Science.gov

Sample records for aid policy makers

  1. Briefly Speaking: An Introduction to Student Financial Aid in California for Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eureka Project, Sacramento, CA.

    Designed to help educational policy makers understand student financial aid in California, this booklet covers the importance of aid, how it has changed, current programs, need analysis, packaging, public and student views, graduate aid, and politics and problems of aid. As student financial aid became a larger and more complex educational…

  2. Engaging with Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, R.; Miller, S.; Heward, A.

    2011-10-01

    The need to engage with Europe's policy makers is more crucial now than ever. MEPs' understanding of the contribution and importance of planetary science to European research, industry, culture, education and job-creation may have major implications for both the direction of research and future funding for Europe's planetary science community. The mid-term review of the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme is currently in progress and these discussions will feed into the drafting of Framework Eight. With space-going nations around the world redefining priorities, Europe may have an opportunity to take a lead in planetology on a global scale. This should be taken into account when considering planetology within the frameworks of the European Space Policy. This panel discussion, hosted by Dr Robert Massey, Deputy Executive of the Royal Astronomical Session, will look at engaging with policy makers from the point of view of those working in the European Parliament, European Commission, industry, as well as the planetary community.

  3. Advancing Policy Makers' Expertise in Evidence-Use: A New Approach to Enhancing the Role Research Can Have in Aiding Educational Policy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of evidence-informed policy making and the factors that have hindered its development in the UK to date. It then explores Flyvbjerg's notion of "phronetic" expertise and hypothesises that the learning that accrues from engaging with multiple cases could also lead to policy-makers developing competency in…

  4. Health Needs of People Living with HIV/AIDS: From the Perspective of Policy Makers, Physicians and Consultants, and People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    MORADI, Ghobad; MOHRAZ, Minoo; GOUYA, Mohammad Mehdi; DEJMAN, Masoumeh; SEYEDALINAGHI, SeyedAhmad; KHOSHRAVESH, Sahar; MALEKAFZALI ARDAKANI, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV/AIDS has been concentrated among injecting drug users in the country. This study aimed to investigate and identify health and treatment needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2012 in Iran. The study groups consisted of experts, practitioners, and consultants working with People Living with HIV/AIDS and their families. Data was collected through Focus Group Discussions and deep interviews. Data were analyzed using content analysis method. Results The findings of this study included the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS, which were classified in three main categories. The first category was prevention and counseling services with several sub-groups such as education and public and available consultation, distribution of condoms to vulnerable groups, increasing counseling centers in urban areas, providing appropriate psychological and supportive counseling, and family planning services. The second category included diagnostic and treatment services and had several sub-groups such as full retroviral treatment, Tuberculosis treatment and continuing care, providing care and treatment for patients with hepatitis, and providing dental services. The third category included rehabilitation services and had some sub-categories such as home care, social and psychological support, nutritional support, and empowering positive clubs. Conclusions This study puts emphasis on making plans based on the priorities to meet the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran. PMID:26060705

  5. Policy makers, the international community and the population in the prevention and treatment of diseases: case study on HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Hausken, Kjell; Ncube, Mthuli

    2017-12-01

    A four-period game is developed between a policy maker, the international community, and the population. This research supplements, through implementing strategic interaction, earlier research analyzing "one player at a time". The first two players distribute funds between preventing and treating diseases. The population reacts by degree of risky behavior which may cause no disease, disease contraction, recovery, sickness/death. More funds to prevention implies less disease contraction but higher death rate given disease contraction. The cost effectiveness of treatment relative to prevention, country specific conditions, and how the international community converts funds compared with the policy maker in a country, are illustrated. We determine which factors impact funding, e.g. large probabilities of disease contraction, and death given contraction, and if the recovery utility and utility of remaining sick or dying are far below the no disease utility. We also delineate how the policy maker and international community may free ride on each other's contributions. The model is tested against empirical data for 43 African countries. The results show consistency between the theoretical model and empirical estimates. The paper argues for the need to create commitment mechanisms to ensure that free riding by both countries and the international community is avoided.

  6. Intellectual Property: Policies and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Diana W.

    2001-01-01

    Used modified version of 1978 National Association of College and University Business Officers survey instrument to investigate intellectual-property policies at 38 (of 210) 4-year institutions of higher education in the 15 Southern Regional Education Board states. Finds, for example, that in the majority of institutions, top administrators are…

  7. Making predictive ecology more relevant to policy makers and practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, William J.; Freckleton, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the aims of ecology is to aid policy makers and practitioners through the development of testable predictions of relevance to society. Here, we argue that this capacity can be improved in three ways. Firstly, by thinking more clearly about the priority issues using a range of methods including horizon scanning, identifying policy gaps, identifying priority questions and using evidence-based conservation to identify knowledge gaps. Secondly, by linking ecological models with models of other systems, such as economic and social models. Thirdly, by considering alternative approaches to generate and model data that use, for example, discrete or categorical states to model ecological systems. We particularly highlight that models are essential for making predictions. However, a key to the limitation in their use is the degree to which ecologists are able to communicate results to policy makers in a clear, useful and timely fashion. PMID:22144394

  8. Automation: Decision Aid or Decision Maker?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skitka, Linda J.

    1998-01-01

    This study clarified that automation bias is something unique to automated decision making contexts, and is not the result of a general tendency toward complacency. By comparing performance on exactly the same events on the same tasks with and without an automated decision aid, we were able to determine that at least the omission error part of automation bias is due to the unique context created by having an automated decision aid, and is not a phenomena that would occur even if people were not in an automated context. However, this study also revealed that having an automated decision aid did lead to modestly improved performance across all non-error events. Participants in the non- automated condition responded with 83.68% accuracy, whereas participants in the automated condition responded with 88.67% accuracy, across all events. Automated decision aids clearly led to better overall performance when they were accurate. People performed almost exactly at the level of reliability as the automation (which across events was 88% reliable). However, also clear, is that the presence of less than 100% accurate automated decision aids creates a context in which new kinds of errors in decision making can occur. Participants in the non-automated condition responded with 97% accuracy on the six "error" events, whereas participants in the automated condition had only a 65% accuracy rate when confronted with those same six events. In short, the presence of an AMA can lead to vigilance decrements that can lead to errors in decision making.

  9. Is Twitter a forum for disseminating research to health policy makers?

    PubMed

    Kapp, Julie M; Hensel, Brian; Schnoring, Kyle T

    2015-12-01

    Findings from scientific research largely remain inside the scientific community. Research scientists are being encouraged to use social media, and especially Twitter, for dissemination of evidence. The potential for Twitter to narrow the gap on evidence translated into policy presents new opportunities. We explored the innovative question of the feasibility of Twitter as a tool for the scientific community to disseminate to and engage with health policy makers for research impact. We created a list of federal "health policy makers." In December 2014, we identified members using several data sources, then collected and summarized their Twitter usage data. Nearly all health policy makers had Twitter accounts. Their communication volume varied broadly. Policy makers are more likely to push information via Twitter than engage with constituents, although usage varied broadly. Twitter has the potential to aid the scientific community in dissemination of health-related research to health policy makers, after understanding how to effectively (and selectively) use Twitter.

  10. Evaluation by policy makers of a procedure to describe perceived landscape openness.

    PubMed

    Weitkamp, Gerd; Van den Berg, Agnes E; Bregt, Arnold K; Van Lammeren, Ron J A

    2012-03-01

    In the last decade policy makers have increasingly recognized the need to include people's perceptions in methods for describing landscape quality. At the same time, a third wave of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has become available that make it technically possible to model landscape quality in a realistic manner. However, as there is often a mismatch between science and policy, it remains unclear to what extent perception-based models developed by scientists can be useful to policy makers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness to policy making of a GIS-based procedure for describing perceived landscape openness. To this end, a workshop was organized which was attended by eight Dutch policy makers who acted as representatives of their province (region). The Group Decision Room (GDR) technique was used to elicit the policy makers' evaluations of the procedure in an anonymous and reliable manner. The procedure was presented to the policy makers using cases from their own province, which they assessed using a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that policy makers rated the procedure as being highly relevant to policy making, scientifically credible, usable by policy makers and feasible to implement in the policy making process. They especially appreciated the flexibility and transparency of the procedure. The policy makers concluded that the procedure would be of most value for monitoring landscape changes and for analysing impacts on landscape openness in land use scenario studies. However, they requested guidelines for proper implementation of the various options in the procedure. In general, the current study shows that explicit and transparent evaluation of the usefulness of GIS-based tools can aid integration at the science-policy interface and help to ensure that both scientists and policy makers are informed of interrelated options and requirements.

  11. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  12. Increasing the use of evidence in health policy: practice and views of policy makers and researchers

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Danielle M; Redman, Sally; Jorm, Louisa; Cooke, Margaret; Zwi, Anthony B; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    Background Better communication is often suggested as fundamental to increasing the use of research evidence in policy, but little is known about how researchers and policy makers work together or about barriers to exchange. This study explored the views and practice of policy makers and researchers regarding the use of evidence in policy, including: (i) current use of research to inform policy; (ii) dissemination of and access to research findings for policy; (iii) communication and exchange between researchers and policy makers; and (iv) incentives for increasing the use of research in policy. Methods Separate but similar interview schedules were developed for policy makers and researchers. Senior policy makers from NSW Health and senior researchers from public health and health service research groups in NSW were invited to participate. Consenting participants were interviewed by an independent research company. Results Thirty eight policy makers (79% response rate) and 41 researchers (82% response rate) completed interviews. Policy makers reported rarely using research to inform policy agendas or to evaluate the impact of policy; research was used more commonly to inform policy content. Most researchers reported that their research had informed local policy, mainly by increasing awareness of an issue. Policy makers reported difficulty in accessing useful research syntheses, and only a third of researchers reported developing targeted strategies to inform policy makers of their findings. Both policy makers and researchers wanted more exchange and saw this as important for increasing the use of research evidence in policy; however, both groups reported a high level of involvement by policy makers in research. Conclusion Policy makers and researchers recognise the potential of research to contribute to policy and are making significant attempts to integrate research into the policy process. These findings suggest four strategies to assist in increasing the use of

  13. [Displaying Education Data to Managers and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Michael P.

    Some approaches to displaying education data to managers and policy makers that may be pertinent to environmental data as well are discussed. The National Center for Education Statistics produces many publications each year, including "The Digest of Education Statistics,""The Condition of Education Statistics," and…

  14. Providing Climate Policy Makers With a Strong Scientific Base (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, E.

    2009-12-01

    Scientists can and should inform public policy decisions in the Arctic. But the pace of climate change in the polar world has been occurring far more quickly than most scientists have been able to predict. This creates problems for decision-makers who recognize that difficult management decisions have to be made in matters pertaining to wildlife management, cultural integrity and economic development. With sea ice melting, glaciers receding, permafrost thawing, forest fires intensifying, and disease and invasive species rapidly moving north, the challenge for scientists to provide climate policy makers with a strong scientific base has been daunting. Clashing as this data sometimes does with the “traditional knowledge” of indigenous peoples in the north, it can also become very political. As a result the need to effectively communicate complex data is more imperative now than ever before. Here, the author describes how the work of scientists can often be misinterpreted or exploited in ways that were not intended. Examples include the inappropriate use of scientific data in decision-making on polar bears, caribou and other wildlife populations; the use of scientific data to debunk the fact that greenhouse gases are driving climate change, and the use of scientific data to position one scientist against another when there is no inherent conflict. This work will highlight the need for climate policy makers to increase support for scientists working in the Arctic, as well as illustrate why it is important to find new and more effective ways of communicating scientific data. Strategies that might be considered by granting agencies, scientists and climate policy decision-makers will also be discussed.

  15. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the

  16. Influencing HIV / AIDS policy in Kenya: NGOs build consensus. Policy profile.

    PubMed

    Rau, B

    1996-07-01

    Despite widespread public awareness in Kenya about the HIV/AIDS epidemic, most policy makers in government and other sectors as of 1994 chose not to adopt and implement HIV/AIDS prevention and control policies. Since then, however, the HIV/AIDS policy situation has changed in many ways. Officials now hope to see practical policies adopted and implemented. The government is preparing a national HIV/AIDS policy and has sought input from a broad range of technical, legal, ethical, and policy opinion makers. With support from the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project, MAP International facilitated policy-oriented discussions among church leaders, while the Kenya AIDS Nongovernmental Organizations Consortium solicited the experiences and views of local constituents during a series of district and provincial policy workshops. These and other efforts to shape HIV/AIDS policy include improvements in the policy climate in Kenya, better mechanisms for strengthening HIV/AIDS prevention and care, and some specific changes in policy. Policy development, the policy climate, improved mechanisms, and policy change are discussed.

  17. Turkey's Educational Policies in Central Asia and Caucasia: Perceptions of Policy Makers and Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcali, Pinar; Engin-Demir, Cennet

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the educational policies of Turkey in Central Asia and Caucasia in the post-Soviet era in terms of their successes and failures as perceived by some of the relevant professional policy makers in this field as well as experts from various think-tank institutions in Turkey who are interested in the region.…

  18. Informing in the Information Age: How to Communicate Measurement Concepts to Education Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Forte, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Current educational policies rely on educational assessments. However, the technical aspects of assessments are often unknown to policy makers, which is dangerous because sound assessment policy requires knowledge of the strengths and limitations of educational tests. In this article, we discuss the importance of informing policy makers of…

  19. Social values and solar energy policy: the policy maker and the advocate

    SciTech Connect

    Shama, A.; Jacobs, K.

    1980-07-01

    Solar energy policy makers and advocates have significantly different hierarchies (clusters) of values upon which they evaluate the adoption of solar technologies. Content analysis, which examines the frequency with which policy makers identify different types of values, indicates that they hold economic values to be of primary importance. Environmental, social, and national security values are also substantial elements of the policy makers' value clusters associated with solar energy. This finding is confirmed by a qualitative analysis of policy makers' values. Advocates, on the other hand, assign almost equal weights (33%) to economic values and social values, slightly less weight to environmental values, and significant attention to ethical and security values as well. These results of frequency analysis are made somewhat more complicated by a qualitative interpretation of the advocates' positions. As part of their more holistic approach, several of the advocates indicated that all values discussed by them are instrumental toward achieving higher-order, ethical and environmental values. In addition, our preliminary investigation indicates that neither group is entirely homogeneous. Testing this and other propositions, as well as obtaining a similar picture of the values which the public associates with solar energy, are topics of future research.

  20. A Meeting Place for Policy-Makers and Researchers: The Transatlantic Forum on Inclusive Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Jan; Vandekerckhove, Ankie

    2015-01-01

    While policy-makers and researchers in the field of early childhood education and care (ECEC) often seem to speak different languages, overwhelming research evidence on how quality ECEC can play a key role in alleviating the effects of disadvantage can be extremely relevant for policy-makers. In this article, we focus on how philanthropic…

  1. How are policy makers using evidence? Models of research utilisation and local NHS policy making

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, H.; Popay, J.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—This paper is based on a qualitative study that aimed to identify factors that facilitate or impede evidence-based policy making at a local level in the UK National Health Service (NHS). It considers how models of research utilisation drawn from the social sciences map onto empirical evidence from this study.
DESIGN—A literature review and case studies of social research projects that were initiated by NHS health authority managers or GP fundholders in one region of the NHS. In depth interviews and document analysis were used.
SETTING—One NHS region in England.
PARTICIPANTS—Policy makers, GPs and researchers working on each of the social research projects selected as case studies.
MAIN RESULTS—The direct influence of research evidence on decision making was tempered by factors such as financial constraints, shifting timescales and decision makers' own experiential knowledge. Research was more likely to impact on policy in indirect ways, including shaping policy debate and mediating dialogue between service providers and users.
CONCLUSIONS—The study highlights the role of sustained dialogue between researchers and the users of research in improving the utilisation of research-based evidence in the policy process.


Keywords: evidence-based policy making; research/policy interface; research utilisation PMID:10818123

  2. AIDS policy modeling for the 21st century: an overview of key issues.

    PubMed

    Rauner, M S; Brandeau, M L

    2001-09-01

    Decisions about HIV prevention and treatment programs are based on factors such as program costs and health benefits, social and ethical issues, and political considerations. AIDS policy models--that is, models that evaluate the monetary and non-monetary consequences of decisions about HIV/AIDS interventions--can play a role in helping policy makers make better decisions. This paper provides an overview of the key issues related to developing useful AIDS policy models. We highlight issues of importance for researchers in the field of AIDS policy modeling as well as for policy makers. These include geographic area, setting, target groups, interventions, affordability and effectiveness of interventions, type and time horizon of policy model, and type of economic analysis. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the AIDS policy modeling literature, although many papers from the literature are discussed as examples; rather, we aim to convey the composition, achievements, and challenges of AIDS policy modeling.

  3. Policy makers' perspectives on tobacco control advocates' roles in regulation development

    PubMed Central

    Montini, T.; Bero, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify, from policy makers' perspectives, strategies that enhance tobacco control advocates' effectiveness in the regulatory arena.
DESIGN—Key informant interview component of a comparative case study of regulatory agencies in the USA.
SUBJECTS—Policy makers involved in the development of four regulatory tobacco control policies (three state and one federal).
METHODS—Interviews of policy makers, field notes, and deliberation minutes were coded inductively.
RESULTS—Policy makers considered both written commentary and public testimony when developing tobacco control regulations. They triaged written commentary based upon whether the document was from a peer reviewed journal, a summary of research evidence, or from a source considered credible. They coped with in-person testimony by avoiding being diverted from the scientific evidence, and by assessing the presenters' credibility. Policy makers suggested that tobacco control advocates should: present science in a format that is well organised and easily absorbed; engage scientific experts to participate in the regulatory process; and lobby to support the tobacco control efforts of the regulatory agency.
CONCLUSIONS—There is an important role for tobacco control advocates in the policy development process in regulatory agencies.


Keywords: health policy; regulations; policy makers PMID:11544384

  4. Conference Brings Together Scientists, Policy Makers, and Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, Erik

    2013-08-01

    Incorporating Earth and space science research into policy is integral to supporting any nation's public safety, security, and economy. To help bridge the science and policy fields, AGU convened its second annual Science Policy Conference as a means to engage stakeholders. The meeting, held 24-26 June in Washington, D. C., featured experts from government, industry, academia, media, and nonprofits.

  5. Financial aid policy: lessons from research.

    PubMed

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. Aid now flows not only to traditional college students but also to part-time students, older students, and students who never graduated from high school. Today aid is available not only to low-income students but also to middle- and even high-income families, in the form of grants, subsidized loans, and tax credits. The increasing size and complexity of the nation's student aid system has generated questions about effectiveness, heightened confusion among students and parents, and raised concerns about how program rules may interact. In this article, Susan Dynarski and Judith Scott-Clayton review what is known, and just as important, what is not known, about how well various student aid programs work. The evidence, the authors write, clearly shows that lowering costs can improve college access and completion. But this general rule is not without exception. First, they note, the complexity of program eligibility and delivery appears to moderate the impact of aid on college enrollment and persistence after enrollment. Second, for students who have already decided to enroll, grants that tie financial aid to academic achievement appear to boost college outcomes such as persistence more than do grants with no strings attached. Third, compared with grant aid, relatively little rigorous research has been conducted on the effectiveness of student loans. The paucity of evidence on student loans is particularly problematic both because they represent a large share of student aid overall and because their low cost (relative to grant aid) makes them an attractive option for policy makers. Future research is likely to focus on several issues: the importance of program design and delivery, whether there are unanticipated interactions between

  6. Teacher Education Research and Education Policy-Makers: An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Simone

    2016-01-01

    As teacher educators, we want our research to be influential in contributing to educational policy and practice, but there remains little understanding about ways in which teacher educators might more productively engage with each other and policy-makers so as to maximise their research impact. Drawing on an empirical study and policy document…

  7. HIV/AIDS policy agenda setting in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khodayari - Zarnaq, Rahim; Ravaghi, Hamid; Mohammad Mosaddeghrad, Ali; Sedaghat, Abbas; Mohraz, Minoo

    2016-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS control are one of the most important goals of the health systems. The aim of this study was to determine how HIV/AIDS control was initiated among policy makers’ agenda setting in Iran. Methods: A qualitative research (semi-structured interview) was conducted using Kingdon’s framework (problem, policy and politics streams, and policy windows and policy entrepreneurs) to analysis HIV/AIDS agenda setting in Iran. Thirty-two policy makers, managers, specialists, and researchers were interviewed. Also, 30 policy documents were analyzed. Framework analysis method was used for data analysis. Results: the increase of HIV among Injecting drug users (IDUs) and Female Sex Workers (FSWs), lack of control of their high-risk behaviors, and exceeding the HIV into concentrated phase were examples of problem stream. Policy stream was evidence-based solutions that highlighted the need for changing strategies for dealing with such a problem and finding technically feasible and acceptable solutions. Iran’s participation in United Nations General Assembly special sessions on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS), the establishment of National AIDS Committee; highlighting AIDS control in Iran’s five years development program and the support of the judiciary system of harm reduction policies were examples of politics stream. Policy entrepreneurs linking these streams put the HIV/AIDS on the national agenda (policy windows) and provide their solutions. Conclusion: There were mutual interactions among these three streams and sometimes, they weakened or reinforced each other. Future studies are recommended to understand the interactions between these streams’ parts and perhaps develop further Kingdon’s framework, especially in the health sector. PMID:27579283

  8. Creating a High-Skills Society during Recession: Issues for Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panagiotakopoulos, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    The present study looks at the skill formation policies adopted by policy makers in Greece in order to create a high-skills society. It examines empirically the demand side of the skill creation process within 300 small enterprises in order to understand how far supply-side measures have influenced the demand for well-trained staff within small…

  9. What School and District Policy Makers Need to Be Wary of about Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Bo; Slagle, Mike

    2011-01-01

    As schools turn to data-driven decision making to improve student achievement, research is playing an increasingly important role in local policy making. Researchers have worked to help policy makers better "understand" research with a focus on research design and method. How to better "use" research, however, has received little attention. This…

  10. Canadian policy makers' views on pharmaceutical reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts from drug manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Thomson, Paige A; Daw, Jamie R; Friesen, Melissa K

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical policy makers are increasingly negotiating reimbursement contracts that include confidential price terms that may be affected by drug utilization volumes, patterns, or outcomes. Though such contracts may offer a variety of benefits, including the ability to tie payment to the actual performance of a product, they may also create potential policy challenges. Through telephone interviews about this type of contract, we studied the views of officials in nine of ten Canadian provinces. Use of reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts is new in Canada and ideas about power and equity emerged as cross-cutting themes in our interviews. Though confidential rebates can lower prices and thereby increase coverage of new medicines, several policy makers felt they had little power in the decision to negotiate rebates. Study participants explained that the recent rise in the use of rebates had been driven by manufacturers' pricing tactics and precedent set by other jurisdictions. Several policy makers expressed concerns that confidential rebates could result in inter-jurisdictional inequities in drug pricing and coverage. Policy makers also noted un-insured and under-insured patients must pay inflated "list prices" even if rebates are negotiated by drug plans. The establishment of policies for disciplined negotiations, inter-jurisdictional cooperation, and provision of drug coverage for all citizens are potential solutions to the challenges created by this new pharmaceutical pricing paradigm.

  11. 120 years of nanosilver history: implications for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Bernd; Krug, Harald F; Height, Murray

    2011-02-15

    Nanosilver is one nanomaterial that is currently under a lot of scrutiny. Much of the discussion is based on the assumption that nanosilver is something new that has not been seen until recently and that the advances in nanotechnology opened completely new application areas for silver. However, we show in this analysis that nanosilver in the form of colloidal silver has been used for more than 100 years and has been registered as a biocidal material in the United States since 1954. Fifty-three percent of the EPA-registered biocidal silver products likely contain nanosilver. Most of these nanosilver applications are silver-impregnated water filters, algicides, and antimicrobial additives that do not claim to contain nanoparticles. Many human health standards for silver are based on an analysis of argyria occurrence (discoloration of the skin, a cosmetic condition) from the 1930s and include studies that considered nanosilver materials. The environmental standards on the other hand are based on ionic silver and may need to be re-evaluated based on recent findings that most silver in the environment, regardless of the original silver form, is present in the form of small clusters or nanoparticles. The implications of this analysis for policy of nanosilver is that it would be a mistake for regulators to ignore the accumulated knowledge of our scientific and regulatory heritage in a bid to declare nanosilver materials as new chemicals, with unknown properties and automatically harmful simply on the basis of a change in nomenclature to the term "nano".

  12. Engaging policy makers in road safety research in Malaysia: a theoretical and contextual analysis.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nhan T; Hyder, Adnan A; Kulanthayan, Subramaniam; Singh, Suret; Umar, R S Radin

    2009-04-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a growing public health problem that must be addressed through evidence-based interventions including policy-level changes such as the enactment of legislation to mandate specific behaviors and practices. Policy makers need to be engaged in road safety research to ensure that road safety policies are grounded in scientific evidence. This paper examines the strategies used to engage policy makers and other stakeholder groups and discusses the challenges that result from a multi-disciplinary, inter-sectoral collaboration. A framework for engaging policy makers in research was developed and applied to describe an example of collective road safety research in Malaysia. Key components of this framework include readiness, assessment, planning, implementation/evaluation, and policy development/sustainability. The case study of a collaborative intervention trial for the prevention of motorcycle crashes and deaths in Malaysia serves as a model for policy engagement by road safety and injury researchers. The analytic description of this research process in Malaysia demonstrates that the framework, through its five stages, can be used as a tool to guide the integration of needed research evidence into policy for road safety and injury prevention.

  13. EDUsummIT: A Global Knowledge Building Community for Educational Researchers, Practitioners, and Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kwok-Wing; Voogt, Joke; Knezek, Gerald; Gibson, David

    2016-01-01

    The International Summit on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education (EDUsummIT) is a global knowledge building community of researchers, educational practitioners, and policy makers aiming to create and disseminate ideas and knowledge to promote the integration of ICT in education. Four EDUsummITs have been convened in The…

  14. Before You Decide: What Families Would Like Policy Makers to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Marsha J.; Kendrick, Martie; Chamberlain, Linda; Chesley, Esther; Clement, Stacie; Cummings, Dawn; Henri-Mackenzie, Sue; Labbe, Tonya; MacDonald, Janice; McNally, Diana; Niles, Nancy; Raymond, Roberta; Russell, Candice

    This booklet, developed by parents of children with developmental disabilities, is intended to help policy makers understand major parental concerns about raising a child with a disability. The specific issues addressed are: (1) the special needs of families with a disabled child; (2) the right to community integration; (3) the continuing…

  15. Natural Hazards and Climate Change: Making the Link for Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folger, P.

    2003-04-01

    Debate about global warming in the U.S. Congress often deteriorates when proposals for restricting consumption of fossil fuels, and thus curtailing carbon dioxide emissions, is mentioned. The negative economic implications of curtailing CO2 emissions often stifle Congressional thinking about strategies to deal with climate change. Some policy makers often malign climate change research as irrelevant to their citizens, e.g. why is simulating temperature trends 100 years into the future meaningful to their voters? An alternative approach is to connect climate change with ongoing natural events such as severe weather, drought and floods. These extreme events may or may not be exacerbated by anthropogenic CO2 emissions, but policy makers can debate and legislate approaches to mitigate against natural hazards now without mentioning carbon. What strategy might connect research results on understanding climate change and natural hazards mitigation in their minds? 1. Identify a specific situation where a key legislator's voters are threatened or affected by extreme natural phenomena, 2. Suggest a policy approach that provides protection or relief for those constituents, 3. Help the policy maker vet the idea within and without the scientific community, 4.Turn that idea into legislation and advocate for its passage.

  16. Key Policy Makers' Awareness of Tobacco Taxation Effectiveness through a Sensitization Program.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Ebn Ahmady, Arezoo; Lando, Harry A; Chamyani, Fahimeh; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Shadmehr, Mohammad B; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of 5 of the 6 WHO MPOWER program in Iran is satisfactory; the only notable shortcoming is the lack of tobacco taxation increases. This study was designed to increase key policy makers' awareness of tobacco taxation effectiveness through a sensitization program in Iran. This analytical and semi-experimental study in 2014 included 110 tobacco control key policy makers, who were trained and received educational materials on the importance of tobacco taxation. A valid and reliable questionnaire was completed before and three months after intervention. Data were analyzed using mean (SD), t-Test and analysis of variance. The mean (SD) scores at pre- and post-test were 2.7 ± 3 and 8.8 ± 1 out of 10, respectively. Paired t-tests demonstrated a significant difference in the pre- post-test knowledge scores. Increasing knowledge and promoting favorable attitudes of policy makers can lead to greater attention which could in turn change tobacco taxation policies.

  17. But will I be re-elected? What happens to local level policy makers who support clean indoor air laws?

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Merrill; McCotter, Orion; Sciacca, John

    2010-11-01

    This research was conducted to determine the impact of voting for clean indoor air ordinance on a local-level policy maker's re-election status. Secondary data were used to identify local tobacco ordinances in Arizona proposed between 2001 and 2005, score ordinance content for comprehensiveness, identify policy makers who voted and how they voted, and determine if the measure passed or failed. Participation in and outcomes of subsequent elections were documented from public records. Ninety-two local-level policy makers in 15 local jurisdictions considered clean indoor air laws between 2001 and 2005. Policy makers who voted for these ordinances were more likely to be re-elected than those who voted against them. Structured interviews revealed that policy makers did not believe the issue had an impact on re-election results and believed that although the issue may have been contentious, it was no longer salient in the community.

  18. Literacy and life skills education for vulnerable youth: What policy makers can do

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Anna Caroline; Yorozu, Rika; Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn

    2014-04-01

    In countries with a high concentration of youth with low literacy levels, the policy and programming task related to education and training is particularly daunting. This note briefly presents policies and practices which have been put in place to provide vulnerable youth with literacy and life skills education. It is based on a multi-country research study undertaken by the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) in cooperation with the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD Canada; previously Canadian International Development Agency, CIDA), and on subsequent policy dialogue forums with policy makers, practitioners, researchers and youth representatives held in Africa, the Arab region and Asia. Built on this review of existing policies and their implementation, this note provides lessons for innovative practices and suggests six concrete ways to address the needs of vulnerable youth through literacy and life skills education.

  19. Communicating Scientific Findings to Lawyers, Policy-Makers, and the Public (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.

  20. STATE AID AND SCHOOL FISCAL POLICY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAMTER, EUGENE C.

    THE EFFECTS OF A 1962 NEW YORK STATE AID TO EDUCATION ACT WERE INVESTIGATED IN RELATION TO AN OLD FOUNDATION PROGRAM. THIS STATE AID TO EDUCATION ACT WAS BASED ON THE CONCEPT OF SHARED COST. BOTH NEW AND OLD PROGRAMS WERE APPRAISED WITH RESPECT TO THE OBJECTIVES OF SCHOOL FISCAL POLICY--EQUITY OF SUPPORT (EQUAL TREATMENT OF EQUALS), EQUALIZATION…

  1. Energizing Government Decision-Makers with the Facts on Solar Technology, Policy, and Integration

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) is a network of solar technology and implementation experts who provide timely, unbiased expertise to assist policymakers and regulators in making informed decisions about solar programs and policies. Government officials can submit requests directly to the STAT for technical assistance. STAT then partners with experts in solar policy, regulation, finance, technology, and other areas to deliver accurate, up-to-date information to state and local decision makers. The STAT responds to requests on a wide range of issues -- including, but not limited to, feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, rate design, program design, workforce and economic impacts of solar on jurisdictions, and project financing.

  2. How do the public and policy makers communicate their perceptions of environmental risk to academics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    This paper investigates the ways that the public and policy makers talk about environmental risk to academics. The case study is heavy-metal contamination of food in Zambia, Southern Africa. In several localities in Zambia, urban agriculture is practised using heavy-metal contamination wastewater for irrigation. This leads to contaminated food crops that are subsequently consumed. One case study site where this occurs is Chunga, situated in the northwest of the Zambian capital: Lusaka. For members of the public, six focus groups were carried out at the Chunga, Zambia study site, involving a total of 48 participants. The participants were those involved in urban agriculture through cultivation, selling and consumption of food crops. Urban agriculturalist focus group participants were recruited through key field informants. Focus group discussion starter questions involved pollution awareness, health impacts of pollution in the area and who is responsible for communicating environmental contamination risks to the general population. For policy stakeholders, 39 semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals from various organisations including government ministries, non-governmental organisations, community based organisations and international institutions. Semi-structured interviews investigated the perceived major health issues in Zambia, food safety, environmental contamination and specifically heavy-metal contamination. Policy stakeholders were identified through policy mapping and organisations mentioned in focus group discussions and other interviews. The results at the Chunga study site show that members of the public perceive: (i) heavy metal pollution is not an issue in Lusaka and for their irrigation practices, (ii) dirty food can cause illness, (iii) heavy metals in foods can cause illness but they are not present at the Chunga site. Amongst urban agriculturalists the quantity of food available is the greatest issue, with some saying that they

  3. Views of City, County, and State Policy Makers About Childhood Obesity in New York State, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Rebecca; Lundell, Helen; Meyerson, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction No single solution exists to reduce rates of childhood obesity in the United States, but public policy action is essential. A greater understanding of policy maker views on childhood obesity would provide insight into ways that public health advocates can overcome barriers to propose, enact, and implement obesity prevention policies. Methods We conducted 48 in-depth, qualitative interviews with town/city, county, and state policy makers in the state of New York from December 14, 2010, through June 10, 2011. We used a semistructured interview protocol to solicit policy maker views on the causes of, solutions to, and responsibility for addressing the issue of childhood obesity. Results Most policy makers considered the issue of childhood obesity to be of high importance. Respondents cited changes to family structures as a major cause of childhood obesity, followed by changes in the external environment and among children themselves. Respondents offered varied solutions for childhood obesity, with the most common type of solution being outside of the respondent’s sphere of policy influence. Policy makers cited the need for joint responsibility among parents, government, schools, and the food industry to address childhood obesity. Conclusion Beliefs of many policy makers about childhood obesity are similar to those of the general public. Findings highlight the need for future research to inform the development of communication strategies to promote policy action among those with authority to pass and implement it. PMID:24262027

  4. Communicating Geosciences with Policy-makers: a Grand Challenge for Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, W. J.; Walls, M. R.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists interested in the broader societal impacts of their research can make a meaningful contribution to policy making in our changing world. Nevertheless, policy and public decision making are the least frequently cited Broader Impacts in proposals and funded projects within NSF's Geosciences Directorate. Academic institutions can play a lead role by introducing this societal dimension of our profession to beginning students, and by enabling interdisciplinary research and promoting communication pathways for experienced career geoscientists. Within the academic environment, the public interface of the geosciences can be presented through curriculum content and creative programs. These include undergraduate minors in economics or public policy designed for scientists and engineers, and internships with policy makers. Federal research institutions and other organizations provide valuable policy-relevant experiences for students. Academic institutions have the key freedom of mission to tackle interdisciplinary research challenges at the interface of geoscience and policy. They develop long-standing relationships with research partners, including national laboratories and state geological surveys, whose work may support policy development and analysis at local, state, regional, and national levels. CSM's Payne Institute for Earth Resources awards mini-grants for teams of researchers to develop collaborative research efforts between engineering/science and policy researchers. Current work in the areas of nuclear generation and the costs of climate policy and on policy alternatives for capturing fugitive methane emissions are examples of work at the interface between the geosciences and public policy. With academic engagement, geoscientists can steward their intellectual output when non-scientists translate geoscience information and concepts into action through public policies.

  5. Climate Change Boot Camps: Targeting Policy Makers and Outreach Trainers in Arizona to Improve Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Guido, Z. S.; Buizer, J.; Roy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Bringing climate change issues into focus for decision makers is a growing challenge. Decision makers are often confronted with unique informational needs, a lack of useable information, and needs for customized climate change training, among other issues. Despite significant progress in improving climate literacy among certain stakeholders such as water managers, recent reports have highlighted the growing demand for climate-change information in regions and sectors across the US. In recent years many ventures have sprung up to address these gaps and have predominantly focused on K-12 education and resource management agencies such as the National Park Service and National Weather Service. However, two groups that are critical for integrating climate information into actions have received less attention: (1) policy makers and (2) outreach experts, such as Cooperative Extension agents. Climate Change Boot Camps (CCBC) is a joint effort between the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS)—a NOAA Regionally Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) program—and researchers at Arizona State University to diagnose climate literacy and training gaps in Arizona and develop a process that converts these deficiencies into actionable knowledge among the two aforementioned groups. This presentation will highlight the initial phases of the CCBC process, which has as its outcomes the identification of effective strategies for reaching legislators, climate literacy and training needs for both policy makers and trainers, and effective metrics to evaluate the success of these efforts. Specific attention is given to evaluating the process from initial needs assessment to the effectiveness of the workshops. Web curriculum and training models made available on the internet will also be developed, drawing on extensive existing Web resources for other training efforts and converted to meet the needs of these two groups. CCBC will also leverage CLIMAS’ long history of

  6. Pups in the Shark Tank: how marine studies graduates influence Washington's policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, A. J.; Conathan, M.; English, C. A.; Mace, A.; Meyer, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Since established in 1979, nearly 900 graduate students have been awarded a John A. Knauss Sea Grant Marine Policy Fellowship. Named after former Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Dean of Oceanography at University of Rhode Island, and one of the founders of Sea Grant, this annual fellowship places post-graduate degree students in offices within the executive and legislative branches of government to work on ocean policy issues in Washington, DC. Fellows serve as professional staff within their offices and work on a wide range of tasks including advising agency and Congressional leadership on marine science and policy issues, synthesizing scientific information for use in a decision making context, and overseeing enactment of legislation. Alumni are now infused into every level of the ocean world and play prominent roles in national and international marine policy development, acting in various venues ranging from NGO leaders to Congressional staff, academia to natural resource agency decision-makers. In fact, NOAA's current Chief of Staff is a former Knauss fellow. Here we describe this unique educational experience, lessons learned navigating ocean and climate issues at the science-policy interface, and how early career policy fellowships strengthen and catalyze the link between science and policy in a world where such connections are increasingly important.

