Fairlie, T. D.; Szykman, Jim; Pierce, Robert B.; Gilliland, A. B.; Engel-Cox, Jill; Weber, Stephanie; Kittaka, Chieko; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Scheffe, Rich; Dimmick, Fred; Tikvart, Joe
The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is expected to reduce transport of air pollutants (e.g. fine sulfate particles) in nonattainment areas in the Eastern United States. CAIR highlights the need for an integrated air quality observational and modeling system to understand sulfate as it moves in multiple dimensions, both spatially and temporally. Here, we demonstrate how results from an air quality model can be combined with a 3d monitoring network to provide decision makers with a tool to help quantify the impact of CAIR reductions in SO2 emissions on regional transport contributions to sulfate concentrations at surface monitors in the Baltimore, MD area, and help improve decision making for strategic implementation plans (SIPs). We sample results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using ensemble back trajectories computed with the NASA Langley Research Center trajectory model to provide Lagrangian time series and vertical profile information, that can be compared with NASA satellite (MODIS), EPA surface, and lidar measurements. Results are used to assess the regional transport contribution to surface SO4 measurements in the Baltimore MSA, and to characterize the dominant source regions for low, medium, and high SO4 episodes.
Durrant, Jacob D.; McCammon, J. Andrew
Protein flexibility plays a critical role in ligand binding to both orthosteric and allosteric sites. We here review some of the computer-aided drug-design techniques currently used to account for protein flexibility, ranging from methods that probe local receptor flexibility in the region of the protein immediately adjacent to the binding site, to those that account for general flexibility in all protein regions. PMID:20888294
Durrant, Jacob D; McCammon, J Andrew
Protein flexibility plays a critical role in ligand binding to both orthosteric and allosteric sites. We here review some of the computer-aided drug-design techniques currently used to account for protein flexibility, ranging from methods that probe local receptor flexibility in the region of the protein immediately adjacent to the binding site, to those that account for general flexibility in all protein regions.
... Foreign Agricultural Service Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural... and Regional Food Aid Procurement Pilot Project (USDA LRP Project). All available funding for field...: Jamie Fisher, Chief, Local and Regional Procurement, Food Assistance Division, Foreign...
Bardhan, Nilanjana R
This study is a theoretical as well as empirical exploration of the power and cultural differentials that mark and construct various intersecting discourses, specifically media discourse, on global AIDS/HIV. It applies the language and concepts of public relations to understand how the press coverage of the pandemic is associated with the variables that impact the newsmaking process as well as the public and policy implications of macro news frames generated over time. Theoretical work in the areas of agenda setting and news framing also instruct the conceptual framework of this analysis. Narrative analysis is used as a methodology to qualitatively analyze three pools of accounts-from people either living with AIDS/HIV, involved in AIDS/HIV work, or discursively engaged in the media construction of the pandemic; from transnational wire service journalists who cover the issue at global and regional levels; and policy shapers and communicators who are active at the global level. These three communities of respondents represent important stakeholders in the AIDS/HIV issue. The findings are analyzed from a public relations standpoint. Perhaps the most important finding of this study is that the public relations approaches used to address AIDS/HIV related issues need to be grounded in context-specific research and communicative practices that bring out the lived realities of AIDS/HIV at grassroots levels. The findings also posit that those situated at critical junctions between various stakeholders need to cultivate a finely balanced understanding of the etic and emic intersections and subjectivities of global/local AIDS/HIV.
Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah
Background Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance – control of corruption and democratic accountability – on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001–2010 datasets. Results Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below −2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention. PMID:27189199
Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah
Background Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance - control of corruption and democratic accountability - on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001-2010 datasets. Results Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below -2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention.
On or around November 1, 1993, the Clinton administration plans to send its proposal to Congress for reforming foreign aid; significant changes could result in the international population assistance program. The Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) of 1961 is currently too unwieldy to allow the efficient implementation of US foreign policy, especially in the area of development assistance. New international priorities must be established and new role given to the US now that the Cold War has ended. The US Agency for International Development is therefore rewriting the FAA and reorganizing in-house with the objective of streamlining and updating the purposes and objectives of foreign aid. Development assistance would be replaced by a section on sustainable development designed to promote economic growth, preserve the global environment, support democratic participation, and stabilize world population growth. This bill would also emphasize the special role of women in development while stressing the importance of nongovernmental organizations as essential in formulating and implementing policies and programs. This plan is regarded as attractive and may be the last major overhaul of the FAA for another 30 years. It remains to be seen, however, how deep and how far changes will go, but it may be said that significant change is inevitable and that serious potential exists for improvement.
This course curriculum is intended for use by community college instructors and admnistrators in implementing an automated accounting course. A student course syllabus provides this information: credit hours, catalog description, prerequisites, required text, instructional process, objectives, student evaluation, and class schedule. A student lab…
Moran, Dominique; Jordaan, Jacob A
Background The motivation for this paper is to inform the selection of future policy directions for tackling HIV/AIDS in Russia. The Russian Federation has more people living with HIV/AIDS than any other country in Europe, and nearly 70% of the known infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The epidemic is particularly young, with 80% of those infected aged less than thirty, and no Russian region has escaped the detection of infections. However, measures to address the epidemic in Russia have been hampered by late recognition of the scale of the problem, poor data on HIV prevalence, potentially counterproductive narcotics legislation, and competing health priorities. An additional complication has been the relative lack of research into the spatial heterogeneity of the Russian HIV/AIDS epidemic, investigating the variety of prevalence rates in the constituent regions and questioning assumptions about the links between the epidemic and the circumstances of post-Soviet transformation. In the light of these recent developments, this paper presents research into the determinants of regional HIV prevalence levels in Russia. Results Statistical empirical research on HIV and other infectious diseases has identified a variety of factors that influence the spread and development of these diseases. In our empirical analysis of determinants of HIV prevalence in Russia at the regional level, we identify factors that are statistically related to the level of HIV prevalence in Russian regions, and obtain some indication of the relative importance of these factors. We estimate an empirical model that includes factors which describe economic and socio-cultural characteristics. Conclusion Our analysis statistically identifies four main factors that influence HIV prevalence in Russian regions. Given the different nature of the factors that we identify to be of importance, we conclude that successful HIV intervention policies will need to be multidisciplinary in nature. Finally
Hegedus, A. M.; Darmenova, K.; Grant, F.; Kiley, H.; Higgins, G. J.; Apling, D.
According to the World Heath Organization (WHO) climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, and changes the way we must look at protecting vulnerable populations. Worldwide, the occurrence of some diseases and other threats to human health depend predominantly on local climate patterns. Rising average temperatures, in combination with changing rainfall patterns and humidity levels, alter the lifecycle and regional distribution of certain disease-carrying vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks and rodents. In addition, higher surface temperatures will bring heat waves and heat stress to urban regions worldwide and will likely increase heat-related health risks. A growing body of scientific evidence also suggests an increase in extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and hurricanes that can be destructive to human health and well-being. Therefore, climate adaptation and health decision aids are urgently needed by city planners and health officials to determine high risk areas, evaluate vulnerable populations and develop public health infrastructure and surveillance systems. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. WRF model is initialized with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model simulations forced with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. Our methodology involves development of climatological indices of extreme weather, quantifying the risk of occurrence of water/rodent/vector-borne diseases as well as developing various heat stress related decision aids. Our results indicate that the downscale simulations provide the necessary
Sastre, Sergio; Carpintero, Óscar; Lomas, Pedro L
This paper explores potential contributions of regional material flow accounting to the characterization of environmental pressures. With this aim, patterns of material extraction, trade, consumption, and productivity for the Spanish regions were studied within the 1996-2010 period. The main methodological variation as compared to whole-country based approaches is the inclusion of interregional trade, which can be separately assessed from the international exchanges. Each region was additionally profiled regarding its commercial exchanges with the rest of the regions and the rest of the world and the related environmental pressures. Given its magnitude, interregional trade is a significant source of environmental pressure. Most of the exchanges occur across regions and different extractive and trading patterns also arise at this scale. These differences are particularly great for construction minerals, which in Spain represent the largest share of extracted and consumed materials but do not cover long distances, so their impact is visible mainly at the regional level. During the housing bubble, economic growth did not improve material productivity.
Hardiman, Brady S; Wang, Jonathan A; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Friedl, Mark A
Many ecosystem models incorrectly treat urban areas as devoid of vegetation and biogenic carbon (C) fluxes. We sought to improve estimates of urban biomass and biogenic C fluxes using existing, nationally available data products. We characterized biogenic influence on urban C cycling throughout Massachusetts, USA using an ecosystem model that integrates improved representation of urban vegetation, growing conditions associated with urban heat island (UHI), and altered urban phenology. Boston's biomass density is 1/4 that of rural forests, however 87% of Massachusetts' urban landscape is vegetated. Model results suggest that, kilogram-for-kilogram, urban vegetation cycles C twice as fast as rural forests. Urban vegetation releases (RE) and absorbs (GEE) the equivalent of 11 and 14%, respectively, of anthropogenic emissions in the most urban portions of the state. While urban vegetation in Massachusetts fully sequesters anthropogenic emissions from smaller cities in the region, Boston's UHI reduces annual C storage by >20% such that vegetation offsets only 2% of anthropogenic emissions. Asynchrony between temporal patterns of biogenic and anthropogenic C fluxes further constrains the emissions mitigation potential of urban vegetation. However, neglecting to account for biogenic C fluxes in cities can impair efforts to accurately monitor, report, verify, and reduce anthropogenic emissions.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
To determine what Federal Student Aid (FSA), previously the Office of Student Financial Assistance, had done to develop and implement a strategic direction as mandated by Congress in performance-based organization legislation, the General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed FSA's strategic and annual performance plans and annual reports, interviewing…
Department of Education, Washington, DC.
This book provides guidance to school business office personnel who handle fiscal recordkeeping, accounting, and reporting functions for federal Title IV student financial aid programs authorized by the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended. It provides a technical resource for Title IV management responsibilities that are shared among various…
Department of Education, Washington, DC.
This guide is intended to provide guidance to college and university business office personnel who handle recordkeeping, accounting, and other fiscal reporting functions for federal Title IV financial aid programs, as authorized by the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended. This edition emphasizes the benefits and challenges of electronic…
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...
This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…
Pekarskiĭ, S I; Kiriushin, P V
Auditory inefficiency creates a serious social problem due to the ever increasing number of people with this pathology. The use of hearing aids constitutes the basis of rehabilitative measures for these patients. The authors present results of the analysis of hearing aid efficacy among adult subjects residing in the Tula region carried out in the framework of the relevant Federal program during the last 3 years. Criteria for the assessment of the efficacy of hearing aids are proposed and factors on which it depends are considered.
Falagas, Matthew E; Bliziotis, Ioannis A; Kondilis, Barbara; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S
The scientific community invests significant resources on HIV/AIDS research to confront the current epidemic. We reviewed the medical literature in order to evaluate the contribution of different world regions on HIV/AIDS research during the past 18 years. We retrieved articles, using an elaborate methodology, from three journals focusing on HIV/AIDS between 1986 and 2003, indexed in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) and the Web of Science databases of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). Comparisons were made by dividing the world into nine geographic regions, and by using the human development index (HDI) categorization. A total of 9502 articles on HIV/AIDS were retrieved from three AIDS journals over an 18-year study period. The United States and Western Europe together and five developed out of nine world regions made up a striking 83% and 92% of the world's research production on HIV/AIDS, respectively. Scientists from the developing world participated in 10.4% of the articles published during 1986-1991, 14.7% during 1992-1997, and 21.3% during 1998-2003. Researchers from countries included in the high, medium, and low HDI category produced 2240, 9, and 15 articles per billion population, respectively. About half of articles originating in Latin America and the Caribbean and half in Asia were produced in collaboration with the United States. However, 40% of articles from Africa and 58% from Eastern Europe were produced in cooperation with Western Europe. Collaboration between researchers within developing regions was negligible. The vast majority of the world's research on AIDS is produced in the developed world. Although research production was minimal in the developing world, we found that regions included in the low and medium HDI categories showed a higher proportion of increase in research productivity than the developed countries. International collaborations should significantly increase and expand beyond the traditional cultural and
Reinstein, A; Dery, R J
The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants' Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 82, Consideration of Fraud in a Financial Statement Audit, requires independent auditors to obtain reasonable assurance that financial statements are free of material mis-statements caused by error or fraud. SAS No. 82 provides guidance for independent auditors to use to help detect and document risk factors related to potential fraud. But while SAS No. 82 suggests how auditors should assess the potential for fraud, it does not expand their detection responsibility. Accordingly, financial managers should discuss thoroughly with auditors the scope and focus of an audit as a means to further their compliance efforts.
Morrison, D J
The need for pharmacists to develop management expertise through participation in formal courses is now widely acknowledged. Many schools of pharmacy lay the foundations for future management training by providing introductory courses as an integral or elective part of the undergraduate syllabus. The benefit of such courses may, however, be limited by the lack of opportunity for the student to apply the concepts and procedures in a practical working environment. Computer simulations provide a means to overcome this problem, particularly in the field of resource management. In this, the first of two articles, the use of a computer model to demonstrate basic accounting principles is described.
De Lange, Paul; Jackling, Beverley; Suwardy, Themin
Drawing on research in the sociology of professions as a reference point, this study examines the practices and perceptions of professional accountants towards the requirements of IES7 on continuing professional development (CPD). Responses from 1310 accountants in the Asia Pacific region suggest while increasing globalisation has led to more…
Heymann, D L
Regional estimates prepared by the World Health Organization of the prevalence of HIV infections and curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) reveal that the HIV epidemic parallels STD incidence and is likely to undergo explosive growth in areas such as Asia where the ratio of HIV to STDs is currently low. HIV has had an especially severe impact on young women, and quickly moves into a general population through the gateway presented by sexually active youth. The impact of HIV has been severe in Africa where it has negated advances in child survival in some countries and created hundreds of thousands of orphans in others. The impact of curable STDs is also severe and is greatest among women who suffer from infertility and in children who develop ocular infection. The sex behavior that places individuals at risk of HIV or STDs is better understood today than ever before as are biological factors such as the increased risk of acquiring HIV for individuals infected with a genital ulcer. The biological and behavioral link between HIV and STDs is so close that the same strategies are important for prevention of both. The adoption of safe sex practices, especially promotion of condom use, is an important goal, and development of a female-controlled method of prevention (especially one that could not be detected by the male partner) would be a valuable alternative to the male condom. The second major prevention strategy is early diagnosis and treatment of STDs through a syndromic approach to diagnosis. Syndromic management will improve with advances in sensitivity and specificity, health-seeking behavior, and partner notification, but the approach still faces major problems caused by the overuse of antibiotics and the asymptomatic nature of many infections in women. While STD incidence is dropping in many countries, the mixture of HIV subtypes is increasing as is the resistance of STDs to antibiotics. With a significant worldwide decline in STDs within reach
Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Okorosobo, Tuoyo; Mwabu, Germano M
HIV/AIDS is hypothesized to have substantive negative impact on health status and economic development of individuals, households, communities and nations. The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of HIV/AIDS on GDP in the WHO African Region using a production function approach. The economic burden analysis was done using a double-log econometric model and a cross-sectional data on 45 to 46 countries in the WHO African Region. The data were obtained from WHO, UNAIDS, ECA, UNDP and the World Bank publications. The coefficient for Capital (K), Education (EN), Export (X) and Imports (M) were found to be statistically significant determinants of per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at 5% level of significance (using a one-sided t-distribution test). Unfortunately, HIV/AIDS morbidity (V) and HIV/AIDS deaths (VD), at the same level of significance, were found to have statistically insignificant impact on GDP. However, the coefficients of these variables had negative signs as expected. In all African countries, there is need for more detailed research on the total economic cost of HIV/AIDS (probably estimated using micro-level costing and willingness-to-pay methods) and for economic evaluations of treatment, prevention and promotion programmes.
Tawilah, J; Tawil, O; Bassiri, S; Ziady, H
We assessed information needs about HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region by surveying a sample of people considered knowledgeable about the subject. Respondents felt that information on certain areas of HIV/AIDS/STIs was much needed. Health care workers were perceived to see a high need for information and services generally. Religious and community leaders were perceived to see less need for some information and services (such as condom promotion, sex education for young people). All groups were perceived to see a need for education and services for people living with AIDS and drug users. Television and radio were considered the best channels for health education while training was seen as the most effective method for information exchange.
Anderson, Moji; Elam, Gillian; Gerver, Sarah; Solarin, Ijeoma; Fenton, Kevin; Easterbrook, Philippa
This paper explores the effects of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination (HASD) on HIV-positive Caribbean people in the Caribbean and the UK. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were held with a purposively selected group of 25 HIV-positive people of Caribbean origin, using primary selection criteria of sex, age, sexuality and country of birth. Interviews with respondents revealed that they are keenly aware of the stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS, which some attribute to a particularly Caribbean combination of fear of contamination, homophobia, and ignorance, reinforced by religious beliefs. In fact, religion serves a double role: underpinning stigma and assisting in coping with HIV. HASD has usually occurred where respondents have lost or do not have control over disclosure. Compared to UK-born respondents, the accounts of Caribbean-born respondents, most of whom were born in Jamaica, include more reports of severe HASD, particularly violence and employment discrimination. All respondents mobilise a variety of strategies in order to avoid HASD, which have implications for their social interactions and emotional well being. While some manage to avoid the "spoiled identity" of the stigmatised, thereby creating their own understandings of HIV infection, these may remain individual-level negotiations. HASD affects HIV-positive Caribbean people at home and in the diaspora in a variety of ways: emotionally, mentally, financially, socially and physically. Interventions specifically addressing stigma and discrimination must be formulated for the UK's Caribbean population. Tackling stigma and discrimination requires more than education; it requires "cultural work" to address deeply entrenched notions of sexuality.
Hossaini, Navid; Hewage, Kasun
Sustainable regional management (development) requires an understanding of interactions between the social, economic, and ecological systems within the boundaries of a region. In this paper, application of emergy (an environmental accounting method) for regional planning is discussed through a case study. Emergy (spelled with an "m") methodology is an environmental accounting technique that evaluates the energy system for the thermodynamics of an open system. Major renewable and non-renewable resource fluxes to a region, including energy, matter, human activities, and money can be converted to emergy by using corresponding transformity functions. As a case study, this paper discusses the emergy accounting of Canada and its provinces with various emergy-based indicators. Moreover, emergy maps were generated in a form of emergy geography. These maps are multi-dimensional illustrations that show resource consumption, emergy per person, and emergy density across Canada under two parameters: (1) the quantities of resources consumed and (2) the location of consumption. Emergy analysis also highlights concentrations of renewable and natural resources in Canada and distinguishes the provinces with the highest resource consumption. Analysis of emergy indicator for Canadian provinces shows that Alberta with the highest EYR (7.35) provides energy to the economy of Canada. However, ELR value of Alberta (8.5) indicates that the province's current economic approach is not sustainable as it relies mainly on non-renewable emergy inputs (mainly from fossil fuels). ELR of British Columbia and Manitoba indicates that these two provinces created a firm balance between emergy use of renewable and non-renewable resources. The characterizations of regions provided in this paper can be used for future land planning and management both in federal and provincial levels.
Mackersie, Carol L; Crocker, Tracy L; Davis, Rebecca A
The purpose of this study was to compare threshold-matched ears with and without suspected cochlear dead regions in terms of the speech perception benefit from high-frequency amplification. The Threshold Equalizing Noise Test (TEN) was used to assess the presence of dead regions. Speech perception was measured while participants were wearing a hearing aid fit to approximate DSL[i/o] targets. Consonant identification of nonsense vowel-consonant-vowel combinations was measured in quiet using a forced-choice procedure. Phoneme recognition was measured at signal-to-noise ratios ranging from 0 to +15 dB using the Computer-Assisted Speech Perception Assessment test (CASPA). Recognition scores were obtained for unfiltered stimuli and stimuli that were low-pass filtered at the estimated boundary of the suspected dead regions, 1/2 octave above and 1 octave above the boundary. Filter settings for the ears without suspected dead regions were the same as settings of the threshold-matched counterpart. In quiet and in low levels of noise, speech perception scores were significantly higher for the wide-band (unfiltered) condition than for the filtered conditions, and performance was similar for the ears with and without suspected dead regions. In high levels of noise, mean scores were highest in the wide-band condition for the ears without suspected dead regions, but performance reached an asymptote for the ears with suspected dead regions. These results suggest that patients with cochlear dead regions may experience speech perception benefit from wide-band high-frequency gain in quiet and low levels of noise, but not in high levels of noise.
Carrington, Michal; Chen, Richard; Davies, Martin; Kaur, Jagjit; Neville, Benjamin
An argument map visually represents the structure of an argument, outlining its informal logical connections and informing judgments as to its worthiness. Argument mapping can be augmented with dedicated software that aids the mapping process. Empirical evidence suggests that semester-length subjects using argument mapping along with dedicated…
Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009
The state of Washington has a long-standing commitment to postsecondary education opportunities for all students, regardless of income. The purpose of this report is to provide the members of the Higher Education Coordinating Board with: (1) An overview of state, federal, and institutional financial aid in Washington; (2) A description of notable…
Office of Postsecondary Education (ED), Washington, DC.
This volume provides general information on programs, policies, procedures, and fiscal record keeping and reporting for federally funded student financial aid programs under the Higher Education Act of 1965, Title IV. Chapter 1 provides an overview of Title IV programs. Chapter 2 discusses general institutional responsibilities related to managing…
Sponder, E W
This report concerns the use of the Hurwitz determinants in defining boundaries of regions where oscillatory phenomena are to be stable or unstable. A simplification is suggested as an aid in reducing the computations usually required, although it is emphasized that point checks in the various regions defined are required using the complete set of Hurwitz determinants or some other complete stability determination.
Speir, Alan M; Rich, Jeffrey B; Crosby, Ivan; Fonner, Edwin
An era of increasing budgetary constraints, misaligned payers and providers, and a competitive system where United States health outcomes are outpaced by less well-funded nations is motivating policy-makers to seek more effective means for promoting cost-effective delivery and accountability. This article illustrates an effective working model of regional collaboration focused on improving health outcomes, containing costs, and making efficient use of resources in cardiovascular surgical care. The Virginia Cardiac Surgery Quality Initiative is a decade-old collaboration of cardiac surgeons and hospital providers in Virginia working to improve outcomes and contain costs by analyzing comparative data, identifying top performers, and replicating best clinical practices on a statewide basis. The group's goals and objectives, along with 2 generations of performance improvement initiatives, are examined. These involve attempts to improve postoperative outcomes and use of tools for decision support and modeling. This work has led the group to espouse a more integrated approach to performance improvement and to formulate principles of a quality-focused payment system. This is one in which collaboration promotes regional accountability to deliver quality care on a cost-effective basis. The Virginia Cardiac Surgery Quality Initiative has attempted to test a global pricing model and has implemented a pay-for-performance program where physicians and hospitals are aligned with common objectives. Although this collaborative approach is a work in progress, authors point out preconditions applicable to other regions and medical specialties. A road map of short-term next steps is needed to create an adaptive payment system tied to the national agenda for reforming the delivery system.
Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Vargas, Vanessa N.; Loose, Verne William; Starks, Shirley J.; Ellebracht, Lory A.
This paper describes the Regional Economic Accounting (REAcct) analysis tool that has been in use for the last 5 years to rapidly estimate approximate economic impacts for disruptions due to natural or manmade events. It is based on and derived from the well-known and extensively documented input-output modeling technique initially presented by Leontief and more recently further developed by numerous contributors. REAcct provides county-level economic impact estimates in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and employment for any area in the United States. The process for using REAcct incorporates geospatial computational tools and site-specific economic data, permitting the identification of geographic impact zones that allow differential magnitude and duration estimates to be specified for regions affected by a simulated or actual event. Using these data as input to REAcct, the number of employees for 39 directly affected economic sectors (including 37 industry production sectors and 2 government sectors) are calculated and aggregated to provide direct impact estimates. Indirect estimates are then calculated using Regional Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS II) multipliers. The interdependent relationships between critical infrastructures, industries, and markets are captured by the relationships embedded in the inputoutput modeling structure.
Cha, Kenny; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Zhou, Chuan
We are developing a computer-aided detection system for bladder cancer on CTU. The bladder was automatically segmented with our Conjoint Level set Analysis and Segmentation System (CLASS). In this preliminary study, we developed a system for detecting mass within the contrast-enhanced (C) region of the bladder. The C region was delineated from the segmented bladders using a method based on maximum intensity projection. The bladder wall of the C region was extracted using thresholding to remove the contrast material. The wall on each slice was transformed into a wall profile. Morphology and voxel intensity along the profile were analyzed and suspicious locations were labeled as lesion candidates. The candidates were segmented and 20 morphological features were extracted from each candidate. A data set of 35 patients with 45 biopsy-proven bladder lesions within the C region was used for system evaluation. Stepwise feature selection with simplex optimization and leave-one-case-out method was used for training and validation. For each partition in the leave-one-case-out method, features were selected from the training cases and a linear discriminant (LDA) classifier was designed to merge the selected features into a single score for classification of the lesion candidates into bladder lesions and normal findings in the left-out case. A single score was generated for each lesion candidate. The performance of the CAD system was evaluated by FROC analysis. At an FP rate of 2.5 FPs/case, the system achieved a sensitivity of 82%, while at 1.7 FPs/case, a sensitivity of 71%.
Chae, Eun Young; Kim, Hak Hee
The computer-aided detection (CAD) systems have been developed to help radiologists with the early detection of breast cancer. This system provides objective and accurate information to reduce the misdiagnosis of the disease. In mammography, the pectoral muscle region is used as an index to compare the symmetry between the left and right images in the mediolateral oblique (MLO) view. The pectoral muscle segmentation is necessary for the detection of microcalcification or mass because the pectoral muscle has a similar pixel intensity as that of lesions, which affects the results of automatic detection. In this study, the mammographic image analysis society database (MIAS, 322 cases) was used for detecting the pectoral muscle segmentation. The pectoral muscle was detected by using the morphological method and the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm. We evaluated the detected pectoral muscle region and compared the manual segmentation with the automatic segmentation. The results showed 92.2% accuracy. We expect that the proposed method improves the detection accuracy of breast cancer lesions using a CAD system. PMID:27847817
Katima Mulilo has the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in Namibia. Due to several constraints of the antiretroviral therapy programme, HIV-infected persons still use ethnomedicines to manage AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Despite the reliance on plants to manage HIV/AIDS in Katima Mulilo, there have been no empirical studies to document the specific plant species used by traditional healers to treat AIDS-related opportunistic infections. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to record the various plant families, species, and plant parts used to manage different HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. The results showed that a total of 71 plant species from 28 families, mostly the Combretaceae (14%), Anacardiaceae (8%), Mimosaceae (8%), and Ebanaceae (7%), were used to treat conditions such as herpes zoster, diarrhoea, coughing, malaria, meningitis, and tuberculosis. The most plant parts used were leaves (33%), bark (32%), and roots (28%) while the least used plant parts were fruits/seeds (4%). Further research is needed to isolate the plants' active chemical compounds and understand their modes of action. PMID:20831821
Teti, Michelle; Bowleg, Lisa; Rubinstein, Susan; Lloyd, Linda; Berhane, Zek; Gold, Marla
Nonheterosexually identified (NHI) women may be present, but not accounted for, in HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention interventions. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the sexual risk behaviors and intervention needs of NHI women in Protect and Respect, a safer sex intervention for HIV-positive women. Study participants (n=32) were predominantly Black, low income, and between 28 and 51 years old. Although NHI participants were more likely than heterosexual participants (p < .05) to report obtaining their income from sex work, hustling, or selling drugs; and having a higher median number of male sex partners, qualitative analyses revealed that the intervention often neglected NHI women's experiences and unique safer sex needs. Heterosexist HIV and STI prevention programs may hinder NHI women's ability to protect themselves and their partners from reinfection and infection respectively. We discuss the implications of our research for future HIV/AIDS and STI research, services and interventions for NHI women.
Reynolds, Lindsey J.
