Science.gov

Sample records for aid regional accountability

  1. 3D Air Quality and the Clean Air Interstate Rule: Lagrangian Sampling of CMAQ Model Results to Aid Regional Accountability Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Szykman, Jim; Pierce, Robert B.; Gilliland, A. B.; Engel-Cox, Jill; Weber, Stephanie; Kittaka, Chieko; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Scheffe, Rich; Dimmick, Fred; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is expected to reduce transport of air pollutants (e.g. fine sulfate particles) in nonattainment areas in the Eastern United States. CAIR highlights the need for an integrated air quality observational and modeling system to understand sulfate as it moves in multiple dimensions, both spatially and temporally. Here, we demonstrate how results from an air quality model can be combined with a 3d monitoring network to provide decision makers with a tool to help quantify the impact of CAIR reductions in SO2 emissions on regional transport contributions to sulfate concentrations at surface monitors in the Baltimore, MD area, and help improve decision making for strategic implementation plans (SIPs). We sample results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using ensemble back trajectories computed with the NASA Langley Research Center trajectory model to provide Lagrangian time series and vertical profile information, that can be compared with NASA satellite (MODIS), EPA surface, and lidar measurements. Results are used to assess the regional transport contribution to surface SO4 measurements in the Baltimore MSA, and to characterize the dominant source regions for low, medium, and high SO4 episodes.

  2. Computer-Aided Drug-Discovery Techniques that Account for Receptor Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Durrant, Jacob D.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Protein flexibility plays a critical role in ligand binding to both orthosteric and allosteric sites. We here review some of the computer-aided drug-design techniques currently used to account for protein flexibility, ranging from methods that probe local receptor flexibility in the region of the protein immediately adjacent to the binding site, to those that account for general flexibility in all protein regions. PMID:20888294

  3. Computer-aided drug-discovery techniques that account for receptor flexibility.

    PubMed

    Durrant, Jacob D; McCammon, J Andrew

    2010-12-01

    Protein flexibility plays a critical role in ligand binding to both orthosteric and allosteric sites. We here review some of the computer-aided drug-design techniques currently used to account for protein flexibility, ranging from methods that probe local receptor flexibility in the region of the protein immediately adjacent to the binding site, to those that account for general flexibility in all protein regions.

  4. 76 FR 12016 - Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural... and Regional Food Aid Procurement Pilot Project (USDA LRP Project). All available funding for field...: Jamie Fisher, Chief, Local and Regional Procurement, Food Assistance Division, Foreign Agricultural...

  5. Accounts from the field: a public relations perspective on global AIDS/HIV.

    PubMed

    Bardhan, Nilanjana R

    2002-01-01

    This study is a theoretical as well as empirical exploration of the power and cultural differentials that mark and construct various intersecting discourses, specifically media discourse, on global AIDS/HIV. It applies the language and concepts of public relations to understand how the press coverage of the pandemic is associated with the variables that impact the newsmaking process as well as the public and policy implications of macro news frames generated over time. Theoretical work in the areas of agenda setting and news framing also instruct the conceptual framework of this analysis. Narrative analysis is used as a methodology to qualitatively analyze three pools of accounts-from people either living with AIDS/HIV, involved in AIDS/HIV work, or discursively engaged in the media construction of the pandemic; from transnational wire service journalists who cover the issue at global and regional levels; and policy shapers and communicators who are active at the global level. These three communities of respondents represent important stakeholders in the AIDS/HIV issue. The findings are analyzed from a public relations standpoint. Perhaps the most important finding of this study is that the public relations approaches used to address AIDS/HIV related issues need to be grounded in context-specific research and communicative practices that bring out the lived realities of AIDS/HIV at grassroots levels. The findings also posit that those situated at critical junctions between various stakeholders need to cultivate a finely balanced understanding of the etic and emic intersections and subjectivities of global/local AIDS/HIV.

  6. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Regional focus

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from presentations, discussions and debates addressing major policy and programmatic responses to HIV in six geographical regions: Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America, Caribbean, and Middle East and North Africa. It draws from AIDS 2008 Leadership and Community Programmes, particularly the six regional sessions, and Global Village activities. While the epidemiological, cultural and socio-economic contexts in these regions vary considerably, several common, overarching principles and themes emerged. They include: advancing basic human rights, particularly for vulnerable and most at risk populations; ensuring the sustainability of the HIV response through long-term, predictable financing; strengthening health systems; investing in strategic health information; and improving accountability and the involvement of civil society in the response to AIDS. Equally important is the need to address political barriers to implementing evidence-based interventions such as opioid substitution therapy (OST), needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), comprehensive sexuality education for youth, and sexual and reproductive rights. Finally, these regional discussions emphasized the need for legislative and policy reforms related to structural barriers facing women and girls, MSM, IDUs, sex workers and migrant populations. PMID:19811672

  7. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance - control of corruption and democratic accountability - on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001-2010 datasets. Results Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below -2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention.

  8. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance - control of corruption and democratic accountability - on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001-2010 datasets. Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below -2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention.

  9. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance – control of corruption and democratic accountability – on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001–2010 datasets. Results Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below −2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention. PMID:27189199

  10. Automated Accounting. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Phillip

    This course curriculum is intended for use by community college instructors and admnistrators in implementing an automated accounting course. A student course syllabus provides this information: credit hours, catalog description, prerequisites, required text, instructional process, objectives, student evaluation, and class schedule. A student lab…

  11. AID, Clinton, "reinventing" foreign assistance; effort would eliminate Pop account.

    PubMed

    1993-10-25

    On or around November 1, 1993, the Clinton administration plans to send its proposal to Congress for reforming foreign aid; significant changes could result in the international population assistance program. The Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) of 1961 is currently too unwieldy to allow the efficient implementation of US foreign policy, especially in the area of development assistance. New international priorities must be established and new role given to the US now that the Cold War has ended. The US Agency for International Development is therefore rewriting the FAA and reorganizing in-house with the objective of streamlining and updating the purposes and objectives of foreign aid. Development assistance would be replaced by a section on sustainable development designed to promote economic growth, preserve the global environment, support democratic participation, and stabilize world population growth. This bill would also emphasize the special role of women in development while stressing the importance of nongovernmental organizations as essential in formulating and implementing policies and programs. This plan is regarded as attractive and may be the last major overhaul of the FAA for another 30 years. It remains to be seen, however, how deep and how far changes will go, but it may be said that significant change is inevitable and that serious potential exists for improvement.

  12. Regional changes in the distribution of foreign aid: An entropy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salois, Matthew J.

    2013-07-01

    Foreign aid contributes significantly to the income levels and economic viability of many developing countries. This paper investigates the dispersion in the distribution of foreign aid using the Theil entropy measure of inequality. Results show that the inequality (dispersion) of foreign aid has increased substantially in recent years. The increased inequality in the total distribution of aid has been due to both increases in the regional inequality of aid and increases in the average inequality of aid within each region. As a result, the distribution of aid is becoming less alike between regions and between countries within regions.

  13. HIV/AIDS in Russia: determinants of regional prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Dominique; Jordaan, Jacob A

    2007-01-01

    Background The motivation for this paper is to inform the selection of future policy directions for tackling HIV/AIDS in Russia. The Russian Federation has more people living with HIV/AIDS than any other country in Europe, and nearly 70% of the known infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The epidemic is particularly young, with 80% of those infected aged less than thirty, and no Russian region has escaped the detection of infections. However, measures to address the epidemic in Russia have been hampered by late recognition of the scale of the problem, poor data on HIV prevalence, potentially counterproductive narcotics legislation, and competing health priorities. An additional complication has been the relative lack of research into the spatial heterogeneity of the Russian HIV/AIDS epidemic, investigating the variety of prevalence rates in the constituent regions and questioning assumptions about the links between the epidemic and the circumstances of post-Soviet transformation. In the light of these recent developments, this paper presents research into the determinants of regional HIV prevalence levels in Russia. Results Statistical empirical research on HIV and other infectious diseases has identified a variety of factors that influence the spread and development of these diseases. In our empirical analysis of determinants of HIV prevalence in Russia at the regional level, we identify factors that are statistically related to the level of HIV prevalence in Russian regions, and obtain some indication of the relative importance of these factors. We estimate an empirical model that includes factors which describe economic and socio-cultural characteristics. Conclusion Our analysis statistically identifies four main factors that influence HIV prevalence in Russian regions. Given the different nature of the factors that we identify to be of importance, we conclude that successful HIV intervention policies will need to be multidisciplinary in nature. Finally

  14. Regional material flow accounting and environmental pressures: the Spanish case.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Sergio; Carpintero, Óscar; Lomas, Pedro L

    2015-02-17

    This paper explores potential contributions of regional material flow accounting to the characterization of environmental pressures. With this aim, patterns of material extraction, trade, consumption, and productivity for the Spanish regions were studied within the 1996-2010 period. The main methodological variation as compared to whole-country based approaches is the inclusion of interregional trade, which can be separately assessed from the international exchanges. Each region was additionally profiled regarding its commercial exchanges with the rest of the regions and the rest of the world and the related environmental pressures. Given its magnitude, interregional trade is a significant source of environmental pressure. Most of the exchanges occur across regions and different extractive and trading patterns also arise at this scale. These differences are particularly great for construction minerals, which in Spain represent the largest share of extracted and consumed materials but do not cover long distances, so their impact is visible mainly at the regional level. During the housing bubble, economic growth did not improve material productivity.

  15. Regional Climate Change and Development of Public Health Decision Aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegedus, A. M.; Darmenova, K.; Grant, F.; Kiley, H.; Higgins, G. J.; Apling, D.

    2011-12-01

    According to the World Heath Organization (WHO) climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, and changes the way we must look at protecting vulnerable populations. Worldwide, the occurrence of some diseases and other threats to human health depend predominantly on local climate patterns. Rising average temperatures, in combination with changing rainfall patterns and humidity levels, alter the lifecycle and regional distribution of certain disease-carrying vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks and rodents. In addition, higher surface temperatures will bring heat waves and heat stress to urban regions worldwide and will likely increase heat-related health risks. A growing body of scientific evidence also suggests an increase in extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and hurricanes that can be destructive to human health and well-being. Therefore, climate adaptation and health decision aids are urgently needed by city planners and health officials to determine high risk areas, evaluate vulnerable populations and develop public health infrastructure and surveillance systems. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. WRF model is initialized with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model simulations forced with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. Our methodology involves development of climatological indices of extreme weather, quantifying the risk of occurrence of water/rodent/vector-borne diseases as well as developing various heat stress related decision aids. Our results indicate that the downscale simulations provide the necessary

  16. Accounting for urban biogenic fluxes in regional carbon budgets.

    PubMed

    Hardiman, Brady S; Wang, Jonathan A; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Friedl, Mark A

    2017-03-18

    Many ecosystem models incorrectly treat urban areas as devoid of vegetation and biogenic carbon (C) fluxes. We sought to improve estimates of urban biomass and biogenic C fluxes using existing, nationally available data products. We characterized biogenic influence on urban C cycling throughout Massachusetts, USA using an ecosystem model that integrates improved representation of urban vegetation, growing conditions associated with urban heat island (UHI), and altered urban phenology. Boston's biomass density is 1/4 that of rural forests, however 87% of Massachusetts' urban landscape is vegetated. Model results suggest that, kilogram-for-kilogram, urban vegetation cycles C twice as fast as rural forests. Urban vegetation releases (RE) and absorbs (GEE) the equivalent of 11 and 14%, respectively, of anthropogenic emissions in the most urban portions of the state. While urban vegetation in Massachusetts fully sequesters anthropogenic emissions from smaller cities in the region, Boston's UHI reduces annual C storage by >20% such that vegetation offsets only 2% of anthropogenic emissions. Asynchrony between temporal patterns of biogenic and anthropogenic C fluxes further constrains the emissions mitigation potential of urban vegetation. However, neglecting to account for biogenic C fluxes in cities can impair efforts to accurately monitor, report, verify, and reduce anthropogenic emissions.

  17. The Blue Book: Accounting, Recordkeeping, and Reporting by Postsecondary Educational Institutions for Federally Funded Student Financial Aid Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This book provides guidance to school business office personnel who handle fiscal recordkeeping, accounting, and reporting functions for federal Title IV student financial aid programs authorized by the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended. It provides a technical resource for Title IV management responsibilities that are shared among various…

  18. The Blue Book. Accounting, Recordkeeping, and Reporting by Postsecondary Educational Institutions for Federally Funded Student Financial Aid Programs. [1999 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended to provide guidance to college and university business office personnel who handle recordkeeping, accounting, and other fiscal reporting functions for federal Title IV financial aid programs, as authorized by the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended. This edition emphasizes the benefits and challenges of electronic…

  19. Federal Student Aid: Additional Management Improvements Would Clarify Strategic Direction and Enhance Accountability. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    To determine what Federal Student Aid (FSA), previously the Office of Student Financial Assistance, had done to develop and implement a strategic direction as mandated by Congress in performance-based organization legislation, the General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed FSA's strategic and annual performance plans and annual reports, interviewing…

  20. Future forest carbon accounting challenges: the question of regionalization

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Forest carbon accounting techniques are changing. This year, a new accounting system is making its debut with the production of forest carbon data for EPA’s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. The Forest Service’s annualized inventory system is being more fully integrated into estimates of forest carbon at the national and state levels both for the present and the...

  1. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  2. Regional Resource Center Program (RRCP) Technical Assistance and ESEA Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Resource Center Program, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Elementary and Secondary Education (ESEA) flexibility program initiated in September 2011 holds several implications for special education accountability and, by extension, state education agencies and the technical assistance providers who support them. The U.S. Department of Education has approved ESEA waiver applications for a majority of…

  3. Framing rights and responsibilities: accounts of women with a history of AIDS activism.

    PubMed

    Macgregor, Hayley; Mills, Elizabeth

    2011-12-16

    In South Africa, policy with respect to HIV/AIDS has had a strong rights-based framing in line with international trends and in keeping with the constitutional overhaul in the post-Apartheid era. There have also been considerable advances since 1994 towards legal enshrinement of sexual and reproductive health rights and in the provision of related services. Since HIV in this setting has heavily affected women of reproductive age, there has been discussion about the particular needs of this subgroup, especially in the context of service integration. This paper is concerned with the way in which HIV positive women conceptualise these rights and whether they wish and are able to actualise them in their daily lives. In 2003 a group of women involved with the Treatment Action Campaign and Medicines Sans Frontières participated in an initiative to 'map' their bodies as affected by the virus. A book containing the maps and narratives was published and used as a political tool to pressure the government of the day to roll out antiretroviral therapy (ART) to the population. In 2008, the authors coordinated an initiative that involved conducting follow-up in-depth interviews in which five of these women reflected on those body maps and on how their lives had changed in the intervening five years since gaining the right to treatment through the public sector. Drawing upon this qualitative data and published sources, these new accounts are analysed in order to reflect the perspectives of these women living with chronic HIV with respect to their sexual relations and fertility desires. The paper reveals difficulties faced by these women in negotiating sexual relationships and disclosure of their HIV positive status. It focuses on how they perceive relative responsibilities in terms of taking preventative measures in sexual encounters. Women adopt tactics within a context characterised by various inequalities in order to 'make do', such as by remaining silent about their status

  4. Priority setting in HIV/AIDS control in West Java Indonesia: an evaluation based on the accountability for reasonableness framework.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Noor; Prawiranegara, Rozar; Subhan Riparev, Harris; Siregar, Adiatma; Sunjaya, Deni; Baltussen, Rob

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia has insufficient resources to adequately respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and thus faces a great challenge in prioritizing interventions. In many countries, such priority setting processes are typically ad hoc and not transparent leading to unfair decisions. Here, we evaluated the priority setting process in HIV/AIDS control in West Java province against the four conditions of the accountability for reasonableness (A4R) framework: relevance, publicity, appeals and revision, and enforcement. We reviewed government documents and conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews based on the A4R framework with 22 participants of the 5-year HIV/AIDS strategy development for 2008-13 (West Java province) and 2007-11 (Bandung). We found that criteria for priority setting were used implicitly and that the strategies included a wide range of programmes. Many stakeholders were involved in the process but their contribution could be improved and particularly the public and people living with HIV/AIDS could be better engaged. The use of appeal and publicity mechanisms could be more transparent and formally stated. Public regulations are not yet installed to ensure fair priority setting. To increase fairness in HIV/AIDS priority setting, West Java should make improvements on all four conditions of the A4R framework. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  5. Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center Need Additional Management Oversight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-28

    L 2 8 , 2 0 1 6 Report No. DODIG-2016-079 Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center Need Additional Management...Service Accounts at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center Need Additional Management Oversight Visit us at www.dodig.mil April 28, 2016 Objective Our...objective was to determine whether Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) effectively managed accounts delinquent over 120 days by properly

  6. Accountability,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    A186 869 CCOUNTABILITY(U) AIR WAR COLL KAXNELL FB AL / UNCLASSIFI F/G 5/5 U EEEEEEEmohhhiIsoflfflflfl..fflfl ll EEsonE~hh i .~. ~~ 1 p 1 V "p h...n(D LEG 1 0 1987 -0 ACCOIINTABILITY By CHAPLAIN LIEUTENANT COLONEL EDWARD E. GALLOWAY .1T_ *v 4 AIR UNIVERSITY APPROVED FOR PUBLIC UNITED STATES AIR...1scu,;s ion of wlvece andl to(: whloi leadlers ;ire accountable, followedl by an hnistocical gl1imnpse at . 1 ii i Lryi.ad:± rs and how their s3ucces 3e5

  7. New AICPA standards aid accounting for the costs of internal-use software.

    PubMed

    Luecke, R W; Meeting, D T; Klingshirn, R G

    1999-05-01

    Statement of Position (SOP) No. 98-1, "Accounting for the Costs of Computer Software Developed or Obtained for Internal Use," issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants in March 1998, provides financial managers with guidelines regarding which costs involved in developing or obtaining internal-use software should be expensed and which should be capitalized. The SOP identifies three stages in the development of internal-use software: the preliminary project stage, the application development stage, and the postimplementation-operation stage. The SOP provides that all costs incurred during the preliminary project stage should be expensed as incurred. During the application development stage, costs associated with developing or obtaining the software should be capitalized, while costs associated with preparing data for use within the new system should be expensed. Costs incurred during the postimplementation-operation stage, typically associated with training and application maintenance, should be expensed.