  7. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  8. Policy Scholars Are from Venus: Policy Makers Are from Mars. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert

    This paper rebuts four common assumptions underlying criticisms of higher education policy scholarship and policy making. The first assumption, policymakers agree on the nature of policy problems and therefore on the kinds of research needed, is rebutted by noting that actually, there is no way to identify and research all possible future policy…

  9. A Framework for Using Qualitative Research To Inform Policy-Makers and Empower Practitioners: Lessons from Madagascar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heneveld, Ward; Craig, Helen

    National education policy reforms often do not translate into changes at the classroom level. This paper presents a conceptual framework developed for Sub-Saharan Africa to assist policy-makers in bridging the gap between school practice and national policies. It also describes how the framework was applied to current school-improvement efforts in…

  10. Students with Disabilities: Financial Aid Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanin, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes some of the special financial aid needs of students with disabilities and the policy implications of those needs. It focuses on the financial burdens of having a disability, the time demands faced by those with disabilities, the multiple and complex sources from which students with disabilities derive support, and the…

  11. Sustainability of Long-term Care: Puzzling Tasks Ahead for Policy-Makers

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, Ilaria; van der Wees, Philip J.; Mot, Esther S.; Wammes, Joost J.G.; Jeurissen, Patrick P.T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The sustainability of long-term care (LTC) is a prominent policy priority in many Western countries. LTC is one of the most pressing fiscal issues for the growing population of elderly people in the European Union (EU) Member States. Country recommendations regarding LTC are prominent under the EU’s European Semester. Methods: This paper examines challenges related to the financial- and organizational sustainability of LTC systems in the EU. We combined a targeted literature review and a descriptive selected country analysis of: (1) public- and private funding; (2) informal care and externalities; and (3) the possible role of technology in increasing productivity. Countries were selected via purposive sampling to establish a cohort of country cases covering the spectrum of differences in LTC systems: public spending, private funding, informal care use, informal care support, and cash benefits. Results: The aging of the population, the increasing gap between availability of informal care and demand for LTC, substantial market failures of private funding for LTC, and fiscal imbalances in some countries, have led to structural reforms and enduring pressures for LTC policy-makers across the EU. Our exploration of national policies illustrates different solutions that attempt to promote fairness while stimulating efficient delivery of services. Important steps must be taken to address the sustainability of LTC. First, countries should look deeper into the possibilities of complementing public- and private funding, as well as at addressing market failures of private funding. Second, informal care externalities with spill-over into neighboring policy areas, the labor force, and formal LTC workers, should be properly addressed. Thirdly, innovations in LTC services should be stimulated to increase productivity through technology and process innovations, and to reduce costs. Conclusion: The analysis shows why it is difficult for EU Member State governments to

  12. Federal Tuition Tax Credits and State Higher Education Policy: A Guide for State Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Kristin D.

    The federal government enacted the Taxpayer Relief Act in 1997. Whereas other federal student aid programs have used grants, scholarships, and loans to help students and their families finance college, the new law has made college more affordable by providing new federal income tax credits, savings incentives, and deductions for interest paid on…

  13. Voices of decision makers on evidence-based policy: A case of evolving TB/HIV co-infection policy in India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Srikanth; Sahay, Seema

    2016-01-01

    This study explores decision makers' perspectives on evidence-based policy (EBP) development using the case of TB/HIV co-infection in India. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively selected key national and international policy decision makers in India. Verbatim transcripts were processed and analysed thematically using QSR (NUD*IST 6). The decision makers were unequivocal in recognizing the TB/HIV co-infection as an important public health issue in India and stated the problem to be different than Africa. The need of having a "third programme" for co-infection was not felt. According to them, the public health management of this co-infection must be within the realm of these two programmes. The study also emphasized on decision makers' perspectives on evidence and the process of utilization of evidence for decision-making for co-infection. Study findings showed global evidence was not always accepted by the decision makers and study shows several examples of decision makers demanding local evidence for policy decisions. Decision makers did make interim policies based on global evidence but most of the time their mandate was to get local evidence. Thus, operations research/implementation science especially multi-centric studies emerge as important strategy for EBP development. Researcher-policy maker interface was a gap where role of researcher as aggressive communicator of research findings was expected.

  14. An integrated assessment of climate change impacts for Athens- relevance to stakeholders and policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakopoulos, C.; Hatzaki, M.; Kostopoulou, E.; Varotsos, K.

    2010-09-01

    Analysing climate change and its impact needs a production of relevant elements for policy making that can be very different from the parameters considered by climate experts. In the framework of EU project CIRCE, a more realistic approach to match stakeholders and policy-makers demands is attempted. For this reason, within CIRCE selected case studies have been chosen that will provide assessments that can be integrated in practical decision making. In this work, an integrated assessment of climate change impacts on several sectors for the urban site of Athens in Greece is presented. The Athens urban case study has been chosen since it provides excellent opportunities for using an integrated approach across multiple temporal and spatial scales and sectors. In the spatial dimension, work extends from the inner city boundaries to the surrounding mountains and forests. In the temporal dimension, research ranges from the current observed time period (using available meteorological and sector data) to future time periods using data from several climate change projections. In addition, a multi-sector approach to climate change impacts is adopted. Impacts sectors covered range from direct climate impacts on natural ecosystems (such as flash floods, air pollution and forest fire risk) to indirect impacts resulting from combined climate-social-economic linkages (such as energy demand, tourism and health). Discussion of impact sector risks and adaptation measures are also exploited. Case-study work on impact sector risk to climate change is of particular interest to relevant policy makers and stakeholders, communication with who is ensured through a series of briefing notes and information sheets and through regional workshops.

  15. Reproductive tourism in Argentina: clinic accreditation and its implications for consumers, health professionals and policy makers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elise; Behrmann, Jason; Martin, Carolina; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2010-08-01

    A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To date, the focus of attention has been on the thriving medical and reproductive tourism sectors in Asia and Eastern Europe; there has been much less consideration given to more recent 'players' in Latin America, notably fertility clinics in Chile, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. In this paper, we examine the context-specific ethical and policy implications of private Argentinean fertility clinics that market reproductive services via the internet. Whether or not one agrees that reproductive services should be made available as consumer goods, the fact is that they are provided as such by private clinics around the world. We argue that basic national regulatory mechanisms are required in countries such as Argentina that are marketing fertility services to local and international publics. Specifically, regular oversight of all fertility clinics is essential to ensure that consumer information is accurate and that marketed services are safe and effective. It is in the best interests of consumers, health professionals and policy makers that the reproductive tourism industry adopts safe and responsible medical practices.

  16. Communicating the Urgency of Climate Change to Local Government Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A.

    2004-12-01

    What are the challenges and obstacles in conveying scientific research and uncertainties about climate change to local government policy makers? What information do scientists need from local government practitioners to guide research efforts into producing more relevant information for the local government audience? What works and what doesn't in terms of communicating climate change science to non-technical audiences? Based on over a decade of experience working with local governments around the world on greenhouse gas mitigation, ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability has developed a unique perspective and valuable insight into effective communication on climate science that motivates policy action. In the United States practical actions necessary to mitigate global climate change occur largely at the local level. As the level of government closest to individual energy consumers, local governments play a large role in determining the energy intensity of communities. How can local governments be persuaded to make greenhouse gas mitigation a policy priority over the long-term? Access to relevant information is critical to achieving that commitment. Information that will persuade local officials to pursue climate protection commitments includes specific impacts of global warming to communities, the costs of adaptation versus mitigation, and the potential benefits of implementing greenhouse gas-reducing initiatives. The manner in which information is conveyed is also critically important. The scientific community is loath to advocate for specific policies, or to make determinate statements on topics for which research is ongoing. These communication hurdles can be overcome if the needs of local policy practitioners can be understood by the scientific community, and research goals can be cooperatively defined.

  17. Lessons from Oil Pollution Research: Consensus, Controversy, and Education of Policy Makers and the Public.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    Controversies concerning scientific research findings, consensus of a majority of expert scientists, and attempts by vested interest groups to offer alternative interpretations from the consensus with the goal of influencing policy makers" and the public's understanding is not a new phenomenon with respect to complex environmental issues. For example, controversies about new scientific research findings from studies of oil spills and other aspects of petroleum and petroleum refined product inputs, fates and effects in the marine environment intensified in the late 1960s to early 1970s and continues today as evidenced by ongoing debates surrounding the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. This paper provides an overview of the interactions between authentic new scientific findings with respect to oil pollution in the marine environment in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the consensus gained in the ensuing years by continued research, and through various science - policy processes, and a spectrum of concomitant public education efforts. Lessons learned from this ongoing process may be instructive to current debates in other arenas of environmental science.

  18. As CMS makes another policy change, policy makers distinguish between different forms of care.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    As observation care continues to draw fire from critics who charge that the designation ends up costing hospitals money while also sticking patients with exorbitant fees, the medical directors of dedicated observation units counter that the kind of care delivered by their specialized units actually saves money and gets patients out of the hospital sooner. They note that the problem is that only about one-third of hospitals actually have dedicated observation units, so patients placed on observation typically wind up in inpatient beds, where they may only be evaluated once a day. CMS has just released a new policy rule on observation that should help patients avoid excessive charges, but many experts would like to see the agency take steps to incentivize the kind of quality care that is delivered in dedicated units. The new CMS rule for 2014 caps observation stays at 48 hours. Patients who remain in the hospital beyond this point become inpatients, as long as they meet inpatient criteria. Proponents of observation care contend that the average length-of-stay in a dedicated observation unit is just 15 hours--typically much shorter than the LOS of patients who are placed on observation in inpatient beds. Care in a dedicated observation unit is generally driven by protocol in an emergency medicine environment where there is continuous rounding. Discharges can occur at any time of the day or night. Experts note that observation patients account for the largest portion of both misdiagnoses and malpractice lawsuits stemming from emergency settings.

  19. The Policy Maker's Anguish: Regulating Personal Data Behavior Between Paradoxes and Dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compañó, Ramón; Lusoli, Wainer

    Regulators in Europe and elsewhere are paying great attention to identity, privacy and trust in online and converging environments. Appropriate regulation of identity in a ubiquitous information environment is seen as one of the major drivers of the future Internet economy. Regulation of personal identity data has come to the fore including mapping conducted on digital personhood by the OECD; work on human rights and profiling by the Council of Europe andmajor studies by the European Commission with regard to self-regulation in the privacy market, electronic identity technical interoperability and enhanced safety for young people. These domains overlap onto an increasingly complex model of regulation of individuals' identity management, online and offline. This chapter argues that policy makers struggle to deal with issues concerning electronic identity, due to the apparently irrational and unpredictable behavior of users when engaging in online interactions involving identity management. Building on empirical survey evidence from four EU countries, we examine the first aspect in detail - citizens' management of identity in a digital environment. We build on data from a large scale (n = 5,265) online survey of attitudes to electronic identity among young Europeans (France, Germany, Spain, UK) conducted in August 2008. The survey asked questions about perceptions and acceptance of risks, general motivations, attitudes and behaviors concerning electronic identity. Four behavioral paradoxes are identified in the analysis: a privacy paradox (to date well known), but also a control paradox, a responsibility paradox and an awareness paradox. The chapter then examines the paradoxes in relation of three main policy dilemmas framing the debate on digital identity. The paper concludes by arguing for an expanded identity debate spanning policy circles and the engineering community.

  20. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2006-01-01

    require patients who have been successfully treated with heroin in Canada, to be forced to move back to less effective treatments (treatments that failed to be efficacious in the past)? This essay discusses this dilemma and places it in the broader context of ethics, science, and health policy. It makes the case for continuation of the current successful patients in heroin treatment and the institution of heroin treatment to all Canadian patients living with active addictions who qualify. PMID:16670010

  1. Lessons learnt for Public Policy Maker from Relocation of Tsunami Affected Villagers in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamthonkiat, Daroonwan; Thuy Vu, Tuong

    2013-04-01

    facilities such as water, electricity and dumping area were not enough supported in some donated areas. 3)A lot of fishermen had turned to wage-earners or unfamiliar jobs to earn for their living. Some were jobless more than a year after relocation because of less skill for other jobs, high competition for less vacancies and no capital to start their small business. 4)After a few years of relocation and adaptation in the donated houses, we found that old and young generation became a major residence while much of the working generation fishermen went back to their villages for their fishing career. Some of them leaved the right of living in the donated houses by renting out to non-tsunami impact people or leaving their houses abandoned. As a lesson learnt from the relocation of the tsunami impact villagers in Thailand during 2005 - 2010, we could summarize some critical concerns for government policy makers as listed; 1)The government may support the certificate of the ownership or title deed with some conditions to the villagers who occupied on their lands before the conservative zones were announced. They should have the right to stay further and do eco-friendly activities for earning their lives. The villagers have no right to transfer the title deed or certificate to the third parties. Only eco-friendly equipments are permitted for fishing in this area. 2)After relocation to the higher ground, basic facilities (such as water, electricity and dumping area) should be sufficiently furnished. 3)Not only skill practicing for career options should be supported, finding job vacancy should run in parallel to ensure that the tsunami impact villagers can afford their living. 4)For reducing the right transfer or leaving the donated houses abandoned, annual or continuous survey to these residences should be conducted by government sectors until 80% of them had settled on their careers and adaptations. Location analysis should be conducted before construction of houses for disaster

  2. Considering the cumulative risk of mixtures of chemicals – A challenge for policy makers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The current paradigm for the assessment of the health risk of chemical substances focuses primarily on the effects of individual substances for determining the doses of toxicological concern in order to inform appropriately the regulatory process. These policy instruments place varying requirements on health and safety data of chemicals in the environment. REACH focuses on safety of individual substances; yet all the other facets of public health policy that relate to chemical stressors put emphasis on the effects of combined exposure to mixtures of chemical and physical agents. This emphasis brings about methodological problems linked to the complexity of the respective exposure pathways; the effect (more complex than simple additivity) of mixtures (the so-called 'cocktail effect'); dose extrapolation, i.e. the extrapolation of the validity of dose-response data to dose ranges that extend beyond the levels used for the derivation of the original dose-response relationship; the integrated use of toxicity data across species (including human clinical, epidemiological and biomonitoring data); and variation in inter-individual susceptibility associated with both genetic and environmental factors. Methods In this paper we give an overview of the main methodologies available today to estimate the human health risk of environmental chemical mixtures, ranging from dose addition to independent action, and from ignoring interactions among the mixture constituents to modelling their biological fate taking into account the biochemical interactions affecting both internal exposure and the toxic potency of the mixture. Results We discuss their applicability, possible options available to policy makers and the difficulties and potential pitfalls in implementing these methodologies in the frame of the currently existing policy framework in the European Union. Finally, we suggest a pragmatic solution for policy/regulatory action that would facilitate the evaluation of

  3. Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Timely injection of knowledge when interacting with stakeholders and policy makers. J.Bouma Em. Prof. Soil Science, Wageningen University, the Netherlands During the last decade, the spectacular development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has strongly increased the accessible amount of data and information for stakeholders and policy makers and the science community is struggling to adjust to these developments. In the Netherlands not only industry has now a major impact on the research agenda but this is now to be extended to citizens at large. Rather than complain about an apparent "gap" between science and society and wrestle with the challenge to bridge it in a rather reactive manner, the science community would be well advised to initiate a proactive approach, showing that knowledge implies a deep understanding of issues and processes that does not necessarily follow from having data and information. The "gap" certainly applies to soil research in the context of sustainable development where many often well informed stakeholders are involved with widely different opinions, norms and values. Changes are suggested in the manner in which we frame our work: (i) longer involvement with projects from initiation to implementation in practice; (ii) active role of "knowledge brokers" who inject the right type of knowledge during the entire project run in a joint-learning mode, and (iii) not proposing new research from a science perspective but demonstrating a clear need because existing knowledge is inadequate. Yet more conceptual discussions about e.g. inter- and transdisciplinarity, worrysome soil degradation and lack of professional recognition are less meaningful than specific case studies demonstrating the crucial role of soil science when analysing land-based environmental problems. New narratives are needed instead of statistics, openness to learn from best practices and pilot projects as a necessary next step beyond awareness raising. Soil

  4. [Useful advice on health research data: too little attention paid to the data needs of policy makers].

    PubMed

    Schellevis, François G

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch Advisory Council on Health Research recently issued a report with recommendations about securing the data supply and future availability of population-based health information in the Netherlands. Public health policy and public health-oriented research both depend on the availability of these data. The supply of these data is currently not as good as it might be, and the data that are available are not always utilised efficiently. The Council recommends that the government promotes and supports the efficient use of existing data collections, and invests in filling information gaps and in efficacious new data collections. The report is based on the perceived needs from the scientific perspective. However, no efforts were made to establish the information needs from the policy maker's perspective. This report challenges policy makers to prioritize information needs to establish a more evidence-based, or at least an empirical, health policy.

  5. Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates: Outreach for the public and policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Yannick

    2010-05-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), via its official collaborating center in Norway, GRID-Arendal, is in the process of implementing a Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates. Global reservoirs of methane gas have long been the topic of scientific discussion both in the realm of environmental issues such as natural forces of climate change and as a potential energy resource for economic development. Of particular interest are the volumes of methane locked away in frozen molecules known as clathrates or hydrates. Our rapidly evolving scientific knowledge and technological development related to methane hydrates makes these formations increasingly prospective to economic development. In addition, global demand for energy continues, and will continue to outpace supply for the foreseeable future, resulting in pressure to expand development activities, with associated concerns about environmental and social impacts. Understanding the intricate links between methane hydrates and 1) natural and anthropogenic contributions to climate change, 2) their role in the carbon cycle (e.g. ocean chemistry) and 3) the environmental and socio-economic impacts of extraction, are key factors in making good decisions that promote sustainable development. As policy makers, environmental organizations and private sector interests seek to forward their respective agendas which tend to be weighted towards applied research, there is a clear and imminent need for a an authoritative source of accessible information on various topics related to methane gas hydrates. The 2008 United Nations Environment Programme Annual Report highlighted methane from the Arctic as an emerging challenge with respect to climate change and other environmental issues. Building upon this foundation, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, in conjunction with experts from national hydrates research groups from Canada, the US, Japan, Germany, Norway, India and Korea, aims to provide a multi-thematic overview of the key

  6. What Can Instructors and Policy Makers Learn about Web-Supported Learning through Web-Usage Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Anat; Nachmias, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a Web-log based tool for evaluating pedagogical processes occurring in Web-supported academic instruction and students' attitudes. The tool consists of computational measures which demonstrate what instructors and policy makers can learn about Web-supported instruction through Web-usage mining. The tool can provide different…

  7. Meeting the Induction Needs of Beginning Music Teachers: What Can Policy-Makers and Program Designers Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Colleen M.

    Using data from a longitudinal study of beginning music teachers in Michigan, this paper examines how policy makers and induction program designers can provide for the content-specific induction needs of music teachers. The study examined beginning music teachers' early teaching experiences, how school districts and communities supported their…

  8. Global environmental change and human health: new challenges to scientist and policy-maker.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    1994-01-01

    Human health may not remain sustainable if damage to the global environment continues. The argument is simple: Earth is essentially a closed system; humans are proliferating and commandeering more surface area, food and energy; the resultant accumulation of waste gases, depletion of soil and water, and loss of biodiversity is starting to overload Earth's carrying capacity. There are limits in any closed system and our species is now pressing against some of them. These are new problems and we cannot be certain of the consequences for human health. A warmer world will probably have more frequent heatwaves, unstable weather, increased spread of mosquito-borne infectious diseases, and disruptions to agriculture. Ozone depletion, if sustained, may cause moderate increases in skin cancer and cataracts, and may damage crop growth and marine stocks. Depletion of agricultural resources, overfishing, and loss of genetic resources from species extinction all entail potentially serious consequences for human health. The manifest uncertainties of these global change processes and the need for prediction, rather than empirical observation, create new challenges to health scientists. Likewise, policy-makers will have to deal with best estimates and long time-frames, informed by understanding of ecological realities.

  9. How policy makers can smooth the way for communication-and- resolution programs.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M; Gallagher, Thomas H; Armstrong, Sarah; Cohn, Janet S; McDonald, Timothy; Gale, Jane; Woodward, Alan C; Mello, Michelle M

    2014-01-01

    Communication-and-resolution programs (CRPs) in health care organizations seek to identify medical injuries promptly; ensure that they are disclosed to patients compassionately; pursue timely resolution through patient engagement, explanation, and, where appropriate, apology and compensation; and use lessons learned to improve patient safety. CRPs have existed for years, but they are being tested in new settings and primed for broad implementation through grants from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. These projects do not require changing laws. However, grantees' experiences suggest that the path to successful dissemination of CRPs would be smoother if the legal environment supported them. State and federal policy makers should try to allay potential defendants' fears of litigation (for example, by protecting apologies from use in court), facilitate patient participation (for example, by ensuring access to legal representation), and address the reputational and economic concerns of health care providers (for example, by clarifying practices governing National Practitioner Data Bank reporting and payers' financial recourse following medical error).

  10. Artificial Neural Networks and risk stratification models in Emergency Departments: The policy maker's perspective.

    PubMed

    Casagranda, Ivo; Costantino, Giorgio; Falavigna, Greta; Furlan, Raffaello; Ippoliti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of Emergency Department (ED) physicians is to discriminate between individuals at low risk, who can be safely discharged, and patients at high risk, who require prompt hospitalization. The problem of correctly classifying patients is an issue involving not only clinical but also managerial aspects, since reducing the rate of admission of patients to EDs could dramatically cut costs. Nevertheless, a trade-off might arise due to the need to find a balance between economic interests and the health conditions of patients. This work considers patients in EDs after a syncope event and presents a comparative analysis between two models: a multivariate logistic regression model, as proposed by the scientific community to stratify the expected risk of severe outcomes in the short and long run, and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), an innovative model. The analysis highlights differences in correct classification of severe outcomes at 10 days (98.30% vs. 94.07%) and 1 year (97.67% vs. 96.40%), pointing to the superiority of Neural Networks. According to the results, there is also a significant superiority of ANNs in terms of false negatives both at 10 days (3.70% vs. 5.93%) and at 1 year (2.33% vs. 10.07%). However, considering the false positives, the adoption of ANNs would cause an increase in hospital costs, highlighting the potential trade-off which policy makers might face.

  11. [Drugs, health policy and AIDS: changes in a dependent policy].

    PubMed

    Loyola, Maria Andréa

    2008-04-01

    Since the 1970s the Brazilian government has made efforts to implement a pharmaceutical policy that, in spite of a market predominantly oligopolized and dominated by multinational pharmaceutical industries, guarantees access to essential drugs for the population. In this context, in 1999, a law regarding generics was approved. This article aims at analyzing the elements that interfered in the implementation process of this law. Based on specialized bibliography, on the debate in the Brazilian press (1992-2002) and on interviews with industry members, physicians, politicians, activists and civil servants we try to show that the implementation of generics in Brazil is strongly related to the AIDS epidemic. More precisely, it is related to the successful health policy against this disease involving different actors and a variety of elements to be analyzed here, among them the policy of copycat versions of drugs, the law of universal access to anti-AIDS drugs, the struggle of organized social movements, the governmental bureaucracy implemented for fighting this epidemic and the strong mobilization of the media.

  12. International exchange of emergency phase information and assessments: an aid to national/international decision makers.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Thomas J; Chino, Masamichi; Ehrhardt, Joachim; Shershakov, Vyacheslav

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a collaborative project (1) to demonstrate the feasibility and benefit of a system seeking early review, in a 'quasi peer review' mode, of nuclear accident plume and dose assessment predictions by four major international nuclear accident emergency response systems before release of calculations to respective national authorities followed by (2) sharing these results with responsible national/international authorities, (3) development of an affordable/accessible system to distribute results to countries without prediction capabilities and (4) utilisation for exercises and collaboration studies. The project exploits Internet browser technology and low-cost PC hardware, incorporates an Internet node, with access control, for depositing a minimal set of XML-based graphics files for presentation in an identical map format. Side-by-side viewing and televideo conferencing will permit rapid evaluation, data elaboration and recalculation (if necessary) and should produce strong consensus among decision makers. Successful completion affords easy utilisation by national/international organisations and non-nuclear states at risk of trans-boundary incursion.

  13. International Exchange of Emergency Phase Information and Assessment: An Aid to Inter/National Decision Makers

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T J; Chino, M; Ehrhardt, J; Shershakov, V

    2003-09-01

    This paper discusses a collaborative project whose purpose is (1) to demonstrate the technical feasibility and mutual benefit of a system seeking early review or preview, in a ''quasi peer review'' mode, of nuclear accident plume and dose assessment predictions by four major international nuclear accident emergency response systems before release of their calculations to their respective national authorities followed by (2) sharing these results with responsible international authorities. The extreme sensitivity of the general public to any nuclear accident information has been a strong motivation to seek peer review prior to public release. Another intended objective of this work is (3) the development of an affordable/accessible system for distribution of prediction results to countries having no prediction capabilities and (4) utilization of the link for exercises and collaboration studies. The project exploits the Internet as a ubiquitous communications medium, browser technology as a simple, user friendly interface, and low-cost PC level hardware. The participants are developing a web based dedicated node with ID and password access control, where the four systems can deposit a minimal set of XML-based data and graphics files, which are then displayed in a common identical map format. Side-by-side viewing and televideo conferencing will permit rapid evaluation, correction or elaboration of data, recalculation (if necessary) and should produce a strong level of consensus to assist international decision makers. Successful completion of this work could lead to easy utilization by national and international organizations, such as the IAEA and WHO, as well as by non-nuclear states at risk of a trans-boundary incursion on their territory.

  14. Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy: Partnering with Decision-Makers in Climate Change Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D.; Trainor, S.; Walsh, J.; Gerlach, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP; www.uaf.edu/accap) is one of several, NOAA funded, Regional Integrated Science and Policy (RISA) programs nation-wide (http://www.climate.noaa.gov/cpo_pa/risa/). Our mission is to assess the socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate variability in Alaska, make this information available to local and regional decision-makers, and improve the ability of Alaskans to adapt to a changing climate. We partner with the University of Alaska?s Scenario Network for Alaska Planning (SNAP; http://www.snap.uaf.edu/), state and local government, state and federal agencies, industry, and non-profit organizations to communicate accurate and up-to-date climate science and assist in formulating adaptation and mitigation plans. ACCAP and SNAP scientists are members of the Governor?s Climate Change Sub-Cabinet Adaptation and Mitigation Advisory and Technical Working Groups (http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/), and apply their scientific expertise to provide down-scaled, state-wide maps of temperature and precipitation projections for these groups. An ACCAP scientist also serves as co-chair for the Fairbanks North Star Borough Climate Change Task Force, assisting this group as they work through the five-step model for climate change planning put forward by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (http://www.investfairbanks.com/Taskforces/climate.php). ACCAP scientists work closely with federal resource managers in on a range of projects including: partnering with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to analyze hydrologic changes associated with climate change and related ecological impacts and wildlife management and development issues on Alaska?s North Slope; partnering with members of the Alaska Interagency Wildland Fire Coordinating Group in statistical modeling to predict seasonal wildfire activity and coordinate fire suppression resources state-wide; and working with Alaska Native Elders and

  15. AIDS and Herpes Carry Weighty Policy Implications for Your Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Few schools have policies to deal specifically with herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Discusses some schools and states that have developed such policies and includes a source list for more information. (MD)

  16. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  17. The visualisation and communication of probabilistic climate forecasts to renewable energy policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doblas-Reyes, F.; Steffen, S.; Lowe, R.; Davis, M.; Rodó, X.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the strong dependence of weather and climate variability on the renewable energy industry, and several initiatives towards demonstrating the added benefits of integrating probabilistic forecasts into energy decision making process, they are still under-utilised within the sector. Improved communication is fundamental to stimulate the use of climate forecast information within decision-making processes, in order to adapt to a highly climate dependent renewable energy industry. This paper focuses on improving the visualisation of climate forecast information, paying special attention to seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. This is central to enhance climate services for renewable energy, and optimise the usefulness and usability of inherently complex climate information. In the realm of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) initiative, and subsequent European projects: Seasonal-to-Decadal Climate Prediction for the Improvement of European Climate Service (SPECS) and the European Provision of Regional Impacts Assessment in Seasonal and Decadal Timescales (EUPORIAS), this paper investigates the visualisation and communication of s2d forecasts with regards to their usefulness and usability, to enable the development of a European climate service. The target end user will be renewable energy policy makers, who are central to enhance climate services for the energy industry. The overall objective is to promote the wide-range dissemination and exchange of actionable climate information based on s2d forecasts from Global Producing Centres (GPC's). Therefore, it is crucial to examine the existing main barriers and deficits. Examples of probabilistic climate forecasts from different GPC's were used to prepare a catalogue of current approaches, to assess their advantages and limitations and finally to recommend better alternatives. In parallel, interviews were conducted with renewable energy stakeholders to receive feedback for the improvement of existing

  18. Visualisation and communication of probabilistic climate forecasts to renewable-energy policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Sophie; Lowe, Rachel; Davis, Melanie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Despite the strong dependence on weather and climate variability of the renewable-energy industry, and the existence of several initiatives towards demonstrating the added benefits of integrating probabilistic forecasts into energy decision-making processes, weather and climate forecasts are still under-utilised within the sector. Improved communication is fundamental to stimulate the use of climate forecast information within decision-making processes, in order to adapt to a highly climate dependent renewable-energy industry. This work focuses on improving the visualisation of climate forecast information, paying special attention to seasonal time scales. This activity is central to enhance climate services for renewable energy and to optimise the usefulness and usability of inherently complex climate information. In the realm of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) initiative, and subsequent European projects: Seasonal-to-Decadal Climate Prediction for the Improvement of European Climate Service (SPECS) and the European Provision of Regional Impacts Assessment in Seasonal and Decadal Timescales (EUPORIAS), this paper investigates the visualisation and communication of seasonal forecasts with regards to their usefulness and usability, to enable the development of a European climate service. The target end user is the group of renewable-energy policy makers, who are central to enhance climate services for the energy industry. The overall objective is to promote the wide-range dissemination and exchange of actionable climate information based on seasonal forecasts from Global Producing Centres (GPCs). It examines the existing main barriers and deficits. Examples of probabilistic climate forecasts from different GPC's are used to make a catalogue of current approaches, to assess their advantages and limitations and, finally, to recommend better alternatives. Interviews have been conducted with renewable-energy stakeholders to receive feedback for the

  19. The mass balance of production and consumption: Supporting policy-makers for aquatic food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, A. S.; Ferreira, J. G.; Vale, C.; Johansen, J.

    2017-03-01

    the world, well above both Malaysia and South Korea (each with 58 kg ind-1 y-1). The corrected data show that Portugal had the highest consumption rate in the world until the mid-1970's, when it was overtaken by Iceland for reasons discussed herein. The lack of detailed per-species consumption data, as well as the grouping of species by commodities, hinders a more detailed seafood consumption analysis, required by policy makers and stakeholders to effectively develop management measures to reduce illegal fishing or bycatch, and to correctly formulate strategic options for development of aquaculture and fisheries, necessary for ensuring food security over the next decades.

  20. Enhancing the Capacity of Policy-Makers to Develop Evidence-Informed Policy Brief on Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background: The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP). The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods: A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = "grossly inadequate," 4 = "very adequate" was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A one-day evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results: The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF]) and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research evidence synthesis by each

  1. Training Higher Education Policy Makers and Leaders: A Graduate Program Perspective. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Diane, Ed.; Miller, Michael T., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Higher Education is a vibrant, changing field of study. With roots in multiple disciplines, these degree programs prepare the administrators, faculty, and policy makers who direct the current and future higher education enterprise. At a time when higher education is changing rapidly, these programs are poised to frame the future of an educated…

  2. Optimal Financial Aid Policies for a Selective University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Sherman, Daniel R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper provides a model of optimal financial aid policies for a selective university. The model implies that the financial aid package to be offered to each category of admitted applicants depends on the elasticity of the fraction who accept offers of admission with respect to the financial aid package offered them. (Author/SSH)

  3. Does Institutional Aid Compensate for or Comply with State Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.; Delaney, Jennifer A.; Naughton, Blake Alan

    2009-01-01

    To what extent does state policy for student financial aid affect the distribution of institutional aid awarded to students at public institutions? Using data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Survey we employ a Tobit model to investigate the relationship between student characteristics, including family income and academic…

  4. Home Economists in the Workplace: Formulating HIV/AIDS Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanberry, Anne M.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews facts about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), HIV transmission, and prevention of HIV/AIDS; discusses risks for contracting HIV; reviews relevant legislation regarding the rights of employees, employers, and consumers; describes HIV/AIDS workplace policies and procedures; and presents implications…

  5. Does Federal Financial Aid Policy Influence the Institutional Aid Policies of Four-Year Colleges and Universities? An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kwon, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical work that examines the relationships between federal financial aid policy and institutional financial aid priorities and expenditures. This study uses Resource Dependency Theory to explore whether changes the amount of financial aid awarded by colleges and universities during the last fifty years are best explained…

  6. Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Michael A; Fretheim, Atle; Maïga, Diadié

    2007-01-01

    Background Research findings are increasingly being recognized as an important input in the formation of health policy. There is concern that research findings are not being utilized by health policy-makers to the extent that they could be. The factors influencing the utilization of various types of research by health policy-makers are beginning to emerge in the literature, however there is still little known about these factors in developing countries. The object of this study was to explore these factors by examining the policy-making process for a pharmaceutical policy common in developing countries; an essential medicines list. Methods A study of the selection and updating of Mali's national essential medicines list was undertaken using qualitative methods. In-depth semi-structured interviews and a natural group discussion were held with national policy-makers, most specifically members of the national commission that selects and updates the country's list. The resulting text was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A document analysis was also performed. Results Several factors emerged from the textual data that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings for these policy-makers. These factors include: access to information, relevance of the research, use of research perceived as a time consuming process, trust in the research, authority of those who presented their view, competency in research methods, priority of research in the policy process, and accountability. Conclusion Improving the transfer of research to policy will require effort on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and third parties. This will include: collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased production and dissemination of relevant and useful research, and continued and improved technical support from networks and multi-national organizations. Policy-makers from developing countries will then be better equipped to make informed decisions

  7. Financial Aid Policy: Lessons from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. Aid now flows not only to traditional college students but also to part-time students, older students, and…

  8. The Policy-Science Interface for Land Management in a Changing Climate -- Closing the Gap Between Scientists, Natural Resource Managers and Policy Makers. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley-Laursen, S. B.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and related perturbations present significant challenges and opportunities for effective communications among natural resource managers, scientists and policy makers. Communication is important because of the potential dire and sometimes irreversible impacts of climate change, but challenges abound because of the lack of perceived immediacy and direct impact upon the public and land managers. The USGS national network of eight Climate Science Centers endeavors to increase communications among scientists, managers and policy makers through processes of consultation during the establishment of a science agenda and science prioritization based on inputs from a broad array of stakeholders. A Climate Science Boot Camp also fosters open dialogue and working relationships between early career climate scientists and an array of practicing natural resource managers. Professor of Natural Resources, former Dean of NR and University President Interim, PI Northwest Climate Science Center, Director Northwest Knowledge Network, Federal Relations Officer

  9. Literacy and Life Skills Education for Vulnerable Youth: What Policy Makers Can Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Anna Caroline; Yorozu, Rika; Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In countries with a high concentration of youth with low literacy levels, the policy and programming task related to education and training is particularly daunting. This note briefly presents policies and practices which have been put in place to provide vulnerable youth with literacy and life skills education. It is based on a multi-country…

  10. Maximizing Enrollment Yield through Financial Aid Packaging Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Randy; Olswang, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Using institutional data, this paper presents a model to enable researchers and enrollment managers to assess the effectiveness of financial aid packaging policies in light of student characteristics and institutional market position. The model uses discriminant analysis and a series of hypothetical financial aid award scenarios to predict the…

  11. Policy makers will need a way to update bundled payments that reflects highly skewed spending growth of various care episodes.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Allison B; Aizcorbe, Ana; Ryu, Alexander J; Nestoriak, Nicole; Cutler, David M; Chernew, Michael E

    2013-05-01

    Bundled payment entails paying a single price for all services delivered as part of an episode of care for a specific condition. It is seen as a promising way to slow the growth of health care spending while maintaining or improving the quality of care. To implement bundled payment, policy makers must set base payment rates for episodes of care and update the rates over time to reflect changes in the costs of delivering care and the components of care. Adopting the fee-for-service paradigm of adjusting payments with uniform update rates would be fair and accurate if costs increased at a uniform rate across episodes. But our analysis of 2003 and 2007 US commercial claims data showed spending growth to be highly skewed across episodes: 10 percent of episodes accounted for 82.5 percent of spending growth, and within-episode spending growth ranged from a decline of 75 percent to an increase of 323 percent. Given that spending growth was much faster for some episodes than for others, a situation known as skewness, policy makers should not update episode payments using uniform update rates. Rather, they should explore ways to address variations in spending growth, such as updating episode payments one by one, at least at the outset.

  12. Are We Losing the Morals that Guide Student Aid Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draeger, Justin

    2012-01-01

    America's moral compass guiding student aid policy is being co-opted by short-sighted, budget-cutting and deficit-reduction policies. This moral compass was threatened, but had "not altogether disappeared" by 1996, according to an article written that year by Thomas A. Flint, then-vice president for financial services at Robert Morris…

  13. Evaluation Report of the Course for Distance Education Policy-Makers in Southern Africa. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagula, Cisco

    2002-01-01

    The evaluator was contracted to determine whether the online or face-to-face course components met course participants' needs and increased their understanding and knowledge of policy development processes, and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of delivery strategies. In addition, the course evaluator was asked to look at the…

  14. Supporting the needs of state health policy makers through university partnerships.

    PubMed

    Heller, David J; Hoffman, Catherine; Bindman, Andrew B

    2014-06-01

    State Medicaid programs and other state health agencies need to monitor and evaluate changes in health insurance coverage, access to care, financing, and the quality of health care delivery. The availability of new financial resources through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is accompanied by raised expectations for such accountability. While state agencies often contract with universities on an ad hoc basis for specific policy projects, fourteen states have established formal state-university partnerships so that their analytic and technical needs can be addressed more readily. After a brief overview of these partnerships, this article provides examples of their projects, which most often affect Medicaid policy, including work on program eligibility, provider payments, and optional benefits. State-university partnerships are working on policy-relevant projects that influence decision making. Like the variation in Medicaid programs across the country, no two partnerships are alike. They thrive in a mix of structures, using different means of contracting, and with varied degrees of data access. All partnerships are interested in building a national network to share innovative practices and projects, spawn comparative policy studies across states, and support the development of new state-university partnerships.

  15. Principles of antipsychotic prescribing for policy makers, circa 2008. Translating knowledge to promote individualized treatment.

    PubMed

    Parks, Joseph; Radke, Alan; Parker, George; Foti, May-Ellen; Eilers, Robert; Diamond, Mary; Svendsen, Dale; Tandon, Rajiv

    2009-09-01

    Findings from 2 pivotal government-funded studies of comparative antipsychotic effectiveness undermine assumptions about the marked superiority of the more expensive second-generation "atypical" medications in comparison to the less expensive first-generation "typical" drugs. Because this assumption was the basis for the almost universal recommendation that these newer antipsychotics be used preferentially resulting in a 10-fold increase in state governmental expenditures on this class of medications over the past decade, a reassessment of policy is called for. To address the issue, the Medical Directors Council of the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors critically reviewed findings of these studies in the context of other data and considered policy implications in the light of the obligations of state government to make available best possible and individually optimized treatment that is cost-effective. The Medical Directors Council unanimously adopted a set of recommendations to promote appropriate access, efficient utilization, and best practice use. We present our policy statement, in which we provide a succinct background, articulate general principles, and describe a set of 4 broad recommendations. We then summarize our understanding of the current state of knowledge about comparative antipsychotic effectiveness, best antipsychotic practice, and considerations for state policy that represent the basis of our position statement.