The article traces the social life of a policy that aimed to define and circumscribe the ambiguous and contested category of the ‘orphaned and vulnerable children’ (OVC) in South Africa at the height of the ‘emergency response’ to HIV/AIDS. Drawing on several months of institutional ethnographic research conducted over the course of five years with South African organisations receiving funding from the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief to provide services to ‘OVC’, the project interrogates the influence of governmental forms of counting and accounting on health policy and practice in South Africa. Focusing on the experiences of one organisation, the article describes a process of policy ‘translation’ typified by a series of disconnects between the intentions of a policy and the exigencies of implementation, structured by the ambiguous and flexible nature of the category of the ‘orphaned and vulnerable child’. In this context, the article argues, the uncertainty produced by the implementation of the guidelines was not simply an artifact of a poorly designed policy, but rather signals an underlying epistemological tension in the practice of ‘global health’, in which quantitative metrics designed for monitoring and evaluation are often incapable of approximating the complexities of everyday life. PMID:24498970
Carbon, ecological, and water footprints (CF, EF, and WF) are accounting tools that can be used to understand the connection between consumption activities and environmental pressures on the Earth?s atmosphere, bioproductive areas, and freshwater resources. These indicators have ...
Shephard, Roy J.; Trudeau, Francois
This article offers a brief and personal account of the historical background, implementation and principal findings from the Trois-Rivieres regional project, a large-scale quasi-experimental intervention that tested the impact of providing a daily hour of specialist-taught quality physical education upon the physical and mental development of…
Sanou, Sobze Martin; Fokam, Joseph Martin; Mabvouna, Biguioh Rodriguez; Guetiya, Wadoum Raoul; Sali, Ben Bechir Adogaye; Teikeu, Tessa Vivaldi Vladimir; Nafack, Sonkeng Sonia; Panà, Augusto; Colizzi, Vittorio; Russo, Gianluca
The aim of our study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding HIV/AIDS in the city of Kribi, southern region of Cameroon. In November 2012, a questionnaire composed of 20 items was administered by trained staff from the Biomedical Sciences Department of the University of Dschang to 200 students selected from four population groups: high school students, local traders, tourism personnel (staff of bars, restaurants, hotels, nightclubs), and motorcycle taxi drivers. A cluster sampling method was used to select the first three groups while motorcycle taxi drivers were selected by the method of all comers. KAP regarding HIV/AIDS was found to be fragmentary in the studied population. Only 6.5% systematically uses condoms, 59% believe that AIDS can be cured by traditional medicine and religious faith and 40.9% developed stigmatizing behaviour toward HIV infected people. Among participants there is a wide discrepancy between knowledge and social behaviours toward HIV/AIDS. Strategic and continuous awareness campaigns that are culturally and socially tailored are urgently needed.
Biller, Priscila; Guéguen, Laurent; Knibbe, Carole; Tannier, Eric
Models of evolution by genome rearrangements are prone to two types of flaws: One is to ignore the diversity of susceptibility to breakage across genomic regions, and the other is to suppose that susceptibility values are given. Without necessarily supposing their precise localization, we call "solid" the regions that are improbably broken by rearrangements and "fragile" the regions outside solid ones. We propose a model of evolution by inversions where breakage probabilities vary across fragile regions and over time. It contains as a particular case the uniform breakage model on the nucleotidic sequence, where breakage probabilities are proportional to fragile region lengths. This is very different from the frequently used pseudouniform model where all fragile regions have the same probability to break. Estimations of rearrangement distances based on the pseudouniform model completely fail on simulations with the truly uniform model. On pairs of amniote genomes, we show that identifying coding genes with solid regions yields incoherent distance estimations, especially with the pseudouniform model, and to a lesser extent with the truly uniform model. This incoherence is solved when we coestimate the number of fragile regions with the rearrangement distance. The estimated number of fragile regions is surprisingly small, suggesting that a minority of regions are recurrently used by rearrangements. Estimations for several pairs of genomes at different divergence times are in agreement with a slowly evolvable colocalization of active genomic regions in the cell.
Gao, Hongkai; Hrachowitz, Markus; Sriwongsitanon, Nutchanart; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Gharari, Shervan; Savenije, Hubert H. G.
Understanding which catchment characteristics dominate hydrologic response and how to take them into account remains a challenge in hydrological modeling, particularly in ungauged basins. This is even more so in nontemperate and nonhumid catchments, where—due to the combination of seasonality and the occurrence of dry spells—threshold processes are more prominent in rainfall runoff behavior. An example is the tropical savannah, the second largest climatic zone, characterized by pronounced dry and wet seasons and high evaporative demand. In this study, we investigated the importance of landscape variability on the spatial variability of stream flow in tropical savannah basins. We applied a stepwise modeling approach to 23 subcatchments of the Upper Ping River in Thailand, where gradually more information on landscape was incorporated. The benchmark is represented by a classical lumped model (FLEXL), which does not account for spatial variability. We then tested the effect of accounting for vegetation information within the lumped model (FLEXLM), and subsequently two semidistributed models: one accounting for the spatial variability of topography-based landscape features alone (FLEXT), and another accounting for both topographic features and vegetation (FLEXTM). In cross validation, each model was calibrated on one catchment, and then transferred with its fitted parameters to the remaining catchments. We found that when transferring model parameters in space, the semidistributed models accounting for vegetation and topographic heterogeneity clearly outperformed the lumped model. This suggests that landscape controls a considerable part of the hydrological function and explicit consideration of its heterogeneity can be highly beneficial for prediction in ungauged basins in tropical savannah.
Shuman, Bruce A.
Describes research that examined several variables, including the geographic placement of states, that might explain fluctuations in state governments' apparent willingness to fund public libraries. Tables summarizing state aid are appended, and accompanying maps provide pictorial testimony to the behavior of states on selected library and…
Educational Foundation for Visual Aids, London (England).
Audiovisual aids for teaching about the geography of Europe, that may be bought or rented from suppliers in Britain, are listed in this 120-page catalog. Audiovisual materials available include films, filmstrips, slides, overhead projector transparencies, wallsheets, prints, records, tapes, and teaching kits. Each catalog entry describes the…
The importance of exploring 'indigenous' constructions of illness is vital when explanatory models of ill health differ markedly from dominant biomedical paradigms. In the Caprivi region of Namibia, an upsurge of witchcraft accusations can be seen as a direct reaction to increasing AIDS-related illness and deaths, and to changes in socio-economic attitudes and expectations. The mobilization of witchcraft narratives provides a socially acceptable explanation for illness, and can positively influence decisions regarding the care and identity of the ill person. However, drawing upon data collected at kin and village level, this paper demonstrates that while witchcraft accusations can avert stigma and blame away from the ill person, they can also result in significant disruption to livelihoods, and place considerable tension upon key social capital networks at a time when the household is particularly vulnerable. Such findings have significant implications for the effectiveness of HIV prevention and AIDS mitigation initiatives, and for livelihood security.
McLean, Roger; Nurse, Osborne; Nunes, Fred; Delph, Yvette; Benjamin, Annalisa
The paper provides a rationale for a Caribbean HIV/AIDS Conference as a key ingredient to the regional response mechanism. This initiative stems from the need to address crucial elements of the regional response within the realities of the present regional economic situation and global financial climate, as well as epidemiological and demographic trends. A mixed method approach was adopted for this study, drawing on both primary and secondary data collection techniques. A small survey of leaders and senior practitioners formed the basis of the primary data collection phase, complemented by key informant interviews. The paper proposes a model for a Caribbean HIV Conference that can better position the regional response in line with the present global and local socio-economic and health landscape. Central to this model is the repositioning of the Conference from an "Event" to being an "Activity" in the regional planning agenda and the positioning of the Conference as a fundamental fixture of the region's health calendar. The positive externalities from the synergies developed around the Conference can be identified in terms of the quantifiable costs savings to Agencies. The less quantifiable path relates to networking, exchanges and stronger regional ties that are facilitated through the activity. The main findings of the survey of health leaders indicate significant support for an ongoing regional conference. The results therefore endorse the location of a Conference entity together with the relevant support mechanisms as a key feature on the Caribbean's health landscape.
de Sousa, Patricia Juliana; Ferreira, Luiz Oscar Cardoso; de Sá, Janilson Barros
This study sought to ascertain the vulnerabilities to HIV/Aids of transvestites of the Metropolitan Region of Recife. The Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) method was selected for data collection. Among the 110 transvestites, high indices of homophobia were found in locations such as: security services, work facilities, family and religious environments, neighborhood, school, stores, leisure spaces, and healthcare services. Among the situations of violence experienced, the predominant cases involved verbal aggression (81.8%) and physical aggression (68.2%). The HIV test carried out at some stage in their lives was reported by 84.4% of the subjects. A high level of knowledge of the forms of HIV prevention and transmission was detected. The majority of the transvestites began their sexual activity before 15 years of age without condom use. It was seen that in the context of the HIV/Aids epidemic, the strategies for health promotion can only be effective if factors for enhancing the understanding of the vulnerability to HIV/Aids, such as homophobia, are considered.
British Sign Language has a number of regional variations. This article examines the role of residential schools in the development of sign variants. Citing data collected during interviews with members of the Lancaster and Morecambe Deaf community (who of necessity attended schools elsewhere), it explores the peer-to-peer transmission of sign…
Liberato, Ana S. Q.; Pomeroy, Carlton; Fennell, Dana
This study assesses well-being differences in Bolivia. We specifically investigate whether ethnicity and regional location explain differences in housing quality, material wealth, sanitation, and educational achievement in Bolivia. We use the 1994 and 1998 DHS surveys of 9114 and 12109 cases, respectively, to test the study hypotheses, which…
Silva, Thaísa C; Treméa, Carolina M; Zara, Ana Laura S A; Mendonça, Ana Flávia; Godoy, Cássia S M; Costa, Carolina R; Souza, Lúcia K H; Silva, Maria R R
Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis that is considered an important public health problem. In this work, we performed a descriptive, observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study with a secondary data analysis of medical records from 2000 to 2012 at a tertiary hospital. The study sample consisted of 275 patients with laboratory-confirmed Disseminated Histoplasmosis (DH)/AIDS. The results showed that the prevalence of DH associated with AIDS was 4.4%. The majority of patients were young adult men with fever in 84.2%, cough in 63.4%, weight loss in 63.1%, diarrhoea in 44.8% and skin manifestations in 27.6% of patients. In the overall cohort, the CD4 counts were low, but not significantly different in survivors and non-survivors. Higher levels of urea and lower levels of haemoglobin and platelets were observed in non-survivor patients (<.05). The global lethality was 71.3% (196/275). The results with high prevalence and lethality highlight the need to adopt measures to facilitate early diagnosis, proper treatment and improved prognosis.
Background The relative roles of climate variability and population related effects in malaria transmission could be better understood if regional-scale dynamical malaria models could account for these factors. Methods A new dynamical community malaria model is introduced that accounts for the temperature and rainfall influences on the parasite and vector life cycles which are finely resolved in order to correctly represent the delay between the rains and the malaria season. The rainfall drives a simple but physically based representation of the surface hydrology. The model accounts for the population density in the calculation of daily biting rates. Results Model simulations of entomological inoculation rate and circumsporozoite protein rate compare well to data from field studies from a wide range of locations in West Africa that encompass both seasonal endemic and epidemic fringe areas. A focus on Bobo-Dioulasso shows the ability of the model to represent the differences in transmission rates between rural and peri-urban areas in addition to the seasonality of malaria. Fine spatial resolution regional integrations for Eastern Africa reproduce the malaria atlas project (MAP) spatial distribution of the parasite ratio, and integrations for West and Eastern Africa show that the model grossly reproduces the reduction in parasite ratio as a function of population density observed in a large number of field surveys, although it underestimates malaria prevalence at high densities probably due to the neglect of population migration. Conclusions A new dynamical community malaria model is publicly available that accounts for climate and population density to simulate malaria transmission on a regional scale. The model structure facilitates future development to incorporate migration, immunity and interventions. PMID:23419192
Xia, Y.; Yan, X.
Nitrogen application rates (NARs) is often overestimated over the rice (Oryza sativa L.) growing season in the Taihu Lake region of China. This is largely because only individual nitrogen (N) losses are taken into account, or the inventory flows of reactive N have been limited solely to the farming process when evaluating environmental and economic effects of N fertilizer. Since N can permeate the ecosystem in numerous forms commencing from the acquisition of raw material, through manufacturing and use, to final losses in the farming process (e.g., N2O, NH3, NO3- leaching, etc.), the costs incurred also accumulate and should be taken into account if economically-optimal N rates (EONRs) are to be established. This study integrates important material and energy flows resulting from N use into a rice agricultural inventory that constitutes the hub of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) method. An economic evaluation is used to determine an environmental and economic NAR for the Taihu Lake region. The analysis reveals that production and exploitation processes consume the largest proportion of resources, accounting for 77.2 % and 22.3 % of total resources, respectively. Regarding environmental impact, global warming creates the highest cost with contributions stemming mostly from fertilizer production and raw material exploitation processes. Farming process incurs the biggest environmental impact of the three environmental impact categories considered, whereas transportation has a much smaller effect. When taking account of resource consumption and environmental cost, the marginal benefit of 1 kg rice would decrease from 2.4 to only 1.01 yuan. Accordingly, our current EONR has been evaluated at 185 kg N ha-1 for a single rice-growing season. This could enhance profitability, as well as reduce the N losses associated with rice growing.
Alp, Emine; Bozkurt, Ilkay; Doğanay, Mehmet
HIV/AIDS is still an important health problem worldwide and the number of people living with HIV worldwide continued to grow in the last years. The first HIV/AIDS cases had been reported in 1985 from Turkey and with an increasing trend during the following years, the number of cases reached to 3898 with 528 new cases in 2009. The aim of this retrospective study was to share the 18 years experience with the patients who were followed-up in Erciyes University Hospital Infectious Diseases Clinics in Cappadocia region. The records of 55 (81%) HIV/AIDS patients out of 68 who were admitted to our clinic between 1992- 2009 have been attained and the demographic and clinical characteristics, administered therapy regimens and adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy of those cases have been evaluated. Forty-three (78%) of the patients were male and 12 (22%) were female of which 11 (92%) of their spouses had HIV/AIDS. The median age of the patients was 45 and 20 (36%) of them were over 54 years old. Fifty (91%) of patients lived in Cappadocia region, and 24 (44%) had lived in foreign countries. Fifty (91%) patients had risky heterosexual contact as a risk factor. Of these patients, 47 (85%) were in full-blown AIDS stage at admission. Twenty-seven (49%) of the patients diagnosed occasionally during routine anti-HIV testing, did not have any symptoms. Fever, weakness and weight loss were the most frequently detected symptoms in the rest of the patients. Ten (18%) patients had underlying diseases such as hypertension, chronic hepatitis B or C, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus and chronic renal disfunction. Opportunistic infections were determined in 25 (45.5%) patients and 20 (40%) of these infections were determined at admission. The most frequent opportunistic infection was oral candidiasis, followed by Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci pneumonia and tuberculosis. Malignancy was diagnosed in three patients; two had Kaposi's sarcoma and one had multiorgan
Machado Fritsch, Hegger; de Medeiros, Rúbia Marília; Maletich Junqueira, Dennis; Esteves de Matos Almeida, Sabrina; Pinto, Aguinaldo Roberto
ABSTRACT The high incidence of AIDS cases and the dominance of HIV-1 subtype C infections are two features that distinguish the HIV-1 epidemic in the two southernmost Brazilian states (Rio Grande do Sul [RS] and Santa Catarina [SC]) from the epidemic in other parts of the country. Nevertheless, previous studies on HIV molecular epidemiology were conducted mainly in capital cities, and a more comprehensive understanding of factors driving this unique epidemic in Brazil is necessary. Blood samples were collected from individuals in 13 municipalities in the Brazilian southern region. HIV-1 env and pol genes were submitted to phylogenetic analyses for assignment of subtype, and viral population phylodynamics were reconstructed by applying Skygrid and logistic coalescent models in a Bayesian analysis. A high prevalence of subtype C was observed in all sampled locations; however, an increased frequency of recombinant strains was found in RS, with evidence for new circulating forms (CRFs). In the SC state, subtype B and C epidemics were associated with distinct exposure groups. Although logistic models estimated similar growth rates for HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) and HIV-1B, a Skygrid plot reveals that the former epidemic has been expanding for a longer time. Our results highlight a consistent expansion of HIV-1C in south Brazil, and we also discuss how heterosexual and men who have sex with men (MSM) transmission chains might have impacted the current prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes in this region. IMPORTANCE The AIDS epidemic in south Brazil is expanding rapidly, but the circumstances driving this condition are not well known. A high prevalence of HIV-1 subtype C was reported in the capital cities of this region, in contrast to the subtype B dominance in the rest of the country. This study sought to comparatively investigate the HIV-1 subtype B and C epidemics by sampling individuals from several cities in the two states with the highest AIDS incidences in Brazil. Our
This paper details how exposure to new clinics, diagnostic technologies, and pharmaceuticals during humanitarian relief operations in the Somali Region of Ethiopia shaped local pluralistic health systems and altered the ways in which residents subsequently conceived of and treated illness and disease. Despite rising demand for pharmaceuticals and diagnostic technologies among Somalis in Ethiopia, local ethnophysiologies continued to draw upon popular ideas about humoral flows, divine action, and spirit possession. Demands for therapeutic camel milk, Qur'anic spiritual healing, herbal remedies, and other historically popular therapies persisted, but were shaped by concurrent demands for and understandings of diagnostic biotechnologies and pharmaceutical medications. The reverse was also true: contemporary understandings and uses of non-biomedical healing modalities among Somalis shaped evaluations of clinical care, including healthcare during humanitarian responses. To illustrate these phenomena, based on ethnographic research in eastern Ethiopia between 2007 and 2009, this paper explores three topics vital to Somalis' pluralistic healthcare systems: camel milk and the management of digestive bile; women's experiences and clinical presentations with pain and disorder in their reproductive systems; and the rising popularity of high-tech diagnostic tests. I conclude that medical humanitarian aid never happens in a vacuum or among truly treatment-naïve populations. Instead, aid unfolds within ever-changing and pluralistic health cultures, and it permanently alters and is altered by the frames within which people evaluate and make future decisions about healthcare.
Cha, Kenny H.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Weizer, Alon; Zhou, Chuan
We are developing a computer-aided detection system for bladder cancer in CT urography (CTU). We have previously developed methods for detection of bladder masses within the contrast-enhanced region of the bladder. In this study, we investigated methods for detection of bladder masses within the non-contrast enhanced region. The bladder was first segmented using a newly developed deep-learning convolutional neural network in combination with level sets. The non-contrast-enhanced region was separated from the contrast-enhanced region with a maximum-intensityprojection- based method. The non-contrast region was smoothed and a gray level threshold was employed to segment the bladder wall and potential masses. The bladder wall was transformed into a straightened thickness profile, which was analyzed to identify lesion candidates as a prescreening step. The lesion candidates were segmented using our autoinitialized cascaded level set (AI-CALS) segmentation method, and 27 morphological features were extracted for each candidate. Stepwise feature selection with simplex optimization and leave-one-case-out resampling were used for training and validation of a false positive (FP) classifier. In each leave-one-case-out cycle, features were selected from the training cases and a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier was designed to merge the selected features into a single score for classification of the left-out test case. A data set of 33 cases with 42 biopsy-proven lesions in the noncontrast enhanced region was collected. During prescreening, the system obtained 83.3% sensitivity at an average of 2.4 FPs/case. After feature extraction and FP reduction by LDA, the system achieved 81.0% sensitivity at 2.0 FPs/case, and 73.8% sensitivity at 1.5 FPs/case.
Occurrences.....................11-7 3. Forecasting Rules.........................11-11 III. TYRRHENIAN SEA - CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN AREA...the Tyrrhenian Sea -Central Mediterranean Area addressed in Section II1. A complex coastal topography characterizes the north and the south coasts of...is only 3 n mi. 11-25 III. TYRRHENIAN SEA - CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN AREA 1. OVERVIEW 1.1 REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY The Tyrrhenian Sea -Central Mediterranean
Compartmental models have been adapted to derive temporal epidemic forecasting systems for imitating the transfer of HIV infection between those with different behaviours or rates of risk activity. Alternatively, models with regional compartments, which forecast disease incidence in both space and time, have emerged as a response to the challenge of anticipating the pandemic pathways of this infection. This paper combines these frameworks to obtain properties for a multiregion model that also contains demographic compartments. Section 2 begins by showing how the stability conditions (starting thresholds) for a purely regional model are a special case of the existing conditions that have been derived for the general compartmental framework. Then, these results are extended to encompass a regions with compartments design. Section 3 presents an analysis of the population mixing relationships that are embedded in all these specifications. Here, the topics include the maintenance of contact symmetry, the representation of alternative partner selection behaviours, and the identification of core populations for the diffusion of HIV infection. The discussion considers how these theoretical findings might be applied to disease prevention.
Homsy, Jaco; King, Rachel; Tenywa, Joseph; Kyeyune, Primrose; Opio, Alex; Balaba, Dorothy
In many resource-poor settings of Africa, a majority of people living with HIV/AIDS depend on and choose traditional healers for psychosocial counseling and health care. If the current pan-African prevention and care efforts spurred by the HIV pandemic do not actively engage African Traditional Medicine, they will effectively miss 80%, the vast majority of the African people who, according to the World Health Organization, rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. In 2001, the Ugandan nongovernmental organization, Traditional and Modern Health Practitioners Together Against AIDS and Other Diseases, in Kampala, identified the need for a concerted, systematic, and sustained effort at both local and regional levels to support and validate African Traditional Medicine on several fronts. The Eastern & Southern Africa Regional Initiative on Traditional Medicine and AIDS was borne out of this assessment. It convened a regional consultation in May 2003, which produced a series of proposed standards around six main themes related to traditional medicine and HIV/AIDS: the systematic evaluation of traditional remedies; spiritual aspects of healing; HIV prevention and care; processing and packaging of traditional remedies; protection of indigenous knowledge; and intellectual property rights related to traditional health systems. These standards, summarized in this paper, will be incorporated into programs on traditional medicine and HIV/AIDS by various implementers in the region. A number of strategies to test and implement these recommendations are also defined.
Ruiz, José F; Gómez-González, Belén; Aguilera, Andrés
Transcription of the switch (S) regions of immunoglobulin genes in B cells generates stable R-loops that are targeted by Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID), triggering class switch recombination (CSR), as well as translocations with c-MYC responsible for Burkitt's lymphomas. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, stable R-loops are formed co-transcriptionally in mutants of THO, a conserved nuclear complex involved in mRNP biogenesis. Such R-loops trigger genome instability and facilitate deamination by human AID. To understand the mechanisms that generate genome instability mediated by mRNP biogenesis impairment and by AID, we devised a yeast chromosomal system based on different segments of mammalian S regions and c-MYC for the analysis of chromosomal rearrangements in both wild-type and THO mutants. We demonstrate that AID acts in yeast at heterologous S and c-MYC transcribed sequences leading to double-strand breaks (DSBs) which in turn cause chromosomal translocations via Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ). AID-induced translocations were strongly enhanced in yeast THO null mutants, consistent with the idea that AID-mediated DSBs depend on R-loop formation. Our study not only provides new clues to understand the role of mRNP biogenesis in preventing genome rearrangements and the mechanism of AID-mediated genome instability, but also shows that, once uracil residues are produced by AID-mediated deamination, these are processed into DSBs and chromosomal rearrangements by the general and conserved DNA repair functions present from yeast to human cells.
Breivik, Knut; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C
Elevated concentrations of various industrial-use Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been reported in some developing areas in subtropical and tropical regions known to be destinations of e-waste. We used a recent inventory of the global generation and exports of e-waste to develop various global scale emission scenarios for industrial-use organic contaminants (IUOCs). For representative IUOCs (RIUOCs), only hypothetical emissions via passive volatilization from e-waste were considered whereas for PCBs, historical emissions throughout the chemical life-cycle (i.e., manufacturing, use, disposal) were included. The environmental transport and fate of RIUOCs and PCBs were then simulated using the BETR Global 2.0 model. Export of e-waste is expected to increase and sustain global emissions beyond the baseline scenario, which assumes no export. A comparison between model predictions and observations for PCBs in selected recipient regions generally suggests a better agreement when exports are accounted for. This study may be the first to integrate the global transport of IUOCs in waste with their long-range transport in air and water. The results call for integrated chemical management strategies on a global scale.
Improved Ionospheric Correction for DGPS by taking into account the Horizontal Gradient Effect over the Equatorial Region K Nagarajoo Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja Johor Darul Takzim Email: email@example.com DGPS is a system where the range error at a reference station will be eliminated from the range measurement at the user, which `view' the same satellite, presuming that the satellite's path to both the reference station and the user experience common errors due to the ionosphere, clock errors, multipath etc. In this assumption, the error due to the ionospheric refraction is assumed to be the same for the two closely spaced paths (such as a baseline length between reference station and the user is 10km) and thus the presence of ionospheric horizontal gradient is ignored. If a user's path is exposed to a drastically large ionosphere gradient (i.e., over the equatorial region), the large difference of ionosphere delays between the reference station and the user can result in significant position error for the user. Apart from that, the difference in the elevation angle at the reference and the user that `view' the same satellite to get the range measurement does also introduce some millimetre to centimetre of range difference. The neglect of the effect due to the presence of an ionospheric horizontal gradient and the elevation angle's difference (at both ends of the baseline) will cause a significant amount of error in the final DGPS user positioning. In this work, those two effects have been investigated in order to obtain a more accurate ionospheric correction for DGPS and have been found to be roughly comparable showing that they are both important. By performing ray-tracing calculations (using Jones 3-D Ray Tracing program) with and without a linear horizontal ionosphere gradient, the effects of elevation angle and horizontal gradient have been separated and a final positioning improvement of about 8cm has been shown at the user of a
Mencarelli, A.; van Beek, S.; Zijp, L. J.; Rasch, C.; van Herk, M.; Sonke, J.-J.
Despite immobilization of head and neck (H and N) cancer patients, considerable posture changes occur over the course of radiotherapy (RT). To account for the posture changes, we previously implemented a multiple regions of interest (mROIs) registration system tailored to the H and N region for image-guided RT correction strategies. This paper is focused on the automatic segmentation of the ROIs in the H and N region. We developed a fast and robust automatic detection system suitable for an online image-guided application and quantified its performance. The system was developed to segment nine high contrast structures from the planning CT including cervical vertebrae, mandible, hyoid, manubrium of sternum, larynx and occipital bone. It generates nine 3D rectangular-shaped ROIs and informs the user in case of ambiguities. Two observers evaluated the robustness of the segmentation on 188 H and N cancer patients. Bland-Altman analysis was applied to a sub-group of 50 patients to compare the registration results using only the automatically generated ROIs and those manually set by two independent experts. Finally the time performance and workload were evaluated. Automatic detection of individual anatomical ROIs had a success rate of 97%/53% with/without user notifications respectively. Following the notifications, for 38% of the patients one or more structures were manually adjusted. The processing time was on average 5 s. The limits of agreement between the local registrations of manually and automatically set ROIs was comprised between ±1.4 mm, except for the manubrium of sternum (-1.71 mm and 1.67 mm), and were similar to the limits agreement between the two experts. The workload to place the nine ROIs was reduced from 141 s (±20 s) by the manual procedure to 59 s (±17 s) using the automatic method. An efficient detection system to segment multiple ROIs was developed for Cone-Beam CT image-guided applications in the H and N region and is clinically implemented in
Narayana, M. R.
Estimated the impact of grants-in-aid (GIA) and other variables on student performance (in terms of pass percentages) in aided private degree colleges in the Bangalore district in India from 1991-1992 to 1997-1998 using panel data from 31 colleges. Results show that the impact of GIA is positive and significant. (SLD)
Sheehan, Diana M; Trepka, Mary Jo; Dillon, Frank R
Twenty percent of Latinos with HIV in the US are unaware of their HIV status, 33% are linked to care late, and 74% do not reach viral suppression. Disparities along this HIV/AIDS care continuum may be present between various ethnic groups historically categorised as Latino. To identify differences along the HIV/AIDS care continuum between US Latinos of varying birth countries/regions a systematic review of articles published in English between 2002 and 2013 was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Studies that reported on one or more steps of the HIV/AIDS care continuum and reported results by birth country/region for Latinos were included. Latinos born in Mexico and Central America were found to be at increased risk of late diagnosis compared with US-born Latinos. No studies were found that reported on linkage to HIV care or viral load suppression by country/region of birth. Lower survival was found among Latinos born in Puerto Rico compared with Latinos born in mainland US. Inconsistent differences in survival were found among Latinos born in Mexico, Cuba, and Central America. Socio/cultural context, immigration factors, and documentation status are discussed as partial explanations for disparities along the HIV/AIDS care continuum.