  8. [Hearing aid efficacy according to the data from the Tula regional Deaf and Dumb Centre].

    PubMed

    Pekarskiĭ, S I; Kiriushin, P V

    2009-01-01

    Auditory inefficiency creates a serious social problem due to the ever increasing number of people with this pathology. The use of hearing aids constitutes the basis of rehabilitative measures for these patients. The authors present results of the analysis of hearing aid efficacy among adult subjects residing in the Tula region carried out in the framework of the relevant Federal program during the last 3 years. Criteria for the assessment of the efficacy of hearing aids are proposed and factors on which it depends are considered.

  9. Continuing Professional Development in the Accounting Profession: Practices and Perceptions from the Asia Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lange, Paul; Jackling, Beverley; Suwardy, Themin

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on research in the sociology of professions as a reference point, this study examines the practices and perceptions of professional accountants towards the requirements of IES7 on continuing professional development (CPD). Responses from 1310 accountants in the Asia Pacific region suggest while increasing globalisation has led to more…

  10. Continuing Professional Development in the Accounting Profession: Practices and Perceptions from the Asia Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lange, Paul; Jackling, Beverley; Suwardy, Themin

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on research in the sociology of professions as a reference point, this study examines the practices and perceptions of professional accountants towards the requirements of IES7 on continuing professional development (CPD). Responses from 1310 accountants in the Asia Pacific region suggest while increasing globalisation has led to more…

  11. CFD-Aided Evaluation of Reynolds Number Scaling Effect Accounting for Static Model Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasue, Kanako; Sawada, Keisuke

    A static aeroelasticity analysis is accomplished for an ONERA-M5 wind tunnel calibration model. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution obtained using the cell-wise relaxation implicit discontinuous Galerkin (DG) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver is fed into the structural analysis method to iteratively determine the aerodynamic equilibrium configuration of the wind tunnel model. For the freestream conditions of M=0.84, α=-1.0°, Re=4 × 106, P0=220 kPa and T0=274 K, the aerodynamic equilibrium shape is successfully obtained within three iterations. The maximum deformation of 3.11 mm appears at the wing tip of the wind tunnel model, and the resulting change in aerodynamic force produces a nose-down effect. A detailed examination reveals that the deformation mostly causes pure bending which reduces the effective angle of attack for the present swept wing. Moreover, we attempt to split the change in aerodynamic coefficients into that due to the model deformation effect and that due to the Reynolds (Re) number effect. By comparing the computed results for Re=1 × 106 and Re=4 × 106, it is indicated that an increase in lift coefficient due to the Re number effect is totally offset by the model deformation effect. It is also shown that the amount of drag reduction can be overestimated due to the model deformation effect. In addition, a CFD-aided data correction method utilizing the wind tunnel data is discussed.

  12. AICPA standard aids in detecting risk factors for fraud. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, A; Dery, R J

    1999-10-01

    The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants' Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 82, Consideration of Fraud in a Financial Statement Audit, requires independent auditors to obtain reasonable assurance that financial statements are free of material mis-statements caused by error or fraud. SAS No. 82 provides guidance for independent auditors to use to help detect and document risk factors related to potential fraud. But while SAS No. 82 suggests how auditors should assess the potential for fraud, it does not expand their detection responsibility. Accordingly, financial managers should discuss thoroughly with auditors the scope and focus of an audit as a means to further their compliance efforts.

  13. Accounting for Electronic Polarization Effects in Aqueous Sodium Chloride via Molecular Dynamics Aided by Neutron Scattering.

    PubMed

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2016-03-03

    Modeled ions, described by nonpolarizable force fields, can suffer from unphysical ion pairing and clustering in aqueous solutions well below their solubility limit. The electronic continuum correction takes electronic polarization effects of the solvent into account in an effective way by scaling the charges on the ions, resulting in a much better description of the ionic behavior. Here, we present parameters for the sodium ion consistent with this effective polarizability approach and in agreement with experimental data from neutron scattering, which could be used for simulations of complex aqueous systems where polarization effects are important.

  14. Computer simulation as a teaching aid in pharmacy management--Part 1: Principles of accounting.

    PubMed

    Morrison, D J

    1987-06-01

    The need for pharmacists to develop management expertise through participation in formal courses is now widely acknowledged. Many schools of pharmacy lay the foundations for future management training by providing introductory courses as an integral or elective part of the undergraduate syllabus. The benefit of such courses may, however, be limited by the lack of opportunity for the student to apply the concepts and procedures in a practical working environment. Computer simulations provide a means to overcome this problem, particularly in the field of resource management. In this, the first of two articles, the use of a computer model to demonstrate basic accounting principles is described.

  15. Eighteen years of research on AIDS: contribution of and collaborations between different world regions.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Bliziotis, Ioannis A; Kondilis, Barbara; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S

    2006-12-01

    The scientific community invests significant resources on HIV/AIDS research to confront the current epidemic. We reviewed the medical literature in order to evaluate the contribution of different world regions on HIV/AIDS research during the past 18 years. We retrieved articles, using an elaborate methodology, from three journals focusing on HIV/AIDS between 1986 and 2003, indexed in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) and the Web of Science databases of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). Comparisons were made by dividing the world into nine geographic regions, and by using the human development index (HDI) categorization. A total of 9502 articles on HIV/AIDS were retrieved from three AIDS journals over an 18-year study period. The United States and Western Europe together and five developed out of nine world regions made up a striking 83% and 92% of the world's research production on HIV/AIDS, respectively. Scientists from the developing world participated in 10.4% of the articles published during 1986-1991, 14.7% during 1992-1997, and 21.3% during 1998-2003. Researchers from countries included in the high, medium, and low HDI category produced 2240, 9, and 15 articles per billion population, respectively. About half of articles originating in Latin America and the Caribbean and half in Asia were produced in collaboration with the United States. However, 40% of articles from Africa and 58% from Eastern Europe were produced in cooperation with Western Europe. Collaboration between researchers within developing regions was negligible. The vast majority of the world's research on AIDS is produced in the developed world. Although research production was minimal in the developing world, we found that regions included in the low and medium HDI categories showed a higher proportion of increase in research productivity than the developed countries. International collaborations should significantly increase and expand beyond the traditional cultural and

  16. 'Low-hanging fruit': counting and accounting for children in PEPFAR-funded HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lindsey J

    2014-01-01

    The article traces the social life of a policy that aimed to define and circumscribe the ambiguous and contested category of 'orphaned and vulnerable children' (or OVC) in South Africa at the height of the 'emergency response' to HIV/AIDS. Drawing on several months of institutional ethnographic research conducted over the course of five years with South African organisations receiving funding from the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief to provide services to 'OVC', the project interrogates the influence of governmental forms of counting and accounting on health policy and practice in South Africa. Focusing on the experiences of one organisation, the article describes a process of policy 'translation' typified by a series of disconnects between the intentions of a policy and the exigencies of implementation, structured by the ambiguous and flexible nature of the 'OVC' category. In this context, the article argues that the uncertainty produced by the implementation of the guidelines was not simply an artefact of a poorly designed policy, but rather signals an underlying epistemological tension in the practice of 'global health', in which quantitative metrics designed for monitoring and evaluation are often incapable of approximating the complexities of everyday life.

  17. Sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS: global and regional epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Heymann, D L

    1995-11-01

    Regional estimates prepared by the World Health Organization of the prevalence of HIV infections and curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) reveal that the HIV epidemic parallels STD incidence and is likely to undergo explosive growth in areas such as Asia where the ratio of HIV to STDs is currently low. HIV has had an especially severe impact on young women, and quickly moves into a general population through the gateway presented by sexually active youth. The impact of HIV has been severe in Africa where it has negated advances in child survival in some countries and created hundreds of thousands of orphans in others. The impact of curable STDs is also severe and is greatest among women who suffer from infertility and in children who develop ocular infection. The sex behavior that places individuals at risk of HIV or STDs is better understood today than ever before as are biological factors such as the increased risk of acquiring HIV for individuals infected with a genital ulcer. The biological and behavioral link between HIV and STDs is so close that the same strategies are important for prevention of both. The adoption of safe sex practices, especially promotion of condom use, is an important goal, and development of a female-controlled method of prevention (especially one that could not be detected by the male partner) would be a valuable alternative to the male condom. The second major prevention strategy is early diagnosis and treatment of STDs through a syndromic approach to diagnosis. Syndromic management will improve with advances in sensitivity and specificity, health-seeking behavior, and partner notification, but the approach still faces major problems caused by the overuse of antibiotics and the asymptomatic nature of many infections in women. While STD incidence is dropping in many countries, the mixture of HIV subtypes is increasing as is the resistance of STDs to antibiotics. With a significant worldwide decline in STDs within reach

  18. Regional differences, socio-demographics, and hidden population of HIV/AIDS in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajeev; Suar, Damodar; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-02-01

    This study examines the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in different regions of India, their socio-demographic indicators, and the presence of hidden population infected with HIV. Secondary data analyzed were obtained from national and international agencies. Considering the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in India, the low-prevalence regions in the last decade have shown a steady increase in recent years. Productive age, urbanization, male gender, lower level of education, minority religions, low income, and mobile occupations are associated with HIV pandemic. The hidden population vulnerable to HIV/AIDS are: street children, homeless population, and refugees. These observations can help map the high-risk behavior groups and formulate targeted strategies to curb the HIV menace.

  19. Impact of HIV/AIDS on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the WHO Africa Region.

    PubMed

    Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Okorosobo, Tuoyo; Mwabu, Germano M

    2002-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is hypothesized to have substantive negative impact on health status and economic development of individuals, households, communities and nations. The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of HIV/AIDS on GDP in the WHO African Region using a production function approach. The economic burden analysis was done using a double-log econometric model and a cross-sectional data on 45 to 46 countries in the WHO African Region. The data were obtained from WHO, UNAIDS, ECA, UNDP and the World Bank publications. The coefficient for Capital (K), Education (EN), Export (X) and Imports (M) were found to be statistically significant determinants of per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at 5% level of significance (using a one-sided t-distribution test). Unfortunately, HIV/AIDS morbidity (V) and HIV/AIDS deaths (VD), at the same level of significance, were found to have statistically insignificant impact on GDP. However, the coefficients of these variables had negative signs as expected. In all African countries, there is need for more detailed research on the total economic cost of HIV/AIDS (probably estimated using micro-level costing and willingness-to-pay methods) and for economic evaluations of treatment, prevention and promotion programmes.

  20. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: accounts of HIV-positive Caribbean people in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Moji; Elam, Gillian; Gerver, Sarah; Solarin, Ijeoma; Fenton, Kevin; Easterbrook, Philippa

    2008-09-01

    This paper explores the effects of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination (HASD) on HIV-positive Caribbean people in the Caribbean and the UK. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were held with a purposively selected group of 25 HIV-positive people of Caribbean origin, using primary selection criteria of sex, age, sexuality and country of birth. Interviews with respondents revealed that they are keenly aware of the stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS, which some attribute to a particularly Caribbean combination of fear of contamination, homophobia, and ignorance, reinforced by religious beliefs. In fact, religion serves a double role: underpinning stigma and assisting in coping with HIV. HASD has usually occurred where respondents have lost or do not have control over disclosure. Compared to UK-born respondents, the accounts of Caribbean-born respondents, most of whom were born in Jamaica, include more reports of severe HASD, particularly violence and employment discrimination. All respondents mobilise a variety of strategies in order to avoid HASD, which have implications for their social interactions and emotional well being. While some manage to avoid the "spoiled identity" of the stigmatised, thereby creating their own understandings of HIV infection, these may remain individual-level negotiations. HASD affects HIV-positive Caribbean people at home and in the diaspora in a variety of ways: emotionally, mentally, financially, socially and physically. Interventions specifically addressing stigma and discrimination must be formulated for the UK's Caribbean population. Tackling stigma and discrimination requires more than education; it requires "cultural work" to address deeply entrenched notions of sexuality.

  1. Information needs assessment for HIV/AIDS and STIs in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Tawilah, J; Tawil, O; Bassiri, S; Ziady, H

    2002-11-01

    We assessed information needs about HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region by surveying a sample of people considered knowledgeable about the subject. Respondents felt that information on certain areas of HIV/AIDS/STIs was much needed. Health care workers were perceived to see a high need for information and services generally. Religious and community leaders were perceived to see less need for some information and services (such as condom promotion, sex education for young people). All groups were perceived to see a need for education and services for people living with AIDS and drug users. Television and radio were considered the best channels for health education while training was seen as the most effective method for information exchange.

  2. Extraction method of suitable matching regions in the gravity-aided inertial navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li; Ma, Xudong; Shi, Juan; Shi, Yulong

    2009-10-01

    The data organization of gravitational field is based on a form of Grid, which is similar to the data structure of DEM in the terrain. So this paper proposes a method of gravitational field analysis for extracting features by adopting some spatial analysis means of topography. First of all, the gravity anomaly data is used to calculate the roughness features of gravitational field. after comparing and anglicizing the features, roughness features are selected as the feature factor of gravity. Then, the method of calculating contour lines is applied to calculate region segmentation of roughness features and extract the vector edge of the larger feature regions, and clustering analysis to these contour of the region. At last, the scope line for Convex Hull of the region is calculated by the Convex Hull algorithm, and so as to obtain a more prominent region (matching region) that have significant changes in gravity anomaly, which provide the necessary reference data for the gravity-aided inertial navigation.

  3. Using a multisectoral approach to assess HIV/AIDS services in the western region of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Asencio Toro, Gloria; Burns, Patricia; Pimentel, Daniel; Sánchez Peraza, Luis Raúl; Rivera Lugo, Carmen

    2006-06-01

    The Enhancing Care Initiative of Puerto Rico assessed services available to people living with HIV/AIDS in the western region of Puerto Rico. Participants were 212 people living with HIV/AIDS and 116 employees from 6 agencies providing HIV/AIDS services in the region. Two main findings were that depression symptoms were present in 98.1% of people living with HIV/AIDS, and 7 of the 15 municipalities in the region did not provide any specific services to this population. Most urgent needs identified by people living with HIV/AIDS were economic support, housing, mental and psychological services, medicines, medical treatment, and transportation. The Enhancing Care Initiative provides an example of a successful multisectoral, multidimensional volunteer team effectively overcoming challenges while translating research into interventions to enhance HIV/AIDS care.

  4. Using a Multisectoral Approach to Assess HIV/AIDS Services in the Western Region of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Asencio Toro, Gloria; Burns, Patricia; Pimentel, Daniel; Sánchez Peraza, Luis Raúl; Rivera Lugo, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    The Enhancing Care Initiative of Puerto Rico assessed services available to people living with HIV/AIDS in the western region of Puerto Rico. Participants were 212 people living with HIV/AIDS and 116 employees from 6 agencies providing HIV/AIDS services in the region. Two main findings were that depression symptoms were present in 98.1% of people living with HIV/AIDS, and 7 of the 15 municipalities in the region did not provide any specific services to this population. Most urgent needs identified by people living with HIV/AIDS were economic support, housing, mental and psychological services, medicines, medical treatment, and transportation. The Enhancing Care Initiative provides an example of a successful multisectoral, multidimensional volunteer team effectively overcoming challenges while translating research into interventions to enhance HIV/AIDS care. PMID:16670220

  5. Do tests for cochlear dead regions provide important information for fitting hearing aids? (L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Van

    2004-04-01

    For listeners with cochlear hearing loss, cochlear damage may include ``dead regions'' with no functioning inner hair cells and/or associated neurons. Recent studies indicate that amplifying frequencies more than 1.7 times the edge frequency (1.7Fe) of a high-frequency dead region is unlikely to improve (and may reduce) speech scores [Vickers et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 1164-1175 (2001); Baer et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 1133-1144 (2002)]. These results were taken as evidence that tests to identify dead regions could improve hearing aid fitting. In the current study, practicing audiologists examined audiograms of listeners diagnosed as having high-frequency dead regions. The audiologists were given no specific information regarding dead regions for any individual, and were asked to base amplification decisions entirely on the audiograms. Most audiologists did not recommend amplification of frequencies with hearing losses exceeding 90 dB HL. Reexamination of speech results reported by Vickers et al. and Baer et al. indicated that limiting amplification based on audiograms alone (90-dB rule) or on specific testing for dead regions (1.7Fe rule) produced similar performance. Thus, testing for dead regions may not provide important information for hearing aid fitting that is not already available in the audiogram.

  6. Fine-mapping in the MHC region accounts for 18% additional genetic risk for celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Pulit, Sara L.; Trynka, Gosia; Hunt, Karen A.; Romanos, Jihane; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; van Heel, David A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; de Bakker, Paul I.W.

    2015-01-01

    Although dietary gluten is the trigger, celiac disease risk is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. We fine-mapped the MHC association signal to identify additional risk factors independent of the HLA-DQ alleles and observed five novel associations that account for 18% of the genetic risk. Together with the 57 known non-MHC loci, genetic variation can now explain up to 48% of celiac disease heritability. PMID:25894500

  7. Emergy accounting for regional studies: case study of Canada and its provinces.

    PubMed

    Hossaini, Navid; Hewage, Kasun

    2013-03-30

    Sustainable regional management (development) requires an understanding of interactions between the social, economic, and ecological systems within the boundaries of a region. In this paper, application of emergy (an environmental accounting method) for regional planning is discussed through a case study. Emergy (spelled with an "m") methodology is an environmental accounting technique that evaluates the energy system for the thermodynamics of an open system. Major renewable and non-renewable resource fluxes to a region, including energy, matter, human activities, and money can be converted to emergy by using corresponding transformity functions. As a case study, this paper discusses the emergy accounting of Canada and its provinces with various emergy-based indicators. Moreover, emergy maps were generated in a form of emergy geography. These maps are multi-dimensional illustrations that show resource consumption, emergy per person, and emergy density across Canada under two parameters: (1) the quantities of resources consumed and (2) the location of consumption. Emergy analysis also highlights concentrations of renewable and natural resources in Canada and distinguishes the provinces with the highest resource consumption. Analysis of emergy indicator for Canadian provinces shows that Alberta with the highest EYR (7.35) provides energy to the economy of Canada. However, ELR value of Alberta (8.5) indicates that the province's current economic approach is not sustainable as it relies mainly on non-renewable emergy inputs (mainly from fossil fuels). ELR of British Columbia and Manitoba indicates that these two provinces created a firm balance between emergy use of renewable and non-renewable resources. The characterizations of regions provided in this paper can be used for future land planning and management both in federal and provincial levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adult hearing-aid users with cochlear dead regions restricted to high frequencies: Implications for amplification.