  16. Teachers as Frontline Researchers and Policy Makers--A Midyear Perspective from the First IMPACT II Teacher Policy Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberberg, Mark; And Others

    The five essays included in this document focus on the First IMPACT II Teacher Policy Institute (50 New York City Public School teachers "committed to affecting real change in educational policy in this city"). "Teachers as Researchers" (Mark Silberberg) discusses the relationship between teaching and research, particularly…

  17. Arkansas Tobacco Settlement Proceeds Act of 2000: results from education and engagement with policy makers and the public.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Joseph W; Ryan, Kevin W; Tyson, Shirley; Munir, Chiquita

    2004-07-01

    The 1998 Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) resulted in a singular and unanticipated revenue stream flowing to state governments from U.S. tobacco companies. In response, public health leaders were challenged with an opportunity to secure funding for much needed health programs. However, state leaders have chosen to utilize these new funds for a wide variety of purposes; in many instances, expenditures totally unrelated to health or health care. In contrast, Arkansas is unique among all states in choosing to utilize MSA funds solely to establish new health-related programs. Examination of the educational and developmental process through which Arkansas designed its expenditure plan, secured political support, and initiated new health programs in a time of budgetary constraints will inform public health officials to more effectively engage policy makers at local, state, and federal levels.

  18. Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

    2011-05-08

    The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

  19. Equity-focused health impact assessment: A tool to assist policy makers in addressing health inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Sarah . E-mail: sarah.simpson@unsw.edu.au; Mahoney, Mary; Harris, Elizabeth; Aldrich, Rosemary; Stewart-Williams, Jenny

    2005-10-15

    In Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for improved policy development is comparatively new. The public health workforce do not routinely assess the potential health and equity impacts of proposed policies or programs. The Australasian Collaboration for Health Equity Impact Assessment was funded to develop a strategic framework for equity-focused HIA (EFHIA) with the intent of strengthening the ways in which equity is addressed in each step of HIA. The collaboration developed a draft framework for EFHIA that mirrored, but modified the commonly accepted steps of HIA; tested the draft framework in six different health service delivery settings; analysed the feedback about application of the draft EFHIA framework and modified it accordingly. The strategic framework shows promise in providing a systematic process for identifying potential differential health impacts and assessing the extent to which these are avoidable and unfair. This paper presents the EFHIA framework and discusses some of the issues that arose in the case study sites undertaking equity-focused HIA.

  20. Child consent in South African law: implications for researchers, service providers and policy-makers.

    PubMed

    Strode, Ann; Slack, Catherine; Essack, Zaynab

    2010-03-30

    Children under 18 are legal minors who, in South African law, are not fully capable of acting independently without assistance from parents/legal guardians. However, in recognition of the evolving capacity of children, there are exceptional circumstances where the law has granted minors the capacity to act independently. We describe legal norms for child consent to health-related interventions in South Africa, and argue that the South African parliament has taken an inconsistent approach to: the capacity of children to consent; the persons able to consent when children do not have capacity; and restrictions on the autonomy of children or their proxies to consent. In addition, the rationale for the differing age limitations, capacity requirements and public policy restrictions has not been specified. These inconsistencies make it difficult for stakeholders interacting with children to ensure that they act lawfully.

  1. A review of cyberbullying legislation in Qatar: Considerations for policy makers and educators.

    PubMed

    Foody, Mairéad; Samara, Muthanna; El Asam, Aiman; Morsi, Hisham; Khattab, Azhar

    Cyberbullying is a worldwide problem affecting mental health, education, safety and general well-being for individuals across the globe. Despite the widespread availability of the Internet, research into prevalence rates of cyberbullying in Qatar is lacking and legislating for the crime has been slow to develop. Recently there have been some positive initiatives in the country such as a Cybercrime Prevention Law, the development of a National ICT Strategy, and a website detailing safe practice guidelines for Internet usage. However, the implementation and usage of these initiatives are still limited and there is a lack of awareness of cyberbullying in Qatar. As a result, the risk factors and consequences among school-aged children are unknown. The current paper presents an evaluation of the legislative and public policy solutions to cyberbullying available in Qatar, and outlines the critical challenges that could potentially face educators in shaping best practice guidelines for the future.

  2. 76 FR 27649 - HIV/AIDS Bureau Policy Notice 11-01 (Replaces Policy Notice 99-02)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau Policy Notice 11-01...: Final Notice. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration, HIV/AIDS Bureau (HAB) Policy Notice 99-02 established policies for the use of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program funds authorized under...

  3. Frames of Reference: A Metaphor for Analyzing and Interpreting Attitudes of Environmental Policy Makers and Policy Influencers

    PubMed

    Swaffield

    1998-07-01

    / The concept of frame of reference offers a potentially useful analytical metaphor in environmental management. This is illustrated by a case study in which attitudes of individuals involved in the management of trees in the New Zealand high country are classified into seven distinctive frames of reference. Some practical and theoretical implications of the use of the frame metaphor are explored, including its potential contribution to the emerg- ing field of communicative planning. KEY WORDS: Frames of reference; Environmental policy analysis; Metaphor; New Zealand high country

  4. Implementing AIDS policy in post-apartheid South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H; Stein, J

    2001-03-01

    In common with the rest of the Southern African sub-continent. South Africa is currently experiencing a serious HIV epidemic. When it came into power in 1994, the new, Mandela-led government immediately mobilised funds and adopted a far-reaching AIDS Plan for the country. However, the implementation of AIDS policy in the first four years after 1994 has been characterised by a lack of progress and a breakdown of trust and co-operation, both within government and between government and NGOs. This paper outlines the political context which shaped the development of the AIDS Policy, then examines the difficulties of implementing a comprehensive response to AIDS in a country undergoing restructuring at every level. It questions the notion of "inadequate political will" as an explanation for lack of progress. Involvement by politicians has, in fact, been experienced as a double-edged sword in South Africa, with inappropriate, "quick-fix" actions creating conflict and hampering a more longer-term, effective response. The paper also highlights the importance of groupings outside of government in promoting effective policy actions, and the types of leadership required to mobilise a broad range of actors around a common vision. It concludes by emphasising the need to develop approaches to policy implementation rooted in the possibilities and constraints of the local situation, rather than relying on universal blue-prints developed out of context.

  5. Preferences for a potential longer-acting injectable contraceptive: perspectives from women, providers, and policy makers in Kenya and Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, Elizabeth E; McKenna, Kevin; Mackenzie, Caroline; Ngabo, Fidele; Munyambanza, Emmanuel; Arcara, Jennet; Rademacher, Kate H; Lendvay, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Between 1995 and 2005, injectable use doubled worldwide. However, discontinuation rates remain high, partly because of side effects but also because of missed appointments for reinjection. A longer-acting injectable (LAI) may improve compliance by reducing the required number of reinjection visits, thereby reducing unintentional discontinuation. This study examined acceptability of LAI characteristics comprising the target product profile (TPP). Methods: In 2012, we conducted qualitative case studies in Kenya and Rwanda, consisting of 19 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 177 current, previous, or never users of injectables and 46 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with providers, program implementers, and policy makers. FGDs and IDIs assessed current injectable experiences; attitudes toward potential LAI products; and perceptions of TPP attributes, including ranking preferences for the most and least important characteristics. In addition, we obtained completed electronic surveys from 28 international family planning opinion leaders about the perceived need for an LAI, important product characteristics, and challenges to LAI development or introduction. Results: Many FGD participants and interviewees spontaneously expressed strong interest in an LAI, but there was some variation in TPP preferences. The majority of participants ranked effectiveness as the most important TPP attribute. Providers were generally more concerned about side effects than potential users; some potential users suggested that side effects were related less to the product than to their own body chemistry and that side effects were acceptable as long as they did not last a long time or disrupt daily activities. Women and providers, especially in Kenya, preferred a method with a predictable return to fertility. Some participants associated amenorrhea with delayed or reduced fertility. Most women and providers preferred delivery of the LAI in a single, prepackaged, disposable injection

  6. The Politics of Prevention: Lessons from the Neglected History of US HIV/AIDS Policy.

    PubMed

    Padamsee, Tasleem J

    2017-02-01

    The history of government action on HIV/AIDS has much to teach us about the dynamics and possibilities of US public health policy, but it has been insufficiently studied by social scientists of the epidemic. This article draws on a large set of original interviews with policy makers, thousands of news articles, and extensive documentation to reconstruct the history of three areas of debate and decision making about HIV prevention since 1990: needle exchange, HIV testing, and sex education for at-risk groups. These histories illuminate three key lessons. First, scientific evidence has less power to drive public health policy in the United States than in the United Kingdom, which is used as a comparison case to contextualize US choices within a broader range of options. Second, moral concerns weigh so heavily in the United States that a publicly articulated moral argument can countermand the dictates of solid scientific evidence, the voices of experts, and practical considerations to push public health policy in entirely oppositional directions. Third, having the ear of the presidential administration is usually a necessary-although not always sufficient-condition for the success of advocates trying to move US policy in the public health-indicated direction.

  7. Aid and Innovation: How Federal Financial Aid Policy Impacts Student Success and How States Can Respond. Policy Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    From Washington to Connecticut, Arkansas to Indiana, state policymakers and community college leaders are focused on building completion pathways to ensure that more students succeed in postsecondary education and make smooth transitions to careers. Financial aid is both an effective and a necessary policy lever to promote this goal. Not only do…

  8. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Government & Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for government and policy-makers from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and…

  9. Equality? Inclusion? Do They Go Hand-in-Hand? Policy Makers' Perceptions of Inclusion of Pupils with Special Needs--An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avissar, Gilada; Licht, Perach; Vogel, Gila

    2016-01-01

    Using Critical Discourse Analysis, this study aims to elicit and expose the perceptions and attitudes of different policy makers in leadership positions at the Ministry of Education in Israel with regard to inclusion. The first stage of the research consisted of individual in-depth semi-structured interviews (N = 8). In the second stage the…

  10. Americans Speak out: Are Educators and Policy Makers Listening?--The 40th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes toward the Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushaw, William J.; Gallup, Alec M.

    2008-01-01

    Parents, educators, political leaders--all Americans need the information contained in this article. But why this poll? First, it's not just a quick snapshot of public perception. Rather, it is a serious research tool, conducted annually, that allows Phi Delta Kappa (PDK) members and other educators and policy makers to track public opinion from…

  11. Digital catchment observatories: A platform for engagement and knowledge exchange between catchment scientists, policy makers, and local communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, E. B.; Wilkinson, M. E.; Macleod, C. J. A.; Beven, K.; Percy, B. J.; Macklin, M. G.; Quinn, P. F.; Stutter, M.; Haygarth, P. M.

    2015-06-01

    Increasing pressures on the hydrological cycle from our changing planet have led to calls for a refocus of research in the sciences of hydrology and water resources. Opportunities for new and innovative research into these areas are being facilitated by advances in the use of cyberinfrastructure, such as the development of digital catchment observatories. This is enabling research into hydrological issues such as flooding to be approached differently. The ability to combine different sources of data, knowledge, and modeling capabilities from different groups such as scientists, policy makers, and the general public has the potential to provide novel insights into the way individual catchments respond at different temporal and spatial scales. While the potential benefits of the digital catchment observatory are large, this new way of carrying out research into hydrological sciences is likely to prove challenging on many levels. Along with the obvious technical and infrastructural challenges to this work, an important area for consideration is how to enable a digital observatory to work for a range of potential end-users, paving the way for new areas of research through developing a platform effective for engagement and knowledge exchange. Using examples from the recent local-scale hydrological exemplar in the Environmental Virtual Observatory pilot project (http://www.evo-uk.org), this commentary considers a number of issues around the communication between and engagement of different users, the use of local knowledge and uncertainty with cloud-based models, and the potential for decision support and directions for future research.

  12. HIV / AIDS and STDs control: new policy perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mathew, N M

    1998-01-01

    The prevention and control of HIV/AIDS is a social as well as a public health issue. This approach is reflected in new policy initiatives developed by the Government of India's National AIDS Control Organization in 1997. Future strategies will be based on a multisectoral, partnership-oriented approach. Bilateral agencies are encouraged to establish interventions in areas such as sexually transmitted disease (STD) control, condom distribution, counseling, health care, and hospice care. Special campaigns focused on youth and adolescents, including the inclusion of HIV/AIDS in the school curriculum, are planned. New strategies will be developed to address the HIV risk associated with drug abuse. The home- and community-based care of HIV/AIDS patients will be promoted, with emphasis on emotional and social support needs. Other areas to be addressed include the integration of STD control with primary health care, a blood transfusion policy, education for commercial sex workers, an end to discrimination against people with AIDS, and expansion of the national sentinel surveillance system.

  13. A decision aid regarding long-term tube feeding targeting substitute decision makers for cognitively impaired older persons in Japan: A small-scale before-and-after study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Japan, there is no decision-making guide regarding long-term tube feeding that specifically targets individuals making decisions on behalf of cognitively impaired older persons (substitute decision makers). The objective of this study was to describe the development and evaluation of such a decision aid. Methods In this before-and-after study, participants comprised substitute decision makers for 13 cognitively impaired inpatients aged 65 years and older who were being considered for placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube in acute care hospitals and mixed-care hospitals in Japan. Questionnaires were used to compare substitute decision makers’ knowledge, decisional conflict, and predisposition regarding feeding tube placement before and after exposure to a decision aid. The acceptability of the decision aid was also assessed. Paired t-tests were used to compare participants’ knowledge and decisional conflict scores before and after using the decision aid. Results Substitute decision makers showed significantly increased knowledge (P < .001) and decreased decisional conflict (P < .01) regarding long-term tube feeding after using the decision aid. All substitute decision makers found the decision aid helpful and acceptable. Conclusions The decision aid facilitated the decision-making process of substitute decision makers by decreasing decisional conflict and increasing knowledge. PMID:24495735

  14. Policy through procurement - the introduction of digital signal process (DSP) hearing aids into the English NHS.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Wendy; Knight, Louise; Caldwell, Nigel; Warrington, John

    2007-01-01

    Despite being a major user of many technologies and innovations, the healthcare sector's role and influence as a procurer of technologies has been poorly represented by the literature and consequently is not fully understood. Providing a practical example of the introduction of digital signal process (DSP) hearing aids in to the English NHS, this paper discusses the role of public sector procurement agencies in the uptake of technologies from the private sector and their adoption by the public sector. Employing a system of innovation (SI) approach, the paper highlights the need for policy-makers to adopt a dynamic as well as systemic perspective that recognises the shifting roles, responsibilities and interactions of key stakeholders throughout the innovation process.

  15. Political Influences on State Policy: Higher-Tuition, Higher-Aid, and the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Carolyn P.; Marine, Ginger Minton

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of five proposals to change state higher education tuition and aid policies suggests that tuition and aid must be explicitly linked for efficient and equitable results. However, it is extremely difficult to adopt explicitly linked policies. The findings support critics who warn that attempts to adopt high-tuition/high-aid policies will…

  16. HIV/AIDS Students in the Public Schools: Policy Development and Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coose, Lee

    Educators are faced with policy development issues that will allow children with AIDS to be educated, provide AIDS education in the schools, and educate groups whose lack of information may cause difficulties for educators trying to implement these policies. This paper provides guidelines for development of a HIV/AIDS policy. The premises of…

  17. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989)

    PubMed Central

    de Barros, Sandra Garrido; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. PMID:27463255

  18. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: what can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    PubMed

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-02-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  19. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: What can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-01-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  20. Financial Aid Policies and Practices at Graduate and Professional Programs. Results from the 1998 Survey of Graduate Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures (SOGAPPP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.

    To obtain information about the distribution of financial aid funds to graduate and professional students, the National Association of Student Financial Aid Information developed a survey about specific programs and awards, distribution methods, loan packaging policies, the use of professional judgment, the use of technology in aid offices, and…

  1. 75 FR 6672 - HIV/AIDS Bureau; Policy Notice 99-02 Amendment #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau; Policy Notice 99-02... Notice 99-02, Amendment 1. SUMMARY: The HRSA HIV/AIDS Bureau (HAB) Policy Notice 99-02 established.../AIDS Program funds for housing referral services and short-term or emergency housing needs. Amendment...

  2. Chinese College Student Aid Policy: A Case Study of "H" University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Guoxing

    2008-01-01

    The research findings have made it clear that Chinese college student aid policy has several characteristics. Generally speaking, student financial aid is increasing up to some extent. The government financial aids focus mostly on improving equality of educational opportunity in higher education. However, aids from the government are inadequate,…

  3. Policy responses to HIV/AIDS in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The countries of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) are confronted with one of the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemics worldwide, largely driven through injecting drug use. This article, based on a review of academic and grey literature, explores how they have responded. We find major similarities and differences across the region. At one extreme is Turkmenistan, which denies that there is any problem, does not offer harm reduction services or HIV/AIDS treatment and does not report any meaningful data to the international community. Uzbekistan is also pretty closed to outside influences, has discontinued its opioid substitution project and shares with Turkmenistan the legal prohibition of male-to-male sex. Kyrgyzstan originally led many progressive approaches in the region and, like neighbouring Tajikistan, has received substantial assistance by international agencies, in particular the Global Fund. Kazakhstan, with a much higher gross domestic product per capita, has taken on the financing of harm reduction activities through its national budget and has liberalised its drug policies. Yet, across the region punitive approaches to injecting drug use and people living with HIV/AIDS persist as do stigma and discrimination, while coverage with harm reduction programmes and treatment services is still low although with substantial variation across countries.

  4. 'A preferred consultant and partner to the Royal Government, NGOs, and the community': British American Tobacco's access to policy-makers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    British American Tobacco Cambodia (BATC) has dominated the country's tobacco market since its launch in 1996. Aggressive marketing in a weak regulatory environment and strategies to influence tobacco control policy have contributed to an emerging tobacco-related public health crisis. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, issues of BATC's in-house newsletter, civil society reports and media demonstrate that BATC officials have successfully sought to align the company with Cambodia's increasingly controversial political and business leadership that is centred around the Cambodian People's Party with the aim of gaining access to policy-makers and influencing the policy process. Connections to the political elite have resulted in official recognition of the company's ostensible contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development and, more significantly, provided BATC with opportunities to petition policy-makers and to dilute tobacco control regulation. Corporate promotion of its contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development is at odds with its determined efforts to thwart public health regulation and Cambodia's compliance with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  5. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive health services should include

  6. AIDS, mobility and commercial sex in Ethiopia: Implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Van Blerk, L

    2007-01-01

    Since the emergence of the AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa, male mobility has been highlighted as one of the reasons for the spread of the disease with men employing the services of commercial sex workers while away from home. However, sex workers' mobility and the implications of this for their access to prevention services, has largely been ignored. This paper, based on multi-method qualitative research with 60 young sex workers in two Ethiopian towns, reveals that sex workers are highly mobile, moving in order to attract a wider or different client base, for adventure and to conceal illnesses which might be associated with AIDS. In addition, sex workers are affected by restrictions on their movements, with girls working in bars and red-light areas having little free time to access projects. This paper advocates that policy approaches need to take account of this mobility in three ways: first, by exploring ways for girls to access information and maintain contact with support structures while moving between places of work; second, by building the capacity of sex workers to take greater control over decision-making in their day-to-day lives and third, by developing outreach strategies for taking services into bars and red-light areas.

  7. Institutional Aid in the 1990s: The Consequences of Policy Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reindl, Travis; Redd, Kenneth

    This report discusses the policy implications of the increasing role played by grants provided by colleges and universities as a source of financial aid for students and their families. It underscores the direct and indirect connections between changes in federal and state policy and institutions' aid programs, focusing on the effects of the…

  8. 14 CFR 151.15 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting runway or taxiway remarking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy... § 151.15 Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting runway or taxiway remarking. No project for... remarking if the present marking is obliterated by construction, alteration or repair work included in...

  9. 14 CFR 151.15 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting runway or taxiway remarking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy... § 151.15 Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting runway or taxiway remarking. No project for... remarking if the present marking is obliterated by construction, alteration or repair work included in...

  10. The Politics of Determining Merit Aid Eligibility Criteria: An Analysis of the Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Erik C.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the scholarly attention on the effects of merit aid on college access and choice, particularly on the significant effect that states' varied eligibility criteria play, no studies have examined the policy process through which merit aid criteria are determined. This is surprising given the recent attention to state-level policy dynamics and…

  11. The Virtual Environmental Microbiology Center - A Social Network for Enhanced Communication between Water Researchers and Policy Makers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective communication within and between organizations involved in research and policy making activities is essential. Sharing information across organizational and geographic boundaries can also facilitate coordination and collaboration, promote a better understanding of tech...

  12. Silencing women’s sexuality: global AIDS policies and the case of the female condom

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Anny JTP; van Driel, Francien TM; Jansen, Willy HM

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The female condom is the only evidence-based AIDS prevention technology that has been designed for the female body; yet, most women do not have access to it. This is remarkable since women constitute the majority of all HIV-positive people living in sub-Saharan Africa, and gender inequality is seen as a driving force of the AIDS epidemic. In this study, we analyze how major actors in the AIDS prevention field frame the AIDS problem, in particular the female condom in comparison to other prevention technologies, in their discourse and policy formulations. Our aim is to gain insight into the discursive power mechanisms that underlie the thinking about AIDS prevention and women’s sexual agency. Methods We analyze the AIDS policies of 16 agencies that constitute the most influential actors in the global response to AIDS. Our study unravels the discursive power of these global AIDS policy actors, when promoting and making choices between AIDS prevention technologies. We conducted both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of how the global AIDS epidemic is being addressed by them, in framing the AIDS problem, labelling of different categories of people for targeting AIDS prevention programmes and in gender marking of AIDS prevention technologies. Results We found that global AIDS policy actors frame the AIDS problem predominantly in the context of gender and reproductive health, rather than that of sexuality and sexual rights. Men’s sexual agency is treated differently from women’s sexual agency. An example of such differentiation and of gender marking is shown by contrasting the framing and labelling of male circumcision as an intervention aimed at the prevention of HIV with that of the female condom. Conclusions The gender-stereotyped global AIDS policy discourse negates women’s agency in sexuality and their sexual rights. This could be an important factor in limiting the scale-up of female condom programmes and hampering universal access to

  13. Policies, Practices, and Procedures in Graduate Student Aid: A Report on the 1998 NASFAA SOGAPPP Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the 1998 Survey of Graduate Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures (SOGAPPP) of the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA). Finds that professional programs at private institutions have highest tuitions; most students in professional programs receive financial aid; loans are the overwhelming type of aid…

  14. Handbook of Student Financial Aid: Programs, Procedures, and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Robert H.; And Others

    The full range of topics relevant to student financial aid are covered in this book by a variety of experts in financial aid administration and scholarship. The volume details how to organize, implement and assess a financial aid program--including how to determine student need, deal with student bankruptcy and aid termination, and improve…

  15. Ageing and dementia in low and middle income countries - Using research to engage with public and policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Arizaga, Raul; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, Ks; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z.; Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Sousa, Renata; Uwakwe, Richard; Van Der Poel, Rikus; Williams, Joseph; Wortmann, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Abstract While two thirds of the 24 million people with dementia worldwide live in low and middle income countries, very little research has been conducted to support policy making in these regions. Among the non-communicable diseases, dementia (in common with other chronic NCDs linked more to long-term disability than to mortality) has been relatively under-prioritized. International agreements, plans and policy guidelines have called for an end to ageist discrimination and a focus upon reducing disadvantage arising from poverty and the consequences of ill health. Social protection, access to good quality age-appropriate healthcare and addressing the problem of disability are all key issues. However, as yet, little progress has been made in addressing these concerns. In this review we outline the current international policy agenda for older individuals, and its specific relevance to those with dementia and other disabling non-communicable diseases. We consider the potential for epidemiological research to raise awareness, refine the policy agenda, and promote action, using the example of the dissemination strategy developed by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group. PMID:18925482

  16. Economic evaluation of integrated new technologies for health and social care: Suggestions for policy makers, users and evaluators.

    PubMed

    Wildman, John; McMeekin, Peter; Grieve, Eleanor; Briggs, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    With an ageing population there is a move towards the use of assisted living technologies (ALTs) to provide social care and health care services, and to improve service processes. These technologies are at the forefront of the integration of health and social care. However, economic evaluations of ALTs, and indeed economic evaluations of any interventions providing both health benefits and benefits beyond health are complex. This paper considers the challenges faced by evaluators and presents a method of economic evaluation for use with interventions where traditional methods may not be suitable for informing funders and decision makers. We propose a method, combining economic evaluation techniques, that can accommodate health outcomes and outcomes beyond health through the use of a common numeraire. Such economic evaluations can benefit both the public and private sector, firstly by ensuring the efficient allocation of resources. And secondly, by providing information for individuals who, in the market for ALTs, face consumption decisions that are infrequent and for which there may be no other sources of information. We consider these issues in the welfarist, extra-welfarist and capabilities frameworks, which we link to attributes in an individual production model. This approach allows for the valuation of the health component of any such intervention and the valuation of key social care attributes and processes. Finally, we present a set of considerations for evaluators highlighting the key issues that need to be considered in this type of economic evaluation.

  17. Why Do Policy-Makers Adopt Global Education Policies? Toward a Research Framework on the Varying Role of Ideas in Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is profoundly altering the education policy landscape. It introduces new problems in education agendas, compresses time and space in policy processes, and revitalizes the role of a range of supra-national players in educational reform. This deterritorialization of the education policy process has important theoretical and…

  18. PPD-QALY-an index for cost-effectiveness in orthopedics: providing essential information to both physicians and health care policy makers for appropriate allocation of medical resources.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Christopher P; Howard, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Because of the increasing health care costs and the need for proper allocation of resources, it is important to ensure the best use of health benefits for sick and injured people of the population. An index or indicator is needed to help us quantify what is being spent so that comparisons with other options can be implemented. Cost-effective analysis seems to be well suited to provide this essential information to health care policy makers and those charged with distributing disability funds so that the proper allocation of resources can be achieved. There is currently no such index to show whether the benefits paid out are the most cost-effective. By comparing the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of a treatment method to the disability an individual would experience, on the basis of lost wages as measure of disability, we provide decision makers more information for the basis of cost allocation in health care. To accomplish this, we describe a new term, the PPD-QALY (permanent partial disability-quality of life year). This term was developed to establish an index to which musculoskeletal care can be compared, to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a treatment on the basis of the monetary value of the disability. This term serves to standardize the monetary value of an injury. Cost-effective analysis in arthroscopic surgery may prove to be a valuable asset in this role and to provide decision makers the information needed to determine the societal benefit from new arthroscopic procedures as they are developed and implemented.

  19. Deliberating International Science Policy Controversies: Uncertainty and AIDS in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paroske, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    International science policy controversies involve disputes over cultural differences in the assessment of knowledge claims and competing visions of the policy-making process between different nations. This essay analyzes these dynamics in the recent controversy surrounding AIDS policy in South Africa. It develops the notion of an epistemological…

  20. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey; Verani, Andre; Hijazi, Mai; Hurley, Erin; Hagopian, Amy; Judice, Nicole; MacInnis, Ron; Sanford, Sallie; Zelek, Sarah; Katz, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities.

  1. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities. PMID:26914708

  2. Crafting AIDS policy in Brazil and Russia: State-civil societal ties, institutionalised morals, and foreign policy aspiration.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2016-10-01

    During the 1990s, Brazil and Russia diverged in their policy response to AIDS. This is puzzling considering that both nations were globally integrated emerging economies transitioning to democracy. This article examines to what extent international pressures and partnerships with multilateral donors motivated these governments to increase and sustain federal spending and policy reforms. Contrary to this literature, the cases of Brazil and Russia suggest that these external factors were not important in achieving these outcomes. Furthermore, it is argued that Brazil's policy response was eventually stronger than Russia's and that it had more to do with domestic political and social factors: specifically, AIDS officials' efforts to cultivate a strong partnership with NGOs, the absence of officials' moral discriminatory outlook towards the AIDS community, and the government's interest in using policy reform as a means to bolster its international reputation in health.

  3. Children's knowledge of packaged and fast food brands and their BMI. Why the relationship matters for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, T Bettina; McAlister, Anna R; Polmear-Swendris, Nancy

    2014-10-01

    Studies regarding the advancing challenges of obesity in many countries are beginning to converge on the importance of early food exposure and consumption patterns. Across two studies (Study 1, 34 boys, 35 girls; Study 2, 40 boys, 35 girls, ages 3-6), child knowledge of brands offering products high in sugar, salt and fat was shown to be a significant predictor of child BMI, even after controlling for their age and gender and when also considering the extent of their TV viewing. Additionally, two different collage measures of brand knowledge (utilized across the two studies) performed similarly, suggesting that this measure may be serving as a surrogate indicator of an overall pattern of product exposure and consumption. Policy implications are discussed.

  4. HIV & AIDS and Educator Development, Conduct and Support. Good Policy and Practice in HIV & AIDS and Education. Booklet 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attawell, Kathy; Elder, Katharine

    2006-01-01

    Although there is a need for enhanced evidence-based information on successful HIV and AIDS education interventions, much has already been learnt about good practices and policies in the education sector's response to the pandemic. This booklet, to be used in tandem with others in the series, aims to further expand our knowledge by highlighting…

  5. Daring to dream: reactions to tobacco endgame ideas among policy-makers, media and public health practitioners

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    approaches. The current framing of tobacco as a risky but legal commodity was noted as an important potential barrier to implementing endgame approaches. Conclusions Endgame tobacco control approaches were considered to be viable policy options. Further policy analysis, research and public discussion are needed to develop endgame approaches. A significant change in the public framing of tobacco may be a prerequisite for implementing endgame solutions. PMID:21774829

  6. Measuring equity in household's health care payments (Tehran-Iran 2013): technical points for health policy decision makers

    PubMed Central

    Rezapour, Aziz; Ebadifard Azar, Farbod; Azami Aghdash, Saber; Tanoomand, Asghar; Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Morteza; Yousefzadeh, Negar; Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Households’ financial protection against health payments and expenditures and equity in utilization of health care services are of the most important tasks of governments. This study aims to measuring equity in household’s health care payments according to fairness in financial contribution (FFC) and Kakwani indices in Tehran-Iran, 2013. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014.The study sample size was estimated to be 2200 households. Households were selected using stratified-cluster sampling including typical families who reside in the city of Tehran. The data were analyzed through Excel and Stata v.11software. Recall period for the inpatient care was 1 year and for outpatient1 month. Results: The indicator of FFC for households in health financing was estimated to be 0.68 and the trend of the indicator was ascending by the rise in the ranking of households’ financial level. The Kakwani index was estimated to be a negative number (-0.00125) which indicated the descending trend of health financing system. By redistribution of incomes or the exempt of the poorest quintiles from health payments, Kakwani index was estimated to be a positive number (0.090555) which indicated the ascending trend of health financing system. Conclusion: According to this study, the equity indices in health care financing denote injustice and a descending trend in the health care financing system. This finding clearly shows that deliberate policy making in health financing by national health authorities and protecting low-income households against health expenditures are required to improve the equity in health. PMID:26793637

  7. The Effect of State Financial Aid Policies on College Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, Sheri E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, state legislatures provided $6 billion in financial aid to 2 million low-income young adults. When low-income young adults receive state financial aid and do not complete college, states lose their investment because fewer people with degrees will contribute to the state's economy. Declining states' budgets have led to (a) the rising cost…

  8. What is Known about the Impact of Financial Aid? Implications for Policy. An NCPR Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Bridget Terry

    2008-01-01

    Years of research support the notion that financial aid can influence students' postsecondary decisions, but questions remain about the best ways to design and implement such programs and policies. This paper serves as a discussion of the research literature on the effectiveness of financial aid with special attention to its implications for…

  9. Globalization, Public Policy, and "Knowledge Gap": Ethiopian Youth and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetene, Getnet Tizazu; Dimitriadis, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Set against trans- or supra-national policy initiatives which have framed the HIV/AIDS pandemic as in part a pedagogical issue, this paper critically explores local understandings of sexual practices (generally) as well as of HIV/AIDS (more specifically) among young people in the sub-Saharan African country of Ethiopia. Ethiopia has the third…

  10. The Impact of Federal Financial Aid Policy upon Higher Education Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dannielle Joy; Green-Derry, Lisa Celeste; Jones, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the history of financial aid policy from the Higher Education Act of 1965 to its reauthorisation in 1992 and the subsequent ramifications upon African-American students. It considers issues of race and class with regard to college access. This work concludes with a look at contemporary aid, as well as offers race- and…

  11. Community College Students' Experiences with Financial Aid Policies and Practices: A Critical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes community college students' experiences with governmental financial aid policies and institutional financial aid processes at an urban community college campus in the Northeastern United States. Drawing from theories of social justice, conceptions of social capital, and institutionalist analyses of the community college…

  12. Mapping health in the Great Lakes areas of concern: a user-friendly tool for policy and decision makers.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, S J; Eyles, J; DeLuca, P

    2001-01-01

    The role of the physical environment as a determinant of health is a major concern reported by the general public as well as by many policymakers. However, it remains one of the health determinants for which few available measures or indicators are readily available. This lack of data is compounded by the fact that evidence for direct cause-and-effect relationships in the literature is often equivocal, leading to feelings of uncertainty among the lay public and often leading to indecision among policymakers. In this article we examine one aspect of the physical environment--water pollution in the Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs)--and its potential impacts on a wide range of (plausible) human health outcomes. Essentially, the International Joint Commission, the international agency that oversees Great Lakes water quality and related issues, worked with Health Canada to produce a report for each of the 17 AOCs on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes, outlining a long list of health outcomes and the potential relationships these might have with environmental exposures known or suspected to exist in the Great Lakes basin. These reports are based solely on secondary health data and a thorough review of the environmental epidemiologic literature. The use of these reports by local health policymakers as well as by public health officials in the AOCs was limited, however, by the presentation of vast amounts of data in a series of tables with various outcome measures. The reports were therefore not used widely by the audience for whom they were intended. In this paper we report the results of an undertaking designed to reduce the data and present them in a more policy-friendly manner, using a geographic information system. We do not attempt to answer directly questions related to cause and effect vis-à-vis the relationships between environment and health in the Great Lakes; rather, this work is a hypothesis-generating exercise that will help sharpen the focus of

  13. What about Us? Economic and Policy Changes Affecting Rural HIV/AIDS Services and Care.

    PubMed

    Albritton, Tashuna; Martinez, Isabel; Gibson, Crystal; Angley, Meghan; Grandelski, Valen R

    2017-01-01

    Health care budgets and policies are chief drivers in the delivery and access to health services. Place is also a factor that affects patient and provider experiences within the health care system. We examine the impact of policy changes and subsequent budget cuts on rural HIV/AIDS care, support services, and prevention. We interviewed 11 social workers, case managers, and outreach workers who serve rural people living with HIV/AIDS. We conducted telephone interviews inquiring about the effect of economics and policies on direct practice with rural clients. We analyzed data using a content analysis approach. We found several themes from the data. Ryan White funding and policy changes shifted direct practice to a medical case management model. Changes in federal and state poverty levels affected client eligibility for the AIDS Drugs Assistance Program. Policy banning financial support for syringe service programs hindered prevention efforts to reduce HIV/AIDS transmission. Ancillary services were reduced, such as housing assistance, transportation, and emergency financial assistance. In conclusion, we highlight the importance of place-based policies to improve access to healthcare and services. We also provide recommendations for greater inclusion in HIV/AIDS-related policy development, care, and service planning for rural workers.

  14. AIDS/HIV Infection Policies for Early Childhood and School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Public Health, Boston.

    This volume of policies related to children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) describes appropriate ways to guarantee students' rights while maintaining public health, and answers questions for parents, educators, and caregivers. Section 1 presents policy guidelines for infants, toddlers, and…

  15. Children and Families in an Era of Rapid Change: Creating a Shared Agenda for Researchers, Practitioners and Policy Makers. Summary of Conference Proceedings: Head Start's National Research Conference (4th, Washington, DC, July 9-12, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb-Parker, Faith, Ed.; Hagen, John, Ed.; Robinson, Ruth, Ed.; Clark, Cheryl, Ed.

    This report summarizes the conference proceedings of the fourth Head Start National Research Conference. The focus of the conference was on creating a shared agenda for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers related to serving children and families in an era of rapid change. Keynote topics and speakers are: "Countering the Health…

  16. Early Commitment Financial Aid Programs: Promises, Practices, and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.

    2005-01-01

    Student financial assistance has long been a means to promote access to postsecondary education and attainment of college degrees. Numerous types of financial aid programs have proliferated over the years, including a relatively new concept that specifically targets high-risk, low-income students, focusing not just on getting them to go to college…

  17. The Impact of Aid on Education Policy in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher; De, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, large numbers of children in India remained out of school. International commitments to achieve education for all (EFA) globally meant that India was an important case for donors. India was pressed to accept aid for primary education, and agreed with some reluctance. Although subsequent donor involvement was substantial and…

  18. Establishing a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities to sustainably manage environmental health risks in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Sustainably Managing Environmental Health Risk in Ecuador project was launched in 2004 as a partnership linking a large Canadian university with leading Cuban and Mexican institutes to strengthen the capacities of four Ecuadorian universities for leading community-based learning and research in areas as diverse as pesticide poisoning, dengue control, water and sanitation, and disaster preparedness. Methods In implementing curriculum and complementary innovations through application of an ecosystem approach to health, our interdisciplinary international team focused on the question: “Can strengthening of institutional capacities to support a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities produce positive health outcomes and improved capacities to sustainably translate knowledge?” To assess progress in achieving desired outcomes, we review results associated with the logic framework analysis used to guide the project, focusing on how a community of practice network has strengthened implementation, including follow-up tracking of program trainees and presentation of two specific case studies. Results By 2009, train-the-trainer project initiation involved 27 participatory action research Master’s theses in 15 communities where 1200 community learners participated in the implementation of associated interventions. This led to establishment of innovative Ecuadorian-led master’s and doctoral programs, and a Population Health Observatory on Collective Health, Environment and Society for the Andean region based at the Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar. Building on this network, numerous initiatives were begun, such as an internationally funded research project to strengthen dengue control in the coastal community of Machala, and establishment of a local community eco-health centre focusing on determinants of health near Cuenca. Discussion Strengthening capabilities for producing and applying knowledge through direct

  19. On avoiding framing effects in experienced decision makers.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Dhami, Mandeep K

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) demonstrate the effect of positive-negative framing on experienced criminal justice decision makers, (b) examine the debiasing effect of visually structured risk messages, and (c) investigate whether risk perceptions mediate the debiasing effect of visual aids on decision making. In two phases, 60 senior police officers estimated the accuracy of a counterterrorism technique in identifying whether a known terror suspect poses an imminent danger and decided whether they would recommend the technique to policy makers. Officers also rated their confidence in this recommendation. When information about the effectiveness of the counterterrorism technique was presented in a numerical format, officers' perceptions of accuracy and recommendation decisions were susceptible to the framing effect: The technique was perceived to be more accurate and was more likely to be recommended when its effectiveness was presented in a positive than in a negative frame. However, when the information was represented visually using icon arrays, there were no such framing effects. Finally, perceptions of accuracy mediated the debiasing effect of visual aids on recommendation decisions. We offer potential explanations for the debiasing effect of visual aids and implications for communicating risk to experienced, professional decision makers.

  20. HIV / AIDS in the workplace: principles, planning, policy, programmes and project participation.

    PubMed

    Smart, R

    1999-01-01

    15 years ago, most business, labor, government, and nongovernment representatives would have had only a small idea of what AIDS was, and let alone why it should concern them. However, companies have since lost top managers, workers have lost colleagues, and considerable time, energy, and emotion have been spent upon issues of illness and loss. Entire families have collapsed, as companies struggle against a background of chronic poverty. The HIV/AIDS pandemic has forced a reconsideration of whether disease prevention and health promotion are business concerns. AIDS causes illness, disability, and death to workers, as well as severe economic and emotional disruptions to their families. It also increases the cost of doing business. As South Africa faces a large epidemic, business must take prompt and incisive action against AIDS. A list of 10 workplace principles is presented and a 3-stage process recommended to ensure optimal workplace HIV/AIDS/STD and tuberculosis policies and programs.