In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher
Sharma, Mukta; Chatterjee, Anindya
In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the "Strike- Hard" campaign in China or the "war on drugs" in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam's response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves.The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting "universal access" goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners.The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher political
... Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Aids On this page: What is a hearing aid? ... the ear through a speaker. How can hearing aids help? Hearing aids are primarily useful in improving ...
Kasedde, Susan; Luo, Chewe; McClure, Craig; Chandan, Upjeet
Adolescents are critical to efforts to end the AIDS epidemic. Few national AIDS strategies explicitly program for children in their second decade of life. Adolescents (aged 10-19 years) are therefore largely invisible in global, regional, and country HIV and AIDS reports making it difficult to assess progress in this population. We have unprecedented knowledge to guide investment towards greater impact on HIV prevention, treatment, and care in adolescents, but it has not been applied to reach those most vulnerable and optimize efficiency and scale. The cost of this is increasing AIDS-related deaths and largely unchanged levels of new HIV infections in adolescents. An AIDS-free generation will remain out of reach if the global community does not prioritize adolescents. National AIDS responses must be accountable to adolescents, invest in strengthening and monitoring protective and supportive laws and policies and access for adolescents to high impact HIV interventions.
Farahani, H. H.; Slobbe, D. C.; Klees, R.; Seitz, Kurt
We study the impact of an accurate computation and incorporation of coloured noise in radar altimeter data when computing a regional quasi-geoid model using least-squares techniques. Our test area comprises the Southern North Sea including the Netherlands, Belgium, and parts of France, Germany, and the UK. We perform the study by modelling the disturbing potential with spherical radial base functions. To that end, we use the traditional remove-compute-restore procedure with a recent GRACE/GOCE static gravity field model. Apart from radar altimeter data, we use terrestrial, airborne, and shipboard gravity data. Radar altimeter sea surface heights are corrected for the instantaneous dynamic topography and used in the form of along-track quasi-geoid height differences. Noise in these data are estimated using repeat-track and post-fit residual analysis techniques and then modelled as an auto regressive moving average process. Quasi-geoid models are computed with and without taking the modelled coloured noise into account. The difference between them is used as a measure of the impact of coloured noise in radar altimeter along-track quasi-geoid height differences on the estimated quasi-geoid model. The impact strongly depends on the availability of shipboard gravity data. If no such data are available, the impact may attain values exceeding 10 centimetres in particular areas. In case shipboard gravity data are used, the impact is reduced, though it still attains values of several centimetres. We use geometric quasi-geoid heights from GPS/levelling data at height markers as control data to analyse the quality of the quasi-geoid models. The quasi-geoid model computed using a model of the coloured noise in radar altimeter along-track quasi-geoid height differences shows in some areas a significant improvement over a model that assumes white noise in these data. However, the interpretation in other areas remains a challenge due to the limited quality of the control data.
Garrett County, Maryland volunteered to act as a pre-overseas learning laboratory for AID (Agency for International Development) interns who practiced data collection and planning techniques with the help of local citizenry. (JC)
Jan, Stephen; Pronyk, Paul; Kim, Julia
There has been growing interest in the application of institutionalist perspectives in the health economics literature. This paper investigates the institutionalist notion of social value and its use in economic evaluation with particular reference to a program to address HIV/AIDS and gender violence in Southern Africa (IMAGE). Institutions are the rules that govern the conduct between individuals, groups and organisations. Their social value stems from their capacity to reduce the uncertainty in human interactions thereby both reducing transaction costs and, importantly, enabling the initiation and sustainability of various activities (instrumental value). Furthermore, institutions tend to be formed around certain ethical positions and as a consequence, act in binding future decision making to these positions (intrinsic value). Incorporating such notions of social value within a conventional welfare-based measure of benefit is problematic as institutional development is not necessarily consistent with individual utility. An institutionalist approach allows for these additional domains to be factored into economic evaluation. IMAGE is an intervention to reduce gender violence and HIV through microfinance, health education and community development, and involves significant initial investment in institution-building activities, notably through training activities with program staff and community members. The key to employing an institutionalist approach to the evaluation of IMAGE is in understanding the nature of those actions that can be seen as institution-building and determining: (1) the instrumental value of follow-up activities by appropriate amortisation of transaction costs over an horizon that reflects the economies gained from the intervention; and (2) the intrinsic value of any transformation in the community through a cost-consequences approach informed by an a priori conceptual model. This case study highlights how health sector interventions can effect
Flores, Claudia H.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Bakun, William H.
Documentation of an event in the past depended on the population and political trends of the island, and the availability of historical documents is limited by the physical resource digitization schedule and by the copyright laws of each archive. Examples of documents accessed are governors' letters, newspapers, and other circulars published within the Caribbean, North America, and Western Europe. Key words were used to search for publications that contain eyewitness accounts of various large earthquakes. Finally, this catalog provides descriptions of damage to buildings used in previous studies for the estimation of moment intensity (MI) and location of significantly damaging or felt earthquakes in Hispaniola and in the northeastern Caribbean, all of which have been described in other studies.
Kosia, Agnes; Kakoko, Deodatus; Semakafu, Ave Maria Emilius; Nyamhanga, Tumaini; Frumence, Gasto
Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global public health problem. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region most affected by HIV/AIDS in the world. Globally, and in Tanzania in particular, women are more affected by HIV/AIDS than men. Tanzania has been reported to be among the countries with the highest burden of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study explored the challenges facing women living with HIV/AIDS (LWHA) attending the care and treatment clinic (CTC) in Singida Regional Hospital in Tanzania. Design A qualitative study was performed in which data were collected through in-depth interviews with 35 women LWHA who also experienced IPV. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results The study findings showed that women LWHA experienced challenges from their male partners in the form of lack of fare to attend CTC, delayed attendance to CTC, verbal threats and intimidation, mistrust partner resulting in changed antiretroviral (ARV) dosing time. Also, systemic challenges such as malfunction of CD4 count testing apparatus contributed to mistrust from their male partners which led to IPV. Conclusion In this study, women LWHA experienced IPV challenges that resulted in poor adherence to ARV medication and CTC attendance, as well as insufficient time to collect ARV medication. It is recommended that the government address systemic challenges faced by women LWHA, introduce multiple approaches to address the needs of women LWHA experiencing IPV, and develop strong policies to prevent IPV against women in Tanzania, regardless of their HIV status. PMID:27987296
Cox, Robyn M.; Johnson, Jani A.; Alexander, Genevieve C.
Short Summary It has been suggested that existence of high-frequency cochlear dead regions (DRs) has implications for hearing aid fitting, and that the optimal amount of high-frequency gain is reduced for these patients. This investigation used laboratory and field measurements to examine the effectiveness of reduced high-frequency gain in typical hearing aid users with high-frequency DRs. Both types of data revealed that speech understanding was better with the evidence-based prescription than with reduced high-frequency gain, and that this was seen for listeners with and without DRs. Nevertheless, subjects did not always prefer the amplification condition that produced better speech understanding. PMID:22555183
The standards and accountability movement in education has undeniably transformed schooling throughout the United States. Even before President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act into law in January 2002, mandating annual public school testing in English and math for grades 3-8 and once in high school, most states had already…
... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin HIV/AIDS HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is the virus ... HIV/AIDS. Why Is the Study of HIV/AIDS a Priority for NIAID? Nearly 37 million people ...
... and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... to restrict your daily activities. Properly fitted hearing aids and aural rehabilitation (techniques used to identify and ...
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hearing Aids KidsHealth > For Teens > Hearing Aids Print A A ... with certain types of hearing loss. How Hearing Aids Help So you went to audiologist and found ...
Kevany, Sebastian; Gildea, Amy; Garae, Caleb; Moa, Serafi; Lautusi, Avaia
The South Pacific countries of Vanuatu, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea have ascended rapidly up the development spectrum in recent years, refining an independent and post-colonial economic and political identity that enhances their recognition on the world stage. All three countries have overcome economic, political and public health challenges in order to stake their claim to sovereignty. In this regard, the contributions of national and international programs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, with specific reference to their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) aspects, have contributed not just to public health, but also to broader political and diplomatic goals such as ‘nation-building’. This perspective describes the specific contributions of global health programs to the pursuit of national integration, development, and regional international relations, in Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea, respectively, based on in-country M&E activities on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) during 2014 and 2015. Key findings include: (1) that global health programs contribute to non-health goals; (2) that HIV/AIDS programs promote international relations, decentralized development, and internal unity; (3) that arguments in favour of the maintenance and augmentation of global health funding may be enhanced on this basis; and (4) that "smart" global health approaches have been successful in South Pacific countries. PMID:26029892
Kevany, Sebastian; Gildea, Amy; Garae, Caleb; Moa, Serafi; Lautusi, Avaia
The South Pacific countries of Vanuatu, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea have ascended rapidly up the development spectrum in recent years, refining an independent and post-colonial economic and political identity that enhances their recognition on the world stage. All three countries have overcome economic, political and public health challenges in order to stake their claim to sovereignty. In this regard, the contributions of national and international programs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, with specific reference to their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) aspects, have contributed not just to public health, but also to broader political and diplomatic goals such as 'nation-building'. This perspective describes the specific contributions of global health programs to the pursuit of national integration, development, and regional international relations, in Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea, respectively, based on in-country M&E activities on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) during 2014 and 2015. Key findings include: (1) that global health programs contribute to non-health goals; (2) that HIV/AIDS programs promote international relations, decentralized development, and internal unity; (3) that arguments in favour of the maintenance and augmentation of global health funding may be enhanced on this basis; and (4) that "smart" global health approaches have been successful in South Pacific countries.
... Other regions significantly affected by HIV/AIDS include Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. CDC’s Global AIDS website explains what CDC is ...
Bohn, T. J.; Vivoni, E. R.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a poorly constrained flux in the North American monsoon (NAM) region, leading to potential errors in land-atmosphere feedbacks. Due to the region's arid to semi-arid climate, two factors play major roles in ET: sparse vegetation that exhibits dramatic seasonal greening, and irrigated agriculture. To more accurately characterize the spatio-temporal variations of ET in the NAM region, we used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, modified to account for soil evaporation (Esoil), irrigated agriculture, and the variability of land surface properties derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer during 2000-2012. Simulated ET patterns were compared to field observations at fifty-nine eddy covariance towers, water balance estimates in nine basins, and six available gridded ET products. The modified VIC model performed well at eddy covariance towers representing the natural and agricultural land covers in the region. Simulations revealed that major source areas for ET were forested mountain areas during the summer season and irrigated croplands at peak times of growth in the winter and summer, accounting for 22% and 9% of the annual ET, respectively. Over the NAM region, Esoil was the largest component (60%) of annual ET, followed by plant transpiration (T, 32%) and evaporation of canopy interception (8%). Esoil and T displayed different relations with P in natural land covers, with Esoil tending to peak earlier than T by up to one month, while only a weak correlation between ET and P was found in irrigated croplands. These VIC-based estimates are the most realistic to date for this region, outperforming several other process-based and remote-sensing-based gridded ET products. Furthermore, spatio-temporal patterns reveal new information on the magnitudes, locations and timing of ET in the North American monsoon region, with implications for land-atmosphere feedbacks.
Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila
Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.
Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila
Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk (M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration-Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)-for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.
Ferruci, Hugo Rodriguez; Razuri, H; Casapia, M; Rahme, E; Silva, H; Ault, S; Blouin, B; Mofid, L S; Montresor, A; Gyorkos, T W
Chau Cuica was the name given by the regional government of Loreto in Peru for its school-based deworming program which was initiated in 2012 with a donation of mebendazole from an international non-governmental organization. Embedded in the program from the start was a sentinel surveillance component which consisted of 16 sentinel schools representing Loreto's seven provinces. Coverage rates varied between 35% and 61% over the first two years of the program (and seven deworming cycles). Initial prevalences of soil-transmitted helminth infections were high, with 82.4% of schoolchildren having at least one infection and prevalences of both Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections both exceeding 60%. After two years, these prevalences had dropped to 56% for any STH infection, 38% for A. lumbricoides and 34% for T. trichiura. Importantly, the proportions of children with moderate and heavy infections also dropped. Both the regional Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education were jointly charged to implement this deworming program. The program's costs were estimated to be approximately 22 cents (USD) per child per deworming cycle. The responsibility for the surveillance component was initially undertaken by research partners from a local NGO and a Canadian university, which transferred gradually over the course of the deworming program to being entirely the responsibility of the Ministry of Health. This regional deworming program may serve as a model for other jurisdictions that are planning a school-based deworming program with an integrated surveillance component to monitor impact.
Del Casino Jr, Vincent
Authors of world regional geography textbooks have recently become more interested in the broader theoretical changes that have emerged in human geography. Relying on feminist and other critical perspectives, concepts such as space, place and scale are being re-imagined in this 'new world regional geography'. This paper intervenes on behalf of a…
Kult, J. M.; Fry, L. M.; Gronewold, A. D.
Methods for predicting streamflow in areas with limited or nonexistent measures of hydrologic response typically invoke the concept of regionalization, whereby knowledge pertaining to gauged catchments is transferred to ungauged catchments. In this study, we identify watershed physical characteristics acting as primary drivers of hydrologic response throughout the US portion of the Great Lakes basin. Relationships between watershed physical characteristics and hydrologic response are generated from 166 catchments spanning a variety of climate, soil, land cover, and land form regimes through regression tree analysis, leading to a grouping of watersheds exhibiting similar hydrologic response characteristics. These groupings are then used to predict response in ungauged watersheds in an uncertainty framework. Results from this method are assessed alongside one historical regionalization approach which, while simple, has served as a cornerstone of Great Lakes regional hydrologic research for several decades. Our approach expands upon previous research by considering multiple temporal characterizations of hydrologic response. Due to the substantial inter-annual and seasonal variability in hydrologic response observed over the Great Lakes basin, results from the regression tree analysis differ considerably depending on the level of temporal aggregation used to define the response. Specifically, higher levels of temporal aggregation for the response metric (for example, indices derived from long-term means of climate and streamflow observations) lead to improved watershed groupings with lower within-group variance. However, this perceived improvement in model skill occurs at the cost of understated uncertainty when applying the regression to time series simulations or as a basis for model calibration. In such cases, our results indicate that predictions based on long-term characterizations of hydrologic response can produce misleading conclusions when applied at shorter
Alderslade, Philip; Althaus, Franziska; Mcennulty, Felicity; Gowlett-Holmes, Karen; Williams, Alan
The number of deep-water (>80 m) octocoral species recorded from Australian waters has more than tripled from 135 to 457 following six surveys undertaken between 1997 and 2008 on the deep continental margin of south-eastern, western and north-western Australia and the Tasman Sea. This rapid increase in knowledge follows a slow accumulation of records since the earliest collections were made by vessels such as the Géographe and the Naturaliste in the early years of the 19 century. Consistent identification and alpha-labelling of the octocoral fauna between surveys has permitted a multi-region description and comparison. We detail the identities, distributions and regional affinities of 457 octocoral species in 131 genera and 28 families from the orders Alcyonacea and Pennatulacea, including 69 new species, 17 new genera and 43 first records for Australia. Five of the more common genera were widely distributed (present at 35 and 66 sampling stations spanning all of the 4 survey regions), but two were restricted to south-eastern Australia-Pleurogorgia Versluys, 1902 and Tokoprymno Bayer, 1996-and were only sampled from depths below 700 m. The great majority of species (81%) and nearly half of all genera (47%) were only sampled once or twice. The highest average number of species per sampling station (3.2) was reported from the outer shelf. The proportion of new species was highest (22%) on the upper and lower slope bathomes, intermediate (13-15%) on the mid-slope bathome and lowest (8%) on the outer shelf bathome. Species overlap between bathomes was low, but all families were shared across bathomes. Most described species (55 of 69) have an Indo-West Pacific affinity, 20 have an Indian Ocean affinity, while three were previously recorded from the Atlantic Ocean only; 20 appear to be Australian endemics. Octocorals can now be added to an emerging set of taxon-specific data sets-including fishes, ophiuroids and galatheids-that permit regional-scale analysis
Scott, David J
Hydrodynamic studies of the solution properties of proteins and other biological macromolecules are often hard to interpret when the sample is present at a reasonably concentrated solution. The reason for this is that solutions exhibit deviations from ideal behaviour which is manifested as thermodynamic non-ideality. The range of concentrations at which this behaviour typically is exhibited is as low as 1-2 mg/ml, well within the range of concentrations used for their analysis by techniques such as small-angle scattering. Here we discuss thermodynamic non-ideality used previously used in the context of light scattering and sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation and apply it to the Guinier region of small-angle scattering data. The results show that there is a complementarity between the radially averaged structure factor derived from small-angle X-ray scattering/small-angle neutron scattering studies and the second virial coefficient derived from sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation experiments.
This curriculum guide describes the accounting curriculum in the following three areas: accounting clerk, bookkeeper, and nondegreed accountant. The competencies and tasks complement the Arizona validated listing in these areas. The guide lists 24 competencies for nondegreed accountants, 10 competencies for accounting clerks, and 11 competencies…
... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...
Krishnan, Unni; Al Maslamani, Manal; Moule, Alex J
We present two cases where the identities of mixed radiopaque radiolucent lesions in the lower incisor region were unclear, although the position of the lesions and positive pulp sensitivity tests were suggestive of periapical osseous dysplasia. In the first case, the lesion presented as a solitary round mixed radiopaque radiolucent periapical lesion, suggestive in some images as periapical osseous dysplasia. Cone beam CT (CBCT) provided clear images, which confirmed the diagnosis and, additionally, the images showed evidence of initial lesions associated with other anterior teeth and some destruction of the labial plate, not evident on the conventional radiographs. In the second case, radiopacities were identified within the lesion on conventional radiographs, but CBCT imaging also showed extensive and unexpected perforation of the lingual plate. Such destruction of cortical plates may be a feature of periapical osseous dysplasia, which is not visible in conventional radiography. PMID:25576510
The insurance and medical aid industries reacted strongly in the 1980s to alarmist predictions of the likely impact of HIV upon employee benefits. Actuaries and accountants moved quickly to contain the risk, and most medical aid trustees quickly implemented a total exclusion of HIV treatment from their benefits. For more than 1 decade, it was argued that HIV/AIDS is a self-inflicted illness, often categorized with other STDs. In response, healthcare providers simply bypassed insurance restrictions and compensation limits by masking patient diagnoses to reflect pneumonia or other ambiguous, yet fully reimbursable, illnesses. Now, common sense has finally prevailed as a few managed healthcare programs are stepping forward to break the impasse. The largest such program is Aid for AIDS, run by Pharmaceutical Benefit Management Ltd. for schemes within the Medscheme Group. The Group built an entirely new, secure unit off-site from their normal branches to guarantee the confidentiality of patients' records and diagnoses, while treatment guidelines have been issued to every practicing physician in the country.
The World Bank, USAID and NASA have recently established a joint project to study multiple issues pertaining to water related applications in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. The main concentration of the project is on utilization of remote sensing data and hydrological models to address crop irrigation and mapping, flood mapping and forecasting, evapotranspiration and drought problems prevalent in this large geographic area. Additional emphases are placed on understanding the climate impact on these areas as well. Per IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century MENA region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. These observations generate multiple products such as soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gases, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed-via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products will then be further compared with other NASA satellite observations (MODIS, VIIRS, TRMM, etc.) and other discrete models to compare and optimize
Zhang, Wei; Feng, Jiannan; Li, Yan; Guo, Ning; Shen, Beifen
The murine monoclonal antibody Z12 is of therapeutic interest for its neutralizing biological activity against human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (hTNF-alpha). We attempted to humanize Z12 with variable domain resurfacing guided by computer modeling. First, the genes of heavy and light chain variable region (VH, VL) of Z12 were cloned and the whole three-dimensional structure of Fv fragment was constructed by using homology-based modeling and molecular docking methods. Then the complex model of Fv interacting with hTNF-alpha whose crystal structure derived from PDB database was gained with computer-guided docking program. Based on this model, a humanized version was designed. The humanized Fab antibody was constructed, expressed and purified in the pComb3H vector system and it showed unaltered binding affinity to the antigen as determined by ELISA and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The method described here can be used to humanize other anti-hTNF-alpha antibodies.
Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.; Geppert, Jeffrey
The accountability debate tends to devolve into a battle between the pro-testing and anti-testing crowds. When it comes to the design of a school accountability system, the devil is truly in the details. A well-designed accountability plan may go a long way toward giving school personnel the kinds of signals they need to improve performance.…
Ma, N.; Zhang, Y.; Szilagyi, J.; Xu, C. Y.
While the land surface latent and sensible heat release in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) could greatly influence the Asian monsoon circulation, the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) information in the TP has been largely hindered by its extremely sparse ground observation network. Thus the complementary relationship (CR) theory lends great potential in estimating the ETa since it relies on solely routine meteorological observations. With the in-situ energy/water flux observation over the highest semiarid alpine steppe in the TP, the modifications of specific components within the CR were first implemented. We found that the symmetry of the CR could be achieved for dry regions of TP when (i) the Priestley-Taylor coefficient, (ii) the slope of the saturation vapor pressure curve and (iii) the wind function were locally calibrated by using the ETa observations in wet days, an estimate of the wet surface temperature and the Monin-Obukhov Similarity (MOS) theory, respectively. In this way, the error of the simulated ETa by the symmetric AA model could be decreased to a large extent. Besides, the asymmetric CR was confirmed in TP when the D20 above-ground and/or E601B sunken pan evaporation (Epan) were used as a proxy of the ETp. Thus daily ETa could also be estimated by coupling D20 above-ground and/or E601B sunken pans through CR. Additionally, to overcome the modification of the specific components in the CR, we also evaluated the Nonlinear-CR model and the Morton's CRAE model. The former does not need the pre-determination of the asymmetry of CR, while the latter does not require the wind speed data as input. We found that both models are also able to simulate the daily ETa well provided their parameter values have been locally calibrated. The sensitivity analysis shows that, if the measured ETa data are absence to calibrate the models' parameter values, the Nonlinear-CR model may be a particularly good way for estimating ETabecause of its mild sensitivity to the parameter
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting records. 152.305 Section 152.305... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.305 Accounting records. (a) Airport... individual project, an accounting record satisfactory to the Administrator which segregates cost...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting records. 152.305 Section 152.305... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.305 Accounting records. (a) Airport... individual project, an accounting record satisfactory to the Administrator which segregates cost...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting records. 152.305 Section 152.305... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.305 Accounting records. (a) Airport... individual project, an accounting record satisfactory to the Administrator which segregates cost...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting records. 152.305 Section 152.305... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.305 Accounting records. (a) Airport... individual project, an accounting record satisfactory to the Administrator which segregates cost...
Tuma, John E.; And Others
Analysis was made of financial aid to postsecondary vocational education students, using data from two primary sources, the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (1986) and High School and Beyond (1980-84). The study found that most financial aid subsidizes students in four-year institutions. However, two-year public schools, which account for…
Kalanda, Boniface; Mamimine, Patrick; Taela, Katia; Chingandu, Louis; Musuka, Godfrey
The governments across the world have endorsed numerous international Conventions and Declarations (C&Ds) that enhance interventions to reduce the impact of HIV and AIDS. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which the governments of Lesotho, Malawi and Mozambique have implemented HIV and AIDS international and regional…
Thuo, Daniel Njane; Nyaga, Veronica K.; Bururia, David N.; Barchok, Hilary K.
Education plays an important role in curbing the spread of HIV and AIDS among the youth. However, there is little known how teachers' motivation in teaching HIV/AIDS education affects students' knowledge and attitudes towards sexual behaviour. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between teachers' level of motivation in…
Zhang, Ting; Dorman, Michael F.; Spahr, Anthony J.
Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the minimum amount of low-frequency acoustic information that is required to achieve speech perception benefit in listeners with a cochlear implant in one ear and low-frequency hearing in the other ear. Design The recognition of monosyllabic words in quiet and sentences in noise was evaluated in three listening conditions: electric stimulation alone, acoustic stimulation alone, and combined electric and acoustic stimulation. The acoustic stimuli presented to the nonimplanted ear were either low-pass-filtered at 125, 250, 500, or 750 Hz, or unfiltered (wideband). Results Adding low-frequency acoustic information to electrically stimulated information led to a significant improvement in word recognition in quiet and sentence recognition in noise. Improvement was observed in the electric and acoustic stimulation condition even when the acoustic information was limited to the 125-Hz-low-passed signal. Further improvement for the sentences in noise was observed when the acoustic signal was increased to wideband. Conclusions Information from the voice fundamental frequency (F0) region accounts for the majority of the speech perception benefit when acoustic stimulation is added to electric stimulation. We propose that, in quiet, low-frequency acoustic information leads to an improved representation of voicing, which in turn leads to a reduction in word candidates in the lexicon. In noise, the robust representation of voicing allows access to low-frequency acoustic landmarks that mark syllable structure and word boundaries. These landmarks can bootstrap word and sentence recognition. PMID:20050394
Solopova, Ana; Bachmann, Herwig; Teusink, Bas; Kok, Jan; Neves, Ana Rute; Kuipers, Oscar P
The Lactococcus lactis laboratory strain MG1363 has been described to be unable to utilize lactose. However, in a rich medium supplemented with lactose as the sole carbon source, it starts to grow after prolonged incubation periods. Transcriptome analyses showed that L. lactis MG1363 Lac(+) cells expressed celB, encoding a putative cellobiose-specific phosphotransferase system (PTS) IIC component, which is normally silent in MG1363 Lac(-) cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cel cluster of a Lac(+) isolate revealed a change from one of the guanines to adenine in the promoter region. We showed here that one particular mutation, taking place at increased frequency, accounts for the lactose-utilizing phenotype occurring in MG1363 cultures. The G-to-A transition creates a -10 element at an optimal distance from the -35 element. Thus, a fully active promoter is created, allowing transcription of the otherwise cryptic cluster. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy results show that MG1363 Lac(+) uses a novel pathway of lactose utilization.
Shum, C. K.; Kuo, C. Y.; Guo, J.; Shang, K.; Tseng, K. H.; Wan, J.; Calmant, S.; Ballu, V.; Valty, P.; Kusche, J.; Hossain, F.; Khan, Z. H.; Rietbroek, R.; Uebbing, B.
The potential for accelerated sea-level rise under anthropogenic warming is a significant societal problem, in particular in world's coastal deltaic regions where about half of the world's population resides. Quantifying geophysical sources of sea-level rise with the goal of improved projection at local scales remains a complex and challenging interdisciplinary research problem. These processes include ice-sheet/glacier ablations, steric sea-level, solid Earth uplift or subsidence due to GIA, tectonics, sediment loading or anthropogenic causes, hydrologic imbalance, and human processes including water retention in reservoirs and aquifer extraction. The 2013 IPCC AR5 concluded that the observed and explained geophysical causes of global geocentric sea-level rise, 1993-2010, is closer towards closure. However, the discrepancy reveals that circa 1.3→37.5% of the observed sea-level rise remains unexplained. This relatively large discrepancy is primarily attributable to the wide range of estimates of respective contributions of Greenland and Antarctic ice-sheets and mountain/peripheral glaciers to sea-level rise. Understanding and quantifying the natural and anthropogenic processes governing solid Earth (land, islands and sea-floor) uplift or subsidence at the regional and local scales remain elusive to enable addressing coastal vulnerability due to relative sea-level rise hazards, such as the Bangladesh Delta. This study focuses on addressing coastal vulnerability of Bangladesh, a Belmont Forum/IGFA project, BanD-AID (http://Belmont-SeaLevel.org). Sea-level rise, along with tectonic, sediment load and groundwater extraction induced land uplift/subsidence, have exacerbated Bangladesh's coastal vulnerability, affecting 150 million people in one of the world's most densely populated regions. Here we present preliminary results using space geodetic observations, including satellite radar and laser altimetry, GRACE gravity, tide gauge, hydrographic, and GPS/InSAR observed
... hair cells (outer and inner rows). When the vibrations move through this fluid, the tiny outer hair ... ear to the brain. Hearing aids intensify sound vibrations that the damaged outer hair cells have trouble ...
Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.
Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)
In this article, the author examines how activist media by Native AIDS organizers promoted anticolonial analyses of AIDS, gender, and sexuality as a contribution to scholarship on Native responses to AIDS. His discussion centers on the organizers who created media as authorities on and in their media. In contrast to recent accounts that popularize…
This document is a guide to aid teachers in incorporating the use of calculators in the high school Accounting II curriculum. The guide contains 16 learning modules. Each module consists of an introductory explanation, student performance objectives, content of the module, and teaching suggestions for using calculators in each application of…
Resources - HIV/AIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www. ...
... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.
This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…
Brown, R. W.; And Others
The computerized Painless Accountability System is a performance objective system from which instructional programs are developed. Three main simplified behavioral response levels characterize this system: (1) cognitive, (2) psychomotor, and (3) affective domains. Each of these objectives are classified by one of 16 descriptors. The second major…
Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.
This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…
Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007
This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…
Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era
Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…
Krieger, N; Margo, G
Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.
Strada, Susanna; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Perrin, Mathieu; Stefanon, Marc
By modifying the Earth's natural landscapes, humans have introduced an imbalance in the Earth System's energy, water and emission fluxes via land-use and land-cover changes (LULCCs). Through land-atmosphere interactions, LULCCs influence weather, air quality and climate at different scales, from regional/local (a few ten kilometres) (Pielke et al., 2011) to global (a few hundred kilometres) (Mahmood et al., 2014). Therefore, in the context of climate change, LULCCs will play a role locally/regionally in altering weather/atmospheric conditions. In addition to the global climate change impacts, LULCCs will possibly induce further changes in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and thereby affect adaptation strategies. If LULCCs influence weather/atmospheric conditions, could land use planning alter climate conditions and ease the impact of climate change by wisely shaping urban and rural landscapes? Nowadays, numerical land-atmosphere modelling allows to assess LULCC impacts at different scales (e.g., Marshall et al., 2003; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al., 2011). However, most scenarios of climate changes used to force impact models result from downscaling procedures that do not account for LULCCs (e.g., Jacob et al., 2014). Therefore, if numerical modelling may help in tackling the discussion about LULCCs, do existing LULCC scenarios encompass realistic changes in terms of land use planning? In the present study, we apply a surface model to compare projected LULCC scenarios over France and to assess their impacts on surface fluxes (i.e., water, heat and carbon dioxide fluxes) and on water and carbon storage in soils. To depict future LULCCs in France, we use RCP scenarios from the IPCC AR5 report (Moss et al., 2011). LULCCs encompassed in RCPs are discussed in terms of: (a) their impacts on water and energy balance over France, and (b) their feasibility in the framework of land use planning in France. This study is the first step to quantify the sensitivity of land
Sub-Saharan Africa is the region of the world most affected by HIV & AIDS, accounting for two-thirds of the global burden of the pandemic. People with disabilities are regarded as a high-risk group for HIV but have been largely neglected in programmes of education, treatment and support. This paper examines the possibilities for a learning…
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MILITARY ENLISTED AIDES DOD’s Report Met Most Statutory Requirements, but Aide Allocation Could Be Improved...Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-16-239, a report to congressional committees February 2016 MILITARY ENLISTED AIDES DOD’s Report Met Most...Statutory Requirements, but Aide Allocation Could Be Improved Why GAO Did This Study Enlisted aides assist general and flag officers with tasks
Short, R V
This article reviews a peer group Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educational program at a university in Australia. Studies in the US have shown that most adolescents, although sexually active, do not believe they are likely to become infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and therefore do not attempt to modify their sexual behavior. A 1st step in educating students is to introduce them to condoms and impress upon them the fact that condoms should be used at the beginning of all sexual relationships, whether homosexual or heterosexual. In this program 3rd year medical students were targeted, as they are effective communicators and disseminators of information to the rest of the student body. After class members blow up condoms, giving them a chance to handle various brands and observe the varying degrees of strength, statistical evidence about the contraceptive failure rate of condoms (0.6-14.7 per 100 women-years) is discussed. Spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9 used in conjunction with condoms, are also discussed, as are condoms for women, packaging and marketing of condoms, including those made from latex and from the caecum of sheep, the latter condoms being of questionable effectiveness in preventing transmission of the virus. The care of terminal AIDS cases and current global and national statistics on AIDS are presented. The program also includes cash prizes for the best student essays on condom use, the distribution of condoms, condom key rings and T-shirts, and a student-run safe sex stand during orientation week. All of these activities are intended to involve students and attract the interest of the undergraduate community. Questionnaires administered to students at the end of the course revealed that the lectures were received favorably. Questionnaires administered to new medical and English students attending orientation week revealed that 72% of students thought the stand was a good idea and 81% and 83%, respectively found it
Powell, John Wesley
A report from Maj. J. W.Powell, geologist in charge of the United States Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region, upon the lands of the Arid Region of the United States, setting forth the extent of said region, and making suggestions as to the conditions under which the lands embraced within its limit may be rendered available for agricultural and grazing purposes. With the report is transmitted a statement of the rainfall of the western portion of the United States, with reports upon the subject of irrigation by Capt. C. E. Button, U. S. A., Prof. A. H. Thompson, and Mr. G. K. Gilbert.
Peek, Lucia E.; Roxas, Maria L.
Content analysis of 62 accounting programs' websites indicated the following: 53% include mission statements; 62.9% list accreditation; many faculty biographies and personal pages used inconsistent formats; provision of information on financial aid, student organizations, career services, and certified public accountant requirements varied. Many…
While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh.
Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John
RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .
Fletcher, Faith; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Kerr, Jelani; Buchberg, Meredith; Bogdan-Lovis, Libby; Philpott-Jones, Sean
African American women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in the United States. Although they constitute only 13% of the US population, African Americans account for nearly 65% of all new HIV infections among American women. In addition, this population suffers comparatively greater adverse health outcomes related to HIV status. African American women living with HIV in the South may be further burdened by HIV/AIDS stigma, which is comparatively more pronounced in this region. To further explore this burden, we used narrative data and the Social Ecological Model to explore how African American women living with HIV in the US South recount, conceptualize, and cope with HIV/AIDS stigma at interpersonal, community, and institutional levels. Our narrative analysis suggests that HIV-positive African American women living in the South are vulnerable to experiences of multilevel HIV stigma in various settings and contexts across multiple domains of life. Stigma subsequently complicated disclosure decisions and made it difficult for women to feel supported in particular social, professional and medical settings that are generally regarded as safe spaces for noninfected individuals. Findings suggest that the debilitating and compounded effect of multilevel HIV/AIDS stigma on HIV-positive African American women in the South warrants closer examination to tailor approaches that effectively address the unique needs of this population.
... concerns. Search Services Share This Help National HIV/AIDS Strategy Check out NHAS's latest progress in the ... from AIDS.gov Read more AIDS.gov tweets AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...
Hupponen, M. Grönman, K.; Horttanainen, M.
Highlights: • Environmental criteria for the MSW incineration location procurements are needed. • Focus should be placed on annual energy efficiency and on substitute fuels. • In SRF combustion it is crucial to know the share and the treatment of rejects. • The GWP of transportation is a small part of the total emissions. - Abstract: The ongoing trend in the public sector is to make more sustainable procurements by taking into account the impacts throughout the entire life cycle of the procurement. Despite the trend, the only deciding factor can still be the total costs. This article answers the question of how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be taken into account in municipal solid waste (MSW) management when selecting an incineration plant for source separated mixed MSW. The aim is to guide the decision making of MSW management towards more environmentally friendly procurements. The study was carried out by calculating the global warming potentials (GWPs) and costs of mixed MSW management by using the waste composition from a case area in Finland. Scenarios of landfilling and combustion in three actual waste incineration plants were used to recognise the main processes that affect the results. GWP results show that the combustion of mixed MSW is a better alternative than landfilling the waste. The GHG results from combustion are greatly affected by emissions from the combustion and substituted energy production. The significance of collection and transportation is higher from the costs’ perspective than from the point of view of GHG emissions. The main costs, in addition to collection and transportation costs, result from the energy utilization or landfilling of mixed MSW. When tenders are invited for the incineration location of mixed MSW, the main focus should be: What are the annual electricity and heat recovery efficiencies and which are the substituted fuels in the area? In addition, in the case of a fluidized bed combustor it is crucial to
Hupponen, M; Grönman, K; Horttanainen, M
The ongoing trend in the public sector is to make more sustainable procurements by taking into account the impacts throughout the entire life cycle of the procurement. Despite the trend, the only deciding factor can still be the total costs. This article answers the question of how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be taken into account in municipal solid waste (MSW) management when selecting an incineration plant for source separated mixed MSW. The aim is to guide the decision making of MSW management towards more environmentally friendly procurements. The study was carried out by calculating the global warming potentials (GWPs) and costs of mixed MSW management by using the waste composition from a case area in Finland. Scenarios of landfilling and combustion in three actual waste incineration plants were used to recognise the main processes that affect the results. GWP results show that the combustion of mixed MSW is a better alternative than landfilling the waste. The GHG results from combustion are greatly affected by emissions from the combustion and substituted energy production. The significance of collection and transportation is higher from the costs' perspective than from the point of view of GHG emissions. The main costs, in addition to collection and transportation costs, result from the energy utilization or landfilling of mixed MSW. When tenders are invited for the incineration location of mixed MSW, the main focus should be: What are the annual electricity and heat recovery efficiencies and which are the substituted fuels in the area? In addition, in the case of a fluidized bed combustor it is crucial to know the combusted share of mixed MSW after preparing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and the treatment of rejects. The environmental criteria for the waste incineration plant procurements should be made in order to obtain clear instructions for the procurement units. The results can also be utilized more widely. The substituted fuels in the area and
Tompkins, Adrian; Ermert, Volker; Di Giuseppe, Francesca
In order to better address the role of population dynamics and surface hydrology in the assessment of malaria risk, a new dynamical disease model been developed at ICTP, known as VECTRI: VECtor borne disease community model of ICTP, TRIeste (VECTRI). The model accounts for the temperature impact on the larvae, parasite and adult vector populations. Local host population density affects the transmission intensity, and the model thus reproduces the differences between peri-urban and rural transmission noted in Africa. A new simple pond model framework represents surface hydrology. The model can be used on with spatial resolutions finer than 10km to resolve individual health districts and thus can be used as a planning tool. Results of the models representation of interannual variability and longer term projections of malaria transmission will be shown for Africa. These will show that the model represents the seasonality and spatial variations of malaria transmission well matching a wide range of survey data of parasite rate and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) from across West and East Africa taken in the period prior to large-scale interventions. The model is used to determine the sensitivity of malaria risk to climate variations, both in rainfall and temperature, and then its use in a prototype forecasting system coupled with ECMWF forecasts will be demonstrated.
The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.
First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...
... aids typically cannot be custom-fit. What are costs and styles of hearing aids? Hearing aids vary ... and for improvement in hearing tones. Real ear measurements may also be done, which determine how much ...
... Patient & Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Neurological Complications of AIDS Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump ... Where can I get more information? What is AIDS? AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a condition ...
... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS Print A ... serious infection. continue How Many People Have HIV/AIDS? Since the discovery of the virus in 1983, ...
Zurriaga, Oscar; Vanaclocha, Hermelinda; Martinez-Beneito, Miguel A; Botella-Rocamora, Paloma
Background The Comunitat Valenciana (CV) is a tourist region on the Mediterranean coast of Spain with a high rate of retirement migration. Lung cancer in women is the cancer mortality cause that has increased most in the CV during the period 1991 to 2000. Moreover, the geographical distribution of risk from this cause in the CV has been previously described and a non-homogenous pattern was determined. The present paper studies the spatio-temporal distribution of lung cancer mortality for women in the CV during the period 1987–2004, in order to gain some insight into the factors, such as migration, that have had an influence on these changes. Methods A novel methodology, consisting of a Bayesian hierarchical model, is used in this paper. Such a model allows the handling of data with a very high disaggregation, while at the same time taking advantage of its spatial and temporal structure. Results The spatio-temporal pattern which was found points to geographical differences in the time trends of risk. In fact, the southern coastal side of the CV has had a higher increase in risk, coinciding with the settlement of a large foreign community in that area, mainly comprised of elderly people from the European Union. Conclusion Migration has frequently been ignored as a risk factor in the description of the geographical risk of lung cancer and it is suggested that this factor should be considered, especially in tourist regions. The temporal component in disease mapping provides a more accurate depiction of risk factors acting on the population. PMID:18234124
Martins, Rui; Silva, Giovani L; Andreozzi, Valeska
Joint analysis of longitudinal and survival data has received increasing attention in the recent years, especially for analyzing cancer and AIDS data. As both repeated measurements (longitudinal) and time-to-event (survival) outcomes are observed in an individual, a joint modeling is more appropriate because it takes into account the dependence between the two types of responses, which are often analyzed separately. We propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for jointly modeling longitudinal and survival data considering functional time and spatial frailty effects, respectively. That is, the proposed model deals with non-linear longitudinal effects and spatial survival effects accounting for the unobserved heterogeneity among individuals living in the same region. This joint approach is applied to a cohort study of patients with HIV/AIDS in Brazil during the years 2002-2006. Our Bayesian joint model presents considerable improvements in the estimation of survival times of the Brazilian HIV/AIDS patients when compared with those obtained through a separate survival model and shows that the spatial risk of death is the same across the different Brazilian states. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Coyle, E F
The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant. This effect is most obvious in subjects under laboratory conditions and is less evident in athletes who are highly motivated prior to competition. Fatigue is associated with acidosis in the working musculature when attempts are made to maximize work output during a 4 to 15-minute period. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion may act to buffer the acid produced, provided that blood flow to the muscle is adequate. Prolonged intense exercise can be maintained for approximately two hours before carbohydrate stores become depleted. Carbohydrate feedings delay fatigue during prolonged exercise, especially in subjects who display a decline in blood glucose during exercise in the fasting state. Caffeine ingestion prior to an endurance bout has been reported to allow an individual to exercise somewhat more intensely than he or she would otherwise. Its effect may be mediated by augmenting fat metabolism or by altering the perception of effort. Amphetamines may act in a similar manner. Water ingestion during prolonged exercise that results in dehydration and hyperthermia can offset fluid losses and allow an individual to better maintain work output while substantially reducing the risk of heat-related injuries.
de Oliveira-Silva, Márcia Benedita; de Oliveira, Leonardo Rodrigues; Resende, Júlio César Possati; Peghini, Bethânea Crema; Ramirez, Luiz Eduardo; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Correia, Dalmo
Patients with AIDS are particularly susceptible to infection with intestinal coccidia. In this study the prevalence of infections with Cryptosporidium sp and Cystoisospora belli were evaluated among HIV/AIDS patients in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Brazil. Between July 1993 and June 2003 faecal samples from 359 patients were collected and stained by a modified Ziehl-Neelsen method, resulting in 19.7% of positivity for coccidian (8.6% with Cryptosporidium sp, 10.3% with Cystoisospora belli and 0.8% with both coccidian). Patients with diarrhoea and T CD4+ lymphocyte levels < or =200 cells/mm3 presented higher frequency of these protozoans, demonstrating the opportunistic profile of these infections and its relationship with the immunological status of the individual. It was not possible to determine the influence of HAART, since only 8.5% of the patients positive for coccidian received this therapy regularly. Parasitism by Cryptosporidium sp was more frequent between December and February and thus was characterised by a seasonal pattern of infection, which was not observed with Cystoisospora belli.
Granitoff, N; Whitaker, I Y; Diccini, S; Goncalves, V C; Marin, H F
First aid is the initial and immediate care given to a victim outside the hospital environment, with the purpose of assuring life and avoiding worsening conditions until he/she receives qualified assistance. Providing immediate aid to someone requires tranquility and, above all, knowledge on what has to be done or not in each situation. In addition to being treated by health professionals, the chances that a victim will receive early treatment by others are large. However, in Brazil, access to information, and the possibility of reviewing it whenever necessary, may contribute greatly to the process of assimilation of this knowledge, in addition to exercises on simulated cases. Informatics has been shown as an extremely useful tool in the development of educational software, considering its multiplicity of resources and providing for the users: motivation for an interactive experience, an individualized teaching that takes into account his/her own rhythm and desired complexity level, besides making possible the user's capacity for solving problems through simulated situations. Considering that, the number of individuals of the population prepared to act as First Aid helpers in situations of life threatening accidents or sudden illness is still very scarce. The ever increasing use of the computer as a mean of spreading information in schools, enterprises, and even households and considering the advantages of an educational software for the users regarding storage and retrieval of information when needed, we proposed the creation of an interactive teaching software. This software is being developed using Storyboard live. The methodology is the following: literature review, selection of images, development of the program, application tests. The initial selected issues are: assessment of the victim, cardiorespiratory arrest and resuscitation, airway obstruction, wounds, and hemorrhages. After utilizing the program, the user should be able to solve hypothetical
Braband, Anke; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Cameron, Stephen L; Daniels, Savel; Mayer, Georg
The phylogeny of Onychophora (velvet worms) is unresolved and even the monophyly of the two major onychophoran subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, is uncertain. Previous studies of complete mitochondrial genomes from two onychophoran species revealed two strikingly different gene arrangement patterns from highly conserved in a representative of Peripatopsidae to highly derived in a species of Peripatidae, suggesting that these data might be informative for clarifying the onychophoran phylogeny. In order to assess the diversity of mitochondrial genomes among onychophorans, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of Metaperipatus inae, a second representative of Peripatopsidae from Chile. Compared to the proposed ancestral gene order in Onychophora, the mitochondrial genome of M. inae shows dramatic rearrangements, although all protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes are encoded on the same strands as in the ancestral peripatopsid genome. The retained strand affiliation of all protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes and the occurrence of three control regions and several pseudo-genes suggest that the derived mitochondrial gene arrangement pattern in M. inae evolved by partial genome duplications, followed by a subsequent loss of redundant genes. Our findings, thus, confirm the diversity of the mitochondrial gene arrangement patterns among onychophorans and support their utility for clarifying the phylogeography of Onychophora, in particular of the Peripatopsidae species from South Africa and Chile.
Viljoen, R. P.
A number of base metal finds have recently focussed attention on the North Western Cape Province of South Africa as an area of great potential mineral wealth. From the point of view of competitive mineral exploration it was essential that an insight into the regional geological controls of the base metal mineralization of the area be obtained as rapidly as possible. Conventional methods of producing a suitable regional geological map were considered to be too time-consuming and ERTS-1 imagery was consequently examined. This imagery has made a significant contribution in the compilation of a suitable map on which to base further mineral exploration programmes. The time involved in the compilation of maps of this nature was found to be only a fraction of the time necessary for the production of similar maps using other methods. ERTS imagery is therefore considered to be valuable in producing accurate regional maps in areas where little or no geological data are available, or in areas of poor access. Furthermore, these images have great potential for rapidly defining the regional extent of metallogenic provinces.
Sato, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou
Lung cancer is the most common cause, accounting for about 20% of all cancer deaths for males in Japan. Myocardial infarction is also known as a most fearful adult disease. Recently, multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for screening examination. This screening examination requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of multi-helical CT for mass screening. To overcome this problem, our group has developed a computer-aided diagnosis algorithm to automatically detect suspicious regions of lung cancer and coronary calcifications in chest CT images, so far. And in this time, our group has developed a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database. These consist in three. First, it is an image processing system to automatically detect suspicious bronchial regions, pulmonary artery regions, plumonary vein regions and myocardial infarction regions at high speed. Second, they are two 1600 x 1200 matrix black and white liquid crystal monitor. Third, it is a terminal of image storage. These are connected mutually on the network. This makes it much easier to read images, since the 3D image of suspicious regions and shadow of suspicious regions can be displayed simultaneously on two 1600 x 1200 matrix liquid crystal monitor. The experimental results indicate that a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system can be effectively used in clinical practice to increase the speed and accuracy of routine diagnosis.
Curran, James R.
As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682
Mhalu, F S; Lyamuya, E
Human immunodeficiency infection and AIDS are a major recent microbial infection in east Africa with serious health and socioeconomic impacts in the region. At present HIV infection and AIDS account for more than 50% of adult medical admissions into some of the national and provincial hospitals as well as for 10-15% of paediatric admissions. AIDS is also at present the commonest cause of death among those aged 15-45 years. Tuberculosis, a closely associated disease to HIV infection, has increased more than three fold in some countries in the region. The prevalence of HIV infection currently ranges from 10-30% among adults in urban areas and from less than 1% to 25% in adults in rural areas; since this prevalence is still rising, the full impact of the AIDS problem in east Africa is yet to be realised. This is different from the situation in many developed countries where AIDS is no longer a priority health issue and where peak prevalences of the infection have been reached. The differences in HIV prevalences between east Africa and developed countries are due to poverty, ignorance, high prevalence of other STDs and associated cultural and traditional practices which prevail and facilitate HIV transmission in the region. While more than 80% of HIV infection in east Africa is transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, 5-15% of cases are perinatally transmitted and the remaining cases are transmitted through blood and blood products. While a lot of scientific advances have been made in immunopathology of AIDS, diagnostics and in social behavioural studies, we are still a long way towards getting curative therapy and or effective preventive vaccines. Recent discovery that use of zidovudine can significantly reduce perinatal HIV transmission is an additional breakthrough. While knowledge and tools for preventing HIV transmission are available in the world, prospects for AIDS control in east Africa appear gloomy unless major efforts are made in the reduction of
Rowe, M J; Ryan, C C
The State AIDS Policy Center at the Inter-governmental Health Policy Project (IHPP) at George Washington University surveyed all 50 states to determine state AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) expenditures, without Medicaid or federal funds, for fiscal 1984-88. During this period, state-only expenditures increased 15-fold, to $156.3 million. Between fiscal 1986-1988, the distribution of state funding for AIDS patient care and support services doubled from 16 to 35 per cent and the number of states supplementing federal funds for testing and counseling increased from eight to 20. Five states continue to account for the largest AIDS appropriations. Of these, California leads in funding research; New York, Florida, and New Jersey have directed funds to provide care and services to IV (intravenous) drug users, prisoners, and children. The average state expenditure per diagnosed AIDS case is $3,323 and an increasing number of states with relatively low case loads are appropriating funds beyond this level. Across states, AIDS expenditures per person average $.65 and $.21 for education, testing and counseling--below the level recommended by the Institute of Medicine for AIDS prevention activities. Some jurisdictions support AIDS activities indirectly by shifting resources, often from their STD (sexually transmitted disease) programs--this trend deserves continuing review given the rise in STD cases and their relationship to diagnosed AIDS. PMID:3126674
... Consumer Products Hearing Aids How to get Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... my hearing aids? How do I get hearing aids? Before getting a hearing aid, you should consider ...
Kulik, J F; de la Tribonnière, X; Bricon-Souf, N; Beuscart, R J; Mouton, Y
People suffering from AIDS are subject to frequent hospitalisations. In some cases, they cannot go back home after hospitalisations, due to severe illness, family or sociologic problems. This is the reason why some therapeutic flats are at their disposal to make easier their medical follow-up after the hospital's discharge. In these Therapy Accommodation, they are treated by trained GP who often suffer from lack of information and lack of expertise in difficult cases. For this purpose we included these flats in the regional Telemedicine AIDS network to give these physicians free access to the computerised multimedia medical record of their patients and to provide them with synchronous co-operation facilities.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting and audit. 151.55 Section 151.55... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Rules and Procedures for Airport Development Projects § 151.55 Accounting and... accounting record to allow appropriate personnel of the FAA to determine all funds received (including...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting and audit. 151.55 Section 151.55... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Rules and Procedures for Airport Development Projects § 151.55 Accounting and... accounting record to allow appropriate personnel of the FAA to determine all funds received (including...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accounting and audit. 151.55 Section 151.55... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Rules and Procedures for Airport Development Projects § 151.55 Accounting and... accounting record to allow appropriate personnel of the FAA to determine all funds received (including...
Broekema, Nicole M; Abend, Johanna R; Bennett, Shauna M; Butel, Janet S; Vanchiere, John A; Imperiale, Michael J
The human polyomavirus BK virus (BKV) is an important opportunistic pathogen whose disease prevalence continues to increase with the growing immunocompromised population. To date, the major determinant of replication in cell culture has not been formally proven. BKV exists as archetype virus and rearranged variants, which are classified based on the DNA sequence of their non-coding control regions (NCCRs). The archetype BKV NCCR is divided into five blocks of sequence and rearranged variants contain deletions and duplications of these blocks. In this study, a genetic system was developed and used to identify the major determinant of replication ability in primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, the natural host cell of BKV. This system was also used to analyze NCCR variants isolated from an immunocompromised patient which contain assorted rearrangement patterns and functional differences. This study solidifies the NCCR as the major genetic determinant of BKV replication ability in vitro.
HIV prevalence in Senegal is less than 1%, a success generally attributed to the country's quick response to the nascent epidemic of the 1980s and its continued efforts to curtail the spread of HIV. However, as the bulk of the healthcare infrastructure and support for HIV-positive individuals and AIDS patients are located in urban areas, there remains limited information on HIV and AIDS prevalence in rural areas. Several focus group discussions held with small-holder farmers in 2006, in the regions of Kolda and Tambacounda, Senegal, in the framework of a regional food-security development programme, revealed the growing vulnerability of rural populations to HIV and AIDS. Because current HIV/AIDS campaigns are strongly influenced by generalised, internationally formulated guidelines that fail to take into account the cultural particularities of the Senegalese context, the initial positive impact of these campaigns has dramatically decreased and at-risk behaviour in rural Senegal has been found to be on the increase. The article argues that in order for HIV/AIDS campaigns to have an impact there is an urgent need for evidence-based approaches built on a deeper understanding of the local socio-cultural situation through interdisciplinary research and collaboration.
The purpose of this module is to provide an introduction and overview of accounting fundamentals for non-accountants. The module also covers important topics such as communication, internal controls, documentation and recordkeeping.
Whitaker, Bruce L.
Verbal skills training is one aspect of accounting education not usually included in secondary and postsecondary accounting courses. The author discusses the need for verbal competency and methods of incorporating it into accounting courses, particularly a variation of the Keller plan of individualized instruction. (MF)
Introduction Extant studies universally document a positive gradient between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. A notable exception is the apparent concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals. This paper uses data from the Demographic Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to examine socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in 24 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the region that accounts for two-thirds of the global HIV/AIDS burden. Methods The relative and generalized concentration indices (RC and GC) were used to quantify wealth-based socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence for the total adult population (aged 15-49), for men and women, and in urban and rural areas in each country. Further, we decomposed the RC and GC indices to identify the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in each country. Results Our findings demonstrated that HIV/AIDS was concentrated among higher SES individuals in the majority of SSA countries. Swaziland and Senegal were the only countries in the region where HIV/AIDS was concentrated among individuals living in poorer households. Stratified analyses by gender showed HIV/AIDS was generally concentrated among wealthier men and women. In some countries, including Kenya, Lesotho Uganda, and Zambia, HIV/AIDS was concentrated among the poor in urban areas but among wealthier adults in rural areas. Decomposition analyses indicated that, besides wealth itself (median = 49%, interquartile range [IQR] = 90%), urban residence (median = 54%, IQR = 81%) was the most important factor contributing to the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier participants in SSA countries. Conclusions Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms explaining the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals and urban residents in SSA. Higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS could be indicative of better care and survival among wealthier individuals and urban adults, or reflect
This article presents the perspectives of UNAIDS and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on migration and HIV/AIDS. It identifies research and action priorities and policy issues, and describes the current situation in major regions of the world. Migration is a process. Movement is enhanced by air transport, rising international trade, deregulation of trade practices, and opening of borders. Movements are restricted by laws and statutes. Denial to freely circulate and obtain asylum is associated with vulnerability to HIV infections. A UNAIDS policy paper in 1997 and IOM policy guidelines in 1988 affirm that refugees and asylum seekers should not be targeted for special measures due to HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need to provide primary health services for migrants, voluntary counseling and testing, and more favorable conditions. Research is needed on the role of migration in the spread of HIV, the extent of migration, availability of health services, and options for HIV prevention. Research must be action-oriented and focused on vulnerability to HIV and risk taking behavior. There is substantial mobility in West and Central Africa, economic migration in South Africa, and nonvoluntary migration in Angola. Sex workers in southeast Asia contribute to the spread. The breakup of the USSR led to population shifts. Migrants in Central America and Mexico move north to the US where HIV prevalence is higher.