    PubMed

    Pepler, Anna; Lewis, Kathryn; Munro, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear dead regions (DR) are common in adult hearing-aid users, but are usually restricted to high frequencies. The aim was to determine the benefit of high-frequency amplification for ears with and without high-frequency DRs. Participants were fitted with the study hearing aid and tested under four conditions: unfiltered (NAL-NL2 prescription), and low-pass filtered at 1.5, 2, and 3 kHz. VCV stimuli were presented at 65 dB (A) in quiet and in 20-talker babble at a signal-to-babble ratio of 0 dB. Experienced adult hearing-aid users: one group of 18 with a DR edge frequency above 1.5 kHz, and a group of 18 matched controls. Overall performance was best in the unfiltered condition. There was no significant difference in mean performance between the two groups when tested in quiet. However, the DR group obtained less benefit from high-frequency amplification when tested in babble: the mean difference between the unfiltered and 3-kHz filtered condition was 6% and 13% for the DR group and controls, respectively. In adults with a moderate hearing loss and a restricted DR, speech recognition was always best in the unfiltered condition, although mean performance in babble was lower for the DR group.

  9. Regional versus urban differences in teenage alcohol use: Does parental disapproval account for these differences?

    PubMed

    Chan, Gary C K; Kelly, Adrian B; Connor, Jason P; Hall, Wayne; Young, Ross McD; Toumbourou, John W; Williams, Joanne

    2016-02-01

    To investigate if parental disapproval of alcohol use accounts for differences in adolescent alcohol use across regional and urban communities. Secondary data analysis of grade-level stratified data from a random sample of schools. High schools in Victoria, Australia. A random sample of 10 273 adolescents from Grade 7 (mean age = 12.51 years), 9 (14.46 years) and 11 (16.42 years). The key independent variables were parental disapproval of adolescent alcohol use and regionality (regional/ urban), and the dependent variable was past 30 days alcohol use. After adjusting for potential confounders, adolescents in regional areas were more likely to use alcohol in the past 30 days (OR = 1.83, 1.44 and 1.37 for Grades 7, 9 and 11, respectively, P < 0.05), and their parents have a lower level of disapproval of their alcohol use (b = -0.12, -0.15 and -0.19 for Grades 7, 9 and 11, respectively, P < 0.001). Bootstrapping analyses suggested that 8.37%, 23.30% and 39.22% of the effect of regionality on adolescent alcohol use was mediated by parental disapproval of alcohol use for Grades 7, 9 and 11 participants respectively (P < 0.05). Adolescents in urban areas had a lower risk of alcohol use compared with their regional counterparts, and differences in parental disapproval of alcohol use contributed to this difference. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  10. Limiting high-frequency hearing aid gain in listeners with and without suspected cochlear dead regions.

    PubMed

    Mackersie, Carol L; Crocker, Tracy L; Davis, Rebecca A

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare threshold-matched ears with and without suspected cochlear dead regions in terms of the speech perception benefit from high-frequency amplification. The Threshold Equalizing Noise Test (TEN) was used to assess the presence of dead regions. Speech perception was measured while participants were wearing a hearing aid fit to approximate DSL[i/o] targets. Consonant identification of nonsense vowel-consonant-vowel combinations was measured in quiet using a forced-choice procedure. Phoneme recognition was measured at signal-to-noise ratios ranging from 0 to +15 dB using the Computer-Assisted Speech Perception Assessment test (CASPA). Recognition scores were obtained for unfiltered stimuli and stimuli that were low-pass filtered at the estimated boundary of the suspected dead regions, 1/2 octave above and 1 octave above the boundary. Filter settings for the ears without suspected dead regions were the same as settings of the threshold-matched counterpart. In quiet and in low levels of noise, speech perception scores were significantly higher for the wide-band (unfiltered) condition than for the filtered conditions, and performance was similar for the ears with and without suspected dead regions. In high levels of noise, mean scores were highest in the wide-band condition for the ears without suspected dead regions, but performance reached an asymptote for the ears with suspected dead regions. These results suggest that patients with cochlear dead regions may experience speech perception benefit from wide-band high-frequency gain in quiet and low levels of noise, but not in high levels of noise.

  11. Regional collaboration as a model for fostering accountability and transforming health care.

    PubMed

    Speir, Alan M; Rich, Jeffrey B; Crosby, Ivan; Fonner, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    An era of increasing budgetary constraints, misaligned payers and providers, and a competitive system where United States health outcomes are outpaced by less well-funded nations is motivating policy-makers to seek more effective means for promoting cost-effective delivery and accountability. This article illustrates an effective working model of regional collaboration focused on improving health outcomes, containing costs, and making efficient use of resources in cardiovascular surgical care. The Virginia Cardiac Surgery Quality Initiative is a decade-old collaboration of cardiac surgeons and hospital providers in Virginia working to improve outcomes and contain costs by analyzing comparative data, identifying top performers, and replicating best clinical practices on a statewide basis. The group's goals and objectives, along with 2 generations of performance improvement initiatives, are examined. These involve attempts to improve postoperative outcomes and use of tools for decision support and modeling. This work has led the group to espouse a more integrated approach to performance improvement and to formulate principles of a quality-focused payment system. This is one in which collaboration promotes regional accountability to deliver quality care on a cost-effective basis. The Virginia Cardiac Surgery Quality Initiative has attempted to test a global pricing model and has implemented a pay-for-performance program where physicians and hospitals are aligned with common objectives. Although this collaborative approach is a work in progress, authors point out preconditions applicable to other regions and medical specialties. A road map of short-term next steps is needed to create an adaptive payment system tied to the national agenda for reforming the delivery system.

  12. The Blue Book: Accounting, Recordkeeping, and Reporting by Postsecondary Educational Institutions for Federally Funded Student Financial Aid Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This volume provides general information on programs, policies, procedures, and fiscal record keeping and reporting for federally funded student financial aid programs under the Higher Education Act of 1965, Title IV. Chapter 1 provides an overview of Title IV programs. Chapter 2 discusses general institutional responsibilities related to managing…

  13. Annual Report on State Financial Aid Programs: 2007-08 Accounting, 2008-09 Estimates, and Notable Events and Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The state of Washington has a long-standing commitment to postsecondary education opportunities for all students, regardless of income. The purpose of this report is to provide the members of the Higher Education Coordinating Board with: (1) An overview of state, federal, and institutional financial aid in Washington; (2) A description of notable…

  14. The Effectiveness of a Single Intervention of Computer-Aided Argument Mapping in a Marketing and a Financial Accounting Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Michal; Chen, Richard; Davies, Martin; Kaur, Jagjit; Neville, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    An argument map visually represents the structure of an argument, outlining its informal logical connections and informing judgments as to its worthiness. Argument mapping can be augmented with dedicated software that aids the mapping process. Empirical evidence suggests that semester-length subjects using argument mapping along with dedicated…

  15. The Effectiveness of a Single Intervention of Computer-Aided Argument Mapping in a Marketing and a Financial Accounting Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Michal; Chen, Richard; Davies, Martin; Kaur, Jagjit; Neville, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    An argument map visually represents the structure of an argument, outlining its informal logical connections and informing judgments as to its worthiness. Argument mapping can be augmented with dedicated software that aids the mapping process. Empirical evidence suggests that semester-length subjects using argument mapping along with dedicated…

  16. Regional Economic Accounting (REAcct). A software tool for rapidly approximating economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Vargas, Vanessa N.; Loose, Verne William; Starks, Shirley J.; Ellebracht, Lory A.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the Regional Economic Accounting (REAcct) analysis tool that has been in use for the last 5 years to rapidly estimate approximate economic impacts for disruptions due to natural or manmade events. It is based on and derived from the well-known and extensively documented input-output modeling technique initially presented by Leontief and more recently further developed by numerous contributors. REAcct provides county-level economic impact estimates in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and employment for any area in the United States. The process for using REAcct incorporates geospatial computational tools and site-specific economic data, permitting the identification of geographic impact zones that allow differential magnitude and duration estimates to be specified for regions affected by a simulated or actual event. Using these data as input to REAcct, the number of employees for 39 directly affected economic sectors (including 37 industry production sectors and 2 government sectors) are calculated and aggregated to provide direct impact estimates. Indirect estimates are then calculated using Regional Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS II) multipliers. The interdependent relationships between critical infrastructures, industries, and markets are captured by the relationships embedded in the inputoutput modeling structure.

  17. GUIDANCE2: accurate detection of unreliable alignment regions accounting for the uncertainty of multiple parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sela, Itamar; Ashkenazy, Haim; Katoh, Kazutaka; Pupko, Tal

    2015-01-01

    Inference of multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) is a critical part of phylogenetic and comparative genomics studies. However, from the same set of sequences different MSAs are often inferred, depending on the methodologies used and the assumed parameters. Much effort has recently been devoted to improving the ability to identify unreliable alignment regions. Detecting such unreliable regions was previously shown to be important for downstream analyses relying on MSAs, such as the detection of positive selection. Here we developed GUIDANCE2, a new integrative methodology that accounts for: (i) uncertainty in the process of indel formation, (ii) uncertainty in the assumed guide tree and (iii) co-optimal solutions in the pairwise alignments, used as building blocks in progressive alignment algorithms. We compared GUIDANCE2 with seven methodologies to detect unreliable MSA regions using extensive simulations and empirical benchmarks. We show that GUIDANCE2 outperforms all previously developed methodologies. Furthermore, GUIDANCE2 also provides a set of alternative MSAs which can be useful for downstream analyses. The novel algorithm is implemented as a web-server, available at: http://guidance.tau.ac.il. PMID:25883146

  18. On the representation of the stability region in oscillation problems with the aid of the Hurwitz determinants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sponder, E W

    1952-01-01

    This report concerns the use of the Hurwitz determinants in defining boundaries of regions where oscillatory phenomena are to be stable or unstable. A simplification is suggested as an aid in reducing the computations usually required, although it is emphasized that point checks in the various regions defined are required using the complete set of Hurwitz determinants or some other complete stability determination.

  19. Regional health accounts for Pakistan--expenditure disparities on provincial and district level.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Christian; Khalid, Muhammad

    2011-05-01

    Since May 2009 the first National Health Accounts (NHA) for Pakistan have been finalised and published by Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS) in cooperation with German Technical Cooperation (GTZ). This paper goes one step ahead of the report and analyses in more detail the regional differences in health expenditure structures in Pakistan. The further analyses can be divided into four parts: health expenditures in provinces (Provincial Health Accounts, PHA), Punjab provincial and district governments health expenditures and its comparison with ADB figures, all districts of Pakistan and comparison between total district government and provincial government expenditure for each province; the latter calculation is applied as indication for the degree of fiscal autonomy of the districts in each province. Consequently, first the provincial health expenditures by Financial Agents is analysed and compared between the provinces which leads to very heterogeneous results (section 2); the per capita health expenditures differ from 16 to 23 USD. Secondly, NHA results on Punjab district government are compared with available ADB results and differences in methods as possible reasons for different results are presented (section 3). Third, district data of all district governments in all four Pakistani provinces are analysed on the level of detailed function codes in section 4; the aim is to discover regional differences between districts of the same as well as of different provinces. Fourth, in section 5 the degree of fiscal autonomy on health of the districts in each province is analysed; therefore the ordinance description is reviewed and total district government with total provincial government expenditures are compared per province. Finally recommendations for future rounds of NHA in Pakistan are given regarding formats and necessities of detailed health expenditure data collection to ensure evidence based decision making not only on federal, but also on provincial and

  20. A regional survey of technical aids used by handicapped children in day care and at school.

    PubMed

    Korpela, R A; Koivikko, M J

    1992-01-01

    Normalization, which underlines mainstreaming, is widely accepted in paediatric rehabilitation, but its success depends on the availability of special services, including proper technical aids for day care and school. This study aimed to evaluate the need for and use of technical aids in various forms of day care and education. Handicapped children used basic technical aids. In day care children needed more technical aids to promote independent mobility and playing, and in school they needed more computers and adaptations and software for these computers. The arrangement of technical aids for handicapped children requires good cooperation between the children's parents and various professionals.

  1. Computer-aided detection of bladder mass within contrast-enhanced region of CTU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Kenny; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Zhou, Chuan

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection system for bladder cancer on CTU. The bladder was automatically segmented with our Conjoint Level set Analysis and Segmentation System (CLASS). In this preliminary study, we developed a system for detecting mass within the contrast-enhanced (C) region of the bladder. The C region was delineated from the segmented bladders using a method based on maximum intensity projection. The bladder wall of the C region was extracted using thresholding to remove the contrast material. The wall on each slice was transformed into a wall profile. Morphology and voxel intensity along the profile were analyzed and suspicious locations were labeled as lesion candidates. The candidates were segmented and 20 morphological features were extracted from each candidate. A data set of 35 patients with 45 biopsy-proven bladder lesions within the C region was used for system evaluation. Stepwise feature selection with simplex optimization and leave-one-case-out method was used for training and validation. For each partition in the leave-one-case-out method, features were selected from the training cases and a linear discriminant (LDA) classifier was designed to merge the selected features into a single score for classification of the lesion candidates into bladder lesions and normal findings in the left-out case. A single score was generated for each lesion candidate. The performance of the CAD system was evaluated by FROC analysis. At an FP rate of 2.5 FPs/case, the system achieved a sensitivity of 82%, while at 1.7 FPs/case, a sensitivity of 71%.

  2. Automatic Detection of Pectoral Muscle Region for Computer-Aided Diagnosis Using MIAS Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Eun Young; Kim, Hak Hee

    2016-01-01

    The computer-aided detection (CAD) systems have been developed to help radiologists with the early detection of breast cancer. This system provides objective and accurate information to reduce the misdiagnosis of the disease. In mammography, the pectoral muscle region is used as an index to compare the symmetry between the left and right images in the mediolateral oblique (MLO) view. The pectoral muscle segmentation is necessary for the detection of microcalcification or mass because the pectoral muscle has a similar pixel intensity as that of lesions, which affects the results of automatic detection. In this study, the mammographic image analysis society database (MIAS, 322 cases) was used for detecting the pectoral muscle segmentation. The pectoral muscle was detected by using the morphological method and the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm. We evaluated the detected pectoral muscle region and compared the manual segmentation with the automatic segmentation. The results showed 92.2% accuracy. We expect that the proposed method improves the detection accuracy of breast cancer lesions using a CAD system. PMID:27847817

  3. Attitudes and sexual behaviours of unmarried people with HIV/AIDS living in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abasiubong, Festus; Udoh, Sunday B; Idung, Alphonsus U; Umoiyoho, Aniefiok J

    2012-12-01

    Background Increasing morbidity and mortality associated with HIV/AIDS may be attributable to the lifestyle of individuals. Appropriate sexual behaviour and lifestyle modification may be helpful strategies for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in many countries. Aim The study was designed to assess the impact of attitudes and sexual behaviour on control of HIV/AIDS among unmarried people living with HIV/AIDS in Uyo, a community in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Method A total of 365 unmarried individuals living with HIV/AIDS were assessed at the HIV clinic of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. Attitudes and sexual behaviour were evaluated using the Attitude and Sexual Behaviour Questionnaire adapted from previous studies. Results Of the 365 individuals living with HIV/AIDS, 142 (38.9%) were male and 223 (61.1%) were female. The majority of the subjects were below 50 years of age. The mean ages (± SD) of men and women were 36.8 ± 3.9 and 29.2 ± 1.7 years, respectively. Sexual attitudes and behaviours were variable. There was no change in the partner's reaction to sex for 28.9% of men and 27.8% of women, abstinence in 7.7% of men and 8.1% of women, and breakdown of the relationship with the partner for 4.9% of men and 7.2% of women. More women than men agreed to undergo testing after their partners had tested positive for HIV. Sexual activity was higher in women than men, with 4.9% of men and 10.3% of women reporting daily sexual intercourse, 16.2% of men and 15.7% of women reporting weekly intercourse, and occasional sexual intercourse being reported by 44.4% of both men and women. After testing positive, 58.4% of male partners and 56.9% of female partners were persuaded to use condoms during sexual intercourse. Conclusion This study has demonstrated unhealthy attitudes and sexual behaviour among individuals living with HIV/AIDS in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. This can potentially limit efforts and investment in controlling HIV/AIDS in this

  4. [Incidence of oral cancer in AIDS patients at the "20 de Noviembre" Regional Hospital, ISSSTE].

    PubMed

    Solís Morán, C E; Molina Moguel, J L

    1990-09-01

    Ever since its initial outbursts in high-risk groups, AIDS has had an appalling impact within the oncological sphere, since it combines opportunistic pathologies with the occurrence of malignancies caused by loss of defensive cells, thus allowing abnormal or cancerous cells to multiply. This paper conveys some recent concepts on AIDS, as well as a study undertaken at the "20 de Noviembre" Hospital, aimed at identifying the most common opportunistic diseases which often occur in the oral cavity upon contracting AIDS.

  5. Integrity of immunoglobulin variable region is supported by GANP during AID-induced somatic hypermutation in germinal center B cells.

    PubMed

    Eid, Mohammed Mansour Abbas; Shimoda, Mayuko; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Almofty, Sarah Ameen; Pham, Phuong; Goodman, Myron F; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Sakaguchi, Nobuo

    2017-05-24

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) affinity maturation depends on somatic hypermutation (SHM) in variable (V) regions initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). AID induces transition mutations by C→U deamination on both strands, causing C:G→T:A. Error-prone repairs of U by base excision and mismatch repairs create transversion mutations at C/G and mutations at A/T sites. In Neuberger's model, it remained to clarify how transition/transversion repair is regulated. We investigate role of AID-interacting GANP (germinal-center associated nuclear protein) in IgV SHM profile. GANP enhances transition mutation of nontranscribed-strand G and reduces mutation at A, restricted to GYW of AID hotspot motif. It reduces DNA polymerase η hotspot mutations associated with mismatch repairs followed by uracil-DNA glycosylase. Mutation comparison between IgV complementary and framework regions by Statistical Bayesian estimation demonstrates GANP supports to preserve IgV framework region genomic sequences. GANP works to maintain antibody structure by reducing drastic changes in IgV framework region in affinity maturation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society for Immunology.

