8. 75 FR 55341 - Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Assistance and Fire Management Assistance AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... comments on Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire...

  9. Forward to AIDS 2014: Now is the Time to Unite for the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    As AIDS activists, advocates, researchers, practitioners, scientists, and policy makers from around the world prepare for the forthcoming 20th International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2014) which takes place from 20-25 July in Melbourne, Australia, Gregory Pappas, MD, PhD, former Executive Director of the Washington DC’s local Host Committee, International AIDS Society (IAS) organizing committee member, and Director, HIV/AIDS Program in the District of Columbia, Washington, DC, USA, reflects, for the first time, on his experiences hosting the world conference and bringing AIDS conference to United States after 22 years. He shares some of the key challenges and opportunities confronting program planners, policy makers and advocates in the efforts to address the global epidemic. PMID:27621974

  10. Forward to AIDS 2014: Now is the Time to Unite for the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    As AIDS activists, advocates, researchers, practitioners, scientists, and policy makers from around the world prepare for the forthcoming 20th International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2014) which takes place from 20-25 July in Melbourne, Australia, Gregory Pappas, MD, PhD, former Executive Director of the Washington DC’s local Host Committee, International AIDS Society (IAS) organizing committee member, and Director, HIV/AIDS Program in the District of Columbia, Washington, DC, USA, reflects, for the first time, on his experiences hosting the world conference and bringing AIDS conference to United States after 22 years. He shares some of the key challenges and opportunities confronting program planners, policy makers and advocates in the efforts to address the global epidemic.

  11. Physician-facilitated designation of proxy decision maker.

    PubMed

    Arora, Amit; Cummings, Laura; Crome, Peter

    2016-01-01

    With vast improvements in healthcare in recent decades, people are living longer but often with higher rates of morbidity and chronic illnesses. This has resulted in a higher proportion of the population who may benefit from early end-of-life 'conversation and planning', but also gives healthcare professionals more time during which these discussions are relevant, as people live longer with their chronic diseases. A survey conducted by Lifshitz et al (Isr J Health Policy Res 5:6, 2016) sought to assess physician awareness and willingness to discuss designating a proxy decision-maker with patients, in order to aid end-of-life care in the event that the patient is rendered unable to make or communicate these decisions later in life. Their article suggests that proxy decision-maker designation is only one aspect of end-of-life care; a challenging area littered with ethical and moral dilemmas. Without early, open and frank discussions with patients regarding their wishes at the end of life, proxy decision-makers may be in no better position than physicians or a court appointed proxy to make decisions in the patients' best interests/benefits. This commentary also touches upon the use of health and care passports being developed or in early phases in the United Kingdom, and whether these may be utilised in the field of palliative care in Israel.

  12. Physician-facilitated designation of proxy decision maker.

    PubMed

    Arora, Amit; Cummings, Laura; Crome, Peter

    2016-01-01

    With vast improvements in healthcare in recent decades, people are living longer but often with higher rates of morbidity and chronic illnesses. This has resulted in a higher proportion of the population who may benefit from early end-of-life 'conversation and planning', but also gives healthcare professionals more time during which these discussions are relevant, as people live longer with their chronic diseases. A survey conducted by Lifshitz et al (Isr J Health Policy Res 5:6, 2016) sought to assess physician awareness and willingness to discuss designating a proxy decision-maker with patients, in order to aid end-of-life care in the event that the patient is rendered unable to make or communicate these decisions later in life. Their article suggests that proxy decision-maker designation is only one aspect of end-of-life care; a challenging area littered with ethical and moral dilemmas. Without early, open and frank discussions with patients regarding their wishes at the end of life, proxy decision-makers may be in no better position than physicians or a court appointed proxy to make decisions in the patients' best interests/benefits. This commentary also touches upon the use of health and care passports being developed or in early phases in the United Kingdom, and whether these may be utilised in the field of palliative care in Israel. PMID:27358723

  13. The Drafting and Submission of an HIV/AIDS Policy Draft for a Native American Child Welfare Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzemer, Daniel Pete

    An Indian child welfare agency realized the need for an HIV/AIDS policy when a diabetic child possibly exposed to the HIV virus was placed in one of the agency's licensed foster homes. A focus-group interview process was selected for policy development because this method appeared to parallel the Native American cultural approach toward consensus…

  14. Funding Special Education by Total District Enrollment: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Policy Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhuey, Elizabeth; Lipscomb, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Several states and the federal government distribute aid for special education programs based primarily on total district enrollment and a fixed aid amount per student, a method called "census funding." In this policy brief, we address three questions to help policy makers, educators, and researchers better understand census-funding…

  15. MakerBot

    NASA Video Gallery

    Langley’s new Personal Fabrication Laboratory now has a MakerBot. In this video, the 3D printer is making a space shuttle out of glow-in-the-dark plastic material. In real-time, the process took...

  16. Strengthening the research to policy and practice interface: exploring strategies used by research organisations working on sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This commentary introduces the HARPS supplement on getting research into policy and practice in sexual and reproductive health (SRH). The papers in this supplement have been produced by the Sexual Health and HIV Evidence into Practice (SHHEP) collaboration of international research, practitioner and advocacy organizations based in research programmes funded by the UK Department for International Development. The commentary describes the increasing interest from research and communication practitioners, policy makers and funders in expanding the impact of research on policy and practice. It notes the need for contextually embedded understanding of ways to engage multiple stakeholders in the politicized, sensitive and often contested arenas of sexual and reproductive health. The commentary then introduces the papers under their respective themes: (1) The theory and practice of research engagement (two global papers); (2) Applying policy analysis to explore the role of research evidence in SRH and HIV/AIDS policy (two papers with examples from Ghana, Malawi, Uganda and Zambia); (3) Strategies and methodologies for engagement (five papers on Kenya, South Africa, Ghana, Tanzania and Swaziland respectively); (4) Advocacy and engagement to influence attitudes on controversial elements of sexual health (two papers, Bangladesh and global); and (5) Institutional approaches to inter-sectoral engagement for action and strengthening research communications (two papers, Ghana and global). The papers illustrate the many forms research impact can take in the field of sexual and reproductive health. This includes discursive changes through carving out legitimate spaces for public debate; content changes such as contributing to changing laws and practices, procedural changes such as influencing how data on SRH are collected, and behavioural changes through partnerships with civil society actors such as advocacy groups and journalists. The contributions to this supplement provide a

  17. Strengthening the research to policy and practice interface: exploring strategies used by research organisations working on sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Sally; Tulloch, Olivia; Crichton, Joanna; Hawkins, Kate; Zulu, Eliya; Mayaud, Philippe; Parkhurst, Justin; Whiteside, Alan; Standing, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    This commentary introduces the HARPS supplement on getting research into policy and practice in sexual and reproductive health (SRH). The papers in this supplement have been produced by the Sexual Health and HIV Evidence into Practice (SHHEP) collaboration of international research, practitioner and advocacy organizations based in research programmes funded by the UK Department for International Development.The commentary describes the increasing interest from research and communication practitioners, policy makers and funders in expanding the impact of research on policy and practice. It notes the need for contextually embedded understanding of ways to engage multiple stakeholders in the politicized, sensitive and often contested arenas of sexual and reproductive health. The commentary then introduces the papers under their respective themes: (1) The theory and practice of research engagement (two global papers); (2) Applying policy analysis to explore the role of research evidence in SRH and HIV/AIDS policy (two papers with examples from Ghana, Malawi, Uganda and Zambia); (3) Strategies and methodologies for engagement (five papers on Kenya, South Africa, Ghana, Tanzania and Swaziland respectively); (4) Advocacy and engagement to influence attitudes on controversial elements of sexual health (two papers, Bangladesh and global); and (5) Institutional approaches to inter-sectoral engagement for action and strengthening research communications (two papers, Ghana and global).The papers illustrate the many forms research impact can take in the field of sexual and reproductive health. This includes discursive changes through carving out legitimate spaces for public debate; content changes such as contributing to changing laws and practices, procedural changes such as influencing how data on SRH are collected, and behavioural changes through partnerships with civil society actors such as advocacy groups and journalists.The contributions to this supplement provide a body

  18. "Rule of Thumb Methods No Longer Suffice": Development of British Coal Industry Education and Training 1900-circa 1970 and Lessons for Present-Day Education Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martyn A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the origins and development of coal mining education and training in Britain from 1900 to the 1970s, by which time the coal industry had substantially declined. It looks at the progress from working-class self-help to national policy in support of education and training. The research makes use of college prospectuses and…

  19. From compulsory to voluntary immunisation: Italy's National Vaccination Plan (2005-7) and the ethical and organisational challenges facing public health policy-makers across Europe.

    PubMed

    Moran, N E; Gainotti, S; Petrini, C

    2008-09-01

    Increasing geographical mobility and international travel augment the ease and speed by which infectious diseases can spread across large distances. It is therefore incumbent upon each state to ensure that immunisation programmes are effective and that herd immunity is achieved. Across Europe, a range of immunisation policies exist: compulsion, the offer of financial incentives to parents or healthcare professionals, social and professional pressure, or simply the dissemination of clear information and advice. Until recently, immunisation against particular communicable diseases was compulsory in Italy. The Italian National Vaccination Plan (NVP) (2005-7) paved the way for regions to suspend the sanctions associated with compulsory vaccinations for children when certain criteria are met--for example when immunisation coverage is high and when effective monitoring/surveillance systems are in place--and thus marked a milestone in the move from compulsory to voluntary immunisation. The forthcoming NVP for 2008-10 confirms the liberal approach to vaccination in Italy as it entrusts to the regions responsibility for the achievement and maintenance of herd immunity. This paper reviews the arguments for and against compulsory and voluntary immunisation in relation to the Italian NVP (2005-7) and in the context of the diverse immunisation policies that exist across Europe. It concludes with cautious support for the NVP and an associated shift from compulsory to voluntary immunisation in Italy, and draws similarities between issues concerning regional variation in immunisation policy in Italy and national variation in immunisation policy across Europe and beyond.

  20. Caught in the middle: the contested politics of HIV/AIDS and health policy in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jennifer S; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-02-01

    Drawing on the changing landscape of responses to HIV in Vietnam, this article describes the key players and analyzes the relationships between global players and local interests, including both the omnipresent state and an emerging civil society presence. We discuss the critical importance of timing for policy intervention and the role of health policy in shaping the broader social terrain. The interventions of external actors such as the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund were instrumental in improving both policies and programs at a critical juncture, when the national responses to the epidemic had been ineffective. At the same time, those global interventions met resistance and led to unintended consequences, both welcome and unwelcome. Furthermore, the looming specter of donor withdrawal and the very gradually emerging national ownership raise many questions about capacity for scale-up and sustainability of the significant achievements to date. Further monitoring and in-depth analysis of the Vietnamese responses to the HIV epidemic in the next few years or so, we contend, have the potential to provide unique insights into the challenges faced by developing countries caught in the complex webs of health politics and policies at both the global and the national levels.

  1. Caught in the middle: the contested politics of HIV/AIDS and health policy in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jennifer S; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-02-01

    Drawing on the changing landscape of responses to HIV in Vietnam, this article describes the key players and analyzes the relationships between global players and local interests, including both the omnipresent state and an emerging civil society presence. We discuss the critical importance of timing for policy intervention and the role of health policy in shaping the broader social terrain. The interventions of external actors such as the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund were instrumental in improving both policies and programs at a critical juncture, when the national responses to the epidemic had been ineffective. At the same time, those global interventions met resistance and led to unintended consequences, both welcome and unwelcome. Furthermore, the looming specter of donor withdrawal and the very gradually emerging national ownership raise many questions about capacity for scale-up and sustainability of the significant achievements to date. Further monitoring and in-depth analysis of the Vietnamese responses to the HIV epidemic in the next few years or so, we contend, have the potential to provide unique insights into the challenges faced by developing countries caught in the complex webs of health politics and policies at both the global and the national levels. PMID:25480849

  2. HIV Testing, Human Rights, and Global AIDS Policy: Exceptionalism and Its Discontents

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Ronald; Edington, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Two years ago, in May 2007, UNAIDS and WHO issued new guidelines on HIV testing. Prepared to meet the demands of the AIDS pandemic and the prospects of extending the benefits of antiretroviral therapy to regions where such treatment had been all but out of reach, the new guidance was the product of an extended period of sometimes acrimonious controversy both within the two UN agencies and globally. Those pressing for change had argued that a paradigm of testing that had emerged at a time when little could be done for those infected with HIV was inappropriate to the current moment. Those who viewed with skepticism, if not hostility, the claims that current practice and stringent ethical standards had become an impediment to effectively confronting the challenge of AIDS saw in the proposed changes a threat to the bedrock ethical principles of informed consent. In the end, of course, decisions about HIV testing will be taken by nation – states, with the recommendations of international organizations constituting but one element, however important, that will shape policy. Nevertheless, an examination of the history and the dynamics of the recent controversy and its outcome will provide a unique resource to those faced with policy choices; it will also provide a unique opportunity to lay bare the complex and politically charged relationships evolving between public health and human rights. PMID:19451406

  3. Potential impact of adjustment policies on vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    De Vogli, Roberto; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2005-06-01

    This paper evaluates the potential impact of adjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank on the vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. A conceptual framework, composed of five different pathways of causation, is used for the evaluation. These five pathways connect changes at the macro level (e.g. removal of food subsidies) with effects at the meso (e.g. higher food prices) and micro levels (e.g. exposure of women and children to commercial sex) that influence the vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS. Published literature on adjustment policies and socioeconomic determinants of HIV/AIDS among women and children in sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed to explore the cause-effect relationships included in the theoretical framework. Evidence suggests that adjustment policies may inadvertently produce conditions facilitating the exposure of women and children to HIV/AIDS. Complex research designs are needed to further investigate this relationship. A shift in emphasis from an individual approach to a socioeconomic approach in the study of HIV infection among women and children in the developing world is suggested. Given the potential for adjustment policies to exacerbate the AIDS pandemic among women and children, a careful examination of the effects of these policies on maternal and child welfare is urgently needed. PMID:16117362

  4. Lots of Money, Limited Options: College Choice and Student Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    Financial aid and college preparatory programs are designed in part to allow students from low-income families to have the same choices of institutions as those from middle- and upper-income groups. Unfortunately, despite providing more than $100 billion in financial aid and college preparatory assistance, state and federal policy makers have been…

  5. A tool to aid emergency managers and communities in appraising private dam safety and policy.

    PubMed

    Pisaniello, John D; McKay, Jennifer

    2007-06-01

    Issues concerning dam safety and equitable sharing of catchment run-off are receiving more attention throughout the world. This paper assesses these matters in the context of Australia, and the need for policy responses. Landholders often overlook the common law obligation to review/design dams to current standards because of high costs, leaving them vulnerable to litigation if their dam fails. The paper reports on an innovative spillway design/review procedure, applicable to southeast Australia, but transferable to any region worldwide. Dam safety policy models and guidelines derived from international best practice are linked to the procedure and intended to aid government decision-making. The procedure minimises costs to landholders and provides an acceptable level of safety assurance to downstream communities. Also discussed are recent surveys testing community attitudes to the procedure and implemented dam safety and water allocation policies. These further guide any government wanting to implement this'integrated engineering and community partnerships'approach to preventing potential disasters due to private dam failure and achieving sustainable and safe water storage and use.

  6. Transcalar networks for policy transfer and implementation: the case of global health policies for malaria and HIV/AIDS in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngoasong, Michael Zisuh

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and type of policy transfer promoted by global health partnerships to facilitate access to medication in Cameroon and the associated implementation challenges. Using concepts from policy transfer, multi-level governance and the politics of scale, the paper conceptualizes the social spaces (global-national-local linkages) through which global health policies are negotiated as transcalar networks. The framework is used to analyse policy documents, technical and media reports and journal articles focusing on two global health partnerships (GHPs)-Roll Back Malaria and the Accelerating Access Initiative-in Cameroon. Both GHPs helped to create the national Malaria and HIV/AIDS programmes in Cameroon, respectively. Global policies are negotiated through dialogue processes involving global, national and local partners who constitute the national HIV/AIDS and malaria committees. Successful policy transfer is evident from the consensual nature of decision-making. Analysis of policy implementation reveals that GHPs offer a 'technical fix' based on specific medical intervention programmes with a relatively limited focus on disease prevention. The GHP approach imposes new governance challenges due to policy resistance strategies (strategic interests of international agencies and country-specific challenges). Evidence of this is seen in the existence of several overlapping programmes and initiatives that distort accountability and governance mechanisms defined by the national committees. Finally, the implications of these challenges for achieving access to medication are discussed. PMID:20494940

  7. A new multidimensional population health indicator for policy makers: absolute level, inequality and spatial clustering - an empirical application using global sub-national infant mortality data.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Benn K D; Sartorius, Kurt

    2014-11-01

    The need for a multidimensional measure of population health that accounts for its distribution remains a central problem to guide the allocation of limited resources. Absolute proxy measures, like the infant mortality rate (IMR), are limited because they ignore inequality and spatial clustering. We propose a novel, three-part, multidimensional mortality indicator that can be used as the first step to differentiate interventions in a region or country. The three-part indicator (MortalityABC index) combines absolute mortality rate, the Theil Index to calculate mortality inequality and the Getis-Ord G statistic to determine the degree of spatial clustering. The analysis utilises global sub-national IMR data to empirically illustrate the proposed indicator. The three-part indicator is mapped globally to display regional/country variation and further highlight its potential application. Developing countries (e.g. in sub-Saharan Africa) display high levels of absolute mortality as well as variable mortality inequality with evidence of spatial clustering within certain sub-national units ("hotspots"). Although greater inequality is observed outside developed regions, high mortality inequality and spatial clustering are common in both developed and developing countries. Significant positive correlation was observed between the degree of spatial clustering and absolute mortality. The proposed multidimensional indicator should prove useful for spatial allocation of healthcare resources within a country, because it can prompt a wide range of policy options and prioritise high-risk areas. The new indicator demonstrates the inadequacy of IMR as a single measure of population health, and it can also be adapted to lower administrative levels within a country and other population health measures.

  8. United States global health policy: HIV/AIDS, maternal and child health, and The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).

    PubMed

    Leeper, Sarah C; Reddi, Anand

    2010-09-10

    The Obama administration has unveiled a new 6-year, $63 billion Global Health Initiative. In addition to the reauthorization of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) to fund HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, the plan also supports maternal and child health (MCH) initiatives that are rooted in a proposal known as the Mother and Child Campaign. The architects of the Obama administration's Global Health Initiative recommend funding the Mother and Child Campaign at the expense of future funding increases for PEPFAR. The idea that differing global health initiatives must compete with each other lacks not only ethical legitimacy but also scientific merit. We believe that MCH need not to be framed in opposition to PEPFAR. Confronting illness in isolation - whether by funding PEPFAR at the expense of programs that target MCH or vice versa - cannot be our way forward. Given the intimate connection between HIV/AIDS and MCH, we affirm supporting PEPFAR and MCH programs together. We argue that policies that de-emphasize PEPFAR threaten to undermine, rather than support, MCH in countries with high HIV/AIDS prevalence. PEPFAR has directly and indirectly supported the care and treatment of other milieu specific diseases, including those afflicting mothers and children, bringing about broad benefits to the primary healthcare systems of recipient countries. We advocate the vertical integration of MCH initiatives into PEPFAR in order to create a comprehensive approach to addressing MCH against the global backdrop of HIV/AIDS.

  9. Policies in Sync: Appropriations, Tuition, and Financial Aid for Higher Education. A Compilation of Selected Papers. Changing Direction: Integrating Higher Education Financial Aid and Financing Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.

    These four papers look into a system comprised of integrated financial and financing policies. Each paper examines a different aspect that is critical to alignment. "Financing in Sync: Aligning Fiscal Policy with State Objectives" (Dennis Jones), identifies distinct elements of financing policy, describes alternative forms of these elements, and…

  10. National and state policies influencing the care of children affected by AIDS.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, K M

    2000-04-01

    The portrait of HIV-affected children and youth that emerges from this policy overview is still one of children obscured from view by the shadow of their parents' and siblings' illness and policies that only address the needs of HIV-infected individuals. In addition, the secrecy and stigma that still surround HIV and AIDS make it difficult for HIV-affected children and youth to benefit as fully as they might from policies and programs that provide more generic types of care and assistance. Our failure as a nation to better illuminate the plight of HIV-affected children and youth can only leave us with a generation of children who are at greater risk of psychiatric illness, involvement with the criminal justice system, substance abuse, and contracting HIV. To avoid these consequences, both public and private sectors must place the spotlight on the development of new policies and programs designed to specifically meet their needs. Because the solutions defy traditional disciplinary and administrative boundaries, we also need to become more skilled at interagency planning and collaboration. No one system alone can be responsive to the many social, mental health, legal, and support needs of these children and their caretakers. More specifically, recommendations for improved systems of care to HIV-affected children, youth, and their families are as follows: To promote and fund cross-disciplinary initiatives among agencies that administer child welfare services, income supports, AIDS care, and children's mental health services at the national, state, and local levels to specifically meet the mental health, psychosocial, and permanency planning needs of HIV-affected children and youth. To provide training opportunities for Ryan White Title I, II, and III case managers on assessing the needs of HIV-affected children and youth, developmental theories and concepts, principles of family-centered care, and child welfare issues. To increase funding of the Ryan White CARE Act to

  11. Financial Aid, Access & Equity, and State Policy: An Interview with Richard Freeland, Commissioner of Higher Education for Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many states are looking at effective ways to use financial incentives to encourage students to complete a postsecondary credential. JFF's new report, "Statewide Aid Policies to Improve College Access and Success", originally commissioned by the Massachusetts Department of Higher Education's Vision Project, has provided valuable background for that…

  12. A Broken Promise: Examining the Merit-Aid Policy and Implementation Gap in the Michigan Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun-Barnet, Nathan; Hermsen, Albert; Vedder, Lori; Mabry, Beth

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Michigan changed their traditional merit award to a credit contingent program based upon successful completion of 60 college credits. The Michigan Promise Scholarship was crafted by state policymakers without input from the financial aid community. This case study suggests that the change in policy resulted in two unintended consequences:…

  13. An Assessment of the Policies and Programmes of Zimbabwe in Addressing the HIV/Aids Epidemic in the Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rembe, Symphorosa

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the policies, strategic plans and structures that have been put in place in Zimbabwe to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the education sector. It also examined the comprehensiveness of projects and programmes currently being implemented by the government in collaboration with partner organisations and NGOs. The findings show…

  14. Moving Towards Inclusive Education Policies and Practices? Basic Education for AIDS Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue; Kanyanta, Sylvester Bonaventure

    2007-01-01

    The global spread of HIV and AIDS has presented a major threat to development, affecting the health of the poor and many aspects of social and economic development. The greatest impact of the epidemic has been felt in sub-Saharan Africa, and Zambia ranks among the worst hit countries. The Free Basic Education Policy in Zambia upholds the right of…

  15. From GRID to gridlock: the relationship between scientific biomedical breakthroughs and HIV/AIDS policy in the US Congress

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Matthew B; Platt, Manu O

    2013-01-01

    Introduction From the travel ban on people living with HIV (PLHIV) to resistance to needle exchange programmes, there are many examples where policy responses to HIV/AIDS in the United States seem divorced from behavioural, public health and sociological evidence. At its root, however, the unknowns about HIV/AIDS lie at biomedical science, and scientific researchers have made tremendous progress over the past 30 years of the epidemic by using antiretroviral therapy to increase the life expectancy of PLHIV almost to the same level as non-infected individuals; but a relationship between biomedical science discoveries and congressional responses to HIV/AIDS has not been studied. Using quantitative approaches, we directly examine the hypothesis that progress in HIV/AIDS biomedical science discoveries would have a correlative relationship with congressional response to HIV/AIDS from 1981 to 2010. Methods This study used original data on every bill introduced, hearing held and law passed by the US Congress relating to HIV/AIDS over 30 years (1981–2010). We combined congressional data with the most cited and impactful biomedical research scientific publications over the same time period as a metric of biomedical science breakthroughs. Correlations between congressional policy and biomedical research were then analyzed at the aggregate and individual levels. Results Biomedical research advancements helped shape both the level and content of bill sponsorship on HIV/AIDS, but they had no effect on other stages of the legislative process. Examination of the content of bills and biomedical research indicated that science helped transform HIV/AIDS bill sponsorship from a niche concern of liberal Democrats to a bipartisan coalition when Republicans became the majority party. The trade-off for that expansion has been an emphasis on the global epidemic to the detriment of domestic policies and programmes. Conclusions Breakthroughs in biomedical science did associate with the

  16. Early Childhood Care and Education as a Structural Approach to Integrating Children and Families at Risk: A Challenge for Policy Makers. Report of the European Policy Conference on Early Childhood Education (Amsterdam, Netherlands, April 23-24, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John, Ed.