Morgan, Robert G.; And Others
A study was conducted to find some quantitative predictors of student success in Intermediate Accounting I that an advisor can use as an aid in student counseling. The AICPA Level I Form C test and the average grade in principles courses proved to be reasonable predictors of success. (CT)
Meireles, Paula; Albuquerque, Gabriela; Vieira, Mariana; Foia, Severiano; Ferro, Josefo; Carrilho, Carla; Lunet, Nuno
Kaposi sarcoma is expressed in four clinical variants, all associated with human herpes virus type 8 infection, namely, classic, endemic, immunosuppression-related and AIDS-related. The latter currently accounts for most of the burden of Kaposi sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa, reflecting the frequency of HIV infection and its management. We aimed to estimate the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique and in its provinces. We estimated the number of incident cases of Kaposi sarcoma by adding up the expected number of endemic and AIDS-related cases. The former were estimated from the rates observed in Kyandondo, Uganda (1960-1971). The latter were computed from the number of AIDS-related deaths in each region, assuming that the ratio between the AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma incident cases and the number of AIDS-related deaths observed in the city of Beira applies to all regions. A total of 3862 Kaposi sarcoma cases were estimated to have occurred in Mozambique in 2007, mostly AIDS-related, in the age group 25-49 years, and in provinces from South/Centre. The age-standardized incidence rates were 36.1/100 000 in men and 11.5/100 000 in women, with a more than three-fold variation across provinces. We estimated a high incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique, along with large regional differences. These results can be used to improve disease management and to sustain political decisions on health policies.
Rodriguez, Brian D.
This report summarizes the results of three-dimensional (3-D) resistivity inversion simulations that were performed to account for local 3-D distortion of the electric field in the presence of 3-D regional structure, without any a priori information on the actual 3-D distribution of the known subsurface geology. The methodology used a 3-D geologic model to create a 3-D resistivity forward (“known”) model that depicted the subsurface resistivity structure expected for the input geologic configuration. The calculated magnetotelluric response of the modeled resistivity structure was assumed to represent observed magnetotelluric data and was subsequently used as input into a 3-D resistivity inverse model that used an iterative 3-D algorithm to estimate 3-D distortions without any a priori geologic information. A publicly available inversion code, WSINV3DMT, was used for all of the simulated inversions, initially using the default parameters, and subsequently using adjusted inversion parameters. A semiautomatic approach of accounting for the static shift using various selections of the highest frequencies and initial models was also tested. The resulting 3-D resistivity inversion simulation was compared to the “known” model and the results evaluated. The inversion approach that produced the lowest misfit to the various local 3-D distortions was an inversion that employed an initial model volume resistivity that was nearest to the maximum resistivities in the near-surface layer.
HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2001
This report includes new tables which present trends in estimated annual AIDS incidence from 1996-00, by U.S. region, race/ethnicity, and exposure category. Some of the tables include: persons reported to be living with HIV infection and with AIDS, by state and age group; AIDS cases and annual rates per 100,000 population, by metropolitan area and…
... the neurological complications of AIDS. Some disorders require aggressive therapy while others are treated symptomatically. Medicines range ... certain bacterial infections, and penicillin to treat neurosyphilis. Aggressive antiretroviral therapy is used to treat AIDS dementia ...
Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... person is unconscious and: Does not return to consciousness quickly (within a minute) Has fallen down or ...
... NEI for Kids > First Aid Tips All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...
... do the following: Assist clients in their daily personal tasks, such as bathing or dressing Provide basic ... social networks and communities Home health aides, unlike personal care aides , typically work for certified home health ...
Calabrese, Leonard H.; Kelley, Dennis
This article discusses the onset and progression of AIDS, its importance as a public health issue, and reducing the risk of AIDS transmission among athletes and those who work with them, including team physicians and athletic trainers. (IAH)
... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...
... yeast infection (thrush) Shingles (herpes zoster) Progression to AIDS If you receive no treatment for your HIV ... childbirth or breast-feeding. How does HIV become AIDS? HIV destroys CD4 cells — a specific type of ...
... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...
Wooten, Donald B.
Examines the increase in AIDS patients in rural California, which is greater than that in urban areas, including AIDS population projections through 1991. Describes differences between AIDS populations in rural and urban areas and relates these to state expenditure patterns and differential needs. (DHP)
Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)
Slesnick, Irwin L.
Focuses on public education about the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Discusses the problems of a second epidemic of fear and anxiety. Presents several questions for classroom discussion and analysis of the public fear of AIDS. Gives some statistics highlighting misinformation about AIDS. (CW)
First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when normal blood flow to ... next several hours. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...
Tilaro, Angie; Rossett, Allison
Explains how to create job aids that employees will be motivated to use, based on a review of pertinent literature and interviews with professionals. Topics addressed include linking motivation with job aids; Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model of motivation; and design strategies for job aids based on Keller's…
... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A What's in this article? ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...
Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine
This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…
CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.
Media reportage often act as interpretations of accountability policies thereby making the news media a part of the policy enactment process. Within such a process, their role is that of policy reinforcement rather than policy construction or contestation. This paper draws on the experiences of school leaders in regional Queensland, Australia, and…
Chigwedere, Pride; Essex, M
In this paper, we respond to AIDS denialist arguments that HIV does not cause AIDS, that antiretroviral drugs are not useful, and that there is no evidence of large-scale deaths from AIDS, and discuss the key implications of the relationship between AIDS denialism and public health practice. We provide a brief history of how the cause of AIDS was investigated, of how HIV fulfills Koch's postulates and Sir Bradford Hil's criteria for causation, and of the inconsistencies in alternatives offered by denialists. We highlight clinical trials as the standard for assessing efficacy of drugs, rather than anecdotal cases or discussions of mechanism of action, and show the unanimous data demonstrating antiretroviral drug efficacy. We then show how statistics on mortality and indices such as crude death rate, life expectancy, child mortality, and population growth are consistent with the high mortality from AIDS, and expose the weakness of statistics from death notification, quoted by denialists. Last we emphasize that when denialism influences public health practice as in South Africa, the consequences are disastrous. We argue for accountability for the loss of hundreds of thousands of lives, the need to reform public health practice to include standards and accountability, and the particular need for honesty and peer review in situations that impact public health policy.
Achim, Cristian L.; Boivin, Michael J.; Brew, Bruce J.; Clifford, David B.; Colosi, Deborah A.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Heaton, Robert K.; Gallo-Diop, Amadou; Grant, Igor; Kanmogne, Georgette D.; Kumar, Mahendra; Letendre, Scott; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Nath, Avindra; Pardo, Carlos A.; Paul, Robert H.; Pulliam, Lynn; Robertson, Kevin; Royal, Walter; Sacktor, Ned; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Smith, Davey M.; Valcour, Victor; Wigdahl, Brian; Wood, Charles
In May 2012, the Division of AIDS Research at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) organized the “Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable” in conjunction with the 11th International Symposium on Neurovirology and the 2012 Conference on HIV in the Nervous System. The meeting was held in New York, NY, USA and brought together NIMH-funded investigators who are currently working on projects related to the neurological complications of AIDS (NeuroAIDS) in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America in order to provide an opportunity to share their recent findings and discuss the challenges encountered within each country. The major goals of the roundtable were to evaluate HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and determine if it may be directly attributable to distinct HIV subtypes or clades and to discuss the future priorities for global NeuroAIDS research. At the “Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable”, presentations of preliminary research indicated that HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment is prevalent in all countries examined regardless of which HIV clade is present in the region. The only clear-cut difference between HIV-1 clades was in relation to subtypes A and D in Uganda. However, a key point that emerged from the discussions was that there is an urgent need to standardize neurocognitive assessment methodologies across the globe before definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding the relationship between HIV clade diversity and neuropathogenesis. Future research directions were also discussed at the roundtable with particular emphasis on the potential of viral and host factor molecular interactions to impact the pathophysiology of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) from a global perspective. PMID:23354550
Karel, S G; Robey, B
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been an African and Western concern due to its epidemic nature. Although nearly 99% of all reported cases occurred in these regions, Asia has reported cases, and the potential for devastation of Asia's already strained health care reserves are undeniable. This review compiled by analysis of 1986-88 articles on AIDS research, demographics, official statements from government and health organizations, news reports, and public statements describe how AIDS has spread in well documented regions like America, Europe, and Africa, and how the Asian regions have attempted to handle the AIDS epidemic before it becomes as serious as in the West. The topics covered include a clinical overview of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS, how it is transmitted, and what are the primary forms of transmission in well documented regions. The report briefly documents what policies China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Australia, and New Zealand have individually instituted to stem the flow of AIDS into their country, and/or stop the spread of AIDS already found there. The efforts to combat AIDS globally by the World Health Organization/United Nations Development Program alliance (WHO-UNDP) along with the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and UNICEF are highlighted. The available research and aid programs are contrasted with how the Asian nations are preparing to deal with the AIDS epidemic. 1) AIDS has an incubation time wherein an infected individual is not AIDS symptomatic, but is capable of infecting others, and this hidden infected population makes it essential that containment policies are also enforced in countries with few reported cases. 2) A committee should be established in all Asian countries to coordinate education on safe sexual behaviors with specific programs for prostitutes
Laribee, Stephen F.
The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in internationalizing the accounting curriculum by means of accreditation requirements and standards. Colleges and universities have met the AACSB requirements either by providing separate international accounting courses or by integrating international topics…
Hu, Jenny; McKoy, Karen; Papier, Art; Klaus, Sidney; Ryan, Terence; Grossman, Henning; Masenga, Elisante J; Sethi, Aisha; Craft, Noah
Human immunodeficiency virus and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) have greatly complicated dermatologic disease and the required care in most regions of Africa. Opportunistic infections, ectoparasites, Kaposi sarcoma, and skin manifestations of systemic infections are exceedingly common in patients with HIV/AIDS. Dermatologists have contributed significantly to our knowledge base about HIV/AIDS and have played an important educational role regarding the clinical manifestations historically. Because of the increased burden of skin disease in Africa due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic we must redouble our efforts to provide dermatology education to care providers in Africa. We review the burden of skin disease in Africa, how it relates to HIV/AIDS and global infectious disease, current educational strategies in Africa to address this need, and suggest potential solutions to move these efforts forward. PMID:21887061
... Subscribe Translate Text Size Print What Is HIV/AIDS? Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV stands for human ... use the HIV Testing & Care Services Locator. GO Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AIDS ...
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...
Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)
Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.
Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.
This publication discusses areas of concern in the Department of Education's management and oversight of postsecondary student financial aid programs, especially the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP), the Federal Direct Student Loan Program (FDSLP), and the Federal Pell Grant Programs. The General Accounting Office determined that, in…
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
This report discusses the continuing concerns of the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) in regard to the Department of Education's management and oversight of postsecondary student financial aid programs, especially the Federal Family Education Loan, the Ford Direct Loan, and the Federal Pell Grant Programs. GAO commends the department for its…
Wilk, Carole A.
This paper provides a personal account of the process of psychotherapy for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients, as seen from both the client's and the psychotherapist's perspective, with a focus on countertransference issues found in the early phases of treatment. Based on case material, the discussion explores themes presented by…
Schapperle, Robert F.; Hardiman, Patrick F.
Accountants have urged "harmonization" of standards between the Governmental Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board, recommending similar reporting of like transactions. However, varying display of similar accounting events does not necessarily indicate disharmony. The potential for problems because of…
In this paper I evaluate the effect of student aid on the success of academic studies. I focus on two dimensions, the duration of study and the probability of actually graduating with a degree. To determine the impact of financial student aid, I estimate a discrete-time duration model allowing for competing risks to account for different exit…
This paper explores the ways in which young South African school children (aged between seven and eight) in a predominantly white primary school give meanings to HIV/AIDS. Using ethnographic methods and interview data, the analysis of young children's responses shows that their accounts of HIV/AIDS draw from their knowledge of disease more…
In hospital and clinic management, accounts are valued as units and handled equally--a $20 account receives the same minimum number of statements as a $20,000 account. Quite often, the sheer number of accounts a hospital or clinic has to handle forces executives to manage accounts by default and failure--accounts mature on an aging track and, if left unpaid by patients, eventually are sent to collections personnel. Of the bad-debt accounts placed with collections agencies, many are misclassified as charity or hardship cases, while others could be collected by hospital or clinic staff with a limited amount of additional effort.
This forum on the challenges of preventing STD/AIDS in Portuguese-speaking African countries contains three articles and a postscript. The first paper reviews academic production on the topic from the fields of the social sciences and of health, with special attention on how local cultural and socioeconomic factors impact the dynamics of the epidemic. Based on an ethnographic study of a region in southern Mozambique, the second paper analyzes the notion of 'tradition' within the context of Mozambique and how it affects perceptions of the local population's vulnerability to STD/AIDS. The third and final article discusses common ground and differences between government and civil society in gender approaches by community HIV/AIDS projects in Mozambique. Their observations suggest that important mistakes have been made in STD/AIDS prevention discourse and initiatives in African countries because the unique features of local development models and cultural systems have not been taken into account.
Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S.; Moore, M.L.
The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)
Xie, Shang-Ping; Deser, Clara; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Collins, Matthew; Delworth, Thomas L.; Hall, Alex; Hawkins, Ed; Johnson, Nathaniel C.; Cassou, Christophe; Giannini, Alessandra; Watanabe, Masahiro
Regional information on climate change is urgently needed but often deemed unreliable. To achieve credible regional climate projections, it is essential to understand underlying physical processes, reduce model biases and evaluate their impact on projections, and adequately account for internal variability. In the tropics, where atmospheric internal variability is small compared with the forced change, advancing our understanding of the coupling between long-term changes in upper-ocean temperature and the atmospheric circulation will help most to narrow the uncertainty. In the extratropics, relatively large internal variability introduces substantial uncertainty, while exacerbating risks associated with extreme events. Large ensemble simulations are essential to estimate the probabilistic distribution of climate change on regional scales. Regional models inherit atmospheric circulation uncertainty from global models and do not automatically solve the problem of regional climate change. We conclude that the current priority is to understand and reduce uncertainties on scales greater than 100 km to aid assessments at finer scales.
Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of utmost importance. PMID:6342737
Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
In its 2001 performance and accountability report on the Department of Education, the General Accounting Office (GAO) identified challenges with student financial-aid programs, financial management, and other areas facing education. The information presented in this report is intended to help sustain congressional attention and a departmental…
Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne, Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T Dianne; Weyessa, Tufa Gemechu; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza; Hosseinipour, Mina; Sacktor, Ned; Nakasuja, Noeline; Bangirana, Paul; Paul, Robert; Joska, John; Wong, Joseph; Boivin, Michael; Holding, Penny; Kammerer, Betsy; Van Rie, Annelies; Ive, Prudence; Nath, Avindra; Lawler, Kathy; Adebamowo, Clement; Royal, Walter; Joseph, Jeymohan
In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting "NeuroAIDS in Africa." This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. These introductory talks were followed by presentations on HAND research and clinical care in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Topics discussed included best practices for assessing neurocognitive disorders, patterns of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the region, subtype-associated risk for HAND, pediatric HIV assessments and neurodevelopment, HIV-associated CNS opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution syndrome, the evolving changes in treatment implementation, and various opportunities and strategies for NeuroAIDS research and capacity building in the region.
Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H
The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African
Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J
The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.
Moore, Brian C. J.
The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601
Kirkman, M B; Bell, S K
AIDS has created many challenges for those who provide care for AIDS patients. One major challenge has been the request of many public officials for healthcare professionals to abandon the traditional view of confidentiality and to reveal AIDS patients' names. This ethical dilemma is explored and some ethical theories are presented as possible resolutions. The conclusion presented is that healthcare professionals must recognize that the power of the healthcare system over an AIDS patient is immense. Therefore, healthcare professionals must make a commitment to protect the patient's right to privacy by preventing any unauthorized disclosure at all costs.
Accounting Office: The Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory's accounting office, 1936, with photographs of the Wright brothers on the wall. Although the Lab was named after Samuel P. Langley, most of the NACA staff held the Wrights as their heroes.
Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Park, Sang Ok; Lee, Youngjoo; Lee, Jeongjin
To evaluate the accuracy of computer aided differential diagnosis (CADD) between usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) at HRCT in comparison with that of a radiologist's decision. A computerized classification for six local disease patterns (normal, NL; ground-glass opacity, GGO; reticular opacity, RO; honeycombing, HC; emphysema, EM; and consolidation, CON) using texture/shape analyses and a SVM classifier at HRCT was used for pixel-by-pixel labeling on the whole lung area. The mode filter was applied on the results to reduce noise. Area fraction (AF) of each pattern, directional probabilistic density function (pdf) (dPDF: mean, SD, skewness of pdf /3 directions: superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, central-peripheral), regional cluster distribution pattern (RCDP: number, mean, SD of clusters, mean, SD of centroid of clusters) were automatically evaluated. Spatially normalized left and right lungs were evaluated separately. Disease division index (DDI) on every combination of AFs and asymmetric index (AI) between left and right lung ((left-right)/left) were also evaluated. To assess the accuracy of the system, fifty-four HRCT data sets in patients with pathologically diagnosed UIP (n=26) and NSIP (n=28) were used. For a classification procedure, a CADD-SVM classifier with internal parameter optimization, and sequential forward floating feature selection (SFFS) were employed. The accuracy was assessed by a 5-folding cross validation with 20- times repetition. For comparison, two thoracic radiologists reviewed the whole HRCT images without clinical information and diagnose each case either as UIP or NSIP. The accuracies of radiologists' decision were 0.75 and 0.87, respectively. The accuracies of the CADD system using the features of AF, dPDF, AI of dPDF, RDP, AI of RDP, DDI were 0.70, 0.79, 0.77, 0.80, 0.78, 0.81, respectively. The accuracy of optimized CADD using all features after SFFS was 0.91. We developed the CADD
Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M
If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense.
Systems of accountability are "second order" ways of using evidence of the standard to which "first order" tasks are carried out for a great variety of purposes. However, more accountability is not always better, and processes of holding to account can impose high costs without securing substantial benefits. At their worst,…
Turner, Karen F.; Reed, Ronald O.; Greiman, Janel
Almost on a daily basis new accounting rules and laws are put into use, creating information that must be known and learned by the accounting faculty and then introduced to and understood by the accounting student. Even with the 150 hours of education now required for CPA licensure, it is impossible to teach and learn all there is to learn. Over…
Moses, Duane R.
This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…
Avani, Nathan T.; And Others
This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching a competency-based accounting and computing course that is designed to prepare students for employability in the following occupational areas: inventory control clerk, invoice clerk, payroll clerk, traffic clerk, general ledger bookkeeper, accounting clerk, account information clerk,…
Elrod, Henry; Norris, J. T.
Capstone courses in accounting programs bring students experiences integrating across the curriculum (University of Washington, 2005) and offer unique (Sanyal, 2003) and transformative experiences (Sill, Harward, & Cooper, 2009). Students take many accounting courses without preparing complete sets of financial statements. Accountants not only…
Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.
The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…
Describes the varied kinds of student aid fraud found to be occurring within and outside colleges and universities, and examines implications for public policy on student aid programs. Discusses specific fraud cases and their outcomes, and makes suggestions for institutional action if student fraud is suspected. (MSE)
Describes the structure and modes of operation of the Bundessprachenamt's (BSprA: Federal Office of Languages of the Federal Republic of Germany) terminology data bank as an aid to translation. Analyzes advantages and disadvantages of each user mode, and discusses probable developments in the immediate future of machine-aided translation. (MES)
Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…
Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)
... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Diaper Rash KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Diaper Rash A A A Diaper rash is a common skin condition in babies. ... rash is due to irritation caused by the diaper, but it can have other causes not related ...
Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Coll. of Education.
This report presents results of a project to revise the current 120-hour advanced nurse aide course to include all recommended minimum competencies. A three-page description of project objectives, activities, and outcomes is followed by a list of the competencies for the 75-hour nurse aide course for long-term care and for the 120-hour advanced…
House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.
Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…
Poehlmann, Karl Horst
AIDS is now said to threaten humanity as a modern-day scourge. However, there is a group of scientists which maintains that this scare is unwarranted. Some arguments in favour of the re-evaluation of the AIDS hypothesis are presented in this article. PMID:22556763
Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.
This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…
Klees, Steven J.
The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…
MCKEONE, CHARLES J.
THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…
Pohl, Melvin I.
After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…
... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A en español Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...
CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.
0031 dis~bti:,1 is uitsnjt( Deczmllcr 31: 1989 92-05530 2:.-: 3o : T >VE?-A ~ : Inertially Aided Robotics FINAL REPORT for Contract No. DAAHO1 -88-D-0057...1 2 Advantages of Inertially Aided Robotics ...86 iii List of Figures Figure 1 - Robot Manipulator having Joint Sensor Based Control ..................... 2
Huddleston, Thomas, Jr.; Batty, Burt F.
Student financial assistance services are becoming a major part of the institutional marketing plan as traditional college-age students decline in numbers and price competition among institutions increases. The effect of financial aid on enrollment and admissions processes is discussed along with the role of the financial aid officer. (Author/LBH)
Chambliss, Catherine; And Others
Since assuring quality health care delivery to patients suffering from Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and those who test positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a priority, development of effective staff training methods is imperative. This pilot study assessed the effect on staff attitudes of a participative AIDS/HIV staff…
Describes the DACUM (Developing A CurriculUM) process and how it is used at Universal Technical Institute to determine what types of training aids to produce. Indicates that examining the employment needs of industry and educational needs of students enhances programs and promotes development of innovative aids. (JOW)
... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...
Merit aid, a discount to college costs contingent upon academic performance, is nothing new. Colleges and private organizations have long rewarded high-achieving, college-bound high school students with scholarships. While merit aid has a long history in the private sector, it has not played a major role in the public sector. At the state level,…
Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar
The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM .
Huminer, D; Rosenfeld, J B; Pitlik, S D
A search of the medical literature published since 1950 disclosed 19 cases of probable AIDS reported before the start of the current epidemic. These cases retrospectively met the Centers for Disease Control's surveillance definition of the syndrome and had a clinical course suggestive of AIDS. The reports originated from North America, Western Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The mean age of patients was 37 years, and the ratio of male to female patients was 1.7:1. Sixteen patients had opportunistic infections(s) without Kaposi's sarcoma. The remainder had disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma. The commonest opportunistic infection was Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Two patients were reported to be homosexual. Three others had been living in Africa, and one patient was born in Haiti. In two instances concurrent or subsequent opportunistic infection occurred in family members. All patients died 1 month to 6 years after the initial manifestation of disease. In view of the historical data, unrecognized cases of AIDS appear to have occurred sporadically in the pre-AIDS era.
NRDC seeks preventive approaches to oil pollution on U.S. coasts. The recent oil spills in Spain and Scotland have highlighted a fact too easy to forget in a society that uses petroleum every minute of every day: oil is profoundly toxic. One tiny drop on a bald eagle`s egg has been known to kill the embryo inside. Every activity involving oil-drilling for it, piping it, shipping it-poses risks that must be taken with utmost caution. Moreover, oil production is highly polluting. It emits substantial air pollution, such as nitrogen oxides that can form smog and acid rain. The wells bring up great quantities of toxic waste: solids, liquids and sludges often contaminated by oil, toxic metals, or even radioactivity. This article examines the following topics focusing on oil pollution control and prevention in coastal regions of the USA: alternate energy sources and accountability of pollutor; ban on offshore drilling as exemplified by the energy policy act; tanker free zones; accurate damage evaluations. Policy of the National Resource Defence Council is articulated.
The vocational accounting laboratory is a viable, meaningful educational experience for high school seniors, due to the uniqueness of its educational approach and the direct involvement of the professional and business community. A balance of experiences is provided to match individual needs and goals of students. (CT)
Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.
The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.
This special report discusses the impact of globalization, patterns of migration in Southeast Asia, gender issues in migration, the links between migration and HIV/AIDS, and spatial mobility and social networks. Migrants are particularly marginalized in countries that blame migrants for transmission of infectious and communicable diseases and other social ills. Effective control of HIV/AIDS among migrant and native populations requires a multisectoral approach. Programs should critically review the privatization of health care services and challenge economic models that polarize the rich and the poor, men and women, North and South, and migrant and native. Programs should recognize the equality between locals and migrants in receipt of health services. Countermeasures should have input from migrants in order to reduce the conditions that increase vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Gender-oriented research is needed to understand women's role in migration. Rapid assessment has obscured the human dimension of migrants' vulnerability to HIV. Condom promotion is not enough. Migration is a major consequence of globalization, which holds the promise, real or imagined, of prosperity for all. Mass migration can be fueled by explosive regional developments. In Southeast Asia, migration has been part of the process of economic development. The potential to emigrate increases with greater per capita income. "Tiger" economies have been labor importers. Safe sex is not practiced in many Asian countries because risk is not taken seriously. Migrants tend to be used as economic tools, without consideration of social adjustment and sex behavior among singles.
Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways.
Elias, A M
In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.
Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A
Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues-both compression ratio and knee-points-and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a "music program,'' unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions.
Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival.
Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.
Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032
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Incidence of WHO Stage 3 and 4 Events, Tuberculosis, and Mortality in Untreated, HIV-Infected Children Enrolling in Care Before 1 Year of Age: An Iedea (International Epidemiologic Databases To Evaluate AIDS) East Africa Regional Analysis
Ciaranello, Andrea; Lu, Zhigang; Ayaya, Samuel; Losina, Elena; Musick, Beverly; Vreeman, Rachel; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; Dillabaugh, Lisa; Doherty, Katie; Ssali, John; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara
Background Few studies have reported CD4%- and age-stratified rates of WHO Stage 3 (WHO3) events, WHO Stage 4 (WHO4) events, tuberculosis (TB), and mortality in HIV-infected infants before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods HIV-infected children enrolled before 1 year of age in the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) East Africa region (10/01/2002-11/30/2008) were included. We estimated incidence rates of earliest clinical event (WHO3, WHO4, and TB), prior to ART initiation per local guidelines, stratified by current age (< or ≥6 months) and current CD4% (<15%, 15–24%, ≥25%). CD4%-stratified mortality rates were estimated separately for children who did not experience a clinical event (“background” mortality) and for children who experienced an event, including “acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) and “later” mortality (>30 days post-event). Results Among 847 children (median enrollment age: 4.8 months; median pre-ART follow-up: 10.8 months; 603 (71%) with ≥1 CD4% recorded), event rates were comparable for those aged <6 and ≥6 months. Current CD4% was associated with risk of WHO4 events for children <6 months old, and with all evaluated events for children ≥6 months old (p<0.05). “Background” mortality was 3.7–8.4/100py. “Acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) was 33.8/100py (after TB) and 41.1/100py (after WHO3 or WHO4). “Later” mortality (>30 days post-event) ranged by CD4% from 4.7–29.1/100py. Conclusions In treatment-naïve, HIV-infected infants, WHO3, WHO4, and TB events were common before and after 6 months of age and led to substantial increases in mortality. Early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment are critically important, regardless of CD4%. PMID:24378935
World political aspects and the example of Australia as a national political response to AIDS are presented. Global policy on AIDS is influenced by the fact that the AIDS epidemic is the 1st to be largely predictable, that long lag times occur between intervention and measurable events, and by the prompt, professional leadership of WHO, lead by Dr. J. Mann. WHO began a Global Programme on AIDS in 1987, modelled on the responses of Canada and Australia. A world summit of Ministers of Health was convened in January 1988. These moves generated a response qualified by openness, cooperation, hope and common sense. The AIDS epidemic calls for unprecedented involvement of politicians: they must coordinate medical knowledge with community action, deal with public fear, exert strong, rational leadership and avoid quick, appealing counterproductive responses. 3 clear directions must be taken to deal with the epidemic: 1) strong research and education campaigns; 2) close contact with political colleagues, interest groups and the community; 3) a national strategy which enjoins diverse interest groups, with courage, rationality and compassion. In Australia, the AIDS response began with the unwitting infection of 3 infants by blood transfusion. A public information campaign emphasizing a penetrating TV ad campaign was instituted in 1987. Policy discussions were held in all parliamentary bodies. The AIDS epidemic demands rapid, creative responses, a break from traditions in health bureaucracy, continual scrutiny of funding procedures and administrative arrangements. In practical terms in Australia, this meant establishing a special AIDS branch within the Health Advancement Division of the Community Health Department. AIDS issues must remain depoliticized to defuse adversary politics and keep leaders in a united front.