  6. Student, Teacher, School, and District Determinants of Elementary School Accountability Classification in the Detroit Metropolitan Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forehand-Thompson, Embekka

    2016-01-01

    Legislators have implemented an accountability system in an effort to increase school quality for all students. Policymakers assume that rewards and sanctions, based on results from high-stakes testing, can improve student achievement. The accountability system does not consider environmental factors that impact student outcomes. This study…

  7. Integrating Ecological and Water Footprint Accounting in a Multi-Regional Input-Output Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon, ecological, and water footprints (CF, EF, and WF) are accounting tools that can be used to understand the connection between consumption activities and environmental pressures on the Earth?s atmosphere, bioproductive areas, and freshwater resources. These indicators have ...

  8. Integrating Ecological and Water Footprint Accounting in a Multi-Regional Input-Output Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon, ecological, and water footprints (CF, EF, and WF) are accounting tools that can be used to understand the connection between consumption activities and environmental pressures on the Earth?s atmosphere, bioproductive areas, and freshwater resources. These indicators have ...

  9. Present but not accounted for: exploring the sexual risk practices and intervention needs of nonheterosexually identified women in a prevention program for women with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Teti, Michelle; Bowleg, Lisa; Rubinstein, Susan; Lloyd, Linda; Berhane, Zek; Gold, Marla

    2007-01-01

    Nonheterosexually identified (NHI) women may be present, but not accounted for, in HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention interventions. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the sexual risk behaviors and intervention needs of NHI women in Protect and Respect, a safer sex intervention for HIV-positive women. Study participants (n=32) were predominantly Black, low income, and between 28 and 51 years old. Although NHI participants were more likely than heterosexual participants (p < .05) to report obtaining their income from sex work, hustling, or selling drugs; and having a higher median number of male sex partners, qualitative analyses revealed that the intervention often neglected NHI women's experiences and unique safer sex needs. Heterosexist HIV and STI prevention programs may hinder NHI women's ability to protect themselves and their partners from reinfection and infection respectively. We discuss the implications of our research for future HIV/AIDS and STI research, services and interventions for NHI women.

  10. ‘Low-hanging fruit’: Counting and accounting for children in PEPFAR-funded HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Lindsey J.

    2014-01-01

    The article traces the social life of a policy that aimed to define and circumscribe the ambiguous and contested category of the ‘orphaned and vulnerable children’ (OVC) in South Africa at the height of the ‘emergency response’ to HIV/AIDS. Drawing on several months of institutional ethnographic research conducted over the course of five years with South African organisations receiving funding from the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief to provide services to ‘OVC’, the project interrogates the influence of governmental forms of counting and accounting on health policy and practice in South Africa. Focusing on the experiences of one organisation, the article describes a process of policy ‘translation’ typified by a series of disconnects between the intentions of a policy and the exigencies of implementation, structured by the ambiguous and flexible nature of the category of the ‘orphaned and vulnerable child’. In this context, the article argues, the uncertainty produced by the implementation of the guidelines was not simply an artifact of a poorly designed policy, but rather signals an underlying epistemological tension in the practice of ‘global health’, in which quantitative metrics designed for monitoring and evaluation are often incapable of approximating the complexities of everyday life. PMID:24498970

  11. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Katima Mulilo has the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in Namibia. Due to several constraints of the antiretroviral therapy programme, HIV-infected persons still use ethnomedicines to manage AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Despite the reliance on plants to manage HIV/AIDS in Katima Mulilo, there have been no empirical studies to document the specific plant species used by traditional healers to treat AIDS-related opportunistic infections. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to record the various plant families, species, and plant parts used to manage different HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. The results showed that a total of 71 plant species from 28 families, mostly the Combretaceae (14%), Anacardiaceae (8%), Mimosaceae (8%), and Ebanaceae (7%), were used to treat conditions such as herpes zoster, diarrhoea, coughing, malaria, meningitis, and tuberculosis. The most plant parts used were leaves (33%), bark (32%), and roots (28%) while the least used plant parts were fruits/seeds (4%). Further research is needed to isolate the plants' active chemical compounds and understand their modes of action. PMID:20831821

  12. Quality Daily Physical Education for the Primary School Student: A Personal Account of the Trois-Rivieres Regional Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.; Trudeau, Francois

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a brief and personal account of the historical background, implementation and principal findings from the Trois-Rivieres regional project, a large-scale quasi-experimental intervention that tested the impact of providing a daily hour of specialist-taught quality physical education upon the physical and mental development of…

  13. Quality Daily Physical Education for the Primary School Student: A Personal Account of the Trois-Rivieres Regional Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.; Trudeau, Francois

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a brief and personal account of the historical background, implementation and principal findings from the Trois-Rivieres regional project, a large-scale quasi-experimental intervention that tested the impact of providing a daily hour of specialist-taught quality physical education upon the physical and mental development of…

  14. Breaking Good: Accounting for Fragility of Genomic Regions in Rearrangement Distance Estimation.

    PubMed

    Biller, Priscila; Guéguen, Laurent; Knibbe, Carole; Tannier, Eric

    2016-05-22

    Models of evolution by genome rearrangements are prone to two types of flaws: One is to ignore the diversity of susceptibility to breakage across genomic regions, and the other is to suppose that susceptibility values are given. Without necessarily supposing their precise localization, we call "solid" the regions that are improbably broken by rearrangements and "fragile" the regions outside solid ones. We propose a model of evolution by inversions where breakage probabilities vary across fragile regions and over time. It contains as a particular case the uniform breakage model on the nucleotidic sequence, where breakage probabilities are proportional to fragile region lengths. This is very different from the frequently used pseudouniform model where all fragile regions have the same probability to break. Estimations of rearrangement distances based on the pseudouniform model completely fail on simulations with the truly uniform model. On pairs of amniote genomes, we show that identifying coding genes with solid regions yields incoherent distance estimations, especially with the pseudouniform model, and to a lesser extent with the truly uniform model. This incoherence is solved when we coestimate the number of fragile regions with the rearrangement distance. The estimated number of fragile regions is surprisingly small, suggesting that a minority of regions are recurrently used by rearrangements. Estimations for several pairs of genomes at different divergence times are in agreement with a slowly evolvable colocalization of active genomic regions in the cell.

  15. Accounting for the influence of vegetation and landscape improves model transferability in a tropical savannah region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongkai; Hrachowitz, Markus; Sriwongsitanon, Nutchanart; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Gharari, Shervan; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding which catchment characteristics dominate hydrologic response and how to take them into account remains a challenge in hydrological modeling, particularly in ungauged basins. This is even more so in nontemperate and nonhumid catchments, where—due to the combination of seasonality and the occurrence of dry spells—threshold processes are more prominent in rainfall runoff behavior. An example is the tropical savannah, the second largest climatic zone, characterized by pronounced dry and wet seasons and high evaporative demand. In this study, we investigated the importance of landscape variability on the spatial variability of stream flow in tropical savannah basins. We applied a stepwise modeling approach to 23 subcatchments of the Upper Ping River in Thailand, where gradually more information on landscape was incorporated. The benchmark is represented by a classical lumped model (FLEXL), which does not account for spatial variability. We then tested the effect of accounting for vegetation information within the lumped model (FLEXLM), and subsequently two semidistributed models: one accounting for the spatial variability of topography-based landscape features alone (FLEXT), and another accounting for both topographic features and vegetation (FLEXTM). In cross validation, each model was calibrated on one catchment, and then transferred with its fitted parameters to the remaining catchments. We found that when transferring model parameters in space, the semidistributed models accounting for vegetation and topographic heterogeneity clearly outperformed the lumped model. This suggests that landscape controls a considerable part of the hydrological function and explicit consideration of its heterogeneity can be highly beneficial for prediction in ungauged basins in tropical savannah.

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV / AIDS in the south region of Cameroon: case of the town of Kribi.

    PubMed

    Sanou, Sobze Martin; Fokam, Joseph Martin; Mabvouna, Biguioh Rodriguez; Guetiya, Wadoum Raoul; Sali, Ben Bechir Adogaye; Teikeu, Tessa Vivaldi Vladimir; Nafack, Sonkeng Sonia; Panà, Augusto; Colizzi, Vittorio; Russo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding HIV/AIDS in the city of Kribi, southern region of Cameroon. In November 2012, a questionnaire composed of 20 items was administered by trained staff from the Biomedical Sciences Department of the University of Dschang to 200 students selected from four population groups: high school students, local traders, tourism personnel (staff of bars, restaurants, hotels, nightclubs), and motorcycle taxi drivers. A cluster sampling method was used to select the first three groups while motorcycle taxi drivers were selected by the method of all comers. KAP regarding HIV/AIDS was found to be fragmentary in the studied population. Only 6.5% systematically uses condoms, 59% believe that AIDS can be cured by traditional medicine and religious faith and 40.9% developed stigmatizing behaviour toward HIV infected people. Among participants there is a wide discrepancy between knowledge and social behaviours toward HIV/AIDS. Strategic and continuous awareness campaigns that are culturally and socially tailored are urgently needed.

  17. Audio Visual Aids. Part 4 (i); Regional Geography: 1, General and Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Foundation for Visual Aids, London (England).

    Audiovisual aids for teaching about the geography of Europe, that may be bought or rented from suppliers in Britain, are listed in this 120-page catalog. Audiovisual materials available include films, filmstrips, slides, overhead projector transparencies, wallsheets, prints, records, tapes, and teaching kits. Each catalog entry describes the…

  18. Effort and Regionalism as Determinants of State Aid to Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, Bruce A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes research that examined several variables, including the geographic placement of states, that might explain fluctuations in state governments' apparent willingness to fund public libraries. Tables summarizing state aid are appended, and accompanying maps provide pictorial testimony to the behavior of states on selected library and…

  19. Audio Visual Aids. Part 4 (ii); Regional Geography: 2, The Americas, Africa, Asia, Australasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Foundation for Visual Aids, London (England).

    Audiovisual aids for teaching about the geography of North, Central and South America, Africa, Asia and Australasia, that may be bought or rented from suppliers in Britain, are listed in this 150-page catalog. Audiovisual materials available include films, filmstrips, slides, overhead projector transparencies, wallsheets, prints, records, tapes,…

  20. Audio Visual Aids. Part 4 (i); Regional Geography: 1, General and Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Foundation for Visual Aids, London (England).

    Audiovisual aids for teaching about the geography of Europe, that may be bought or rented from suppliers in Britain, are listed in this 120-page catalog. Audiovisual materials available include films, filmstrips, slides, overhead projector transparencies, wallsheets, prints, records, tapes, and teaching kits. Each catalog entry describes the…

  1. Regional climate modeling and development of climate adaptation decision aids for energy use in the Southwestern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, G.; Darmenova, K.; Apling, D.; Kiley, H.

    2010-12-01

    There is currently a gap between the relatively coarse resolution science data that Global Climate Models (GCMs) produce and the high resolution tailored products that planners need to develop climate adaptation and mitigation strategies. Planners need to make decisions on infrastructure, budgets, policy, and programs related to their energy use and consumption and the impacts on the rest of the energy sector. We apply the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to conduct regional dynamical downscaling in the Southwestern US. The European Center/Hamburg Model (ECHAM5) GCM is used to provide initial and boundary conditions. Our methodology involves development of climatological indices of extreme weather and a variety of climate adaptation decision aids. We have further developed energy decision aids to translate the output from the WRF Regional Climate Model (RCM) into future electricity and natural gas demand for several sites in Colorado. These energy decision aids are developed using available energy consumption records from these sites over an historical period. These data are correlated with Heating Degree Days (HDD) and Cooling Degree Days (CCD) data from the RCM to develop models of energy use as a function of HDD/CDD. RCM estimates of HDD/CDD are presented for a current and future period along with projections of energy use. Additionally, derived statistical confidence bounds for these products are provided.

  2. 'Our Families are Killing Us': HIV/AIDS, Witchcraft and Social Tensions in the Caprivi Region, Namibia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Felicity

    2007-12-01

    The importance of exploring 'indigenous' constructions of illness is vital when explanatory models of ill health differ markedly from dominant biomedical paradigms. In the Caprivi region of Namibia, an upsurge of witchcraft accusations can be seen as a direct reaction to increasing AIDS-related illness and deaths, and to changes in socio-economic attitudes and expectations. The mobilization of witchcraft narratives provides a socially acceptable explanation for illness, and can positively influence decisions regarding the care and identity of the ill person. However, drawing upon data collected at kin and village level, this paper demonstrates that while witchcraft accusations can avert stigma and blame away from the ill person, they can also result in significant disruption to livelihoods, and place considerable tension upon key social capital networks at a time when the household is particularly vulnerable. Such findings have significant implications for the effectiveness of HIV prevention and AIDS mitigation initiatives, and for livelihood security.

  3. Schoolization: An Account of the Origins of Regional Variation in British Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Gary

    2010-01-01

    British Sign Language has a number of regional variations. This article examines the role of residential schools in the development of sign variants. Citing data collected during interviews with members of the Lancaster and Morecambe Deaf community (who of necessity attended schools elsewhere), it explores the peer-to-peer transmission of sign…

  4. Well-Being Outcomes in Bolivia: Accounting for the Effects of Ethnicity and Regional Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberato, Ana S. Q.; Pomeroy, Carlton; Fennell, Dana

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses well-being differences in Bolivia. We specifically investigate whether ethnicity and regional location explain differences in housing quality, material wealth, sanitation, and educational achievement in Bolivia. We use the 1994 and 1998 DHS surveys of 9114 and 12109 cases, respectively, to test the study hypotheses, which…

  5. Well-Being Outcomes in Bolivia: Accounting for the Effects of Ethnicity and Regional Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberato, Ana S. Q.; Pomeroy, Carlton; Fennell, Dana

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses well-being differences in Bolivia. We specifically investigate whether ethnicity and regional location explain differences in housing quality, material wealth, sanitation, and educational achievement in Bolivia. We use the 1994 and 1998 DHS surveys of 9114 and 12109 cases, respectively, to test the study hypotheses, which…

  6. Forging a sustainable response to HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean--the strategic role of a regional conference.

    PubMed

    McLean, Roger; Nurse, Osborne; Nunes, Fred; Delph, Yvette; Benjamin, Annalisa

    2012-09-01

    The paper provides a rationale for a Caribbean HIV/AIDS Conference as a key ingredient to the regional response mechanism. This initiative stems from the need to address crucial elements of the regional response within the realities of the present regional economic situation and global financial climate, as well as epidemiological and demographic trends. A mixed method approach was adopted for this study, drawing on both primary and secondary data collection techniques. A small survey of leaders and senior practitioners formed the basis of the primary data collection phase, complemented by key informant interviews. The paper proposes a model for a Caribbean HIV Conference that can better position the regional response in line with the present global and local socio-economic and health landscape. Central to this model is the repositioning of the Conference from an "Event" to being an "Activity" in the regional planning agenda and the positioning of the Conference as a fundamental fixture of the region's health calendar. The positive externalities from the synergies developed around the Conference can be identified in terms of the quantifiable costs savings to Agencies. The less quantifiable path relates to networking, exchanges and stronger regional ties that are facilitated through the activity. The main findings of the survey of health leaders indicate significant support for an ongoing regional conference. The results therefore endorse the location of a Conference entity together with the relevant support mechanisms as a key feature on the Caribbean's health landscape.

  7. SRSF1-3 contributes to diversification of the immunoglobulin variable region gene by promoting accumulation of AID in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yuka; Nariki, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Naoko; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Mari; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for diversification of the Ig variable region (IgV). AID is excluded from the nucleus, where it normally functions. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating AID localization remain to be elucidated. The SR-protein splicing factor SRSF1 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, a splicing isoform of which called SRSF1-3, has previously been shown to contribute to IgV diversification in chicken DT40 cells. In this study, we examined whether SRSF1-3 functions in IgV diversification by promoting nuclear localization of AID. AID expressed alone was localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. In contrast, co-expression of AID with SRSF1-3 led to the nuclear accumulation of both AID and SRSF1-3 and the formation of a protein complex that contained them both, although SRSF1-3 was dispensable for nuclear import of AID. Expression of either SRSF1-3 or a C-terminally-truncated AID mutant increased IgV diversification in DT40 cells. However, overexpression of exogenous SRSF1-3 was unable to further enhance IgV diversification in DT40 cells expressing the truncated AID mutant, although SRSF1-3 was able to form a protein complex with the AID mutant. These results suggest that SRSF1-3 promotes nuclear localization of AID probably by forming a nuclear protein complex, which might stabilize nuclear AID and induce IgV diversification in an AID C-terminus-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A regional-scale, high resolution dynamical malaria model that accounts for population density, climate and surface hydrology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relative roles of climate variability and population related effects in malaria transmission could be better understood if regional-scale dynamical malaria models could account for these factors. Methods A new dynamical community malaria model is introduced that accounts for the temperature and rainfall influences on the parasite and vector life cycles which are finely resolved in order to correctly represent the delay between the rains and the malaria season. The rainfall drives a simple but physically based representation of the surface hydrology. The model accounts for the population density in the calculation of daily biting rates. Results Model simulations of entomological inoculation rate and circumsporozoite protein rate compare well to data from field studies from a wide range of locations in West Africa that encompass both seasonal endemic and epidemic fringe areas. A focus on Bobo-Dioulasso shows the ability of the model to represent the differences in transmission rates between rural and peri-urban areas in addition to the seasonality of malaria. Fine spatial resolution regional integrations for Eastern Africa reproduce the malaria atlas project (MAP) spatial distribution of the parasite ratio, and integrations for West and Eastern Africa show that the model grossly reproduces the reduction in parasite ratio as a function of population density observed in a large number of field surveys, although it underestimates malaria prevalence at high densities probably due to the neglect of population migration. Conclusions A new dynamical community malaria model is publicly available that accounts for climate and population density to simulate malaria transmission on a regional scale. The model structure facilitates future development to incorporate migration, immunity and interventions. PMID:23419192

  9. A regional-scale, high resolution dynamical malaria model that accounts for population density, climate and surface hydrology.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Adrian M; Ermert, Volker

    2013-02-18

    The relative roles of climate variability and population related effects in malaria transmission could be better understood if regional-scale dynamical malaria models could account for these factors. A new dynamical community malaria model is introduced that accounts for the temperature and rainfall influences on the parasite and vector life cycles which are finely resolved in order to correctly represent the delay between the rains and the malaria season. The rainfall drives a simple but physically based representation of the surface hydrology. The model accounts for the population density in the calculation of daily biting rates. Model simulations of entomological inoculation rate and circumsporozoite protein rate compare well to data from field studies from a wide range of locations in West Africa that encompass both seasonal endemic and epidemic fringe areas. A focus on Bobo-Dioulasso shows the ability of the model to represent the differences in transmission rates between rural and peri-urban areas in addition to the seasonality of malaria. Fine spatial resolution regional integrations for Eastern Africa reproduce the malaria atlas project (MAP) spatial distribution of the parasite ratio, and integrations for West and Eastern Africa show that the model grossly reproduces the reduction in parasite ratio as a function of population density observed in a large number of field surveys, although it underestimates malaria prevalence at high densities probably due to the neglect of population migration. A new dynamical community malaria model is publicly available that accounts for climate and population density to simulate malaria transmission on a regional scale. The model structure facilitates future development to incorporate migration, immunity and interventions.