    Initiated by the government of the Netherlands and UNESCO, the European Policy Conference on Early Childhood Education focused on early childhood policy issues with special reference to the social integration of children and families at risk. The conference was organized around three themes including quality, accessibility and going-to-scale. This…

  17. The Diamond Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, Robert M.

    1999-08-01

    Since time immemorial, we have treasured diamonds for their exquisite beauty and unrivaled hardness. Yet, most of the earth's diamonds lie deep underground and totally unaccessible to us--if only we knew how to fabricate them! In The Diamond Makers Robert Hazen vividly recounts the very human desire to exceed nature and create a synthetic diamond. Spanning centuries of ground-breaking science, instances of bitter rivalry, cases of outright fraud and self-delusion, Hazen blends drama and science to reveal the extraordinary technological advances and devastating failures of the diamond industry. Along the way, readers will be introduced to the brilliant, often eccentric and controversial, pioneers of high-pressure research who have harnessed crushing pressures and scorching temperatures to transform almost any carbon-rich material, from road tar to peanut butter, into the most prized of all gems. Robert M. Hazen is the author of fifteen books, including the bestseller, Science Matters: Achieving Scientific Literacy, which he wrote with James Trefil. Dr. Hazen has won numerous awards for his research and scientific writing.

  18. Congress approves 13 percent increase in AIDS spending.

    PubMed

    1996-10-18

    A Republican Congress voted for a significant increase in AIDS-related spending for the fiscal year 1996. Increases were granted in every major program, including the Ryan White CARE Act and the once-doomed Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS (HOPWA) program. Overall, discretionary spending for Federal AIDS programs rose by 13 percent. This increase includes an additional $94 million for AIDS-related research at the National Institute's of Health (NIH). Advocates call on policy-makers to develop a long-term strategy for providing drugs to those who lack private insurance and are not qualified for Medicaid.

  19. Indigenous Youth as Language Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Romero-Little, Mary Eunice; Warhol, Larisa; Zepeda, Ofelia

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a grounded view of language shift as experienced by Native American youth across a range of early- to late-shift settings. Drawing on data from a long-term ethnographic study, we demonstrate that the linguistic ecologies in which youth language choices play out are more complex than a unidirectional notion of shift might…

  20. Aligning faith-based and national HIV/AIDS prevention responses? Factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process and response of faith-based NGOs in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Rosemary; Green, Andrew; Boesten, Jelke

    2014-05-01

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long tradition of providing HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation services in Africa. The overall response of FBOs, however, has been controversial, particularly in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention and FBO's rejection of condom use and promotion, which can conflict with and negatively influence national HIV/AIDS prevention response efforts. This article reports the findings from a study that explored the factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process within faith-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) of different faiths. These factors were examined within three faith-based NGOs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania-a Catholic, Anglican and Muslim organization. The research used an exploratory, qualitative case-study approach, and employed a health policy analysis framework, examining the context, actor and process factors and how they interact to form content in terms of policy and its implementation within each organization. Three key factors were found to influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention response in terms of both policy and its implementation: (1) the faith structure in which the organizations are a part, (2) the presence or absence of organizational policy and (3) the professional nature of the organizations and its actors. The interaction between these factors, and how actors negotiate between them, was found to shape the organizations' HIV/AIDS prevention response. This article reports on these factors and analyses the different HIV/AIDS prevention responses found within each organization. By understanding the factors that influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention policy process, the overall faith-based response to HIV/AIDS, and how it corresponds to national response efforts, is better understood. It is hoped that by doing so the government will be better able to identify how to best work with FBOs to meet national HIV/AIDS prevention targets, improving the overall role of FBOs in the fight against

  1. Bridging the gap between evidence and policy for infectious diseases: How models can aid public health decision-making.

    PubMed

    Knight, Gwenan M; Dharan, Nila J; Fox, Gregory J; Stennis, Natalie; Zwerling, Alice; Khurana, Renuka; Dowdy, David W

    2016-01-01

    The dominant approach to decision-making in public health policy for infectious diseases relies heavily on expert opinion, which often applies empirical evidence to policy questions in a manner that is neither systematic nor transparent. Although systematic reviews are frequently commissioned to inform specific components of policy (such as efficacy), the same process is rarely applied to the full decision-making process. Mathematical models provide a mechanism through which empirical evidence can be methodically and transparently integrated to address such questions. However, such models are often considered difficult to interpret. In addition, models provide estimates that need to be iteratively re-evaluated as new data or considerations arise. Using the case study of a novel diagnostic for tuberculosis, a framework for improved collaboration between public health decision-makers and mathematical modellers that could lead to more transparent and evidence-driven policy decisions for infectious diseases in the future is proposed. The framework proposes that policymakers should establish long-term collaborations with modellers to address key questions, and that modellers should strive to provide clear explanations of the uncertainty of model structure and outputs. Doing so will improve the applicability of models and clarify their limitations when used to inform real-world public health policy decisions.

  2. Keeping up with the Joneses: Institutional Changes Following the Adoption of a Merit Aid Policy. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing use by private colleges and universities of financial aid based on "merit", as opposed to based solely on financial need has caused many to raise concerns that this type of aid will go mainly to higher income students crowding out aid to lower income students. However, some analysts suggest that by attracting more "almost…

  3. Keeping up with the Joneses: Institutional Changes Following the Adoption of a Merit Aid Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Amanda L.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use by private colleges and universities of financial aid based on "merit", as opposed to based solely on financial need has caused many to raise concerns that this type of aid will go mainly to higher income students crowding out aid to lower income students. However, some analysts suggest that by attracting more "almost…

  4. Financial Aid Policy: Lessons from Research. NBER Working Paper No. 18710

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. The increasing size and complexity of the nation's student aid system has generated questions about…

  5. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  6. Kenya AIDS Indicator Surveys 2007 and 2012: implications for public health policies for HIV prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Maina, William K; Kim, Andrea A; Rutherford, George W; Harper, Malayah; K'Oyugi, Boniface O; Sharif, Shahnaaz; Kichamu, George; Muraguri, Nicholas M; Akhwale, Willis; De Cock, Kevin M

    2014-05-01

    AIDS Indicator Surveys are standardized surveillance tools used by countries with generalized HIV epidemics to provide, in a timely fashion, indicators for effective monitoring of HIV. Such data should guide responses to the HIV epidemic, meet program reporting requirements, and ensure comparability of findings across countries and over time. Kenya has conducted 2 AIDS Indicator Surveys, in 2007 (KAIS 2007) and 2012-2013 (KAIS 2012). These nationally representative surveys have provided essential epidemiologic, sociodemographic, behavioral, and biologic data on HIV and related indicators to evaluate the national HIV response and inform policies for prevention and treatment of the disease. We present a summary of findings from KAIS 2007 and KAIS 2012 and the impact that these data have had on changing HIV policies and practice.

  7. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: review of current situation, prevention and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Qian, Han-Zhu; Schumacher, Joseph E; Chen, Huey T; Ruan, Yu-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU), and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasingly important drug consuming market. About half of China's 1.14 million documented drug users inject, and many share needles. IDU has contributed to 42% of cumulatively reported HIV/AIDS cases thus far. Drug trafficking is illegal in China and can lead to the death penalty. The public security departments adopt "zero tolerance" approach to drug use, which conflict with harm reduction policies of the public health departments. Past experience in China suggests that cracking down on drug smuggling and prohibiting drug use alone can not prevent or solve all illicit drug related problems in the era of globalization. In recent years, the central government has outlined a series of pragmatic policies to encourage harm reduction programs; meanwhile, some local governments have not fully mobilized to deal with drug abuse and HIV/AIDS problems seriously. Strengthening government leadership at both central and local levels; scaling up methadone substitution and needle exchange programs; making HIV voluntary counseling and testing available and affordable to both urban and rural drug users; and increasing utilization of outreach and nongovernmental organizations are offered as additional strategies to help cope with China's HIV and drug abuse problem.

  8. HIV/AIDS and Education: A Study on How a Selection of School Governing Bodies in Mpumalanga Understand, Respond to and Implement Legislation and Policies on HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartell, C. G.; Maile, S.

    2004-01-01

    Very little research has been done in South Africa on HIV/AIDS and education. This article is a small attempt to plug the gap. The purpose of the research is to investigate the legal and policy provisions and implications regarding HIV/AIDS for rural and township schools in the Mpumalanga district of South Africa. It seeks to answer three…

  9. Black-White Disparities in HIV/AIDS:The Role of Drug Policy and the Corrections System

    PubMed Central

    Blankenship, Kim M.; Smoyer, Amy B.; Bray, Sarah J.; Mattocks, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    African Americans in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. We focus in this paper on the structural and contextual sources of HIV/AIDS risk, and suggest that among the most important of these sources are drug policy and the corrections system. In particular, high rates of exposure to the corrections system (including incarceration, probation, and parole) spurred in large part by federal and state governments’ self-styled war on drugs in the United States, have disproportionately affected African Americans. We review a wide range of research literature to suggest how exposure to the corrections system may affect the HIV/AIDS related risks of drug users in general, and the disproportionate HIV risk faced by African Americans in particular. We then discuss the implications of the information reviewed for structural interventions to address African American HIV-related risk. Future research must further our understanding of the relations among drug policy, corrections, and race-based disparities in HIV/AIDS. PMID:16327113

  10. Examining the Impact of a Highly Targeted State Administered Merit Aid Program on Brain Drain: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis of Missouri's Bright Flight Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, James R.; Muñoz, José; Curs, Bradley R.; Ehlert, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of state-funded merit-based aid programs has become increasingly popular among policy-makers, particularly in the southeastern part of the United States. One of the primary rationales of state-funded merit-based aid is to provide scholarships to the best and brightest students as a means to retain high quality human capital in the…

  11. Lifting the Fog on Inequitable Financial Aid Policies: A Companion Brief to "Priced out: How the Wrong Financial Aid Policies Hurt Low-Income Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mamie; Engle, Jennifer; Cruz, Jose L.

    2011-01-01

    A lack of situational awareness has been blamed for many of the most counterproductive decisions American policymakers have made on the battlefield, in response to natural and man-made disasters, and in the design and implementation of domestic policies. There are two key elements such disparate events as the escalation of the Vietnam war, the…

  12. The Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences: formulating AIDS policy.

    PubMed

    Weiss, R; Thier, S O

    1988-01-01

    In 1985 the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences devoted its annual meeting to an exploration of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The questions raised at the meeting propelled the IOM/NAS to initiate an assessment of the dimensions of the AIDS epidemic and to propose an appropriate national response. The Committee on a National Strategy for AIDS issued its report, "Confronting AIDS: Directions for Public Health, Health Care, and Research," in October 1986. The report detailed strategies for curbing the spread of infection, and for accelerating biomedical and social science research into the causes and possible cures for AIDS. In March 1987, the IOM/NAS established the AIDS Activities Oversight Committee to monitor and assess the nation's progress against AIDS and to coordinate the Academy's growing program of AIDS-related activities. Studies, conferences, and workshops are planned in the areas of drug and vaccine development, modeling the course of the epidemic, research in the behavioral and social sciences, equitable financing of care, pediatric AIDS, early cognitive impairment in HIV infection, IV drug abuse, and other topics.

  13. Federal policy: Ryan White, OAR, testing newborns. Office of AIDS Research.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1996-05-01

    AIDS advocacy groups won four of the five HIV/AIDS issues on the table in the budget negotiations for fiscal year 1996. Congress and the White House have agreed to increase funding for the Ryan White CARE Act, with the AIDS Drug Assistance Program receiving an increase of $52 million, and an overall $30 million increase for the program. The budget compromise also repeals the law introduced by Congressman Robert Dornan (R-CA) which would have required the military to discharge military personnel living with HIV. Also, the AIDS Education and Training Centers will not be eliminated, although the program will receive cuts. The Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS (HOPWA) is flat funded for fiscal 1996. Negotiations for fiscal 1997 are currently underway. The issue that AIDS advocacy groups lost in the budget negotiation was the consolidated budget authority for the Office of AIDS Research (OAR). On a separate issue, Congress is likely to require states with more than 10 percent of the nation's pediatric AIDS cases to begin mandatory HIV-antibody testing of newborns in 2 years, unless each state can first meet certain standards through voluntary testing programs. Current language in the legislation requires counseling for pregnant women and voluntary HIV testing, measures long advocated by AIDS and public health groups as the best approach for reducing perinatal infection. PMID:11363487

  14. Federal policy: Ryan White, OAR, testing newborns. Office of AIDS Research.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1996-05-01

    AIDS advocacy groups won four of the five HIV/AIDS issues on the table in the budget negotiations for fiscal year 1996. Congress and the White House have agreed to increase funding for the Ryan White CARE Act, with the AIDS Drug Assistance Program receiving an increase of $52 million, and an overall $30 million increase for the program. The budget compromise also repeals the law introduced by Congressman Robert Dornan (R-CA) which would have required the military to discharge military personnel living with HIV. Also, the AIDS Education and Training Centers will not be eliminated, although the program will receive cuts. The Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS (HOPWA) is flat funded for fiscal 1996. Negotiations for fiscal 1997 are currently underway. The issue that AIDS advocacy groups lost in the budget negotiation was the consolidated budget authority for the Office of AIDS Research (OAR). On a separate issue, Congress is likely to require states with more than 10 percent of the nation's pediatric AIDS cases to begin mandatory HIV-antibody testing of newborns in 2 years, unless each state can first meet certain standards through voluntary testing programs. Current language in the legislation requires counseling for pregnant women and voluntary HIV testing, measures long advocated by AIDS and public health groups as the best approach for reducing perinatal infection.

  15. Connecting Geoscience and Decision Makers Through a Common Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Wood, C.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists and decision makers often use different words to describe the same thing. The American Geosciences Institute has developed a consistent definition for the geosciences (Wilson, 2014); however this definition often varies from how decision maker groups at the national, state, local, and regional levels often categorize geoscience topics. Where geoscientists may to refer to "geoscience," decision makers may use terms like "energy," "environment," and "natural resources." How may the geoscience community provide geoscience information to decision makers in a context they understand while at the same time providing a simple, yet consistent representation of all that the geosciences include? The American Geoscience Institute's (AGI's) Critical Issues program's main goal is to connect decision makers at all levels with decision-relevant, impartial, expert information from across the geosciences. The program uses a multi-faceted approach to reach different decision maker groups, including policy makers and government employees at the federal, state and local level. We discuss the challenges the Critical Issues program has overcome in representing the geosciences to decision makers in a cohesive fashion such that decision makers can access the information they need, while at the same time becoming aware of the breadth of information the geosciences has to offer, and the value of including geoscience in the decision-making process. References: Wilson, C.E. (2014) Status of the Geoscience Workforce 2014. American Geological Institute. Alexandria, VA.

  16. Enrollment Management and Financial Aid Part Two: A Public Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kalsbeek, David

    2008-01-01

    In our previous essay, we considered the role of institutional financial aid and the practice of enrollment management. In that essay we explored the use of financial aid as a tool to enhance equity increase prestige, as a revenue enhancement tool and as a means to shape institutional image in the various markets that comprise our diverse system…

  17. Relationships between Financial Aid Policies, Practices and Procedures at Texas Public Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Desiree Kornrum

    2006-01-01

    The economic success of the state of Texas is dependent upon future market participants having access to higher education. The ability of Texas citizens to access higher education is dependent upon access to financial aid resources to pay for higher education. Much is known about the impact of particular financial aid outcomes on access and…

  18. A Triumph of Hope over Reason? Aid Accords and Education Policy in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher; Webb, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Despite a long history of post-independence aid to education, Kenya's relationships with overseas donors have, until recently, been markedly fractious. Donors' concerns about transparency and corruption, in the context of a political regime which became increasingly authoritarian, led to sharp reductions in aid to Kenyan education during the…

  19. Educational Goods and Values: A Framework for Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry; Ladd, Helen F.; Loeb, Susanna; Swift, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This article articulates a framework suitable for use when making decisions about education policy. Decision makers should establish what the feasible options are and evaluate them in terms of their contribution to the development, and distribution, of educational goods in children, balanced against the negative effect of policies on important…

  20. [The Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria 5-y: evaluation policy issues].

    PubMed

    Kerouedan, D

    2010-05-01

    The Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) was founded in 2002 in the context of increased political and financial commitments towards health and development, in the aftermath of the Millennium Declaration, and on track to implement the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As of today, the institution has mobilized over 16 billion US dollars through its partnership, and spent over 8 billion dollars through 620 contracts in 140 countries for these three diseases. Principles at inception were to accelerate and expand HIV, TB, and Malaria prevention and awareness, care, and treatment related activities, in the poorest and the most affected countries worldwide, with a special emphasis on Africa, being the continent with the highest disease burden, especially with respect to HIV/AIDS and its dreadful social and economic consequences. In 2006, a Technical and Evaluation Reference Group was set up. This group responding to the GFATM Board in relation to the 5-year evaluation, defined the Terms of reference for the 5-year evaluation. Macro International, a firm based in Washington DC, was given the contract to conduct three studies over the period 2006-2009, looking at: (i) GFATM organizational effectiveness, (ii) partnerships at international and global levels, as well as systems effects, (iii) collective impact of the GFATM, the World Bank and (PEPFAR) funds on HIV, TB, and Malaria control. Twenty-five countries participated all together in the evaluation, out of which 18 in study area 3. Total budget for the evaluation amounted almost 17 million US dollars. This paper outlines: (i) the results of study areas 2 and 3 as well as the 5-year Evaluation Synthesis report, contents, and (ii) comments on the results and potential policy implications of the GFATM 5-year evaluation findings, as well as first responses prepared by the GF Secretariat shared at the GFATM Board meeting held in Ethiopia in November 2009. The evaluators raised the weaknesses of

  1. [The Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria 5-y: evaluation policy issues].

    PubMed

    Kerouedan, D

    2010-05-01

    The Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) was founded in 2002 in the context of increased political and financial commitments towards health and development, in the aftermath of the Millennium Declaration, and on track to implement the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As of today, the institution has mobilized over 16 billion US dollars through its partnership, and spent over 8 billion dollars through 620 contracts in 140 countries for these three diseases. Principles at inception were to accelerate and expand HIV, TB, and Malaria prevention and awareness, care, and treatment related activities, in the poorest and the most affected countries worldwide, with a special emphasis on Africa, being the continent with the highest disease burden, especially with respect to HIV/AIDS and its dreadful social and economic consequences. In 2006, a Technical and Evaluation Reference Group was set up. This group responding to the GFATM Board in relation to the 5-year evaluation, defined the Terms of reference for the 5-year evaluation. Macro International, a firm based in Washington DC, was given the contract to conduct three studies over the period 2006-2009, looking at: (i) GFATM organizational effectiveness, (ii) partnerships at international and global levels, as well as systems effects, (iii) collective impact of the GFATM, the World Bank and (PEPFAR) funds on HIV, TB, and Malaria control. Twenty-five countries participated all together in the evaluation, out of which 18 in study area 3. Total budget for the evaluation amounted almost 17 million US dollars. This paper outlines: (i) the results of study areas 2 and 3 as well as the 5-year Evaluation Synthesis report, contents, and (ii) comments on the results and potential policy implications of the GFATM 5-year evaluation findings, as well as first responses prepared by the GF Secretariat shared at the GFATM Board meeting held in Ethiopia in November 2009. The evaluators raised the weaknesses of

  2. Community health, media, and policy in sub-Saharan Africa: a primary prevention approach to the AIDS crisis.

    PubMed

    Ndiwane, A N

    2000-01-01

    Availability, access and utilization of essential health services present challenges to community health services in Sub-Saharan Africa. HIV/AIDS infection has added yet another dimension to a continent already experiencing economic crises. A primary prevention approach is emphasized as a means of addressing sexual behaviors that decrease risk of transmission. Educating the sexually active to use condom and also HIV/AIDS testing and counseling can be effective in curbing transmission of the virus. Community forums such as the local schools and churches, together with the political leadership need to coordinate primary prevention efforts against HIV/AIDS transmission. The media can be powerful in raising awareness, community activism, and mobilization of the masses at grass-roots level by advocating behaviors that promote health. African leaders must indicate a strong political will by shaping policies that address HIV/AIDS. These leaders need resources (both internally and externally) to fund primary prevention programs that are community-based and outcome-oriented. PMID:11760309

  3. Healthy food procurement policy: an important intervention to aid the reduction in chronic noncommunicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm; Duhaney, Tara; Arango, Manuel; Ashley, Lisa A; Bacon, Simon L; Gelfer, Mark; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Mang, Eric; Morris, Dorothy; Nagpal, Seema; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Willis, Kevin J

    2014-11-01

    In 2010, unhealthy diets were estimated to be the leading risk for death and disability in Canada and globally. Although important, policies aimed at improving individual's skills in selecting and eating healthy foods has had a limited effect. Policies that create healthy eating environments are strongly recommended but have not yet been effectively and/or broadly implemented in Canada. Widespread adoption of healthy food procurement policies are strongly recommended in this policy statement from the Hypertension Advisory Committee with support from 15 major national health organizations. The policy statement calls on governments to take a leadership role, but also outlines key roles for the commercial and noncommercial sectors including health and scientific organizations and the Canadian public. The policy statement is based on a systematic review of healthy food procurement interventions that found them to be almost uniformly effective at improving sales and purchases of healthy foods. Successful food procurement policies are nearly always accompanied by supporting education programs and some by pricing policies. Ensuring access and availability to affordable healthy foods and beverages in public and private sector settings could play a substantive role in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases and health risks such as obesity, hypertension, and ultimately improve cardiovascular health. PMID:25442442

  4. The Effect of Policy Changes of State Scholarship Programs on Enrollment and Financial Aid Awards to Students Attending Two-Year Technical Colleges in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Tonya F.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a policy evaluation of the HOPE Grant Program in the state of Georgia. It examines if the HOPE Grant policy change related to the shifts in enrollment and financial aid awards at two-year technical colleges in Georgia. It particularly focuses on the FY2011 policy change where the GPA was raised from a 2.0 to a 3.0 as a…

  5. AIDS: there's hope.

    PubMed

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices.