  1. Local Demand for a Global Intervention: Policy Priorities in the Time of AIDS

    PubMed Central

    DIONNE, KIM YI

    2012-01-01

    Summary — The success of global health and development interventions ultimately depends on local reception. This paper documents local demand for HIV/AIDS interventions in Africa and seeks to explain patterns of demand using data from a country hard-hit by AIDS. As international agencies and national governments scale up HIV/AIDS interventions in Africa, I find HIV-positive respondents more highly prioritize HIV/AIDS programs, however, cross-national opinion data paired with interviews of villagers and their headmen in rural Malawi show weak prioritization of HIV/AIDS. The data illustrate a misalignment of policy preferences in the global-to-local hierarchy, highlighting the import of studying preferences of intended beneficiaries. PMID:23585707

  2. An unassuming revelation: Cuba's social policy toward the AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Binns, L A

    2013-01-01

    The thrust of this essay is nestled in Cuba's complimentary approach to the treatment of HIV/AIDS virus. In a comprehensive and comparative fashion, the contents herein give credence to a developing nation that demonstrates expedience and emphasizes a history of continuity with remarkable results. Underlying the report is a journey that enlightens the reader to a process rich in application and outcome during a period in which the plaque of HIV has transformed the Caribbean and Latin America community. Meanwhile, it also speaks to a collaborative effort inclusive of government , medical agencies, laboratories, international organizations and the public toward a common good. The country, nonetheless, is not without its shortcomings and therefore monetary constraints and matters of confidentiality and discrimination are pivotal to the presentation. In fact, an elaborate characterization accentuates a 50-year old commercial interdiction as a deterrent that contributes to the disruption of affordability and accessibility to the exchange of goods, services and information. Against all likelihood, a contrasting analysis of regional states inclusive of the United States of America documents Cuba's astonishing success in restricting HIV/AIDS. The Cuban model as described is an exemplary work in progress but likewise the fulfillment of the socialist philosophy toward humanity.

  3. The Effects of Financial Aid Policies on Student Persistence in Taiwanese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ching-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of financial aid policies on student persistence between the first and second year at a private four-year postsecondary institution in Taiwan. A two-phase sequential research design was employed with priority was given to the quantitative data--structural equation modeling (SEM). While the…

  4. Developing Policy for HIV/AIDS in Sport: Separating Fact from Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, Karin A. E.; Sankaran, Gopal; Bonsall, Dale R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines issues regarding rights, obligations, risks, privacy, and policy related to HIV/AIDS in sports, discussing the growing dilemma for sports professionals to weigh an athlete's right to privacy against their own duty to warn in the decision-making process; describing mandatory HIV testing for athletes; and providing guidelines based on…

  5. The Illusion of Convergence: Federal Student Aid Policy in Community Colleges and Proprietary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the apparent convergence of community colleges and proprietary schools is in large part caused by changes in federal student aid policy. Suggests that the apparent convergence masks real and profound differences between these institutions in the areas of mission, governance, size, articulation with other sectors, costs, and market…

  6. Purged: Undocumented Students, Financial Aid Policies, and Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Strong, Daysi; Gomez, Christina; Luna-Duarte, Maria E.; Meiners, Erica R.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how the denial of financial aid constrains undocumented students from pursuing higher education and discusses the interlocking relationship between federal immigration and higher education policies. Reporting on research data identifying that undocumented students pay for their education through work, family contributions,…

  7. Policies of containment: immigration in the era of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, A L; Tynan, E A

    1994-01-01

    The US Public Health Service began the medical examination of immigrants at US ports in 1891. By 1924, national origin had become a means to justify broad-based exclusion of immigrants after Congress passed legislation restricting immigration from southern and eastern European countries. This legislation was passed based on the alleged genetic inferiority of southern and eastern Europeans. Since 1987, the United States has prohibited the entrance of immigrants infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). On the surface, a policy of excluding individuals with an inevitably fatal "communicable disease of public health significance" rests solidly in the tradition of protecting public health. But excluding immigrants with HIV is also a policy that, in practice, resembles the 1924 tradition of selective racial restriction of immigrants from "dangerous nations." Since the early 1980s, the United States has erected barriers against immigrants from particular Caribbean and African nations, whose citizens were thought to pose a threat of infecting the US blood supply with HIV. Images p2012-a p2014-a PMID:7998650

  8. Policies of containment: immigration in the era of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, A L; Tynan, E A

    1994-12-01

    The US Public Health Service began the medical examination of immigrants at US ports in 1891. By 1924, national origin had become a means to justify broad-based exclusion of immigrants after Congress passed legislation restricting immigration from southern and eastern European countries. This legislation was passed based on the alleged genetic inferiority of southern and eastern Europeans. Since 1987, the United States has prohibited the entrance of immigrants infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). On the surface, a policy of excluding individuals with an inevitably fatal "communicable disease of public health significance" rests solidly in the tradition of protecting public health. But excluding immigrants with HIV is also a policy that, in practice, resembles the 1924 tradition of selective racial restriction of immigrants from "dangerous nations." Since the early 1980s, the United States has erected barriers against immigrants from particular Caribbean and African nations, whose citizens were thought to pose a threat of infecting the US blood supply with HIV.

  9. More Effective Aid Policy? AusAID and the Global Development Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassity, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    A first glance at almost any policy document generated by a bilateral or multilateral donor agency reveals a familiar rhetoric of participation, partnership, community, good governance, growth and strong democracy as key ingredients for a successful development program. While some critics of this rhetoric argue that this is merely a recasting of…

  10. A Public Policy Approach to Local Models of HIV/AIDS Control in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Andreia; Costa-Couto, Maria-Helena; Thoenig, Jean-Claude; Fleury, Sonia; de Camargo, Kenneth; Larouzé, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated involvement and cooperation patterns of local Brazilian AIDS program actors and the consequences of these patterns for program implementation and sustainability. Methods. We performed a public policy analysis (documentary analysis, direct observation, semistructured interviews of health service and nongovernmental organization [NGO] actors) in 5 towns in 2 states, São Paulo and Pará. Results. Patterns suggested 3 models. In model 1, local government, NGOs, and primary health care services were involved in AIDS programs with satisfactory response to new epidemiological trends but a risk that HIV/AIDS would become low priority. In model 2, mainly because of NGO activism, HIV/AIDS remained an exceptional issue, with limited responses to new epidemiological trends and program sustainability undermined by political instability. In model 3, involvement of public agencies and NGOs was limited, with inadequate response to epidemiological trends and poor mobilization threatening program sustainability. Conclusions. Within a common national AIDS policy framework, the degree of involvement and cooperation between public and NGO actors deeply impacts population coverage and program sustainability. Specific processes are required to maintain actor mobilization without isolating AIDS programs. PMID:19372523

  11. Financial Aid Policies and Practices at Medical and Dental Schools: Current Trends and Future Concerns. Synopsis: Higher Education Research Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators sponsored the 1998 Survey of Graduate Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures (SOGAPPP), which asked aid administrators at graduate and professional programs to provide information on the types and sources of financial assistance they distributed to their students during the…

  12. Conceptualizing a Human Right to Prevention in Global HIV/AIDS Policy

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Brugh, Kristen Nichole; Halima, Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    Given current constraints on universal treatment campaigns, recent advances in public health prevention initiatives have revitalized efforts to stem the tide of HIV transmission. Yet, despite a growing imperative for prevention—supported by the promise of behavioral, structural and biomedical approaches to lower the incidence of HIV—human rights frameworks remain limited in addressing collective prevention policy through global health governance. Assessing the evolution of rights-based approaches to global HIV/AIDS policy, this review finds that human rights have shifted from collective public health to individual treatment access. While the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic gave meaning to rights in framing global health policy, the application of rights in treatment access litigation came at the expense of public health prevention efforts. Where the human rights framework remains limited to individual rights enforced against a state duty bearer, such rights have faced constrained application in framing population-level policy to realize the public good of HIV prevention. Concluding that human rights frameworks must be developed to reflect the complementarity of individual treatment and collective prevention, this article conceptualizes collective rights to public health, structuring collective combination prevention to alleviate limitations on individual rights frameworks and frame rights-based global HIV/AIDS policy to assure research expansion, prevention access and health system integration. PMID:23226723

  13. Here Today, Gone Tomorrow? Investigating Rates and Patterns of Financial Aid Renewal among College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Kelli; Castleman, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    College affordability continues to be a top concern among prospective students, their families, and policy makers. Prior work has demonstrated that a significant share of prospective students forgo financial aid because they did not complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA); recent federal policy efforts have focused on…

  14. Remote hearing aid fitting: Tele-audiology in the context of Brazilian Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    Penteado, Silvio Pires; Ramos, Sueli de Lima; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo; Marone, Silvio Antonio Monteiro; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Currently, the Brazilian government has certificated nearly 140 specialized centers in hearing aid fittings through the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). Remote fitting through the Internet can allow a broader and more efficient coverage with a higher likelihood of success for patients covered by the SUS, as they can receive fittings from their own homes instead of going to the few and distant specialized centers. Aim: To describe a case of remote fitting between 2 cities, with revision of the literature. Method: Computer gears, a universal interface, and hearing aids were used. Case study: An audiologist located in a specialized center introduced a new hearing aid and its fitting procedure to a remote center (200 km away). The specialized center helped the remote center in fitting a hearing aid in 2 patients, and performed fitting in one of its own patients. The whole process was done through the Internet with audio and video in real time. Results: Three patients were fitted remotely. Three audiologists were remotely trained on how to fit the hearing aids. Conclusions: Remote fitting of hearing aids is possible through the Internet, as well as further supplying technical training to a remote center about the fitting procedures. Such a technological approach can help the government advance public policies on hearing rehabilitation, as patients can be motivated about maintaining their use of hearing aids with the option to ask for help in the comfort of their own homes. PMID:25991960

  15. FAmily CEntered (FACE) advance care planning: Study design and methods for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for patients with HIV/AIDS and their surrogate decision-makers.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, Allison L; Wang, Jichuan; Scott, Rachel K; Briggs, Linda; Lyon, Maureen E

    2015-07-01

    Although the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has become a chronic illness, disease-specific advance care planning has not yet been evaluated for the palliative care needs of adults with HIV/AIDS. This prospective, longitudinal, randomized, two-arm controlled clinical trial aims to test the efficacy of FAmily CEntered advance care planning among adults living with AIDS and/or HIV with co-morbidities on congruence in treatment preferences, healthcare utilization, and quality of life. The FAmily CEntered intervention arm is two face-to-face sessions with a trained, certified facilitator: Session 1) Disease-Specific Advance Care Planning Respecting Choices Interview; Session 2) Completion of advance directive. The Healthy Living Control arm is: Session 1) Developmental/Relationship History; Session 2) Nutrition. Follow-up data will be collected at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-intervention. A total of 288 patient/surrogate dyads will be enrolled from five hospital-based, out-patient clinics in Washington, District of Columbia. Participants will be HIV positive and ≥ 21 years of age; surrogates will be ≥ 18 years of age. Exclusion criteria are homicidality, suicidality, psychosis, and impaired cognitive functioning. We hypothesize that this intervention will enhance patient-centered communication with a surrogate decision-maker about end of life treatment preferences over time, enhance patient quality of life and decrease health care utilization. We further hypothesize that this intervention will decrease health disparities for Blacks in completion of advance directives. If proposed aims are achieved, the benefits of palliative care, particularly increased treatment preferences about end-of-life care and enhanced quality of life, will be extended to people living with AIDS.

  16. The impact of the International Monetary Fund's macroeconomic policies on the AIDS pandemic.

    PubMed

    Baker, Brook K

    2010-01-01

    Expansion of funding for HIV/AIDS, especially treatment, is under attack over concerns about cost effectiveness and financial constraints. The International Monetary Fund is deeply implicated in the history of the AIDS pandemic, the underlying weakness of health systems, and the ideology of constrained resources that underlies most attacks on AIDS funding. The IMF imposed structural violence on developing countries in the 1980s and 1990s through neoliberal and macroeconomic reforms that intensified individual and communal vulnerability to infection and dismantled already weak health systems. This same macroeconomic fundamentalism has recently been repackaged and renamed. IMF fundamentalist policies continue to prioritize low inflation, constricted government spending, robust foreign currency reserves, and prompt repayment of debt at the expense of investments in health and more expansionary, pro-growth and job-creation policies. Several recent surveys have concluded that the IMF reluctantly relaxed overly restrictive policy prescriptions in response to the global economic crisis, but this relaxation was temporary at best and only extended to countries previously acceding to IMF orthodoxy. AIDS activists are campaigning for billions of dollars to fulfill the promise of universal access. If IMF pressures persist, developing countries will continue to undermine the additionality of donor health financing by substituting donor for domestic financing, refusing to invest in recurrent costs for medicines and health workers, and neglecting needed investments in health infrastructure and health system strengthening.

  17. Strategic Intelligence Observations from the Pre-Vietnam and Pre-9/11 Periods for the Intelligence Professional and the Policy-Maker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    intelligence context is vital to grasp the constraints on the decision makers in each period. Therefore, the first section describes the period using...if necessary. 1/2/63 A 3 battalion So. Vietnamese army pincer attack against a badly outnumbered Viet Cong unit near the southern village of Ap Bac

  18. State Decision-Makers Guide for Hazardous Waste Management: Defining Hazardous Wastes, Problem Recognition, Land Use, Facility Operations, Conceptual Framework, Policy Issues, Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Alan; And Others

    Presented are key issues to be addressed by state, regional, and local governments and agencies in creating effective hazardous waste management programs. Eight chapters broadly frame the topics which state-level decision makers should consider. These chapters include: (1) definition of hazardous waste; (2) problem definition and recognition; (3)…

  19. AIDS and HIV. Policy Guidelines for Boards. Campus Life Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The report is designed to inform members of college and university and administration governing boards about facts and issues surrounding acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) so that they may develop education and prevention programs for their institutions and ensure protection from accidental…

  20. AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  1. 75 FR 55341 - Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Assistance and Fire Management Assistance AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... comments on Recovery Policy, RP 9523.6, Mutual Aid Agreements for Public Assistance and Fire...

  2. Fundamental Assumptions and Aims Underlying the Principles and Policies of Federal Financial Aid to Students. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, D. Bruce

    As background to the National Dialogue on Student Financial Aid, this essay discusses the fundamental assumptions and aims that underlie the principles and policies of federal financial aid to students. These eight assumptions and aims are explored: (1) higher education is the province of states, and not of the federal government; (2) the costs of…

  3. Funding Special Education by Total District Enrollment: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Policy Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhuey, Elizabeth; Lipscomb, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Several states and the federal government distribute aid for special education programs based primarily on total district enrollment and a fixed aid amount per student, a method called "census funding." In this policy brief, we address three questions to help policy makers, educators, and researchers better understand census-funding…

  4. Physician-facilitated designation of proxy decision maker.

    PubMed

    Arora, Amit; Cummings, Laura; Crome, Peter

    2016-01-01

    With vast improvements in healthcare in recent decades, people are living longer but often with higher rates of morbidity and chronic illnesses. This has resulted in a higher proportion of the population who may benefit from early end-of-life 'conversation and planning', but also gives healthcare professionals more time during which these discussions are relevant, as people live longer with their chronic diseases. A survey conducted by Lifshitz et al (Isr J Health Policy Res 5:6, 2016) sought to assess physician awareness and willingness to discuss designating a proxy decision-maker with patients, in order to aid end-of-life care in the event that the patient is rendered unable to make or communicate these decisions later in life. Their article suggests that proxy decision-maker designation is only one aspect of end-of-life care; a challenging area littered with ethical and moral dilemmas. Without early, open and frank discussions with patients regarding their wishes at the end of life, proxy decision-makers may be in no better position than physicians or a court appointed proxy to make decisions in the patients' best interests/benefits. This commentary also touches upon the use of health and care passports being developed or in early phases in the United Kingdom, and whether these may be utilised in the field of palliative care in Israel.

  5. Exploring the Relationship between State Financial Aid Policy and Postsecondary Enrollment Choices: A Focus on Income and Race Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jiyun

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between state financial aid policies and postsecondary enrollment for high school graduates (or equivalent diploma holders). Utilizing an event history modeling for a nationally representative sample from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88/2000) in addition to state-level policy variables, this…

  6. Home Health Aides' Experience With Client Death: The Role of Employer Policy.

    PubMed

    Boerner, Kathrin; Gleason, Hayley; Barooah, Adrita

    2016-04-01

    Home health aides (HHAs) are members of a rapidly growing occupation. They often develop close ties to patients and their family and can experience significant grief when a patient dies. Yet agencies often provide little support or structure to help staff cope during this time. For instance, home care agencies do not always notify their staff of client death and some have policies in place to prevent any follow-up contact with a deceased client's family. Little is known about how these agency factors affect HHAs' work experience. This mixed-method study explored the experiences of 78 HHAs working either at an agency with a restrictive policy regarding contact with a client's family after client death or an agency without such a policy in place. Data were collected through semistructured in-person interviews. Employment outcomes included various aspects of job satisfaction and intention to change jobs. HHAs' responses to client death were assessed with measures of grief and grief processing, and with open-ended questions exploring their experiences in this context. Findings indicated that HHAs from the restrictive agency were significantly more likely to be considering other job options. They also reported significantly lower satisfaction with received supervision, and significantly less grief processing activity. Findings suggest that HHAs from the agency without a contact-restrictive policy had a more positive experience at work and more opportunity to process the client's death.

  7. Caught in the middle: the contested politics of HIV/AIDS and health policy in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jennifer S; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-02-01

    Drawing on the changing landscape of responses to HIV in Vietnam, this article describes the key players and analyzes the relationships between global players and local interests, including both the omnipresent state and an emerging civil society presence. We discuss the critical importance of timing for policy intervention and the role of health policy in shaping the broader social terrain. The interventions of external actors such as the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund were instrumental in improving both policies and programs at a critical juncture, when the national responses to the epidemic had been ineffective. At the same time, those global interventions met resistance and led to unintended consequences, both welcome and unwelcome. Furthermore, the looming specter of donor withdrawal and the very gradually emerging national ownership raise many questions about capacity for scale-up and sustainability of the significant achievements to date. Further monitoring and in-depth analysis of the Vietnamese responses to the HIV epidemic in the next few years or so, we contend, have the potential to provide unique insights into the challenges faced by developing countries caught in the complex webs of health politics and policies at both the global and the national levels.

  8. "Rule of Thumb Methods No Longer Suffice": Development of British Coal Industry Education and Training 1900-circa 1970 and Lessons for Present-Day Education Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martyn A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the origins and development of coal mining education and training in Britain from 1900 to the 1970s, by which time the coal industry had substantially declined. It looks at the progress from working-class self-help to national policy in support of education and training. The research makes use of college prospectuses and…

  9. From compulsory to voluntary immunisation: Italy's National Vaccination Plan (2005-7) and the ethical and organisational challenges facing public health policy-makers across Europe.

    PubMed

    Moran, N E; Gainotti, S; Petrini, C

    2008-09-01

    Increasing geographical mobility and international travel augment the ease and speed by which infectious diseases can spread across large distances. It is therefore incumbent upon each state to ensure that immunisation programmes are effective and that herd immunity is achieved. Across Europe, a range of immunisation policies exist: compulsion, the offer of financial incentives to parents or healthcare professionals, social and professional pressure, or simply the dissemination of clear information and advice. Until recently, immunisation against particular communicable diseases was compulsory in Italy. The Italian National Vaccination Plan (NVP) (2005-7) paved the way for regions to suspend the sanctions associated with compulsory vaccinations for children when certain criteria are met--for example when immunisation coverage is high and when effective monitoring/surveillance systems are in place--and thus marked a milestone in the move from compulsory to voluntary immunisation. The forthcoming NVP for 2008-10 confirms the liberal approach to vaccination in Italy as it entrusts to the regions responsibility for the achievement and maintenance of herd immunity. This paper reviews the arguments for and against compulsory and voluntary immunisation in relation to the Italian NVP (2005-7) and in the context of the diverse immunisation policies that exist across Europe. It concludes with cautious support for the NVP and an associated shift from compulsory to voluntary immunisation in Italy, and draws similarities between issues concerning regional variation in immunisation policy in Italy and national variation in immunisation policy across Europe and beyond.

  10. Undergraduate Student Aid Recipients at Independent Colleges and Universities, 1978-79. Public Policy Monograph Series, Vol. 2, Issue 1, January 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadil, Virginia Ann; Minter, W. John

    A national study of student aid recipients during the 1978-79 academic year was undertaken to prepare for policy discussions on federal aid programs for reauthorization of the Higher Education Act. The report focuses on the characteristics of students receiving aid and the typical patterns of packaging financial aid for students in independent…

  11. African communalism and public health policies: the relevance ofindigenous concepts of personal identity to HIV/AIDS policies in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kipton; Gaie, Joseph Br

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the possible relevance of African communalism to HIV/AIDS policies in Botswana and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. We examine various interpretations of African communalism, which many consider to be the cardinal insight of African thought. We suggest several applications of this indigenous notion of personhood to HIV prevention in general and to routine HIV-testing policies in particular. This analysis demonstrates some of the ethical dilemmas and cultural complexities inherent in designing as well as implementing effective HIV-prevention programmes that strike a conscientious balance between protecting individual freedoms and securing public health. Recovering past traditions (such as African conceptions of personal identity) is valuable not only for the purpose of self-identification but also for helping us meet the challenges and problems of today in Africa. We also suggest that the human-rights-based approach to HIV prevention, which strives to protect individuals, is possibly incompatible with the socio-ethical ideals espoused by African communalism. We conclude that public health programmes in Botswana and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa would be more effective if those who designed and implemented them possessed a better understanding of indigenous conceptions of personhood or human agency as well as existing ethno-medical beliefs and cultural practices.

  12. MakerBot

    NASA Video Gallery

    Langley’s new Personal Fabrication Laboratory now has a MakerBot. In this video, the 3D printer is making a space shuttle out of glow-in-the-dark plastic material. In real-time, the process took...

  13. SuccessMaker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of SuccessMaker, a computer-based reading program that uses literature-based activities to focus on comprehension, vocabulary, phonics, and writing. Intended for use with students in prekindergarten through grade 8, the curriculum challenges students to apply knowledge from literature, content-area reading and…

  14. Potential impact of adjustment policies on vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    De Vogli, Roberto; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2005-06-01

    This paper evaluates the potential impact of adjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank on the vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. A conceptual framework, composed of five different pathways of causation, is used for the evaluation. These five pathways connect changes at the macro level (e.g. removal of food subsidies) with effects at the meso (e.g. higher food prices) and micro levels (e.g. exposure of women and children to commercial sex) that influence the vulnerability of women and children to HIV/AIDS. Published literature on adjustment policies and socioeconomic determinants of HIV/AIDS among women and children in sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed to explore the cause-effect relationships included in the theoretical framework. Evidence suggests that adjustment policies may inadvertently produce conditions facilitating the exposure of women and children to HIV/AIDS. Complex research designs are needed to further investigate this relationship. A shift in emphasis from an individual approach to a socioeconomic approach in the study of HIV infection among women and children in the developing world is suggested. Given the potential for adjustment policies to exacerbate the AIDS pandemic among women and children, a careful examination of the effects of these policies on maternal and child welfare is urgently needed.

  15. Lots of Money, Limited Options: College Choice and Student Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    Financial aid and college preparatory programs are designed in part to allow students from low-income families to have the same choices of institutions as those from middle- and upper-income groups. Unfortunately, despite providing more than $100 billion in financial aid and college preparatory assistance, state and federal policy makers have been…

  16. A tool to aid emergency managers and communities in appraising private dam safety and policy.

    PubMed

    Pisaniello, John D; McKay, Jennifer

    2007-06-01

    Issues concerning dam safety and equitable sharing of catchment run-off are receiving more attention throughout the world. This paper assesses these matters in the context of Australia, and the need for policy responses. Landholders often overlook the common law obligation to review/design dams to current standards because of high costs, leaving them vulnerable to litigation if their dam fails. The paper reports on an innovative spillway design/review procedure, applicable to southeast Australia, but transferable to any region worldwide. Dam safety policy models and guidelines derived from international best practice are linked to the procedure and intended to aid government decision-making. The procedure minimises costs to landholders and provides an acceptable level of safety assurance to downstream communities. Also discussed are recent surveys testing community attitudes to the procedure and implemented dam safety and water allocation policies. These further guide any government wanting to implement this'integrated engineering and community partnerships'approach to preventing potential disasters due to private dam failure and achieving sustainable and safe water storage and use.

  17. Monitoring HIV-Related Laws and Policies: Lessons for AIDS and Global Health in Agenda 2030.

    PubMed

    Torres, Mary Ann; Gruskin, Sofia; Buse, Kent; Erkkola, Taavi; Bendaud, Victoria; Alfvén, Tobias

    2017-01-13

    The National Commitments and Policy Instrument (NCPI) has been used to monitor AIDS-related laws and policies for over 10 years. What can be learnt from this process? Analyses draw on NCPI questionnaires, NCPI responses, the UNAIDS Law Database, survey data and responses to a 2014 survey on the NCPI. The NCPI provides the first and only systematic data on country self-reported national HIV laws and policies. High NCPI reporting rates and survey responses suggest the majority of countries consider the process relevant. Combined civil society and government engagement and reporting is integral to the NCPI. NCPI experience demonstrates its importance in describing the political and legal environment for the HIV response, for programmatic reviews and to stimulate dialogue among stakeholders, but there is a need for updating and in some instances to complement results with more objective quantitative data. We identify five areas that need to be updated in the next iteration of the NCPI and argue that the NCPI approach is relevant to participatory monitoring of targets in the health and other goals of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

  18. Why the Critics of Poor Health Service Delivery Are the Causes of Poor Service Delivery: A Need to Train the Policy-makers

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This comment on Professor Fotaki’s Editorial agrees with her arguments that training health professionals in more compassionate, caring and ethically sound care will have little value unless the system in which they work changes. It argues that for system change to occur, senior management, government members and civil servants themselves need training so that they learn to understand the effects that their policies have on health professionals. It argues that these people are complicit in the delivery of unethical care, because they impose requirements that contradict health professionals’ desire to deliver compassionate and ethical forms of care. PMID:26340498

  19. Transcalar networks for policy transfer and implementation: the case of global health policies for malaria and HIV/AIDS in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngoasong, Michael Zisuh

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and type of policy transfer promoted by global health partnerships to facilitate access to medication in Cameroon and the associated implementation challenges. Using concepts from policy transfer, multi-level governance and the politics of scale, the paper conceptualizes the social spaces (global-national-local linkages) through which global health policies are negotiated as transcalar networks. The framework is used to analyse policy documents, technical and media reports and journal articles focusing on two global health partnerships (GHPs)-Roll Back Malaria and the Accelerating Access Initiative-in Cameroon. Both GHPs helped to create the national Malaria and HIV/AIDS programmes in Cameroon, respectively. Global policies are negotiated through dialogue processes involving global, national and local partners who constitute the national HIV/AIDS and malaria committees. Successful policy transfer is evident from the consensual nature of decision-making. Analysis of policy implementation reveals that GHPs offer a 'technical fix' based on specific medical intervention programmes with a relatively limited focus on disease prevention. The GHP approach imposes new governance challenges due to policy resistance strategies (strategic interests of international agencies and country-specific challenges). Evidence of this is seen in the existence of several overlapping programmes and initiatives that distort accountability and governance mechanisms defined by the national committees. Finally, the implications of these challenges for achieving access to medication are discussed.

  20. The National Strategic Plan of South Africa: what are the prospects of success after the repeated failure of previous AIDS policy?

    PubMed

    Wouters, Edwin; van Rensburg, H C J; Meulemans, H

    2010-05-01

    Hitherto, the story of HIV/AIDS in South Africa is, to a large extent, one of lost opportunities. Whereas the country has one of the worst epidemics in the world, consecutive national AIDS strategies have been repeatedly marked by failure over almost three decades. Understandably, South Africa's most recent HIV/AIDS policy, the HIV & AIDS and STI Strategic Plan for South Africa, 2007-2011 (NSP), has been greeted with general acclaim. However, what are its real prospects of success against the backdrop of the repeated failures of the past? The first objective of this review is to systematically identify the core reasons for past policy failures. Using a comprehensive analytical framework, this article presents a systematic review of the literature on postapartheid AIDS policy in South Africa. The analysis demonstrates that a complex interplay among the content, context, actors and process of AIDS policy created a gap between policy making and policy implementation, which rendered near-ideal AIDS policies ineffective. Secondly, we evaluate the chances of success of the current NSP by examining both the policy-making phase and the resulting policy document in light of the reasons for past policy failures. Our analysis shows that the NSP contains dynamic and comprehensive policy content, sensitive to the socio-economic and cultural dimensions of HIV/AIDS. However, many of the political actors that hampered treatment implementation in the past, and who deepened the gap between government and civil society, are still in office. Monetary and human resource shortages also create a policy context that is infertile for the implementation of a comprehensive HIV/AIDS strategy, as envisaged in the NSP. Finally, these health system restrictions have a clear negative impact on the process of policy implementation. Without the mobilization of people living with HIV/AIDS and their communities, the NSP will be ineffective in bridging the gap between policy intentions and policy

  1. Multisectoral Responses to HIV/AIDS: Applying Research to Policy and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Pawinski, Robert A.; Lalloo, Umesh G.

    2006-01-01

    The KwaZulu-Natal Enhancing Care Initiative is a program developed by a consortium of members who represent 4 sectors: academia, government, nongovernmental and community-based organizations, and the business sector. The Initiative was formed to develop a plan for improved care and support for people with HIV/AIDS and who live in resource-constrained settings in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A needs analysis helped to determine the following priorities in prevention, treatment, care, and support: training, grant-seeking, prevention, and care and treatment, including provision of antiretroviral therapy. A partnership approach resulted in better access to a wider community of people, information, and resources, and facilitated rapid program implementation. Creative approaches promptly translated research into policy and practice. PMID:16735624

  2. Stigma, sexual risks, and the war on drugs: Examining drug policy and HIV/AIDS inequities among African Americans using the Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jelani; Jackson, Trinidad

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between drug policy and HIV vulnerability is well documented. However, little research examines the links between racial/ethnic HIV disparities via the Drug War, sexual risk, and stigma. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model has been developed to address this dearth. This model contends that inequitable policing and sentencing promotes sexual risks, resource deprivation, and ultimately greater HIV risk for African-Americans. The Drug War also socially marginalizes African Americans and compounds stigma for incarcerated and formerly incarcerated persons living with HIV/AIDS. This marginalization has implications for sexual risk-taking, access to health-promoting resources, and continuum of care participation. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model may help illuminate mechanisms that promote increased HIV vulnerability as well as inform structural intervention development and targeting to address racial/ethnic disparities.

  3. Genome Annotation and Curation Using MAKER and MAKER-P

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Michael S.; Holt, Carson; Moore, Barry; Yandell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This unit describes how to use the genome annotation and curation tools MAKER and MAKER-P to annotate protein coding and non-coding RNA genes in newly assembled genomes, update/combine legacy annotations in light of new evidence, add quality metrics to annotations from other pipelines, and map existing annotations to a new assembly. MAKER and MAKER-P can rapidly annotate genomes of any size, and scale to match available computational resources. PMID:25501943

  4. A tale of two (low prevalence) cities: social movement organisations and the local policy response to HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Petchey, R; Williams, J; Farnsworth, B; Starkey, K

    1998-11-01

    In the field of HIV/AIDS, social movement organisations (SMOs) have been identified as powerful potential catalysts for change through their impact on formal organisational structures and the policy process. In addition, they have the capacity to be important providers of services in their own right, through the community resources they are capable of mobilising. In the United Kingdom, however, their role in policy formation is disputed. Previous studies have concluded that they have been most influential at national policy and ward level. At the level of local policy making, their influence has been found to be patchy and confined largely to securing recognition of HIV as an issue. Most previous research has, however, been conducted in high prevalence, metropolitan settings with functional SMOs. This paper presents the results of a comparative case study of two neighbouring provincial low prevalence district health authorities (HAs) in England. We describe the changing national policy context from 1986 to 1995 and use a strategic change model to analyse the local development of care and treatment services for people with HIV/AIDS, in particular the relationship between SMOs and HAs. Despite being demographically, socioeconomically and epidemiologically similar, and sharing an identical national policy framework, the two districts demonstrate completely divergent organisational responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. We conclude that the level of prior social movement mobilisation and the degree of receptivity for change within the HA are the key variables for explaining variations in the scale of strategic change observed in the two districts.

  5. Moving Towards Inclusive Education Policies and Practices? Basic Education for AIDS Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue; Kanyanta, Sylvester Bonaventure

    2007-01-01

    The global spread of HIV and AIDS has presented a major threat to development, affecting the health of the poor and many aspects of social and economic development. The greatest impact of the epidemic has been felt in sub-Saharan Africa, and Zambia ranks among the worst hit countries. The Free Basic Education Policy in Zambia upholds the right of…

  6. An Assessment of the Policies and Programmes of Zimbabwe in Addressing the HIV/Aids Epidemic in the Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rembe, Symphorosa

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the policies, strategic plans and structures that have been put in place in Zimbabwe to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the education sector. It also examined the comprehensiveness of projects and programmes currently being implemented by the government in collaboration with partner organisations and NGOs. The findings show…

  7. A Broken Promise: Examining the Merit-Aid Policy and Implementation Gap in the Michigan Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun-Barnet, Nathan; Hermsen, Albert; Vedder, Lori; Mabry, Beth

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Michigan changed their traditional merit award to a credit contingent program based upon successful completion of 60 college credits. The Michigan Promise Scholarship was crafted by state policymakers without input from the financial aid community. This case study suggests that the change in policy resulted in two unintended consequences:…

  8. Early Childhood Care and Education as a Structural Approach to Integrating Children and Families at Risk: A Challenge for Policy Makers. Report of the European Policy Conference on Early Childhood Education (Amsterdam, Netherlands, April 23-24, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John, Ed.

    Initiated by the government of the Netherlands and UNESCO, the European Policy Conference on Early Childhood Education focused on early childhood policy issues with special reference to the social integration of children and families at risk. The conference was organized around three themes including quality, accessibility and going-to-scale. This…

  9. Budget-makers and health care systems.

    PubMed

    White, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Health programs are shaped by the decisions made in budget processes, so how budget-makers view health programs is an important part of making health policy. Budgeting in any country involves its own policy community, with key players including budgeting professionals and political authorities. This article reviews the typical pressures on and attitudes of these actors when they address health policy choices. The worldview of budget professionals includes attitudes that are congenial to particular policy perspectives, such as the desire to select packages of programs that maximize population health. The pressures on political authorities, however, are very different: most importantly, public demand for health care services is stronger than for virtually any other government activity. The norms and procedures of budgeting also tend to discourage adoption of some of the more enthusiastically promoted health policy reforms. Therefore talk about rationalizing systems is not matched by action; and action is better explained by the need to minimize blame. The budget-maker's perspective provides insight about key controversies in healthcare policy such as decentralization, competition, health service systems as opposed to health insurance systems, and dedicated vs. general revenue finance. It also explains the frequency of various "gaming" behaviors.

  10. Congress approves 13 percent increase in AIDS spending.

    PubMed

    1996-10-18

    A Republican Congress voted for a significant increase in AIDS-related spending for the fiscal year 1996. Increases were granted in every major program, including the Ryan White CARE Act and the once-doomed Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS (HOPWA) program. Overall, discretionary spending for Federal AIDS programs rose by 13 percent. This increase includes an additional $94 million for AIDS-related research at the National Institute's of Health (NIH). Advocates call on policy-makers to develop a long-term strategy for providing drugs to those who lack private insurance and are not qualified for Medicaid.

  11. Bridging the gap between evidence and policy for infectious diseases: How models can aid public health decision-making.

    PubMed

    Knight, Gwenan M; Dharan, Nila J; Fox, Gregory J; Stennis, Natalie; Zwerling, Alice; Khurana, Renuka; Dowdy, David W

    2016-01-01

    The dominant approach to decision-making in public health policy for infectious diseases relies heavily on expert opinion, which often applies empirical evidence to policy questions in a manner that is neither systematic nor transparent. Although systematic reviews are frequently commissioned to inform specific components of policy (such as efficacy), the same process is rarely applied to the full decision-making process. Mathematical models provide a mechanism through which empirical evidence can be methodically and transparently integrated to address such questions. However, such models are often considered difficult to interpret. In addition, models provide estimates that need to be iteratively re-evaluated as new data or considerations arise. Using the case study of a novel diagnostic for tuberculosis, a framework for improved collaboration between public health decision-makers and mathematical modellers that could lead to more transparent and evidence-driven policy decisions for infectious diseases in the future is proposed. The framework proposes that policymakers should establish long-term collaborations with modellers to address key questions, and that modellers should strive to provide clear explanations of the uncertainty of model structure and outputs. Doing so will improve the applicability of models and clarify their limitations when used to inform real-world public health policy decisions.

  12. Alternatives to current HIV/AIDS policies and practices in South African prisons.

    PubMed

    Goyer, K C; Gow, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Prisoners in South Africa face problems of overcrowding, violence and poor nutrition. Added to this burden in recent times is the increased threat from HIV. The HIV epidemic has been relatively late in coming to South Africa but infection rates are now 20% in the adult population. However, there is no data available on the level of HIV infection in the prison population. Overseas studies suggest that the characteristics of prisoners place them at much greater risk of HIV infection. Factors which contribute to increased levels of HIV infection include poor health care facilities, lack of condoms and lack of disinfectants. Current policies and practices on HIV in prison attempt to balance the constraints of limited resources with the need to preserve prisoner human rights. The outcomes include: mass testing not freely available, HIV education is limited, and early release of prisoners with advanced AIDS is not allowed. Constraints on the implementation of effective HIV prevention strategies include: bureaucratic inefficiency, lack of resources, and a reluctance by prison authorities to address the issue of HIV in prison. These problems can possibly be overcome by addressing the issue from both management and prisoner perspectives. On the management side, increased resources, increased training of prison officials, and increased political commitment to address the issue are required. Outside partnerships are probably required for an effective response. Prisoners require better nutrition, better living conditions, better health care, freely available condoms and disinfectants.

  13. The Diamond Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, Robert M.

    1999-08-01

    Since time immemorial, we have treasured diamonds for their exquisite beauty and unrivaled hardness. Yet, most of the earth's diamonds lie deep underground and totally unaccessible to us--if only we knew how to fabricate them! In The Diamond Makers Robert Hazen vividly recounts the very human desire to exceed nature and create a synthetic diamond. Spanning centuries of ground-breaking science, instances of bitter rivalry, cases of outright fraud and self-delusion, Hazen blends drama and science to reveal the extraordinary technological advances and devastating failures of the diamond industry. Along the way, readers will be introduced to the brilliant, often eccentric and controversial, pioneers of high-pressure research who have harnessed crushing pressures and scorching temperatures to transform almost any carbon-rich material, from road tar to peanut butter, into the most prized of all gems. Robert M. Hazen is the author of fifteen books, including the bestseller, Science Matters: Achieving Scientific Literacy, which he wrote with James Trefil. Dr. Hazen has won numerous awards for his research and scientific writing.