  10. Linker regions and flexibility around the metalloprotease domain account for conformational activation of ADAMTS13

    PubMed Central

    Deforche, L.; Roose, E.; Vandenbulcke, A.; Vandeputte, N.; Feys, H.B.; Springer, T.A.; Mi, L.Z.; Muia, J.; Sadler, J.E.; Soejima, K.; Rottensteiner, H.; Deckmyn, H.; De Meyer, S.F.; Vanhoorelbeke, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, conformational activation of ADAMTS13 was identified. This mechanism showed the evolution from a condensed and inhibited conformation, in which the proximal MDTCS and distal T2-CUB2 domains are in close contact with each other, to an activated structure due to ding with the von Willebrand factor (VWF). Objectives Identification of cryptic epitope/exosite exposure after conformational activation and of sites of flexibility in ADAMTS13. Methods The activating effect of 25 anti-T2-CUB2 antibodies was studied in the FRETS-VWF73 and the vortex assay. Cryptic epitope/exosite exposure was determined in ELISA and VWF binding assay. The molecular basis for flexibility was hypothesized through RADAR analysis, tested in ELISA using deletion variants and visualized using electron microscopy. Results Eleven activating anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies, directed against the T5-CUB2 domains, were identified in the FRETS-VWF73 assay. RADAR analysis identified three linker regions in the distal domains. Interestingly, identification of an antibody recognizing a cryptic epitope in the metalloprotease domain confirmed the contribution of these linker regions to conformational activation of the enzyme. The proof of flexibility around both the T2 and metalloprotease domains by electron microscopy furthermore supported this contribution. In addition, cryptic epitope exposure was identified in the distal domains, as activating anti-T2-CUB2 antibodies increased the binding to folded VWF up to ~3-fold. Conclusion Conformational activation of ADAMTS13 leads to cryptic epitope/exosite exposure in both proximal and distal domains, subsequently inducing increased activity. Furthermore, three linker regions in the distal domains are responsible for flexibility and enable the interaction between the proximal and the T8-CUB2 domains. PMID:26391536

  11. [Descriptive study of homophobia and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS of the transvestites in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Patricia Juliana; Ferreira, Luiz Oscar Cardoso; de Sá, Janilson Barros

    2013-08-01

    This study sought to ascertain the vulnerabilities to HIV/Aids of transvestites of the Metropolitan Region of Recife. The Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) method was selected for data collection. Among the 110 transvestites, high indices of homophobia were found in locations such as: security services, work facilities, family and religious environments, neighborhood, school, stores, leisure spaces, and healthcare services. Among the situations of violence experienced, the predominant cases involved verbal aggression (81.8%) and physical aggression (68.2%). The HIV test carried out at some stage in their lives was reported by 84.4% of the subjects. A high level of knowledge of the forms of HIV prevention and transmission was detected. The majority of the transvestites began their sexual activity before 15 years of age without condom use. It was seen that in the context of the HIV/Aids epidemic, the strategies for health promotion can only be effective if factors for enhancing the understanding of the vulnerability to HIV/Aids, such as homophobia, are considered.

  12. Economic optimal nitrogen application rates for rice cropping in the Taihu Lake region of China: taking account of negative externalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Y.; Yan, X.

    2011-07-01

    Nitrogen application rates (NARs) is often overestimated over the rice (Oryza sativa L.) growing season in the Taihu Lake region of China. This is largely because only individual nitrogen (N) losses are taken into account, or the inventory flows of reactive N have been limited solely to the farming process when evaluating environmental and economic effects of N fertilizer. Since N can permeate the ecosystem in numerous forms commencing from the acquisition of raw material, through manufacturing and use, to final losses in the farming process (e.g., N2O, NH3, NO3- leaching, etc.), the costs incurred also accumulate and should be taken into account if economically-optimal N rates (EONRs) are to be established. This study integrates important material and energy flows resulting from N use into a rice agricultural inventory that constitutes the hub of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) method. An economic evaluation is used to determine an environmental and economic NAR for the Taihu Lake region. The analysis reveals that production and exploitation processes consume the largest proportion of resources, accounting for 77.2 % and 22.3 % of total resources, respectively. Regarding environmental impact, global warming creates the highest cost with contributions stemming mostly from fertilizer production and raw material exploitation processes. Farming process incurs the biggest environmental impact of the three environmental impact categories considered, whereas transportation has a much smaller effect. When taking account of resource consumption and environmental cost, the marginal benefit of 1 kg rice would decrease from 2.4 to only 1.01 yuan. Accordingly, our current EONR has been evaluated at 185 kg N ha-1 for a single rice-growing season. This could enhance profitability, as well as reduce the N losses associated with rice growing.

  13. Prevalence and lethality among patients with histoplasmosis and AIDS in the Midwest Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thaísa C; Treméa, Carolina M; Zara, Ana Laura S A; Mendonça, Ana Flávia; Godoy, Cássia S M; Costa, Carolina R; Souza, Lúcia K H; Silva, Maria R R

    2017-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis that is considered an important public health problem. In this work, we performed a descriptive, observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study with a secondary data analysis of medical records from 2000 to 2012 at a tertiary hospital. The study sample consisted of 275 patients with laboratory-confirmed Disseminated Histoplasmosis (DH)/AIDS. The results showed that the prevalence of DH associated with AIDS was 4.4%. The majority of patients were young adult men with fever in 84.2%, cough in 63.4%, weight loss in 63.1%, diarrhoea in 44.8% and skin manifestations in 27.6% of patients. In the overall cohort, the CD4 counts were low, but not significantly different in survivors and non-survivors. Higher levels of urea and lower levels of haemoglobin and platelets were observed in non-survivor patients (<.05). The global lethality was 71.3% (196/275). The results with high prevalence and lethality highlight the need to adopt measures to facilitate early diagnosis, proper treatment and improved prognosis.

  14. [Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of HIV/AIDS patients followed-up in Cappadocia region: 18 years experience].

    PubMed

    Alp, Emine; Bozkurt, Ilkay; Doğanay, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is still an important health problem worldwide and the number of people living with HIV worldwide continued to grow in the last years. The first HIV/AIDS cases had been reported in 1985 from Turkey and with an increasing trend during the following years, the number of cases reached to 3898 with 528 new cases in 2009. The aim of this retrospective study was to share the 18 years experience with the patients who were followed-up in Erciyes University Hospital Infectious Diseases Clinics in Cappadocia region. The records of 55 (81%) HIV/AIDS patients out of 68 who were admitted to our clinic between 1992- 2009 have been attained and the demographic and clinical characteristics, administered therapy regimens and adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy of those cases have been evaluated. Forty-three (78%) of the patients were male and 12 (22%) were female of which 11 (92%) of their spouses had HIV/AIDS. The median age of the patients was 45 and 20 (36%) of them were over 54 years old. Fifty (91%) of patients lived in Cappadocia region, and 24 (44%) had lived in foreign countries. Fifty (91%) patients had risky heterosexual contact as a risk factor. Of these patients, 47 (85%) were in full-blown AIDS stage at admission. Twenty-seven (49%) of the patients diagnosed occasionally during routine anti-HIV testing, did not have any symptoms. Fever, weakness and weight loss were the most frequently detected symptoms in the rest of the patients. Ten (18%) patients had underlying diseases such as hypertension, chronic hepatitis B or C, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus and chronic renal disfunction. Opportunistic infections were determined in 25 (45.5%) patients and 20 (40%) of these infections were determined at admission. The most frequent opportunistic infection was oral candidiasis, followed by Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci pneumonia and tuberculosis. Malignancy was diagnosed in three patients; two had Kaposi's sarcoma and one had multiorgan

  15. Comprehensive Characterization of HIV-1 Molecular Epidemiology and Demographic History in the Brazilian Region Most Heavily Affected by AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Machado Fritsch, Hegger; de Medeiros, Rúbia Marília; Maletich Junqueira, Dennis; Esteves de Matos Almeida, Sabrina; Pinto, Aguinaldo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The high incidence of AIDS cases and the dominance of HIV-1 subtype C infections are two features that distinguish the HIV-1 epidemic in the two southernmost Brazilian states (Rio Grande do Sul [RS] and Santa Catarina [SC]) from the epidemic in other parts of the country. Nevertheless, previous studies on HIV molecular epidemiology were conducted mainly in capital cities, and a more comprehensive understanding of factors driving this unique epidemic in Brazil is necessary. Blood samples were collected from individuals in 13 municipalities in the Brazilian southern region. HIV-1 env and pol genes were submitted to phylogenetic analyses for assignment of subtype, and viral population phylodynamics were reconstructed by applying Skygrid and logistic coalescent models in a Bayesian analysis. A high prevalence of subtype C was observed in all sampled locations; however, an increased frequency of recombinant strains was found in RS, with evidence for new circulating forms (CRFs). In the SC state, subtype B and C epidemics were associated with distinct exposure groups. Although logistic models estimated similar growth rates for HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) and HIV-1B, a Skygrid plot reveals that the former epidemic has been expanding for a longer time. Our results highlight a consistent expansion of HIV-1C in south Brazil, and we also discuss how heterosexual and men who have sex with men (MSM) transmission chains might have impacted the current prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes in this region. IMPORTANCE The AIDS epidemic in south Brazil is expanding rapidly, but the circumstances driving this condition are not well known. A high prevalence of HIV-1 subtype C was reported in the capital cities of this region, in contrast to the subtype B dominance in the rest of the country. This study sought to comparatively investigate the HIV-1 subtype B and C epidemics by sampling individuals from several cities in the two states with the highest AIDS incidences in Brazil. Our

  16. Camel milk, amoxicillin, and a prayer: medical pluralism and medical humanitarian aid in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Lauren

    2014-11-01

    This paper details how exposure to new clinics, diagnostic technologies, and pharmaceuticals during humanitarian relief operations in the Somali Region of Ethiopia shaped local pluralistic health systems and altered the ways in which residents subsequently conceived of and treated illness and disease. Despite rising demand for pharmaceuticals and diagnostic technologies among Somalis in Ethiopia, local ethnophysiologies continued to draw upon popular ideas about humoral flows, divine action, and spirit possession. Demands for therapeutic camel milk, Qur'anic spiritual healing, herbal remedies, and other historically popular therapies persisted, but were shaped by concurrent demands for and understandings of diagnostic biotechnologies and pharmaceutical medications. The reverse was also true: contemporary understandings and uses of non-biomedical healing modalities among Somalis shaped evaluations of clinical care, including healthcare during humanitarian responses. To illustrate these phenomena, based on ethnographic research in eastern Ethiopia between 2007 and 2009, this paper explores three topics vital to Somalis' pluralistic healthcare systems: camel milk and the management of digestive bile; women's experiences and clinical presentations with pain and disorder in their reproductive systems; and the rising popularity of high-tech diagnostic tests. I conclude that medical humanitarian aid never happens in a vacuum or among truly treatment-naïve populations. Instead, aid unfolds within ever-changing and pluralistic health cultures, and it permanently alters and is altered by the frames within which people evaluate and make future decisions about healthcare.

  17. Computer-aided detection of bladder mass within non-contrast-enhanced region of CT Urography (CTU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Kenny H.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Weizer, Alon; Zhou, Chuan

    2016-03-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection system for bladder cancer in CT urography (CTU). We have previously developed methods for detection of bladder masses within the contrast-enhanced region of the bladder. In this study, we investigated methods for detection of bladder masses within the non-contrast enhanced region. The bladder was first segmented using a newly developed deep-learning convolutional neural network in combination with level sets. The non-contrast-enhanced region was separated from the contrast-enhanced region with a maximum-intensityprojection- based method. The non-contrast region was smoothed and a gray level threshold was employed to segment the bladder wall and potential masses. The bladder wall was transformed into a straightened thickness profile, which was analyzed to identify lesion candidates as a prescreening step. The lesion candidates were segmented using our autoinitialized cascaded level set (AI-CALS) segmentation method, and 27 morphological features were extracted for each candidate. Stepwise feature selection with simplex optimization and leave-one-case-out resampling were used for training and validation of a false positive (FP) classifier. In each leave-one-case-out cycle, features were selected from the training cases and a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier was designed to merge the selected features into a single score for classification of the left-out test case. A data set of 33 cases with 42 biopsy-proven lesions in the noncontrast enhanced region was collected. During prescreening, the system obtained 83.3% sensitivity at an average of 2.4 FPs/case. After feature extraction and FP reduction by LDA, the system achieved 81.0% sensitivity at 2.0 FPs/case, and 73.8% sensitivity at 1.5 FPs/case.

  18. Handbook for Forecasters in the Mediterranean. Part 2. Regional Forecasting Aids for the Mediterranean Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Occurrences.....................11-7 3. Forecasting Rules.........................11-11 III. TYRRHENIAN SEA - CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN AREA...the Tyrrhenian Sea -Central Mediterranean Area addressed in Section II1. A complex coastal topography characterizes the north and the south coasts of...is only 3 n mi. 11-25 III. TYRRHENIAN SEA - CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN AREA 1. OVERVIEW 1.1 REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY The Tyrrhenian Sea -Central Mediterranean

  19. Stability and mixing conditions for HIV/AIDS models with regional compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Richard

    Compartmental models have been adapted to derive temporal epidemic forecasting systems for imitating the transfer of HIV infection between those with different behaviours or rates of risk activity. Alternatively, models with regional compartments, which forecast disease incidence in both space and time, have emerged as a response to the challenge of anticipating the pandemic pathways of this infection. This paper combines these frameworks to obtain properties for a multiregion model that also contains demographic compartments. Section 2 begins by showing how the stability conditions (starting thresholds) for a purely regional model are a special case of the existing conditions that have been derived for the general compartmental framework. Then, these results are extended to encompass a regions with compartments design. Section 3 presents an analysis of the population mixing relationships that are embedded in all these specifications. Here, the topics include the maintenance of contact symmetry, the representation of alternative partner selection behaviours, and the identification of core populations for the diffusion of HIV infection. The discussion considers how these theoretical findings might be applied to disease prevention.

  20. The framework of a UAS-aided flash flood modeling system for coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Xu, H.

    2016-02-01

    Flash floods cause severe economic damage and are one of the leading causes of fatalities connected with natural disasters in the Gulf Coast region. Current flash flood modeling systems rely on empirical hydrological models driven by precipitation estimates only. Although precipitation is the driving factor for flash floods, soil moisture, urban drainage system and impervious surface have been recognized to have significant impacts on the development of flash floods. We propose a new flash flooding modeling system that integrates 3-D hydrological simulation with satellite and multi-UAS observations. It will have three advantages over existing modeling systems. First, it will incorporate 1-km soil moisture data through integrating satellite images from European SMOS mission and NASA's SMAP mission. The utilization of high-resolution satellite images will provide essential information to determine antecedent soil moisture condition, which is an essential control on flood generation. Second, this system is able to adjust flood forecasting based on real-time inundation information collected by multi-UAS. A group of UAS will be deployed during storm events to capture the changing extent of flooded areas and water depth at multiple critical locations simultaneously. Such information will be transmitted to a hydrological model to validate and improve flood simulation. Third, the backbone of this system is a state-of-the-art 3-D hydrological model that assimilates the hydrological information from satellites and multi-UAS. The model is able to address surface water-groundwater interactions and reflect the effects of various infrastructures. Using Web-GIS technologies, the modeling results will be available online as interactive flood maps accessible to the public. To support the development and verification of this modeling system, surface and subsurface hydrological observations will be conducted in a number of small watersheds in the Coastal Bend region. We envision this

  1. Tracking the Global Distribution of Persistent Organic Pollutants Accounting for E-Waste Exports to Developing Regions.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Knut; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2016-01-19

    Elevated concentrations of various industrial-use Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been reported in some developing areas in subtropical and tropical regions known to be destinations of e-waste. We used a recent inventory of the global generation and exports of e-waste to develop various global scale emission scenarios for industrial-use organic contaminants (IUOCs). For representative IUOCs (RIUOCs), only hypothetical emissions via passive volatilization from e-waste were considered whereas for PCBs, historical emissions throughout the chemical life-cycle (i.e., manufacturing, use, disposal) were included. The environmental transport and fate of RIUOCs and PCBs were then simulated using the BETR Global 2.0 model. Export of e-waste is expected to increase and sustain global emissions beyond the baseline scenario, which assumes no export. A comparison between model predictions and observations for PCBs in selected recipient regions generally suggests a better agreement when exports are accounted for. This study may be the first to integrate the global transport of IUOCs in waste with their long-range transport in air and water. The results call for integrated chemical management strategies on a global scale.