  6. Breaking the wall of silence: AIDS policy and politics in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alubo, Ogoh

    2002-01-01

    AIDS was first diagnosed in Nigeria in 1986. By that time, the government had enough information from experiences in other African countries to goad it into quickly establishing a control program. Nigeria's National AIDS Control program, however, fell victim to years of military arbitrariness and uncertainty. It was underfunded and had three directors in as many years. This arbitrariness and general lukewarm response from government occurred despite rapid increases in seroprevalence rates. Available data indicate a national prevalence of 5.4 percent and rates as high as 30 percent among some "high-risk" groups; as many as 10 to 15 persons with full-blown AIDS are admitted weekly in some tertiary facilities. Experiences in communities show an already heavy and growing burden. The nonchalance of past military regimes is gradually being reversed with Nigeria's return to civil rule in May 1999. Perhaps because of the fragmented statistics and the government's seeming conspiracy of silence, Nigeria is not included in the count of African countries with high HIV/AIDS prevalence. The author suggests that the new democratic government needs to go beyond professed commitment to demonstrable action to halt the spread and address social and other impacts of the epidemic.

  7. Making College More Expensive: The Unintended Consequences of Federal Tuition Aid. Policy Analysis. No. 531

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Gary

    2005-01-01

    As Congress debates the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act (HEA), it should heed Friedrich Hayek's warning that democracy is "peculiarly liable, if not guided by accepted common principles, to produce over-all results that nobody wanted." One result of the federal government's student financial aid programs is higher tuition costs at the…

  8. Film Makers On Film Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

    This collection includes essays by and interviews with more than 30 film-makers, both classic and contemporary, on the subjects of their major interests and procedures in making films. The directors are: Louis Lumiere, Cecil Hepworth, Edwin S. Porter, Mack Sennett, David W. Griffith, Robert Flaherty, Charles Chaplin, Eric von Stroheim, Dziga…

  9. Priced out: How the Wrong Financial-Aid Policies Hurt Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mamie; Engle, Jennifer; Cruz, Jose L.

    2011-01-01

    This report demonstrates how much low-income students must stretch to pay for college, even after grant aid is taken into account. This report finds that just five of the nation's nearly 1,200 four-year colleges and universities have student bodies that are at least 30 percent low-income and offer low-income students a reasonable chance at a…

  10. Getting ocean acidification on decision makers' to-do lists: dissecting the process through case studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Sarah R.; Jewett, Elizabeth B.; Reichert, Julie; Robbins, Lisa L.; Shrestha, Gyami; Wieczorek, Dan; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the detailed, incremental knowledge being generated by current scientific research on ocean acidification (OA) does not directly address the needs of decision makers, who are asking broad questions such as: Where will OA harm marine resources next? When will this happen? Who will be affected? And how much will it cost? In this review, we use a series of mainly US-based case studies to explore the needs of local to international-scale groups that are making decisions to address OA concerns. Decisions concerning OA have been made most naturally and easily when information needs were clearly defined and closely aligned with science outputs and initiatives. For decisions requiring more complex information, the process slows dramatically. Decision making about OA is greatly aided (1) when a mixture of specialists participates, including scientists, resource users and managers, and policy and law makers; (2) when goals can be clearly agreed upon at the beginning of the process; (3) when mixed groups of specialists plan and create translational documents explaining the likely outcomes of policy decisions on ecosystems and natural resources; (4) when regional work on OA fits into an existing set of priorities concerning climate or water quality; and (5) when decision making can be reviewed and enhanced.

  11. [Aids in Madagascar. II. Intervention policy for maintaining low HIV infection prevalence].

    PubMed

    Ravaoarimalala, C; Andriamahenina, R; Ravelojaona, B; Rabeson, D; Andriamiadana, J; May, J F; Behets, F; Rasamindrakotroka, A

    1998-01-01

    The HIV seroprevalence per 100,000 adults Malagasy rose from 20 in 1989, to 30 in 1992, and to 70 in 1995. In that year, the total number of HIV infected people in the Big Island was estimated at 5,000, the number of people sick with AIDS at 130, and the people at risk at more than 1,000,000. The latter are the persons infected with other STDs and individuals (or their partners) with risky sexual behaviour (e.g. numerous sexual partners, occasional sexual partners, and/or sexual contacts with commercial sex workers). The HIV prevalence rate is low as compared with those of other countries. Nevertheless, the spread of the HIV infection is alarming in some parts of the country and the risk factors are also present, namely: the high prevalence of STDs, numerous sexual partners, the low use of condoms in all groups, the development of tourism, the development of prostitution associated with social and economical problems, and internal and international migrations (with risky sexual contacts). Therefore, the still low but rising HIV prevalence in 1995 does not warrant complacency. To estimate the trend of HIV prevalence within the population, it is useful to know two different assumptions, as follows: firstly, a controlled evolution of the epidemic (low epidemic) and secondly, a very fast spread of the epidemic (high epidemic). If we consider the 5,000 individuals seropositive in July 1995, the Aids Impact Model (AIM) projection model shows that HIV seroprevalence rates among adults in 2015 might be between 3% (when the progression course of HIV epidemic is low) and 15% (when the progression course of HIV epidemic is high). By 2015 AIDS could have severe demographic, social, and economic impacts. Then, it is necessary to take measures to prevent contamination. Five major interventions are required: public information about AIDS, HIV transmission mechanism, and its prevention, communities education via the respected people and the notabilities to promote moral values

  12. Federal Aid to the Disadvantaged. What Future for Chapter 1? Education Policy Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Denis P., Ed.; Cooper, Bruce S., Ed.

    This document presents the recommendations of a national group of policy analysts on strategies for improving compensatory education and the Educational Improvement and Consolidation Act (ECIA) Chapter 1. The historical context of the Federal and state roles in providing compensatory education programs is presented, old assumptions are reviewed,…

  13. HIV and AIDS in Suburban Asian and Pacific Islander Communities: Factors Influencing Self-Efficacy in HIV Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Lois M.; Magalong, Michelle G.; DeBell, Paula; Fasudhani, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Though AIDS case rates among Asian Pacific Islander Americans (APIs) in the United States remain relatively low, the number has been steadily increasing. Scholars, policy makers, and service providers still know little about how confident APIs are in carrying out different HIV risk reduction strategies. This article addresses this gap by…

  14. Report and policy brief from the 4th Africa Conference on Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research: innovations in access to prevention, treatment and care in HIV/AIDS, Kisumu, Kenya, 29 April - 3 May 2007.

    PubMed

    Setswe, G; Peltzer, K; Banyini, M; Skinner, D; Seager, J; Maile, S; Sedumedi, S; Gomis, D; van der Linde, I

    2007-08-01

    About 520 delegates from all over Africa and 21 countries attended the conference. This report and policy brief summarises the key findings and suggested policy options that emerged from rapporteur reports of conference proceedings including the following themes: (1) Orphans and vulnerable children, (2) Treatment, (3) Prevention, (4) Gender and male involvement, (5) Male circumcision, (6) People living with HIV/AIDS, (7) Food and nutrition, (8) Socioeconomics, and (9) Politics/policy. Two (11.8%) of the 17 OVC projects from the three countries were classified as best practice interventions. Of the 83 abstracts that were accepted at the conference, only 7 (8.4%) were dealing with antiretroviral therapy (ART). There has been tremendous effort by various organisations to provide information about prevention of HIV/AIDS. Information received by adolescents has been effective in increasing their knowledge, but without positive sexual behaviour change. The conference noted the contribution of gender discrimination and violence to the HIV epidemic and the different risks that men and women face in relation to the epidemic. Social scientists need to study the deep cultural meanings attached to male circumcision among different ethnic groups to be able to guide the debate on the latest biomedical findings on the protective effect of circumcision against HIV. Palliative care and support is crucial for coping among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in order to deal with medical and psychological issues. Results from several countries have helped researchers to explore alternative ways of examining poverty in the context of HIV and AIDS. Policy frameworks which are likely to succeed in combating HIV/AIDS need to be updated to cover issues of access, testing, disclosure and stigma. In general, the conference was successful in identifying innovations in access to prevention, treatment and care in HIV/AIDS. PMID:18071616

  15. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate.

  16. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-05-21

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate. 4 figures.

  17. Funding and Distribution of Institutional Grants in 1999-2000: Results from the 2001 Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined data from the 2001 Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures. Findings included that all institutional types, even low-cost community colleges, have awarded a large share of their institutional grants based on students' academic merit or other criteria besides their demonstrated financial need, but that…

  18. Design-to-fabricate: maker hardware requires maker software.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ryan; Ratto, Matt

    2013-01-01

    As a result of consumer-level 3D printers' increasing availability and affordability, the audience for 3D-design tools has grown considerably. However, current tools are ill-suited for these users. They have steep learning curves and don't take into account that the end goal is a physical object, not a digital model. A new class of "maker"-level design tools is needed to accompany this new commodity hardware. However, recent examples of such tools achieve accessibility primarily by constraining functionality. In contrast, the meshmixer project is building tools that provide accessibility and expressive power by leveraging recent computer graphics research in geometry processing. The project members have had positive experiences with several 3D-design-to-print workshops and are exploring several design-to-fabricate problems. This article is part of a special issue on 3D printing.

  19. Challenges to successful implementation of HIV and AIDS-related health policies in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Djellouli, Nehla; Quevedo-Gómez, María Cristina

    2015-05-01

    The Caribbean region presents the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS worldwide after sub-Saharan Africa; leading to serious social, economic and health consequences at the local scale but also at the regional and global levels. In Colombia, a national plan to tackle the epidemic was formulated with little evidence that its implementation in the local context is effective. This study focused on Cartagena - one of Colombia's largest cities and an international touristic hub - that presents one of the highest HIV prevalences in the country, to investigate whether the national plan accounts for local specificities and what are the barriers to local implementation. Based on the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT), this qualitative research relied upon 27 interviews and 13 life stories of local inhabitants and stakeholders, collected in a first fieldwork in 2006-2007. A follow-up data collection took place in 2013 with 10 participants: key policymakers and implementers, NGO representatives and local inhabitants. Barriers identified by the participants included: local population's understandings and beliefs on condom use; stigma and discrimination; lack of collaboration from the Church, the education sector and local politicians; corruption; high staff turnover; frequent changes in leadership; lack of economic and human resources; and barriers to health care access. The findings suggest that global influences also have an impact on the CIT framework (e.g. international organisations as a major financier in HIV prevention). The participants put forward several feasible solutions to implementation barriers. We discuss how several of the proposed solutions have been applied in other Latin American and Caribbean countries and yielded positive results. However, further research is needed to find possible ways of overcoming certain barriers identified by this study such as corruption, the lack of collaboration of the Church and barriers to health care access. PMID:25840048

  20. Challenges to successful implementation of HIV and AIDS-related health policies in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Djellouli, Nehla; Quevedo-Gómez, María Cristina

    2015-05-01

    The Caribbean region presents the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS worldwide after sub-Saharan Africa; leading to serious social, economic and health consequences at the local scale but also at the regional and global levels. In Colombia, a national plan to tackle the epidemic was formulated with little evidence that its implementation in the local context is effective. This study focused on Cartagena - one of Colombia's largest cities and an international touristic hub - that presents one of the highest HIV prevalences in the country, to investigate whether the national plan accounts for local specificities and what are the barriers to local implementation. Based on the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT), this qualitative research relied upon 27 interviews and 13 life stories of local inhabitants and stakeholders, collected in a first fieldwork in 2006-2007. A follow-up data collection took place in 2013 with 10 participants: key policymakers and implementers, NGO representatives and local inhabitants. Barriers identified by the participants included: local population's understandings and beliefs on condom use; stigma and discrimination; lack of collaboration from the Church, the education sector and local politicians; corruption; high staff turnover; frequent changes in leadership; lack of economic and human resources; and barriers to health care access. The findings suggest that global influences also have an impact on the CIT framework (e.g. international organisations as a major financier in HIV prevention). The participants put forward several feasible solutions to implementation barriers. We discuss how several of the proposed solutions have been applied in other Latin American and Caribbean countries and yielded positive results. However, further research is needed to find possible ways of overcoming certain barriers identified by this study such as corruption, the lack of collaboration of the Church and barriers to health care access.

  1. What the United States can learn from Brazil in response to HIV/AIDS: international reputation and strategic centralization in a context of health policy devolution.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2010-11-01

    Contrary to what many may expect, this article argues that Brazil did a better job than the USA when it came to responding to HIV/AIDS. Because of the Brazilian government's concern about its international reputation and the partnerships it has forged with international donors and civil society, the government has been committed to strengthening decentralization processes by introducing both formal and informal re-centralization measures that strengthen health policy devolution, while effectively targeting the biggest at-risk groups. The US, in contrast, has not achieved these objectives, due to its lack of interest in increasing its international reputation and its focus on bi-lateral aid rather than investing in domestic policy. The paper closes by explaining the lessons that Brazil can teach the US and other large federations seeking to ensure that decentralization and prevention policy work more effectively.

  2. The dual epidemics of tuberculosis and AIDS: ethical and policy issues in screening and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, R; Dubler, N N; Landesman, S

    1993-01-01

    As the recent increase in cases of tuberculosis is addressed, there is a danger that the need for increased protection of the public health will create a climate in which the rights of individuals with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may be disregarded. This paper considers ethical and policy issues in the control of tuberculosis. The authors conclude that mandatory HIV testing is not critical to effective tuberculosis control, and that although individuals infected with HIV are at increased risk for developing tuberculosis, exclusionary employment practices are not justified. Because failure to complete the course of tuberculosis treatment increases the prospect that drug-resistant strains will develop, it is crucial to require all those who commence treatment to complete their therapy. To ensure the completion of treatment, special attention must be paid to the needs of the homeless, drug users, and those with psychiatric impairments. In addition, all tuberculosis patients should begin their posthospital care under direct observation. Patients who fail to complete treatment despite efforts to encourage and facilitate their cooperation should be subject to confinement after a hearing with full due process protections. PMID:8484443

  3. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  4. Assessing the Performance of a Computer-Based Policy Model of HIV and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Rydzak, Chara E.; Cotich, Kara L.; Sax, Paul E.; Hsu, Heather E.; Wang, Bingxia; Losina, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Weinstein, Milton C.; Goldie, Sue J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Model-based analyses, conducted within a decision analytic framework, provide a systematic way to combine information about the natural history of disease and effectiveness of clinical management strategies with demographic and epidemiological characteristics of the population. Among the challenges with disease-specific modeling include the need to identify influential assumptions and to assess the face validity and internal consistency of the model. Methods and Findings We describe a series of exercises involved in adapting a computer-based simulation model of HIV disease to the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) cohort and assess model performance as we re-parameterized the model to address policy questions in the U.S. relevant to HIV-infected women using data from the WIHS. Empiric calibration targets included 24-month survival curves stratified by treatment status and CD4 cell count. The most influential assumptions in untreated women included chronic HIV-associated mortality following an opportunistic infection, and in treated women, the ‘clinical effectiveness’ of HAART and the ability of HAART to prevent HIV complications independent of virologic suppression. Good-fitting parameter sets required reductions in the clinical effectiveness of 1st and 2nd line HAART and improvements in 3rd and 4th line regimens. Projected rates of treatment regimen switching using the calibrated cohort-specific model closely approximated independent analyses published using data from the WIHS. Conclusions The model demonstrated good internal consistency and face validity, and supported cohort heterogeneities that have been reported in the literature. Iterative assessment of model performance can provide information about the relative influence of uncertain assumptions and provide insight into heterogeneities within and between cohorts. Description of calibration exercises can enhance the transparency of disease-specific models. PMID:20844741

  5. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection. Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement. Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure. PMID:19811671

  6. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  7. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  8. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  9. Strategies for Implementing AIDS/HIV Policy Guidelines in Developmental and Mental Health Services: A Background and Checklist for Advocates. AIDS Technical Report, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, David C.

    This technical report is part of a series on AIDS/HIV (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and is intended to help link various legal advocacy organizations providing services to persons with mental illness or developmental disabilities. Through a series of case examples, questions, background information, and…

  10. Why the Critics of Poor Health Service Delivery Are the Causes of Poor Service Delivery: A Need to Train the Policy-makers Comment on "Why and How Is Compassion Necessary to Provide Good Quality Healthcare?".

    PubMed

    Harding, Nancy

    2015-06-27

    This comment on Professor Fotaki's Editorial agrees with her arguments that training health professionals in more compassionate, caring and ethically sound care will have little value unless the system in which they work changes. It argues that for system change to occur, senior management, government members and civil servants themselves need training so that they learn to understand the effects that their policies have on health professionals. It argues that these people are complicit in the delivery of unethical care, because they impose requirements that contradict health professionals' desire to deliver compassionate and ethical forms of care.

  11. Ideological pathways to policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Levy, C S

    1983-01-01

    Social policy is a reflection of changing ideological stances; and ideological stances are influenced by social conditions and events. Policy-makers and social welfare administrators need to be acutely aware of the existing ideologies and the subtle or dramatic shifts as they occur and affect perceptions of clients, programmatic components, and the nature of social service delivery. The author offers a dichotomy of ideological positions as they are applied to the issues of social problems vs sub-populations, societal vs individual responsibility, residual vs institutional welfare, enforceable rights vs revocable privilege, existential vs preferential attention to social needs, government regulation vs deregulation, and governmental aid vs voluntary philanthropy.

  12. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To effectively resolve many current ecological policy issues, decision-makers require an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists to decision-maker...

  13. Focusing Biodiversity Research on the Needs of Decision Makers

    PubMed

    SMYTHE; BERNABO; CARTER; JUTRO

    1996-11-01

    / The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers articulated concerns related to four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; and the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading natural and social scientists then identified the research required to address the decision makers' needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. The BURN participants identified several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity. Research and assessment efforts should be: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical (multiple scales), and problem- and region-specific. The activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. Meta-analysis of existing data is needed on all fronts to assess the state of the science. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability-for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations were developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that

  14. Aid Agency Influence in National Education Policy-Making: A Case from Nepal's "Education for All" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatta, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the nexus between foreign aid and Nepal's primary education in order to understand how aid agencies affect national educational development. It argues that after 1990, when global education targets provided the basic framework for all donor agency funding to primary education and the subsequent use of a sector-wide approach…

  15. Inculcating safe sex attitudes in South African adolescents: a directive for the government's anti-HIV/AIDS policy.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Jayesh

    2010-01-01

    South Africa has one of the highest rates of HIV/AIDS in the world. Much blame for this has been laid on the apathy of the South African government and the cultural traits of South Africans. AIDS prevention research calls for early childhood education to raise awareness of the causes, dangers, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. This study involved surveys among a select sample of South African adolescents to determine their sexual attitudes before and after a cognitive-behavioral intervention. Overall, the results did not make a significant difference in their attitudes, suggesting pre-adolescent sex education might prove to be a more useful tool in anti-HIV/AIDS education. Risky sexual behavior, under the influence of alcohol, also serves as a warning to educate young consumers of alcohol.

  16. What are the links between research and policy?

    PubMed

    2000-06-01

    A descriptive study was conducted by Ana Langer, Population Council's Regional Director in Latin America and Caribbean, and her colleagues on the influence of research on health policy decision making in Mexico. Four programs within the Mexican Ministry of Health were examined: those concerned with AIDS, cholera, family planning, and immunization. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews with 67 researchers and Ministry of Health officials, extensive documentary research, and case studies. Overall, it was noted that four elements figure in any interaction between research and policy: the content of the research and policy, the actors involved, the communication process, and the context of research and policy. Both the researchers and decision-makers mentioned the quality of research as influential in promoting its use in policy. The investigators noted a ¿mutual intellectual disdain¿ between researchers and decision makers, with members of both groups wanting to be recognized as the greatest contributor to the control or solution of the problem. Local and international groups were identified as actors that promote the use of research in decision making, and many informants mentioned the importance of informal contacts between researchers and decision-makers. In addition, the relative stability of Mexico's government has facilitated the incorporation of research and policy, although the centralized government structure has sometimes hindered it. Strikingly, only few participants mentioned the role of the public in influencing connections between research and policy.

  17. The role of policy advocacy in assuring comprehensive family life education in California.

    PubMed

    Brindis, Claire D; Geierstanger, Sara P; Faxio, Adrienne

    2009-12-01

    As part of their 10-year $60 million Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Initiative, The California Wellness Foundation funded 18 state and local organizations to conduct policy advocacy to strengthen teen pregnancy prevention policies. This article describes how some of these grantees accomplished noteworthy goals, including the passage of the California Comprehensive Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS Prevention Education Act (SB71), the prevention of the state's pursuit of federal "abstinence-only-until-marriage" funding, and the passage of a local school district FLE policy. Grantee progress is presented through a five-stage policy change framework: Institutional Capacity and Leadership Building, Policy Issue Recognition, Policy Prioritization, Policy Adoption, and Policy Maintenance. Implications are shared for advocates, policy makers, and funders who are developing initiatives aimed at improving the health of adolescents. PMID:19366884

  18. The role of policy advocacy in assuring comprehensive family life education in California.

    PubMed

    Brindis, Claire D; Geierstanger, Sara P; Faxio, Adrienne

    2009-12-01

    As part of their 10-year $60 million Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Initiative, The California Wellness Foundation funded 18 state and local organizations to conduct policy advocacy to strengthen teen pregnancy prevention policies. This article describes how some of these grantees accomplished noteworthy goals, including the passage of the California Comprehensive Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS Prevention Education Act (SB71), the prevention of the state's pursuit of federal "abstinence-only-until-marriage" funding, and the passage of a local school district FLE policy. Grantee progress is presented through a five-stage policy change framework: Institutional Capacity and Leadership Building, Policy Issue Recognition, Policy Prioritization, Policy Adoption, and Policy Maintenance. Implications are shared for advocates, policy makers, and funders who are developing initiatives aimed at improving the health of adolescents.

  19. Focusing biodiversity research on the needs of decision makers

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, K.D.; Bernabo, J.C.; Carter, T.B.; Jutro, P.R.

    1996-11-01

    The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers had concerns about four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading scientists identified research required to address these needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. Several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity were identified: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical, and problem- and region-specific. Activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability-for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations wee developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that require biodiversity research to address their needs-whether to develop policy, manage natural resources, or make other decisions affecting biodiversity. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. Aid for Trade: an opportunity to increase fruit and vegetable supply.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; Priyadarshi, Shishir

    2013-01-01

    Low fruit and vegetable consumption is an important contributor to the global burden of disease. In the wake of the United Nations High-level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), held in September 2011, a rise in the consumption of fruits and vegetables is foreseeable and this increased demand will have to be met through improved supply. The World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Bank have highlighted the potential for developing countries to benefit nutritionally and economically from the increased production and export of fruit and vegetables.Aid for Trade, launched in 2005 as an initiative designed to link development aid and trade holistically, offers an opportunity for the health and trade sectors to work jointly to enhance health and development. The Aid for Trade work programme stresses the importance of policy coherence across sectors, yet the commonality of purpose driving the Aid for Trade initiative and NCD prevention efforts has not been explored.In this paper food supply chain analysis was used to show health policy-makers that Aid for Trade can provide a mechanism for increasing the supply of fruits and vegetables in developing countries. Aid for Trade is an existing funding channel with clear accountability and reporting mechanisms, but its priorities are determined with little or no input from the health sector. The paper seeks to enable public health policy-makers, practitioners and advocates to improve coherence between trade and public health policies by highlighting Aid for Trade's potential role in this endeavour.