  14. Understanding Mali: Lessons for Policy Makers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    The Cia, a Secret Army, and a War At the Ends of the Earth , 0 ed., (Penguin Press HC, The, 2013), 85. 58 Kalyvas, The Logic of Violence in Civil War...the imperial period in detail, we get the opportunity to understand how the ancient rulers of Mali preserved the peace and stability of their empire...may be quite confusing because the contemporary geographical limits do not correspond to the ancient limits of the empire of Mali.3 Mali started as

  15. The Courts as Educational Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maready, William F.

    This report discusses the expanding role of Federal judges as educational policymakers. The report discusses court decisions related to interpretations by the Federal Courts of the U.S. Constitution. The report notes that court decisions have covered the following topics: dress codes, flying of the flag, freedom of speech, unwed mothers,…

  16. Financial Aid Policy: Lessons from Research. NBER Working Paper No. 18710

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. The increasing size and complexity of the nation's student aid system has generated questions about…

  17. Keeping up with the Joneses: Institutional Changes Following the Adoption of a Merit Aid Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Amanda L.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use by private colleges and universities of financial aid based on "merit", as opposed to based solely on financial need has caused many to raise concerns that this type of aid will go mainly to higher income students crowding out aid to lower income students. However, some analysts suggest that by attracting more "almost…

  18. Keeping up with the Joneses: Institutional Changes Following the Adoption of a Merit Aid Policy. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing use by private colleges and universities of financial aid based on "merit", as opposed to based solely on financial need has caused many to raise concerns that this type of aid will go mainly to higher income students crowding out aid to lower income students. However, some analysts suggest that by attracting more "almost…

  19. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  20. Kenya AIDS Indicator Surveys 2007 and 2012: implications for public health policies for HIV prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Maina, William K; Kim, Andrea A; Rutherford, George W; Harper, Malayah; K'Oyugi, Boniface O; Sharif, Shahnaaz; Kichamu, George; Muraguri, Nicholas M; Akhwale, Willis; De Cock, Kevin M

    2014-05-01

    AIDS Indicator Surveys are standardized surveillance tools used by countries with generalized HIV epidemics to provide, in a timely fashion, indicators for effective monitoring of HIV. Such data should guide responses to the HIV epidemic, meet program reporting requirements, and ensure comparability of findings across countries and over time. Kenya has conducted 2 AIDS Indicator Surveys, in 2007 (KAIS 2007) and 2012-2013 (KAIS 2012). These nationally representative surveys have provided essential epidemiologic, sociodemographic, behavioral, and biologic data on HIV and related indicators to evaluate the national HIV response and inform policies for prevention and treatment of the disease. We present a summary of findings from KAIS 2007 and KAIS 2012 and the impact that these data have had on changing HIV policies and practice.

  1. Examining the Impact of a Highly Targeted State Administered Merit Aid Program on Brain Drain: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis of Missouri's Bright Flight Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, James R.; Muñoz, José; Curs, Bradley R.; Ehlert, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of state-funded merit-based aid programs has become increasingly popular among policy-makers, particularly in the southeastern part of the United States. One of the primary rationales of state-funded merit-based aid is to provide scholarships to the best and brightest students as a means to retain high quality human capital in the…

  2. HIV/AIDS and Education: A Study on How a Selection of School Governing Bodies in Mpumalanga Understand, Respond to and Implement Legislation and Policies on HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartell, C. G.; Maile, S.

    2004-01-01

    Very little research has been done in South Africa on HIV/AIDS and education. This article is a small attempt to plug the gap. The purpose of the research is to investigate the legal and policy provisions and implications regarding HIV/AIDS for rural and township schools in the Mpumalanga district of South Africa. It seeks to answer three…

  3. Black-White Disparities in HIV/AIDS:The Role of Drug Policy and the Corrections System

    PubMed Central

    Blankenship, Kim M.; Smoyer, Amy B.; Bray, Sarah J.; Mattocks, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    African Americans in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. We focus in this paper on the structural and contextual sources of HIV/AIDS risk, and suggest that among the most important of these sources are drug policy and the corrections system. In particular, high rates of exposure to the corrections system (including incarceration, probation, and parole) spurred in large part by federal and state governments’ self-styled war on drugs in the United States, have disproportionately affected African Americans. We review a wide range of research literature to suggest how exposure to the corrections system may affect the HIV/AIDS related risks of drug users in general, and the disproportionate HIV risk faced by African Americans in particular. We then discuss the implications of the information reviewed for structural interventions to address African American HIV-related risk. Future research must further our understanding of the relations among drug policy, corrections, and race-based disparities in HIV/AIDS. PMID:16327113

  4. Lifting the Fog on Inequitable Financial Aid Policies: A Companion Brief to "Priced out: How the Wrong Financial Aid Policies Hurt Low-Income Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mamie; Engle, Jennifer; Cruz, Jose L.

    2011-01-01

    A lack of situational awareness has been blamed for many of the most counterproductive decisions American policymakers have made on the battlefield, in response to natural and man-made disasters, and in the design and implementation of domestic policies. There are two key elements such disparate events as the escalation of the Vietnam war, the…

  5. Connecting Geoscience and Decision Makers Through a Common Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Wood, C.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists and decision makers often use different words to describe the same thing. The American Geosciences Institute has developed a consistent definition for the geosciences (Wilson, 2014); however this definition often varies from how decision maker groups at the national, state, local, and regional levels often categorize geoscience topics. Where geoscientists may to refer to "geoscience," decision makers may use terms like "energy," "environment," and "natural resources." How may the geoscience community provide geoscience information to decision makers in a context they understand while at the same time providing a simple, yet consistent representation of all that the geosciences include? The American Geoscience Institute's (AGI's) Critical Issues program's main goal is to connect decision makers at all levels with decision-relevant, impartial, expert information from across the geosciences. The program uses a multi-faceted approach to reach different decision maker groups, including policy makers and government employees at the federal, state and local level. We discuss the challenges the Critical Issues program has overcome in representing the geosciences to decision makers in a cohesive fashion such that decision makers can access the information they need, while at the same time becoming aware of the breadth of information the geosciences has to offer, and the value of including geoscience in the decision-making process. References: Wilson, C.E. (2014) Status of the Geoscience Workforce 2014. American Geological Institute. Alexandria, VA.

  6. Educational Goods and Values: A Framework for Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry; Ladd, Helen F.; Loeb, Susanna; Swift, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This article articulates a framework suitable for use when making decisions about education policy. Decision makers should establish what the feasible options are and evaluate them in terms of their contribution to the development, and distribution, of educational goods in children, balanced against the negative effect of policies on important…

  7. Access to College: The Impact of Federal Financial Aid Policies at Private Historically Black Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Alan H.; Thrift, Julianne Still

    Ways that private black college undergraduates and other private college students finance their education are compared, based on data for 2,380 student aid recipients at 38 colleges. Historically black college (HBC) students who received aid, compared with non-HBC students: (1) had fewer family resources to assist them; (2) earned less during the…

  8. Enrollment Management and Financial Aid Part Two: A Public Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kalsbeek, David

    2008-01-01

    In our previous essay, we considered the role of institutional financial aid and the practice of enrollment management. In that essay we explored the use of financial aid as a tool to enhance equity increase prestige, as a revenue enhancement tool and as a means to shape institutional image in the various markets that comprise our diverse system…

  9. A Triumph of Hope over Reason? Aid Accords and Education Policy in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher; Webb, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Despite a long history of post-independence aid to education, Kenya's relationships with overseas donors have, until recently, been markedly fractious. Donors' concerns about transparency and corruption, in the context of a political regime which became increasingly authoritarian, led to sharp reductions in aid to Kenyan education during the…

  10. [The Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria 5-y: evaluation policy issues].

    PubMed

    Kerouedan, D

    2010-05-01

    The Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) was founded in 2002 in the context of increased political and financial commitments towards health and development, in the aftermath of the Millennium Declaration, and on track to implement the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As of today, the institution has mobilized over 16 billion US dollars through its partnership, and spent over 8 billion dollars through 620 contracts in 140 countries for these three diseases. Principles at inception were to accelerate and expand HIV, TB, and Malaria prevention and awareness, care, and treatment related activities, in the poorest and the most affected countries worldwide, with a special emphasis on Africa, being the continent with the highest disease burden, especially with respect to HIV/AIDS and its dreadful social and economic consequences. In 2006, a Technical and Evaluation Reference Group was set up. This group responding to the GFATM Board in relation to the 5-year evaluation, defined the Terms of reference for the 5-year evaluation. Macro International, a firm based in Washington DC, was given the contract to conduct three studies over the period 2006-2009, looking at: (i) GFATM organizational effectiveness, (ii) partnerships at international and global levels, as well as systems effects, (iii) collective impact of the GFATM, the World Bank and (PEPFAR) funds on HIV, TB, and Malaria control. Twenty-five countries participated all together in the evaluation, out of which 18 in study area 3. Total budget for the evaluation amounted almost 17 million US dollars. This paper outlines: (i) the results of study areas 2 and 3 as well as the 5-year Evaluation Synthesis report, contents, and (ii) comments on the results and potential policy implications of the GFATM 5-year evaluation findings, as well as first responses prepared by the GF Secretariat shared at the GFATM Board meeting held in Ethiopia in November 2009. The evaluators raised the weaknesses of

  11. Appropriateness for Total Joint Replacement: Perspectives of Decision-Makers

    PubMed Central

    Clavel, Nathalie; De coster, Carolyn; Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Sanmartin, Claudia; Bohm, Éric; Dunbar, Michael J.; Frank, CY; Hawker, Gillian; Noseworthy, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background: Improving access to total joint replacement (TJR) has been a priority. Without robust mechanisms to ensure appropriateness, these procedures may be overused, incurring substantial costs. In that context, decision-makers are particularly concerned with the appropriateness of TJR. Objective: While our previous research focused on the appropriateness of TJR from clinical and patient perspectives, this study is aimed at understanding decision-makers' perspectives. Methods: Using a semi-structured guide, we interviewed a convenience sample of decision-makers in four Canadian provinces (Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia and Quebec) between February and March 2013. For the purposes of this study, a decision-maker was defined as a manager, institutional leader or policy maker. Results: Fifteen interviews were conducted with decision-makers at ministry (n = 3), regional (n = 6) and institutional levels (n = 8). Decision-makers see themselves as having a key role in the appropriateness discourse, that of optimizing resource allocation and efficient delivery of services for TJR, to improve population outcomes. Conclusion: The decision-makers' view of appropriateness recognizes the importance of the clinical view, but it offers a very different input into the appropriateness discourse, more closely aligned with appropriateness of setting, which refers to cost-effectiveness considerations. PMID:27027795

  12. Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-10

    Health programs also include funds for combating avian influenza, tuberculosis , and malaria. A significant portion of health funds are provided for...FY2009 through FY2013 to support prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis . Spending on non-AIDS infectious diseases has increased... malnutrition , improve the quality of child delivery facilities, and raise nutritional levels of mothers. Funding for these activities has grown by 45

  13. A Model for a Policy on HIV/AIDS and Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitting, Laurie A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a policy regarding HIV-infected athletes that was developed by Ithaca College (New York). The policy emphasizes that HIV-positive athletes should not be restricted from athletic participation for the reason of infection alone, that strict confidentiality should be followed, and that mandatory testing of athletes for HIV is not justified.…

  14. Making College More Expensive: The Unintended Consequences of Federal Tuition Aid. Policy Analysis. No. 531

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Gary

    2005-01-01

    As Congress debates the reauthorization of the Higher Education Act (HEA), it should heed Friedrich Hayek's warning that democracy is "peculiarly liable, if not guided by accepted common principles, to produce over-all results that nobody wanted." One result of the federal government's student financial aid programs is higher tuition…

  15. Money Changes Everything: Funding Shocks and Optimal Admissions and Financial Aid Policies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagler, Matthew G.

    2006-01-01

    The paper examines the effect of a shock to university funding on tuition net of financial aid, admissions selectivity, and enrollment levels chosen by an optimizing university. Whereas a positive shock, such as a major donation, results in lower net tuition and greater selectivity with respect to all students, its effect on enrollment may not be…

  16. United States aid policy and induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Patrick; Miller, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether the Mexico City Policy, a United States government policy that prohibits funding to nongovernmental organizations performing or promoting abortion, was associated with the induced abortion rate in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Women in 20 African countries who had induced abortions between 1994 and 2008 were identified in Demographic and Health Surveys. A country’s exposure to the Mexico City Policy was considered high (or low) if its per capita assistance from the United States for family planning and reproductive health was above (or below) the median among study countries before the policy’s reinstatement in 2001. Using logistic regression and a difference-in-difference design, the authors estimated the differential change in the odds of having an induced abortion among women in high exposure countries relative to low exposure countries when the policy was reinstated. Findings The study included 261 116 women aged 15 to 44 years. A comparison of 1994–2000 with 2001–2008 revealed an adjusted odds ratio for induced abortion of 2.55 for high-exposure countries versus low-exposure countries under the policy (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.76–3.71). There was a relative decline in the use of modern contraceptives in the high-exposure countries over the same time period. Conclusion The induced abortion rate in sub-Saharan Africa rose in high-exposure countries relative to low-exposure countries when the Mexico City Policy was reintroduced. Reduced financial support for family planning may have led women to substitute abortion for contraception. Regardless of one’s views about abortion, the findings may have important implications for public policies governing abortion. PMID:22271944

  17. Film Makers On Film Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

    This collection includes essays by and interviews with more than 30 film-makers, both classic and contemporary, on the subjects of their major interests and procedures in making films. The directors are: Louis Lumiere, Cecil Hepworth, Edwin S. Porter, Mack Sennett, David W. Griffith, Robert Flaherty, Charles Chaplin, Eric von Stroheim, Dziga…

  18. Getting ocean acidification on decision makers' to-do lists: dissecting the process through case studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Sarah R.; Jewett, Elizabeth B.; Reichert, Julie; Robbins, Lisa L.; Shrestha, Gyami; Wieczorek, Dan; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the detailed, incremental knowledge being generated by current scientific research on ocean acidification (OA) does not directly address the needs of decision makers, who are asking broad questions such as: Where will OA harm marine resources next? When will this happen? Who will be affected? And how much will it cost? In this review, we use a series of mainly US-based case studies to explore the needs of local to international-scale groups that are making decisions to address OA concerns. Decisions concerning OA have been made most naturally and easily when information needs were clearly defined and closely aligned with science outputs and initiatives. For decisions requiring more complex information, the process slows dramatically. Decision making about OA is greatly aided (1) when a mixture of specialists participates, including scientists, resource users and managers, and policy and law makers; (2) when goals can be clearly agreed upon at the beginning of the process; (3) when mixed groups of specialists plan and create translational documents explaining the likely outcomes of policy decisions on ecosystems and natural resources; (4) when regional work on OA fits into an existing set of priorities concerning climate or water quality; and (5) when decision making can be reviewed and enhanced.

  19. Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-09

    role of Congress, and how it compares to those of other aid donors. In particular, the discussion attempts not only to present a current snap - shot of...terrorism war, including the substantial reconstruction programs in Afghanistan and Iraq. As noted, global development is now accepted , along with...reduce poverty and hunger, trade-promotion opportunities for farmers , and sound environmental management practices for sustainable agriculture

  20. Priced out: How the Wrong Financial-Aid Policies Hurt Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mamie; Engle, Jennifer; Cruz, Jose L.

    2011-01-01

    This report demonstrates how much low-income students must stretch to pay for college, even after grant aid is taken into account. This report finds that just five of the nation's nearly 1,200 four-year colleges and universities have student bodies that are at least 30 percent low-income and offer low-income students a reasonable chance at a…

  1. HIV and AIDS in Suburban Asian and Pacific Islander Communities: Factors Influencing Self-Efficacy in HIV Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Lois M.; Magalong, Michelle G.; DeBell, Paula; Fasudhani, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Though AIDS case rates among Asian Pacific Islander Americans (APIs) in the United States remain relatively low, the number has been steadily increasing. Scholars, policy makers, and service providers still know little about how confident APIs are in carrying out different HIV risk reduction strategies. This article addresses this gap by…

  2. [1986-2006: 20 years of failed international policy to control AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Kerouedan, D

    2007-10-01

    Agencies of the United Nations and other international organizations involved in fighting AIDS in Africa have been wrong for 20 years. Despite this failure that was publicly avowed for the first time by a high UNAIDS official in Brazzaville in March 2006, the international community continues to propose a strategy based exclusively on organizational and financial solutions for a highly complex human tragedy that requires a much more comprehensive, coordinated public health approach. Organization of the fight against AIDS has taken many forms over the period between 1986 and 2006. The WHO Global Programme against AIDS program initiated only five years after the beginning of the epidemic in the United States was followed ten years later by the joint United Nations program named UNAIDS. The period between 2000 and 2006 saw a growing number of worldwide initiatives outside the framework of the United Nations. With programs based on cooperation of bilateral agencies, the European Commission, and the World Bank with expert technical agencies and civilian representatives, the whole international community felt that they were "in the driver's seat ". However analysis of the strategy deployed against AIDS during this period shows a shift from "total emphasis on prevention" (1986-1996) to "total emphasis on ARV treatment" (1996-2006). This shift occurred with no assessment of the benefits of the previous strategy for the main users, i.e., the populations of Africa and health care officials. Financial pledges have considerably increased in the context of global public partnerships such as the Global Fund against HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria, with no change in the overall strategic vision to control the pandemic. There has been a total lack of planning and leadership in controlling the pandemic. Even though we failed to treat 3 million people before the end of 2005 within the framework of the "3x5" initiative despite the availability of ARV in Africa since 1998, WHO called for

  3. [Aids in Madagascar. II. Intervention policy for maintaining low HIV infection prevalence].

    PubMed

    Ravaoarimalala, C; Andriamahenina, R; Ravelojaona, B; Rabeson, D; Andriamiadana, J; May, J F; Behets, F; Rasamindrakotroka, A

    1998-01-01

    The HIV seroprevalence per 100,000 adults Malagasy rose from 20 in 1989, to 30 in 1992, and to 70 in 1995. In that year, the total number of HIV infected people in the Big Island was estimated at 5,000, the number of people sick with AIDS at 130, and the people at risk at more than 1,000,000. The latter are the persons infected with other STDs and individuals (or their partners) with risky sexual behaviour (e.g. numerous sexual partners, occasional sexual partners, and/or sexual contacts with commercial sex workers). The HIV prevalence rate is low as compared with those of other countries. Nevertheless, the spread of the HIV infection is alarming in some parts of the country and the risk factors are also present, namely: the high prevalence of STDs, numerous sexual partners, the low use of condoms in all groups, the development of tourism, the development of prostitution associated with social and economical problems, and internal and international migrations (with risky sexual contacts). Therefore, the still low but rising HIV prevalence in 1995 does not warrant complacency. To estimate the trend of HIV prevalence within the population, it is useful to know two different assumptions, as follows: firstly, a controlled evolution of the epidemic (low epidemic) and secondly, a very fast spread of the epidemic (high epidemic). If we consider the 5,000 individuals seropositive in July 1995, the Aids Impact Model (AIM) projection model shows that HIV seroprevalence rates among adults in 2015 might be between 3% (when the progression course of HIV epidemic is low) and 15% (when the progression course of HIV epidemic is high). By 2015 AIDS could have severe demographic, social, and economic impacts. Then, it is necessary to take measures to prevent contamination. Five major interventions are required: public information about AIDS, HIV transmission mechanism, and its prevention, communities education via the respected people and the notabilities to promote moral values

  4. Studying the Impact of Federal and State Changes in Student Aid Policy at the Campus Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Robert H.; Dillon, Kathryn A.; Porter, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that shifts in government policies can produce unintended consequences for needy students and the institutions they attend, and illustrates how campus units can cooperate to examine the impact of these changes through creation of longitudinal databases and data warehousing techniques. Describes the approach used and results of a study at…

  5. Report and policy brief from the 4th Africa Conference on Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research: innovations in access to prevention, treatment and care in HIV/AIDS, Kisumu, Kenya, 29 April - 3 May 2007.

    PubMed

    Setswe, G; Peltzer, K; Banyini, M; Skinner, D; Seager, J; Maile, S; Sedumedi, S; Gomis, D; van der Linde, I

    2007-08-01

    About 520 delegates from all over Africa and 21 countries attended the conference. This report and policy brief summarises the key findings and suggested policy options that emerged from rapporteur reports of conference proceedings including the following themes: (1) Orphans and vulnerable children, (2) Treatment, (3) Prevention, (4) Gender and male involvement, (5) Male circumcision, (6) People living with HIV/AIDS, (7) Food and nutrition, (8) Socioeconomics, and (9) Politics/policy. Two (11.8%) of the 17 OVC projects from the three countries were classified as best practice interventions. Of the 83 abstracts that were accepted at the conference, only 7 (8.4%) were dealing with antiretroviral therapy (ART). There has been tremendous effort by various organisations to provide information about prevention of HIV/AIDS. Information received by adolescents has been effective in increasing their knowledge, but without positive sexual behaviour change. The conference noted the contribution of gender discrimination and violence to the HIV epidemic and the different risks that men and women face in relation to the epidemic. Social scientists need to study the deep cultural meanings attached to male circumcision among different ethnic groups to be able to guide the debate on the latest biomedical findings on the protective effect of circumcision against HIV. Palliative care and support is crucial for coping among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in order to deal with medical and psychological issues. Results from several countries have helped researchers to explore alternative ways of examining poverty in the context of HIV and AIDS. Policy frameworks which are likely to succeed in combating HIV/AIDS need to be updated to cover issues of access, testing, disclosure and stigma. In general, the conference was successful in identifying innovations in access to prevention, treatment and care in HIV/AIDS.

  6. Negotiating exclusion: MSM, identity, and blood policy in the age of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Martucci, Jessica

    2010-04-01

    In the US, blood donors face a variety of restrictions that leave many people excluded entirely from the donor pool. This paper explores the specific circumstances and meanings surrounding the donor ban on Men-who-have-Sex-with-Men (MSM). The ban on MSM is one of the few existing donor guidelines to receive considerable criticism on grounds that it effectively prohibits any sexually active gay man from donating blood and thus discriminates against gays. Due in part to these questions of fairness, the Blood Products Advisory Committee (BPAC) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) met to reconsider the decades-old policy, first in 1997 and again in 2000. The FDA asked its advisory committee to address the efficacy and utility of the MSM ban in light of technological developments in blood-banking, epidemiological data on the spread of HIV, and mounting pressures from gay rights and blood-banking organizations to update the policy. Through a detailed reading of meeting and conference transcripts that took place between 1997 and 2000, I argue that 'MSM' became a contested definitional category during the FDA's reappraisal of the policy. During and between the Committee's discussions, presenters and experts debated the differences between sexual behavior and sexual identity in relation to HIV and, eventually, HHV-8, a virus known to cause Kaposi's sarcoma in immunosuppressed individuals. I argue that the underlying flexibility in the meanings behind the term 'MSM' allowed Committee members, in the end, to retract their more nuanced discussions of human behavior and HIV and to uphold the contested policy. Finally, I suggest how the debates surrounding the MSM donor ban can help us to better understand the place of sexuality in discussions and claims of biopolitical citizenship in early 21st-century America.

  7. Mandela calls for greater commitment and leadership in fighting AIDS. The World Economic Forum -- Policy and business in a world of HIV / AIDS.

    PubMed

    Macinnis R

    1997-01-01

    The 27th annual meeting of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, on February 3, 1997, was attended by 2000 political and financial leaders of countries and businesses around the world. The forum is the world's largest annual gathering of economic and political dignitaries. In his address to the forum, Nelson Mandela, president of South Africa, called for a global effort against AIDS and a strengthening of the world's political and business leaders' commitment against HIV/AIDS. The disease is creating global economic problems by affecting people in their prime productive and reproductive years. Mandela criticized political leaders for their limited actions in addressing the AIDS pandemic and called upon the world's business community to support government AIDS programs and help people affected by AIDS. All sectors and all spheres of society must be involved as equal partners in the war against HIV/AIDS, for neither the health sector nor government can meet the challenge on its own. If current HIV/AIDS trends continue in South Africa, AIDS will cost the country 1% of its domestic gross product by the year 2005, and up to 75% of the country's budget will be consumed by direct health costs related to HIV/AIDS. At a panel discussion preceding President Mandela's address, Dr. Peter Piot, executive director of UNAIDS, argued that the AIDS pandemic could have a devastating effect upon the global economy and urged business leaders to take strong action against the disease.

  8. Funding and Distribution of Institutional Grants in 1999-2000: Results from the 2001 Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined data from the 2001 Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures. Findings included that all institutional types, even low-cost community colleges, have awarded a large share of their institutional grants based on students' academic merit or other criteria besides their demonstrated financial need, but that…

  9. Low-Income, Urban Latinas' Student Aid Decisions: The Effect of Family Ties. Policy Brief. ASHE/Lumina Fellows Series. Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venegas, Kristan

    2007-01-01

    This policy brief is based on a qualitative study of eight, low-income, urban, pre-college Latinas in California. Data for this study were collected using a narrative approach, guided by two questions: (1) What are the experiences of low-income, urban Latina students seeking financial aid to attend college?; and (2) Based on their efforts,…

  10. An Analysis of the Effects of State Financial Aid Policy on the Timing of Postsecondary Enrollment: A Focus on Income and Race Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji Yun

    2011-01-01

    The driving force behind the recent increase in financial aid for college education is the rapid growth of state merit-based grant programs that provide scholarships to students who meet predefined standards of academic preparation at the state level, and this trend represents one of the most pronounced policy shifts away from a long tradition of…

  11. Post-Secondary Attendance by Parental Income in the U.S. and Canada: What Role for Financial Aid Policy? NBER Working Paper No. 17218

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belley, Philippe; Frenette, Marc; Lochner, Lance

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of tuition and need-based financial aid policies for family income--post-secondary (PS) attendance relationships. We first conduct a parallel empirical analysis of the effects of parental income on PS attendance for recent high school cohorts in both the U.S. and Canada using data from the 1997 Cohort of the…

  12. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-05-21

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate. 4 figures.

  13. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate.

  14. Challenges to successful implementation of HIV and AIDS-related health policies in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Djellouli, Nehla; Quevedo-Gómez, María Cristina

    2015-05-01

    The Caribbean region presents the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS worldwide after sub-Saharan Africa; leading to serious social, economic and health consequences at the local scale but also at the regional and global levels. In Colombia, a national plan to tackle the epidemic was formulated with little evidence that its implementation in the local context is effective. This study focused on Cartagena - one of Colombia's largest cities and an international touristic hub - that presents one of the highest HIV prevalences in the country, to investigate whether the national plan accounts for local specificities and what are the barriers to local implementation. Based on the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT), this qualitative research relied upon 27 interviews and 13 life stories of local inhabitants and stakeholders, collected in a first fieldwork in 2006-2007. A follow-up data collection took place in 2013 with 10 participants: key policymakers and implementers, NGO representatives and local inhabitants. Barriers identified by the participants included: local population's understandings and beliefs on condom use; stigma and discrimination; lack of collaboration from the Church, the education sector and local politicians; corruption; high staff turnover; frequent changes in leadership; lack of economic and human resources; and barriers to health care access. The findings suggest that global influences also have an impact on the CIT framework (e.g. international organisations as a major financier in HIV prevention). The participants put forward several feasible solutions to implementation barriers. We discuss how several of the proposed solutions have been applied in other Latin American and Caribbean countries and yielded positive results. However, further research is needed to find possible ways of overcoming certain barriers identified by this study such as corruption, the lack of collaboration of the Church and barriers to health care access.

  15. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  16. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection. Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement. Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure. PMID:19811671

  17. What's Next for Early Childhood Education in New York City? State, City Policy Makers Consider Agenda to Move toward More Integrated System of Early Care and Education. Forum Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care, Inc., 2007

    2007-01-01

    With a new governor in Albany and a brand-new interagency group working on early childhood policy in the Mayor's office, early childhood advocates across the city were already pondering what changes might be afoot--and whether the time had come for the city to move toward a more integrated, high-quality system of early care and education. Given…

  18. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  19. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  20. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  1. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  2. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.325 Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data... procedure to be used by all Corps of Engineers installations and activities in connection with aids...

  3. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To effectively resolve many current ecological policy issues, decision-makers require an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists to decision-maker...

  4. SuccessMaker[R]. WWC Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The SuccessMaker[R] program is a set of computer-based courses used to supplement regular classroom reading instruction in grades K-8. Using adaptive lessons tailored to a student's reading level, SuccessMaker[R] aims to improve understanding in areas such as phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and concepts of…

  5. Aid Agency Influence in National Education Policy-Making: A Case from Nepal's "Education for All" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatta, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the nexus between foreign aid and Nepal's primary education in order to understand how aid agencies affect national educational development. It argues that after 1990, when global education targets provided the basic framework for all donor agency funding to primary education and the subsequent use of a sector-wide approach…

  6. Education: the key to curb HIV and AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, D N; Aryal, U R; Khanal, K

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelming impact has been established among different aspects and burden of incurable HIV and AIDS is increasing day-by-day globally. The aim of this article is to discuss the potential benefits and strengths of an education system in the absence of remedy and help to develop future strategies. Education has great impact on HIV and AIDS and vice-versa. An education plays a vital role to curb the transmission of HIV and AIDS thorough capacity building, provides information, reduces vulnerability, empowerment, improve life skill, maintain equity, reduce dependence, stigma, and discrimination, where are abundance foundations for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS has role for devastation of education system and level which has great impact on productivity, economic growth, demand, supply and daily life of human being. Low and middle income countries needs to be improve recording and reporting systems related to impact of HIV and AIDS on education. By analyzing preceding evidences, policy makers or governance feels to reformulate policies relating to education and health. Evidence based policy and program will be more useful to address distressing squall of epidemic.

  7. Pilot decision making in a computer-aided flight management situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Y. Y.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental representation of a computer-aided multi-task flight management situation has been developed. A computer aiding program was implemented to serve as a back-up decision maker. An experiment was conducted with a balanced design of several subject runs for different workload levels. This was achieved using three levels of subsystem event arrival rates, three levels of control task involvement, and three levels of availability of computer aiding. Experimental results compared quite favorably with those from a computer simulation which employed a queueing model. It was shown that the aiding had enhanced system performance as well as subjective ratings, and that the adaptive aiding policy further reduced subsystem delay.

  8. Deadly AIDS policy failure by the highest levels of the US government: a personal look back 30 years later for lessons to respond better to future epidemics.

    PubMed

    Francis, Donald P

    2012-08-01

    Successful control of any dangerous epidemic requires: (i) early understanding of the epidemiology of the disease and (ii) rapid applications of preventive interventions. Through the lack of both policy and financial support, the United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) was severely handicapped during the early years of the AIDS epidemic. Senior staff of the Reagan Administration did not understand the essential role of Government in disease prevention. Although CDC clearly documented the dangers of HIV and AIDS early in the epidemic, refusal by the White House to deliver prevention programs then certainly allowed HIV to become more widely seeded. As much of the international health community relies on CDC for up-to-date prevention advice, these actions by the White House surely increased the spread of HIV around the world. To respond better to future epidemics, we need to understand the deadly forces that inhibited CDC at that time.

  9. Aid for Trade: an opportunity to increase fruit and vegetable supply

    PubMed Central

    Priyadarshi, Shishir

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Low fruit and vegetable consumption is an important contributor to the global burden of disease. In the wake of the United Nations High-level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), held in September 2011, a rise in the consumption of fruits and vegetables is foreseeable and this increased demand will have to be met through improved supply. The World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Bank have highlighted the potential for developing countries to benefit nutritionally and economically from the increased production and export of fruit and vegetables. Aid for Trade, launched in 2005 as an initiative designed to link development aid and trade holistically, offers an opportunity for the health and trade sectors to work jointly to enhance health and development. The Aid for Trade work programme stresses the importance of policy coherence across sectors, yet the commonality of purpose driving the Aid for Trade initiative and NCD prevention efforts has not been explored. In this paper food supply chain analysis was used to show health policy-makers that Aid for Trade can provide a mechanism for increasing the supply of fruits and vegetables in developing countries. Aid for Trade is an existing funding channel with clear accountability and reporting mechanisms, but its priorities are determined with little or no input from the health sector. The paper seeks to enable public health policy-makers, practitioners and advocates to improve coherence between trade and public health policies by highlighting Aid for Trade’s potential role in this endeavour. PMID:23397351

  10. Aid for Trade: an opportunity to increase fruit and vegetable supply.

    PubMed

    Thow, Anne Marie; Priyadarshi, Shishir

    2013-01-01

    Low fruit and vegetable consumption is an important contributor to the global burden of disease. In the wake of the United Nations High-level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), held in September 2011, a rise in the consumption of fruits and vegetables is foreseeable and this increased demand will have to be met through improved supply. The World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Bank have highlighted the potential for developing countries to benefit nutritionally and economically from the increased production and export of fruit and vegetables.Aid for Trade, launched in 2005 as an initiative designed to link development aid and trade holistically, offers an opportunity for the health and trade sectors to work jointly to enhance health and development. The Aid for Trade work programme stresses the importance of policy coherence across sectors, yet the commonality of purpose driving the Aid for Trade initiative and NCD prevention efforts has not been explored.In this paper food supply chain analysis was used to show health policy-makers that Aid for Trade can provide a mechanism for increasing the supply of fruits and vegetables in developing countries. Aid for Trade is an existing funding channel with clear accountability and reporting mechanisms, but its priorities are determined with little or no input from the health sector. The paper seeks to enable public health policy-makers, practitioners and advocates to improve coherence between trade and public health policies by highlighting Aid for Trade's potential role in this endeavour.

  11. Use of modified Delphi to plan knowledge translation for decision makers: an application in the field of advanced practice nursing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Nancy; Lavis, John N; MacDonald-Rencz, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Disseminating research to decision makers is difficult. Interaction between researchers and decision makers can identify key messages and processes for dissemination. To gain agreement on the key findings from a synthesis on the integration of advanced practice nurses, we used a modified Delphi process. Nursing decision makers contributed ideas via e-mail, discussed and clarified ideas face to face, and then prioritized statements. Sixteen (89%) participated and 14 (77%) completed the final phase. Priority key messages were around access to care and outcomes. The majority identified "NPs increase access to care" and "NPs and CNSs improve patient and system outcomes" as priority messaging statements. Participants agreed policy makers and the public were target audiences for messages. Consulting with policy makers provided the necessary context to develop tailored policy messages and is a helpful approach for research dissemination.

  12. Focusing biodiversity research on the needs of decision makers

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, K.D.; Bernabo, J.C.; Carter, T.B.; Jutro, P.R.

    1996-11-01

    The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers had concerns about four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading scientists identified research required to address these needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. Several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity were identified: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical, and problem- and region-specific. Activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability-for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations wee developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that require biodiversity research to address their needs-whether to develop policy, manage natural resources, or make other decisions affecting biodiversity. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  13. Itemized Charges & Student Aid: Enhancing the Capacity of States to Understand Affordability for All Students. Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcombe, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The Educational Policy Institute released a new report today about the ability of state and national databases to meet the policy needs related to higher education affordability. Written by EPI Senior Research Associate Lee Holcombe, the report finds that although states are establishing ambitious higher education participation and success targets…

  14. Data-driven decision-making tools to improve public resource allocation for care and prevention of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Gery W; Bloom, Evan W; Lowsky, David J; Linthicum, Mark T; Juday, Timothy; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Kulkarni, Sonali; Goldman, Dana P; Sayles, Jennifer N

    2014-03-01

    Public health agencies face difficult decisions when allocating scarce resources to control the spread of HIV/AIDS. Decisions are often made with few local empirical data. We demonstrated the use of the robust decision making approach in Los Angeles County, an approach that is data driven and allows decision makers to compare the performance of various intervention strategies across thousands of simulated future scenarios. We found that the prevailing strategy of emphasizing behavioral risk reduction interventions was unlikely to achieve the policy goals of the national HIV/AIDS strategy. Of the alternative strategies we examined, those that invested most heavily in interventions to initiate antiretroviral treatment and support treatment adherence were the most likely to achieve policy objectives. By employing similar methods, other public health agencies can identify robust strategies and invest in interventions more likely to achieve HIV/AIDS policy goals.

  15. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  16. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  17. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  18. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  19. The Role of Aid to Medical, Osteopathic, and Dental Students in a New Health Manpower Education Policy. Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Current and future financial aid to students of medicine, osteopathy, and dentistry (MODs) is discussed in the context of federal health manpower objectives. Options for providing financial access to such students are analyzed. The report was prepared for the Senate Budget Committee in response to a request by Senator Lawton Chiles as part of…

  20. America's College Promise: Situating President Obama's Initiative in the History of Federal Higher Education Aid and Access Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmadessa, Allison L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: America's College Promise (ACP) is a legislative initiative introduced by President Obama to increase access to higher education, to build the economy, and to support his earlier American Graduation Initiative. This legislation has the potential to settle among the ranks of the most influential federal higher education aid and access…

  1. States in the Driver's Seat: Leveraging State Aid to Align Policies and Promote Access, Success, and Affordability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Brian T.; Longanecker, David A.

    2014-01-01

    With increasingly widespread calls to raise educational attainment levels without substantially growing public investment in higher education, policymakers and others have devoted growing attention to the role of financial aid programs in providing access to, promoting affordability for, and incentivizing success in college. Given relative levels…

  2. Adaptive Computer Aiding in Dynamic Decision Processes: An Experimental Study of Aiding Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    and a larger subject group. 1-2 Adaptive Decision Aiding 1-2 The primary function of ADDAM is not simply to model the decision maker’s behavior...maximum expected utility (OEVMAXEU) during the course of the test session was the primary measure of decision performance. As a group, the aided...in Chapter 3. The primary function of ADDAM is not simply to model the decision maker’s behavior but to provide a basis for decision aiding. Once

  3. Intervening in global markets to improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment: an analysis of international policies and the dynamics of global antiretroviral medicines markets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries faces numerous challenges: increasing numbers of people needing ART, new guidelines recommending more expensive antiretroviral (ARV) medicines, limited financing, and few fixed-dose combination (FDC) products. Global initiatives aim to promote efficient global ARV markets, yet little is known about market dynamics and the impact of global policy interventions. Methods We utilize several data sources, including 12,958 donor-funded, adult first-line ARV purchase transactions, to describe the market from 2002-2008. We examine relationships between market trends and: World Health Organization (WHO) HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines; WHO Prequalification Programme (WHO Prequal) and United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals; and procurement policies of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM), US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and UNITAID. Results WHO recommended 7, 4, 24, and 6 first-line regimens in 2002, 2003, 2006 and 2009 guidelines, respectively. 2009 guidelines replaced a stavudine-based regimen ($88/person/year) with more expensive zidovudine- ($154-260/person/year) or tenofovir-based ($244-465/person/year) regimens. Purchase volumes for ARVs newly-recommended in 2006 (emtricitabine, tenofovir) increased >15-fold from 2006 to 2008. Twenty-four generic FDCs were quality-approved for older regimens but only four for newer regimens. Generic FDCs were available to GFATM recipients in 2004 but to PEPFAR recipients only after FDA approval in 2006. Price trends for single-component generic medicines mirrored generic FDC prices. Two large-scale purchasers, PEPFAR and UNITAID, together accounted for 53%, 84%, and 77% of market volume for abacavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir, respectively, in 2008. PEPFAR and UNITAID purchases were often split across two manufacturers. Conclusions Global initiatives facilitated the

  4. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries [1]. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals [2]. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of interest guidelines which, if present and consistently administered, limit the promulgation of corrupt practices. Other major contributing factors are the inconsistency in documentation of procedures, lack of public availability of such documentation, and inadequacies in monitoring and evaluation. What is most critical from this study is the identification of areas that still remain permeable to corruption and, perhaps, where more appropriate checks and balances are needed from the Nigerian government and the international community. PMID:19874613

  5. Key Lessons about Induction for Policy Makers and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to digest the core chapters of this volume, which draws together some of the most sophisticated thinking on new teacher induction from the last decade. This chapter attends to five key understandings about induction programs, including their context, design, implementation, and outcomes. These understandings emerge…

  6. Floods, Climate Change, and Urban Resilience: One Policy Maker's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-06-01

    When Hurricane Sandy battered the U.S. Atlantic Seaboard in October 2012, strong winds generated a storm surge that caused waters from the Hudson River to wash across Hoboken, N.J. Those waters flooded about 80% of the city, population 50,000, that lies across the river from Manhattan. The flooding caused more than 100 million in private property damage and more than 10 million in municipal property damage while impairing the region's transportation system.