  2. Improved Ionospheric Correction for DGPS by taking into account the Horizontal Gradient Effect over the Equatorial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajoo, Karthigesu

    Improved Ionospheric Correction for DGPS by taking into account the Horizontal Gradient Effect over the Equatorial Region K Nagarajoo Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja Johor Darul Takzim Email: karthi@uthm.edu.my DGPS is a system where the range error at a reference station will be eliminated from the range measurement at the user, which `view' the same satellite, presuming that the satellite's path to both the reference station and the user experience common errors due to the ionosphere, clock errors, multipath etc. In this assumption, the error due to the ionospheric refraction is assumed to be the same for the two closely spaced paths (such as a baseline length between reference station and the user is 10km) and thus the presence of ionospheric horizontal gradient is ignored. If a user's path is exposed to a drastically large ionosphere gradient (i.e., over the equatorial region), the large difference of ionosphere delays between the reference station and the user can result in significant position error for the user. Apart from that, the difference in the elevation angle at the reference and the user that `view' the same satellite to get the range measurement does also introduce some millimetre to centimetre of range difference. The neglect of the effect due to the presence of an ionospheric horizontal gradient and the elevation angle's difference (at both ends of the baseline) will cause a significant amount of error in the final DGPS user positioning. In this work, those two effects have been investigated in order to obtain a more accurate ionospheric correction for DGPS and have been found to be roughly comparable showing that they are both important. By performing ray-tracing calculations (using Jones 3-D Ray Tracing program) with and without a linear horizontal ionosphere gradient, the effects of elevation angle and horizontal gradient have been separated and a final positioning improvement of about 8cm has been shown at the user of a

  3. 'If they have a girlfriend, they have five girlfriends': Accountability and sexism in volunteer workers' talk about HIV/AIDS in a South African health setting.

    PubMed

    McVittie, Chris; McKinlay, Andy; Ranjbar, Vania

    2016-04-01

    Significant challenges remain in tackling the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Effective action requires both appropriate policy at a global level and informed practice on the local level. Here, we report how workers in a project in Johannesburg, South Africa, make sense of HIV transmission. Discourse analysis of data from interviews with 63 participants shows that project workers routinely attribute transmission to men's sexual relationships with multiple female partners. This explanation is so pervasive that it renders invisible other routes to transmission. Absence of consideration of other routes to infection potentially restricts front-line practice, so hindering local attempts to tackle HIV/AIDS.

  4. AID induces double-strand breaks at immunoglobulin switch regions and c-MYC causing chromosomal translocations in yeast THO mutants.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, José F; Gómez-González, Belén; Aguilera, Andrés

    2011-02-01

    Transcription of the switch (S) regions of immunoglobulin genes in B cells generates stable R-loops that are targeted by Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID), triggering class switch recombination (CSR), as well as translocations with c-MYC responsible for Burkitt's lymphomas. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, stable R-loops are formed co-transcriptionally in mutants of THO, a conserved nuclear complex involved in mRNP biogenesis. Such R-loops trigger genome instability and facilitate deamination by human AID. To understand the mechanisms that generate genome instability mediated by mRNP biogenesis impairment and by AID, we devised a yeast chromosomal system based on different segments of mammalian S regions and c-MYC for the analysis of chromosomal rearrangements in both wild-type and THO mutants. We demonstrate that AID acts in yeast at heterologous S and c-MYC transcribed sequences leading to double-strand breaks (DSBs) which in turn cause chromosomal translocations via Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ). AID-induced translocations were strongly enhanced in yeast THO null mutants, consistent with the idea that AID-mediated DSBs depend on R-loop formation. Our study not only provides new clues to understand the role of mRNP biogenesis in preventing genome rearrangements and the mechanism of AID-mediated genome instability, but also shows that, once uracil residues are produced by AID-mediated deamination, these are processed into DSBs and chromosomal rearrangements by the general and conserved DNA repair functions present from yeast to human cells.

  5. Automatic detection system for multiple region of interest registration to account for posture changes in head and neck radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencarelli, A.; van Beek, S.; Zijp, L. J.; Rasch, C.; van Herk, M.; Sonke, J.-J.

    2014-04-01

    Despite immobilization of head and neck (H and N) cancer patients, considerable posture changes occur over the course of radiotherapy (RT). To account for the posture changes, we previously implemented a multiple regions of interest (mROIs) registration system tailored to the H and N region for image-guided RT correction strategies. This paper is focused on the automatic segmentation of the ROIs in the H and N region. We developed a fast and robust automatic detection system suitable for an online image-guided application and quantified its performance. The system was developed to segment nine high contrast structures from the planning CT including cervical vertebrae, mandible, hyoid, manubrium of sternum, larynx and occipital bone. It generates nine 3D rectangular-shaped ROIs and informs the user in case of ambiguities. Two observers evaluated the robustness of the segmentation on 188 H and N cancer patients. Bland-Altman analysis was applied to a sub-group of 50 patients to compare the registration results using only the automatically generated ROIs and those manually set by two independent experts. Finally the time performance and workload were evaluated. Automatic detection of individual anatomical ROIs had a success rate of 97%/53% with/without user notifications respectively. Following the notifications, for 38% of the patients one or more structures were manually adjusted. The processing time was on average 5 s. The limits of agreement between the local registrations of manually and automatically set ROIs was comprised between ±1.4 mm, except for the manubrium of sternum (-1.71 mm and 1.67 mm), and were similar to the limits agreement between the two experts. The workload to place the nine ROIs was reduced from 141 s (±20 s) by the manual procedure to 59 s (±17 s) using the automatic method. An efficient detection system to segment multiple ROIs was developed for Cone-Beam CT image-guided applications in the H and N region and is clinically implemented in

  6. Accuracy of packaging of dose administration aids in regional aged care facilities in the Hunter area of New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Annette; Naughton, Kialie; Mallarkey, Gordon

    2008-03-03

    To audit the accuracy of dose administration aid (DAA) packaging in regional aged care facilities (RACFs) within the boundaries of the Hunter Urban Division of General Practice. Each participating RACF audited one DAA for each resident receiving medication between May and August 2006. Registered nurses compared the contents with the medication chart prepared by the general practitioner and recorded any discrepancies as incidents. Number of medication incidents in the provision of DAAs. 297 incidents were detected from 6972 packs for 2480 residents (incident rate of 4.3% of packs and 12% of residents) from 42 participating RACFs. Reasons for incidents included medications missing from a pack (99 occasions), wrong medication dispensed (12), supply of the wrong strength (32), incorrect labelling (7), pharmacies supplying medication that had been ceased by the GP (37), incorrect dosage instructions (32), medications not delivered to the RACF (13). The rate of incidents in DAA packaging in RACFs was high. The error types included incorrect packaging, correct packaging but the DAA was no longer required, and operational problems. Recommendations for improvement include: continuing audit and analysis by RACFs; streamlining of communications among GPs, pharmacists and RACF staff; using electronic methods to chart, order and dispense medications; use of generic names as much as possible; development of guidelines for the supply of medication in DAAs.

  7. Poverty, partner discord, and divergent accounts; a mixed methods account of births before arrival to health facilities in Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Shannon A; Chase, Rachel P; Winch, Peter J; Chebet, Joy J; Besana, Giulia V R; Mosha, Idda; Sheweji, Zaina; Kennedy, Caitlin E

    2016-09-27

    Births before arrival (BBA) to health care facilities are associated with higher rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality compared to facility deliveries or planned home births. Research on such births has been conducted in several high-income countries, but there are almost no studies from low-income settings where a majority of maternal and newborn deaths occur. Drawing on a household survey of women and in-depth interviews with women and their partners, we examined the experience of BBA in rural districts of Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Among survey respondents, 59 births (4 %) were classified as BBAs. Most of these births occurred in the presence of a family member (47 %) or traditional birth attendant (24 %). Low socioeconomic status was the strongest predictor of BBA. After controlling for wealth via matching, high parity and a low number of antenatal care (ANC) visits retained statistical significance. While these variables are useful indicators of which women are at greater risk of BBA, their predictive power is limited in a context where many women are poor, multiparous, and make multiple ANC visits. In qualitative interviews, stories of BBAs included themes of partner disagreement regarding when to depart for facilities and financial or logistical constraints that underpinned departure delays. Women described wanting to depart earlier to facilities than partners. As efforts continue to promote facility birth, we highlight the financial demands associated with facility delivery and the potential for these demands to place women at a heightened risk for BBAs.

  8. Latinos in the United States on the HIV/AIDS care continuum by birth country/region: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Diana M; Trepka, Mary Jo; Dillon, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    Twenty percent of Latinos with HIV in the US are unaware of their HIV status, 33% are linked to care late, and 74% do not reach viral suppression. Disparities along this HIV/AIDS care continuum may be present between various ethnic groups historically categorised as Latino. To identify differences along the HIV/AIDS care continuum between US Latinos of varying birth countries/regions a systematic review of articles published in English between 2002 and 2013 was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Studies that reported on one or more steps of the HIV/AIDS care continuum and reported results by birth country/region for Latinos were included. Latinos born in Mexico and Central America were found to be at increased risk of late diagnosis compared with US-born Latinos. No studies were found that reported on linkage to HIV care or viral load suppression by country/region of birth. Lower survival was found among Latinos born in Puerto Rico compared with Latinos born in mainland US. Inconsistent differences in survival were found among Latinos born in Mexico, Cuba, and Central America. Socio/cultural context, immigration factors, and documentation status are discussed as partial explanations for disparities along the HIV/AIDS care continuum.

  9. Spectrum of oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS in the Perm region (Russia) and identification of self-induced ulceronecrotic lingual lesions.

    PubMed

    Gileva, Olga S; Sazhina, Marina V; Gileva, Evgenja S; Efimov, Andrey V; Scully, Crispian

    2004-01-01

    To study the frequency and spectrum of oral manifestations of HIV-infected drug-users in the Perm region. 104 seropositive HIV-infected drug-users (69 male, 35 female; ages 15 to 32 years; 13 co-infected with hepatitis viruses) and 13 AIDS-infected drug-users (7 male, 6 female; ages 16 to 37 years; 12 co-infected with hepatitis viruses). The most frequent forms of oral mucosal lesions in the HIV-infected group -- candidiasis (32.7%), herpetic lesions (15.4%), cheilitis glandularis (3.9%), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (2%). Regional lymphadenopathy was observed in 31% cases. The ulceronecrotic oral mucosal lesions were seen in the sublingual region and tongue in 11.5% patients and manifested with pain, dysarthria, dysphagia, and dysgeusia. These lesions were found in drug-users who injected the opioids sublingually. AIDS patients had oral candidiasis (84.6%), herpetic lesions (53.8%), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (15.4%) and cheilitis glandularis (7%). All AIDS-patients had severe xerostomia, and 15.4% had unilateral or bilateral swelling of the parotid glands. Generalized ulceronecrotic gingivostomatitis was found in 50% of the patients but the sublingual ulceronecrotic lesions were not identified. 1. The spectrum of oral cavity lesions of HIV/AIDS patients in Perm region is widespread enough. 2. Dissemination of oral cavity lesions is increasing in proportion of disease progression. 3. Dental care of HIV/AIDS patients should include periodic oral examinations to monitor their disease progression and to alleviate symptoms of oral opportunic and neoplastic diseases, to improve the life-style of the patients infected with HIV.

  10. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher

  11. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukta; Chatterjee, Anindya

    2012-07-09

    In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the "Strike- Hard" campaign in China or the "war on drugs" in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam's response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves.The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting "universal access" goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners.The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher political

  12. Impact of accounting for coloured noise in radar altimetry data on a regional quasi-geoid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahani, H. H.; Slobbe, D. C.; Klees, R.; Seitz, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    We study the impact of an accurate computation and incorporation of coloured noise in radar altimeter data when computing a regional quasi-geoid model using least-squares techniques. Our test area comprises the Southern North Sea including the Netherlands, Belgium, and parts of France, Germany, and the UK. We perform the study by modelling the disturbing potential with spherical radial base functions. To that end, we use the traditional remove-compute-restore procedure with a recent GRACE/GOCE static gravity field model. Apart from radar altimeter data, we use terrestrial, airborne, and shipboard gravity data. Radar altimeter sea surface heights are corrected for the instantaneous dynamic topography and used in the form of along-track quasi-geoid height differences. Noise in these data are estimated using repeat-track and post-fit residual analysis techniques and then modelled as an auto regressive moving average process. Quasi-geoid models are computed with and without taking the modelled coloured noise into account. The difference between them is used as a measure of the impact of coloured noise in radar altimeter along-track quasi-geoid height differences on the estimated quasi-geoid model. The impact strongly depends on the availability of shipboard gravity data. If no such data are available, the impact may attain values exceeding 10 centimetres in particular areas. In case shipboard gravity data are used, the impact is reduced, though it still attains values of several centimetres. We use geometric quasi-geoid heights from GPS/levelling data at height markers as control data to analyse the quality of the quasi-geoid models. The quasi-geoid model computed using a model of the coloured noise in radar altimeter along-track quasi-geoid height differences shows in some areas a significant improvement over a model that assumes white noise in these data. However, the interpretation in other areas remains a challenge due to the limited quality of the control data.

  13. [Assessment of knowledge about first aid among the teachers of chosen high schools in the Western Pomerania region].

    PubMed

    Wiśniewski, Jakub; Majewski, Włodzimierz D

    2007-01-01

    Increasing susceptibility to trauma among Polish society, which concerns school pupils as well, requires defining causes of the problem and establishing directions of activity in order to reduce the frequency of trauma and its unfavorable consequences. Investigation of a level of knowledge and an attitude of teachers of chosen secondary schools towards giving the first aid in the West Pomeranian voivodeship. The survey was carried out among 100 teachers from two high schools of which one is situated in a city of Szczecin (50) and the other in a smaller town of Gryfice (50). A standardized questionnaire, which was previously applied to investigate a problem of giving the first aid among Polish society, was used as a diagnostic tool. Although majority of respondents took part in first aid courses while acquiring different ranks and qualifications, the survey has confirmed that the level of knowledge about giving the first aid is insufficient. The half of respondents know rules of giving first aid, and one third declares that can put these rules into the practice. A large part of respondents demonstrates rather passive attitude towards giving the first aid in case of emergency. There are no major differences in the level of knowledge about first aid between teachers from a large city and a small town. A systemic solutions for improvement of the knowledge of rules of giving the first aid among teachers and pupils are mandatory. The authors of this paper propose cyclical training courses for teachers led by medical professionals, and further courses for pupils led by those teachers in collaboration with students of the last year of paramedical studies.

  14. Title III Accountability Policies and Outcomes for K-12: Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for English Language Learner Students in Southeast Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly S.; Dufford-Melendez, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This report details Title III accountability policies and outcomes for K-12 English language learner (ELL) students for school year 2007/08 in the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) under the Title III annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAO) provision of the No Child…

  15. Accounting for institutional change in health economic evaluation: a program to tackle HIV/AIDS and gender violence in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Jan, Stephen; Pronyk, Paul; Kim, Julia

    2008-02-01

    There has been growing interest in the application of institutionalist perspectives in the health economics literature. This paper investigates the institutionalist notion of social value and its use in economic evaluation with particular reference to a program to address HIV/AIDS and gender violence in Southern Africa (IMAGE). Institutions are the rules that govern the conduct between individuals, groups and organisations. Their social value stems from their capacity to reduce the uncertainty in human interactions thereby both reducing transaction costs and, importantly, enabling the initiation and sustainability of various activities (instrumental value). Furthermore, institutions tend to be formed around certain ethical positions and as a consequence, act in binding future decision making to these positions (intrinsic value). Incorporating such notions of social value within a conventional welfare-based measure of benefit is problematic as institutional development is not necessarily consistent with individual utility. An institutionalist approach allows for these additional domains to be factored into economic evaluation. IMAGE is an intervention to reduce gender violence and HIV through microfinance, health education and community development, and involves significant initial investment in institution-building activities, notably through training activities with program staff and community members. The key to employing an institutionalist approach to the evaluation of IMAGE is in understanding the nature of those actions that can be seen as institution-building and determining: (1) the instrumental value of follow-up activities by appropriate amortisation of transaction costs over an horizon that reflects the economies gained from the intervention; and (2) the intrinsic value of any transformation in the community through a cost-consequences approach informed by an a priori conceptual model. This case study highlights how health sector interventions can effect

  16. Reducing HIV and AIDS in adolescents: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kasedde, Susan; Luo, Chewe; McClure, Craig; Chandan, Upjeet

    2013-06-01

    Adolescents are critical to efforts to end the AIDS epidemic. Few national AIDS strategies explicitly program for children in their second decade of life. Adolescents (aged 10-19 years) are therefore largely invisible in global, regional, and country HIV and AIDS reports making it difficult to assess progress in this population. We have unprecedented knowledge to guide investment towards greater impact on HIV prevention, treatment, and care in adolescents, but it has not been applied to reach those most vulnerable and optimize efficiency and scale. The cost of this is increasing AIDS-related deaths and largely unchanged levels of new HIV infections in adolescents. An AIDS-free generation will remain out of reach if the global community does not prioritize adolescents. National AIDS responses must be accountable to adolescents, invest in strengthening and monitoring protective and supportive laws and policies and access for adolescents to high impact HIV interventions.

  17. Accounts of damage from historical earthquakes in the northeastern Caribbean to aid in the determination of their location and intensity magnitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, Claudia H.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Bakun, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Documentation of an event in the past depended on the population and political trends of the island, and the availability of historical documents is limited by the physical resource digitization schedule and by the copyright laws of each archive. Examples of documents accessed are governors' letters, newspapers, and other circulars published within the Caribbean, North America, and Western Europe. Key words were used to search for publications that contain eyewitness accounts of various large earthquakes. Finally, this catalog provides descriptions of damage to buildings used in previous studies for the estimation of moment intensity (MI) and location of significantly damaging or felt earthquakes in Hispaniola and in the northeastern Caribbean, all of which have been described in other studies.