  1. Aid for Trade: an opportunity to increase fruit and vegetable supply.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; Priyadarshi, Shishir

    2013-01-01

    Low fruit and vegetable consumption is an important contributor to the global burden of disease. In the wake of the United Nations High-level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), held in September 2011, a rise in the consumption of fruits and vegetables is foreseeable and this increased demand will have to be met through improved supply. The World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Bank have highlighted the potential for developing countries to benefit nutritionally and economically from the increased production and export of fruit and vegetables.Aid for Trade, launched in 2005 as an initiative designed to link development aid and trade holistically, offers an opportunity for the health and trade sectors to work jointly to enhance health and development. The Aid for Trade work programme stresses the importance of policy coherence across sectors, yet the commonality of purpose driving the Aid for Trade initiative and NCD prevention efforts has not been explored.In this paper food supply chain analysis was used to show health policy-makers that Aid for Trade can provide a mechanism for increasing the supply of fruits and vegetables in developing countries. Aid for Trade is an existing funding channel with clear accountability and reporting mechanisms, but its priorities are determined with little or no input from the health sector. The paper seeks to enable public health policy-makers, practitioners and advocates to improve coherence between trade and public health policies by highlighting Aid for Trade's potential role in this endeavour. PMID:23397351

  2. Formulating Recruitment and Retention Policies at the University of Delaware: From Affirmative Action to Diversity in Financial Aid and Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Johnie A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the United States Supreme Court decided on two cases that involved affirmative action policies for admission to the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor Law School and the College of Literature, Science and the Arts. Those cases, "Gratz v. Bollinger" (2003) and "Grutter v. Bollinger" (2003) had implications for the policies universities…

  3. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  4. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  5. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  6. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  7. A scientist's guide to engaging decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.

  8. States in the Driver's Seat: Leveraging State Aid to Align Policies and Promote Access, Success, and Affordability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Brian T.; Longanecker, David A.

    2014-01-01

    With increasingly widespread calls to raise educational attainment levels without substantially growing public investment in higher education, policymakers and others have devoted growing attention to the role of financial aid programs in providing access to, promoting affordability for, and incentivizing success in college. Given relative levels…

  9. The Role of Aid to Medical, Osteopathic, and Dental Students in a New Health Manpower Education Policy. Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Current and future financial aid to students of medicine, osteopathy, and dentistry (MODs) is discussed in the context of federal health manpower objectives. Options for providing financial access to such students are analyzed. The report was prepared for the Senate Budget Committee in response to a request by Senator Lawton Chiles as part of…

  10. A weatherization manual for LIHEAP policy makers and program administrators

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, M.J.; Marabate, R.; Weinhaus, M.; Eisenberg, J.F.

    1993-09-01

    This manual is designed to provide Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) directors with information about weatherization and innovative ways they can utilize LIHEAP funds for weatherization activities. It contains a description of innovative weatherization programs which demonstrate creative uses of LIHEAP funds in weatherization activities. In many of the innovative examples, state and local administrators are coordinating their LIHEAP funds with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program`s funding and with a variety of other federal, state and utility company resources. The innovative programs demonstrate how LIHEAP funds can be used in client education, targeting high energy users, staff training, assessment and audits for weatherization services. The reader will find in the appendices lists of contact persons and further descriptions of the programs highlighted. Although designed with LIHEAP directors in mind, the practices and programs highlighted in this manual are of practical use to any state, local or utility weatherization program administrator. The glossary at the end of the descriptive chapters will assist readers with the terminology used throughout the manual. This manual and the many resource entities cited in its appendices provide ready access to a wealth of state-of-the-art information which could lead to a more cost-effective expenditure of LIBEAP weatherization dollars.

  11. Key Lessons about Induction for Policy Makers and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to digest the core chapters of this volume, which draws together some of the most sophisticated thinking on new teacher induction from the last decade. This chapter attends to five key understandings about induction programs, including their context, design, implementation, and outcomes. These understandings emerge…

  12. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries [1]. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals [2]. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and consistently administered, limit the promulgation of corrupt practices. Other major contributing factors are the inconsistency in documentation of procedures, lack of public availability of such documentation, and inadequacies in monitoring and evaluation. What is most critical from this study is the identification of areas that still remain permeable to corruption and, perhaps, where more appropriate checks and balances are needed from the Nigerian government and the international community. PMID:19874613

  13. CLIL Implementation: From Policy-Makers to Individual Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zarobe, Yolanda Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    Since Do Coyle and Hugo Baetens Beardsmore published their Special Issue on "Research on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)" in the "International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism" in 2007, there has been a great deal of interest and debate about the approach, which under the umbrella term of Content and Language…

  14. Resilience by Design: Bringing Science to Policy Makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Lucile M.

    2015-01-01

    No one questions that Los Angeles has an earthquake problem. The “Big Bend” of the San Andreas fault in southern California complicates the plate boundary between the North American and Pacific plates, creating a convergent component to the primarily transform boundary. The Southern California Earthquake Center Community Fault Model has over 150 fault segments, each capable of generating a damaging earthquake, in an area with more than 23 million residents (Fig. 1). A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) analysis of the expected losses from all future earthquakes in the National Seismic Hazard Maps (Petersen et al., 2014) predicts an annual average of more than $3 billion per year in the eight counties of southern California, with half of those losses in Los Angeles County alone (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2008). According to Swiss Re, one of the world’s largest reinsurance companies, Los Angeles faces one of the greatest risks of catastrophic losses from earthquakes of any city in the world, eclipsed only by Tokyo, Jakarta, and Manila (Swiss Re, 2013).

  15. The transition in practice: policy makers and purchasers.

    PubMed

    Bevan, B

    1997-05-01

    The transition to CFC-free pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) is not optional and cannot be ignored. The UK Government intends that CFCs will be removed from all medicinal products by the end of 1999. An overall strategy is needed to guide health professionals and patients through the transition process. Collaborative working between the pharmaceutical industry, health authorities and relevant health professionals is essential to ensure a smooth transition with minimal disruption to patients. The factors that need to be taken into consideration for a smooth transition and the role of national and local drivers in this process are outlined. The main focus around change must be on patients' confidence in their medication.

  16. 17 CFR 240.11a1-5 - Transactions by registered competitive market makers and registered equity market makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... competitive market makers and registered equity market makers. 240.11a1-5 Section 240.11a1-5 Commodity and... registered equity market makers. Any transaction by a New York Stock Exchange registered competitive market maker or an American Stock Exchange registered equity market maker effected in compliance with...

  17. 17 CFR 240.11a1-5 - Transactions by registered competitive market makers and registered equity market makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... competitive market makers and registered equity market makers. 240.11a1-5 Section 240.11a1-5 Commodity and... registered equity market makers. Any transaction by a New York Stock Exchange registered competitive market maker or an American Stock Exchange registered equity market maker effected in compliance with...

  18. The Chinese government's response to drug use and HIV/AIDS: A review of policies and programs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use has become popular in China. Acknowledging the challenge of illicit drug use, China has adopted several new policies on the management of illicit drug use in recent years. This study reviews the current policies on drug use and assesses the harm reduction interventions among drug users in China. The review documents that the new policies on drug use provide a variety of choices of detoxification treatment for drug users. The methadone maintenance treatment and needle exchange programs have been adopted as harm reduction models in China. Most of the reviewed harm reduction programs have been successfully implemented and yielded positive effects in reducing drug related risk behaviors among drug users. Although there remain barriers to the effective implementation of policies on drug use and harm reduction programs, Chinese government has shown their commitment to support the expansion of harm reduction interventions for drug users throughout the country. PMID:20205729

  19. HIV / AIDS: not just a matter of statistics. The International Conference on AIDS - Law and Humanity culminates into "New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on AIDS".

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and the Indian Law Institute with the cooperation of UNDP, the World Health Organization (WHO), and other national and international groups organized the International Conference on AIDS--Law and Humanity, held during December 6-10, 1995, in New Delhi, India. The leading speakers focused on the need for a united approach to the HIV/AIDS-related legal issues, which would protect society against the spread of HIV infection and respect the dignity and fundamental human rights of HIV infected persons or those suspected of being HIV infected and their families and friends. All conference participants adopted the New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on AIDS. The Plan has six principles designed to guide policy makers in developing laws and strategies to help fight against HIV/AIDS. The first principle is that sound and scientific data (not presupposition, prejudice, and stereotypes) should form the basis for all laws and policies on HIV/AIDS. It lays out eight objectives that vary from protection of rights and empowerment of individuals, so that by their cooperation the spread of HIV infection is contained, to allocation of adequate resources for prevention, care, and anti-discrimination efforts. The participants recognized actions that have been or need to be implemented to control HIV/AIDS at the international, national/legislative, executive, and judicial levels. For example, an international action at the international level is expansion of strategies by the High Commissioner for Human Rights for promoting the co-existence of human rights of persons with HIV/AIDS and for containment of the epidemic. The participants resolved to establish both national and international committees to address the national and international implications of HIV/AIDS from the point of view of law and humanity. The international committee should work with UNAIDS, the High Commissioner for Human Rights, WHO, and UNDP.

  20. Intervening in global markets to improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment: an analysis of international policies and the dynamics of global antiretroviral medicines markets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries faces numerous challenges: increasing numbers of people needing ART, new guidelines recommending more expensive antiretroviral (ARV) medicines, limited financing, and few fixed-dose combination (FDC) products. Global initiatives aim to promote efficient global ARV markets, yet little is known about market dynamics and the impact of global policy interventions. Methods We utilize several data sources, including 12,958 donor-funded, adult first-line ARV purchase transactions, to describe the market from 2002-2008. We examine relationships between market trends and: World Health Organization (WHO) HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines; WHO Prequalification Programme (WHO Prequal) and United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals; and procurement policies of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM), US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and UNITAID. Results WHO recommended 7, 4, 24, and 6 first-line regimens in 2002, 2003, 2006 and 2009 guidelines, respectively. 2009 guidelines replaced a stavudine-based regimen ($88/person/year) with more expensive zidovudine- ($154-260/person/year) or tenofovir-based ($244-465/person/year) regimens. Purchase volumes for ARVs newly-recommended in 2006 (emtricitabine, tenofovir) increased >15-fold from 2006 to 2008. Twenty-four generic FDCs were quality-approved for older regimens but only four for newer regimens. Generic FDCs were available to GFATM recipients in 2004 but to PEPFAR recipients only after FDA approval in 2006. Price trends for single-component generic medicines mirrored generic FDC prices. Two large-scale purchasers, PEPFAR and UNITAID, together accounted for 53%, 84%, and 77% of market volume for abacavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir, respectively, in 2008. PEPFAR and UNITAID purchases were often split across two manufacturers. Conclusions Global initiatives facilitated the

  1. Thinking Outside the Box: Policy Strategies for Readiness, Access, and Success. Changing Direction: Integrating Higher Education Financial Aid and Financing Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.; Jones, Dennis P.; Longanecker, David A.; Michelau, Demaree K.

    2007-01-01

    In partnership with the American Council on Education's Center for Policy Analysis, the National Conference of State Legislatures, and the State Higher Education Executive Officers, the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) has been working to advance the overarching goal of the Changing Direction project, which was to examine…

  2. The Morality of University Decision-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatier, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Ethical failures in UK higher education have recently made the news but are not a recent development. University decision-makers can, in order to adopt an ethical way of reasoning, resort to several ethical traditions. This article focuses, through the use of concrete examples, on three which have had a significant impact in recent higher…

  3. Worksite Nutrition: A Decision-Maker's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dietetic Association, Chicago, IL.

    This guide is designed specifically to assist decision makers in business and industry, including chief executive officers, benefits managers, human resource directors, wellness coordinators, and owners of small businesses, in understanding how diet and nutrition affect employees and the company. It addresses the concerns of both small and large…

  4. Computer Aided Assessment of Mathematics for Undergraduates with Specific Learning Difficulties--Issues of Inclusion in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkin, Glynis; Beacham, Nigel; Croft, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This paper opens up a debate about policy and practice in computer-assisted assessment (CAA) of mathematics for undergraduates with specific learning difficulties e.g. dyslexia. Guidelines for designing assessments for such students are emerging and some may be transferable to CAA. Whether mathematics brings with it particular issues is unclear.…

  5. Discursive Enactments of the World Health Organization's Policies: Competing Cultural Models in Tanzanian HIV/AIDS Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Christina

    2010-01-01

    In the healthcare arena, language policy-related research has thus far been limited to questions about "language access," i.e., whether individuals are supplied with health information in their languages, and whether interpreters for doctor-patient consultations are provided (Martinez 2008; Ngo-Metzger et al. 2003; Partida 2007; Vahabi 2007). This…

  6. Policy, Philosophy and Pedagogical Initiative to HIV/AIDS Education in the Nigerian Secondary School's Social Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojedokun, O. E.; Oyewusi, L. M.; Oluwatosin, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts a review of the Nigerian National Policy on Education, in the context of the overall philosophy of the Nigerian national life as reflected in the objectives of Social Studies--a subject in the Nigerian Junior Secondary Social Studies curriculum. Its main objective is to make justification for the teaching of the subject-matter…

  7. [Social actors in HIV/AIDS prevention: opposition and interests in educational policy in Mexico, 1994-2000].

    PubMed

    Granados-Cosme, José Arturo; Nasaiya, Kittipong; Brambila, Alberto Torres

    2007-03-01

    Studies and recommendations by health agencies have emphasized the importance of education in HIV-AIDS prevention. Mexico has included topics on sexuality and HIV-AIDS in school programs, triggering resistance by some social actors. The current study seeks to clarify the various positions and interests and their influence on the textbook content. A literature search was conducted on the period during which the last educational reform was implemented in Mexico. The discourse analysis focused on the ethnography of communication, which identified: the various actors' positions, arguments, actions, economic and political power, and relations to others. The results show that those who oppose the inclusion of these themes in the school curriculum base their position on tradition, contrary to modernization and secularization of social life, and that their positions range from refusal to raising conditions. Networks have been formed that provide such groups with significant economic and political power. Government has given in to some demands by partially modifying the textbook contents. The current analysis proposes to reflect on the potential repercussions of such actions on the control of the epidemic.

  8. 10 CFR 429.45 - Automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic commercial ice makers. 429.45 Section 429.45... PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.45 Automatic commercial ice makers. (a... automatic commercial ice makers; and (2) For each basic model of automatic commercial ice maker selected...

  9. 10 CFR 429.45 - Automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic commercial ice makers. 429.45 Section 429.45... PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.45 Automatic commercial ice makers. (a... automatic commercial ice makers; and (2) For each basic model of automatic commercial ice maker selected...

  10. 10 CFR 429.45 - Automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automatic commercial ice makers. 429.45 Section 429.45... PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.45 Automatic commercial ice makers. (a... automatic commercial ice makers; and (2) For each basic model of automatic commercial ice maker selected...

  11. Annotated bibliography on participatory consultations to help aid the inclusion of marginalized perspectives in setting policy agendas.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Faraz Rahim

    2014-12-20

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present studies from peer-reviewed and grey literature that used consultations and other participatory strategies to capture a community's perspective of their health priorities, and of techniques used to elevate participation from the implementation phase to a more upstream phase of prioritization, policymaking and agenda setting. The focus here is of those studies that worked with marginalized populations or sub-populations. This bibliography contains four areas of research. It begins by first offering some philosophical and conceptual frameworks that link participatory interventions with inclusive policy making or agenda setting, and a rationale for prioritizing marginalized populations in such an undertaking. After situating ourselves in this manner, the second section looks at various participatory instruments for participatory consultations, for reaching out to marginalized populations, and for communicating the results to policymakers. Two sets of distinctions are made here: one between external (non-invitation) and internal (stifling of opinions) exclusion, and between mere participation and from active inclusion within consultations and within the policies. In the third section, examples of consultations that created or changed policy in various jurisdictions are shared, followed by a final section on a reflective and evaluative look at the recruitment, instruments and examples. An earlier iteration of this bibliography was created to assist a multi-country research project by the author to inform the UN Post-2015 development framework of the views of several diverse and highly marginalized populations around the world on their health-related priorities.

  12. Best of enemies: Using social network analysis to explore a policy network in European smoke-free policy.

    PubMed

    Weishaar, Heide; Amos, Amanda; Collin, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    Networks and coalitions of stakeholders play a crucial role in the development and implementation of policies, with previous research highlighting that networks in tobacco control are characterised by an antagonism between supporters and opponents of comprehensive tobacco control policies. This UK-based study used quantitative and qualitative network analysis (drawing on 176 policy submissions and 32 interviews) to systematically map and analyse a network of actors involved in the development of European Union (EU) smoke-free policy. Policy debates were dominated by two coalitions of stakeholders with starkly opposing positions on the issue. One coalition, consisting primarily of health-related organisations, supported comprehensive EU smoke-free policy, whereas the other, led by tobacco manufacturers' organisations, opposed the policy initiative. The data suggest that, aided by strong political commitment of EU decision makers to develop smoke-free policy, advocates supporting comprehensive EU policy were able to frame policy debates in ways which challenged the tobacco industry's legitimacy. They then benefited from the stark polarisation between the two coalitions. The paper provides empirical evidence of the division between two distinct coalitions in tobacco policy debates and draws attention to the complex processes of consensus-seeking, alliance-building and strategic action which are integral to the development of EU policy. Highlighting network polarisation and industry isolation as factors which seemed to increase tobacco control success, the study demonstrates the potential significance and value of FCTC article 5.3 for tobacco control policy-making. PMID:25863723

  13. Best of enemies: Using social network analysis to explore a policy network in European smoke-free policy.

    PubMed

    Weishaar, Heide; Amos, Amanda; Collin, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    Networks and coalitions of stakeholders play a crucial role in the development and implementation of policies, with previous research highlighting that networks in tobacco control are characterised by an antagonism between supporters and opponents of comprehensive tobacco control policies. This UK-based study used quantitative and qualitative network analysis (drawing on 176 policy submissions and 32 interviews) to systematically map and analyse a network of actors involved in the development of European Union (EU) smoke-free policy. Policy debates were dominated by two coalitions of stakeholders with starkly opposing positions on the issue. One coalition, consisting primarily of health-related organisations, supported comprehensive EU smoke-free policy, whereas the other, led by tobacco manufacturers' organisations, opposed the policy initiative. The data suggest that, aided by strong political commitment of EU decision makers to develop smoke-free policy, advocates supporting comprehensive EU policy were able to frame policy debates in ways which challenged the tobacco industry's legitimacy. They then benefited from the stark polarisation between the two coalitions. The paper provides empirical evidence of the division between two distinct coalitions in tobacco policy debates and draws attention to the complex processes of consensus-seeking, alliance-building and strategic action which are integral to the development of EU policy. Highlighting network polarisation and industry isolation as factors which seemed to increase tobacco control success, the study demonstrates the potential significance and value of FCTC article 5.3 for tobacco control policy-making.

  14. Climate modeling with decision makers in mind

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, Andrew; Calvin, Katherine; Lamarque, Jean -Francois

    2016-04-27

    The need for regional- and local-scale climate information is increasing rapidly as decision makers seek to anticipate and manage a variety of context-specific climate risks over the next several decades. Furthermore, global climate models are not developed with these user needs in mind, and they typically operate at resolutions that are too coarse to provide information that could be used to support regional and local decisions.

  15. Mapping with the Masses: Google Map Maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfund, J.

    2008-12-01

    After some 15,000 years of map making, which saw the innovations of cardinal directions, map projections for a spherical earth, and GIS analysis, many parts of the world still appear as the "Dark Continent" on modern maps. Google Map Maker intends to shine a light on these areas by tapping into the power of the GeoWeb. Google Map Maker is a website which allows you to collaborate with others on one unified map to add, edit, locate, describe, and moderate map features, such as roads, cities, businesses, parks, schools and more, for certain regions of the world using Google Maps imagery. In this session, we will show some examples of how people are mapping with this powerful tool as well as what they are doing with the data. With Google Map Maker, you can become a citizen cartographer and join the global network of users helping to improve the quality of maps and local information in your region of interest. You are invited to map the world with us!

  16. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

  17. Detecting Student Aid Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Describes the varied kinds of student aid fraud found to be occurring within and outside colleges and universities, and examines implications for public policy on student aid programs. Discusses specific fraud cases and their outcomes, and makes suggestions for institutional action if student fraud is suspected. (MSE)

  18. Eco-informatics for decision makers advancing a research agenda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Brandt, L.; Gregg, V.; Spengler, S.; Borning, A.; Delcambre, L.; Bowker, G.; Frame, M.; Fulop, J.; Hert, C.; Hovy, E.; Jones, J.; Landis, E.; Schnase, J.L.; Schweik, C.; Sonntag, W.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Resource managers often face significant information technology (IT) problems when integrating ecological or environmental information to make decisions. At a workshop sponsored by the NSF and USGS in December 2004, university researchers, natural resource managers, and information managers met to articulate IT problems facing ecology and environmental decision makers. Decision making IT problems were identified in five areas: 1) policy, 2) data presentation, 3) data gaps, 4) tools, and 5) indicators. To alleviate those problems, workshop participants recommended specific informatics research in modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. This paper reports the workshop findings, and briefly compares these with research that traditionally falls under the emerging eco-informatics rubric. ?? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

  19. Gender roles and informal care for patients with AIDS: a qualitative study from an urban area in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tarimo, Edith A M; Kohi, Thecla W; Outwater, Anne; Blystad, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    As HIV/AIDS imposes an overwhelming pressure on the capacity of an already overburdened health care system in many African countries, families have increasingly been noted to supplement hospital care services for patients with AIDS. The aim of the present study is to generate knowledge on the experiences of family caregivers to the patients with AIDS at the household level in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 20 family caregivers and were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The article provides the reader increased insight on the obligations that AIDS caregiving has imposed on women within the close kin group of the patient. The study indicates that caregiving has increased the workload and in the same vein the economic marginality of women, who themselves are increasingly widowed heads of households. The study findings demonstrate strong gendered implications for community and policy makers.