  7. A weatherization manual for LIHEAP policy makers and program administrators

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, M.J.; Marabate, R.; Weinhaus, M.; Eisenberg, J.F.

    1993-09-01

    This manual is designed to provide Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) directors with information about weatherization and innovative ways they can utilize LIHEAP funds for weatherization activities. It contains a description of innovative weatherization programs which demonstrate creative uses of LIHEAP funds in weatherization activities. In many of the innovative examples, state and local administrators are coordinating their LIHEAP funds with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program`s funding and with a variety of other federal, state and utility company resources. The innovative programs demonstrate how LIHEAP funds can be used in client education, targeting high energy users, staff training, assessment and audits for weatherization services. The reader will find in the appendices lists of contact persons and further descriptions of the programs highlighted. Although designed with LIHEAP directors in mind, the practices and programs highlighted in this manual are of practical use to any state, local or utility weatherization program administrator. The glossary at the end of the descriptive chapters will assist readers with the terminology used throughout the manual. This manual and the many resource entities cited in its appendices provide ready access to a wealth of state-of-the-art information which could lead to a more cost-effective expenditure of LIBEAP weatherization dollars.

  8. CLIL Implementation: From Policy-Makers to Individual Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zarobe, Yolanda Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    Since Do Coyle and Hugo Baetens Beardsmore published their Special Issue on "Research on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)" in the "International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism" in 2007, there has been a great deal of interest and debate about the approach, which under the umbrella term of Content…

  9. Resilience by Design: Bringing Science to Policy Makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Lucile M.

    2015-01-01

    No one questions that Los Angeles has an earthquake problem. The “Big Bend” of the San Andreas fault in southern California complicates the plate boundary between the North American and Pacific plates, creating a convergent component to the primarily transform boundary. The Southern California Earthquake Center Community Fault Model has over 150 fault segments, each capable of generating a damaging earthquake, in an area with more than 23 million residents (Fig. 1). A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) analysis of the expected losses from all future earthquakes in the National Seismic Hazard Maps (Petersen et al., 2014) predicts an annual average of more than $3 billion per year in the eight counties of southern California, with half of those losses in Los Angeles County alone (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA], 2008). According to Swiss Re, one of the world’s largest reinsurance companies, Los Angeles faces one of the greatest risks of catastrophic losses from earthquakes of any city in the world, eclipsed only by Tokyo, Jakarta, and Manila (Swiss Re, 2013).

  10. A scientist's guide to engaging decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.

  11. Thinking Outside the Box: Policy Strategies for Readiness, Access, and Success. Changing Direction: Integrating Higher Education Financial Aid and Financing Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.; Jones, Dennis P.; Longanecker, David A.; Michelau, Demaree K.

    2007-01-01

    In partnership with the American Council on Education's Center for Policy Analysis, the National Conference of State Legislatures, and the State Higher Education Executive Officers, the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) has been working to advance the overarching goal of the Changing Direction project, which was to examine…

  12. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mei; Chiarella, Carl; He, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Duo

    2009-08-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts as both a liquidity provider and an active investor in a market consisting of two types of boundedly rational speculative investors-the fundamentalists and trend followers. We show that the market maker does not necessarily stabilize the market when he/she actively manages the inventory to maximize profits, and that rather the market maker’s impact depends on the behavior of the speculators. Numerical simulations show that the model is able to generate outcomes for asset returns and market inventories that are consistent with empirical findings.

  13. Financial planning. Influencing the decision makers.

    PubMed

    Isaac, E K

    1985-11-01

    Decision makers are most influenced by the impact on the whole, while budget preparers often concentrate on the upcoming fiscal year or on daily operations. This difference in approach becomes obvious in the budget process. Remember that your budget proposal is only one segment of the overall financial plan. Be aware of the goals of the governing body and of your CEO in projecting outcomes. Look to other disciplines to understand how they influence decision makers for funds. Resistance to this approach will neither enhance nor promote our competitive skills. We must think as financial planners to achieve our financial goals.

  14. Evidence-based approach to HIV/AIDS policy and research prioritization in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Feizzadeh, A; Nedjat, S; Asghari, S; Keshtkar, A; Heshmat, R; Setayesh, H; Majdzadeh, R

    2010-03-01

    In formulating the second national strategic plan for prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Islamic Republic of Iran a more evidence-based approach was needed. This paper reports on a systematic review of the local evidence about the determinants of HIV/AIDS transmission in 3 categories: poor knowledge and negative attitudes about HIV transmission; injection drug use; and sexual promiscuity. Of 93 reports reviewed, 53 met the inclusion criteria. Information about the prevalence and magnitude of effect for the 3 risk determinants at the national and regional level was scarce. Heterogeneity between studies, even in the same sub-population, was significant. An improved research base and better sharing of information are needed within countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

  15. Best of enemies: Using social network analysis to explore a policy network in European smoke-free policy.

    PubMed

    Weishaar, Heide; Amos, Amanda; Collin, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    Networks and coalitions of stakeholders play a crucial role in the development and implementation of policies, with previous research highlighting that networks in tobacco control are characterised by an antagonism between supporters and opponents of comprehensive tobacco control policies. This UK-based study used quantitative and qualitative network analysis (drawing on 176 policy submissions and 32 interviews) to systematically map and analyse a network of actors involved in the development of European Union (EU) smoke-free policy. Policy debates were dominated by two coalitions of stakeholders with starkly opposing positions on the issue. One coalition, consisting primarily of health-related organisations, supported comprehensive EU smoke-free policy, whereas the other, led by tobacco manufacturers' organisations, opposed the policy initiative. The data suggest that, aided by strong political commitment of EU decision makers to develop smoke-free policy, advocates supporting comprehensive EU policy were able to frame policy debates in ways which challenged the tobacco industry's legitimacy. They then benefited from the stark polarisation between the two coalitions. The paper provides empirical evidence of the division between two distinct coalitions in tobacco policy debates and draws attention to the complex processes of consensus-seeking, alliance-building and strategic action which are integral to the development of EU policy. Highlighting network polarisation and industry isolation as factors which seemed to increase tobacco control success, the study demonstrates the potential significance and value of FCTC article 5.3 for tobacco control policy-making.

  16. Discursive Enactments of the World Health Organization's Policies: Competing Cultural Models in Tanzanian HIV/AIDS Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Christina

    2010-01-01

    In the healthcare arena, language policy-related research has thus far been limited to questions about "language access," i.e., whether individuals are supplied with health information in their languages, and whether interpreters for doctor-patient consultations are provided (Martinez 2008; Ngo-Metzger et al. 2003; Partida 2007; Vahabi…

  17. Money Matters: A Study on the Relationship between Financial Aid Programs and Policies on Student Persistence in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Emily L.

    2010-01-01

    Persistence theorists emphasize the importance of faculty and staff interactions with students. Yet many overlook how affordability influences a student's decision to remain enrolled. As a result this qualitative, grounded theory study addresses the relationship between private college and university financial assistance policies and programs to…

  18. Formulating Recruitment and Retention Policies at the University of Delaware: From Affirmative Action to Diversity in Financial Aid and Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Johnie A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the United States Supreme Court decided on two cases that involved affirmative action policies for admission to the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor Law School and the College of Literature, Science and the Arts. Those cases, "Gratz v. Bollinger" (2003) and "Grutter v. Bollinger" (2003) had implications for the…

  19. The Morality of University Decision-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatier, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Ethical failures in UK higher education have recently made the news but are not a recent development. University decision-makers can, in order to adopt an ethical way of reasoning, resort to several ethical traditions. This article focuses, through the use of concrete examples, on three which have had a significant impact in recent higher…

  20. Worksite Nutrition: A Decision-Maker's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dietetic Association, Chicago, IL.

    This guide is designed specifically to assist decision makers in business and industry, including chief executive officers, benefits managers, human resource directors, wellness coordinators, and owners of small businesses, in understanding how diet and nutrition affect employees and the company. It addresses the concerns of both small and large…

  1. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to inform constructively ecological policy deliberations has been diminishe...

  2. Simulating evolution of technology: An aid to energy policy analysis. A case study of strategies to control greenhouse gases in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyboer, John

    Issues related to the reduction of greenhouse gases are encumbered with uncertainties for decision makers. Unfortunately, conventional analytical tools generate widely divergent forecasts of the effects of actions designed to mitigate these emissions. "Bottom-up" models show the costs of reducing emissions attained through the penetration of efficient technologies to be low or negative. In contrast, more aggregate "top-down" models show costs of reduction to be high. The methodological approaches of the different models used to simulate energy consumption generate, in part, the divergence found in model outputs. To address this uncertainty and bring convergence, I use a technology-explicit model that simulates turnover of equipment stock as a function of detailed data on equipment costs and stock characteristics and of verified behavioural data related to equipment acquisition and retrofitting. Such detail can inform the decision maker of the effects of actions to reduce greenhouse gases due to changes in (1) technology stocks, (2) products or services, or (3) the mix of fuels used. This thesis involves two main components: (1) the development of a quantitative model to analyse energy demand and (2) the application of this tool to a policy issue, abatement of COsb2 emissions. The analysis covers all of Canada by sector (8 industrial subsectors, residential commercial) and region. An electricity supply model to provide local electricity prices supplemented the quantitative model. Forecasts of growth and structural change were provided by national macroeconomic models. Seven different simulations were applied to each sector in each region including a base case run and three runs simulating emissions charges of 75/tonne, 150/tonne and 225/tonne CO sb2. The analysis reveals that there is significant variation in the costs and quantity of emissions reduction by sector and region. Aggregated results show that Canada can meet both stabilisation targets (1990 levels of

  3. [Social actors in HIV/AIDS prevention: opposition and interests in educational policy in Mexico, 1994-2000].

    PubMed

    Granados-Cosme, José Arturo; Nasaiya, Kittipong; Brambila, Alberto Torres

    2007-03-01

    Studies and recommendations by health agencies have emphasized the importance of education in HIV-AIDS prevention. Mexico has included topics on sexuality and HIV-AIDS in school programs, triggering resistance by some social actors. The current study seeks to clarify the various positions and interests and their influence on the textbook content. A literature search was conducted on the period during which the last educational reform was implemented in Mexico. The discourse analysis focused on the ethnography of communication, which identified: the various actors' positions, arguments, actions, economic and political power, and relations to others. The results show that those who oppose the inclusion of these themes in the school curriculum base their position on tradition, contrary to modernization and secularization of social life, and that their positions range from refusal to raising conditions. Networks have been formed that provide such groups with significant economic and political power. Government has given in to some demands by partially modifying the textbook contents. The current analysis proposes to reflect on the potential repercussions of such actions on the control of the epidemic.

  4. Annotated bibliography on participatory consultations to help aid the inclusion of marginalized perspectives in setting policy agendas.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Faraz Rahim

    2014-12-20

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present studies from peer-reviewed and grey literature that used consultations and other participatory strategies to capture a community's perspective of their health priorities, and of techniques used to elevate participation from the implementation phase to a more upstream phase of prioritization, policymaking and agenda setting. The focus here is of those studies that worked with marginalized populations or sub-populations. This bibliography contains four areas of research. It begins by first offering some philosophical and conceptual frameworks that link participatory interventions with inclusive policy making or agenda setting, and a rationale for prioritizing marginalized populations in such an undertaking. After situating ourselves in this manner, the second section looks at various participatory instruments for participatory consultations, for reaching out to marginalized populations, and for communicating the results to policymakers. Two sets of distinctions are made here: one between external (non-invitation) and internal (stifling of opinions) exclusion, and between mere participation and from active inclusion within consultations and within the policies. In the third section, examples of consultations that created or changed policy in various jurisdictions are shared, followed by a final section on a reflective and evaluative look at the recruitment, instruments and examples. An earlier iteration of this bibliography was created to assist a multi-country research project by the author to inform the UN Post-2015 development framework of the views of several diverse and highly marginalized populations around the world on their health-related priorities.

  5. Ice-maker heat pump development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, V. D.

    1980-09-01

    Four test unit ice maker heat pumps (IMHPs) were tested under the annual cycle energy system (ACES) program. Performance results on the effects of harvesting scheme, plate loading, and cycling operation were compared. The ice packing density of IMHPs was also studied and compared with that of ice manufactured by commerical ice makers and brine chiller ACES. Three harvesting schemes were tested: hot gas, stored refrigerant, and dual fluid, off cycle. The hot gas scheme tended to penalize excessively the heating output of the system. Stored refrigerant schemes eliminated that problem but caused compressor failures due to flood-back and oil dilution. The dual fluid schemes exhibited no such problems and demonstrated an ability to harvest during compressor off cycles. Therefore, it was concluded that dual fluid, off cycle schemes are the best for use with IMPHs. Plate loading tests in which compressor speed and evaporator size are varied clearly showed that evaporator plate loading should be as low as possible.

  6. Climate modeling with decision makers in mind

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Andrew; Calvin, Katherine; Lamarque, Jean -Francois

    2016-04-27

    The need for regional- and local-scale climate information is increasing rapidly as decision makers seek to anticipate and manage a variety of context-specific climate risks over the next several decades. Furthermore, global climate models are not developed with these user needs in mind, and they typically operate at resolutions that are too coarse to provide information that could be used to support regional and local decisions.

  7. A cryogenic fiber maker for continuous extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Bayley, J.

    1998-06-01

    A cryogenic fiber maker that continuously extrudes fibers is presented. The design of the fiber maker is based on the use of two cooling stages maintained at different temperatures. The fiber maker consists of two copper reservoirs that are connected in series and are kept at different temperatures. The first reservoir is used to liquefy the gas coming in from an external gas line. The second reservoir is colder than the first; here, the liquid that comes from the first reservoir is frozen and later extruded using the pressure of the external line gas supply. A two-stage closed-cycle refrigerator (a Gifford-McMahon cooler), which uses helium as a working fluid, is used as a cooling system. The frozen gas is extruded through a stainless-steel capillary nozzle with internal diameters between 50 and 250 μm and a length of 2 mm. The temperature of the two reservoirs is set independently, which permits the extrusion rate of the fibers to be controlled and to produce the fibers continuously. Using this system, hydrogen, deuterium, nitrogen, and argon fibers of various diameters were extruded.

  8. Shortchanging Small Schools: Nebraska School Finance Policy. The Impacts of LB 1114 and LB 806 on State Aid and Property Tax Revenues for Nebraska Public School Systems by School Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Patricia E.

    Nebraska's small schools have been shortchanged by recently enacted school finance policies. LB 1114, which limited property tax levy rates, and LB 806, which changed the state aid distribution formula, were first implemented for the 1998-99 school year. These measures were intended to force cuts in school expenditures, especially among smaller,…

  9. Detecting Student Aid Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Describes the varied kinds of student aid fraud found to be occurring within and outside colleges and universities, and examines implications for public policy on student aid programs. Discusses specific fraud cases and their outcomes, and makes suggestions for institutional action if student fraud is suspected. (MSE)

  10. Eco-informatics for decision makers advancing a research agenda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Brandt, L.; Gregg, V.; Spengler, S.; Borning, A.; Delcambre, L.; Bowker, G.; Frame, M.; Fulop, J.; Hert, C.; Hovy, E.; Jones, J.; Landis, E.; Schnase, J.L.; Schweik, C.; Sonntag, W.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Resource managers often face significant information technology (IT) problems when integrating ecological or environmental information to make decisions. At a workshop sponsored by the NSF and USGS in December 2004, university researchers, natural resource managers, and information managers met to articulate IT problems facing ecology and environmental decision makers. Decision making IT problems were identified in five areas: 1) policy, 2) data presentation, 3) data gaps, 4) tools, and 5) indicators. To alleviate those problems, workshop participants recommended specific informatics research in modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. This paper reports the workshop findings, and briefly compares these with research that traditionally falls under the emerging eco-informatics rubric. ?? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

  11. Alcohol consumption among university students: a typology of consumption to aid the tailoring of effective public health policy

    PubMed Central

    Davoren, Martin P; Cronin, Mary; Perry, Ivan J; O'Connor, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of alcohol consumption among university students are well documented. Policymakers have attempted to combat this issue at a university, national and international level. Tailoring public health policy to effectively tackle alcohol use is crucial. Using Q-methodology, the current study aims to develop a typology of alcohol consumption in the Irish university student population. Setting A large Irish university. Participants Hundreds of possible statements on types of consumption were generated from a systematic review and a set of one-on-one interviews. These were reduced to 36 statements, 6 statements which define each of the 6 previously defined consumption types. Participants were advised to scan through the 36 statements and fill the statements into a ‘forced choice, standardised distribution’. Following this, a 45–90 min interview was conducted with students to illuminate subjectivity surrounding alcohol consumption. Analysis was conducted using PQ Method and NVivo software. Principal component analysis, followed by varimax rotation, was conducted to uncover the final factor information. Results In total, 43 students completed the Q-study: 19 men and 24 women. A typology describing 4 distinct groupings of alcohol consumer was uncovered: the guarded drinker, the calculated hedonist, the peer-influenced drinker and the inevitable binger. Factor loadings of each of the consumer groupings were noted for type description. Conclusions This is the first study to propose ideal types of alcohol consumption among a university student population. Further research is required to investigate the degree to which each of these ideal types is subscribed. However, this typology, in addition to informing public policy and strategies, will be a valuable analytic tool in future research. PMID:27852707

  12. Healthy public policy in poor countries: tackling macro-economic policies.

    PubMed

    Mohindra, K S

    2007-06-01

    Large segments of the population in poor countries continue to suffer from a high level of unmet health needs, requiring macro-level, broad-based interventions. Healthy public policy, a key health promotion strategy, aims to put health on the agenda of policy makers across sectors and levels of government. Macro-economic policy in developing countries has thus far not adequately captured the attention of health promotion researchers. This paper argues that healthy public policy should not only be an objective in rich countries, but also in poor countries. This paper takes up this issue by reviewing the main macro-economic aid programs offered by international financial institutions as a response to economic crises and unmanageable debt burdens. Although health promotion researchers were largely absent during a key debate on structural adjustment programs and health during the 1980s and 1990s, the international macro-economic policy tool currently in play offers a new opportunity to participate in assessing these policies, ensuring new forms of macro-economic policy interventions do not simply reproduce patterns of (neoliberal) economics-dominated development policy.

  13. Living with AIDS: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…

  14. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Aids On this page: What is a hearing aid? ... the ear through a speaker. How can hearing aids help? Hearing aids are primarily useful in improving ...

  15. AIDS Federal Policy Act of 1987. Hearings on S. 1575: To Amend the Public Health Service Act To Establish a Grant Program To Provide for Counseling and Testing Services Relating to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and To Establish Certain Prohibitions for the Purpose of Protecting Individuals with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or Related Conditions. Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document presents the text from two Senate hearings on the AIDS Federal Policy Act of 1987 which concerns voluntary testing for AIDS virus, education and counseling to stop the spread of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), and confidentiality and discrimination against AIDS victims. In the first hearing, opening statements are…

  16. 46 CFR 113.25-11 - Contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contact makers. 113.25-11 Section 113.25-11 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-11 Contact makers. Each contact maker must— (a) Have normally open contacts and be constructed in accordance with Type 4 or 4X of NEMA 250 or...

  17. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of contact makers. 113.25-5 Section 113.25-5... ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-5 Location of contact makers. (a... miscellaneous vessel must have a manually operated contact maker for the general emergency alarm system: (1)...

  18. 46 CFR 113.25-11 - Contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contact makers. 113.25-11 Section 113.25-11 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-11 Contact makers. Each contact maker must— (a) Have normally open contacts and be constructed in accordance with Type 4 or 4X of NEMA 250 or...

  19. 46 CFR 113.25-11 - Contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contact makers. 113.25-11 Section 113.25-11 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-11 Contact makers. Each contact maker must— (a) Have normally open contacts and be constructed in accordance with Type 4 or 4X of NEMA 250 or...

  20. 46 CFR 113.25-11 - Contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contact makers. 113.25-11 Section 113.25-11 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-11 Contact makers. Each contact maker must— (a) Have normally open contacts and be constructed in accordance with Type 4 or 4X of NEMA 250 or...

  1. 46 CFR 113.25-11 - Contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contact makers. 113.25-11 Section 113.25-11 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-11 Contact makers. Each contact maker must— (a) Have normally open contacts and be constructed in accordance with Type 4 or 4X of NEMA 250 or...

  2. David Gill: clock maker to global astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    Reduction in the uncertainty of physical measurements underpinned many advances in solar and stellar parallax, the determination of longitude, geodesy, and the accurate mapping of the heavens using celestial photography in the late nineteenth century. A pioneer in these areas, who successfully made the transition from clock maker in Aberdeen to H.M. Astronomer at the Cape of Good Hope was David Gill (1843-1914); Sir David Gill, K.C.B. from 1900. This paper celebrates the first third of Gill's career in astronomy and geodesy up to the time he was made redundant from Dun Echt Observatory at the end of 1875. It highlights how his horological skills were applied to telescope design and also how his aspirations to become a global astronomer started. The paper is timed to coincide with Gill's centenary anniversary year - he died 24 January 1914.

  3. AIDS in Connecticut: Recommendations for a State Policy Response. Report to the Governor's Human Services Cabinet to Governor William O'Neill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Barbara; Omilian, Susan

    The first part of this five-part report on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in Connecticut defines the public health challenge presented by AIDS and describes the roles of community-based AIDS organizations, the Connecticut state government, and the Governor's Human Services Cabinet in addressing that challenge. Part II, "The AIDS…

  4. International institutions and China's health policy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanzhong

    2015-02-01

    This article examines the role of international institutional actors in China's health policy process. Particular attention is paid to three major international institutional actors: the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Through process tracing and comparative case studies, the article looks at how international institutions contribute to policy change in China and seeks to explain different outcomes in the relationship between international institutions and China's health policies. It finds that despite the opaque and exclusive authoritarian structure in China, international institutions play a significant role in the country's domestic health governance. By investing their resources and capabilities selectively and strategically, international institutions can change the preferences of government policy makers, move latent public health issues to the government's agenda, and affect the timing of government action and the content of policy design. Furthermore, the study suggests that different outcomes in the relationship between China's health policies and global health governance can be explained through the seriousness of the externalities China faces.

  5. Garrett County Aids AID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Garrett County, Maryland volunteered to act as a pre-overseas learning laboratory for AID (Agency for International Development) interns who practiced data collection and planning techniques with the help of local citizenry. (JC)

  6. Assessing ground-water vulnerability to contamination: Providing scientifically defensible information for decision makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, Michael J.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the United States increasing demands for safe drinking water and requirements to maintain healthy ecosystems are leading policy makers to ask complex social and scientific questions about how to assess and manage our water resources. This challenge becomes particularly difficult as policy and management objectives require scientific assessments of the potential for ground-water resources to become contaminated from anthropogenic, as well as natural sources of contamination. Assessments of the vulnerability of ground water to contamination range in scope and complexity from simple, qualitative, and relatively inexpensive approaches to rigorous, quantitative, and costly assessments. Tradeoffs must be carefully considered among the competing influences of the cost of an assessment, the scientific defensibility, and the amount of acceptable uncertainty in meeting the objectives of the water-resource decision maker.

  7. Redesigning State Financial Aid: Principles to Guide State Aid Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingel, Sarah; Sponsler, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Several factors create a challenging environment for individuals seeking financial support to complete a postsecondary degree program. In recognition of the challenges of paying for higher education, decision-makers at the federal and state levels support college-going with public policy. Through direct institutional allocations, need and…

  8. Reaching Local Decision Makers through the OhioView Remote Sensing Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, K. P.

    2002-05-01

    Remote sensing technology has been slow to move out of the research lab and into public use. A primary goal of the OhioView Consortium, a consortium of ten Ohio universities working together to spread remote sensing, is to take application-based research and make the results useful to the public. In particular, the group is working to remove the barriers to the use of satellite imagery including costs of imagery and software and training of policy makers. Through collaboration with the Ohio Library and Information Network (OhioLINK), OhioView is disseminating Landsat 7 imagery over Ohio with 30 percent cloud cover or less over the internet for free. In addition, OhioView has provided remote sensing software for local government agencies. As part of the OhoView Consortium, the Department of Geography and Planning at the University of Toledo has worked with policy makers on local issues that can benefit from the addition of satellite imagery. Northwest Ohio traditionally is a region of heavy industry rather than high technology. Few policy makers or environmental consultants had considered using satellite imagery in their work. We will discuss the results of this collaboration from a project we are currently conducting with local government groups to identify wetlands. Wetlands once covered over 90 percent of Northwest Ohio. Through draining, they have virtually disappeared. The goal of this project was to produce a map of existing wetlands in Northwest Ohio that could be used by government officials to make development decisions.

  9. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin HIV/AIDS HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is the virus ... HIV/AIDS. Why Is the Study of HIV/AIDS a Priority for NIAID? Nearly 37 million people ...

  10. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... to restrict your daily activities. Properly fitted hearing aids and aural rehabilitation (techniques used to identify and ...

  11. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hearing Aids KidsHealth > For Teens > Hearing Aids Print A A ... with certain types of hearing loss. How Hearing Aids Help So you went to audiologist and found ...

  12. Historical Review of U.S. Foreign Aid as a Tool of Foreign Policy in Israel and Egypt During 1952-1969

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-06

    FIGURE Figure 1. U.S. foreign aid given to Israel and Egypt during 1952-1969………………………...15 1 Introduction Hans Morgenthau , a...political theory of foreign aid, Morgenthau argued that the United States has interests abroad that cannot be secured by military means or by traditional...methods of diplomacy, and foreign aid is a means to support such interests.2 As noted by Morgenthau , the aid giver can derive political loyalties

  13. Global HIV/AIDS funding and health systems: Searching for the win-win.

    PubMed

    Levine, Ruth; Oomman, Nandini

    2009-11-01

    Donors, developing country governments, and NGOs are searching for ways to use funding for HIV/AIDS programs that strengthen the functioning of weak health systems. This is motivated both by the realization that a large share of donor funding for global health is and will continue to be dedicated to HIV/AIDS, and that the aims of more and better treatment, prevention, and care can be achieved only with attention to systemic capacities. For AIDS resources to strengthen health systems, decision makers should: (a) mitigate the risks that AIDS spending may weaken the ability of health systems to respond to other health problems; (b) find ways for procurement, supply chain, management information, and other systems that are created to support AIDS treatment to be broadened to serve other types of services; and (c) build upon the ways in which AIDS programs have overcome some demand-side barriers to use of services. In pursuing this agenda, donors should recognize that health system development is a function of the national and local political economy and place respect for national sovereignty as a central tenet of their policies and practices.

  14. Evidence and Impact: How Scholarship Can Improve Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingenfelter, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers, policy makers, and practitioners share a sincere interest in improving the human condition. Academics may be tempted to fault irrationality, ideology, or ignorance for the failure of research to inform policy and practice more powerfully, but policy makers and practitioners want academics to tell them "what works" in order to find a…

  15. Improving Tobacco-Free Advocacy on College Campuses: A Novel Strategy to Aid in the Understanding of Student Perceptions about Policy Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Chapp, Christopher B.; Henley, Whitney B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Tobacco-control policy proposals are usually met with opposition on college campuses. Research to understand students' viewpoints about health-related policy proposals and messaging strategies, however, does not exist. This study investigated students' perceptions about a smoke-free policy proposal to help understand their positions of…

  16. The needs of AIDS-infected individuals in rural China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yun Luke; Trout, Shirley K; Lu, Katarina; Creswell, John W

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this exploratory case study was to describe the needs and present the voices of 21 AIDS-infected individuals who contracted the disease through the selling of blood in rural China. Data sources included interviews, field notes, and letters. Three themes emerged: living in a vicious circle, awakening from the dead end, and escaping the vicious circle through education. Education emerged as an overarching theme and was identified as the catalyst that would either keep the families of those affected trapped in the vicious circle or rescue them from it. Findings are explained within the theoretical contexts of social capital, motivation theory, and Confucius's philosophy on education. The authors discuss implications for researchers, educators, relief workers, human service workers, policy makers, and human rights advocates. They conclude with suggestions for further study.

  17. Addressing Future Epidemics: Historical Human Rights Lessons from the AIDS Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ambar; Quinn, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Ebola epidemic in West Africa sparked many ethical and polarizing public health questions on how to adequately control transmission of the virus. These deliberations had and will continue to influence patients, healthcare workers, public perceptions of disease, and governmental responses. Such extensive and potential ramifications warranted an analysis of prior epidemics to sufficiently inform policy makers and prepare them and other authorities for future epidemics. We analyzed how the general public, medical institutions, federal government, and patients themselves responded during the early stages of the AIDS pandemic in two different countries and cultures, the United States and India. Discussion Our analysis identified four key findings pertaining to the human rights of patients and healthcare workers and to the crucial roles of the government and medical community. The first demands that authoritative officials acknowledge the presence of high-risk behaviors and properly educate the public without stigmatizing groups of individuals. For this task, the medical community and federal government must form and display to the public a respectful and collaborative partnership towards battling the epidemic. These two synergistic endeavors will then allow appropriate officials to implement effective, yet civil, interventions for limiting transmission. Finally, the same officials must ensure that their interventions maintain the human rights of high-risk populations and of healthcare workers. Conclusions Applying these findings to future epidemics of infectious diseases can aid policy makers in navigating complicated ethical and public health questions, and help prevent them from repeating past mistakes in handling epidemics. PMID:27284578

  18. The Current Mind-Set of Federal Information Security Decision-Makers on the Value of Governance: An Informative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroup, Jay Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mind-set or perceptions of organizational leaders and decision-makers is important to ascertaining the trends and priorities in policy and governance of the organization. This study finds that a significant shift in the mind-set of government IT and information security leaders has started and will likely result in placing a…

  19. Examining the Educative Aims and Practices of Decision-Makers in Sport for Development and Peace Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Per G.; Hancock, Meg G.; Hums, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) policy-makers and practitioners continue to offer ambitious claims regarding the potential role of sport-based programs for promoting social change. Yet, it is important to put sport under a critical lens in order to develop a more balanced and realistic understanding of the role of sport in society. Whether…

  20. The Politics of Federal Aid to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curley, John R.

    Educational policy decisions are political and are affected by demographic, economic, and social factors that influence policy-makers. As the number of federal government programs grew from the 1960's to the 1980's, so did the number of special interest groups lobbying in Washington, District of Columbia, to promote legislation, regulations, and…

  1. A critical review of health-related economic evaluations in Australia: implications for health policy.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, G; Davey, P; Arnolda, G

    1995-02-01

    In Australia, as in many other countries, economic evaluation is increasingly seen by health care policy makers as a useful aid to priority setting and resource allocation. In Australia, economic evaluation is now a requirement for new drugs to be listed on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme which provides a government subsidy on the price of listed drugs for purchasers. Yet, despite recognition of the importance of economic evaluation by policy makers, there is a paucity of published evaluations in Australia. We reviewed all of the 33 health-related economic evaluations conducted in Australia and subsequently published since 1978. This study assesses how well informed decision makers might be if they used the results and conclusions of published economic evaluations as an aid to resource allocation. The review highlights several issues: (i) it is difficult to interpret the conclusions or assess the generalisability of individual papers without information on the context of the original study; (ii) the choice of comparator(s) was often unexplained and most papers did not employ marginal analysis; (iii) in the absence of marginal analysis, the comparability of cost-effectiveness ratios in league tables must be questioned as well as the completeness (were all the relevant alternatives included?) of studies; and (iv) the quality of effectiveness evidence varies enormously, with some authors content to use the best available evidence (even if it is of poor quality). The development of standards for economic evaluation methods might ensure a more consistent and scientific approach to evaluative work, but they cannot guarantee it. A more concerted effort to disseminate the principles and methods of economic evaluation to policy makers and non-economist evaluators might be a more important precursor to improving the credibility and usefulness of economic evaluations in priority setting.

  2. Policy and ethical issues in applying medical biotechnology in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Macer, Darryl R J

    2003-02-01

    A brief review of some of the key issues in policy relating to the ethical issues raised by medical biotechnology in developing countries is presented, using India as an example. A series of some key issues is discussed, including information obtained from interviewing Indian government policy makers. Some of the issues discussed include: Economic and social incentives to encourage biotechnology; Health policy and ethics review; Patents on drugs; Medical genetics; Relationship to traditional medical practices; Positive public attitudes to biotechnology; Limited public participation; Infrastructural hurdles; Indian progress in stem cell research; and dilemmas of expensive technologies. The results show that although the needs of developing countries are different to those of rich countries, government policy utilizing guidelines and ethics committees has evolved as mechanisms to aid ethical health care delivery in India. In all countries there may be some of these concerns that are raised here, however, the integration of traditional medicine and advanced medical technology, and access to medical services by people in need, are particularly important challenges in developing countries. Better public involvement in policy making will require education and infrastructural organization as well as mutual willingness on the part of policy makers and citizens.

  3. Maker Movement Spreads Innovation One Project at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppler, Kylie; Bender, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The maker movement consists of a growing culture of hands-on making, creating, designing, and innovating. A hallmark of the maker movement is its do-it-yourself (or do-it-with-others) mindset that brings individuals together around a range of activities, both high- and low-tech, all involving some form of creation or repair. The movement's…

  4. Role Perceptions of Black Decision Makers: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzzell, Odell

    1981-01-01

    A study in Wake County, North Carolina, designed to determine how racist structural barriers influence role perceptions of Black decision makers, identified the following discriminators of role perceptions: 1) officials' perceptions of themselves as decision makers or decision influencers; 2) age; 3) racial composition of organization; 4)…

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  6. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  9. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  10. Job Grading Standard for Model Maker, WG-4714.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The pamphlet explains the different job requirements for different grades of model maker (WG-14 and WG-15) and contrasts them to the position of premium journeyman. It includes comment on what a model maker is (a nonsupervisory job involved in planning and fabricating complex research and prototype models which are made from a variety of materials…

  11. An analytical framework to assist decision makers in the use of forest ecosystem model predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larocque, Guy R.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Ascough, J.C.; Liu, J.; Luckai, N.; Mailly, D.; Archambault, L.; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    The predictions from most forest ecosystem models originate from deterministic simulations. However, few evaluation exercises for model outputs are performed by either model developers or users. This issue has important consequences for decision makers using these models to develop natural resource management policies, as they cannot evaluate the extent to which predictions stemming from the simulation of alternative management scenarios may result in significant environmental or economic differences. Various numerical methods, such as sensitivity/uncertainty analyses, or bootstrap methods, may be used to evaluate models and the errors associated with their outputs. However, the application of each of these methods carries unique challenges which decision makers do not necessarily understand; guidance is required when interpreting the output generated from each model. This paper proposes a decision flow chart in the form of an analytical framework to help decision makers apply, in an orderly fashion, different steps involved in examining the model outputs. The analytical framework is discussed with regard to the definition of problems and objectives and includes the following topics: model selection, identification of alternatives, modelling tasks and selecting alternatives for developing policy or implementing management scenarios. Its application is illustrated using an on-going exercise in developing silvicultural guidelines for a forest management enterprise in Ontario, Canada.

  12. Political dimensions of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Blewett, N

    1988-01-01

    World political aspects and the example of Australia as a national political response to AIDS are presented. Global policy on AIDS is influenced by the fact that the AIDS epidemic is the 1st to be largely predictable, that long lag times occur between intervention and measurable events, and by the prompt, professional leadership of WHO, lead by Dr. J. Mann. WHO began a Global Programme on AIDS in 1987, modelled on the responses of Canada and Australia. A world summit of Ministers of Health was convened in January 1988. These moves generated a response qualified by openness, cooperation, hope and common sense. The AIDS epidemic calls for unprecedented involvement of politicians: they must coordinate medical knowledge with community action, deal with public fear, exert strong, rational leadership and avoid quick, appealing counterproductive responses. 3 clear directions must be taken to deal with the epidemic: 1) strong research and education campaigns; 2) close contact with political colleagues, interest groups and the community; 3) a national strategy which enjoins diverse interest groups, with courage, rationality and compassion. In Australia, the AIDS response began with the unwitting infection of 3 infants by blood transfusion. A public information campaign emphasizing a penetrating TV ad campaign was instituted in 1987. Policy discussions were held in all parliamentary bodies. The AIDS epidemic demands rapid, creative responses, a break from traditions in health bureaucracy, continual scrutiny of funding procedures and administrative arrangements. In practical terms in Australia, this meant establishing a special AIDS branch within the Health Advancement Division of the Community Health Department. AIDS issues must remain depoliticized to defuse adversary politics and keep leaders in a united front.

  13. Moral Character and Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  14. Caregiver supportive policies to improve child outcomes in the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: an analysis of the gap between what is needed and what is available in 25 high prevalence countries.

    PubMed

    Kidman, Rachel; Heymann, Jody

    2016-03-01

    In the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, caregivers are struggling to support HIV-affected children. For reasons of equity and efficiency, their needs can be best met through strong social protections and policies. This paper presents a conceptual framework to help address the needs of HIV-affected caregivers and to prioritize policies. We describe the needs that are common across diverse caregiving populations (e.g., economic security); the needs which are intensified (e.g., leave to care for sick children) or unique to providing care to HIV-affected children (e.g., ARV treatment). The paper then explores the types of social policies that would facilitate families meeting these needs. We outline a basic package of policies that would support HIV-affected families, and would meet goals agreed to by national governments. We examine the availability of these policies in 25 highly affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of countries guarantee short-term income protection during illness, free primary school, and educational inclusion of children with special needs. However, there are significant gaps in areas critical to family economic security and healthy child development. Fewer than half of the countries we analyzed guarantee a minimum wage that will enable families to escape poverty; only six have eliminated tuition fees for secondary school; and only three offer paid leave to care for sick children. Filling these policy gaps, as well as making mental health and social services more widely available, is essential to support caregiving by families for HIV-affected children. As part of the HIV agenda, the global community can help national governments advance towards their policy targets. This would provide meaningful protection for families affected by HIV, as well as for millions of other vulnerable families and children across the region.