Valletta, Robert; Huggins, Brian
A new model for lease accounting can have a significant impact on hospitals and healthcare organizations. The new approach proposes a "right-of-use" model that involves complex estimates and significant administrative burden. Hospitals and health systems that draw heavily on lease arrangements should start preparing for the new approach now even though guidance and a final rule are not expected until mid-2011. This article highlights a number of considerations from the lessee point of view.
Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Ahmad, Khurshid; Roy, Sudeep; Ashraf, Jalaluddin Mohammad; Adil, Mohd; Siddiqui, Mohammad Haris; Khan, Saif; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Provazník, Ivo; Choi, Inho
Over the last few decades, computer-aided drug design has emerged as a powerful technique playing a crucial role in the development of new drug molecules. Structure-based drug design and ligand-based drug design are two methods commonly used in computer-aided drug design. In this article, we discuss the theory behind both methods, as well as their successful applications and limitations. To accomplish this, we reviewed structure based and ligand based virtual screening processes. Molecular dynamics simulation, which has become one of the most influential tool for prediction of the conformation of small molecules and changes in their conformation within the biological target, has also been taken into account. Finally, we discuss the principles and concepts of molecular docking, pharmacophores and other methods used in computer-aided drug design.
Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.
Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.
Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.
... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...
... known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type of defense cell in the body called a CD4 helper ... are part of the body's immune system , the defense system that fights infections. When HIV destroys these ...
Issues in Science and Technology, 1987
Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100212.htm Convulsions - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... slide 2 out of 2 Overview When a seizure occurs, the main goal is to protect the ...
... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns ... Being Safe in the Kitchen Finding Out About Fireworks Safety Playing With Fire? Dealing With Burns Fireworks ...
Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.
... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... with each breath has a pale or bluish color around the mouth drools or has difficulty swallowing ...
Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)
... HIV/AIDS Influenza Malaria Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Tuberculosis Zika Virus Find a Funding Opportunity Opportunities & Announcements ... related co-infections, such as hepatitis, malaria, and tuberculosis. Treatment of HIV Infection In the early 1980s ...
... difficulty swallowing becomes tired easily Think Prevention! Frequent hand washing and avoiding contact with people who have respiratory ... Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand Washing So Important? Coughing Croup Contact Us Print Resources ...
... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...
have recommended that Africans infected with HIV be treated with an antibiotic/ sulfa drug combination known as cotrimoxazole in order to prevent...response is the subject of much debate. An estimated 500,000 Africa AIDS patients were being treated with antiretroviral drugs in mid-2005, up from 150,000...whether drugs can be made widely accessible without costly health infrastructure improvements. U.S. concern over AIDS in Africa grew in the 1980s, as the
Strike Planning Aid ( ESPA ) . .V-14 5.4. Tactical Environmental Ship Routing (TESR) V-24 5.5. Chaff Prediction and Planning System (CHAPPS).. V-29...chapter four TDAS from TESS: NAVSAR, acAS program for search and rescue (SARjat sea; ESPA , the Environmental Strike Planning Aid; TESR, the Tactical...STATISTICS CURRENT LOCATION AND CHARACTERISTICS SATELLITE DATA CONVERSION CONSTANTS In 5.1, we give a brief history of TESS. The TDAS NAVSAR, ESPA
the body loses its ability to fight off other infections like the flu or pneumonia that it could normally handle with ease.11 These infections are... children orphaned by AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.32 Failing states are not able to provide care for these orphans so they are lured into crime or...four major program elements funded by USAID are primary prevention, caring for children affected by AIDS, home and community based care and treatment
Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.
The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…
This document explores issues of leadership for accountability and reviews five resources on the subject. These include: (1) "Accountability by Carrots and Sticks: Will Incentives and Sanctions Motivate Students, Teachers, and Administrators for Peak Performance?" (Larry Lashway); (2) "Organizing Schools for Teacher Learning"…
Webb, P. Taylor
The prevailing performance discourse in education claims school improvements can be achieved through transparent accountability procedures. The article identifies how teachers generate performances of their work in order to satisfy accountability demands. By identifying sources of teachers' knowledge that produce choreographed performances, I…
Beaverton School District 48, OR.
Based on a recent task inventory of key occupations in the accounting cluster taken in the Portland, Oregon, area, this curriculum guide is intended to assist administrators and teachers in the design and implementation of high school accounting cluster programs. The guide is divided into four major sections: program organization and…
Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009
The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…
Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009
The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…
Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009
The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…
Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009
Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009
Webb, P. Taylor
Campus 2020: Thinking ahead is a policy in British Columbia (BC), Canada, that attempted to hold universities accountable to performance. Within, I demonstrate how this Canadian articulation of educational accountability intended to develop "governmentality constellations" to control the university and regulate its knowledge output. This…
Eaton, Tim V.
The accounting profession is facing a potential crisis not only from the overall shortage of accounting faculty driven by smaller numbers of new faculty entering the profession as many existing faculty retire but also from changes that have been less well documented. This includes: (1) changes in attitude towards the roles of teaching, service and…
Chippendale, P. R., Ed.; Wilkes, Paula V., Ed.
This collection of papers delivered at a conference on accountability held at Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education in Australia examines the meaning of accountability in education for teachers, lecturers, government, parents, administrators, education authorities, and the society at large. In Part 1, W. G. Walker attempts to answer the…
Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009
Pipino, Marica; Boldrini, Elena; Cristani, Alessandro
The latest AIDS' congress (Barcelona) reminded the world this dramatic situation. The shown data are remarkable: 5 million people of new infected in 2001, 68 million people could die in the next 20 years because of AIDS and the biggest part of them is living in the South of the world. There are two different kind of AIDS: the AIDS of rich people (2% of infected ones), who can reach the modern therapies that changed the course of the disease now curable out of hospital, and the AIDS of poor ones, without therapies and future. The political-economic effort of Western governments, of global fund anti-AIDS and of non governmental organizations now is not able to answer to this emergency in the right way. The lacking sensibility of Western doctors and the inflexible position of Catholic Church about contraception make the situation more complicated. It's hopeful the overcoming of this position using a Catholic Church's precious concept: the distinction between "simpliciter" and "secundum quid" to agree the use of condoms in case of absolute need.
Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin
Several recent papers find evidence that global health aid is being diverted to reserves, education, military, or other sectors, and is displacing government spending. This is suggested to occur because ministers of finance have competing, possibly corrupt, priorities and deprive the health sector of resources. Studies have found that development assistance for health routed to governments has a negative impact on health spending and that similar assistance routed to private nongovernmental organizations has a positive impact. An alternative hypothesis is that World Bank and IMF macro-economic policies, which specifically advise governments to divert aid to reserves to cope with aid volatility and keep government spending low, could be causing the displacement of health aid. This article evaluates whether aid displacement was greater when countries undertook a new borrowing program from the IMF between 1996 and 2006. As found in existing studies, for each $1 of development assistance for health, about $0.37 is added to the health system. However, evaluating IMF-borrowing versus non-IMF-borrowing countries reveals that non-borrowers add about $0.45 whereas borrowers add less than $0.01 to the health system. On average, health system spending grew at about half the speed when countries were exposed to the IMF than when they were not. It is important to take account of the political economy of global health finance when interpreting data on financial flows.
Petersen, Eline Borch; Lunner, Thomas
The working memory plays an important role in successfully overcoming adverse listening conditions and should consequently be considered when designing and testing hearing aids. A number of studies have established the relationship between hearing in noise and working memory involvement, but with the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall (SWIRL) test, it is possible to show that working memory is also involved in listening under favorable conditions and that noise reduction has a positive influence in situation with very little noise. Although the capacity of the working memory is a finite individual size, its involvement can differ with fatigue and other factors and individualization of hearing aids should take this into account to obtain the best performance. A way of individually adapting hearing aids is based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids. Such an adaptation could be done based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids.
... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting... correcting amendments. SUMMARY: The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting...
In countries charging tuition fees, and those that are considering adopting tuition fee policies, recent economic conditions are making education less affordable and accessible for students. To combat these challenges, nations, state/regional governments, and universities are experimenting with financial aid programmes by providing non-repayable…
The AIDS pandemic raging across sub-Saharan Africa does not stop with personal carnage. It also threatens whole systems, including what is arguably the most critical for the region's future--education. Where rates of HIV infection are high, as they are in much of southern and eastern Africa, experts warn, the effects on social stability and…
Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
I AD-RI54 787 HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 1/2 F MONTEREY CR J C MARTINS DEC 84 1UNCLASSIFIED /G 5/9 NL -~~ .. 2. . L...Monterey, California JUN1im THESISG HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING by Joaquim C. Martins LLJ.. December 1984 Thesis Advisor: R.A. McGonigal Approved for...REPORT & PECRI00 COVERED Master’s Thesis; Human Resource Accounting Dcme 94- ’ 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTOR(*) . CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER
Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.
This publication explains what federal student financial aid is and what types of student aid are available. Two introductory sections present: federal student aid at-a-glance (what it is, who gets it, and how to get it) and finding out about student aid. The first section presents general information on the following subjects: student…
National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.
This brochure is designed to help parents answer the questions that their children may ask them about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It provides basic information about AIDS and HIV, as well as sources for further information, such as the National AIDS Hotline. It…
Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)
Kalichman, Seth C.
This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV…
Kerby, Debra; Romine, Jeff
Innovative ideas for accounting education include having students study accounting across historical periods, using businesses for student research, exploring nontraditional accounting careers, and collaborating with professional associations. (SK)
Health communicators use entertainment and mass media to prevent HIV transmission. Population Services International operates an AIDS Mass Media Project as an adjunct to its Condom Social Marketing Project. It collaborates with the Government of Zaire's National AIDS Program. Its 1st target is urban youth because most AIDS cases in Zaire were infected as teenagers, urban youth have access to television (TV), and they take part in high risk sexual behavior. The project uses various AIDS songs to reach this group. A 6-month posttest shows that the 1st song was so effective that 65% heard it and that 93% of them recalled the major AIDS messages and 85% said that they changed their behavior. The project distributes a video of the 1990 World AIDS Day concert. Research in Zaire and other African countries shows that the threat AIDS poses to children's health strongly motivates parents' behavior. Thus the 2nd target is the 20-30 year old group--young and prospective parents. The project boasts a 4-part TV series about a groom who does not reveal his AIDS status to his young bride until after their wedding night. 2 scenes stress the benefits of condoms. After its 1st airing, 66% of the 20-30 year old group in Kinshasa watched all 4 parts of the series. Of these, about 75% said they would change their behavior. Most people in Zaire change behavior by using condoms. Indeed, during the mass media campaign, condom sales grew 1000% which saved almost 7200 lives. The project also features comic strips informing working men and women and teenagers about AIDS and distributes an inexpensive notebook listening AIDS facts and myths for school children. The project uses regional radio stations to broadcast 28 AIDS feature programs, 22 radio spots, 8 AIDS radio dramas, and 2 songs to high priority rural areas. These AIDS radio efforts have indeed influenced AIDS knowledge and attitudes.
Razek, Joseph R.; And Others
This article describes the results of a survey of the readability of most of the intermediate and advanced accounting textbooks currently in use at colleges and universities throughout the United States. (CT)
Argues that students should be given mathematics credits for completing accounting classes. Demonstrates that, although the terminology is different, the mathematical concepts are the same as those used in an introductory algebra class. (JOW)
Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.
... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1840 Account 184, Clearing accounts. This account must include undistributed balances in clearing accounts at the date of the balance sheet... accounts. 367.1840 Section 367.1840 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...
Fulton, R. E.; Voigt, S. J.
A description is presented of computer-aided design requirements and the resulting computer science advances needed to support aerospace design. The aerospace design environment is examined, taking into account problems of data handling and aspects of computer hardware and software. The interactive terminal is normally the primary interface between the computer system and the engineering designer. Attention is given to user aids, interactive design, interactive computations, the characteristics of design information, data management requirements, hardware advancements, and computer science developments.
National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2012
From 2000-2001 to 2010-2011, the total amount of federal financial aid awarded to students under Title IV of the Higher Education Act (HEA) jumped from $64.0 billion to an estimated $169.1 billion, a 10-year increase of 164%. For 2010-2011, the Title IV programs accounted for 72% of the $235 billion in total financial aid received by college…
Boshell, J; Gacharná, M G; García, M; Jaramillo, L S; Márquez, G; Fergusson, M M; González, S; Prada, E Y; de Rangel, R; de Cabas, R
Between January 1984 and December 1987 a total of 178 AIDS cases were reported to the Colombian Ministry of Health. The location of these cases suggests that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is widely distributed in Colombia. Most of those afflicted (97%) have been adult males. HIV seroprevalence studies of selected population groups revealed the highest antibody prevalence (5.65% in females, 22.5% in males) among individuals involved in high-risk behaviors who participated in a free AIDS testing program. High prevalences (from 0.6% to 3.9% in females, and 14.6% to 15.9% in males) were also found in patients (primarily female prostitutes and male homosexuals) attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in several urban areas. The number of AIDS cases in Colombia has doubled or tripled annually since reporting began in 1984, a pattern similar to that observed worldwide.
Pacheco, James Edward
The breacher's training aid described in this report was designed to simulate features of magazine and steel-plate doors. The training aid enables breachers to practice using their breaching tools on components that they may encounter when attempting to enter a facility. Two types of fixtures were designed and built: (1) a large fixture incorporates simulated hinges, hasps, lock shrouds, and pins, and (2) a small fixture simulates the cross section of magazine and steel-plate doors. The small fixture consists of steel plates on either side of a structural member, such as an I-beam. The report contains detailed descriptions and photographs of the training aids, assembly instructions, and drawings.
The Pressler Amendment, a law prohibiting US assistance to any country that does not sign the UN Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, is forcing USAID to shut down its highly successful Social Marketing of Contraceptives (SMC) program in Pakistan. Adopted in 1985, the amendment calls for an end of funding for projects in Pakistan as of fiscal year 1991, since the country has refused to sign the treaty. Only previously committed funds have kept SMC running, but it may soon have a close shop. The cutoff comes at an especially inopportune time--just when SMC had begun to make an impact. Introduced 5 years ago, Sathi condoms (the project's main product) account for 2/3 of all condoms used in Pakistan. Sales jumped from 30 million in 1978 to 74 million last year. SMC administrators explain that the country has a vast potential for social marketing. But because of the cutoff in aid, the program will exhaust its supply of condoms by March 1992. The end of the SMC program will mean a serious setback for Pakistan, which already has the 2nd largest population in southern Asia, and which has double the fertility of the most populous country in the region, India. Only 7% of the women in Pakistan rely on a modern method of contraception, compared to 42% in India and 26% in Bangladesh. USAID officials explain that the organization is working with the Pakistani government to find ways to continue funding the program after US funds run out. They add that this development will provide Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif an opportunity to demonstrate his stated commitment to curb population growth.
Lutz, E; Munasinghe, M
Environmental awareness in the 1980s has led to efforts to improve the current UN System of National Accounts (SNA) for better measurement of the value of environmental resources when estimating income. National governments, the UN, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank are interested in solving this issue. The World Bank relies heavily on national aggregates in income accounts compiled by means of the SNA that was published in 1968 and stressed gross domestic product (GDP). GDP measures mainly market activity, but it takes does not consider the consumption of natural capital, and indirectly inhibits sustained development. The deficiencies of the current method of accounting are inconsistent treatment of manmade and natural capital, the omission of natural resources and their depletion from balance sheets, and pollution cleanup costs from national income. In the calculation of GDP pollution is overlooked, and beneficial environmental inputs are valued at zero. The calculation of environmentally adjusted net domestic product (EDP) and environmentally adjusted net income (ENI) would lower income and growth rate, as the World Resources Institute found with respect to Indonesia for 1971-84. When depreciation for oil, timber, and top soil was included the net domestic product (NDP) was only 4% compared with a 7.1% GDP. The World Bank has advocated environmental accounting since 1983 in SNA revisions. The 1989 revised Blue Book of the SNA takes environment concerns into account. Relevant research is under way in Mexico and Papua New Guinea using the UN Statistical Office framework as a system for environmentally adjusted economic accounts that computes EDP and ENI and integrates environmental data with national accounts while preserving SNA concepts.
Morales Suárez-Valera, M M; Llopis González, A; Ballester Calabuig, M L
Between 1985-1989 were diagnosed 376 cases of TBC in "La Fe" hospital in Valencia. 36 of this cases also had AIDS. We have carried out a compared study among the 340 cases of TBC and the 36 cases of AIDS+TBC. In this way we have described the social and work conditions of both groups, the hospitalization, the associated pathologies, the different risk factors, the different characteristics of the disease in each group of TBC, the diagnoses methods and the treatment of each case.
Deber, Raisa B.
Accountability is a key component of healthcare reforms, in Canada and internationally, but there is increasing recognition that one size does not fit all. A more nuanced understanding begins with clarifying what is meant by accountability, including specifying for what, by whom, to whom and how. These papers arise from a Partnership for Health System Improvement (PHSI), funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), on approaches to accountability that examined accountability across multiple healthcare subsectors in Ontario. The partnership features collaboration among an interdisciplinary team, working with senior policy makers, to clarify what is known about best practices to achieve accountability under various circumstances. This paper presents our conceptual framework. It examines potential approaches (policy instruments) and postulates that their outcomes may vary by subsector depending upon (a) the policy goals being pursued, (b) governance/ownership structures and relationships and (c) the types of goods and services being delivered, and their production characteristics (e.g., contestability, measurability and complexity). PMID:25305385
Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.
Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.
... bandages (Band-Aid or similar brand); assorted sizes Aluminum finger splints Elastic (ACE) bandage for wrapping wrist, ... to reduce contamination risk Save-A-Tooth storage device in case a tooth is broken or knocked out; ... equipment, and medical supplies. In: Auerbach PS, ed. Auerbach: Wilderness Medicine . ...
Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…
National Audubon Society, New York, NY.
This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins with these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, How to Lead a Field Trip, Natural Resources in the City, Mysteries of Bird Migration, Rock Stories and How to Read Them, The Ground Water Table, The Terrarium, Some Adventures With Wild Plants Outdoors and Indoors, Plant Propagation in the…
The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…
The Instructional Aide Program (Shoreline Community College, Seattle, Washington) is a flexible curriculum designed to prepare students to meet the paraprofessional manpower needs of several kinds of institution. It was prepared after consultation with representatives of the schools, the YMCA, and the country park system. Other agencies still to…
Nevin, Jeanne, Ed.
The principles, practices, responsibilities, and controls in student financial aid are described in this manual. It traces the flow of funds, management activities, and legal issues as they occur in the process. The emphasis is on sound management principles of a general and permanent nature rather than on specific government requirements that may…
This document contains course outlines in computer-aided manufacturing developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The four units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM); (2) CAM…
Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.
Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.
Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard
This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…
Miller, Heather G., Ed.; And Others
This report reviews the course of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its current status, examining changing patterns of sexual behavior and intravenous drug use, the distribution of cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and the results of intervention efforts under way. It also discusses prevention…
Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC.
Impact Aid is a federal formula grant program designed to assist local school districts that have lost property tax revenue due to the presence of tax-exempt federal property or that have experienced increased expenditures due to the enrollment of federally connected children. Federally connected children are those whose parents pay minimal or no…
Hawkins, B. Denise
Nearly 30 years ago, renowned immunologist James E.K. Hildreth, M.D., Ph.D., was compelled to start researching the virus that causes AIDS. He marveled at its enigma and was pressed into action by its ability to cut lives short and devastate communities. The disease set him on a course of medical inquiry that has included biomedical breakthroughs…
Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET), 1986
Provides photocopy-ready lesson aids on story ideas, interviewing, inverted pyramid writing style, newswriting, sports/scavenger hunt, finding feature material, identifying feature leads, feature lead selection, evaluating feature leads, compiling survey material, cutlines, headlines, paste-up rules, advertising, final semester project, newspaper…
The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…
... Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! Dehydration What's the Big Sweat About Dehydration? How to Be Safe When You're in the Sun What's Sweat? Dehydration Is It Important to Drink a Lot of Water? Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...
Grau, Joseph A.
Suggests job aids have motivational benefits and discusses three ways in which they positively affect motivation: increases worker's confidence of success and amount of effort they are willing to invest in attempting tasks; increases expectancy while decreasing amount of motivation needed; and reinforces task importance. (MBR)
Roman, Harry T.
This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…
Azzini, M; Maccabruni, A; Marcellini, M; Michelone, G; Dei Cas, A
Two cases of post-transfusional AIDS in two premature babies who received blood of the same seropositive donor, are reported. The risk of the susceptibility to HIV infection of these patients, in relation to the immaturity of immune system and to the transfusional treatment often necessary in premature newborns, is stressed.
China's southwest province of Yunnan, which trades with Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam, has the worst HIV infection rate and AIDS rate in China. About 2000 of China's 2500 officially recognized AIDS cases are from Yunnan province. Transmission is augmented by the high rates of heroin addiction and drug trafficking and prostitution. Trade links with the drug producing countries of Southeast Asia reinforce drug sales and use. The province announced plans for investing about $58 million in a "disease prevention belt" along the border with Vietnam, Laos, and Burma. The aim is to reduce the prevalence of AIDS and childhood infectious diseases. The system will include 6 frontier posts, 8 border prefectures, and 26 border countries. The "China Daily" reported that methods of transmission were from sharing dirty needles, transfers between mother and child, and through sexual contact. Since smugglers operate clandestinely in the mountainous border regions, it is unclear how effective control will be. This approach is based on the traditional view that AIDS is a foreigners disease that must be kept out. A more modern approach would accept that it is domestic issue that can be dealt with through education and greater public awareness. HIV testing of visiting foreigners or Chinese returning from abroad is still practiced. The European Union is contributing to the funding of 2 national and 25 provincial training centers on the control of HIV, AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases.
...#0;#0; ] Memorandum of March 30, 2012 Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS... Executive Departments and Agencies Throughout our country, the spread of HIV/AIDS has had a devastating... HIV/AIDS, including more than 290,000 women. Women and girls now account for 24 percent of...
Singh, N K
Noting the hysteria caused by an outbreak of AIDS among intravenous drug users in the state of Manipur, India, the author discusses the social and emotional aspects of the epidemic. Local media has been Manipur's main source of information concerning the outbreak, but this information has often been misleading and has served to stir up fear and hatred of HIV carriers. Many have even begun talking about an Isolation Centre. The author, the director of a drug rehabilitation center, relates his experiences in counseling 50 intravenous drug users on the subject of AIDS. He discovered that the group had very poor knowledge about the disease. When told about AIDS, they became alarmed at the possibility of dying. 1/2 of the group swore to take revenge on those who had introduced them to drugs, but the other 1/2 showed a more positive attitude, saying that they would like to help other drug addicts. The author also describes the case history of a patient who had succeeded in staying off of drugs for 8 months. HIV screening, however, revealed that the young man was seropositive. Somehow, a local newspaper got a hold of this information and published his name as a seropositive along with the names of others. Distraught by this, the young man returned to drugs. The author stresses that revealing the names of HIV carriers serves no social purpose, and in fact, only makes the problem worse. He recommends the following for dealing with the outbreak of AIDS: 1) intensive public health education on AIDS with the aim or removing unwarranted fears; 2) education to prevent drug addiction; 3) counselling to parents of drug addicts; and 4) the establishment of Seropositive Anonymous, an organization designed to help carriers deal with their problems.
National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).
Regional workshops sponsored by the National Institute for Educational Research (Japan) were held to strengthen national efforts in the development of elementary science aids/materials. This document provides: (1) guidelines for the development of appropriate and low-cost aids for science instruction; (2) inventory of aids; (3) synthesis of…
Baker, Benjamin; Amin, Kavit; Khor, Wee Sim; Khwaja, Nadeem
Traditional remedies for burns first aid are rarely compliant with current best practice. Greater Manchester is one of the most ethnically diverse regions in the UK. Our burns centre has noted the prevalent use of traditional remedies over recognised first aid prior to presentation. We review traditional burns remedies and highlight the importance of burns first aid education that is accessible to migrant communities.
Jebeile, Sam; Abeysekera, Indra
This paper conveys the findings of a study conducted to evaluate the initiation of an interactive online computer-assisted learning module, called WEBLEARN, in an undergraduate introductory accounting course at an Australian university. The purpose was to aid students in the preparation of cash flow statements, a topic that from the student…
Kirby, M D
This paper is not about the medical condition of AIDS. Nor is it about the history of the condition since it was first reported in Atlanta, Georgia in 1981. It looks rather, at the catalogue of legislative and other legal responses to the spread of AIDS. The paper analyses the AIDS condition in its historical context. The hysteria accompanying the outbreak of AIDS is contrasted with the similar hysteria associated with other previous epidemics experienced in Australia over the past two centuries. The paper categorises the responses of lawmakers to the condition, according to the approach taken; from 'full blast', through 'moderate heat' to 'low key' or an attempt to avoid or minimise legal intervention. It is suggested that the appropriate response should depend upon such factors as the present magnitude of the condition, its likely future course, the availability of cures and protections against its spread and objectives being sought by intervention. Unless these factors are taken into account gross over-reaction can occur, causing social disruption and much personal injustice.
Educational Innovators Press, Tucson, AZ.
This booklet contains five papers which examine the activities, successes, and pitfalls encountered by educators who are introducing accountability techniques into instructional programs where they did not exist in the past. The papers are based on actual programs and offer possible solutions in the areas considered, which are 1) performance…
Resnick, Lauren B.
Standards-based education has now reached a stage where it is possible to evaluate its overall effectiveness. Several earlier papers in the special issue of "Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice" on "Test Scores and State Accountability" (Volume 24, Number 4) examined specific state policies and their effects on schools…
Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.
This report provides the Washington State legislature, the Governor, and other interested parties with an update on the accountability performance of each of the state's public baccalaureate institutions (Central Washington University, Eastern Washington University, Evergreen State College, Washington State University, Western Washington…
Tidwell, Sam B.
This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing,…
Fullan, Michael; Rincón-Gallardo, Santiago; Hargreaves, Andy
This paper seeks to clarify and spells out the responsibilities of policy makers to create the conditions for an effective accountability system that produces substantial improvements in student learning, strengthens the teaching profession, and provides transparency of results to the public. The authors point out that U.S. policy makers will need…
Productivity gains in higher education won't be made just by improving cost effectiveness or even performance. They need to be documented, communicated, and integrated into a strategic agenda to increase attainment. This requires special attention to "accountability" for productivity, meaning public presentation and communication of evidence about…
Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance.
Educational standards, assessments, and accountability systems are of immense political moment around the world. But there is no developed theory exploring the role that these systems should play within a democratic polity in particular. On the one hand, well-designed standards are public goods, supported by assessment and accountability…
Community Accountability Conferencing (CAC) was first introduced in Queensland, Australia schools in early 1994 after a serious assault in the school community. Some family members, students, and staff were dissatisfied with the solution of suspending the offenders. Seeking an alternative, comprehensive intervention strategy, the school community…
Cuneo, Tim; Bell, Shareen; Welsh-Gray, Carol
Through its Challenge 2000 program, Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network's 21st Century Education Initiative has been working with K-12 schools to improve student performance in literature, math, and science. Clearly stated standards, appropriate assessments, formal monitoring, critical friends, and systemwide accountability are keys to success.…
Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.
This document discusses Santa Fe Community College's (SFCC) (Florida) five accountability measures. The type of data available provided on these measures is as follows: (1) District High School Enrollment Report and Retention and Success Rate Report; (2) Associate of Arts Degree Transfer Performance in the State University System; (3) Licensure…
California State Dept. of Housing and Community Development, Sacramento. Indian Assistance Program.
Written in simple, easy to understand form, the manual provides a vehicle for the untrained person in bookkeeping to control funds received from grants for Indian Tribal Councils and Indian organizations. The method used to control grants (federal, state, or private) is fund accounting, designed to organize rendering services on a non-profit…
Wraga, William G.