  20. PUBLIC AWARENESS OF HIV/AIDS: HOW MEDIA PLAY A ROLE?.

    PubMed

    Sern, Tham Jen; Zanuddin, Hasmah

    2015-07-01

    Abstract. This paper examines the effectiveness of media in public awareness of the HIV/AIDS issue among the public in an area in central Selangor, comprising Kuala Lumpur and its surroundings and suburbs in Malaysia. Cross-sectional survey questionnaires were distributed to 384 respondents about accessing the public awareness of modes of HIV transmission, perceptions and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS, as well as people's understanding about government policies to curb HIV/AIDS. Health care practitioners and newspapers were the preferred sources of information seeking on HIV/AIDS among the public. Most of the respondents were aware of the modes of HIV transmission. However, they were some respondents who still have misconceptions about the modes of transmission. Most of the respondents were not aware about the government's significant policies to address HIV/AIDS in the region. Overall, the respondents had certain knowledge about HIV transmission modes and moderate positive perceptions and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS. Future studies should be conducted to examine about who sets the agenda in the media, and apart from gatekeepers, who are the real decision makers in deciding what is important to inform the public. PMID:26867387

  1. Living with AIDS: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…

  2. AIDS and civil disobedience.

    PubMed

    Spiers, H R

    1989-01-01

    Members of groups such as ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) risk arrest and criminal charges to protest laws and policies they view as unjust to persons with AIDS. Spiers, a founding member of ACT UP, discusses the rationale behind the tactics of civil disobedience employed by AIDS activists. He argues that civil disobedience is justified by American political and legal traditions, and by the federal government's lack of response to the needs of its citizens. Spiers warns that while AIDS protests have been nonviolent and characterized by conscientious planning and execution, violence cannot be ruled out as a "political act born of desperation."

  3. Feedback Delays: How Can Decision Makers Learn Not to Buy a New Car Every Time the Garage Is Empty?

    PubMed

    Gibson

    2000-09-01

    Decision makers in dynamic environments (e.g., stock trading, inventory control, and firefighting) learn poorly in experiments where feedback about the outcomes of their actions is delayed. In searching for ways to mitigate these effects, this paper presents two computational models of learning with feedback delays and contrasts them against human decision-makers' performance. The no-memory model hypothesizes that decision makers always perceive feedback as immediate. The with-memory model hypothesizes that, over time, decision makers are able to develop internal representations of the task that help them to perform with delayed feedback. As borne out by human subjects, both models predict that a display of past history improves learning with delay and that increasing delay increasingly degrades performance. Even though the length of training in this task exceeds that used in many laboratory-based dynamic tasks, neither the two models nor the subjects are able to effectively learn without decision aids when faced with feedback delays. When given an amount of training that more closely approximates that provided in functioning dynamic environments, the with-memory model predicts that human decision makers may learn without decision aids over the long term if feedback delays are simple. These results raise several issues for continued theoretical investigation as well as potential suggestions for training and supporting decision makers in dynamic environments with feedback delays. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. AIDS Federal Policy Act of 1987. Hearings on S. 1575: To Amend the Public Health Service Act To Establish a Grant Program To Provide for Counseling and Testing Services Relating to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and To Establish Certain Prohibitions for the Purpose of Protecting Individuals with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or Related Conditions. Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document presents the text from two Senate hearings on the AIDS Federal Policy Act of 1987 which concerns voluntary testing for AIDS virus, education and counseling to stop the spread of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), and confidentiality and discrimination against AIDS victims. In the first hearing, opening statements are…

  5. Healthy public policy in poor countries: tackling macro-economic policies.

    PubMed

    Mohindra, K S

    2007-06-01

    Large segments of the population in poor countries continue to suffer from a high level of unmet health needs, requiring macro-level, broad-based interventions. Healthy public policy, a key health promotion strategy, aims to put health on the agenda of policy makers across sectors and levels of government. Macro-economic policy in developing countries has thus far not adequately captured the attention of health promotion researchers. This paper argues that healthy public policy should not only be an objective in rich countries, but also in poor countries. This paper takes up this issue by reviewing the main macro-economic aid programs offered by international financial institutions as a response to economic crises and unmanageable debt burdens. Although health promotion researchers were largely absent during a key debate on structural adjustment programs and health during the 1980s and 1990s, the international macro-economic policy tool currently in play offers a new opportunity to participate in assessing these policies, ensuring new forms of macro-economic policy interventions do not simply reproduce patterns of (neoliberal) economics-dominated development policy.

  6. Policy-Related Research on Women in the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Janice; And Others

    The document briefly discusses approaches to research of benefit to policy makers and reviews current policy-related research on and by women in the southwestern United States. The authors suggest that research would better benefit policy makers if it included alternative policy solutions to problems rather than suggesting further research needs…

  7. Assessing ground-water vulnerability to contamination: Providing scientifically defensible information for decision makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, Michael J.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the United States increasing demands for safe drinking water and requirements to maintain healthy ecosystems are leading policy makers to ask complex social and scientific questions about how to assess and manage our water resources. This challenge becomes particularly difficult as policy and management objectives require scientific assessments of the potential for ground-water resources to become contaminated from anthropogenic, as well as natural sources of contamination. Assessments of the vulnerability of ground water to contamination range in scope and complexity from simple, qualitative, and relatively inexpensive approaches to rigorous, quantitative, and costly assessments. Tradeoffs must be carefully considered among the competing influences of the cost of an assessment, the scientific defensibility, and the amount of acceptable uncertainty in meeting the objectives of the water-resource decision maker.

  8. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  9. International institutions and China's health policy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanzhong

    2015-02-01

    This article examines the role of international institutional actors in China's health policy process. Particular attention is paid to three major international institutional actors: the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Through process tracing and comparative case studies, the article looks at how international institutions contribute to policy change in China and seeks to explain different outcomes in the relationship between international institutions and China's health policies. It finds that despite the opaque and exclusive authoritarian structure in China, international institutions play a significant role in the country's domestic health governance. By investing their resources and capabilities selectively and strategically, international institutions can change the preferences of government policy makers, move latent public health issues to the government's agenda, and affect the timing of government action and the content of policy design. Furthermore, the study suggests that different outcomes in the relationship between China's health policies and global health governance can be explained through the seriousness of the externalities China faces.

  10. International institutions and China's health policy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanzhong

    2015-02-01

    This article examines the role of international institutional actors in China's health policy process. Particular attention is paid to three major international institutional actors: the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Through process tracing and comparative case studies, the article looks at how international institutions contribute to policy change in China and seeks to explain different outcomes in the relationship between international institutions and China's health policies. It finds that despite the opaque and exclusive authoritarian structure in China, international institutions play a significant role in the country's domestic health governance. By investing their resources and capabilities selectively and strategically, international institutions can change the preferences of government policy makers, move latent public health issues to the government's agenda, and affect the timing of government action and the content of policy design. Furthermore, the study suggests that different outcomes in the relationship between China's health policies and global health governance can be explained through the seriousness of the externalities China faces. PMID:25480846

  11. Redesigning State Financial Aid: Principles to Guide State Aid Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingel, Sarah; Sponsler, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Several factors create a challenging environment for individuals seeking financial support to complete a postsecondary degree program. In recognition of the challenges of paying for higher education, decision-makers at the federal and state levels support college-going with public policy. Through direct institutional allocations, need and…

  12. Reaching Local Decision Makers through the OhioView Remote Sensing Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, K. P.

    2002-05-01

    Remote sensing technology has been slow to move out of the research lab and into public use. A primary goal of the OhioView Consortium, a consortium of ten Ohio universities working together to spread remote sensing, is to take application-based research and make the results useful to the public. In particular, the group is working to remove the barriers to the use of satellite imagery including costs of imagery and software and training of policy makers. Through collaboration with the Ohio Library and Information Network (OhioLINK), OhioView is disseminating Landsat 7 imagery over Ohio with 30 percent cloud cover or less over the internet for free. In addition, OhioView has provided remote sensing software for local government agencies. As part of the OhoView Consortium, the Department of Geography and Planning at the University of Toledo has worked with policy makers on local issues that can benefit from the addition of satellite imagery. Northwest Ohio traditionally is a region of heavy industry rather than high technology. Few policy makers or environmental consultants had considered using satellite imagery in their work. We will discuss the results of this collaboration from a project we are currently conducting with local government groups to identify wetlands. Wetlands once covered over 90 percent of Northwest Ohio. Through draining, they have virtually disappeared. The goal of this project was to produce a map of existing wetlands in Northwest Ohio that could be used by government officials to make development decisions.

  13. Action Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Murray, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific…

  14. AIDS in the Workplace: What Can Be Done?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masi, Dale A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the legal ramifications for employers concerning acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Suggests that employers should have in place an AIDS policy that addresses such issues as AIDS testing, employee assistance programs, and health insurance coverage. (CH)

  15. Cost-Effectiveness and Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    1988-01-01

    Techniques of cost-effectiveness analysis and their applications to educational policy are discussed. Recommendations are made to increase the capacity of evaluators, policy analysts, and decision makers to use these tools appropriately for resource allocation. (SLD)

  16. Global HIV/AIDS funding and health systems: Searching for the win-win.

    PubMed

    Levine, Ruth; Oomman, Nandini

    2009-11-01

    Donors, developing country governments, and NGOs are searching for ways to use funding for HIV/AIDS programs that strengthen the functioning of weak health systems. This is motivated both by the realization that a large share of donor funding for global health is and will continue to be dedicated to HIV/AIDS, and that the aims of more and better treatment, prevention, and care can be achieved only with attention to systemic capacities. For AIDS resources to strengthen health systems, decision makers should: (a) mitigate the risks that AIDS spending may weaken the ability of health systems to respond to other health problems; (b) find ways for procurement, supply chain, management information, and other systems that are created to support AIDS treatment to be broadened to serve other types of services; and (c) build upon the ways in which AIDS programs have overcome some demand-side barriers to use of services. In pursuing this agenda, donors should recognize that health system development is a function of the national and local political economy and place respect for national sovereignty as a central tenet of their policies and practices. PMID:19858934

  17. Managing AIDS in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M D; Myers, J E

    1993-01-01

    Because of the AIDS epidemic and the protections afforded individuals with AIDS under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), employers are well advised to ensure compliance under applicable law to reduce exposure to employee claims of discrimination and to efficiently manage workplace issues associated with AIDS. Employers should implement AIDS policies and programs designed to educate their workforce to reduce the spread of AIDS and to clear up any misunderstandings about the disease which could wreak havoc in the workplace. This article summarizes suggested action steps for employers and outside resources to consult for guidance.

  18. Improving Tobacco-Free Advocacy on College Campuses: A Novel Strategy to Aid in the Understanding of Student Perceptions about Policy Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Chapp, Christopher B.; Henley, Whitney B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Tobacco-control policy proposals are usually met with opposition on college campuses. Research to understand students' viewpoints about health-related policy proposals and messaging strategies, however, does not exist. This study investigated students' perceptions about a smoke-free policy proposal to help understand their…

  19. The needs of AIDS-infected individuals in rural China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yun Luke; Trout, Shirley K; Lu, Katarina; Creswell, John W

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this exploratory case study was to describe the needs and present the voices of 21 AIDS-infected individuals who contracted the disease through the selling of blood in rural China. Data sources included interviews, field notes, and letters. Three themes emerged: living in a vicious circle, awakening from the dead end, and escaping the vicious circle through education. Education emerged as an overarching theme and was identified as the catalyst that would either keep the families of those affected trapped in the vicious circle or rescue them from it. Findings are explained within the theoretical contexts of social capital, motivation theory, and Confucius's philosophy on education. The authors discuss implications for researchers, educators, relief workers, human service workers, policy makers, and human rights advocates. They conclude with suggestions for further study.

  20. The medical decision model and decision maker tools for management of radiological and nuclear incidents.

    PubMed

    Koerner, John F; Coleman, C Norman; Murrain-Hill, Paula; FitzGerald, Denis J; Sullivan, Julie M

    2014-06-01

    Effective decision making during a rapidly evolving emergency such as a radiological or nuclear incident requires timely interim decisions and communications from onsite decision makers while further data processing, consultation, and review are ongoing by reachback experts. The authors have recently proposed a medical decision model for use during a radiological or nuclear disaster, which is similar in concept to that used in medical care, especially when delay in action can have disastrous effects. For decision makers to function most effectively during a complex response, they require access to onsite subject matter experts who can provide information, recommendations, and participate in public communication efforts. However, in the time before this expertise is available or during the planning phase, just-in-time tools are essential that provide critical overview of the subject matter written specifically for the decision makers. Recognizing the complexity of the science, risk assessment, and multitude of potential response assets that will be required after a nuclear incident, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, in collaboration with other government and non-government experts, has prepared a practical guide for decision makers. This paper illustrates how the medical decision model process could facilitate onsite decision making that includes using the deliberative reachback process from science and policy experts and describes the tools now available to facilitate timely and effective incident management. PMID:24776895

  1. Job Grading Standard for Model Maker, WG-4714.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The pamphlet explains the different job requirements for different grades of model maker (WG-14 and WG-15) and contrasts them to the position of premium journeyman. It includes comment on what a model maker is (a nonsupervisory job involved in planning and fabricating complex research and prototype models which are made from a variety of materials…

  2. Effective Engagement of Decision Makers in Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Timothy W.; Sporn, Douglas L.

    1988-01-01

    Techniques developed in a federal agency to forge links between evaluators and decision makers using evaluation information are described. Focus is on engaging the decision maker in the identification of candidate programs, selection among candidates, program evaluation, reporting of evaluation results, and assessment of evaluation impact. (SLD)

  3. Maker Movement Spreads Innovation One Project at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppler, Kylie; Bender, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The maker movement consists of a growing culture of hands-on making, creating, designing, and innovating. A hallmark of the maker movement is its do-it-yourself (or do-it-with-others) mindset that brings individuals together around a range of activities, both high- and low-tech, all involving some form of creation or repair. The movement's…

  4. Role Perceptions of Black Decision Makers: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzzell, Odell

    1981-01-01

    A study in Wake County, North Carolina, designed to determine how racist structural barriers influence role perceptions of Black decision makers, identified the following discriminators of role perceptions: 1) officials' perceptions of themselves as decision makers or decision influencers; 2) age; 3) racial composition of organization; 4)…

  5. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  6. Addressing Future Epidemics: Historical Human Rights Lessons from the AIDS Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ambar; Quinn, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Ebola epidemic in West Africa sparked many ethical and polarizing public health questions on how to adequately control transmission of the virus. These deliberations had and will continue to influence patients, healthcare workers, public perceptions of disease, and governmental responses. Such extensive and potential ramifications warranted an analysis of prior epidemics to sufficiently inform policy makers and prepare them and other authorities for future epidemics. We analyzed how the general public, medical institutions, federal government, and patients themselves responded during the early stages of the AIDS pandemic in two different countries and cultures, the United States and India. Discussion Our analysis identified four key findings pertaining to the human rights of patients and healthcare workers and to the crucial roles of the government and medical community. The first demands that authoritative officials acknowledge the presence of high-risk behaviors and properly educate the public without stigmatizing groups of individuals. For this task, the medical community and federal government must form and display to the public a respectful and collaborative partnership towards battling the epidemic. These two synergistic endeavors will then allow appropriate officials to implement effective, yet civil, interventions for limiting transmission. Finally, the same officials must ensure that their interventions maintain the human rights of high-risk populations and of healthcare workers. Conclusions Applying these findings to future epidemics of infectious diseases can aid policy makers in navigating complicated ethical and public health questions, and help prevent them from repeating past mistakes in handling epidemics. PMID:27284578

  7. Examining the Educative Aims and Practices of Decision-Makers in Sport for Development and Peace Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Per G.; Hancock, Meg G.; Hums, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) policy-makers and practitioners continue to offer ambitious claims regarding the potential role of sport-based programs for promoting social change. Yet, it is important to put sport under a critical lens in order to develop a more balanced and realistic understanding of the role of sport in society. Whether…

  8. The Current Mind-Set of Federal Information Security Decision-Makers on the Value of Governance: An Informative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroup, Jay Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mind-set or perceptions of organizational leaders and decision-makers is important to ascertaining the trends and priorities in policy and governance of the organization. This study finds that a significant shift in the mind-set of government IT and information security leaders has started and will likely result in placing a…

  9. Circulation Aide Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Alan O.

    This training manual provides instruction on shelving and other duties for student assistants in the learning resources center at the College of Dupage, located in Illinois. It is noted that prospective student circulation aides are required to read the manual and pass a written test on policies and procedures before they are allowed to shelve…

  10. Student Aid: The Case for Nonregistrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bok, Derek

    1983-01-01

    Harvard University's president outlines his institution's policy regarding providing institutional financial aid to male students who have not registered with the Selective Service and therefore do not qualify for federal funds, criticisms of this policy, and arguments supporting it. (MSE)

  11. An analytical framework to assist decision makers in the use of forest ecosystem model predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larocque, Guy R.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Ascough, J.C.; Liu, J.; Luckai, N.; Mailly, D.; Archambault, L.; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    The predictions from most forest ecosystem models originate from deterministic simulations. However, few evaluation exercises for model outputs are performed by either model developers or users. This issue has important consequences for decision makers using these models to develop natural resource management policies, as they cannot evaluate the extent to which predictions stemming from the simulation of alternative management scenarios may result in significant environmental or economic differences. Various numerical methods, such as sensitivity/uncertainty analyses, or bootstrap methods, may be used to evaluate models and the errors associated with their outputs. However, the application of each of these methods carries unique challenges which decision makers do not necessarily understand; guidance is required when interpreting the output generated from each model. This paper proposes a decision flow chart in the form of an analytical framework to help decision makers apply, in an orderly fashion, different steps involved in examining the model outputs. The analytical framework is discussed with regard to the definition of problems and objectives and includes the following topics: model selection, identification of alternatives, modelling tasks and selecting alternatives for developing policy or implementing management scenarios. Its application is illustrated using an on-going exercise in developing silvicultural guidelines for a forest management enterprise in Ontario, Canada. ?? 2010.

  12. AIDS--mémoire.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, L

    1994-08-13

    A czar was born when President Clinton named Kristine M. Gebbie to be his national AIDS policy coordinator. But a year later, under unrelenting fire from AIDS activists, Gebbie resigned. Her departure underscores the trouble that some activists have had shifting from the outsider's game to the insider's.

  13. Moral Character and Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  14. The Politics of Federal Aid to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curley, John R.

    Educational policy decisions are political and are affected by demographic, economic, and social factors that influence policy-makers. As the number of federal government programs grew from the 1960's to the 1980's, so did the number of special interest groups lobbying in Washington, District of Columbia, to promote legislation, regulations, and…

  15. Evidence and Impact: How Scholarship Can Improve Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingenfelter, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers, policy makers, and practitioners share a sincere interest in improving the human condition. Academics may be tempted to fault irrationality, ideology, or ignorance for the failure of research to inform policy and practice more powerfully, but policy makers and practitioners want academics to tell them "what works" in order to find a…

  16. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  17. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  18. Caregiver supportive policies to improve child outcomes in the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: an analysis of the gap between what is needed and what is available in 25 high prevalence countries.

    PubMed

    Kidman, Rachel; Heymann, Jody

    2016-03-01

    In the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, caregivers are struggling to support HIV-affected children. For reasons of equity and efficiency, their needs can be best met through strong social protections and policies. This paper presents a conceptual framework to help address the needs of HIV-affected caregivers and to prioritize policies. We describe the needs that are common across diverse caregiving populations (e.g., economic security); the needs which are intensified (e.g., leave to care for sick children) or unique to providing care to HIV-affected children (e.g., ARV treatment). The paper then explores the types of social policies that would facilitate families meeting these needs. We outline a basic package of policies that would support HIV-affected families, and would meet goals agreed to by national governments. We examine the availability of these policies in 25 highly affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of countries guarantee short-term income protection during illness, free primary school, and educational inclusion of children with special needs. However, there are significant gaps in areas critical to family economic security and healthy child development. Fewer than half of the countries we analyzed guarantee a minimum wage that will enable families to escape poverty; only six have eliminated tuition fees for secondary school; and only three offer paid leave to care for sick children. Filling these policy gaps, as well as making mental health and social services more widely available, is essential to support caregiving by families for HIV-affected children. As part of the HIV agenda, the global community can help national governments advance towards their policy targets. This would provide meaningful protection for families affected by HIV, as well as for millions of other vulnerable families and children across the region. PMID:27392009

  19. Caregiver supportive policies to improve child outcomes in the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: an analysis of the gap between what is needed and what is available in 25 high prevalence countries

    PubMed Central

    Kidman, Rachel; Heymann, Jody

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, caregivers are struggling to support HIV-affected children. For reasons of equity and efficiency, their needs can be best met through strong social protections and policies. This paper presents a conceptual framework to help address the needs of HIV-affected caregivers and to prioritize policies. We describe the needs that are common across diverse caregiving populations (e.g., economic security); the needs which are intensified (e.g., leave to care for sick children) or unique to providing care to HIV-affected children (e.g., ARV treatment). The paper then explores the types of social policies that would facilitate families meeting these needs. We outline a basic package of policies that would support HIV-affected families, and would meet goals agreed to by national governments. We examine the availability of these policies in 25 highly affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of countries guarantee short-term income protection during illness, free primary school, and educational inclusion of children with special needs. However, there are significant gaps in areas critical to family economic security and healthy child development. Fewer than half of the countries we analyzed guarantee a minimum wage that will enable families to escape poverty; only six have eliminated tuition fees for secondary school; and only three offer paid leave to care for sick children. Filling these policy gaps, as well as making mental health and social services more widely available, is essential to support caregiving by families for HIV-affected children. As part of the HIV agenda, the global community can help national governments advance towards their policy targets. This would provide meaningful protection for families affected by HIV, as well as for millions of other vulnerable families and children across the region. PMID:27392009

  20. Caregiver supportive policies to improve child outcomes in the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: an analysis of the gap between what is needed and what is available in 25 high prevalence countries.

    PubMed

    Kidman, Rachel; Heymann, Jody

    2016-03-01

    In the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, caregivers are struggling to support HIV-affected children. For reasons of equity and efficiency, their needs can be best met through strong social protections and policies. This paper presents a conceptual framework to help address the needs of HIV-affected caregivers and to prioritize policies. We describe the needs that are common across diverse caregiving populations (e.g., economic security); the needs which are intensified (e.g., leave to care for sick children) or unique to providing care to HIV-affected children (e.g., ARV treatment). The paper then explores the types of social policies that would facilitate families meeting these needs. We outline a basic package of policies that would support HIV-affected families, and would meet goals agreed to by national governments. We examine the availability of these policies in 25 highly affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of countries guarantee short-term income protection during illness, free primary school, and educational inclusion of children with special needs. However, there are significant gaps in areas critical to family economic security and healthy child development. Fewer than half of the countries we analyzed guarantee a minimum wage that will enable families to escape poverty; only six have eliminated tuition fees for secondary school; and only three offer paid leave to care for sick children. Filling these policy gaps, as well as making mental health and social services more widely available, is essential to support caregiving by families for HIV-affected children. As part of the HIV agenda, the global community can help national governments advance towards their policy targets. This would provide meaningful protection for families affected by HIV, as well as for millions of other vulnerable families and children across the region.