  15. Caregiver supportive policies to improve child outcomes in the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: an analysis of the gap between what is needed and what is available in 25 high prevalence countries

    PubMed Central

    Kidman, Rachel; Heymann, Jody

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the wake of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, caregivers are struggling to support HIV-affected children. For reasons of equity and efficiency, their needs can be best met through strong social protections and policies. This paper presents a conceptual framework to help address the needs of HIV-affected caregivers and to prioritize policies. We describe the needs that are common across diverse caregiving populations (e.g., economic security); the needs which are intensified (e.g., leave to care for sick children) or unique to providing care to HIV-affected children (e.g., ARV treatment). The paper then explores the types of social policies that would facilitate families meeting these needs. We outline a basic package of policies that would support HIV-affected families, and would meet goals agreed to by national governments. We examine the availability of these policies in 25 highly affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of countries guarantee short-term income protection during illness, free primary school, and educational inclusion of children with special needs. However, there are significant gaps in areas critical to family economic security and healthy child development. Fewer than half of the countries we analyzed guarantee a minimum wage that will enable families to escape poverty; only six have eliminated tuition fees for secondary school; and only three offer paid leave to care for sick children. Filling these policy gaps, as well as making mental health and social services more widely available, is essential to support caregiving by families for HIV-affected children. As part of the HIV agenda, the global community can help national governments advance towards their policy targets. This would provide meaningful protection for families affected by HIV, as well as for millions of other vulnerable families and children across the region. PMID:27392009

  16. Clarity versus complexity: land-use modeling as a practical tool for decision-makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has seen a remarkable increase in the number of modeling tools available to examine future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change. Integrated modeling frameworks, agent-based models, cellular automata approaches, and other modeling techniques have substantially improved the representation of complex LULC systems, with each method using a different strategy to address complexity. However, despite the development of new and better modeling tools, the use of these tools is limited for actual planning, decision-making, or policy-making purposes. LULC modelers have become very adept at creating tools for modeling LULC change, but complicated models and lack of transparency limit their utility for decision-makers. The complicated nature of many LULC models also makes it impractical or even impossible to perform a rigorous analysis of modeling uncertainty. This paper provides a review of land-cover modeling approaches and the issues causes by the complicated nature of models, and provides suggestions to facilitate the increased use of LULC models by decision-makers and other stakeholders. The utility of LULC models themselves can be improved by 1) providing model code and documentation, 2) through the use of scenario frameworks to frame overall uncertainties, 3) improving methods for generalizing key LULC processes most important to stakeholders, and 4) adopting more rigorous standards for validating models and quantifying uncertainty. Communication with decision-makers and other stakeholders can be improved by increasing stakeholder participation in all stages of the modeling process, increasing the transparency of model structure and uncertainties, and developing user-friendly decision-support systems to bridge the link between LULC science and policy. By considering these options, LULC science will be better positioned to support decision-makers and increase real-world application of LULC modeling results.

  17. Using rapid research to develop a national strategy to assist families affected by AIDS in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hunter, S; Kaijage, F; Maack, P; Kiondo, A; Masanja, P

    1997-01-01

    Although information on African family adaptation to the AIDS epidemic is critical to planning and managing government, donor and NGO programs of assistance, current knowledge is limited to a small number of research studies. An AIDS prevention project in Tanzania undertook a rapid national assessment to identify the major problems for families in Tanzania in adapting to the epidemic. The methodology used for the work was distinct from prior studies: the research covered a wide cross-section of Tanzanian population groups to gauge the extent of ethnic, urban-rural and regional variation; it was rapid and qualitative, to gather data on broad trends in a short time; and it was designed in co-operation with policy-makers so they could understand the approach being used and were receptive to the findings. The study identified common problems in AIDS care, counselling and survivor assistance. Many of the problems for families with AIDS have their origin in poverty and changes in African family structures over the past 20 years, which African demographers are just beginning to describe. Stresses arising from these changes are now being aggravated by AIDS, but families with sufficient resources, whether female or male-headed, are coping better than those without.

  18. An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Direct Investment Policy and Economic Development. A.I.D. Discussion Paper No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsten, C. Fred; De Castro, Bruce

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze U.S. policies toward financial investment in developing nations. The paper is presented in two sections. In section I, the controversial effects of direct foreign investment on development are discussed. Case studies of investment policies toward India, the Philippines, Ghana, Guatemala, and Argentina are…

  19. The experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care of AIDS patients in the Bophirima district, North West province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Makhele, M F; Mulaudzi, F M

    2012-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic put significant strain on healthcare services in the country. Hospitals were no longer coping with the escalating number of AIDS patients. This resulted in the early discharge of patients, with some patients, too ill to be nursed at home, being sent to hospices for continued care. The Batswana had mixed feelings about hospice care, because their beliefs on patient care are based on the ubuntu philosophy, which emphasises the principle of caring for one another. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care for patients in the Thlabane township in the province of the North West as well as to make recommendations to policy-makers to ensure that hospices are accepted by community members and utilised effectively. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was applied. Purposive sampling was applied to select study participants with whom in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. A qualitative data analysis was done by categorising, ordering, and summarising the data, and describing the findings. The findings indicated that families of patients in hospice care experienced such care as foreign to their culture. These families also experienced stigmatisation, firstly owing to the stigma associated with AIDS and secondly because they opted for hospice care. However, they also observed the high quality of care provided by the hospice and understood its benefits for AIDS patients. The study concluded that hospice care relieved families of terminally ill AIDS patients of the burden of care and enabled them to keep on working and earning a living. Recommendations to policy-makers included enhancing hospice care and ensuring the provisioning of culturally safe hospice care.

  20. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  1. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  2. Business and AIDS: sectoral challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Weston, Mark D; Churchyard, Gavin J; Mametja, David; McIntyre, James A; Randera, Fazel

    2007-07-01

    The Business and AIDS think tank held in Durban, South Africa, in June 2006, included a discussion of the policies with which different types of employer could address HIV/AIDS in southern Africa. Breakout groups discussed the role of large and small private sector firms, the public sector, and parastatal organizations. They made recommendations for policies, programmes and future research for each sector.

  3. Make Energy at the Bay Area Maker Faire

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-17

    Think. Make. Innovate. A festival of invention, creativity and resourcefulness that gathers makers of all kinds. Scientists are seeking to find innovative solutions to the energy challenges in the world.

  4. Make Energy at the Bay Area Maker Faire

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Think. Make. Innovate. A festival of invention, creativity and resourcefulness that gathers makers of all kinds. Scientists are seeking to find innovative solutions to the energy challenges in the world.

  5. 3. BARREL VIEW, LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF BRIDGE, SHOWING MAKER'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BARREL VIEW, LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF BRIDGE, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE, DECORATIVE SCROLLWORK AND URN FINIALS ON NORTHEAST PORTAL - "Forder" Pratt Through Truss Bridge, Spanning Maumee River at County Route 73, Antwerp, Paulding County, OH

  6. 3. VIEW OF MAKERS PLATE ATTACHED TO UPPER CHORD MEMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF MAKERS PLATE ATTACHED TO UPPER CHORD MEMBER WHICH STATES 'HUSTON AND CLEVELAND CONTRACTORS, COLUMBUS, OHIO, 1904.' - Main Street Parker Pony Truss Bridge, Main Street (Route 170) spanning Yellow Creek, Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  7. Living with HIV/AIDS in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedletter, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter article is concerned with understanding what schools can and must do to sustain life in the age of human immunodeficiency virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The article looks at the incidence of AIDS and reviews legislation related to AIDS infection and school attendance. School policy as it relates to…

  8. Tackling Health Inequalities in the United Kingdom: The Progress and Pitfalls of Policy

    PubMed Central

    Exworthy, Mark; Blane, David; Marmot, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Goal Assess the progress and pitfalls of current United Kingdom (U.K.) policies to reduce health inequalities. Objectives (1) Describe the context enabling health inequalities to get onto the policy agenda in the United Kingdom. (2) Categorize and assess selected current U.K. policies that may affect health inequalities. (3) Apply the “policy windows” model to understand the issues faced in formulating and implementing such policies. (4) Examine the emerging policy challenges in the U.K. and elsewhere. Data Sources Official documents, secondary analyses, and interviews with policymakers. Study Design Qualitative, policy analysis. Data Collection 2001–2002. The methods were divided into two stages. The first identified policies which were connected with individual inquiry recommendations. The second involved case-studies of three policies areas which were thought to be crucial in tackling health inequalities. Both stages involved interviews with policy-makers and documentary analysis. Principal Findings (1) The current U.K. government stated a commitment to reducing health inequalities. (2) The government has begun to implement policies that address the wider determinants. (3) Some progress is evident but many indicators remain stubborn. (4) Difficulties remain in terms of coordinating policies across government and measuring progress. (5) The “policy windows” model explains the limited extent of progress and highlights current and possible future pitfalls. (6) The U.K.'s experience has lessons for other governments involved in tackling health inequalities. Conclusions Health inequalities are on the agenda of U.K. government policy and steps have been made to address them. There are some signs of progress but much remains to be done including overcoming some of the perverse incentives at the national level, improving joint working, ensuring appropriate measures of performance/progress, and improving monitoring arrangements. A conceptual policy model aids

  9. Global Tides, Samoan Shores: Samoan Policy Actors' Responses to the Shifting Conditions of Education Aid and Postcolonial Possibilities for Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobhani, Nima

    2016-01-01

    In the years since Samoan independence in 1962, and especially over the past 2 decades, the landscape of education aid to the Pacific Island nation of Samoa has changed dramatically as a result of ongoing geopolitical shifts and emerging global designs. Some of these include: rapid globalization across all spheres of human activity; the economic…

  10. College Affordability and the Emergence of Progressive Tuition Models: Are New Financial Aid Policies at Major Public Universities Working? Research and Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.7.16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapid, Patrick A.; Douglass, John Aubrey

    2016-01-01

    In an era of significant disinvestment in public higher education by state governments, many public universities are moving toward a "progressive tuition model" that attempts to invest approximately one-third of tuition income into institutional financial aid for lower-income and middle-class students. The objective is to mitigate the…

  11. Wireless technologies and accessibility for people with disabilities: findings from a policy research instrument.

    PubMed

    Baker, Paul M A; Moon, Nathan W

    2008-01-01

    The near universal deployment in the United States of a wide variety of information and communications technologies, both wired and wireless, creates potential barriers to use for several key populations, including the poor, people with disabilities, and the aging. Equal access to wireless technologies and services can be achieved through a variety of mechanisms, including legislation and regulations, market-based solutions, and awareness and outreach-based approaches. This article discusses the results of policy research conducted by the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Wireless Technologies (Wireless RERC) using policy Delphi polling methodology to probe stakeholders' opinions on key access barrier issues and to explore potential policy responses. Participants included disability advocates, disability/wireless technology policy makers, and product developers/manufacturers. Respondent input informed subsequent development of potential policy initiatives to increase access to these technologies. The findings from the Delphi suggest that awareness issues remain most important, especially manufacturer awareness of user needs and availability of consumer information for selecting the most appropriate wireless devices and services. Other key issues included the ability of people with disabilities to afford technologies and inadequacies in legislation and policy making for ensuring their general accessibility, as well as usefulness in emergencies. Technical issues, including interoperability, speech-to-text conversion, and hearing aid compatibility, were also identified by participating stakeholders as important. To address all these issues, Delphi respondents favored goals and options congruent with voluntary market-driven solutions where possible but also supported federal involvement, where necessary, to aid this process.

  12. Quarterly report to the Domestic Policy Council on the prevalence and rate of spread of HIV and AIDS in the United States.

    PubMed

    1988-04-15

    This report includes trends in reported cases of AIDS; trends in prevalence and incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) infection; status of HIV-1 antibody surveys; data on HIV-2; and a comparison of AIDS mortality and years of potential life lost (YPLL) with other major diseases. By March 14, 1988, a total of 56,212 cases of AIDS had been reported in the US; nearly 10,000 of these cases have been reported since the last report, on November 30, 1987. More than 31,400 cases have resulted in death. The 416 cases of AIDS reported during the past 12 months among children under 13 years of age represent an 85% increase over the total for the previous year; 75% of these children acquired their infection perinatally, probably before birth, from their infected mothers. Accurate estimates of the prevalence and rate of spread of HIV-1 infection in the entire US population are not possible at this time. More precise estimates are available only for certain subgroups of the general population such as blood donors and applicants for military service. Among active-duty US Army personnel who have been tested more than once, 7.7/10,000/year have become infected since their 1st test. The 1st reported case of AIDS caused by HIV-2 in the US was diagnosed in December 1987. The patient was a recent visitor from West Africa, where HIV-2 was originally described, and denied sexual intercourse, use of nonsterile needles, or donation of blood while in the US.

  13. SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND POLICY ADVOCACY - MAY 16, 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving many current ecological policy issues requires an array of scientific information. Sometimes scientific information is summarized for decision-makers by policy analysts or others, but often it comes directly from scientists. The ability of scientists (and sc...

  14. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: SUBVERTING DEVELOPMENT OF SOUND FISHERIES POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical fisheries policy issue requires an array of scientific information as part of the input provided to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform fisheries policy deliberations...

  15. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. In my experience, the ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform ecological policy deliberations has been diminish...

  16. ECOLOGICAL POLICY: DEFINING APPROPRIATE ROLES FOR SCIENCE AND SCIENTISTS - 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resolving typical ecological policy issues requires an array of scientific information as part of the input provided to decision-makers. The ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform policy deliberations diminishes when what is offered as "scienc...

  17. The "Good Governance" of Evidence in Health Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Parkhurst, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Calls for evidence-based policy often fail to recognise the fundamentally political nature of policy making. Policy makers must identify, evaluate and utilise evidence to solve policy problems in the face of competing priorities and political agendas. Evidence should inform but cannot determine policy choices. This paper draws on theories of…

  18. Forecasting Social Trends as a Basis for Formulating Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Arthur J.

    The paper describes how information regarding future trends is collected and made available to educational policy makers. Focusing on educational implications of social and population trends, the paper is based on data derived from use of trend forecasting by educational policy makers in Florida and other southeastern states. The document is…

  19. Compulsory Attendance Policies: About Age or Intervention? SREB Focus Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, SREB state policy-makers have focused on actions to reduce dropout rates and increase high school graduation rates. Some policy-makers have suggested that raising their state's compulsory attendance age (often called the dropout age) to require students to stay in school until age 17 or 18 is an important step. However,…

  20. Participant-Observation and the Development of Urban Neighborhood Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    The urban neighborhood, long of interest to city planners and sociologists, has in recent years become of increasing concern to public policy-makers. This new concern has called attention to a large gap in the municipal policy-maker's information resources. Social scientists have employed a field method, participant-observation, that can…

  1. Identifying the links between violence against women and HIV/AIDS: ecosocial and human rights frameworks offer insight into U.S. prevention policies.

    PubMed

    Teti, Michelle; Chilton, Mariana; Lloyd, Linda; Rubinstein, Susan

    2006-01-01

    While US government-sponsored HIV prevention initiatives have achieved notable successes, challenges remain to serving women effectively. Intimate partner violence hinders women's efforts to decrease their HIV risk behaviors. The global HIV/AIDS epidemic is often viewed as a human rights crisis. An analysis of US HIV prevention strategies based on ecosocial and health and human rights frameworks clarifies women's HIV risk practices and suggests opportunities for progress. These two frameworks help to (1) demonstrate how HIV/AIDS is a clinical manifestation of violence against women, (2) identify safety from violence as a human right necessary for well-being, and (3) suggest ways in which HIV prevention initiatives can more effectively improve women's health and fulfill their basic human rights.

  2. Improving the policy application of footprint indicators to support Europe's transition to a one planet economy: the development of the EUREAPA tool.

    PubMed

    Roelich, Katy; Owen, Anne; Thompson, David; Dawkins, Elena; West, Chris

    2014-05-15

    Environmentally extended multi-regional input-output (EE-MRIO) models provide us with a wealth of data relating to consumption-based environmental impacts at a national level. The results can identify the categories of consumption and sectors of production that contribute most to environmental impact allowing policy makers to prioritise intervention into particular areas. However, these data are not readily accessible to policy makers and civil society, making it difficult to extract and communicate the important messages it contains. The web-based tool - EUREAPA - was created as a usable, task-oriented interface to improve access to environmental and economic data held within a complex EE-MRIO model and make it more relevant to policy makers and civil society. The project team of scientists and IT specialists used an iterative, agile and participatory approach to engage potential end-users in the specification and testing of the tool. The engagement process identified two principal functions that were essential for the EUREAPA tool: viewing data and creating scenarios. The viewing data function allows users to analyse the wealth of data held within the model and present results from a range of perspectives. This helps to understand the causes of environmental pressure and identify priorities for policy intervention. The scenario function helps to communicate how changes in consumption and production might affect the future environmental impact of citizens of the EU, and facilitates long-term planning. Through this dialogue process the project has been able to ensure EUREAPA is relevant, user-friendly and fit-for-purpose. It is intended that EUREAPA will be adopted by policy makers and civil society as an important policy planning and assessment aid in the complex field of sustainable consumption and production.

  3. Human Capital: DOD Should Fully Develop Its Civilian Strategic Workforce Plan to Aid Decision Makers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    DOD’s 2013-2018 Workforce Plan 22 functional communities 32 mission-critical occupations (series) Medical Psychology Series (0180) Social Work...Updates. Listen to our Podcasts . Visit GAO on the web at www.gao.gov. Contact: Website: http://www.gao.gov/fraudnet/fraudnet.htm E-mail: fraudnet

  4. Creating windows of opportunity for policy change: Incorporating evidence into decentralized planning in Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Ashford, Lori S.; Smith, Rhonda R.; De Souza, Roger-Mark; Fikree, Fariyal F.; Yinger, Nancy V.

    2006-01-01

    PROBLEM: Because researchers and policy-makers work in different spheres, policy decisions in the health arena are often not based on available scientific evidence. APPROACH: We describe a model that illustrates the policy process and how to work strategically to translate knowledge into policy actions. Several types of activity--agenda-setting, coalition building and policy learning--together can create a window of opportunity for policy change. LOCAL SETTING: Activities were undertaken as part of the Kenyan Ministry of Health's new decentralized planning-process. The objective was to ensure that the results of a national assessment of health services were used in the preparation of district-level health plans. RELEVANT CHANGES: Following the intervention, 70 district-level, evidence-based work plans were developed and approved by the Kenyan Ministry of Health. LESSONS LEARNED: Substantial investment and effort are needed to bring stakeholders together to work towards policy change. More in-depth evaluation of these efforts can aid understanding of how systematic approaches to policy change can be replicated elsewhere. PMID:16917657

  5. Theorizing the Implementation of the HIV/AIDS Curriculum in Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musingarabwi, Starlin; Blignaut, Sylvan

    2015-01-01

    A growing need for utilizing school-based HIV/AIDS interventions the world over has been acknowledged as the most cost-effective means for arresting the spread of the HIV/AIDS pandemic among the vulnerable youth. However, the question on how teachers as educational change agents and cognitive sense-makers of HIV/AIDS curricula situated in a…

  6. Teachers, Curriculum Innovation, and Policy Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bascia, Nina; Carr-Harris, Shasta; Fine-Meyer, Rose; Zurzolo, Cara

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly understood that policy makers make curriculum policy and teachers implement it. Some teachers, however, have been in on the ground floor of curriculum policy development. Driven by events in their life histories and teaching contexts, these teachers develop and teach original course material in their own classrooms. Over time they…

  7. Education Policy-Making and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the global policy convergence toward high-stakes testing in schools and the use of test results to "steer at a distance", particularly as it applies to policy-makers' promise to improve teacher quality. Using Deleuze's three syntheses of time in the context of the Australian policy blueprint Quality Education, this…

  8. Foundations for Policy in Guidance and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, Edwin L., Ed.; Pinson, Nancy M., Ed.

    This book provides educators, counselors, policy makers, and community members with information about the state of the art of federal and state policy in guidance and counseling. The two chapters in part 1, Overview, are: "Foundations for Policy in Guidance and Counseling: An Introduction", by Edwin L. Herr and Nancy M. Pinson; and "A Counselor…

  9. HIV and Sports. American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Virus in the Athletic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement on participation of athletes with human immunodeficiency virus suggests they be allowed to participate in competitive sports until disease transmission is found to occur in sport settings. The article discusses physician and coach roles and recommends precautions regarding body fluids and…

  10. Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

  11. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism.

    PubMed

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers' levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers' levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified.

  12. The Role of the National Academy of Sciences in Supporting Climate Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfring, C.

    2009-12-01

    Established in 1863 by Congress under the Lincoln Administration, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a nongovernmental organization that plays a unique role in providing scientific information to decision makers. The NAS brings together the nation’s top experts, as volunteers, to provide objective scientific analysis and advice on a wide variety of critical issues, including climate change. The Academy’s climate change-related studies range from early reports such as Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment (1979) to current activities such as America’s Climate Choices (in process). Studies have or are addressing climate forcings and feedbacks, statistics, predictability, ecological impacts, the structure of federal climate research programs, decision-making, transportation planning, and other aspects of understanding and responding to climate change. Requests for studies come primarily from Congress and federal agencies, yet the NAS is able generate a wide variety of products and reports for policy-makers, government agencies, states, and the public. With so many special interests and advocacy organizations now speaking on climate issues, the role of NAS as an objective source of information and guidance is more important than ever. This talk will highlight a range of past and ongoing Academy reports, both technical and policy-oriented, to illustrate the kinds of questions we address, the processes used to gather information and reach consensus, how we deal with multidisciplinary questions, the impacts of our studies, and the ways we are evolving to meet the needs of a changing society.

  13. Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Harm Reduction in Muslim Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hasnain, Memoona

    2005-01-01

    Muslim countries, previously considered protected from HIV/AIDS due to religious and cultural norms, are facing a rapidly rising threat. Despite the evidence of an advancing epidemic, the usual response from the policy makers in Muslim countries, for protection against HIV infection, is a major focus on propagating abstention from illicit drug and sexual practices. Sexuality, considered a private matter, is a taboo topic for discussion. Harm reduction, a pragmatic approach for HIV prevention, is underutilized. The social stigma attached to HIV/AIDS, that exists in all societies is much more pronounced in Muslim cultures. This stigma prevents those at risk from coming forward for appropriate counseling, testing, and treatment, as it involves disclosure of risky practices. The purpose of this paper is to define the extent of the HIV/AIDS problem in Muslim countries, outline the major challenges to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, and discuss the concept of harm reduction, with a cultural approach, as a strategy to prevent further spread of the disease. Recommendations include integrating HIV prevention and treatment strategies within existing social, cultural and religious frameworks, working with religious leaders as key collaborators, and provision of appropriate healthcare resources and infrastructure for successful HIV prevention and treatment programs in Muslim countries. PMID:16253145

  14. Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Walters, Hannah J; O'Hara, Marguerite; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-09-09

    Policy-makers throughout the world seek to address childhood obesity prevention, yet little is known about factors that influence policy-makers' decisions on this topic. From September 2014 to April 2015, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews about factors that encourage and discourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies. We interviewed policy-makers (n = 12) and two other groups engaged with childhood obesity prevention policies: representatives of non-governmental organizations (n = 24) and academics (n = 7). Factors that encourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies included: positive impact on government finances, an existing evidence base, partnerships with community-based collaborators, and consistency with policy-makers' priorities. Factors that discourage policy-makers' support included the following: perceptions about government's role, food and beverage industry opposition, and policy-makers' beliefs about personal responsibility. As public health practitioners, advocates, and others seek to advance childhood obesity prevention in the U.S. and elsewhere, the factors we identified offer insights into ways to frame proposed policies and strategies to influence policy-makers.

  15. Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Walters, Hannah J; O'Hara, Marguerite; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers throughout the world seek to address childhood obesity prevention, yet little is known about factors that influence policy-makers' decisions on this topic. From September 2014 to April 2015, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews about factors that encourage and discourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies. We interviewed policy-makers (n = 12) and two other groups engaged with childhood obesity prevention policies: representatives of non-governmental organizations (n = 24) and academics (n = 7). Factors that encourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies included: positive impact on government finances, an existing evidence base, partnerships with community-based collaborators, and consistency with policy-makers' priorities. Factors that discourage policy-makers' support included the following: perceptions about government's role, food and beverage industry opposition, and policy-makers' beliefs about personal responsibility. As public health practitioners, advocates, and others seek to advance childhood obesity prevention in the U.S. and elsewhere, the factors we identified offer insights into ways to frame proposed policies and strategies to influence policy-makers.

  16. The Roles of Lesser-Known American Telescope Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Trudy E.

    A history of lesser-known telescope makers. The following makers, owners, dealers and firms are discussed: Henry Fitz, William S. Van Duzee, Lewis M. Rutherford, Charles A. Spencer, A. K. Eaton, John Byrne, Robert B. Tolles, Buff and Berger of Boston, Fauth and Co., George N. Saegmuller, E. Kubel (Kübel), Chester S. Lyman, Stackpole and Brother, William Wurdemann (Würdemann), William J. Young, Gundlach of Rochester, William Kahler, Stendicke of NYC, Walther of Philadelphia, Worcester R. Warner, Ambrose Swasey, William T. Gregg, Phelps and Gurley of Troy, H. G. Sedgewick, Benjamin Pike, William Mogey, David Mogey, and James A. Queen.

  17. Consistent assignment of nurse aides: association with turnover and absenteeism.

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas G

    2013-01-01

    Consistent assignment refers to the same caregivers consistently caring for the same residents almost every time caregivers are on duty. This article examines the association of consistent assignment of nurse aides with turnover and absenteeism. Data came from a survey of nursing home administrators, the Online Survey Certification and Reporting data, and the Area Resource File. The measures were from 2007 and came from 3,941 nursing homes. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine turnover and absenteeism. An average of 68% of nursing homes reported using consistent assignment, with 28% of nursing homes using nurse aides consistent assignment at the often recommended level of 85% (or more). Nursing homes using recommended levels of consistent assignment had significantly lower rates of turnover and of absenteeism. In the multivariate analyses, consistent assignment was significantly associated with both lower turnover and lower absenteeism (p < .01). Consistent assignment is a practice recommended by many policy makers, government agencies, and industry advocates. The findings presented here provide some evidence that the use of this staffing practice can be beneficial.

  18. Communication with U.S. federal decision makers : a primer with notes on the use of computer models as a means of communication.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Erik Karl; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2009-10-01

    This document outlines ways to more effectively communicate with U.S. Federal decision makers by outlining the structure, authority, and motivations of various Federal groups, how to find the trusted advisors, and how to structure communication. All three branches of Federal governments have decision makers engaged in resolving major policy issues. The Legislative Branch (Congress) negotiates the authority and the resources that can be used by the Executive Branch. The Executive Branch has some latitude in implementation and prioritizing resources. The Judicial Branch resolves disputes. The goal of all decision makers is to choose and implement the option that best fits the needs and wants of the community. However, understanding the risk of technical, political and/or financial infeasibility and possible unintended consequences is extremely difficult. Primarily, decision makers are supported in their deliberations by trusted advisors who engage in the analysis of options as well as the day-to-day tasks associated with multi-party negotiations. In the best case, the trusted advisors use many sources of information to inform the process including the opinion of experts and if possible predictive analysis from which they can evaluate the projected consequences of their decisions. The paper covers the following: (1) Understanding Executive and Legislative decision makers - What can these decision makers do? (2) Finding the target audience - Who are the internal and external trusted advisors? (3) Packaging the message - How do we parse and integrate information, and how do we use computer simulation or models in policy communication?

  19. Underlying Policy Assumptions of Charter School Reform: The Multiple Meanings of a Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Amy Stuart; Grutzik, Cynthia; Carnochan, Sibyll; Slayton, Julie; Vasudeva, Ash

    1999-01-01

    Based on interviews with state-level policy makers in six states, examines the policies of charter-school reform, arguing that the bipartisan support for these schools masks often-opposing viewpoints regarding the purpose of the reform. Identifies three salient and conflicting themes that emerge from the policy makers' explanations of their…

  20. A narrative policy approach to environmental conservation.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Ricky N; Rudd, Murray A

    2014-11-01

    Due to the urgency and seriousness of the loss of biological diversity, scientists from across a range of disciplines are urged to increase the salience and use of their research by policy-makers. Increased policy nuance is needed to address the science-policy gap and overcome divergent views of separate research and policy worlds, a view still relatively common among conservation scientists. Research impact considerations should recognize that policy uptake is dependent on contextual variables operating in the policy sphere. We provide a novel adaptation of existing policy approaches to evidence impact that accounts for non-evidentiary "societal" influences on decision-making. We highlight recent analytical tools from political science that account for the use of evidence by policy-makers. Using the United Kingdom's recent embrace of the ecosystem approach to environmental management, we advocate analyzing evidence research impact through a narrative lens that accounts for the credibility, legitimacy, and relevance of science for policy.

  1. Coco Nut Meets the Gadget Maker. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, P.

    The adventures of Coco Nut, a coconut which has fallen from a palm tree in Florida, are illustrated in this booklet for elementary school students. His fall into a canal and ensuing encounters with dead and alive fish and a gadget maker (industry) are used to portray the effects of water pollution. What man can do to stop such pollution and…

  2. Data Quality: Earning the Confidence of Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligon, Glynn D.

    Professionals responsible for educational research, evaluation, and statistics have sought to provide timely and useful information to decision makers. Regardless of the evaluation model, research design, or statistical methodology employed, informing the decision making process with quality, reliable data is a basic goal. The definition of…

  3. SMILE Maker: A Web-Based Tool for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoyanov, Svetoslav; Aroyo, Lora; Kommers, Piet; Kurtev, Ivan

    This paper focuses on the purposes, theoretical model, and functionality of the SMILE (Solution Mapping Intelligent Learning Environment) Maker--a World Wide Web-based problem-solving tool. From an instructional design point of view, an attempt to establish a balance between constructivism/instructivism, content-treatment…

  4. Infants and Toddlers as Members, Makers, Interpreters: A Philosophical Journey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, June Moss

    This book explores how young children, within their cultural imperatives, struggle to discover who they are as cultural "members" interacting with others, as "makers" trying out and creating, and as "interpreters" making meaning and making new connections. Chapters in Part 1 emphasize the significance of a…

  5. The "Diverse Decision Makers": Helping Students with Career Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donald, Kathleen M.; Carlisle, Jane M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents the Diverse Decision Makers, a humorous classification of student career decision-making characteristics which can be used to stimulate group discussion in career planning workshops. The use of humor provides students with a different perspective to their problem and suggests some of the underlying difficulties in decision making. (JAC)

  6. Archives and Records Management for Decision Makers: A RAMP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazikana, Peter C.

    Intended to highlight those aspects of the archival field that government officials should be aware of, this report on the Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) outlines the major principles of records management and archives administration, identifies the information needs of the decision makers, and assesses the ways in which records…

  7. Creating Meaning through Art. Teacher as Choice Maker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Judith W.; Delaney, Jean M.; Carroll, Karen Lee; Hamilton, Cheryl M.; Kay, Sandra I.; Kerlavage, Marianne S.; Olson, Janet L.

    This book introduces preservice art educators to the power of art in creating meaning. Each chapter emphasizes different aspects of art education, identifies concepts and research, and outlines the advantages and challenges of making the suggested choices. Part 1, "Teacher as Choice Maker," includes two chapters. Chapter 1 invites…

  8. Imaginative Thinking: Addressing Social Justice Issues through MovieMaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…

  9. The Promise of the Maker Movement for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The Maker Movement is a community of hobbyists, tinkerers, engineers, hackers, and artists who creatively design and build projects for both playful and useful ends. There is growing interest among educators in bringing making into K-12 education to enhance opportunities to engage in the practices of engineering, specifically, and STEM more…

  10. Overcoming Fear: Helping Decision Makers Understand Risk in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haras, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The long history of outdoor education does little to alleviate the fears of many parents, teachers, principals and superintendents who believe that outdoor education is too risky. These decision makers often lack both the knowledge to make informed decisions and the time and resources to investigate their assumptions. Pair these circumstances with…

  11. Understanding Narratives of Nationhood: Film-Makers and Culloden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, John R.; Gold, Margaret M.

    2002-01-01

    Film audiences have long been invited to view Scotland and Scottish life through a historic lens. Influenced by the pre-existing literary traditions of tartanry and kailyard, film-makers have focused nostalgically on the myths and legends of the Highland and pre-industrial Scotland, with the implications that this approach has for representations…

  12. TestMaker: A Computer-Based Test Development Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, William J.; Lario-Gibbs, Annette M.

    This paper discusses a computer-based prototype called TestMaker that enables educators to create computer-based tests. Given the functional needs of faculty, the host of research implications computer technology has for assessment, and current educational perspectives such as constructivism and their impact on testing, the purposes for developing…

  13. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... panel if the general alarm power supply is not in or next to the navigating bridge. (c) Mobile offshore drilling units. Each mobile offshore drilling unit must have a manually operated contact maker for the general emergency alarm system: (1) In the main control room; (2) At the drilling console; (3) At...

  14. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... panel if the general alarm power supply is not in or next to the navigating bridge. (c) Mobile offshore drilling units. Each mobile offshore drilling unit must have a manually operated contact maker for the general emergency alarm system: (1) In the main control room; (2) At the drilling console; (3) At...

  15. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... panel if the general alarm power supply is not in or next to the navigating bridge. (c) Mobile offshore drilling units. Each mobile offshore drilling unit must have a manually operated contact maker for the general emergency alarm system: (1) In the main control room; (2) At the drilling console; (3) At...

  16. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... panel if the general alarm power supply is not in or next to the navigating bridge. (c) Mobile offshore drilling units. Each mobile offshore drilling unit must have a manually operated contact maker for the general emergency alarm system: (1) In the main control room; (2) At the drilling console; (3) At...

  17. A Study of the Training of Tool and Die Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Morris A.; Herrnstadt, Irwin L.

    To develop and test a methodology which would help determine the combination of education, training, and experience that is most likely to yield highly qualified workers in specific occupations, the tool and die maker trade was selected for examination in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Tool and die making was chosen because it is a clearly…

  18. Scenarios use to engage scientists and decision-makers in a changing Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, O. A.; Eicken, H.; Payne, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Scenarios provide a framework to develop more adaptive Arctic policies that allow decision makers to consider the best available science to address complex relationships and key uncertainties in drivers of change. These drivers may encompass biophysical factors such as climate change, socioeconomic drivers, and wild-cards that represent low likelihood but influential events such as major environmental disasters. We outline some of the lessons learned from the North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI) scenarios project that could help in the development of adaptive science-based policies. Three spatially explicit development scenarios were identified corresponding to low, medium and high resource extraction activities on the North Slope and adjacent seas. In the case of the high energy development scenario science needs were focused on new technology, oil spill response, and the effects of offshore activities on marine mammals important for subsistence. Science needs related to community culture, erosion, permafrost degradation and hunting and trapping on land were also identified for all three scenarios. The NSSI science needs will guide recommendations for future observing efforts, and data from these observing activities could subsequently improve policy guidance for emergency response, subsistence management and other issues. Scenarios at pan-Arctic scales may help improve the development of international policies for resilient northern communities and encourage the use of science to reduce uncertainties in plans for adapting to change in the Arctic.

  19. Emodnet Med Sea Check-Point - Indicators for decision- maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnard, Sophie; Claverie, Vincent; Blanc, Frédérique

    2015-04-01

    The Emodnet Checkpoint projects aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness, reliability and utility of the existing monitoring at the sea basin level. This involves the development of monitoring system indicators and a GIS Platform to perform the assessment and make it available. Assessment or production of Check-Point information is made by developing targeted products based on the monitoring data and determining whether the products are meeting the needs of industry and public authorities. Check-point users are the research community, the 'institutional' policy makers for IMP and MSFD implementation, the 'intermediate users', i.e., users capable to understand basic raw data but that benefit from seeing the Checkpoint targeted products and the assessment of the fitness for purpose. We define assessment criteria aimed to characterize/depict the input datasets in terms of 3 territories capable to show performance and gaps of the present monitoring system, appropriateness, availability and fitness for purpose. • Appropriateness: What is made available to users? What motivate/decide them to select this observation rather than this one. • Availability: How this is made available to the user? Place to understand the readiness and service performance of the EU infrastructure • Fitness for use / fitness for purpose: Ability for non-expert user to appreciate the data exploitability (feedback on efficiency & reliability of marine data) For each territory (appropriateness, Availability and Fitness for purpose / for use), we define several indicators. For example, for Availability we define Visibility, Accessibility and Performance. And Visibility is itself defined by "Easily found" and "EU service". So these indicators can be classified according to their territory and sub-territory as seen above, but also according to the complexity to build them. Indicators are built from raw descriptors in 3 stages:  Stage 1: to give a neutral and basic status directly computed from

  20. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... hair cells (outer and inner rows). When the vibrations move through this fluid, the tiny outer hair ... ear to the brain. Hearing aids intensify sound vibrations that the damaged outer hair cells have trouble ...

  1. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  2. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult…

  3. ICT Policy Planning in a Context of Curriculum Reform: Disentanglement of ICT Policy Domains and Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinde, Ruben; van Braak, Johan; Dexter, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers around the world are increasingly acknowledging the importance of developing a school-based ICT policy plan to facilitate the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in education. Despite this interest, not much is known about how schools can develop their local ICT policy capacity and how to…

  4. Linking Educational Research and Educational Policy via Policy-Relevant Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Peter; LaRocque, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a research model that emphasizes policy concerns throughout the problem formulation, data collection, and interpretation processes. Describes the model's germinal study, its characteristics (assumption of complexity, maximization of causal inquiry, usefulness for policy makers), and its relationship to public policy making and other forms…

  5. Writing in Policy, Writing out Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machawira, Patricia; Pillay, Venitha

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we argue that education policy on HIV and AIDS is policy about life. As such, the contexts and the realities of teachers and learners in the classroom need to be embedded in the policy. We make a case that HIV and AIDS policy needs to extend beyond the prevention mode to one that includes care and support in the policy context.…

  6. 23 CFR 230.107 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Policy. 230.107 Section 230.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... Federal and Federal-Aid Construction Contracts (Including Supportive Services) § 230.107 Policy. (a) Direct Federal and Federal-aid highway construction projects. It is the policy of the FHWA to...

  7. LCFM - LIVING COLOR FRAME MAKER: PC GRAPHICS GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.

    1994-01-01

    Computer graphics are often applied for better understanding and interpretation of data under observation. These graphics become more complicated when animation is required during "run-time", as found in many typical modern artificial intelligence and expert systems. Living Color Frame Maker is a solution to many of these real-time graphics problems. Living Color Frame Maker (LCFM) is a graphics generation and management tool for IBM or IBM compatible personal computers. To eliminate graphics programming, the graphic designer can use LCFM to generate computer graphics frames. The graphical frames are then saved as text files, in a readable and disclosed format, which can be easily accessed and manipulated by user programs for a wide range of "real-time" visual information applications. For example, LCFM can be implemented in a frame-based expert system for visual aids in management of systems. For monitoring, diagnosis, and/or controlling purposes, circuit or systems diagrams can be brought to "life" by using designated video colors and intensities to symbolize the status of hardware components (via real-time feedback from sensors). Thus status of the system itself can be displayed. The Living Color Frame Maker is user friendly with graphical interfaces, and provides on-line help instructions. All options are executed using mouse commands and are displayed on a single menu for fast and easy operation. LCFM is written in C++ using the Borland C++ 2.0 compiler for IBM PC series computers and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The program requires a mouse and an EGA/VGA display. A minimum of 77K of RAM is also required for execution. The documentation is provided in electronic form on the distribution medium in WordPerfect format. A sample MS-DOS executable is provided on the distribution medium. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools

  8. A systematic review of factors influencing fertility desires and intentions among people living with HIV/AIDS: implications for policy and service delivery.