The current test-driven accountability movement, codified in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ([NCLB] 2002), was a misguided idea that will have the effect not of improving the education of children and youth, but of indicting the public school system of the United States. To improve education in the United States, politicians, policy makers,…
Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2003
Washington state's public four-year universities and college have submitted their 2003-05 accountability plans to the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB). The state operating budget directs the Board to review these plans and set biennial performance targets for each institution. For 2003-05, the four-year institutions are reporting on a…
Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.
This teaching guide consists of guidelines for conducting two secondary-level introductory accounting courses. Intended for vocational business education students, the courses are designed to introduce financial principles and practices important to personal and business life, to promote development of clerical and bookkeeping skills sufficient…
Freitas, Joseph M.
In response to state legislation authorizing procedures for changes in academic calendars and measurement of student workload in California community colleges, this manual from the Chancellor's Office provides guidelines for student attendance accounting. Chapter 1 explains general items such as the academic calendar, admissions policies, student…
Given the curriculum's importance in the educational process, curriculum evaluation should be considered as essential as a district financial audit. When Fenwick English conducted a 1979 curriculum audit of Columbus, Ohio, schools, the accounting firm encountered numerous problems concerning development, review, and management practices. Planning…
Ramachandran Rackliffe, Usha; Ragland, Linda
Public accounting firms emphasize the importance of accounting graduates being proficient in Excel. Since many accounting graduates often aspire to work in public accounting, a question arises as to whether there should be an emphasis on Excel in accounting education. The purpose of this paper is to specifically look at this issue by examining…
Fisher, Roy; Murphy, Vivienne
Existing literature and a survey of 106 undergraduate accounting students in the United Kingdom were analyzed for perceptions of the accounting profession and the academic discipline of accounting. Results suggest that among accounting and nonaccounting students alike, there exist coexisting perceptions of accounting as having high status and low…
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 142, Customer... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1420 Account 142, Customer accounts receivable. (a) This account must include amounts due from customers for service, and...
Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.
Roberts, Charles T.
Argues that school officials throughout the United States must adopt standardized school accounting procedures and terminology to permit meaningful comparison of educational expenditure and cost data and to provide an equitable basis for the distribution of federal educational aid. (JG)
... aids available and offer some cosmetic and listening advantages. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image ... in place. These aids offer cosmetic and listening advantages and are used typically for adults. Photo courtesy ...
... More To the Ends of the Earth for AIDS Research Swedish explorer Johan Ernst Nilson has raised ... More amfAR-Funded HIV Scholars Program Featured in AIDS and Behavior Supplement amfAR has partnered with the ...
Ness, Erik C.; Lips, Adam J. A.
This study examines the differences in the portfolio of institutional scholarships and the marketing of these awards between flagship campuses with and without state merit aid programs. Using content analysis techniques to analyze institutional websites of the 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) flagship campuses, three thematic responses…
Sullivan, P H
The AIDS epidemic threatens economic development in Asia because Asia offers fertile conditions for unchecked transmission and because the epidemic has the most impact on young adults who make up a large sector of the work force. Prevention is still possible, however, and should be viewed as an investment in the future. Effective prevention strategies will have regional as well as domestic components and will recognize the hierarchy of interventions and spread the burden among the public sector, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the private sector in each country. The public sector should 1) ensure that markets function well and do not discriminate against infected individuals; 2) provide a supportive macroeconomic framework of fiscal, trade, and credit policies; and 3) provide public and quasipublic goods, such as information and training. The contribution of NGOs should are vital for reducing the suffering involved with HIV/AIDS. Private sector contributions can include care facilities, research and development, and funding. The private sector must realize that the threat to the stock of human capital posed by HIV/AIDS will reduce profits. The regional dimensions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic relate 1) to factors that contribute to transmission and 2) to approaches that can be taken to prevent transmission and curb its impact. The Greater Mekong Subregion Work Program on HIV/AIDS is a good example of a cooperative regional effort to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. The epidemic requires cooperation among sectors and among countries.
Meehan, S T
In its fight against the spread of AIDS, which is inextricably linked to the issues of international development, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has focused support on strengthening existing health care systems, helping vulnerable groups gain control over their lives and health, promoting AIDS prevention measures, and building links to other related health services. Funding includes 1) a grant to Hope House in Zambia (counseling and support for persons with AIDS); 2) a contribution to the Canadian Public Health Association's $11 million Southern Africa AIDS Training Programme (helps regional organizations working in AIDS prevention and support through education, training, hospital outreach, peer education for vulnerable groups, assistance to women's shelters, and networking); 3) support for Laval University's Laval Centre for International Cooperation in Health and Development (runs a $22 million program in French-speaking West Africa that operates in over 10 countries and focuses on epidemiological surveillance, information, education, and communication, control of sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and management of national AIDS programs); 4) support for the University of Manitoba's $3 million program with the University of Nairobi to slow the spread of HIV (strengthens local health care capabilities for STD/HIV diagnosis, treatment, and counseling, with special emphasis on training and education); 5) support in the past for a study of proposed AIDS legislation and its potential impact on the human rights of PLWHIV/AIDS in Thailand; 6) a contribution to help equip the office of the National Movement for Street Children, Rio de Janeiro (focuses on preventing the spread of AIDS among child prostitutes); and 7) long-term financial support to the Interagency Coalition on AIDS and Development, a coalition of Canadian development nongovernmental organizations responding to AIDS in developing countries. An address to obtain a pamphlet giving
Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1989
A series of articles concerning various aspects of AIDS and the dilemmas it poses for U.S. society, culture, and government are presented, in this theme issue, e.g., "Introduction to the Issue" (K. Keniston); "Prospects for the Medical Control of the AIDS Epidemic" (W. Haseltine); "Social Policy: AIDS and Intravenous Drug Use" (N. Zinberg);…
MacDonald, Douglas S.
This manual was designed to provide structural guidelines for financial aid program operations and administration at the Community College of Baltimore. Topics discussed include: the philosophy of student aid at an open door college; the objectives of the student financial aid office; staff development and administrative improvement; organization,…
Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary
Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)
Fife, Kenneth H.
Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…
... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? Print A A A en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...
Gribs, H.; And Others
Personal accounts describe the lives of 2 individuals with deaf-blindness, one an 87-year-old woman who was deaf from birth and became totally blind over a 50-year period and the other of a woman who became deaf-blind as a result of a fever at the age of 7. Managing activities of daily life and experiencing sensory hallucinations are among topics…
Yip, George S; Bink, Audrey J M
Global account management--which treats a multinational customer's operations as one integrated account, with coherent terms for pricing, product specifications, and service--has proliferated over the past decade. Yet according to the authors' research, only about a third of the suppliers that have offered GAM are pleased with the results. The unhappy majority may be suffering from confusion about when, how, and to whom to provide it. Yip, the director of research and innovation at Capgemini, and Bink, the head of marketing communications at Uxbridge College, have found that GAM can improve customer satisfaction by 20% or more and can raise both profits and revenues by at least 15% within just a few years of its introduction. They provide guidelines to help companies achieve similar results. The first steps are determining whether your products or services are appropriate for GAM, whether your customers want such a program, whether those customers are crucial to your strategy, and how GAM might affect your competitive advantage. If moving forward makes sense, the authors' exhibit, "A Scorecard for Selecting Global Accounts," can help you target the right customers. The final step is deciding which of three basic forms to offer: coordination GAM (in which national operations remain relatively strong), control GAM (in which the global operation and the national operations are fairly balanced), and separate GAM (in which a new business unit has total responsibility for global accounts). Given the difficulty and expense of providing multiple varieties, the vast majority of companies should initially customize just one---and they should be careful not to start with a choice that is too ambitious for either themselves or their customers to handle.
Equation 1. One estimate of the energy density of diesel fuel (ρdiesel) coupled with the efficiency (η) of a 60-kilowatt generator op- erating at...are going. Reduc- ing demand without reducing our capability requires appliance -level feedback, which current smart-meter technology does not...event. Accountability Soldiers need appliance -level feedback to reduce electrical consumption. Specifically, they need to know what loads are currently
few other companies. Harvard Business Review contained articles explaining the ideas behind the new costing methods and examples of applications...technical report. Peter Drucker in an article in Harvard Business Review ’carefully explains that accounting must change in response to the changes in...Kaplan in a Harvard Business Review article develop the idea of four levels of activities: facility sustaining activities; product-sustaining activities
Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.
This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.
Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.
Hearing-aid device indicates visually whether sound is coming from left, right, back, or front. Device intended to assist individuals who are deaf in at least one ear and unable to discern naturally directions to sources of sound. Device promotes safety in street traffic, on loading docks, and in presence of sirens, alarms, and other warning sounds. Quadraphonic version of device built into pair of eyeglasses and binaural version built into visor.
Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.
This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387
accounting and current cost accounting are explained as the major inflation accounting methods. Inflation accounting standards announced in the United...inflation accounting, constant purchasing power accounting, constant dollar accounting, current cost accounting , current value.
Mbachu, Chinyere; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Ezumah, Nkoli; Ajayi, Olayinka; Sanwo, Olusola; Uzochukwu, Benjamin
Decentralisation is defined as the dispersion, distribution or transfer of resources, functions and decision-making power from a central authority to regional and local authorities. It is usually accompanied by assignment of accountability and responsibility for results. Fundamental to understanding decentralisation is learning what motivates central governments to give up power and resources to local governments, and the practical significance of this on their positions regarding decentralisation. This study examined key political and institutional influences on role-players' capacity to support decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities, and implications for sustainability. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 purposively selected key informants, drawn from three Nigerian states that were at different stages of decentralising HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary care facilities. Key informants represented different categories of role-players involved in HIV and AIDS control programmes. Thematic framework analysis of data was done. Support for decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities was substantial among different categories of actors. Political factors such as the local and global agenda for health, political tenure and party affiliations, and institutional factors such as consolidation of decision-making power and improvements in career trajectories, influenced role-players support for decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services. It is feasible and acceptable to decentralise HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities, to help improve coverage. However, role-players' support largely depends on how well the reform aligns with political structures and current institutional practices.
Macher, A M
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This retrovirus causes profound immunoincompetence in its infected hosts, who are thereafter susceptible to develop myriad severe and relapsing protozoal, fungal, bacterial, viral, and arthropodal opportunistic infections, as well as unusual malignancies. The more than 50,000 patients who have developed AIDS in the United States have produced a sudden unexpected deluge of diagnostic dilemmas that are stressing laboratories of pathology everywhere. This paper describes the gross and microscopic pathology of the numerous complications in patients infected by HIV: (a) the prodromal AIDS-related complex with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, (b) lymphoid infiltration of salivary gland and lung, including the complex of lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis-pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia, (c) extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, (d) multifocal mucocutaneous and visceral Kaposi's sarcoma, (e) small cell undifferentiated (oat cell) carcinomas, (f) protozoal infections caused by Pneumocystis carinii, Toxoplasma gondii, Acanthamoeba, Cryptosporidium species (sp.), and Isospora belli, (g) the causes of chronic enteritis, (h) mycotic infections caused by Candida sp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Sporothrix schenckii, (i) bacterial infections caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii, Nocardia sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Legionella sp., Treponema pallidum, and others, (j) viral infections caused by cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex and zoster, polyomavirus (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy), hepatitis B, molluscum contagiosum, and papillomavirus, (k) oral hairy leukoplakia, (l) subacute encephalopathy, and (m) Norwegian scabies. PMID:2836878
This paper outlines some of the imperatives that should drive attention to the rights of legal and illegal migrants to health, particularly in relation to HIV/AIDS. It is noted that migrants can be especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), but they are often excluded or simply missed in many prevention and care programs. In terms of the effects of globalization, it would seem that governments are required to ensure that this state of affairs does not continue. Evidence indicates that human rights and other ethical violations are occurring and need to be urgently addressed at local, national and international levels. In view of such, it is recommended that HIV/AIDS/STD prevention and care programs for migrant populations should be developed with and guided by migrant communities, and involving substantial community mobilization. Although some progress in preventing the spread of HIV to and from migrants have been documented, and projects addressing their needs have been made accessible, the challenge of dealing more comprehensively the complex issues involved still remains.
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonding § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account...
National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2008
Despite a decade of simplification efforts, students and families are often still baffled by the student aid process and cringe at the sight of financial aid application forms. Contrary to its purpose of helping students to access college, the student aid application process causes families frustration and confusion that has been cited as an…
Buchanan, Phillip G.; Cao, Le Thi
The study reported here is part of a continuing project with the goal of determining the place of behavioral accounting in the accounting curricula. While the first two studies focused on the graduate accounting curricula and the practitioners' opinions on the subject, this study concentrates on the behavioral accounting content of undergraduate…
Accountants have recently been subject to very unpleasant publicity following the collapse of Enron and other major companies. There has been a plethora of accounting failures and accounting restatements of falsified earnings, with litigations and prosecutions taking place every day. As the FASB struggles to tighten the loopholes in accounting,…
Lazenby, Gweneth B
Women account for half of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infections. Heterosexual contact is the leading risk factor in women. Over 50% of patients are significantly immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. Women with advanced HIV infection are at a risk for opportunistic infections (OIs). OIs lead to significant morbidity and cost. Some of OIs may impact women more significantly than men, that is, human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer. OIs during pregnancy can increase the risk of maternal-to-child transmission of HIV and some OIs, such as Hepatitis C. This chapter will review of OIs that are most important in women's health.
Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne
Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.
The NASA Fiscal Year 2002 Performance and Accountability Report is presented. Over the past year, significant changes have been implemented to greatly improve NASA's management while continuing to break new ground in science and technology. Excellent progress has been made in implementing the President's Management Agenda. NASA is leading the government in its implementation of the five government-wide initiatives. NASA received an unqualified audit opinion on FY 2002 financial statements. The vast majority of performance goals have been achieved, furthering each area of NASA's mission. The contents include: 1) NASA Vision and Mission; 2) Management's Discussion and Analysis; 3) Performance; and 4) Financial.
Clements, Paul; Chianca, Thomaz; Sasaki, Ryoh
This article argues that given its structural conditions, development aid bears a particularly heavy burden of learning and accountability. Unfortunately, however, the organization of evaluation guarantees that evaluations will be inconsistent and it creates incentives for positive bias. This article presents evidence from organizational studies…
Azam, Jean-Paul; Thelen, Veronique
This article presents a theoretical framework and some empirical results showing that the level of foreign aid received reduces the supply of terrorist attacks from recipient countries, while U.S. military interventions are liable to increase this supply. Due account is taken of endogeneity problems in producing these results. They suggest that…
Garrett Park Press, MD.
This directory of financial aid sources for minority students majoring in business (including accounting, finance, human relations, information services, marketing and production) or law includes the following types of information: (1) summary and description of the fields, including college enrollment statistics, demand for graduates, and…
Heller, Joseph R.
This paper presents a psychology professor's account of his experiences teaching a course on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) to college students. The first section discusses how to introduce and market the course on campus, and anticipate students' and colleagues' questions about one's motivations for…
Doyle, William R.
What explains the different levels of tuition and financial aid observed in the United States? This study hypothesizes that state-level political characteristics account for much of the variation observed. Of particular importance are the ideology of state legislators and the relative influence of public and private institutions. Estimates of a…
Lundman, Margita; And Others
The report gives an account of the needs of the speech impaired for technical aids, and presents a draft of a proposed research and development program coordinated by the Swedish Institute for the Handicapped in collaboration with the International Commission on Technical Aids, Housing and Transportation. The development of communication skills is…
Albright, Kendra S.; Gavigan, Karen
HIV/AIDS infections are growing at an alarming rate for young adults. In 2009, youth, ages 13-29, accounted for 39% of all new HIV infections in the U.S. (Division of HIV/ AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2011). South Carolina ranks eighth in the nation for new HIV cases, while the capital city of Columbia ranks seventh…
Lee, John B.; Malgoire, Mary A.
Information is given on the number of Mexican American students that received aid from College-Work Study, National Direct Student Loans, and Supplemental Education Grants in the 1972-73 school year. Data are based on the 1970 Census and the 1972-73 fiscal operations forms filled out by student aid officers to account for Federal funds spent in…
Gross, Jacob P. K.; Hossler, Don; Ziskin, Mary; Berry, Matthew S.
The use of merit criteria in awarding institutional aid has grown considerably and, some argue, is supplanting need as the central factor in awarding aid. Concurrently, the accountability movement in higher education has placed greater emphasis on retention and graduation as indicators of institutional success and quality. In this context, this…
Many of the clinical features of HIV/AIDS can be ascribed to the profound immune deficiency which develops in infected patients. The destruction of the immune system by the virus results in opportunistic infection, as well as an increased risk of autoimmune disease and malignancy. In addition, disease manifestations related to the virus itself may occur. For example, during the primary illness which occurs within weeks after first exposure to HIV, clinical symptoms occur in at least 50% of cases, typically as a mononucleosis syndrome. HIV-related complications are rarely encountered in patients with preserved immunity (i.e. CD4 T-cell counts greater than 500 cells/mm3). Recurrent mucocutaneous herpes simplex (HSV), herpes zoster (VZV), oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia occur with increasing frequency as the CD4 count drops below this level. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) occurs in association with HIV and often presents early in the clinical course. The risk of developing opportunistic infections and malignancies typical of AIDS increases progressively as CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/mm3. The clinical manifestations of infections associated with AIDS tend to fall into well-recognized patterns of presentation, including pneumonia, dysphagia/odynophagia, diarrhoea, neurological symptoms, fever, wasting, anaemia and visual loss. The commonest pathogens include Candida albicans, Pneumocystis carinii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium avium intracellulare and cytomegalovirus. Malignant disease in patients with HIV infection also occurs in a characteristic pattern. Only two tumours are prevalent: Kaposi's sarcoma, a multifocal tumour of vascular endothelium which typically involves skin and mucosal surfaces; and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is typically high grade in phenotype, often arising within the central nervous system. The principles of therapy include reduction of HIV replication by antiretroviral
In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training.
Olken, Benjamin A.; Onishi, Junko; Wong, Susan
We report an experiment in 3,000 villages that tested whether incentives improve aid efficacy. Villages received block grants for maternal and child health and education that incorporated relative performance incentives. Subdistricts were randomized into incentives, an otherwise identical program without incentives, or control. Incentives initially improved preventative health indicators, particularly in underdeveloped areas, and spending efficiency increased. While school enrollments improved overall, incentives had no differential impact on education, and incentive health effects diminished over time. Reductions in neonatal mortality in non-incentivized areas did not persist with incentives. We find no systematic scoring manipulation nor funding reallocation toward richer areas. PMID:25485039
Decosas, J; Kane, F; Anarfi, J K; Sodji, K D; Wagner, H U
A successful short-term solution to transmission of AIDS in Western Africa by migrants involves provision of accessible and acceptable basic health and social services to migrants at their destination. The aim is to establish a sense of security and community, which is a health requirement. When migrants are excluded from community life or victimized as carriers of HIV infections, they will be driven by basic survival needs and dysfunctional social organization, which results in the rapid spread of HIV. Closing borders and mass deportation may not be an option. The long-term solution is population policy, environmental protection, and economic development. The focus on mapping the spread of AIDS must shift to a consideration of the migrant social conditions that make them vulnerable to AIDS. The issue of migration and AIDS will be addressed at the First European Conference on Tropical Medicine in October 1995 in Hamburg, Germany. In Uganda, HIV seroprevalence rates ranged from 5.5% among the stable population to 12.4% among internal migrants moving between villages to 16.3% among migrants from other areas. A World Bank project is operating in Western Africa, which traces seasonal male migration from the Cameroon to Liberia, Senegal to Nigeria, and from the Sahel to the coast during dry seasons. National border rules may influence the routes but not the extent of migration. A major destination place is Cote d' Ivoire, which has 25% of total population comprised of migrants from other countries and one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Western Africa. On plantations prostitutes are brought in. Each prostitute serves about 25 workers. The pattern of sexual mixing contributes to the high HIV rates. Female migration is smaller and usually concentrated in prostitution at place of destination. Illiteracy and poverty drive women migrants into the trade. Their frequent health problems are malaria, pelvic pain, menstrual irregularity, vaginal discharge, and genital
Marsden, Matthew D; Zack, Jerome A
Antiretroviral therapy can inhibit HIV replication in patients and prevent progression to AIDS. However, it is not curative. Here we provide an overview of what antiretroviral drugs do and how the virus persists during therapy in rare reservoirs, such as latently infected CD4+ T cells. We also outline several innovative methods that are currently under development to eradicate HIV from infected individuals. These strategies include gene therapy approaches intended to create an HIV-resistant immune system, and activation/elimination approaches directed towards flushing out latent virus. This latter approach could involve the use of novel chemically synthesized analogs of natural activating agents.
Moses, Duane R.
This teacher's guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting Payroll Version 3.0 edition software in their accounting programs. The module contains assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting--payroll. Basic accounting skills are…
Chang, Jui-Chin; Sun, Huey-Lian
Accounting education is facing a crisis of shortage of accounting faculty. This study discusses the reasons behind the shortage and offers suggestions to increase the supply of accounting faculty. Our suggestions are as followings. First, educators should begin promoting accounting academia as one of the career choices to undergraduate and…
Provides ideas for updating accounting courses: convert to semester length; focus on financial reporting/analysis, financial statements, the accounting cycle; turn textbook exercises into practice sets for the accounting cycle; teach about corporate accounting; and address individual line items on financial statements. (SK)
Although epigenetics is not a new field, its implications for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) research have not been explored fully. To develop therapeutic and preventive approaches against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of interaction between the virus and the host, involvement of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, characterization of viral reservoirs, and factors influencing the latency of the virus. Both methylation of viral genes and histone modifications contribute to initiating and maintaining latency and, depending on the context, triggering viral gene repression or expression. This chapter discusses progress made at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), recommendations from the International AIDS Society Scientific Working Group on HIV Cure, and underlying epigenetic regulation. A number of epigenetic inhibitors have shown potential in treating AIDS-related malignancies. Epigenetic drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and their implications for the eradication of HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related malignancies also are discussed.Past and current progress in developing treatments and understanding the molecular mechanisms of AIDS and HIV infection has greatly improved patient survival. However, increased survival has been coupled with the development of cancer at higher rates than those observed among the HIV/AIDS-negative population. During the early days of the AIDS epidemic, the most frequent AIDS-defining malignancies were Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Now, with increased survival as the result of widespread use in the developed world of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), non-AIDS defining cancers (i.e., anal, skin, and lung cancers, and Hodgkin disease) are on the increase in HIV-infected populations. The current status of AIDS-related malignancies also is discussed.
Elenga, Narcisse; Georger-Sow, Marie-Thérèse; Messiaen, Thierry; Lamaury, Isabelle; Favre, Isabelle; Nacher, Mathieu; Beaucaire, Gilles
Since the pathogen ecology differs between Caribbean regions, specific differences in the most frequent clinical presentations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may be expected. We therefore conducted the present retrospective cohort study in order to describe the main AIDS-defining events in Guadeloupe and to compare them with those observed in Metropolitan France and in French Guiana. We discuss the local pathogen ecology, the diagnostic limitations of hospitals in overseas territories and the drivers of the epidemic.
Thacker, Michael A.; Moseley, G. Lorimer
Perception is seen as a process that utilises partial and noisy information to construct a coherent understanding of the world. Here we argue that the experience of pain is no different; it is based on incomplete, multimodal information, which is used to estimate potential bodily threat. We outline a Bayesian inference model, incorporating the key components of cue combination, causal inference, and temporal integration, which highlights the statistical problems in everyday perception. It is from this platform that we are able to review the pain literature, providing evidence from experimental, acute, and persistent phenomena to demonstrate the advantages of adopting a statistical account in pain. Our probabilistic conceptualisation suggests a principles-based view of pain, explaining a broad range of experimental and clinical findings and making testable predictions. PMID:28081134
Chapman, C. P. (Inventor)
An automated accounting system useful for applying data to a computer from any or all of a multiplicity of data terminals is disclosed. The system essentially includes a preselected number of data terminals which are each adapted to convert data words of decimal form to another form, i.e., binary, usable with the computer. Each data terminal may take the form of a keyboard unit having a number of depressable buttons or switches corresponding to selected data digits and/or function digits. A bank of data buffers, one of which is associated with each data terminal, is provided as a temporary storage. Data from the terminals is applied to the data buffers on a digit by digit basis for transfer via a multiplexer to the computer.
Seidmann, Abraham; Mehta, Tushar
The authors review the role of financial accounting information from the perspective of a radiology executive. They begin by introducing the role of pro forma statements. They discuss the fundamental concepts of accounting, including the matching principle and accrual accounting. The authors then explore the use of financial accounting information in making investment decisions in diagnostic medical imaging. The paper focuses on critically evaluating the benefits and limitations of financial accounting for decision making in a radiology practice.
A fuel dispenser aid is described for holding a trigger-like valve operating lever relative to a pistol grip-like handle portion of a valving device for dispensing gasoline or other fuels through a nozzle of the valving device, said fuel dispenser aid comprising: a mounting member formed of a material having a resilient, shape retaining character and configured for mounting over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device, a flexible strap secured at a first end thereof to the mounting member and extending freely therefrom such that when the mounting member is mounted over the pistol grip-like handle portion of the valving device the free portion of the strap can he looped under the trigger-like valve operating lever and up to the mounting member, and fastening means for releasably and adjustably fastening the free portion of the strap to the mounting member after the free portion of the strap has been looped under the valve operating lever and up to the mounting member whereby the valve operating lever can be held in a desired set position relative to the handle portion of the valving device for dispensing fuel without requiring that the operating lever of the valving device continuously be manually held in said set position.
Kharsany, Ayesha B.M.; Karim, Quarraisha A.
Global trends in HIV infection demonstrate an overall increase in HIV prevalence and substantial declines in AIDS related deaths largely attributable to the survival benefits of antiretroviral treatment. Sub-Saharan Africa carries a disproportionate burden of HIV, accounting for more than 70% of the global burden of infection. Success in HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa has the potential to impact on the global burden of HIV. Notwithstanding substantial progress in scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART), sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 74% of the 1.5 million AIDS related deaths in 2013. Of the estimated 6000 new infections that occur globally each day, two out of three are in sub-Saharan Africa with young women continuing to bear a disproportionate burden. Adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 years have up to eight fold higher rates of HIV infection compared to their male peers. There remains a gap in women initiated HIV prevention technologies especially for women who are unable to negotiate the current HIV prevention options of abstinence, behavior change, condoms and medical male circumcision or early treatment initiation in their relationships. The possibility of an AIDS free generation cannot be realized unless we are able to prevent HIV infection in young women. This review will focus on the epidemiology of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, key drivers of the continued high incidence, mortality rates and priorities for altering current epidemic trajectory in the region. Strategies for optimizing the use of existing and increasingly limited resources are included. PMID:27347270
... implementation, consistency, and accountability; (3) Region-wide strategic planning, performance measurement, and operations management; (4) Administrative operations and support; (5) Fund integrity and accountability;...
Greig, Alan; Peacock, Dean; Jewkes, Rachel; Msimang, Sisonke
Gender has long been recognized as being key to understanding and addressing HIV and AIDS. Gender roles and relations that structure and legitimate women’s subordination and simultaneously foster models of masculinity that justify and reproduce men’s dominance over women exacerbate the spread and impact of the epidemic. Notions of masculinity prevalent in many parts of the world that equate being a man with dominance over women, sexual conquest and risk-taking are associated with less condom use, more sexually transmitted infections, more partners, including more casual partners, more frequent sex, more abuse of alcohol and more transactional sex. They also contribute to men accessing treatment later than women and at greater cost to public health systems. The imperative of addressing the gender dimensions of AIDS has been clearly and repeatedly articulated. Many interventions have been shown to be effective in addressing gender-related risks and vulnerabilities including programmes designed to reach and engage men, improve women’s legal and economic position, integrate gender-based violence prevention into HIV services, and increase girls’ access to secondary and tertiary education. Despite this, the political will to act has been sorely lacking and not nearly enough has been done to hold governments and multilateral institutions to account. This paper argues that we can no longer simply pay lip service to the urgent need to act on what we know about gender and AIDS. Simply put, it is time to act. PMID:18641466
Lennon, Carter A.; White, Angela C.; Finitsis, David; Pishori, Alefiyah; Hernandez, Dominica; Kelly, David M.; Pellowski, Jennifer A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Turcios-Cotto, Viana; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Kane, Sister Ann; Lanouette, Gertrude A.