  18. Keeping Accountability Systems Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Martha

    2007-01-01

    The standards and accountability movement in education has undeniably transformed schooling throughout the United States. Even before President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act into law in January 2002, mandating annual public school testing in English and math for grades 3-8 and once in high school, most states had already…

  19. Intimate partner violence and challenges facing women living with HIV/AIDS in accessing antiretroviral treatment at Singida Regional Hospital, central Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kosia, Agnes; Kakoko, Deodatus; Semakafu, Ave Maria Emilius; Nyamhanga, Tumaini; Frumence, Gasto

    2016-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global public health problem. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region most affected by HIV/AIDS in the world. Globally, and in Tanzania in particular, women are more affected by HIV/AIDS than men. Tanzania has been reported to be among the countries with the highest burden of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study explored the challenges facing women living with HIV/AIDS (LWHA) attending the care and treatment clinic (CTC) in Singida Regional Hospital in Tanzania. Design A qualitative study was performed in which data were collected through in-depth interviews with 35 women LWHA who also experienced IPV. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results The study findings showed that women LWHA experienced challenges from their male partners in the form of lack of fare to attend CTC, delayed attendance to CTC, verbal threats and intimidation, mistrust partner resulting in changed antiretroviral (ARV) dosing time. Also, systemic challenges such as malfunction of CD4 count testing apparatus contributed to mistrust from their male partners which led to IPV. Conclusion In this study, women LWHA experienced IPV challenges that resulted in poor adherence to ARV medication and CTC attendance, as well as insufficient time to collect ARV medication. It is recommended that the government address systemic challenges faced by women LWHA, introduce multiple approaches to address the needs of women LWHA experiencing IPV, and develop strong policies to prevent IPV against women in Tanzania, regardless of their HIV status. PMID:27987296

  20. Intimate partner violence and challenges facing women living with HIV/AIDS in accessing antiretroviral treatment at Singida Regional Hospital, central Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kosia, Agnes; Kakoko, Deodatus; Semakafu, Ave Maria Emilius; Nyamhanga, Tumaini; Frumence, Gasto

    2016-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global public health problem. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region most affected by HIV/AIDS in the world. Globally, and in Tanzania in particular, women are more affected by HIV/AIDS than men. Tanzania has been reported to be among the countries with the highest burden of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study explored the challenges facing women living with HIV/AIDS (LWHA) attending the care and treatment clinic (CTC) in Singida Regional Hospital in Tanzania. Design A qualitative study was performed in which data were collected through in-depth interviews with 35 women LWHA who also experienced IPV. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results The study findings showed that women LWHA experienced challenges from their male partners in the form of lack of fare to attend CTC, delayed attendance to CTC, verbal threats and intimidation, mistrust partner resulting in changed antiretroviral (ARV) dosing time. Also, systemic challenges such as malfunction of CD4 count testing apparatus contributed to mistrust from their male partners which led to IPV. Conclusion In this study, women LWHA experienced IPV challenges that resulted in poor adherence to ARV medication and CTC attendance, as well as insufficient time to collect ARV medication. It is recommended that the government address systemic challenges faced by women LWHA, introduce multiple approaches to address the needs of women LWHA experiencing IPV, and develop strong policies to prevent IPV against women in Tanzania, regardless of their HIV status.

  1. Intimate partner violence and challenges facing women living with HIV/AIDS in accessing antiretroviral treatment at Singida Regional Hospital, central Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kosia, Agnes; Kakoko, Deodatus; Semakafu, Ave Maria Emilius; Nyamhanga, Tumaini; Frumence, Gasto

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global public health problem. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region most affected by HIV/AIDS in the world. Globally, and in Tanzania in particular, women are more affected by HIV/AIDS than men. Tanzania has been reported to be among the countries with the highest burden of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study explored the challenges facing women living with HIV/AIDS (LWHA) attending the care and treatment clinic (CTC) in Singida Regional Hospital in Tanzania. A qualitative study was performed in which data were collected through in-depth interviews with 35 women LWHA who also experienced IPV. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. The study findings showed that women LWHA experienced challenges from their male partners in the form of lack of fare to attend CTC, delayed attendance to CTC, verbal threats and intimidation, mistrust partner resulting in changed antiretroviral (ARV) dosing time. Also, systemic challenges such as malfunction of CD4 count testing apparatus contributed to mistrust from their male partners which led to IPV. In this study, women LWHA experienced IPV challenges that resulted in poor adherence to ARV medication and CTC attendance, as well as insufficient time to collect ARV medication. It is recommended that the government address systemic challenges faced by women LWHA, introduce multiple approaches to address the needs of women LWHA experiencing IPV, and develop strong policies to prevent IPV against women in Tanzania, regardless of their HIV status.

  2. Garrett County Aids AID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Garrett County, Maryland volunteered to act as a pre-overseas learning laboratory for AID (Agency for International Development) interns who practiced data collection and planning techniques with the help of local citizenry. (JC)

  3. Implications of High-Frequency Cochlear Dead Regions for Fitting Hearing Aids to Adults with Mild to Moderately-Severe Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Robyn M.; Johnson, Jani A.; Alexander, Genevieve C.

    2012-01-01

    Short Summary It has been suggested that existence of high-frequency cochlear dead regions (DRs) has implications for hearing aid fitting, and that the optimal amount of high-frequency gain is reduced for these patients. This investigation used laboratory and field measurements to examine the effectiveness of reduced high-frequency gain in typical hearing aid users with high-frequency DRs. Both types of data revealed that speech understanding was better with the evidence-based prescription than with reduced high-frequency gain, and that this was seen for listeners with and without DRs. Nevertheless, subjects did not always prefer the amplification condition that produced better speech understanding. PMID:22555183

  4. The willingness of private-sector doctors to manage public-sector HIV/AIDS patients in the eThekwini metropolitan region of KwaZulu-Natal

    PubMed Central

    Jinabhai, Champaklal C.; Taylor, Myra

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background South Africa is severely affected by the AIDS pandemic and this has resulted in an already under-resourced public sector being placed under further stress, while there remains a vibrant private sector. To address some of the resource and personnel shortages facing the public sector in South Africa, partnerships between the public and private sectors are slowly being forged. However, little is known about the willingness of private-sector doctors in the eThekwini Metropolitan (Metro) region of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to manage public-sector HIV and AIDS patients. Objectives To gauge the willingness of private-sector doctor to manage public-sector HIV and AIDS patients and to describe factors that may influence their responses. Method A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken among private-sector doctors, both general practitioners (GPs) and specialists, working in the eThekwini Metro, using an anonymous, structured questionnaire to investigate their willingness to manage public-sector HIV and AIDS patients and the factors associated with their responses. Chi-square and independent t-tests were used to evaluate associations. Odds ratios were determined using a binary logistic regression model. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Most of the doctors were male GPs aged 30–50 years who had been in practice for more than 10 years. Of these, 133 (77.8%) were willing to manage public-sector HIV and AIDS patients, with 105 (78.9%) reporting adequate knowledge, 99 (74.4%) adequate time, and 83 (62.4%) adequate infrastructure. Of the 38 (22.2%) that were unwilling to manage these patients, more than 80% cited a lack of time, knowledge and infrastructure to manage them. Another reason cited by five doctors (3.8%) who were unwilling, was the distance from public-sector facilities. Of the 33 specialist doctors, 14 (42.4%) indicated that they would not be willing to manage public-sector HIV and AIDS patients

  5. Enhancing a Remote-Sensing Method for Soil Moisture by Accounting for Regional Soil, Vegetation, and Climatic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahaar, A. S.; Niemann, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of root-zone soil moisture is critical for understanding the perpetuation of droughts and managing agricultural water systems. A remote-sensing method based on optical and thermal satellite imagery has been previously proposed to estimate fine-resolution (30 m) root-zone soil moisture over large regions. This method uses Landsat imagery to calculate all the components of the surface energy balance and then calculates the evaporative fraction (Λ) as the ratio of the latent heat flux to the sum of the sensible and latent heat fluxes. Root-zone soil moisture (θ) is then estimated from an empirical relationship with Λ. A similar approach has also been proposed to estimate the degree of saturation. Previous testing of this method for a semiarid region of southeastern Colorado has shown that a single relationship between θ and Λ does not apply universally. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of regional soil, vegetation, and climatic conditions on the form and strength of the Λ- θ relationship. To accomplish this goal, a global sensitivity analysis is performed using the Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) and a physically-based model (Hydrus-1D) that simulates both the land-surface energy balance and soil moisture dynamics. The modeling results show that, within a given climatic region, soil characteristics are very important in determining the shape of the Λ-θ relationship, while vegetation characteristics have the largest effect on the strength of the relationship. The modeling results also indicate that the annual average rainfall, which helps determine the climatic region, has a strong effect on both the form and strength of the relationship. From this analysis, the constants that define the Λ-θ relationships are estimated using regional characteristics. This approach allows the remote-sensing method to be adapted to local conditions and has the potential to greatly improve its performance.

  6. Depressive Symptoms Among Older Caregivers Raising Children Impacted by HIV/AIDS in the Omusati Region of Namibia.

    PubMed

    Kalomo, Eveline; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Besthorn, Fred

    2017-08-29

    The study of depressive symptoms among caregivers raising HIV/AIDS-orphans is emerging as an important area of research. However, it has not been explored at length in generational and cultural contexts. In this study, the authors explore the role of financial strain, raising a HIV-infected and/or impacted child, and caregiver knowledge on the depressive symptoms of 89 older caregivers raising HIV/AIDS-orphans in Namibia, Africa. In this study, we found elevated levels of depressive symptoms among this population. Using hierarchical regression a significant positive association between financial strain and depressive symptoms was found. A significant negative association between caring for an HIV-infected orphan and depression was shown. Our work suggests the need for economic assistance programs and psychosocial interventions for older caregivers.

  7. The Regional Resource Center (RRC) Network Accountability Report Executive Summary: The First RRC Network Performance Measurement Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Resource Center for Special Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Regional Resource Center (RRC) program mission is to strengthen the capacity of state systems of education and early intervention to improve results for infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities and their families. It is one of the longest and most successful technical assistance projects of the Office of Special Education…

  8. Enhancing the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model to Account for Natural and Anthropogenic Impacts on Evapotranspiration in the North American Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, T. J.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a poorly constrained flux in the North American monsoon (NAM) region, leading to potential errors in land-atmosphere feedbacks. Due to the region's arid to semi-arid climate, two factors play major roles in ET: sparse vegetation that exhibits dramatic seasonal greening, and irrigated agriculture. To more accurately characterize the spatio-temporal variations of ET in the NAM region, we used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, modified to account for soil evaporation (Esoil), irrigated agriculture, and the variability of land surface properties derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer during 2000-2012. Simulated ET patterns were compared to field observations at fifty-nine eddy covariance towers, water balance estimates in nine basins, and six available gridded ET products. The modified VIC model performed well at eddy covariance towers representing the natural and agricultural land covers in the region. Simulations revealed that major source areas for ET were forested mountain areas during the summer season and irrigated croplands at peak times of growth in the winter and summer, accounting for 22% and 9% of the annual ET, respectively. Over the NAM region, Esoil was the largest component (60%) of annual ET, followed by plant transpiration (T, 32%) and evaporation of canopy interception (8%). Esoil and T displayed different relations with P in natural land covers, with Esoil tending to peak earlier than T by up to one month, while only a weak correlation between ET and P was found in irrigated croplands. These VIC-based estimates are the most realistic to date for this region, outperforming several other process-based and remote-sensing-based gridded ET products. Furthermore, spatio-temporal patterns reveal new information on the magnitudes, locations and timing of ET in the North American monsoon region, with implications for land-atmosphere feedbacks.

  9. Governance, organization, accountability and sustainability of a region-wide school-based deworming program in Loreto, Peru.

    PubMed

    Ferruci, Hugo Rodriguez; Razuri, H; Casapia, M; Rahme, E; Silva, H; Ault, S; Blouin, B; Mofid, L S; Montresor, A; Gyorkos, T W

    2016-07-01

    Chau Cuica was the name given by the regional government of Loreto in Peru for its school-based deworming program which was initiated in 2012 with a donation of mebendazole from an international non-governmental organization. Embedded in the program from the start was a sentinel surveillance component which consisted of 16 sentinel schools representing Loreto's seven provinces. Coverage rates varied between 35% and 61% over the first two years of the program (and seven deworming cycles). Initial prevalences of soil-transmitted helminth infections were high, with 82.4% of schoolchildren having at least one infection and prevalences of both Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections both exceeding 60%. After two years, these prevalences had dropped to 56% for any STH infection, 38% for A. lumbricoides and 34% for T. trichiura. Importantly, the proportions of children with moderate and heavy infections also dropped. Both the regional Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education were jointly charged to implement this deworming program. The program's costs were estimated to be approximately 22 cents (USD) per child per deworming cycle. The responsibility for the surveillance component was initially undertaken by research partners from a local NGO and a Canadian university, which transferred gradually over the course of the deworming program to being entirely the responsibility of the Ministry of Health. This regional deworming program may serve as a model for other jurisdictions that are planning a school-based deworming program with an integrated surveillance component to monitor impact.

  10. Progressive region-based colon extraction for computer-aided detection and quantitative imaging in cathartic and non-cathartic CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näppi, Janne J.; Ryu, Yasuji; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2014-03-01

    Automated colon extraction is an important first step for applications of computer-aided detection (CADe) and quantitative imaging in computed tomographic colonography (CTC). However, previously developed colon extraction algorithms have various limitations. We developed a new fully automated progressive region-based (PRB) method to extract the complete region of colon from CTC images while minimizing the presence of extra-colonic components. The method can be used to provide the target region for CADe as well as to provide quantitative imaging information about the colon. In the method, extra-colonic components are excluded from the abdominal region by use of anatomy-based extraction methods, visible lumen regions of the colon and small bowel are decomposed into material-based subregions, a colon pathway is tracked from the anus to cecum by use of algorithms of progressively increasing complexity using anatomy-based landmarks, segmental features, and region-based tracking algorithms, and the extracted lumen region is perfected into a complete lumen by use of a discrete level-set algorithm. The method was tested with 15 challenging cathartic and non-cathartic fecaltagging CTC cases. Preliminary results indicate that the PRB method can outperform our previously developed centerline-based tracking method in colon extraction.

  11. [Sexuality and STD/AIDS prevention: social representations by rural men in a county in the Zona da Mata region in Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Alves, Maria de Fátima Paz

    2003-01-01

    This study analyzes the concepts displayed by rural men in the Zona da Mata region in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, concerning their sexual practices and STD/AIDS prevention. The study adopts a qualitative methodology, having interviewed 22 men According to the interviews, their first sexual intercourse is characterized as a learning experience and is sometimes marked by violence. They make a distinction between the "woman at home" and "street women"; they acknowledge women's sexual desire and value reciprocity in sexual relations, differentiating between the kinds of sex they have with different categories of women. Seven men report homoerotic experiences during adolescence, which they ascribe to immaturity, not affecting their heterosexual identity. Condom use, perceived in a negative light, is inconstant and irregular, inversely proportional to knowing the female partner. STDs in general inspire little fear, while AIDS is associated with death; the interviewees do not see themselves at risk of acquiring HIV. Ambiguities in the men's discourse, together with a basically ineffective approach by health services and preventive campaigns, reveal a high level of exposure to the risk of contracting STDs/AIDS among the interviewees and their female or male partners.

  12. Global health diplomacy, national integration, and regional development through the monitoring and evaluation of HIV/AIDS programs in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and Samoa.

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian; Gildea, Amy; Garae, Caleb; Moa, Serafi; Lautusi, Avaia

    2015-04-27

    The South Pacific countries of Vanuatu, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea have ascended rapidly up the development spectrum in recent years, refining an independent and post-colonial economic and political identity that enhances their recognition on the world stage. All three countries have overcome economic, political and public health challenges in order to stake their claim to sovereignty. In this regard, the contributions of national and international programs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, with specific reference to their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) aspects, have contributed not just to public health, but also to broader political and diplomatic goals such as 'nation-building'. This perspective describes the specific contributions of global health programs to the pursuit of national integration, development, and regional international relations, in Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea, respectively, based on in-country M&E activities on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) during 2014 and 2015. Key findings include: (1) that global health programs contribute to non-health goals; (2) that HIV/AIDS programs promote international relations, decentralized development, and internal unity; (3) that arguments in favour of the maintenance and augmentation of global health funding may be enhanced on this basis; and (4) that "smart" global health approaches have been successful in South Pacific countries. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  13. Global health diplomacy, national integration, and regional development through the monitoring and evaluation of HIV/ AIDS programs in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Kevany, Sebastian; Gildea, Amy; Garae, Caleb; Moa, Serafi; Lautusi, Avaia

    2015-01-01

    The South Pacific countries of Vanuatu, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea have ascended rapidly up the development spectrum in recent years, refining an independent and post-colonial economic and political identity that enhances their recognition on the world stage. All three countries have overcome economic, political and public health challenges in order to stake their claim to sovereignty. In this regard, the contributions of national and international programs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, with specific reference to their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) aspects, have contributed not just to public health, but also to broader political and diplomatic goals such as ‘nation-building’. This perspective describes the specific contributions of global health programs to the pursuit of national integration, development, and regional international relations, in Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea, respectively, based on in-country M&E activities on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) during 2014 and 2015. Key findings include: (1) that global health programs contribute to non-health goals; (2) that HIV/AIDS programs promote international relations, decentralized development, and internal unity; (3) that arguments in favour of the maintenance and augmentation of global health funding may be enhanced on this basis; and (4) that "smart" global health approaches have been successful in South Pacific countries. PMID:26029892

  14. Stigma, fatigue and social breakdown: exploring the impacts of HIV/AIDS on patient and carer well-being in the Caprivi Region, Namibia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Felicity

    2006-12-01

    It is generally assumed that caring is a substantial burden upon households afflicted by HIV/AIDS. However, as a 'private' household responsibility, little is known about the experiences of either those who provide the care, or those receiving care, despite the fact that the process may extend over several years and may have a greater impact upon the livelihood security and well-being of the household than the actual death of the ill person. Drawing upon data collected through solicited diaries, this paper explores how illness and the daily and long-term duties of caring amongst a sample of households in the Caprivi Region of Namibia impacts upon the physical and psychological well-being of ill people and their carers. While optimism and enhanced well-being were recorded during periods of illness remission, AIDS-related illnesses invariably result in periods of sickness and dependency. This results in disempowerment and lowered self-esteem, and decreased well-being amongst ill people. This paper argues that the increasing dependency of the ill person, widespread pressure to maintain household integrity through 'seeing for yourself', i.e. being self-sufficient, or at least contributing to reciprocal support networks, and the stigma attached to HIV/AIDS can result in considerable intra-household tension and breakdown of key social support networks.