    PubMed

    Nattabi, Barbara; Li, Jianghong; Thompson, Sandra C; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Earnest, Jaya

    2009-10-01

    With availability of antiretroviral treatments, HIV is increasingly recognised as a chronic disease people live with for many years. This paper critically reviews the current literature on fertility desires and reproductive intentions among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) and critiques the theoretical frameworks and methodologies used. A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases: ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, Proquest, Jstor and CINAHL for articles published between 1990 and 2008. The search terms used were fertility desire, pregnancy, HIV, reproductive decision making, reproductive intentions, motherhood, fatherhood and parenthood. Twenty-nine studies were reviewed. Fertility desires were influenced by a myriad of demographic, health, stigma-associated and psychosocial factors. Cultural factors were also important, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Future research that examines fertility desires among PLHIV should include cultural beliefs and practices in the theoretical framework in order to provide a holistic understanding and to enable development of services that meet the reproductive needs of PLHIV.

  9. Communicating pesticide neurotoxicity research findings and risks to decision-makers and the public.

    PubMed

    Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2014-12-01

    The extensive research findings on neurotoxic risks of pesticides tend to remain in academic publications rather than being comprehensibly communicated to decision-makers and the public. Protecting health and promoting risk reduction, particularly in developing countries, requires access to current findings in a format that can inform policy, regulations, behaviour change and risk reduction. Successfully communicating research findings may require multiple strategies depending on the target audience's varying comprehension skills (e.g., numeracy literacy, visual literacy) and ability to interpret scientific data. To illustrate the complexities of risk communication, a case study of exposure to neurotoxic street pesticides amongst poor, urban South African communities attempting to control poverty related pests, is presented. What remains a challenge is how to communicate neurotoxicity research findings consistently and in a meaningful manner for a lay audience, consisting of both the general public and decision makers. A further challenge is to identify who will monitor and evaluate the ways in which these findings are communicated to ensure quality is maintained. Ultimately, researchers should carry the responsibility of knowledge translation and engaging with communication specialists when appropriate. Additionally, institutions should reward this as part of promotion and academic accolade systems, and funders should fund the translational process. Ethics review boards should also play an instrumental role in ensuring that knowledge translation is part of the ethics review requirement, while professional societies should take more responsibility for disseminating research findings to non-academics.

  10. Migration and AIDS.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article presents the perspectives of UNAIDS and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on migration and HIV/AIDS. It identifies research and action priorities and policy issues, and describes the current situation in major regions of the world. Migration is a process. Movement is enhanced by air transport, rising international trade, deregulation of trade practices, and opening of borders. Movements are restricted by laws and statutes. Denial to freely circulate and obtain asylum is associated with vulnerability to HIV infections. A UNAIDS policy paper in 1997 and IOM policy guidelines in 1988 affirm that refugees and asylum seekers should not be targeted for special measures due to HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need to provide primary health services for migrants, voluntary counseling and testing, and more favorable conditions. Research is needed on the role of migration in the spread of HIV, the extent of migration, availability of health services, and options for HIV prevention. Research must be action-oriented and focused on vulnerability to HIV and risk taking behavior. There is substantial mobility in West and Central Africa, economic migration in South Africa, and nonvoluntary migration in Angola. Sex workers in southeast Asia contribute to the spread. The breakup of the USSR led to population shifts. Migrants in Central America and Mexico move north to the US where HIV prevalence is higher.

  11. James Henry Marriott: New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.

    2015-11-01

    James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.

  12. Improving adolescent health policy: incorporating a framework for assessing state-level policies.

    PubMed

    Brindis, Claire D; Moore, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Many US policies that affect health are made at the state, not the federal, level. Identifying state-level policies and data to analyze how different policies affect outcomes may help policy makers ascertain the usefulness of their public policies and funding decisions in improving the health of adolescent populations. A framework for describing and assessing the role of federal and state policies on adolescent health and well-being is proposed; an example of how the framework might be applied to the issue of teen childbearing is included. Such a framework can also help inform analyses of whether and how state and federal policies contribute to the variation across states in meeting adolescent health needs. A database on state policies, contextual variables, and health outcomes data can further enable researchers and policy makers to examine how these factors are associated with behaviors they aim to impact.

  13. HIV/AIDS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www. ...

  14. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  15. Topical Search: AIDS and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Inst. of Justice.

    This topical search includes 30 of the most representative citations on the subject of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and youth selected from the National Institute of Justice/NCJRS (National Criminal Justice Reference Service) database. Topics covered in this package include education programs for in-school youth, policies and…

  16. Bridging the Gap Between NASA Earth Observations and Decision Makers Through the NASA Develop National Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillard, C. M.; Madden, M.; Favors, J.; Childs-Gleason, L.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Ruiz, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society by building capacity in both participants and partner organizations that collaborate to conduct projects. These rapid feasibility projects highlight the capabilities of satellite and aerial Earth observations. Immersion of decision and policy makers in these feasibility projects increases awareness of the capabilities of Earth observations and contributes to the tools and resources available to support enhanced decision making. This paper will present the DEVELOP model, best practices, and two case studies, the Colombia Ecological Forecasting project and the Miami-Dade County Ecological Forecasting project, that showcase the successful adoption of tools and methods for decision making. Through over 90 projects each year, DEVELOP is always striving for the innovative, practical, and beneficial use of NASA Earth science data.

  17. Bridging the Gap between NASA Earth Observations and Decision Makers through the NASA DEVELOP National Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favors, J. E.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Ruiz, M. L.; Miller, T. N.; Crepps, G.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society by building capacity in both participants and partner organizations who collaborate to conduct projects. These rapid feasibility projects highlight the capabilities of satellite and aerial Earth observations to enhance decision making on a local level. DEVELOP partners with a wide variety of organizations, including state and local governments, federal agencies, regional entities, tribal governments, international organizations and governments, NGOs and private companies. Immersion of decision and policy makers in these feasibility projects increases awareness of the capabilities of Earth observations, and contributes to the tools and resources available to support enhanced decision making. This presentation will highlight best practices, feedback from project end-users, and case studies of successful adoption of methods in the decision making process.

  18. Decision Aiding in Europe: Assessment Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-26

    bodies and ship contours BRLT ratings, the decision-maker keeps produced in this way are quite striking, working on a goal point or reference point and...graphic functions but are multicriteria aspirations are often contra- not specifically European. Cinematic dictory and cannot be achieved simulta...above a certain threshold, then more of Hamburg. Starting from a bare minimum information and aiding are of little use, of assumptions (e.g., rigidity

  19. AIDS, Alcohol & Health Care. Chapter 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains 10 papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TC) that deal with a variety of health-related subjects. Papers include: (1) "AIDS among IV Drug Users: Epidemiology, Natural History & TC Experiences" (Don C. Des Jarlais, et al.); (2) "AIDS and Therapeutic Communities: Policy Implications" (Don C. Des…

  20. Salary Levels for Chief Financial Aid Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    The Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures gathered information on median annual salary levels for chief financial aid administrators in 1999-2000. Among detailed findings, the survey concluded that men still have higher salaries than women. (EV)

  1. Salary Levels for Chief Financial Aid Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the median annual salary levels for chief financial aid administrators in 1999-2000 based on results from the Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures. Findings indicate that men still have higher salaries than women. (EV)

  2. How Effective Are State Merit Aid Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes findings from a symposium sponsored by the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University focusing on the following policy issues: What are the most recent trends in state merit aid programs? What are the relevant legal issues involved? Do merit aid programs adversely affect college access for low-income and racial/ethnic minority students?…

  3. Children, Teachers and the AIDS Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silin, Jonathan G.

    For schools, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) initially represented a policy problem requiring legal and public health experts to assess their ability to exclude students or staff infected with the human immuno-deficiency virus. As the crisis over the potential presence of people with AIDS in the schools abated and with the growing…

  4. Rapid Reviews in Health Policy: A Study of Intended Use in the New South Wales' Evidence Check Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gabriel Mary; Redman, Sally; Turner, Tari; Haines, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Rapid reviews of research are a key way in which policy makers use research. This paper examines 74 rapid reviews commissioned by health policy agencies through the Sax Institute's Evidence Check programme. We examine what prompted policy makers to commission rapid reviews, their purpose, how and when they intended to use them, and how this varied…

  5. Informing Education Policy in Afghanistan: Using Design of Experiments and Data Envelopment Analysis to Provide Transparency in Complex Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Education planning provides the policy maker and the decision maker a logical framework in which to develop and implement education policy. At the international level, education planning is often confounded by both internal and external complexities, making the development of education policy difficult. This research presents a discrete event…

  6. New Hampshire Sugar Makers Participate in Climate Change Study of Acer Saccharum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, B. N.; Carlson, M.

    2012-12-01

    A dozen maple sugar producers in New Hampshire have participated for the past three years in a study of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its response to climate-related and other stress agents. A dominant tree in the northeastern temperate forest, the sugar maple is projected to lose 52% of its range in the United States due to climate change stresses in this century. The species is already severely stressed by acid deposition as well as a wide array of environmental predators and pathogens. Engaging the public in studies of climate change is of pressing importance. Climate change is ubiquitous and is expressed in a wide variety of phenomena—changing patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation, more severe storms, changing atmospheric chemistry, phenologic chemistry change, ecotone shifts and new invasive competitors and predators. Scientists need citizen partners who are trained observers and who are familiar with protocols for monitoring, reporting and questioning what they observe. There is also a growing need for a public that is informed about climate change and variability so citizens can understand and support policy changes as needed to address climate change. In New Hampshire, sugar makers have collected maple sap samples at four times early in the sap season each year since 2010. The samples are collected and stored according to strict chemical protocols. The sugar makers have provided UNH and U.S. Forest Service chemists with significant numbers of sap samples for analysis of their phenolic chemistry. Correlating the sap chemistry with high spectral resolution reflectance measures of maple foliage, we are exploring whether changes in sap phenolics may signal distress or of long-term health of the trees. In addition, the sugar makers have provided access to their sugar orchards for monthly sampling of leaves and buds, beginning in May and continuing through the Fall. The three years of data are building long-term evidence of changes in maple

  7. Trust makers, breakers and brokers: building trust in the Australian food system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of consumer trust in the food supply has previously been identified, and dimensions of consumer trust in food—who they trust and the type of trust that they exhibit—has been explored. However, there is a lack of research about the mechanisms through which consumer trust in the food supply is developed, maintained, broken and repaired. This study seeks to address this gap by exploring if, and how, consumer trust in the food supply is considered by the media, food industry and governments when responding to food scares. The aim of the research is to develop models of trust building that can be implemented following food scares. Methods Semi-structured interviews will be undertaken with media, public relations officials and policy makers in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Participants will be recruited through purposive sampling and will be asked to discuss a hypothetical case study outlining a food incident, and any experiences of specific food scares. Models of trust development, maintenance and repair will be developed from interview data. Comment on these models will be sought from experts in food-related organizations through a Delphi study, where participants will be asked to consider the usefulness of the models. Participants’ comments will be used to revise the models until consensus is reached on the suitability and usability of the models. Discussion This study will contribute to the literature about systems-based trust, and explore trust as a social and regulatory process. The protocol and results will be of interest and use to the food industry, food regulators, consumer advocate groups, media seeking to report food-related issues and policy makers concerned with public health and consumer health and well-being. This research represents an important contribution to the translation of the theoretical conceptualizations of trust into practical use in the context of food. PMID:23496819

  8. Replicating PEPFAR's success: how interventions shown to be effective abroad can be applied to the AIDS epidemic in the US.

    PubMed

    Fu, Joe; Gavaghan, Ann; Millett, Gregorio; Walsh, Tom

    2012-07-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), which began in 2003, initially responded to the global AIDS epidemic by applying lessons learned in treating the disease in the United States to addressing the emergency abroad. As the program expanded, it evolved to support interventions increasingly tailored to local needs in countries receiving PEPFAR assistance. This global experience has created a knowledge base of how to provide HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment services in low-resource settings. It underscored the importance of treatment adherence, family-centered care, and integration of HIV into broader health care delivery systems. Applying these lessons can help US policy makers address existing gaps in HIV care in the United States, where the availability of HIV treatment has at times masked the continued need for testing, early diagnosis, targeted prevention for key populations, and a solid array of social services for people living with HIV/AIDS and their families. This article identifies PEPFAR practices that merit further exploration for adoption in the United States, including strategies to increase adherence to drug treatment regimens and to ensure that HIV services are broadly integrated with other aspects of health care.

  9. Piecing Together the Teacher Policy Landscape: A Policy Problem Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jennifer King; Roellke, Christopher; Sparks, Dina; Kolbe, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Evidence suggests that teachers are a critical resource in realizing high-quality educational opportunities for all students. However, many school systems across the country continue to employ large numbers of teachers who, by most indicators, do not fit into the category of "high quality." Although policy makers at…

  10. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  11. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  12. Positively Influencing Gifted Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    The approach proposed by Subotnik, Olszewski-Kubilius, and Worrell (2011) has significant implications for the field of gifted education, many of which would increase advocates' ability to achieve success when working with policy makers. This commentary explores those implications and examines how the proposed approach can be integrated within the…

  13. Deregulation? Early Radio Policy Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Louise M.

    In debating the merits of the deregulation of broadcasting, policy makers should be cognizant of the conditions that led originally to that regulation. An examination of (1) the letters and speeches of Secretary of Commerce, Herbert Hoover, the first regulator of broadcasting; (2) the congressional debate over the regulatory issues of monopoly,…

  14. Is traditional financial aid too little, too late to help youth succeed in college? An introduction to The Degree Project promise scholarship experiment.

    PubMed

    Harris, Douglas N

    2013-01-01

    One of the key barriers in accessing postsecondary opportunities for many students is financial aid. This chapter begins by providing a review of prior evidence on the relationship between financial aid and postsecondary outcomes. One type of financial aid intervention that challenges traditional aid and scholarship options are "promise programs." These programs make commitments to low-income students when they are much younger than when students typically apply for aid and have the potential to encourage students to better prepare during high school, develop the social capital they need to navigate the path to college, and pay for growing college costs. In this chapter, the author describes the design and rationale for The Degree Project (TDP), which is the first randomized trial of a promise scholarship in the United States. In addition to the important new evidence the demonstration program will generate, TDP also shows how educators and researchers can work together to provide the insight and answers policy makers need to address very real education gaps.

  15. Marijuana: A Study of State Policies & Penalties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Columbia, MD.

    This study is a comprehensive analysis of issues concerning marijuana that are of importance to state policy makers. It reviews the medical, legal, and historical dimensions of marijuana use and examines the range of policy approaches toward marijuana possession and use which state officials have considered. Attention is directed to the experience…

  16. 39 CFR 775.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act, as amended, and the NEPA Regulations. (b) Make the NEPA process useful to Postal Service decision makers and the public. (c) Emphasize environmental issues and alternatives in the... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES §...

  17. 39 CFR 775.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act, as amended, and the NEPA Regulations. (b) Make the NEPA process useful to Postal Service decision makers and the public. (c) Emphasize environmental issues and alternatives in the... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES §...

  18. 39 CFR 775.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act, as amended, and the NEPA Regulations. (b) Make the NEPA process useful to Postal Service decision makers and the public. (c) Emphasize environmental issues and alternatives in the... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES §...

  19. 39 CFR 775.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act, as amended, and the NEPA Regulations. (b) Make the NEPA process useful to Postal Service decision makers and the public. (c) Emphasize environmental issues and alternatives in the... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES §...

  20. 39 CFR 775.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act, as amended, and the NEPA Regulations. (b) Make the NEPA process useful to Postal Service decision makers and the public. (c) Emphasize environmental issues and alternatives in the... STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES §...

  1. District Policy and Teachers' Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Russell, Jennifer Lin

    2008-01-01

    Policy makers increasingly include provisions aimed at fostering professional community as part of reform initiatives. Yet little is known about the impact of policy on teachers' professional relations in schools. Drawing theoretically from social capital theory and methodologically from qualitative social network analysis, this article explores…

  2. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL AND NATURAL RESOURCE POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectively resolving the typical ecological or natural resource policy issue requires providing an array of scientific information to decision-makers. The ability of scientists (and scientific information) to constructively inform ecological policy deliberations has been dimi...

  3. Bottle-makers, bottlers say refillables use more energy

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, M.

    1982-11-01

    Bottle makers and beverage bottlers who oppose recycling initiatives claim the additional energy used for the required extra thickness, hot-water sterilization, and the collection process counteract any energy saved when fewer bottles are made and reused. They agree that aluminum-can recycling eliminates energy-intensive processes. Used cans are melted and used to make new cans in a process requiring less energy than processes using new aluminum. With a national deposit law, supporters of container legislation claim that the purchase of new containers would drop from 90 to 63 billion a year; energy used for manufacturing, filling, and transporting bottles would drop from 377 to 214 trillion Btus. (DCK)

  4. Analysis of commercial health newsletters by worksite decision makers.

    PubMed

    Miller, R E; Golaszewski, T J

    1992-01-01

    Health newsletters are an important component of worksite wellness, and human resource program managers believe these publications motivate employees and promote health services. Research has identified employee segments more likely to read health newsletters as well as how these publications may contribute to better medical self-care decision making. Even so, virtually no data exist on the factors contributing to newsletter selection and purchase except proprietary, anecdotal information collected by commercial vendors. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate how newsletter features are rated by decision makers and determine factors predicting intent to purchase a health newsletter.

  5. School Leadership Policy Trends and Developments: Policy Expediency or Policy Excellence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Virginia; Smith, L. Wes; Boutin, James

    2011-01-01

    Background: Institutional theorists suggest environmental stakeholders in the "organizational field" have a symbiotic relationship with governing agencies, leading to institutional isomorphism. Hence state policy makers copy the work of their colleagues across states to create a sense of legitimacy, certainty, and professionalization…

  6. Considering Literacy and Policy in the Context of Digital Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Charles K.

    2010-01-01

    This article (1) argues that literacy is being redefined as a result of the use of digital media, and (2) provides suggestions for policy makers, budget decision-makers, teachers, researchers, and interested others about literacy and language arts standards, assessment, and teaching related to "new literacies," including: (a) Maximize the…

  7. AIDS on Campus: A Medical and Legal Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Jackie R.; Matteoli, Tom E.

    1989-01-01

    Because an effective vaccine for Human Immunodeficiency Virus is unlikely to be available until late 1990s, higher education must focus on education programs to prevent spread of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and establish an HIV/AIDS policy before need arises. Legal counsel should review policies and procedures prior to their…

  8. Financial Aid and Enrollment: Questions for Boards to Consider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    This white paper encourages board members to take a step back and think about long-term strategies for ensuring that financial aid policies are consistent with institutional mission at the same time that they serve fiscal and enrollment goals. While board members can determine financial aid and enrollment policies only at the broadest level, it is…

  9. Race and Populist Radical Right Discourses: Implications for Roma Education Policy in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugosi, Nicole V. T.

    2015-01-01

    Non-government organizations and policy makers agree that the best route to eradicating the widespread discrimination and poverty among the Roma is to improve the quality of and access to education. A cursory glance at the Hungarian Government website suggests that policy makers are on top of the problem with good laws and initiatives in place.…

  10. Examining Mathematics Teacher Content Knowledge Using Policy, State Certification Tests and Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Eddy, Colleen McLean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mathematics teacher content knowledge in terms of policy maker recommendations, college coursework and teacher certification mathematics test scores. Transcript analysis indicated poor alignment of national policy maker recommendations for mathematics teachers and college degrees in mathematics. Teacher certification test…

  11. Resource Trends and Population Policy: A Time for Reassessment. Worldwatch Paper 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    Population growth and resource depletion are discussed. The need is stressed for policy makers to understand how population projections relate to the carrying capacity of the earth's basic biological systems. Because the earth's resources are limited, it is essential that policy makers in developed and developing nations be able to analyze the…

  12. Digital stereoscopic photography using StereoData Maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toeppen, John; Sykes, David

    2009-02-01

    Stereoscopic digital photography has become much more practical with the use of USB wired connections between a pair of Canon cameras using StereoData Maker software for precise synchronization. StereoPhoto Maker software is now used to automatically combine and align right and left image files to produce a stereo pair. Side by side images are saved as pairs and may be viewed using software that converts the images into the preferred viewing format at the time of display. Stereo images may be shared on the internet, displayed on computer monitors, autostereo displays, viewed on high definition 3D TVs, or projected for a group. Stereo photographers are now free to control composition using point and shoot settings, or are able to control shutter speed, aperture, focus, ISO, and zoom. The quality of the output depends on the developed skills of the photographer as well as their understanding of the software, human vision and the geometry they choose for their cameras and subjects. Observers of digital stereo images can zoom in for greater detail and scroll across large panoramic fields with a few keystrokes. The art, science, and methods of taking, creating and viewing digital stereo photos are presented in a historic and developmental context in this paper.

  13. Residents, Decision Makers, and Scientists Discuss Volcanic Hazard in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Michael F.; Cordoba, Gustavo

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia; Pasto, Colombia, 6-11 July 2009; Galeras volcano, located in southwestern Colombia, imposes several hazards on the surrounding population: pyroclastic flows, lahars, ashfall, and shock waves. The current hazard map shows three zones: high, medium, and low (see A. D. Hurtado Artunduaga and G. P. Cortés Jiménez, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 77, 89-100, 1997). The pyroclastic flow hazard on this map defines the Zone of High Volcanic Hazard (ZAVA) for civil authorities. Current activity of Galeras has provoked two contentious issues related to hazard management: (1) Decision makers announce an evacuation order of ZAVA whenever the volcanic alert reaches a high level, and (2) the Colombian government initiated a relocation program for the inhabitants within ZAVA (Colombian Decrees-Laws 4106 and 3905). However, communities within ZAVA refuse to obey both the evacuation orders and the relocation process. To help resolve this situation, the University of Nariño (Colombia) and the State University of New York at Buffalo organized a workshop, which was sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation. A daily average of 92 people attended, including residents of ZAVA, decision makers, Colombian technical and scientific personnel, international scientists and researchers, students, and academics from the University of Nariño.

  14. A novel cryogenic fibre maker for continuous extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Bayley, J.

    1997-05-05

    The results of a cryogenics fibre maker which extrudes fibres continuously are presented. The fibre maker is based on a simple concept of differential temperature. Two reservoirs are connected in cascade and are kept at different temperatures. The first reservoir is connected to an external gas line supply (the gas that will made the fibre) and is used to liquefy the gas. The second reservoir is colder that the first and the liquid that comes from the first reservoir is frozen and later is used to form the fibre. The pressure of external gas supply in the first reservoir is used to extrude the fibre. The system is cooled by a two stage closed cycle refrigerator, which uses liquid helium as a working fluid. The nozzles used to extrude the fibre are made of stainless steel capillary with diameters between 50 {mu}m and 250 {mu}m, with a length of 2 mm. The use of a system with two independent temperatures, permits to control the extrusion rate of the fibres and to produce the fibres continuously. Using this system, hydrogen deuterium, nitrogen and argon fibres of various diameters were extruded.

  15. Training conservation practitioners to be better decision makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Williams, James H.; Jensen, Gitte H.; Madsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Traditional conservation curricula and training typically emphasizes only one part of systematic decision making (i.e., the science), at the expense of preparing conservation practitioners with critical skills in values-setting, working with decision makers and stakeholders, and effective problem framing. In this article we describe how the application of decision science is relevant to conservation problems and suggest how current and future conservation practitioners can be trained to be better decision makers. Though decision-analytic approaches vary considerably, they all involve: (1) properly formulating the decision problem; (2) specifying feasible alternative actions; and (3) selecting criteria for evaluating potential outcomes. Two approaches are available for providing training in decision science, with each serving different needs. Formal education is useful for providing simple, well-defined problems that allow demonstrations of the structure, axioms and general characteristics of a decision-analytic approach. In contrast, practical training can offer complex, realistic decision problems requiring more careful structuring and analysis than those used for formal training purposes. Ultimately, the kinds and degree of training necessary depend on the role conservation practitioners play in a decision-making process. Those attempting to facilitate decision-making processes will need advanced training in both technical aspects of decision science and in facilitation techniques, as well as opportunities to apprentice under decision analysts/consultants. Our primary goal should be an attempt to ingrain a discipline for applying clarity of thought to all decisions.

  16. HIV and AIDS--employers grapple with difficult issues.

    PubMed

    Pranschke, S C; Wright, B M

    1995-01-01

    HIV infection and AIDS pose special challenges to employers. Myriad laws affect how the employer must respond when an applicant or employee is infected with HIV or is ill due to AIDS. An overall compliance strategy should include thorough knowledge of those laws and a policy on HIV and AIDS, put in place before a crisis occurs.

  17. The Impact of Institutional Grant Aid on College Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I exploit exogenous differences in institutional policies regarding the treatment of home equity in grant aid allocation to estimate a causal impact of institutional grant aid on college choice. Because institutional grant aid is typically not awarded randomly, the college-estimated home equity value serves as an instrumental…

  18. AIDS Instruction Becomes a Troubling Test of Courage for Local School Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1987-01-01

    Educators are increasingly responsible for teaching students about the deadly AIDS virus. This article discusses curricular approaches for certain age groups, summarizes progress in various communities, and provides blunt facts for decision-makers, an AIDS resource list with addresses, and an urgent plea from the Center for Disease Control. (MLH)

  19. The fourth Okey memorial lecture. AIDS and HIV: the challenge for British drug services.

    PubMed

    Stimson, G V

    1990-03-01

    British drug policies are undergoing a major reassessment and reformulation in response to problems raised by HIV disease and AIDS. The years from 1986 to 1989 are one of the key periods of crisis and transformation in the history of the British response to drug problems, with the emergence in current debate of a new public health paradigm of drug use. Drug policies can be analysed by examining their assumptions about the nature of (a) the problem (b) the drug user and (c) the task facing policy makers and practitioners; and their assumption about (d) the appropriate people to deal with the problem and (e) their relationships with clients. The emergent public health paradigm assumes that (a) the main problem with drug use is the injection of drugs (b) drug injectors are concerned about their health (c) the task is to promote change in health and risk behaviours (d) people dealing with the problem must be broadly skilled 'poly-drug workers' and (e) relationships with clients must be non-judgmental and 'user-friendly'.

  20. New Zealand's Standard-Based Assessment for Secondary Schools (NCEA): Implications for Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Tumen, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the different features of New Zealand's National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) that can affect student outcomes. Despite the huge public debate surrounding its implementation, very little research has been carried out on the features and effectiveness of the NCEA. By analysing the…

  1. Researching Women's Literacy in Mali: A Case Study of Dialogue among Researchers, Practitioners, and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel

    2001-01-01

    Describes the dialogue between an American researcher and others as she planned and carried out a study of women's literacy programs in rural Mali. Discusses the researcher's status in relation to the organization administering the programs, cultural differences in terms of researcher versus practitioner and Westerner versus African, and reasons…

  2. Title IX Athletics Policies: Issues and Data for Education Decision Makers. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education.

    In 2002, the U.S. Department of Education established the Commission on Opportunity in Athletics to collect information, analyze issues, and obtain public input related to improving the application of current standards for measuring equal opportunity for boys and girls to participate in athletics under Title IX. The National Coalition of Woman and…

  3. Attitudes of Undergraduate Students toward People with Intellectual Disabilities: Considerations for Future Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Craig J.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals' attitudes impact the decisions they make in life. These attitudes are often formed early and are maintained by individuals throughout their lives. Attitudes toward individuals with disabilities were compared for undergraduate students enrolled in introductory special education and political science courses. This population was…

  4. Human genetics for non-scientists: Practical workshops for policy makers and opinion leaders

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    These workshops form part of a series of workshops that the Banbury and the DNA Learning Centers of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory have held for a number of years, introducing genetics, and the ways in which scientific research is done, to non-scientists. The purpose of the workshops as stated in the grant application was: {open_quotes}Our objective is to foster a better understanding of the societal impact of human genome research by providing basic information on genetics to non-scientists whose professions or special interests interface with genetic technology.... Participants will be chosen for their interest in human genetics and for their roles as opinion leaders in their own communities. Primary care physicians are of particular interest to us for this series of workshops.{close_quotes} Two workshops were held under this grant. The first was held in 21-24 April, 1994 and attended by 20 participants, and the second was held 16-19 November, 1995, and attended by 16 participants. In each case, there was a combination of concept lectures on the foundations of human molecular genetics; lectures by invited specialists; and laboratory experiments to introduce non-scientists to the techniques used in molecular genetics.

  5. Manhunts: A Policy Maker’s Guide to High-Value Targeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    international political risks. In the Eichmann scenario, the endstate desired was one were the emotional wounds of the Holocaust that affected an entire...the emotional rage that consumed Israeli social and political life after the Munich massacre, which the BSO had carried out. The endstate envisioned...about his exploits and noted the overwhelming public support: On our return, Israel was still in an uproar. The reaction to the capture had far

  6. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system: lessons for clinicians and policy makers.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L; Parkhouse, R M E; Short, Brooke; Dua, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited settings. The burden of these diseases is amplified as survivors are often left with neurologic sequelae affecting mobility, sensory organs, and cognitive functions, as well as seizures/epilepsy. These diseases inflict suffering by causing lifelong disabilities, reducing economic productivity, and causing social stigma. The complexity of parasitic life cycles and geographic specificities, as well as overlapping clinical manifestations in the host reflecting the diverse pathogenesis of parasites, can present diagnostic challenges. We herein provide an overview of these parasitic diseases and summarize clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and recent milestones, and aspects related to prevention and control.

  7. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system: lessons for clinicians and policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L.; Parkhouse, R. M. E.; Short, Brooke; Dua, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited settings. The burden of these diseases is amplified as survivors are often left with neurologic sequelae affecting mobility, sensory organs, and cognitive functions, as well as seizures/epilepsy. These diseases inflict suffering by causing lifelong disabilities, reducing economic productivity, and causing social stigma. The complexity of parasitic life cycles and geographic specificities, as well as overlapping clinical manifestations in the host reflecting the diverse pathogenesis of parasites, can present diagnostic challenges. We herein provide an overview of these parasitic diseases and summarize clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and recent milestones, and aspects related to prevention and control. PMID:26894629

  8. Extent of Anaemia among Preschool Children in EAG States, India: A Challenge to Policy Makers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Patra, Shraboni

    2014-01-01

    Background. India is the highest contributor to child anemia. About 89 million children in India are anemic. The study determines the factors that contributed to child anemia and examines the role of the existing programs in reducing the prevalence of child anemia particularly in the EAG states. Methods. The data from the latest round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) is used. Simple bivariate and multinomial logistics regression analyses are used. Results. About 70% children are anemic in all the EAG states. The prevalence of severe anemia is the highest (6.7%) in Rajasthan followed by Uttar Pradesh (3.6%) and Madhya Pradesh (3.4%). Children aged 12 to 17 months are significantly seven times (RR = 7.99, P < 0.001) more likely to be severely anemic compared to children of 36 to 59 months. Children of severely anemic mothers are also found to be more severely anemic (RR = 15.97, P < 0.001) than the children of not anemic mothers. Conclusions. The study reveals that the existing government program fails to control anemia among preschool children in the backward states of India. Therefore, there is an urgent need for monitoring of program in regular interval, particularly for EAG states to reduce the prevalence of anemia among preschool children.

  9. The Europeanisation of Intercultural Education? Responses from Eu Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjisoteriou, Christina; Faas, Daniel; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2015-01-01

    European societies rely on different models to address cultural and religious diversity in education, with different potential consequences for the experiences youth have in schools. Some prefer the term intercultural education emphasising dialogue and interaction while others have historically followed the idea of multicultural education. In…

  10. Geospatial Issues in Energy-Climate Modeling: Implications for Modelers, Economists, Climate Scientists and Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, R. L.; Arent, D.; Sullivan, P.; Short, W.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate characterizations of renewable energy technologies, particularly wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass, require an increasingly sophisticated understanding of location-specific attributes, including generation or production costs and the cost of transmission or transportation to a point of use, and climate induced changes to the resource base. Capturing these site-specific characteristics in national and global models presents both unique opportunities and challenges. National and global decisions, ideally, should be informed by geospatially rich data and analysis. Here we describe issues related to and initial advances in representing renewable energy technologies in global models, and the resulting implications for climate stabilization analysis and global assessments, including IPCC’s Assessment Round 5 and IEA’s World Energy Outlook.

  11. Careers of School Leaders: What State and District Policy Makers Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Susan M.; Ringel, Jeanne S.; Santibanez, Lucrecia; Brown, Abigail

    2004-01-01

    There is concern that now, as state and federal governments are increasing school accountability requirements and relying on school administrators to promote improvement, schools and districts will not be able to attract and retain enough qualified people to fill these positions. This report develops a conceptual structure for understanding the…

  12. Using a Simple Economic Impact Model To Document Value to Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillibridge, Fred

    At the request of state legislature, the two-year branch campus of New Mexico State University at Alamogordo (NMSU-A) began using an economic impact model developed by the Eastern Association of College and University Business Officers (EACUBO) to document accountability. The EACUBO Model uses information about the institution and economic data…

  13. Technology Integration in Education in Developing Countries: Guidelines to Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jhurree, Vikashkumar

    2005-01-01

    Technology such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a potent force in driving economic, social, political and educational reforms. Countries, particularly developing ones, cannot afford to stay passive to ICT if they are to compete and strive in the global economy. The health of the economy of any country, poor or rich, developed…

  14. A Call for: Educational Leadership and Action. Essential Information on North Dakota Education for Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Staff members of the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction have partnered with members of the P-16 Education Task Force, and support the various principles developed by task force members. The task force was initiated by the joint boards on public education in September of 2005 whose vision is "All North Dakota students will be…

  15. What's at Stake in the K-12 Standards Wars: A Primer for Educational Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotsky, Sandra, Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the issues that have arisen in the development and implementation of national and state standards in science, mathematics, history, economics, and the English language arts. The chapters are: (1) "The 1997 Mathematics Standards War in California" (Hung-Hsi Wu); (2) "Judging State Standards for…

  16. Over-the-counter antibiotics in Saudi Arabia, an urgent call for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Bin Nafisah, Sharafaldeen; Bin Nafesa, Salahaldin; Alamery, Aliyah H; Alhumaid, Mazen A; AlMuhaidib, Haitham M; Al-Eidan, Fahad A

    2017-02-02

    Antibiotics over-consumption is a pandemic that has a tremendous cost on the overwhelmed healthcare system. The accessibility of antibiotics coupled with the misconception of public toward those drugs both of which implicated in the use and misuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of the community toward antibiotics, its purpose and harmfulness, in addition to the accessibility of those drugs as over the counter and without prescriptions. We also investigated the behavior toward antibiotic prescriptions when perceived unnecessary. This is a cross-sectional study in Riyadh-Saudi Arabia based upon a structured self-administered questionnaire. The study included 473 individuals with a mean age of 27 years old. Forty eight percent (n=227) of the participants obtain antibiotics without prescriptions. Ninety two percent (n=208) of those noted pharmacist counseling as their method of acquisition. Self-prescription noted in 8.4% (n=19). Viral illnesses accounted for the highest percentage for seeking antibiotics in 35.5% (n=166) more commonly among females. Thirty one point eight percent (n=149) used antibiotics for analgesia while 13.7% (n=64) believed in their prophylactic use. We also noted that the prevalence of sharing antibiotics is 19.7%. The perceived unnecessary prescriptions uncovered 122 of the participants who reported throwing the prescribed antibiotics away after acquisition. Dispensing antibiotics without prescription is an issue that mandates a political intervention and implementation of the existing laws that prohibit dispensing without proper prescription. We advocate public health measures targeting both healthcare providers and the public on the use and misuse of antibiotics.

  17. Strategies for farmers and policy makers to control nitrogen losses whilst maintaining crop production.

    PubMed

    Goulding, Keith W T

    2005-09-01

    The nitrogen (N) cycle is essentially 'leaky'. The losses of small amounts of nitrate to waters and of ammonia and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere are a part of the global biogeochemical N cycle. However, intensive agricultural production, industry and vehicle use have more than doubled the amount of 'reactive' N in the environment, resulting in eutrophication, ecosystem change and health concerns. Research has identified agricultural practices that cause large losses of N and, in some cases, developed solutions. This paper discusses the problems of maintaining productivity while reducing N losses, compares conventional with low input (integrated) and organic farming systems, and discusses wider options. It also looks at the need to integrate studies on N with other environmental impacts, set in the context of the whole farm system, to provide truly sustainable agricultural systems.

  18. Strategies for farmers and policy makers to control nitrogen losses whilst maintaining crop production.

    PubMed

    Goulding, Keith W T

    2005-12-01

    The nitrogen (N) cycle is essentially 'leaky'. The losses of small amounts of nitrate to waters and of ammonia and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere are a part of the global biogeochemical N cycle. However, intensive agricultural production, industry and vehicle use have more than doubled the amount of 'reactive' N in the environment, resulting in eutrophication, ecosystem change and health concerns. Research has identified agricultural practices that cause large losses of N and, in some cases, developed solutions. This paper discusses the problems of maintaining productivity while reducing N losses, compares conventional with low input (integrated) and organic farming systems, and discusses wider options. It also looks at the need to integrate studies on N with other environmental impacts, set in the context of the whole farm system, to provide truly sustainable agricultural systems.

  19. Adoption by Policy Makers of Knowledge from Educational Research: An Alternative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The phrase knowledge adoption refers to the ways in which policymakers take up and use evidence. Whilst frameworks and models have been put forward to explain knowledge adoption activity, this paper argues that current approaches are flawed and do not address the complexities affecting the successful realisation of knowledge-adoption efforts.…

  20. Use of evidence to support healthy public policy: a policy effectiveness-feasibility loop.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Sarah; Unwin, Nigel; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; Husseini, Abdullatif; Maziak, Wasim; Zaman, Shahaduz; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Phillimore, Peter; Unal, Belgin; Khatib, Rana; Shoaibi, Azza; Ahmad, Balsam

    2012-11-01

    Public policy plays a key role in improving population health and in the control of diseases, including non-communicable diseases. However, an evidence-based approach to formulating healthy public policy has been difficult to implement, partly on account of barriers that hinder integrated work between researchers and policy-makers. This paper describes a "policy effectiveness-feasibility loop" (PEFL) that brings together epidemiological modelling, local situation analysis and option appraisal to foster collaboration between researchers and policy-makers. Epidemiological modelling explores the determinants of trends in disease and the potential health benefits of modifying them. Situation analysis investigates the current conceptualization of policy, the level of policy awareness and commitment among key stakeholders, and what actually happens in practice, thereby helping to identify policy gaps. Option appraisal integrates epidemiological modelling and situation analysis to investigate the feasibility, costs and likely health benefits of various policy options. The authors illustrate how PEFL was used in a project to inform public policy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in four parts of the eastern Mediterranean. They conclude that PEFL may offer a useful framework for researchers and policy-makers to successfully work together to generate evidence-based policy, and they encourage further evaluation of this approach.