Housing for people living with HIV/AIDS has been linked to a number of positive physical and mental health outcomes, in addition to decreased sexual and drug-related risk behavior. The current study identified service priorities for people living with HIV/AIDS, services provided by HIV/AIDS housing agencies, and unmet service needs for people living with HIV/AIDS through a nationwide telephone survey of HIV/AIDS housing agencies in the United States. Housing, alcohol/drug treatment, and mental health services were identified as the three highest priorities for people living with HIV/AIDS and assistance finding employment, dental care, vocational assistance, and mental health services were the top needs not being met. Differences by geographical region were also examined. Findings indicate that while housing affords people living with HIV/AIDS access to services, there are still areas (e.g., mental health services) where gaps in linkages to care exist. PMID:23305552
Benton, Tami D
HIV/AIDS continues to be a significant public health problem. Millions of people worldwide are infected with this virus daily, and thousands die yearly of AIDS-related illnesses. Despite rapid advances in our knowledge about HIV and its mode of transmission, we have been unable to find a cure or prevent new infections. Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with HIV/AIDS: as a risk factor for HIV infection, a comorbidity of HIV infection, sequelae of HIV/AIDS, and a potential mediator for progression to AIDS. In this article, we focus on depression, which is prevalent in HIV/AIDS. We review the evidence associating depression with HIV, the challenges in recognizing depression in HIV-positive individuals, and the psychopharmacologic strategies known to be effective in the treatment of HIV-positive individuals with depression.
Weinstein, Leonard M.
Proposed hearing aid maps spectrum of speech into band of lower frequencies at which ear remains sensitive. By redirecting normal speech frequencies into frequency band from 100 to 1,500 Hz, hearing aid allows people to understand normal conversation, including telephone calls. Principle operation of hearing aid adapted to other uses such as, clearing up noisy telephone or radio communication. In addition, loud-speakers more easily understood in presence of high background noise.
Bhat, Nisha; Kilmarx, Peter H.; Dube, Freeman; Manenji, Albert; Dube, Medelina; Magure, Tapuwa
Background We conducted a case study of the Zimbabwe National AIDS Trust Fund (‘AIDS Levy’) as an approach to domestic government financing of the response to HIV and AIDS. Methods Data came from three sources: a literature review, including a search for grey literature, review of government documents from the Zimbabwe National AIDS Council (NAC), and key informant interviews with representatives of the Zimbabwean government, civil society and international organizations. Findings The literature search yielded 139 sources, and 20 key informants were interviewed. Established by legislation in 1999, the AIDS Levy entails a 3% income tax for individuals and 3% tax on profits of employers and trusts (which excluded the mining industry until 2015). It is managed by the parastatal NAC through a decentralized structure of AIDS Action Committees. Revenues increased from inception to 2006 through 2008, a period of economic instability and hyperinflation. Following dollarization in 2009, annual revenues continued to increase, reaching US$38.6 million in 2014. By policy, at least 50% of funds are used for purchase of antiretroviral medications. Other spending includes administration and capital costs, HIV prevention, and monitoring and evaluation. Several financial controls and auditing systems are in place. Key informants perceived the AIDS Levy as a ‘homegrown’ solution that provided country ownership and reduced dependence on donor funding, but called for further increased transparency, accountability, and reduced administrative costs, as well as recommended changes to increase revenue. Conclusions The Zimbabwe AIDS Levy has generated substantial resources, recently over US$35 million per year, and signals an important commitment by Zimbabweans, which may have helped attract other donor resources. Many key informants considered the Zimbabwe AIDS Levy to be a best practice for other countries to follow. PMID:26781215
Campbell, M J; Waters, W E
In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed.
Jaszczur, Malgorzata; Bertram, Jeffrey G.; Pham, Phuong; Scharff, Matthew D.
Activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) and Apobec 3G (Apo3G) cause mutational diversity by initiating mutations on regions of single-stranded (ss) DNA. Expressed in B cells, AID deaminates C → U in actively transcribed immunoglobulin (Ig) variable and switch regions to initiate the somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) that are essential for antibody diversity. Apo3G expressed in T cells catalyzes C deaminations on reverse transcribed cDNA causing HIV-1 retroviral inactivation. When operating properly, AID- and Apo3G-initiated mutations boost human fitness. Yet, both enzymes are potentially powerful somatic cell “mutators”. Loss of regulated expression and proper genome targeting can cause human cancer. Here, we review well-established biological roles of AID and Apo3G. We provide a synopsis of AID partnering proteins during SHM and CSR, and describe how an Apo2 crystal structure provides “surrogate” insight for AID and Apo3G biochemical behavior. However, large gaps remain in our understanding of how dC deaminases search ssDNA to identify trinucleotide motifs to deaminate. We discuss two recent methods to analyze ssDNA scanning and deamination. Apo3G scanning and deamination is visualized in real-time using single-molecule FRET, and AID deamination efficiencies are determined with a random walk analysis. AID and Apo3G encounter many candidate deamination sites while scanning ssDNA. Generating mutational diversity is a principal aim of AID and an important ancillary property of Apo3G. Success seems likely to involve hit and miss deamination motif targeting, biased strongly toward miss. PMID:23178850
Elson, Raymond J.; Ostapski, S. Andrew; O'Callaghan, Susanne; Walker, John P.
Nontraditional teaching aids such as crossword puzzles have been successfully used in the classroom to enhance student learning. Government and nonprofit accounting is a confusing course for students since it has strange terminologies and contradicts the accounting concepts learned in other courses. As such, it is an ideal course for a…
Smallman-Raynor, M R; Cliff, A D
Using ordinary least squares regression techniques this paper demonstrates, for the first time, that the classic association of war and disease substantially accounts for the presently observed geographical distribution of reported clinical AIDS cases in Uganda. Both the spread of HIV 1 infection in the 1980s, and the subsequent development of AIDS to its 1990 spatial pattern, are shown to be significantly and positively correlated with ethnic patterns of recruitment into the Ugandan National Liberation Army (UNLA) after the overthrow of Idi Amin some 10 years earlier in 1979. This correlation reflects the estimated mean incubation period of 8-10 years for HIV 1 and underlines the need for cognizance of historical factors which may have influenced current patterns of AIDS seen in Central Africa. The findings may have important implications for AIDS forecasting and control in African countries which have recently experienced war. The results are compared with parallel analyses of other HIV hypotheses advanced to account for the reported geographical distribution of AIDS in Uganda.
NASA is piloting fiscal year (FY) 1997 Accountability Reports, which streamline and upgrade reporting to Congress and the public. The document presents statements by the NASA administrator, and the Chief Financial Officer, followed by an overview of NASA's organizational structure and the planning and budgeting process. The performance of NASA in four strategic enterprises is reviewed: (1) Space Science, (2) Mission to Planet Earth, (3) Human Exploration and Development of Space, and (4) Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology. Those areas which support the strategic enterprises are also reviewed in a section called Crosscutting Processes. For each of the four enterprises, there is discussion about the long term goals, the short term objectives and the accomplishments during FY 1997. The Crosscutting Processes section reviews issues and accomplishments relating to human resources, procurement, information technology, physical resources, financial management, small and disadvantaged businesses, and policy and plans. Following the discussion about the individual areas is Management's Discussion and Analysis, about NASA's financial statements. This is followed by a report by an independent commercial auditor and the financial statements.
Buonaguro, Franco M.
The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...
Brown, Dorothy Lee
Since computers are universally accepted in business today, the accounting classroom is the appropriate place to teach their use. A California high school accounting committee's recommendation led to the school's development of a computer processing program within the accounting department. The program's curriculum is described. (CT)
... payable. This account must include all amounts payable by the service company within one year that are not... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 232, Accounts payable. 367.2320 Section 367.2320 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...
... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1430 Account 143, Other... accounts receivable. 367.1430 Section 367.1430 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...
... the measurement and allocation of the cost of infrequent and difficult to predict events. The FAR at... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Accounting for Insurance Costs AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board (Board), Office of Federal Procurement Policy...
Laux, Judith A.
This is the second in a series of articles designed to help academics refocus the introductory accounting course on the theoretical underpinnings of accounting. Intended as a supplement for the principles course, this article connects the asset Accounts Receivable to the essential theoretical constructs, discusses the inherent tradeoffs and…
Marshall, P. Douglas
Performance of 90 accounting experts (faculty and practitioners) and 60 novices (senior accounting majors) was compared. Experts applied more accounting principles to solving problems. There were no differences in types of principles applied and no correlation between (1) principles applied and number of breadth comments or (2) importance placed…
Shultz, James M; Forbes, David
Psychological first aid (PFA) has become the flagship early intervention for disaster survivors, with recent adaptations for disaster responders, in the post-9/11 era. PFA is broadly endorsed by expert consensus and integrated into guidelines for mental health and psychosocial support in disasters and extreme events. PFA frameworks are proliferating, with increasing numbers of models developed for delivery by a range of providers for use with an expanding array of target populations. Despite popularity and promotion there remains a dearth of evidence for effectiveness and recent independent reviews of PFA have highlighted this important gap. This commentary juxtaposes the current propagation of PFA against the compelling need to produce evidence for effectiveness and suggests a series of actions to prioritize and expedite real-time, real-event field evaluation of PFA.
Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C
Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior.
This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.
Little information is available on treatment prevention, and additional AIDS news in languages other than English. The information gap is especially apparent in developing countries, which account for 95 percent of AIDS cases. Problems accessing information include a lack of information translation and dissemination, and restrictive copyright laws. A possible solution to the problem is the ¿copyleft' statement in which authors permit the redistribution of their work. In addition, Internet addresses are included for two organizations working to improve access to information in developing countries.
Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)
Cox, Richard J.
Archivists have been creating finding aids for generations, and in the last three decades they have done this work via a succession of standardized formats. However, like many other disciplines, they have carried out such work in violation of systems analysis. Although purporting to have the users of finding aids systems first and foremost in…
Rosenblum, M.L. ); Levy, R.M. ); Bredesen, D.E. )
This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease.
Peterson, Stacey A.
The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…
... therapists. See How to Become One $54,520 Personal Care Aides Personal care aides help clients with self-care and everyday tasks. They also provide social supports and assistance that enable clients to participate in ... tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools ...
Edwards, Sara A., Ed.; And Others
This manual presents, for educators, known facts about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), how it is transmitted, and how it can be prevented. Answers to common questions about AIDS are listed and a summary sheet is provided. A resource list is included that contains names, addresses, and phone numbers of organizations that produce or…
If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health care ...
Flint, Thomas A.
Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…
... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records....
... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records....
... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records....
... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records....
Albaugh, Thomas A.; Porreca, Anthony G.
A study of 236 11th-grade accounting students was conducted to measure the economic literacy of students enrolled in high school business education. It was found that those students who had accounting instruction had mean scores that were higher than those students who did not have accounting instruction. (CT)
Avani, Nathan T.
Describes an "Accounting and Computing" program in Michigan that emphasizes computerized accounting procedures. This article describes the program curriculum and duty areas (such as handling accounts receivable), presents a list of sample tasks in each duty area, and specifies components of each task. Computer equipment necessary for this program…
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting. Sec. 5 Section 5 Shipping MARITIME... Sec. 5 Accounting. The General Agent shall record the amounts of compensation paid from the NSA... Accounting Office, at which time the Maritime Administration will take custody of the records....
difficult to hold subordinates to account . Level 3 123 Atlantic, Valcartier, Ottawa, Toronto, and...Canada A DRDC Management Accountability Framework Final Report Contract Project Manager: Dr. Fazley Siddiq, 902-494-8802 Contract Number: W7707...B3H 3J5 This page intentionally left blank. A DRDC Management Accountability Framework Final Report Judy A. Baroni Research
Beaverton School District 48, OR.
The accounting cluster demonstration project conducted at Aloha High School in the Beaverton, Oregon, school district developed a model curriculum for high school accounting. The curriculum is based on interviews with professionals in the accounting field and emphasizes the use of computers. It is suitable for use with special needs students as…
Developed for use by students in an introductory accounting course, these learning modules deal with mastering the vocabulary of accounting. Focus of the modules is on vocabulary appearing in the first six chapters of the text, "Accounting Principles" by Niswonger and Fess. Covered in the individual modules are the following topics:…
This article explores the use of standardized tests to hold schools accountable. The history of testing for accountability is reviewed, and it is shown that currently between-school differences account for less than 10% of the variance in student scores, in part because the progress of individuals is small compared to the spread of achievement…
García O, Maritza; Olea N, Andrea
In Chile, the first cases of AIDS were reported 23 years ago, and since then, through December 2006, 17.235 persons have been notified with HIV infection or AIDS1. To the year 2005, there have been 5.288 fatal cases of AIDS. The last available data indicates that notification rates for AIDS and HIV infection in 2006 were 2.5 and 4.5 per 100.000 inhabitants, respectively, and mortality rate for AIDS in 2005 was 2.4 per 100.000 inhabitants. Trend analysis shows a decline in the notification rate among men, both for HIV infection and AIDS, which could be a real decrease or a sub notification bias. In Chile, like in other countries of the region, variations in the epidemiologic pattern were observed considering age group, gender, educational level and geographic distribution of the population. Currently, the Chilean Ministry of Health has implemented both a surveillance and monitoring system on line, in order to improve the quality and opportunity of the information, therefore providing an important tool to HIV infection/AIDS prevention and control strategies.
A long-standing consensus that aid coordination should be owned by recipient authorities has been eclipsed by accord on the desirability of recipient management of aid along-side domestic resources. Nonetheless, in many low and lower-middle income countries, donors remain remarkably uncoordinated; where attempts at coordination are made, they are often donor-driven, and only a small proportion of aid is directly managed by recipients. This paper draws on evidence from an in-depth review of aid to the health sector in Bangladesh to analyze the systems by which external resources are managed. Based on interviews with key stakeholders, a questionnaire survey and analysis of documentary sources, the factors constraining the government from assuming a more active role in aid management are explored. The results suggest that donor perceptions of weak government capacity, inadequate accountability and compromised integrity only partially account for the propensity for donor leadership. Equally important is the consideration that aid coordination has a markedly political dimension. Stakeholders are well aware of the power, influence and leverage which aid coordination confers, an awareness which colours the desire of some stakeholders to lead aid coordination processes, and conditions the extent and manner by which others wish to be involved. It is argued that recipient management of external aid is dependent on major changes in the attitudes and behaviours of recipients and donors alike.
Wijngaarden, Jan; Mallik, Arun; Shaeffer, Sheldon
An evaluation is presented on the impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector in the Asia Pacific region. The spread of HIV/AIDS not only brings illness and death, it also threatens the efforts already made to achieve the goal of Education for All (EFA). Education can combat the negative consequences wrought by HIV/AIDS. Tactics include (1)…
Harris, Lois Ruth; Aprile, Kerry Therese
This study utilised role theory to investigate teacher aide roles within regional schools in Queensland, Australia. Twenty primary schoolteacher aides were interviewed; data were triangulated with 27 teacher aides' responses to a follow-up questionnaire and interviews with 6 administrative staff. Data suggest that classroom instructional support…
Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)
A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.
Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'
Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8762 of November 30, 2011 World AIDS Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On World AIDS Day, 30 years after the first cases of HIV/AIDS were... AIDS-free generation. My Administration is taking action to turn the corner on the HIV/AIDS pandemic...
Ayers, Leona W; Silver, Sylvia; McGrath, Michael S; Orenstein, Jan M
The AIDS Cancer and Specimen Resource (ACSR) supports scientific discovery in the area of HIV/AIDS-associated malignancies. The ACSR was established as a cooperative agreement between the NCI (Office of the Director, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis) and regional consortia, University of California, San Francisco (West Coast), George Washington University (East Coast) and Ohio State University (Mid-Region) to collect, preserve and disperse HIV-related tissues and biologic fluids and controls along with clinical data to qualified investigators. The available biological samples with clinical data and the application process are described on the ACSR web site. The ACSR tissue bank has more than 100,000 human HIV positive specimens that represent different processing (43), specimen (15), and anatomical site (50) types. The ACSR provides special biospecimen collections and prepares speciality items, e.g., tissue microarrays (TMA), DNA libraries. Requests have been greatest for Kaposi's sarcoma (32%) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (26%). Dispersed requests include 83% tissue (frozen and paraffin embedded), 18% plasma/serum and 9% other. ACSR also provides tissue microarrays of, e.g., Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, for biomarker assays and has developed collaborations with other groups that provide access to additional AIDS-related malignancy specimens. ACSR members and associates have completed 63 podium and poster presentations. Investigators have submitted 125 letters of intent requests. Discoveries using ACSR have been reported in 61 scientific publications in notable journals with an average impact factor of 7. The ACSR promotes the scientific exploration of the relationship between HIV/AIDS and malignancy by participation at national and international scientific meetings, contact with investigators who have productive research in this area and identifying, collecting, preserving, enhancing, and dispersing HIV/AIDS-related malignancy specimens to
In this article, I give an account of my 'Checkmating HIV&AIDS' action research project, which was an attempt to break the 'culture of silence' concerning HIV&AIDS and sex and sexuality in my classroom. In this project, I focused specifically on one code of sport, namely chess, and I point out and discuss the potential of using chess as an educational tool in addressing HIV&AIDS. It was found that learners enjoy playing chess and that it can be used in the Life Orientation classroom to promote HIV&AIDS awareness. This type of alternative awareness is relevant as learners in most schools were becoming fatigued by HIV&AIDS information overload. The project portrays the role of the teacher as a researcher and critical change agent in an HIV&AIDS-challenged society.
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts. 97.520 Section 97.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... persons who have an ownership interest with respect to TR NOX Ozone Season allowances held in the...
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts. 97.720 Section 97.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... persons who have an ownership interest with respect to TR SO2 Group 2 allowances held in the...
... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts. 97.420 Section 97.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... persons who have an ownership interest with respect to TR NOX Annual allowances held in the...
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts. 97.420 Section 97.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... persons who have an ownership interest with respect to TR NOX Annual allowances held in the...
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts. 97.620 Section 97.620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... persons who have an ownership interest with respect to TR SO2 Group 1 allowances held in the...
... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts. 97.620 Section 97.620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... persons who have an ownership interest with respect to TR SO2 Group 1 allowances held in the...
... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts. 97.720 Section 97.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... persons who have an ownership interest with respect to TR SO2 Group 2 allowances held in the...
... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishment of compliance accounts, assurance accounts, and general accounts. 97.520 Section 97.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... persons who have an ownership interest with respect to TR NOX Ozone Season allowances held in the...
The Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar (BEMFAM) of Brazil developed a project using integrated communication strategies to alert prostitutes and their clients about the risks of contracting HIV. The project specifically promoted condom use and was conducted within the context of BEMFAM's Integrated Family Planning Program. Villa Mimoza, a prostitution zone in the Estacio neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, was the site of the intervention. This neighborhood harbors 44 houses of prostitution where an estimated 500 female prostitutes receive clients. An agreement was reached with the Association of Prostitutes of the State of Rio de Janeiro whereby it would help mobilize local women, merchants, brothel owners, and clients. Initial needs were assessed by BEMFAM and AIDSCOM through questionnaires and focus groups. It was subsequently resolved that radio programs, counter displays of educational materials in brothels, and posters in brothel rooms would be the most effective channels through which to carry integrated, effective messages to the community. Final evaluation found a change in attitude and an awareness of the importance of measures to prevent AIDS along with a prevalent increase in condom use.
The administration of drugs is often subject to error when performed by geriatric patients, resulting in reduced therapeutic effects. In particular, the correct administration technique for different dosage forms is a problem in elderly patients with limited audiovisual and ergonomic abilities. In addition to physician and carer intervention, community pharmacists can also contribute to solving outpatient problems of this kind at the time of issuing the drugs. This should preferably be done in collaboration with the respective medical practice. Some of the most common problems in drug administration, as well as the corresponding solutions offered by the pharmacist, are featured in the present paper. Inhalers, injection devices and ophthalmic solutions often cause difficulties for geriatric patients, as do even simple dosage forms such as drops. Pharmacy-based solutions to these problems include for instance: taking over the assembly of complex devices comprising multiple components, instructing patients in the proper use of additional dosing aids or adapting the administration technique to the patient's abilities.
Jalowy, A; Flesche, C W; Lorenz, C
Treatment of a patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is very challenging, and makes great demands on the anaesthesiologist. Any of an AIDS patient's vital organ systems may be compromised, either by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) itself, opportunistic infections, by tumours, or as a result of AIDS-related drug therapies. Infections of the lungs (e.g., Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia) are prevalent, and cardiac impairment can be found in as many as 50% of AIDS patients. In addition, disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system and water and electrolyte imbalances are often seen. Perioperatively, the AIDS patient is especially prone to infections as a result of a compromised immune system. The choice of anaesthetic procedure for the AIDS patient-aside from the type of operation-depends on the severity of the illness and progression of organ impairment. All anaesthesia personnel must be careful to avoid infection, as they frequently come in contact with the blood or body fluids of their patients. However, the risk of being infected by an AIDS patient is very low, provided hygiene regulations are followed strictly. The rate of seroconversion after accidental needle-stick injury is below 1%. If exposure does occur, regular serologic controls should be continued for one year. Prophylactic treatment with azidothymidine after exposition to HIV is recommended.
This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.
... Vision Resources Low Vision Rehabilitation and Low Vision Aids Written by: David Turbert Edited by: Robert H ... covers most services, but not devices.) Low vision aids There are many low vision aids and devices ...
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / Summer ... and have resulted in a dramatic decrease in AIDS deaths in the U.S. NIH Research to Results ...
... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English EspaÃ± ... with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with HIV ...
... and effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help researchers ... to HIV Can anyone participate in an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? It depends on the study. Some ...
Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.
A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital.
Veran, Sophie; Kleiner, Kevin J.; Choquet, Remi; Collazo, Jaime; Nichols, James D.
Land cover data are widely used in ecology as land cover change is a major component of changes affecting ecological systems. Landscape change estimates are characterized by classification errors. Researchers have used error matrices to adjust estimates of areal extent, but estimation of land cover change is more difficult and more challenging, with error in classification being confused with change. We modeled land cover dynamics for a discrete set of habitat states. The approach accounts for state uncertainty to produce unbiased estimates of habitat transition probabilities using ground information to inform error rates. We consider the case when true and observed habitat states are available for the same geographic unit (pixel) and when true and observed states are obtained at one level of resolution, but transition probabilities estimated at a different level of resolution (aggregations of pixels). Simulation results showed a strong bias when estimating transition probabilities if misclassification was not accounted for. Scaling-up does not necessarily decrease the bias and can even increase it. Analyses of land cover data in the Southeast region of the USA showed that land change patterns appeared distorted if misclassification was not accounted for: rate of habitat turnover was artificially increased and habitat composition appeared more homogeneous. Not properly accounting for land cover misclassification can produce misleading inferences about habitat state and dynamics and also misleading predictions about species distributions based on habitat. Our models that explicitly account for state uncertainty should be useful in obtaining more accurate inferences about change from data that include errors.
Background Adolescents and parents’ differ in their perceptions regarding engaging in sexual activity and protecting themselves from pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The views of adolescents and parents from two south-eastern communities in Ghana regarding best time for sex and sexual communications were examined. Methods Focus Group interviews were conducted with parents and adolescents (both In-school and Out-of school) from two communities (Somanya and Adidome) in the Eastern and Volta regions of Ghana with epidemiological differentials in HIV infection. Results Findings showed parents and adolescents agree that the best timing for sexual activity amongst adolescents is determined by socioeconomic viability. In practice however, there were tensions between adolescents and parents crystallized by spoilt generation and physiological drive ideologies. Whilst one community relied on a more communal approach in controlling their children; the other relied on a confrontational approach. Sex-talk is examined as a measure to reduce these tensions, and children in both communities were ambivalent over sexual communication between their parents and themselves. Parents from the two communities however differed in their perceptions. Whilst parents in one community attributed reduced teenage pregnancies to sex education, those in the other community indicated a generalized adolescents’ sexual activeness manifested in the perceived widespread delinquency in the community. Conclusion Parents in both communities reported significant barriers to parents-adolescents sexual communication. Parents in both communities should be educated to discuss the broader issues on sexuality that affects adolescents and their reproductive health needs. PMID:24070548
da Cunha, Gilmara Holanda; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz
The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific production on health interventions related to hygiene for adults with HIV/AIDS. An integrative literature review was performed using six databases in June 2013. The descriptors AIDS and Hygiene were used, in Portuguese, English or Spanish. A total of 682 articles were found and 16 were selected. Personal hygiene practices were identified, such as hand washing, showers, tooth brushing and quitting smoking. Food hygiene practices involved washing food and kitchen utensils, using treated water, conserving and cooking food. Environmental hygiene took into account raising domestic animals, control of disease vectors, household cleanliness, waste disposal and basic sanitation. In conclusion, these specific hygiene interventions can be applied to the general population and, especially, to people with HIV/AIDS, due to immunosuppression.
Cooter, Roger; Stein, Claudia
AIDS posters can be treated as material objects whose production, distribution and consumption varied across time and place. It is also possible to reconstruct and analyse the public health discourse at the time these powerful images appeared. More recently, however, these conventional historical approaches have been challenged by projects in literary and art criticism. Here, images of AIDS are considered in terms of their function in and for a new discursive regime of power centred on the human body and its visualization. How images of AIDS came to be understood in Western culture in relation to wider political and economic conditions redefines the historical task.
The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.
In response to the need for HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease (STD) information and support among seafarers, a regional project involving train-the-trainer workshops are being implemented in Vanuatu, Fiji Islands, Tuvalu, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Kiribati, Samoa, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, and in Kavieng, Papua New Guinea. The project aims to build the capacity of the maritime training schools and partner agencies to provide high quality HIV/AIDS and STD training through the regional maritime training schools and colleges. In addition, the workshops aim to provide comprehensive information about HIV/AIDS and STDs and to further develop the training and education skills of participants. Condom is the main topic of the lectures, discussions, group works, brainstorms, role plays, questions and answers, games, participant presentations, and film showings. Informal feedback and formal evaluation on the workshops delivered have been excellent.
McCormick, Alexander C.
Accountability pressures in higher education are not new; they are part of an enduring public policy discourse about the costs and benefits, both individual and social, of higher education. What is relatively new, however, is the prominent place that issues of accountability now occupy on the nation's higher education agenda. There is an important…
Henry, Gary T.
Punitive accountability systems rely on eternally induced motives (avoiding sanctions) to improve low-rung educational performance. Community accountability uses information to bring the public and its schools together and improve total school performance. Emphasis is on positive, internal mechanisms to motivate performance and use of market…
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accountability measures (season closures... Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.509 Accountability measures (season closures). (a) General rule. When the... until the beginning of the next fishing period or season. Regional Administrator shall announce in...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accountability measures (season closures... Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.509 Accountability measures (season closures). (a) General rule. When the... until the beginning of the next fishing period or season. Regional Administrator shall announce in...
Bouchard, Eugene E.
Presented in viewgraph form are techniques to improve the conceptual design of complex systems. The paper discusses theory of design, flexible software tools for computer aided design, and methods for enhancing communication among design teams.
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To ... D.A.M., Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Animal Bites A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...
... infected. HIV has led to a resurgence of tuberculosis (TB), particularly in Africa, and TB is a ... contributions to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (The Global Fund) as well as ...
HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV often ...
Because of a terrorist incident against Bangkok's Relief Center for HIV/AIDS Carriers, it is feared that a rising intolerance is occurring in Thailand. Such fears are damaging efforts to help those with HIV/AIDS. Misconceptions about the nature of HIV/AIDS continue to dominate Thai society. The Thai government is particularly worried that an overemphasis on HIV/AIDS will hurt tourism. According to the Population and Community Development Association, Thai people are infected with HIV at the rate of 500 per day and treatment costs may exceed $170 million a year by the year 2000. Unfortunately, the lack of nongovernmental institutions (other than Buddhist monasteries) and the lack of positive response from other Thai social institutions is driving relatives and friends to take care of the afflicted, and the terrorist attack shows that many Thai people are still unprepared for the challenge.
The rate at which the epidemic of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is spreading in North America, Asia, Latin America, and Africa is discussed. The number of people infected globally and in low-risk urban populations is presented. (KR)