  1. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  2. Clarity versus complexity: land-use modeling as a practical tool for decision-makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has seen a remarkable increase in the number of modeling tools available to examine future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change. Integrated modeling frameworks, agent-based models, cellular automata approaches, and other modeling techniques have substantially improved the representation of complex LULC systems, with each method using a different strategy to address complexity. However, despite the development of new and better modeling tools, the use of these tools is limited for actual planning, decision-making, or policy-making purposes. LULC modelers have become very adept at creating tools for modeling LULC change, but complicated models and lack of transparency limit their utility for decision-makers. The complicated nature of many LULC models also makes it impractical or even impossible to perform a rigorous analysis of modeling uncertainty. This paper provides a review of land-cover modeling approaches and the issues causes by the complicated nature of models, and provides suggestions to facilitate the increased use of LULC models by decision-makers and other stakeholders. The utility of LULC models themselves can be improved by 1) providing model code and documentation, 2) through the use of scenario frameworks to frame overall uncertainties, 3) improving methods for generalizing key LULC processes most important to stakeholders, and 4) adopting more rigorous standards for validating models and quantifying uncertainty. Communication with decision-makers and other stakeholders can be improved by increasing stakeholder participation in all stages of the modeling process, increasing the transparency of model structure and uncertainties, and developing user-friendly decision-support systems to bridge the link between LULC science and policy. By considering these options, LULC science will be better positioned to support decision-makers and increase real-world application of LULC modeling results.

  3. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  4. An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Direct Investment Policy and Economic Development. A.I.D. Discussion Paper No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsten, C. Fred; De Castro, Bruce

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze U.S. policies toward financial investment in developing nations. The paper is presented in two sections. In section I, the controversial effects of direct foreign investment on development are discussed. Case studies of investment policies toward India, the Philippines, Ghana, Guatemala, and Argentina are…

  5. Make Energy at the Bay Area Maker Faire

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Think. Make. Innovate. A festival of invention, creativity and resourcefulness that gathers makers of all kinds. Scientists are seeking to find innovative solutions to the energy challenges in the world.

  6. 3. BARREL VIEW, LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF BRIDGE, SHOWING MAKER'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BARREL VIEW, LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF BRIDGE, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE, DECORATIVE SCROLLWORK AND URN FINIALS ON NORTHEAST PORTAL - "Forder" Pratt Through Truss Bridge, Spanning Maumee River at County Route 73, Antwerp, Paulding County, OH

  7. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER CHORD MEMBER, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER CHORD MEMBER, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE STATING 'KING IRON BRIDGE & MFG. CO., K & F & Z KING PATENT, CLEVELAND, O.' - Smith Road Bowstring Arch Bridge, Spanning Sycamore Creek at Smith Road (TR 62), Lykens, Crawford County, OH

  8. The ichnogenus Rhizocorallium: Classification, trace makers, palaeoenvironments and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaust, Dirk

    2013-11-01

    Rhizocorallium is one of the oldest known trace fossils, with wide distribution through the Phanerozoic and all over the world. Originally introduced from the epicontinental Triassic of central Germany, its high morphological lability gave reason for the subsequent erection of about twenty ichnospecies. The study of newly collected material from the type area and many specimens from various collections permits the conclusion that Rhizocorallium jenense and Rhizocorallium commune are the only valid ichnospecies of Rhizocorallium. The type ichnospecies, R. jenense, is a comparatively small, inclined and heavily scratched firmground burrow with passive fill, while R. commune consists of extensive, more or less horizontal burrows with occasionally scratched marginal tubes and an actively filled spreite between the tubes. The faecal pellets Coprulus oblongus are typically associated with R. commune. Morphological variations of R. commune are captured in ichnosubspecies and varieties of this ichnospecies and can aid a refined reconstruction of palaeoenvironments. A review of more than 180 records from the literature reveals the common confusion of both ichnospecies, which has consequences for the application of Rhizocorallium in facies interpretations. The end members of both ichnospecies may be linked by transitional forms, which suggests the same kind of trace maker. Polychaetes are the most likely producers of marine Rhizocorallium, based on their long-ranging occurrence, morphological features, appearance of faecal pellets, associated soft-body remains, and modern analogues. R. commune occurs from Early Cambrian to Holocene, while R. jenense just appears after the end-Permian mass extinction, probably as a consequence of an adapted firmground burrowing lifestyle of its producer. Fluvial R. jenense are probably produced by mayfly larvae in homology to marine polychaete burrows. A consequent application of the newly established classification scheme allows for a more

  9. Business and AIDS: sectoral challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Weston, Mark D; Churchyard, Gavin J; Mametja, David; McIntyre, James A; Randera, Fazel

    2007-07-01

    The Business and AIDS think tank held in Durban, South Africa, in June 2006, included a discussion of the policies with which different types of employer could address HIV/AIDS in southern Africa. Breakout groups discussed the role of large and small private sector firms, the public sector, and parastatal organizations. They made recommendations for policies, programmes and future research for each sector.

  10. Living with HIV/AIDS in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedletter, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter article is concerned with understanding what schools can and must do to sustain life in the age of human immunodeficiency virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The article looks at the incidence of AIDS and reviews legislation related to AIDS infection and school attendance. School policy as it relates to…

  11. Employment Considerations of AIDS in Dental Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumpler, Diane C.; Carey, Moses

    1987-01-01

    Policies governing the employment of health care workers with AIDS, and the AIDS employment issue facing dental practitioners, administrators, and educators are discussed. Legal considerations of AIDS in the workplace are addressed as to HIV testing, employee rights to gain and/or retain employment, economic considerations, and confidentiality…

  12. Mass Media Use and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroman, Carolyn A.; Seltzer, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Examines the associations between media use and knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Explores how media consumption is related to attitudes toward AIDS and policy issues pertaining to AIDS. Finds newspaper users better informed than television viewers. Finds television news users more likely to be misinformed than frequent…

  13. Latina women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Worth, D; Rodriguez, R

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of AIDS in Latina women is over 11 times that of white women. Women account for 13% of all Latino AIDS deaths since 1980. This examination of the impact of AIDS on Latino women concentrates on Manhattan's Lower East Side. The AIDS deaths among Puerto Rican women in this neighborhood are predominantly intravenous drug abuse related. Latina women accounted for more than 1/2 of all female AIDS deaths on the Lower East Side during the 1980-1985 period. The age range is parallel with that in the rest of New York City, with the exception of a higher number of deaths on the Lower East Side in the age ranges of 15-19 and over 40. Serious obstacles exist to providing AIDS risk reduction information to Puerto Rican women and their partners. Latinos account for 11% of all US AIDS cases among gay and bisexual men. The cultural proscription against these sexual practices in the Puerto Rican community makes AIDS education related to such practices extremely difficult. Many of the female sex partners of these men are unaware of their bisexuality, and, therefore not aware that they are at risk of HIV infection. The Latina women most at risk are young, poor, and have low educational levels. Latina women seriously underutilize ongoing primary health care, family planning, prenatal or pediatric care. Attempts to reach Latina women with AIDS risk reduction education must also contend with issues such as cultural gender roles. Females tend to be dependent on males and defer to male decision making related to sexual practices. In formulating policy regarding services and education, it is essential to involve the leadership of the Latino community. PMID:12268416

  14. Global Tides, Samoan Shores: Samoan Policy Actors' Responses to the Shifting Conditions of Education Aid and Postcolonial Possibilities for Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobhani, Nima

    2016-01-01

    In the years since Samoan independence in 1962, and especially over the past 2 decades, the landscape of education aid to the Pacific Island nation of Samoa has changed dramatically as a result of ongoing geopolitical shifts and emerging global designs. Some of these include: rapid globalization across all spheres of human activity; the economic…

  15. AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S

    1991-01-01

    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival.

  16. Advocacy & Lobbying: Influencing Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This issue contains nine papers dealing with influencing public policy through advocacy and lobbying. "Influencing Public Policy" (Rajesh Tandon) looks at opportunities nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have for influencing public policy and constraints to advocacy. "Recent Changes in the Global Aid Environment" (Sunimal Fernando) considers…

  17. Identifying the links between violence against women and HIV/AIDS: ecosocial and human rights frameworks offer insight into U.S. prevention policies.

    PubMed

    Teti, Michelle; Chilton, Mariana; Lloyd, Linda; Rubinstein, Susan

    2006-01-01

    While US government-sponsored HIV prevention initiatives have achieved notable successes, challenges remain to serving women effectively. Intimate partner violence hinders women's efforts to decrease their HIV risk behaviors. The global HIV/AIDS epidemic is often viewed as a human rights crisis. An analysis of US HIV prevention strategies based on ecosocial and health and human rights frameworks clarifies women's HIV risk practices and suggests opportunities for progress. These two frameworks help to (1) demonstrate how HIV/AIDS is a clinical manifestation of violence against women, (2) identify safety from violence as a human right necessary for well-being, and (3) suggest ways in which HIV prevention initiatives can more effectively improve women's health and fulfill their basic human rights. PMID:17265754

  18. Alternative American foreign policy for Ukraine. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.G.

    1993-06-01

    American policy makers have largely ignored Ukraine in their global policy planning. This lack of consideration shows a neglect of the potential for conflict in Eastern Europe. American foreign policy toward Ukraine, that is rooted in the START and NPT Treaties, is doomed to fail, and will actually sow the seeds of chaos, unless the United States: (1) comes to understand the motivations that drive Ukrainian foreign policy, and (2) facilitate significant positive alterations to the security and economic environment that has developed since the breakup of the Soviet Union. This thesis examines Western security goals and analyzes the current means available to achieve those goals. The contention of this thesis is that present Western policy pursuits will lead to a regenerated authoritarian Russian superpower that will be a threat to the security of Ukraine and Europe. The potentially dangerous consequences of an authoritarian Russia could be avoided by facilitating the development of a strong and stable Ukraine to act as a balance to Russian power in Eastern Europe. United States, Ukraine, Foreign policy, Nuclear arms negotiations, Economic aid, Russia.

  19. ["Knowing about AIDS" and sexual precautions among low-income women from the southern area of Buenos Aires. Notes for defining prevention policies].

    PubMed

    Grimberg, M

    2001-01-01

    This study is part of a line of research on gender and prevention in a research program on the social construction of HIV/AIDS. We present the results of an ethnographic study among low-income women 15-35 years old in the southern area of Buenos Aires. The area has the highest number of HIV/AIDS cases and high poverty levels, extensive social degradation, and urban violence. According to our results, in the interface between "knowing about" and "behaving" there are complex processes involving stigmatized and gender-biased representations of HIV/AIDS as "other people's problem" and social and sexual relations permeated by gender stereotypes and roles. We believe that planning of prevention should be based on the consideration of overall social practices and specifically the characteristics of gender relations, prioritizing relational strategies between women and men and promoting critical reflection on the main nodes organizing daily life and active participation in the production of social relations and practices of reciprocity and equity. The increasingly precarious conditions in social life intensifies poor women's vulnerability and social interaction contexts that relate to the socioeconomic and symbolic role played by women.

  20. Peircean Decision Aid

    2008-08-14

    The Peircean decision aid (PDA) is a decision support architecture and embedded functionality that supports a decision maker in very complex environments dealing with massive amounts of disparate data, information and knowledge. The solution generated is a hybrid system solution employing a number of technologies that are based on Peircean reasoning, modal logic, and formal concept analysis. The system convolves data/information with knowledge to create a virtual belief state that is passed to a decisionmore » maker for consideration. The system can capture categorized knowledge or it can inductively learn or acquire new knowledge from suites of observations. Captured knowledge is used to abductively generate hypotheses that are potential explanations to observations or collected data. The zero order modal logic architecture is designed to augment knowledge update and belief revision and can be extended to include disjunctive screening of collected data. While intended to be a library for integration into a decision support architecture it possesses a basic stand-alone GUI for use as an analysis support tool.« less

  1. Peircean Decision Aid

    SciTech Connect

    SENGLAUB, MICHAEL; & WHITFIELD, GREG

    2008-08-14

    The Peircean decision aid (PDA) is a decision support architecture and embedded functionality that supports a decision maker in very complex environments dealing with massive amounts of disparate data, information and knowledge. The solution generated is a hybrid system solution employing a number of technologies that are based on Peircean reasoning, modal logic, and formal concept analysis. The system convolves data/information with knowledge to create a virtual belief state that is passed to a decision maker for consideration. The system can capture categorized knowledge or it can inductively learn or acquire new knowledge from suites of observations. Captured knowledge is used to abductively generate hypotheses that are potential explanations to observations or collected data. The zero order modal logic architecture is designed to augment knowledge update and belief revision and can be extended to include disjunctive screening of collected data. While intended to be a library for integration into a decision support architecture it possesses a basic stand-alone GUI for use as an analysis support tool.

  2. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  3. Teaching AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonks, Douglas

    This book presents a curriculum to educate students about the risk of AIDS and HIV infection. The opening chapters of the book presents a discussion of: how teachers can create an environment of support for an AIDS education program; the political and educational implications of winning principal, district, and parental support for an AIDS…

  4. A constitution for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  5. Theorizing the Implementation of the HIV/AIDS Curriculum in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musingarabwi, Starlin; Blignaut, Sylvan

    2015-01-01

    A growing need for utilizing school-based HIV/AIDS interventions the world over has been acknowledged as the most cost-effective means for arresting the spread of the HIV/AIDS pandemic among the vulnerable youth. However, the question on how teachers as educational change agents and cognitive sense-makers of HIV/AIDS curricula situated in a…

  6. Policy as Boundary Object: A New Way to Look at Educational Policy Design and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emad, Gholamreza; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2009-01-01

    Policy implementation research in general and educational policy in particular is loosely connected to policy-making processes. There is a gap particularly in the field of vocational education. This often leads to conflicts and contradictions between policy-maker objectives and end-user implementation. To avoid such a disconnect, the relation…

  7. The Roles of Lesser-Known American Telescope Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Trudy E.

    A history of lesser-known telescope makers. The following makers, owners, dealers and firms are discussed: Henry Fitz, William S. Van Duzee, Lewis M. Rutherford, Charles A. Spencer, A. K. Eaton, John Byrne, Robert B. Tolles, Buff and Berger of Boston, Fauth and Co., George N. Saegmuller, E. Kubel (Kübel), Chester S. Lyman, Stackpole and Brother, William Wurdemann (Würdemann), William J. Young, Gundlach of Rochester, William Kahler, Stendicke of NYC, Walther of Philadelphia, Worcester R. Warner, Ambrose Swasey, William T. Gregg, Phelps and Gurley of Troy, H. G. Sedgewick, Benjamin Pike, William Mogey, David Mogey, and James A. Queen.

  8. Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

  9. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY - MAY 16, 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving many current ecological policy issues requires an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists. The ability of scientists (and sc...

  10. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: SUBVERTING DEVELOPMENT OF SOUND FISHERIES POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical fisheries policy issue requires an array of scientific information as part of the input provided to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform fisheries policy deliberations...

  11. ECOLOGICAL POLICY: DEFINING APPROPRIATE ROLES FOR SCIENCE AND SCIENTISTS - 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resolving typical ecological policy issues requires an array of scientific information as part of the input provided to decision-makers. The ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform policy deliberations diminishes when what is offered as "scienc...

  12. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform ecological policy deliberations has been diminish...

  13. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism.

    PubMed

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers' levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers' levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified. PMID:26441775

  14. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism.

    PubMed

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers' levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers' levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified.

  15. Muted voices: HIV/AIDS and the young people of Burkina Faso and Senegal.

    PubMed

    Rosendal Østergaard, Lise; Samuelsen, Helle

    2004-11-01

    This article explores the discrepancies between the vocal public discourse on HIV/AIDS and sexuality as generally encouraged by policy-makers and donor communities in Africa, and the often hushed voices of their target groups: young people in African communities. Based on fieldwork among urban youth in Senegal and Burkina Faso, we describe the silence of young people with regard to HIV/AIDS and sexuality as a social phenomenon, with focus given to family relations, peer relations and gender aspects in partnerships. Drawing on Foucault and Morrell, an inability and unwillingness to speak about HIV/AIDS and sexuality are analysed as a response to an everyday life characterised by uncertainty. This response represents a certain degree of resistance, while it constitutes a major barrier to any HIV/AIDS prevention effort. Finally, we stress that despite great constraints in their everyday lives, young people have some room to manoeuvre and are able to apply some negotiating strategies to reduce sexually-related health risks. PMID:25875058

  16. Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Harm Reduction in Muslim Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hasnain, Memoona

    2005-01-01

    Muslim countries, previously considered protected from HIV/AIDS due to religious and cultural norms, are facing a rapidly rising threat. Despite the evidence of an advancing epidemic, the usual response from the policy makers in Muslim countries, for protection against HIV infection, is a major focus on propagating abstention from illicit drug and sexual practices. Sexuality, considered a private matter, is a taboo topic for discussion. Harm reduction, a pragmatic approach for HIV prevention, is underutilized. The social stigma attached to HIV/AIDS, that exists in all societies is much more pronounced in Muslim cultures. This stigma prevents those at risk from coming forward for appropriate counseling, testing, and treatment, as it involves disclosure of risky practices. The purpose of this paper is to define the extent of the HIV/AIDS problem in Muslim countries, outline the major challenges to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, and discuss the concept of harm reduction, with a cultural approach, as a strategy to prevent further spread of the disease. Recommendations include integrating HIV prevention and treatment strategies within existing social, cultural and religious frameworks, working with religious leaders as key collaborators, and provision of appropriate healthcare resources and infrastructure for successful HIV prevention and treatment programs in Muslim countries. PMID:16253145

  17. After the Global Fund: who can sustain the HIV/AIDS response in Peru and how?

    PubMed

    Amaya, Ana B; Caceres, Carlos F; Spicer, Neil; Balabanova, Dina

    2014-01-01

    Peru has received around $70 million from Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). Recent economic growth resulted in grant ineligibility, enabling greater government funding, yet doubts remain concerning programme continuity. This study examines the transition from Global Fund support to increasing national HIV/AIDS funding in Peru (2004-2012) by analysing actor roles, motivations and effects on policies, identifying recommendations to inform decision-makers on priority areas. A conceptual framework, which informed data collection, was developed. Thirty-five in-depth interviews were conducted from October to December 2011 in Lima, Peru, among key stakeholders involved in HIV/AIDS work. Findings show that Global Fund involvement led to important breakthroughs in the HIV/AIDS response, primarily concerning treatment access, focus on vulnerable populations and development of a coordination body. Nevertheless, reliance on Global Fund financing for prevention activities via non-governmental organisations, compounded by lack of government direction and weak regional governance, diluted power and caused role uncertainty. Strengthening government and regional capacity and fostering accountability mechanisms will facilitate an effective transition to government-led financing. Only then can achievements gained from the Global Fund presence be maintained, providing lessons for countries seeking to sustain programmes following donor exit.

  18. Muted voices: HIV/AIDS and the young people of Burkina Faso and Senegal.

    PubMed

    Rosendal Østergaard, Lise; Samuelsen, Helle

    2004-11-01

    This article explores the discrepancies between the vocal public discourse on HIV/AIDS and sexuality as generally encouraged by policy-makers and donor communities in Africa, and the often hushed voices of their target groups: young people in African communities. Based on fieldwork among urban youth in Senegal and Burkina Faso, we describe the silence of young people with regard to HIV/AIDS and sexuality as a social phenomenon, with focus given to family relations, peer relations and gender aspects in partnerships. Drawing on Foucault and Morrell, an inability and unwillingness to speak about HIV/AIDS and sexuality are analysed as a response to an everyday life characterised by uncertainty. This response represents a certain degree of resistance, while it constitutes a major barrier to any HIV/AIDS prevention effort. Finally, we stress that despite great constraints in their everyday lives, young people have some room to manoeuvre and are able to apply some negotiating strategies to reduce sexually-related health risks.

  19. Policies for solidarity. A personal view of the Second International Conference for non governmental organizations working on AIDS, Paris 1-4 November 1990.

    PubMed

    Lucas, S

    1991-01-01

    A summary of events at the Second International Conference for Non-Governmental Organizations working on AIDS, held in Paris November 1-4, 1990 is presented with comments on the effectiveness of arrangement, planning and sessions. The meeting was fraught with obstacles, the worst of which was a change of venue from San Francisco to Paris at the last minute, with serious consequences to speakers whose U.S. travel funds had to be found elsewhere. The goal of the conference was to facilitate international networking among AIDS Service, national and regional organizations. To this end 44 sessions were held informally. Plenary sessions were marked by moving presentations of such items as an international memorial quilt, and topics such as how children and women are affected by HIV, and how human rights abuses are often unseen. The need for solidarity among NGOs was stressed by Dr. J. Mann, who noted that NGOs perform up to half the health care in some countries. The major substance of the conference was 5 Seminar tracks of 5.5 hours duration on the topics of services and care, education and prevention, drugs and treatment, human rights, and organizational development. Human rights recognized internationally were described, but in some places lack of resources makes them a privilege. Illegal drug programs, decriminalization and research on cultural obstacles were within the broad range of issues addressed under services and care. While traditional symptomatic treatments and older drugs such as gentian violet as a treatment for candidiasis are being developed in African countries, serious social problems arise when people sell their possessions for a few doses of AZT or Kemron there. In the seminars on organizational development useful exchanges between major donors and project organizers explored professional methods of applying for grants, as well as accounting for funds spent later. ICASO the International Council of AIDS Service Organizations was ratified and a

  20. Consistent assignment of nurse aides: association with turnover and absenteeism.

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas G

    2013-01-01

    Consistent assignment refers to the same caregivers consistently caring for the same residents almost every time caregivers are on duty. This article examines the association of consistent assignment of nurse aides with turnover and absenteeism. Data came from a survey of nursing home administrators, the Online Survey Certification and Reporting data, and the Area Resource File. The measures were from 2007 and came from 3,941 nursing homes. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine turnover and absenteeism. An average of 68% of nursing homes reported using consistent assignment, with 28% of nursing homes using nurse aides consistent assignment at the often recommended level of 85% (or more). Nursing homes using recommended levels of consistent assignment had significantly lower rates of turnover and of absenteeism. In the multivariate analyses, consistent assignment was significantly associated with both lower turnover and lower absenteeism (p < .01). Consistent assignment is a practice recommended by many policy makers, government agencies, and industry advocates. The findings presented here provide some evidence that the use of this staffing practice can be beneficial.

  1. Compulsory Attendance Policies: About Age or Intervention? SREB Focus Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, SREB state policy-makers have focused on actions to reduce dropout rates and increase high school graduation rates. Some policy-makers have suggested that raising their state's compulsory attendance age (often called the dropout age) to require students to stay in school until age 17 or 18 is an important step. However,…

  2. Can Research on Women Be More Effective in Shaping Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangri, Sandra S.; Strasburg, Georgia L.

    In order to formulate social policy which is responsive to needs of women and other minority groups, decision makers must be better informed about alternative options, incentives, and unintended as well as intended consequences of various policies. Social scientists can contribute to decision makers' understandings of social factors in numerous…

  3. Degenerate slave-makers, but nevertheless slave-makers? Host worker relatedness in the ant Myrmoxenus kraussei.

    PubMed

    Suefuji, Masaki; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Socially parasitic ants of the formicoxenine genus Myrmoxenus exhibit considerable diversity in colony structure and life history. While some species are active slave-makers with many workers and others are workerless 'murder-parasites,' Myrmoxenus kraussei is considered as a 'degenerate slave-maker' because of its very low worker numbers. Here, we document that Temnothorax recedens host workers in single colonies of M. kraussei from Lago di Garda, Italy, exhibit significantly more genetic diversity than workers in unparasitized colonies. This raises the possibility that, despite its low worker numbers, M. kraussei may actively engage in slave raids in nature.

  4. Improving the policy application of footprint indicators to support Europe's transition to a one planet economy: the development of the EUREAPA tool.

    PubMed

    Roelich, Katy; Owen, Anne; Thompson, David; Dawkins, Elena; West, Chris

    2014-05-15

    Environmentally extended multi-regional input-output (EE-MRIO) models provide us with a wealth of data relating to consumption-based environmental impacts at a national level. The results can identify the categories of consumption and sectors of production that contribute most to environmental impact allowing policy makers to prioritise intervention into particular areas. However, these data are not readily accessible to policy makers and civil society, making it difficult to extract and communicate the important messages it contains. The web-based tool - EUREAPA - was created as a usable, task-oriented interface to improve access to environmental and economic data held within a complex EE-MRIO model and make it more relevant to policy makers and civil society. The project team of scientists and IT specialists used an iterative, agile and participatory approach to engage potential end-users in the specification and testing of the tool. The engagement process identified two principal functions that were essential for the EUREAPA tool: viewing data and creating scenarios. The viewing data function allows users to analyse the wealth of data held within the model and present results from a range of perspectives. This helps to understand the causes of environmental pressure and identify priorities for policy intervention. The scenario function helps to communicate how changes in consumption and production might affect the future environmental impact of citizens of the EU, and facilitates long-term planning. Through this dialogue process the project has been able to ensure EUREAPA is relevant, user-friendly and fit-for-purpose. It is intended that EUREAPA will be adopted by policy makers and civil society as an important policy planning and assessment aid in the complex field of sustainable consumption and production.

  5. Imaginative Thinking: Addressing Social Justice Issues through MovieMaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…

  6. Overcoming Fear: Helping Decision Makers Understand Risk in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haras, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The long history of outdoor education does little to alleviate the fears of many parents, teachers, principals and superintendents who believe that outdoor education is too risky. These decision makers often lack both the knowledge to make informed decisions and the time and resources to investigate their assumptions. Pair these circumstances with…

  7. A Study of the Training of Tool and Die Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Morris A.; Herrnstadt, Irwin L.

    To develop and test a methodology which would help determine the combination of education, training, and experience that is most likely to yield highly qualified workers in specific occupations, the tool and die maker trade was selected for examination in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Tool and die making was chosen because it is a clearly…

  8. Dream-Makers: A National Exhibition of Children's Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan

    1984-01-01

    The Crayola Dream-Makers exhibition, which consists of 100 two- and three-dimensional works of art in which second, third, and fourth graders from all over the United States depict their dreams for themselves and their world is described. Samples of the children's art are included. (RM)

  9. Infants and Toddlers as Members, Makers, Interpreters: A Philosophical Journey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, June Moss

    This book explores how young children, within their cultural imperatives, struggle to discover who they are as cultural "members" interacting with others, as "makers" trying out and creating, and as "interpreters" making meaning and making new connections. Chapters in Part 1 emphasize the significance of a philosophical approach and its…

  10. Understanding Narratives of Nationhood: Film-Makers and Culloden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, John R.; Gold, Margaret M.

    2002-01-01

    Film audiences have long been invited to view Scotland and Scottish life through a historic lens. Influenced by the pre-existing literary traditions of tartanry and kailyard, film-makers have focused nostalgically on the myths and legends of the Highland and pre-industrial Scotland, with the implications that this approach has for representations…

  11. Decision Makers, a Simulation Game about Community Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitkoff, Julia Armstrong; Doty, Edward

    Decision Makers is designed to simulate the problems faced by groups trying to produce peaceful social change in their communities. This version illustrates the problems faced when a community group attempts to introduce a course on the issues of war and peace in the local high school. All participants assume roles as residents of a typical…

  12. Coco Nut Meets the Gadget Maker. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, P.

    The adventures of Coco Nut, a coconut which has fallen from a palm tree in Florida, are illustrated in this booklet for elementary school students. His fall into a canal and ensuing encounters with dead and alive fish and a gadget maker (industry) are used to portray the effects of water pollution. What man can do to stop such pollution and…

  13. The Promise of the Maker Movement for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The Maker Movement is a community of hobbyists, tinkerers, engineers, hackers, and artists who creatively design and build projects for both playful and useful ends. There is growing interest among educators in bringing making into K-12 education to enhance opportunities to engage in the practices of engineering, specifically, and STEM more…

  14. TestMaker: A Computer-Based Test Development Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, William J.; Lario-Gibbs, Annette M.

    This paper discusses a computer-based prototype called TestMaker that enables educators to create computer-based tests. Given the functional needs of faculty, the host of research implications computer technology has for assessment, and current educational perspectives such as constructivism and their impact on testing, the purposes for developing…

  15. The Virtual Workplace Ethnography: Positioning Student Writers as Knowledge Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Virtual Workplace Ethnography is a first-year composition assignment that positions students as knowledge makers by requiring them to apply a theoretical lens ("Working Knowledge") to a video representation of a workplace. The lens provides multiple terms for analysis of workplace behaviors in context, providing a scaffolding for…

  16. Communication with U.S. federal decision makers : a primer with notes on the use of computer models as a means of communication.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Erik Karl; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2009-10-01

    This document outlines ways to more effectively communicate with U.S. Federal decision makers by outlining the structure, authority, and motivations of various Federal groups, how to find the trusted advisors, and how to structure communication. All three branches of Federal governments have decision makers engaged in resolving major policy issues. The Legislative Branch (Congress) negotiates the authority and the resources that can be used by the Executive Branch. The Executive Branch has some latitude in implementation and prioritizing resources. The Judicial Branch resolves disputes. The goal of all decision makers is to choose and implement the option that best fits the needs and wants of the community. However, understanding the risk of technical, political and/or financial infeasibility and possible unintended consequences is extremely difficult. Primarily, decision makers are supported in their deliberations by trusted advisors who engage in the analysis of options as well as the day-to-day tasks associated with multi-party negotiations. In the best case, the trusted advisors use many sources of information to inform the process including the opinion of experts and if possible predictive analysis from which they can evaluate the projected consequences of their decisions. The paper covers the following: (1) Understanding Executive and Legislative decision makers - What can these decision makers do? (2) Finding the target audience - Who are the internal and external trusted advisors? (3) Packaging the message - How do we parse and integrate information, and how do we use computer simulation or models in policy communication?

  17. Predictors of HIV/AIDS Related Ocular Manifestations among HIV/AIDS Patients in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sharew, Guadie; Azage, Muluken

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ocular manifestations in people living with HIV/AIDS are varied and affect almost all the structures of eye leading to visual impairment or blindness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation among ART clinic clients. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was employed among ART clients at Felege Hiwot referral hospital, northwest Ethiopia. The study was conducted from 1 January 2013 to 30 January 2013. A total of 369 systematically and randomly selected clients were included in the study. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and ophthalmologic clinical examination. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed to identify independent predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation. Results. Twenty-five percent (25.7%) of HIV patients had ocular manifestations. The three most frequent signs were Squamoid Conjuctival growth (26.9%), ophthalmic herpes zoster (22.1%), and Bacterial Conjuctivitis (17.2%). History of eye problem, CD4 count, and visual acuity of the eye were the predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation. Conclusion. In this study, a higher proportion of ocular manifestations were detected in HIV/AIDS patients. Visual acuity and CD4 counts were the independent predictors of ocular manifestations. This finding gives an insight for policy makers and concerned body to integrate ophthalmic examination in ART clinics to improve the health condition of HIV/ADIS patients.

  18. Predictors of HIV/AIDS Related Ocular Manifestations among HIV/AIDS Patients in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Sharew, Guadie

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ocular manifestations in people living with HIV/AIDS are varied and affect almost all the structures of eye leading to visual impairment or blindness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation among ART clinic clients. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was employed among ART clients at Felege Hiwot referral hospital, northwest Ethiopia. The study was conducted from 1 January 2013 to 30 January 2013. A total of 369 systematically and randomly selected clients were included in the study. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and ophthalmologic clinical examination. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed to identify independent predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation. Results. Twenty-five percent (25.7%) of HIV patients had ocular manifestations. The three most frequent signs were Squamoid Conjuctival growth (26.9%), ophthalmic herpes zoster (22.1%), and Bacterial Conjuctivitis (17.2%). History of eye problem, CD4 count, and visual acuity of the eye were the predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation. Conclusion. In this study, a higher proportion of ocular manifestations were detected in HIV/AIDS patients. Visual acuity and CD4 counts were the independent predictors of ocular manifestations. This finding gives an insight for policy makers and concerned body to integrate ophthalmic examination in ART clinics to improve the health condition of HIV/ADIS patients. PMID:26000175

  19. Changes in the Former Soviet Union: Debating U.S. Aid. Choices for the 21st Century. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

    This unit of study allows students and teachers to step back from the confusing media reports of the day-to-day turmoil in the former Soviet Union (FSU) and to examine it from a more thoughtful vantage point. The unit focuses on the most important instrument of U.S. policy toward the FSU--economic assistance. At the core of the unit are four…

  20. AIDS Treatment In Brazil: Impacts And Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy Stewart; Fonseca, Elize Massard da; Bastos, Francisco I.; Gruskin, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Brazil has one of the developing world's largest, and arguably most successful, AIDS treatment programs. In this paper we review the treatment program, including controversial policies that Brazil has used to promote widespread local and global access to AIDS treatment. We also examine the lessons learned from this program and highlight the challenges Brazil faces, including the rising costs of AIDS treatment and changes in donors' funding priorities. Finally, we explore the relevance of Brazil's treatment program for other countries and its broad implications for global AIDS and health policy. PMID:19597210

  1. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  2. Creating windows of opportunity for policy change: Incorporating evidence into decentralized planning in Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Ashford, Lori S.; Smith, Rhonda R.; De Souza, Roger-Mark; Fikree, Fariyal F.; Yinger, Nancy V.

    2006-01-01

    PROBLEM: Because researchers and policy-makers work in different spheres, policy decisions in the health arena are often not based on available scientific evidence. APPROACH: We describe a model that illustrates the policy process and how to work strategically to translate knowledge into policy actions. Several types of activity--agenda-setting, coalition building and policy learning--together can create a window of opportunity for policy change. LOCAL SETTING: Activities were undertaken as part of the Kenyan Ministry of Health's new decentralized planning-process. The objective was to ensure that the results of a national assessment of health services were used in the preparation of district-level health plans. RELEVANT CHANGES: Following the intervention, 70 district-level, evidence-based work plans were developed and approved by the Kenyan Ministry of Health. LESSONS LEARNED: Substantial investment and effort are needed to bring stakeholders together to work towards policy change. More in-depth evaluation of these efforts can aid understanding of how systematic approaches to policy change can be replicated elsewhere. PMID:16917657

  3. Research and Policy in Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Colin

    2006-01-01

    It has long been acknowledged that adult and lifelong educators have exercised little influence over national education policies. This article addresses the issue, with particular reference to the research elements of policy advocacy. Researchers and policy-makers are distinguished and related as communities of practice and intellectual categories…

  4. Teachers, Curriculum Innovation, and Policy Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bascia, Nina; Carr-Harris, Shasta; Fine-Meyer, Rose; Zurzolo, Cara

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly understood that policy makers make curriculum policy and teachers implement it. Some teachers, however, have been in on the ground floor of curriculum policy development. Driven by events in their life histories and teaching contexts, these teachers develop and teach original course material in their own classrooms. Over time they…

  5. Foundations for Policy in Guidance and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Edwin L., Ed.; Pinson, Nancy M., Ed.

    This book provides educators, counselors, policy makers, and community members with information about the state of the art of federal and state policy in guidance and counseling. The two chapters in part 1, Overview, are: "Foundations for Policy in Guidance and Counseling: An Introduction", by Edwin L. Herr and Nancy M. Pinson; and "A Counselor…

  6. Education Policy-Making and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the global policy convergence toward high-stakes testing in schools and the use of test results to "steer at a distance", particularly as it applies to policy-makers' promise to improve teacher quality. Using Deleuze's three syntheses of time in the context of the Australian policy blueprint Quality…

  7. Emodnet Med Sea Check-Point - Indicators for decision- maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnard, Sophie; Claverie, Vincent; Blanc, Frédérique

    2015-04-01

    The Emodnet Checkpoint projects aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness, reliability and utility of the existing monitoring at the sea basin level. This involves the development of monitoring system indicators and a GIS Platform to perform the assessment and make it available. Assessment or production of Check-Point information is made by developing targeted products based on the monitoring data and determining whether the products are meeting the needs of industry and public authorities. Check-point users are the research community, the 'institutional' policy makers for IMP and MSFD implementation, the 'intermediate users', i.e., users capable to understand basic raw data but that benefit from seeing the Checkpoint targeted products and the assessment of the fitness for purpose. We define assessment criteria aimed to characterize/depict the input datasets in terms of 3 territories capable to show performance and gaps of the present monitoring system, appropriateness, availability and fitness for purpose. • Appropriateness: What is made available to users? What motivate/decide them to select this observation rather than this one. • Availability: How this is made available to the user? Place to understand the readiness and service performance of the EU infrastructure • Fitness for use / fitness for purpose: Ability for non-expert user to appreciate the data exploitability (feedback on efficiency & reliability of marine data) For each territory (appropriateness, Availability and Fitness for purpose / for use), we define several indicators. For example, for Availability we define Visibility, Accessibility and Performance. And Visibility is itself defined by "Easily found" and "EU service". So these indicators can be classified according to their territory and sub-territory as seen above, but also according to the complexity to build them. Indicators are built from raw descriptors in 3 stages:  Stage 1: to give a neutral and basic status directly computed from

  8. National policy development for cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Malawi, Uganda and Zambia: the relationship between Context, Evidence and Links

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several frameworks have been constructed to analyse the factors which influence and shape the uptake of evidence into policy processes in resource poor settings, yet empirical analyses of health policy making in these settings are relatively rare. National policy making for cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) preventive therapy in developing countries offers a pertinent case for the application of a policy analysis lens. The provision of cotrimoxazole as a prophylaxis is an inexpensive and highly efficacious preventative intervention in HIV infected individuals, reducing both morbidity and mortality among adults and children with HIV/AIDS, yet evidence suggests that it has not been quickly or evenly scaled-up in resource poor settings. Methods Comparative analysis was conducted in Malawi, Uganda and Zambia, using the case study approach. We applied the ‘RAPID’ framework developed by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), and conducted a total of 47 in-depth interviews across the three countries to examine the influence of context (including the influence of donor agencies), evidence (both local and international), and the links between researcher, policy makers and those seeking to influence the policy process. Results Each area of analysis was found to have an influence on the creation of national policy on cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) in all three countries. In relation to context, the following were found to be influential: government structures and their focus, donor interest and involvement, healthcare infrastructure and other uses of cotrimoxazole and related drugs in the country. In terms of the nature of the evidence, we found that how policy makers perceived the strength of evidence behind international recommendations was crucial (if evidence was considered weak then the recommendations were rejected). Further, local operational research results seem to have been taken up more quickly, while randomised controlled

  9. Advisory Committee: A Powerful Tool for Helping Decision Makers inEnvironmental Issues

    PubMed

    Vasseur; Lafrance; Ansseau; Renaud; Morin; Audet

    1997-05-01

    / It has been suggested that the general public should be moreinvolved in environmental policy and decision making. It is important forthem to realize that they will have to live with the consequences ofenvironmental policies and decisions. Consequently, policy makers shouldconsider the concerns and opinions of the general public before makingdecisions on environmental issues. This raises questions such as: How can weintegrate the perceptions and reactions of the general population inenvironmental decisions? What kind of public participation should weconsider? In the present study, using a new regional ecosystem model, weattempted to integrate these aspects in its decision making model byincluding the formation of an advisory committee to resolve problems relatedto waste management. The advisory committee requested the activeparticipation of representatives from all levels of the community: economic,municipal, and governmental intervenors; environmental groups; and citizens.Their mandates were to examine different management strategies available inthe region, considering all the interdisciplinary aspects of each strategy,elaborate recommendations concerning the management strategies that are mostsuitable for all, and collaborate in communication of the information to thegeneral population. The results showed that at least in small municipalitiessuch an advisory committee can be a powerful tool in environmental decisionmaking. Conditions required for a successful consultation process, such aseveryday lay language and the presence of a facilitator other than ascientific expert, are discussed.KEY WORDS: Public consultation; Environmental policies;Interdisciplinary aspects; Municipal sewage sludge management; Generalpopulation; Decision-making process

  10. Scenarios use to engage scientists and decision-makers in a changing Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, O. A.; Eicken, H.; Payne, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Scenarios provide a framework to develop more adaptive Arctic policies that allow decision makers to consider the best available science to address complex relationships and key uncertainties in drivers of change. These drivers may encompass biophysical factors such as climate change, socioeconomic drivers, and wild-cards that represent low likelihood but influential events such as major environmental disasters. We outline some of the lessons learned from the North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI) scenarios project that could help in the development of adaptive science-based policies. Three spatially explicit development scenarios were identified corresponding to low, medium and high resource extraction activities on the North Slope and adjacent seas. In the case of the high energy development scenario science needs were focused on new technology, oil spill response, and the effects of offshore activities on marine mammals important for subsistence. Science needs related to community culture, erosion, permafrost degradation and hunting and trapping on land were also identified for all three scenarios. The NSSI science needs will guide recommendations for future observing efforts, and data from these observing activities could subsequently improve policy guidance for emergency response, subsistence management and other issues. Scenarios at pan-Arctic scales may help improve the development of international policies for resilient northern communities and encourage the use of science to reduce uncertainties in plans for adapting to change in the Arctic.

  11. AIDS lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Middleton, G W; Lau, R K

    1992-01-01

    Chronically immunosuppressed individuals are susceptible to lymphoreticular tumors. Up to 15% of patients with congenital deficiencies such as ataxia=telangiectasia may develop malignancies, mainly high-grade B cell non=Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). AIDS lymphomas are comprised of NHLs including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and primary cerebral lymphomas (PCLs). Almost 3% of all AIDS patients (2824 of 97,258 cases) developed NHL. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a co-factor in AIDS lymphomagenesis has been studied: in 12 cases of 24 AIDS lymphomas EBV by DNA in situ hybridization was found. In an analysis of 6 primary cerebral lymphomas, .5 were positive for EBV DNA by Southern blotting. In Burkitt's lymphoma the characteristic genetic alteration affects the c-myc oncogene. In 1/3 of BL p53 mutations were found but none in the 43 NHLs suggesting that p53 mutations and c-myc activation act synergistically in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Cytotoxic agents dideoxyinosine, dideoxycytosine, and zidovudine may cause secondary neoplasia. 8 of 55 AIDS patients under zidovudine treatment developed high-grade lymphoma 23.8 months subsequently; recently doses were reduced. PCL was found in 21 of 90 patients. A 5.2 months survival was associated with combined treatment with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin (vincristine), methotrexate, etoposide, and cytosine arabinoside compared with 11.3 months with chemotherapy. Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) alleviate drug-induced myelotoxicity and zidovudine-induced neutropenia, however, l8 of 11 patients receiving granulocyte-macrophage CSF developed hematological toxicity. Interleukine-2 produced by T-helper cells enhancing tumor cells cytotoxicity has been used in AIDS-associated cryptosporidial diarrhea and in 4 patients with AIDS lymphoma with modest response, but its stimulation of the HIV-infected substrate may increase viral proliferation.

  12. 23 CFR 630.402 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Policy. 630.402 Section 630.402 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... Geodetic Markers § 630.402 Policy. (a) Geodetic surveys along Federal-aid highway routes may be programmed as Federal-aid highway projects. (b) All geodetic survey work performed as a Federal-aid...

  13. 23 CFR 630.402 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Policy. 630.402 Section 630.402 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... Geodetic Markers § 630.402 Policy. (a) Geodetic surveys along Federal-aid highway routes may be programmed as Federal-aid highway projects. (b) All geodetic survey work performed as a Federal-aid...

  14. 23 CFR 630.402 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Policy. 630.402 Section 630.402 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... Geodetic Markers § 630.402 Policy. (a) Geodetic surveys along Federal-aid highway routes may be programmed as Federal-aid highway projects. (b) All geodetic survey work performed as a Federal-aid...

  15. 10 CFR 431.132 - Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers... CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers § 431.132 Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers. Automatic commercial ice maker means a factory-made assembly...

  16. 10 CFR 431.132 - Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers... CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers § 431.132 Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers. Automatic commercial ice maker means a factory-made assembly...

  17. 10 CFR 431.132 - Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers... CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Automatic Commercial Ice Makers § 431.132 Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers. Automatic commercial ice maker means a factory-made assembly...

  18. LCFM - LIVING COLOR FRAME MAKER: PC GRAPHICS GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.

    1994-01-01

    Computer graphics are often applied for better understanding and interpretation of data under observation. These graphics become more complicated when animation is required during "run-time", as found in many typical modern artificial intelligence and expert systems. Living Color Frame Maker is a solution to many of these real-time graphics problems. Living Color Frame Maker (LCFM) is a graphics generation and management tool for IBM or IBM compatible personal computers. To eliminate graphics programming, the graphic designer can use LCFM to generate computer graphics frames. The graphical frames are then saved as text files, in a readable and disclosed format, which can be easily accessed and manipulated by user programs for a wide range of "real-time" visual information applications. For example, LCFM can be implemented in a frame-based expert system for visual aids in management of systems. For monitoring, diagnosis, and/or controlling purposes, circuit or systems diagrams can be brought to "life" by using designated video colors and intensities to symbolize the status of hardware components (via real-time feedback from sensors). Thus status of the system itself can be displayed. The Living Color Frame Maker is user friendly with graphical interfaces, and provides on-line help instructions. All options are executed using mouse commands and are displayed on a single menu for fast and easy operation. LCFM is written in C++ using the Borland C++ 2.0 compiler for IBM PC series computers and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The program requires a mouse and an EGA/VGA display. A minimum of 77K of RAM is also required for execution. The documentation is provided in electronic form on the distribution medium in WordPerfect format. A sample MS-DOS executable is provided on the distribution medium. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools

  19. Confronting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Squire, L

    1998-03-01

    By 2020, HIV/AIDS will be the leading infectious killer of young and middle-aged adults in the developing world. Past gains in life expectancy are already being eroded in some countries. Millions of lives can, however, be saved if developing country governments, the international community, and nongovernmental organizations act now. Although more than 11 million people have already died of AIDS, 2.3 billion people live in developing countries in which the disease has not yet spread beyond certain risk groups. If the spread of HIV is checked, the quality of care available to people who are infected with HIV will probably be better than it would be in the context of a full-blown AIDS epidemic. However, while governments need to respond urgently to HIV/AIDS, using resources to help people with AIDS will reduce the resources available for other investments, such as child education, providing safe drinking water, and building roads. Economics can help governments set priorities as they decide how best to allocate their available resources. Externalities, public goods, and redistribution are discussed. All countries will need to use some combination of preventive and coping measures. PMID:12293445

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in a violin maker.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Heather D; Fogelman, Joshua P; Ramsay, David L; Cohen, David E

    2002-02-01

    Allergy to colophony is well noted in the literature, however, there have been few case reports of allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in musicians and instrument makers. We report a case of a stringed instrument craftsman who developed allergic contact dermatitis to propolis, a component of Italian varnish. A review of the components, applications, and the clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to propolis are presented. PMID:11807465

  1. Decision maker priorities for providing antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected South Africans: a qualitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, April D; Daniels, Norman; Betancourt, Theresa S; Wood, Robin; Prosser, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    In resource-limited settings, successful HIV treatment scale-up has been tempered by reports of funding shortfalls. We aimed to determine the priorities, including ethical considerations, of decision makers for HIV antiretroviral programs. We conducted qualitative interviews with 12 decision makers, identified using purposive sampling. Respondents engaged in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews. We developed an interview guide to direct questions about key priorities and motivations for decision making about HIV antiretroviral programs. We evaluated textual data from the interviews to identify themes. Among 12 respondents, 10 (83%) lived and worked in South Africa. Respondents came from Western Cape, Gauteng, and KwaZulu-Natal provinces and worked primarily in urban settings. The respondents supported prioritizing individual patients based on treatment adherence, pregnancy status to prevent maternal-to-child HIV transmission and/or orphans, and severity of illness. However, priorities based on severity of illness varied, with first-come/first-serve, prioritization of the most severely ill, and prioritization of the least severely ill discussed. Respondents opposed prioritizing based on patient socioeconomic characteristics. Other priorities included the number of persons receiving treatment; how treated patients are distributed in the population (e.g., urban/rural); and treatment policy (e.g., number of antiretroviral regimens). Motivations included humanitarian concerns; personal responsibility for individual patients; and clinical outcomes (e.g., patient-level morbidity/mortality, saving lives) and/or social outcomes (e.g., restoring patients as functional family members). Decision makers have a wide range of priorities for antiretroviral provision in South Africa, and the motivations underlying these priorities suggest at times conflicting ethical considerations for providing HIV treatment when resources are limited. PMID:22304657

  2. A systematic review of factors influencing fertility desires and intentions among people living with HIV/AIDS: implications for policy and service delivery.

    PubMed

    Nattabi, Barbara; Li, Jianghong; Thompson, Sandra C; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Earnest, Jaya

    2009-10-01

    With availability of antiretroviral treatments, HIV is increasingly recognised as a chronic disease people live with for many years. This paper critically reviews the current literature on fertility desires and reproductive intentions among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) and critiques the theoretical frameworks and methodologies used. A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases: ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, Proquest, Jstor and CINAHL for articles published between 1990 and 2008. The search terms used were fertility desire, pregnancy, HIV, reproductive decision making, reproductive intentions, motherhood, fatherhood and parenthood. Twenty-nine studies were reviewed. Fertility desires were influenced by a myriad of demographic, health, stigma-associated and psychosocial factors. Cultural factors were also important, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Future research that examines fertility desires among PLHIV should include cultural beliefs and practices in the theoretical framework in order to provide a holistic understanding and to enable development of services that meet the reproductive needs of PLHIV. PMID:19330443

  3. A systematic review of factors influencing fertility desires and intentions among people living with HIV/AIDS: implications for policy and service delivery.

    PubMed

    Nattabi, Barbara; Li, Jianghong; Thompson, Sandra C; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Earnest, Jaya

    2009-10-01

    With availability of antiretroviral treatments, HIV is increasingly recognised as a chronic disease people live with for many years. This paper critically reviews the current literature on fertility desires and reproductive intentions among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) and critiques the theoretical frameworks and methodologies used. A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases: ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, Proquest, Jstor and CINAHL for articles published between 1990 and 2008. The search terms used were fertility desire, pregnancy, HIV, reproductive decision making, reproductive intentions, motherhood, fatherhood and parenthood. Twenty-nine studies were reviewed. Fertility desires were influenced by a myriad of demographic, health, stigma-associated and psychosocial factors. Cultural factors were also important, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Future research that examines fertility desires among PLHIV should include cultural beliefs and practices in the theoretical framework in order to provide a holistic understanding and to enable development of services that meet the reproductive needs of PLHIV.

  4. James Henry Marriott: New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.

    2015-11-01

    James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.

  5. The work of Rosa von Praunheim: tackling AIDS in Germany through film.

    PubMed

    Judell, B

    1996-10-01

    Rosa von Praunheim, a film maker, and the most famous (or infamous) homosexual in Germany, has spurred the creation of gay rights groups from Bavaria to Schleswig-Holstein. His AIDS comedy, A Virus Has No Morals, was one of the first films to confront the disease internationally. Other works, in both fictional and documentary formats, address AIDS activism, living with AIDS, and other social issues concerning AIDS and the gay community. PMID:11363912

  6. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  7. Dietitian Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the dietitian aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with health care facilities personnel, this course was prepared by teachers and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested,…

  8. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  9. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kort, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America.Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme.The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010.

  10. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

  11. Nursing home employee attitudes towards AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sarvela, P D; Moore, J R

    1989-01-01

    This article examines nursing home employee attitudes toward issues related to AIDS and is based on data collected from 343 employees from 13 nursing homes in rural, small towns in sourthern Illinois during the spring of 1988. Results suggested that a large majority of the employees had negative attitudes toward people with AIDS. For example, 67% of the sample indicated that it was more important to limit the spread of AIDS rather than to protect the rights of people with AIDS. Furthermore, 42% suggested that AIDS patients should be sent to sanitariums to protect others from AIDS. Greater than half of the sample (56%) responded that they would feel uncomfortable around people with AIDS. About one third (32%) felt that being around someone with AIDS would put their health in danger, and 21% would be afraid to even take care of a family member with AIDS. With regard to job-specific AIDS attitudes, 51% indicated that health-care workers should be able to refuse to work with AIDS patients, and another 46% felt that hospitals and nursing homes should be able to refuse to admit people with AIDS. In addition to these and other results, this article presents a brief discussion concerning possible educational strategies which might be implemented in this setting to reduce the negative attitudes of these employees. Considerations are also presented for nursing home administrators, who face the problem of developing effective policies for dealing with the rising number of AIDS patients who will be admitted to their facilities.

  12. Salary Levels for Chief Financial Aid Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the median annual salary levels for chief financial aid administrators in 1999-2000 based on results from the Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures. Findings indicate that men still have higher salaries than women. (EV)

  13. How Effective Are State Merit Aid Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes findings from a symposium sponsored by the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University focusing on the following policy issues: What are the most recent trends in state merit aid programs? What are the relevant legal issues involved? Do merit aid programs adversely affect college access for low-income and racial/ethnic minority students?…

  14. Salary Levels for Chief Financial Aid Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    The Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures gathered information on median annual salary levels for chief financial aid administrators in 1999-2000. Among detailed findings, the survey concluded that men still have higher salaries than women. (EV)

  15. AIDS, Alcohol & Health Care. Chapter 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains 10 papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TC) that deal with a variety of health-related subjects. Papers include: (1) "AIDS among IV Drug Users: Epidemiology, Natural History & TC Experiences" (Don C. Des Jarlais, et al.); (2) "AIDS and Therapeutic Communities: Policy Implications" (Don C. Des…

  16. ICT Policy Planning in a Context of Curriculum Reform: Disentanglement of ICT Policy Domains and Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinde, Ruben; van Braak, Johan; Dexter, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers around the world are increasingly acknowledging the importance of developing a school-based ICT policy plan to facilitate the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in education. Despite this interest, not much is known about how schools can develop their local ICT policy capacity and how to…

  17. Bridging the Gap Between NASA Earth Observations and Decision Makers Through the NASA Develop National Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillard, C. M.; Madden, M.; Favors, J.; Childs-Gleason, L.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Ruiz, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society by building capacity in both participants and partner organizations that collaborate to conduct projects. These rapid feasibility projects highlight the capabilities of satellite and aerial Earth observations. Immersion of decision and policy makers in these feasibility projects increases awareness of the capabilities of Earth observations and contributes to the tools and resources available to support enhanced decision making. This paper will present the DEVELOP model, best practices, and two case studies, the Colombia Ecological Forecasting project and the Miami-Dade County Ecological Forecasting project, that showcase the successful adoption of tools and methods for decision making. Through over 90 projects each year, DEVELOP is always striving for the innovative, practical, and beneficial use of NASA Earth science data.

  18. Bridging the Gap between NASA Earth Observations and Decision Makers through the NASA DEVELOP National Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favors, J. E.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Ruiz, M. L.; Miller, T. N.; Crepps, G.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society by building capacity in both participants and partner organizations who collaborate to conduct projects. These rapid feasibility projects highlight the capabilities of satellite and aerial Earth observations to enhance decision making on a local level. DEVELOP partners with a wide variety of organizations, including state and local governments, federal agencies, regional entities, tribal governments, international organizations and governments, NGOs and private companies. Immersion of decision and policy makers in these feasibility projects increases awareness of the capabilities of Earth observations, and contributes to the tools and resources available to support enhanced decision making. This presentation will highlight best practices, feedback from project end-users, and case studies of successful adoption of methods in the decision making process.

  19. New Hampshire Sugar Makers Participate in Climate Change Study of Acer Saccharum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, B. N.; Carlson, M.

    2012-12-01

    A dozen maple sugar producers in New Hampshire have participated for the past three years in a study of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its response to climate-related and other stress agents. A dominant tree in the northeastern temperate forest, the sugar maple is projected to lose 52% of its range in the United States due to climate change stresses in this century. The species is already severely stressed by acid deposition as well as a wide array of environmental predators and pathogens. Engaging the public in studies of climate change is of pressing importance. Climate change is ubiquitous and is expressed in a wide variety of phenomena—changing patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation, more severe storms, changing atmospheric chemistry, phenologic chemistry change, ecotone shifts and new invasive competitors and predators. Scientists need citizen partners who are trained observers and who are familiar with protocols for monitoring, reporting and questioning what they observe. There is also a growing need for a public that is informed about climate change and variability so citizens can understand and support policy changes as needed to address climate change. In New Hampshire, sugar makers have collected maple sap samples at four times early in the sap season each year since 2010. The samples are collected and stored according to strict chemical protocols. The sugar makers have provided UNH and U.S. Forest Service chemists with significant numbers of sap samples for analysis of their phenolic chemistry. Correlating the sap chemistry with high spectral resolution reflectance measures of maple foliage, we are exploring whether changes in sap phenolics may signal distress or of long-term health of the trees. In addition, the sugar makers have provided access to their sugar orchards for monthly sampling of leaves and buds, beginning in May and continuing through the Fall. The three years of data are building long-term evidence of changes in maple

  20. Family Policy: Government and Families in Fourteen Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B., Ed.; Kahn, Alfred J., Ed.

    This collection of articles by scholars and policy makers from 14 countries presents multidisciplinary perspectives on the formation of national policy on families. Central topics common to many of the articles include: (1) the differences between policies aimed at affecting the family and policies which have other aims but which do influence the…

  1. Accelerated Learning Options: A Promising Strategy for States. Policy Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demaree

    2006-01-01

    This issue of Policy Insights draws on findings from WICHE's report Accelerated Learning Options: Moving the Needle on Access and Success, to lay out some of the important policy issues that decision makers might consider when adopting new state policy related to accelerated learning or modifying policies already in existence. The publication…

  2. Trust makers, breakers and brokers: building trust in the Australian food system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of consumer trust in the food supply has previously been identified, and dimensions of consumer trust in food—who they trust and the type of trust that they exhibit—has been explored. However, there is a lack of research about the mechanisms through which consumer trust in the food supply is developed, maintained, broken and repaired. This study seeks to address this gap by exploring if, and how, consumer trust in the food supply is considered by the media, food industry and governments when responding to food scares. The aim of the research is to develop models of trust building that can be implemented following food scares. Methods Semi-structured interviews will be undertaken with media, public relations officials and policy makers in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Participants will be recruited through purposive sampling and will be asked to discuss a hypothetical case study outlining a food incident, and any experiences of specific food scares. Models of trust development, maintenance and repair will be developed from interview data. Comment on these models will be sought from experts in food-related organizations through a Delphi study, where participants will be asked to consider the usefulness of the models. Participants’ comments will be used to revise the models until consensus is reached on the suitability and usability of the models. Discussion This study will contribute to the literature about systems-based trust, and explore trust as a social and regulatory process. The protocol and results will be of interest and use to the food industry, food regulators, consumer advocate groups, media seeking to report food-related issues and policy makers concerned with public health and consumer health and well-being. This research represents an important contribution to the translation of the theoretical conceptualizations of trust into practical use in the context of food. PMID:23496819

  3. How much donor financing for health is channelled to global versus country-specific aid functions?

    PubMed

    Schäferhoff, Marco; Fewer, Sara; Kraus, Jessica; Richter, Emil; Summers, Lawrence H; Sundewall, Jesper; Yamey, Gavin; Jamison, Dean T

    2015-12-12

    The slow global response to the Ebola crisis in west Africa suggests that important gaps exist in donor financing for key global functions, such as support for health research and development for diseases of poverty and strengthening of outbreak preparedness. In this Health Policy, we use the International Development Statistics databases to quantify donor support for such functions. We classify donor funding for health into aid for global functions (provision of global public goods, management of cross-border externalities, and fostering of leadership and stewardship) versus country-specific aid. We use a new measure of donor funding that combines official development assistance (ODA) for health with additional donor spending on research and development (R&D) for diseases of poverty. Much R&D spending falls outside ODA--ie, the assistance that is conventionally reported through ODA databases of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. This expanded definition, which we term health ODA plus, provides a more comprehensive picture of donor support for health that could reshape how policy makers will approach their support for global health.

  4. How much donor financing for health is channelled to global versus country-specific aid functions?

    PubMed

    Schäferhoff, Marco; Fewer, Sara; Kraus, Jessica; Richter, Emil; Summers, Lawrence H; Sundewall, Jesper; Yamey, Gavin; Jamison, Dean T

    2015-12-12

    The slow global response to the Ebola crisis in west Africa suggests that important gaps exist in donor financing for key global functions, such as support for health research and development for diseases of poverty and strengthening of outbreak preparedness. In this Health Policy, we use the International Development Statistics databases to quantify donor support for such functions. We classify donor funding for health into aid for global functions (provision of global public goods, management of cross-border externalities, and fostering of leadership and stewardship) versus country-specific aid. We use a new measure of donor funding that combines official development assistance (ODA) for health with additional donor spending on research and development (R&D) for diseases of poverty. Much R&D spending falls outside ODA--ie, the assistance that is conventionally reported through ODA databases of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. This expanded definition, which we term health ODA plus, provides a more comprehensive picture of donor support for health that could reshape how policy makers will approach their support for global health. PMID:26178405

  5. Population policy.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  6. Bottle-makers, bottlers say refillables use more energy

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, M.

    1982-11-01

    Bottle makers and beverage bottlers who oppose recycling initiatives claim the additional energy used for the required extra thickness, hot-water sterilization, and the collection process counteract any energy saved when fewer bottles are made and reused. They agree that aluminum-can recycling eliminates energy-intensive processes. Used cans are melted and used to make new cans in a process requiring less energy than processes using new aluminum. With a national deposit law, supporters of container legislation claim that the purchase of new containers would drop from 90 to 63 billion a year; energy used for manufacturing, filling, and transporting bottles would drop from 377 to 214 trillion Btus. (DCK)

  7. Improving adolescent health policy: incorporating a framework for assessing state-level policies.

    PubMed

    Brindis, Claire D; Moore, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Many US policies that affect health are made at the state, not the federal, level. Identifying state-level policies and data to analyze how different policies affect outcomes may help policy makers ascertain the usefulness of their public policies and funding decisions in improving the health of adolescent populations. A framework for describing and assessing the role of federal and state policies on adolescent health and well-being is proposed; an example of how the framework might be applied to the issue of teen childbearing is included. Such a framework can also help inform analyses of whether and how state and federal policies contribute to the variation across states in meeting adolescent health needs. A database on state policies, contextual variables, and health outcomes data can further enable researchers and policy makers to examine how these factors are associated with behaviors they aim to impact.

  8. Is traditional financial aid too little, too late to help youth succeed in college? An introduction to The Degree Project promise scholarship experiment.

    PubMed

    Harris, Douglas N

    2013-01-01

    One of the key barriers in accessing postsecondary opportunities for many students is financial aid. This chapter begins by providing a review of prior evidence on the relationship between financial aid and postsecondary outcomes. One type of financial aid intervention that challenges traditional aid and scholarship options are "promise programs." These programs make commitments to low-income students when they are much younger than when students typically apply for aid and have the potential to encourage students to better prepare during high school, develop the social capital they need to navigate the path to college, and pay for growing college costs. In this chapter, the author describes the design and rationale for The Degree Project (TDP), which is the first randomized trial of a promise scholarship in the United States. In addition to the important new evidence the demonstration program will generate, TDP also shows how educators and researchers can work together to provide the insight and answers policy makers need to address very real education gaps.

  9. Training conservation practitioners to be better decision makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Williams, James H.; Jensen, Gitte H.; Madsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Traditional conservation curricula and training typically emphasizes only one part of systematic decision making (i.e., the science), at the expense of preparing conservation practitioners with critical skills in values-setting, working with decision makers and stakeholders, and effective problem framing. In this article we describe how the application of decision science is relevant to conservation problems and suggest how current and future conservation practitioners can be trained to be better decision makers. Though decision-analytic approaches vary considerably, they all involve: (1) properly formulating the decision problem; (2) specifying feasible alternative actions; and (3) selecting criteria for evaluating potential outcomes. Two approaches are available for providing training in decision science, with each serving different needs. Formal education is useful for providing simple, well-defined problems that allow demonstrations of the structure, axioms and general characteristics of a decision-analytic approach. In contrast, practical training can offer complex, realistic decision problems requiring more careful structuring and analysis than those used for formal training purposes. Ultimately, the kinds and degree of training necessary depend on the role conservation practitioners play in a decision-making process. Those attempting to facilitate decision-making processes will need advanced training in both technical aspects of decision science and in facilitation techniques, as well as opportunities to apprentice under decision analysts/consultants. Our primary goal should be an attempt to ingrain a discipline for applying clarity of thought to all decisions.

  10. Residents, Decision Makers, and Scientists Discuss Volcanic Hazard in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Michael F.; Cordoba, Gustavo

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia; Pasto, Colombia, 6-11 July 2009; Galeras volcano, located in southwestern Colombia, imposes several hazards on the surrounding population: pyroclastic flows, lahars, ashfall, and shock waves. The current hazard map shows three zones: high, medium, and low (see A. D. Hurtado Artunduaga and G. P. Cortés Jiménez, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 77, 89-100, 1997). The pyroclastic flow hazard on this map defines the Zone of High Volcanic Hazard (ZAVA) for civil authorities. Current activity of Galeras has provoked two contentious issues related to hazard management: (1) Decision makers announce an evacuation order of ZAVA whenever the volcanic alert reaches a high level, and (2) the Colombian government initiated a relocation program for the inhabitants within ZAVA (Colombian Decrees-Laws 4106 and 3905). However, communities within ZAVA refuse to obey both the evacuation orders and the relocation process. To help resolve this situation, the University of Nariño (Colombia) and the State University of New York at Buffalo organized a workshop, which was sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation. A daily average of 92 people attended, including residents of ZAVA, decision makers, Colombian technical and scientific personnel, international scientists and researchers, students, and academics from the University of Nariño.

  11. Digital stereoscopic photography using StereoData Maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toeppen, John; Sykes, David

    2009-02-01

    Stereoscopic digital photography has become much more practical with the use of USB wired connections between a pair of Canon cameras using StereoData Maker software for precise synchronization. StereoPhoto Maker software is now used to automatically combine and align right and left image files to produce a stereo pair. Side by side images are saved as pairs and may be viewed using software that converts the images into the preferred viewing format at the time of display. Stereo images may be shared on the internet, displayed on computer monitors, autostereo displays, viewed on high definition 3D TVs, or projected for a group. Stereo photographers are now free to control composition using point and shoot settings, or are able to control shutter speed, aperture, focus, ISO, and zoom. The quality of the output depends on the developed skills of the photographer as well as their understanding of the software, human vision and the geometry they choose for their cameras and subjects. Observers of digital stereo images can zoom in for greater detail and scroll across large panoramic fields with a few keystrokes. The art, science, and methods of taking, creating and viewing digital stereo photos are presented in a historic and developmental context in this paper.

  12. Redirecting British foreign aid.

    PubMed

    Dean, M

    1994-01-01

    Britain has longed followed a disease-control strategy for providing aid in the health sector to developing, low-income countries. Given, however, the high level of waste upon tertiary care and specialized medicine in current health programs of low-income countries as documented by the World Bank; the poor performance of existing general government hospitals and clinics; and the poor image of Third World health systems in the eyes of Western officials and government ministers, the chief health advisor of the Overseas Development Administration has called for a drastic redirection of policy toward development aid. Specifically, a shift away from a specific-disease control approach toward an overall, sweeping reform of the health sector in developing countries is urged. The level of waste needs to be reduced and more attention given to the poor. Unless such changes result, government ministers will grow increasingly reluctant to provide tangible aid to the health sectors of countries in need. The availability of such funds invested in effective, well-managed health programs will grow more critical to health in the Third World as populations shift away from communicable disease morbidity and mortality toward illnesses which are of a more noncommunicable nature such as stroke and cancer.

  13. Informing Education Policy in Afghanistan: Using Design of Experiments and Data Envelopment Analysis to Provide Transparency in Complex Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Education planning provides the policy maker and the decision maker a logical framework in which to develop and implement education policy. At the international level, education planning is often confounded by both internal and external complexities, making the development of education policy difficult. This research presents a discrete event…

  14. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  15. 10 CFR 431.132 - Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... condensing automatic commercial ice makers, total energy consumed shall include condenser fan power. Harvest... automatic commercial ice makers that do not contain integral storage bins, but are generally designed...

  16. 75 FR 82127 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Gauguin: Maker of Myth”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Gauguin: Maker of Myth'' SUMMARY..., I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Gauguin: Maker of...

  17. Financial Aid and Enrollment: Questions for Boards to Consider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    This white paper encourages board members to take a step back and think about long-term strategies for ensuring that financial aid policies are consistent with institutional mission at the same time that they serve fiscal and enrollment goals. While board members can determine financial aid and enrollment policies only at the broadest level, it is…

  18. Expanding Equal Opportunity: The Princeton Experience with Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilghman, Shirley M.

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, Shirley M. Tilghman discusses the purpose, design, and impact of Princeton University's no-loan financial aid policy, which was enacted in 2001. As the centerpiece of an aid and recruitment strategy that seeks to improve college access despite growing socioeconomic stratification, the policy obliges Princeton to meet all student…

  19. Origins and Outcomes: An Essay on the History of Student Aid in California. The Eureka Project: A Review of Student Financial Aid in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eureka Project, Sacramento, CA.

    The history of student aid policies in California is reviewed by the Eureka Project to help guide policy formation and review developments that have accounted for past consensus about the state's role in providing student aid. Attention is directed to: the demographic facts that have made student aid important to California; the evolution of…

  20. Using a Latino Lens to Reimagine Aid Design and Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Federal financial aid is critical to student access and success in postsecondary education for many students, including most Latinos. However, three current realities are challenging the effectiveness of federal financial aid policy today: (1) the inability of federal aid to keep pace with the increase in college costs for students; (2) the…