  15. Governance, organization, accountability and sustainability of a region-wide school-based deworming program in Loreto, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Ferrucci, H; Razuri, H; Casapia, M; Rahme, E; Silva, H; Ault, S; Blouin, B; Mofid, LS; Montresor, A; Gyorkos, TW

    2017-01-01

    Chau Cuica was the name given by the regional government of Loreto in Peru for its school-based deworming program which was initiated in 2012 with a donation of mebendazole from an international non-governmental organization. Embedded in the program from the start was a sentinel surveillance component which consisted of 16 sentinel schools representing Loreto’s seven provinces. Coverage rates varied between 35% and 61% over the first two years of the program (and seven deworming cycles). Initial prevalences of soil-transmitted helminth infections were high, with 82.4% of schoolchildren having at least one infection and prevalences of both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections both exceeding 60%. After two years, these prevalences had dropped to 56% for any STH infection, 38% for A. lumbricoides and 34% for T. trichiura. Importantly, the proportions of children with moderate and heavy infections also dropped. Both the regional Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education were jointly charged to implement this deworming program. The program’s costs were estimated to be approximately 22 cents (USD) per child per deworming cycle. The responsibility for the surveillance component was initially undertaken by research partners from a local NGO and a Canadian university, which transferred gradually over the course of the deworming program to being entirely the responsibility of the Ministry of Health. This regional deworming program may serve as a model for other jurisdictions who are planning a school-based deworming program with an integrated surveillance component to monitor impact. PMID:27048990

  16. Accounting for inter-annual and seasonal variability in regionalization of hydrologic response in the Great Lakes basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kult, J. M.; Fry, L. M.; Gronewold, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Methods for predicting streamflow in areas with limited or nonexistent measures of hydrologic response typically invoke the concept of regionalization, whereby knowledge pertaining to gauged catchments is transferred to ungauged catchments. In this study, we identify watershed physical characteristics acting as primary drivers of hydrologic response throughout the US portion of the Great Lakes basin. Relationships between watershed physical characteristics and hydrologic response are generated from 166 catchments spanning a variety of climate, soil, land cover, and land form regimes through regression tree analysis, leading to a grouping of watersheds exhibiting similar hydrologic response characteristics. These groupings are then used to predict response in ungauged watersheds in an uncertainty framework. Results from this method are assessed alongside one historical regionalization approach which, while simple, has served as a cornerstone of Great Lakes regional hydrologic research for several decades. Our approach expands upon previous research by considering multiple temporal characterizations of hydrologic response. Due to the substantial inter-annual and seasonal variability in hydrologic response observed over the Great Lakes basin, results from the regression tree analysis differ considerably depending on the level of temporal aggregation used to define the response. Specifically, higher levels of temporal aggregation for the response metric (for example, indices derived from long-term means of climate and streamflow observations) lead to improved watershed groupings with lower within-group variance. However, this perceived improvement in model skill occurs at the cost of understated uncertainty when applying the regression to time series simulations or as a basis for model calibration. In such cases, our results indicate that predictions based on long-term characterizations of hydrologic response can produce misleading conclusions when applied at shorter

  17. Australia's deep-water octocoral fauna: historical account and checklist, distributions and regional affinities of recent collections.

    PubMed

    Alderslade, Philip; Althaus, Franziska; Mcennulty, Felicity; Gowlett-Holmes, Karen; Williams, Alan

    2014-05-20

    The number of deep-water (>80 m) octocoral species recorded from Australian waters has more than tripled from 135 to 457 following six surveys undertaken between 1997 and 2008 on the deep continental margin of south-eastern, western and north-western Australia and the Tasman Sea.  This rapid increase in knowledge follows a slow accumulation of records since the earliest collections were made by vessels such as the Géographe and the Naturaliste in the early years of the 19 century. Consistent identification and alpha-labelling of the octocoral fauna between surveys has permitted a multi-region description and comparison.  We detail the identities, distributions and regional affinities of 457 octocoral species in 131 genera and 28 families from the orders Alcyonacea and Pennatulacea, including 69 new species, 17 new genera and 43 first records for Australia. Five of the more common genera were widely distributed (present at 35 and 66 sampling stations spanning all of the 4 survey regions), but two were restricted to south-eastern Australia-Pleurogorgia Versluys, 1902 and Tokoprymno Bayer, 1996-and were only sampled from depths below 700 m.  The great majority of species (81%) and nearly half of all genera (47%) were only sampled once or twice.  The highest average number of species per sampling station (3.2) was reported from the outer shelf. The proportion of new species was highest (22%) on the upper and lower slope bathomes, intermediate (13-15%) on the mid-slope bathome and lowest (8%) on the outer shelf bathome.  Species overlap between bathomes was low, but all families were shared across bathomes. Most described species (55 of 69) have an Indo-West Pacific affinity, 20 have an Indian Ocean affinity, while three were previously recorded from the Atlantic Ocean only; 20 appear to be Australian endemics. Octocorals can now be added to an emerging set of taxon-specific data sets-including fishes, ophiuroids and galatheids-that permit regional-scale analysis

  18. The overlapping brain region accounting for the relationship between procrastination and impulsivity: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peiwei; Feng, Tingyong

    2017-09-30

    Procrastination is a prevalent problematic behavior that brings serious consequences, such as lower levels of health, wealth, and well-being. Previous research has verified that impulsivity is one of the traits most strongly correlated with procrastination. However, little is known about why there is a tight behavioral relationship between them. To address this question, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore the common neural substrates between procrastination and impulsivity. In line with previous findings, the behavioral results showed a strong behavioral correlation between procrastination and impulsivity. Neuroimaging results showed impulsivity and procrastination shared the common neurobiological underpinnings in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) based on the data from 85 participants (sample 1). Furthermore, the mediation analysis revealed that impulsivity mediated the impact of gray matter (GM) volumes of this overlapping region in the DLPFC on procrastination on another independent 84 participants' data (sample 2). In conclusion, the overlapping brain region in the DLPFC would be responsible for the close relationship between procrastination and impulsivity. As a whole, the present study extends our knowledge on procrastination, and provides a novel perspective to explain the tight impulsivity - procrastination relationship. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accounting for thermodynamic non-ideality in the Guinier region of small-angle scattering data of proteins.

    PubMed

    Scott, David J

    2016-12-01

    Hydrodynamic studies of the solution properties of proteins and other biological macromolecules are often hard to interpret when the sample is present at a reasonably concentrated solution. The reason for this is that solutions exhibit deviations from ideal behaviour which is manifested as thermodynamic non-ideality. The range of concentrations at which this behaviour typically is exhibited is as low as 1-2 mg/ml, well within the range of concentrations used for their analysis by techniques such as small-angle scattering. Here we discuss thermodynamic non-ideality used previously used in the context of light scattering and sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation and apply it to the Guinier region of small-angle scattering data. The results show that there is a complementarity between the radially averaged structure factor derived from small-angle X-ray scattering/small-angle neutron scattering studies and the second virial coefficient derived from sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation experiments.

  20. AIDS-case surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lal, S; Khodakevich, L; Sengupta, D

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 in India, the Ministry of Health realized that the diagnostic and reporting network for AIDS cases was inadequate as AIDS cases grew and that the establishment of specialized AIDS units in hospitals was not the best strategy. It decided to integrate AIDS diagnostic and management facilities into primary health services. It would arrange training for 1 physician from each district and peripheral hospital, private hospital, and inpatient service of other medical institutions in AIDS diagnosis and management. These physicians would then train others in the clinical diagnosis and management of AIDS cases. The physicians would use the World Health Organization [WHO] case definition of AIDS supported by HIV serological test results. All AIDS cases would be transferred to the Medical College Hospitals of the States and Union Territories (UTs), regional hospitals, and perhaps some private hospitals. Between May 1986 and October 1993, India had 459 AIDS cases reported from 19 States and UTs, especially the States of Tamil Nadul and Maharashtra. This AIDS case surveillance system should motivate political will, describe the underlying and preceding HIV epidemic, and contribute to the understanding of current and future course of the epidemic. Thus, it will guide decision makers to develop sound preventive strategies, to plan health care, and to evaluate interventions. The surveillance system's target population is all outpatients and inpatients at medical institutions. During 1993-1994, 1000 hospitals should make up the network of referral institutions. AIDS case surveillance coordinators (ASCs) at each institution form the basis of the network. The individual case record of each suspected AIDS case will have details on his/her life and medical history. Records of confirmed cases will be sent to State ASCs who will compile them for the National AIDS Control Organisation. After 3-4 year of training and practice in AIDS diagnosis and reporting, AIDS reporting will be

  1. A GIS-based multicriteria evaluation for aiding risk management Pinus pinaster Ait. forests: a case study in Corsican Island, western Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk (M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration-Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)-for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  2. A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  3. Accounting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, Charlotte

    This curriculum guide describes the accounting curriculum in the following three areas: accounting clerk, bookkeeper, and nondegreed accountant. The competencies and tasks complement the Arizona validated listing in these areas. The guide lists 24 competencies for nondegreed accountants, 10 competencies for accounting clerks, and 11 competencies…

  4. Scaling Health and Healthcare: Re-Presenting Thailand's HIV/AIDS Epidemic with World Regional Geography Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Casino Jr, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Authors of world regional geography textbooks have recently become more interested in the broader theoretical changes that have emerged in human geography. Relying on feminist and other critical perspectives, concepts such as space, place and scale are being re-imagined in this 'new world regional geography'. This paper intervenes on behalf of a…

  5. New Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Dementia Using Positron Emission Tomography: Brain Regional Sensitivity-Mapping Method

    PubMed Central

    Kakimoto, Akihiro; Kamekawa, Yuichi; Ito, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Okada, Hiroyuki; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Minoshima, Satoshi; Ouchi, Yasuomi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We devised a new computer-aided diagnosis method to segregate dementia using one estimated index (Total Z score) derived from the Brodmann area (BA) sensitivity map on the stereotaxic brain atlas. The purpose of this study is to investigate its accuracy to differentiate patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal adults (NL). Methods We studied 101 adults (NL: 40, AD: 37, MCI: 24) who underwent 18FDG positron emission tomography (PET) measurement. We divided NL and AD groups into two categories: a training group with (Category A) and a test group without (Category B) clinical information. In Category A, we estimated sensitivity by comparing the standard uptake value per BA (SUVR) between NL and AD groups. Then, we calculated a summated index (Total Z score) by utilizing the sensitivity-distribution maps and each BA z-score to segregate AD patterns. To confirm the validity of this method, we examined the accuracy in Category B. Finally, we applied this method to MCI patients. Results In Category A, we found that the sensitivity and specificity of differentiation between NL and AD were all 100%. In Category B, those were 100% and 95%, respectively. Furthermore, we found this method attained 88% to differentiate AD-converters from non-converters in MCI group. Conclusions The present automated computer-aided evaluation method based on a single estimated index provided good accuracy for differential diagnosis of AD and MCI. This good differentiation power suggests its usefulness not only for dementia diagnosis but also in a longitudinal study. PMID:21966405

  6. Region based stellate features combined with variable selection using AdaBoost learning in mammographic computer-aided detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hoe; Choi, Jae Young; Ro, Yong Man

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a new method is developed for extracting so-called region-based stellate features to correctly differentiate spiculated malignant masses from normal tissues on mammograms. In the proposed method, a given region of interest (ROI) for feature extraction is divided into three individual subregions, namely core, inner, and outer parts. The proposed region-based stellate features are then extracted to encode the different and complementary stellate pattern information by computing the statistical characteristics for each of the three different subregions. To further maximize classification performance, a novel variable selection algorithm based on AdaBoost learning is incorporated for choosing an optimal subset of variables of region-based stellate features. In particular, we develop a new variable selection metric (criteria) that effectively determines variable importance (ranking) within the conventional AdaBoost framework. Extensive and comparative experiments have been performed on the popular benchmark mammogram database (DB). Results show that our region-based stellate features (extracted from automatically segmented ROIs) considerably outperform other state-of-the-art features developed for mammographic spiculated mass detection or classification. Our results also indicate that combining region-based stellate features with the proposed variable selection strategy has an impressive effect on improving spiculated mass classification and detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Health emergencies and first aid at construction sites in the Tuscany Region. The high speed and varying free way of Valico].

    PubMed

    De Luca, D

    2006-01-01

    From 1996 the territory of Tuscany region and in particular that one of ASL 10 of Florence, has been interested from the realization of great works: the railway line to High Speed and varying of Valico of the A1 freeway between Florence and Bologna. ASL 10 has stipulated specific economic agreements with the been involved companies in the realization of the plans for a plan finalized to the prevention of the industrial accidents and to limit of the gravity with timely aids it adapts to you also in gallery, to guarantee to the workers the same performances sanitary of the city residents, to guarantee and to improve the quality of existing sanitary services on the territories in spite of the increase of the population weighing on the consequent territory to the takeover of the workers it engages to you in the realization of the great works. This plan has been realized with the creation of integrated aid system a to strengthen the territorial sanitary emergency, I extend the access to the base medicine to the workers and has not been able itself to answer to 93% of the question sanitary to the inside of the same yards with the infirmaries of yard without to resort to external structures.

  8. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... hearing aid has three basic parts: a microphone, amplifier, and speaker. The hearing aid receives sound through ... to electrical signals and sends them to an amplifier. The amplifier increases the power of the signals ...

  9. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  10. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  11. Topography of mechanoreceptors in the shoulder joint region--a computer-aided 3D reconstruction in the laboratory mouse.

    PubMed

    Backenköhler, U; Strasmann, T J; Halata, Z

    1997-07-01

    We investigated the pattern of distribution of corpuscular sensory nerve endings in the shoulder region of the laboratory mouse in relation to their functional properties. Twelve adult female white NMRI-F2-mice were used. The topography of sensory nerve endings in the shoulder joint region was reconstructed by three-dimensional image processing by using serial silver-stained sections of paraffin-embedded samples. Semithin sections obtained from additional samples were used for light microscopy. Within the fibrous layer of the joint capsule, three types of mechanoreceptors were identified: small lamellated corpuscles of the Pacini type, Ruffini corpuscles, and Golgi tendon organs. Intracapsular small lamellated corpuscles of the Pacini type (in an average number of 29/joint) were found mainly in three areas: in the predominantly flaccid tissue of the axillary region, in the denser ventromedial parts of the capsule, close to the scapula, and in the tight texture of the fiber bundles near the glenoid labrum. Ruffini corpuscles were identified only in small numbers (2/joint) in the ventral aspect of the articular capsule of two animals. Golgi tendon organs (14 or 15 receptors/joint) were discovered predominantly in close vicinity to the joint capsule at the muscle tendon junction of the inserting rotator cuff muscles and in the biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles. In view of their location in the shoulder joint capsule and the glenoid labrum, corpuscular mechanoreceptors evidently play an important role in joint control by inducing protective reflex actions in phases of extreme or abnormal movement. The density of sensory receptors in distinct areas of the shoulder joint capsule appears to be related to zones that are subjected to increased biomechanical stress during physical activity.

  12. A method of accounting for tidal changes in regional climates of a water basin under conditions of an ice-free Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, B. A.; Sofina, E. V.

    2017-03-01

    To account for tidal variations in the regional climate of a water basin, we propose adding up the vertical eddy diffusivity, determined by wind and thermohaline forcings, and the diapycnal diffusivity, determined from the solution to the problem of the internal tidal wave (ITW) dynamics. This approach agrees with the approximation of "weak interaction" between turbulence of various origins. Then, the hydrothermodynamics equations are integrated with and without regard for ITW-induced diapycnal diffusion until a quasistationary solution is reached. Next we compare these solutions, found by using the 3D finite-element hydrostatic model QUODDY-4. This comparison shows that the contribution of tides to the formation of the Barents Sea climate in summer is not negligible with respect to certain hydrological characteristics. We present the fields of the dynamic topography of a free surface, surface current velocities, and seawater temperature and salinity at the depth of the pycnocline in the sea to illustrate the occurrence of tidal effects.

  13. Randomly Accountable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.; Geppert, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The accountability debate tends to devolve into a battle between the pro-testing and anti-testing crowds. When it comes to the design of a school accountability system, the devil is truly in the details. A well-designed accountability plan may go a long way toward giving school personnel the kinds of signals they need to improve performance.…

  14. School Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Williamson M., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    This book presents the perspectives of experts from the fields of history, economics, political science, and psychology on what is known about accountability, what still needs to be learned, what should be done right now, and what should be avoided in devising accountability systems. The common myths about accountability are dispelled and how it…

  15. Cone beam CT as an aid to diagnosing mixed radiopaque radiolucent lesions in the mandibular incisor region

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Unni; Al Maslamani, Manal; Moule, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    We present two cases where the identities of mixed radiopaque radiolucent lesions in the lower incisor region were unclear, although the position of the lesions and positive pulp sensitivity tests were suggestive of periapical osseous dysplasia. In the first case, the lesion presented as a solitary round mixed radiopaque radiolucent periapical lesion, suggestive in some images as periapical osseous dysplasia. Cone beam CT (CBCT) provided clear images, which confirmed the diagnosis and, additionally, the images showed evidence of initial lesions associated with other anterior teeth and some destruction of the labial plate, not evident on the conventional radiographs. In the second case, radiopacities were identified within the lesion on conventional radiographs, but CBCT imaging also showed extensive and unexpected perforation of the lingual plate. Such destruction of cortical plates may be a feature of periapical osseous dysplasia, which is not visible in conventional radiography. PMID:25576510

  16. Overview of US AID-World Bank-NASA Collaboration to Address Water Management Issues in the MENA Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank, USAID and NASA have recently established a joint project to study multiple issues pertaining to water related applications in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. The main concentration of the project is on utilization of remote sensing data and hydrological models to address crop irrigation and mapping, flood mapping and forecasting, evapotranspiration and drought problems prevalent in this large geographic area. Additional emphases are placed on understanding the climate impact on these areas as well. Per IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century MENA region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. These observations generate multiple products such as soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gases, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed-via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products will then be further compared with other NASA satellite observations (MODIS, VIIRS, TRMM, etc.) and other discrete models to compare and optimize

  17. AIDS heterosexual predominance in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Garris, I; Rodriguez, E M; De Moya, E A; Guerrero, E; Peña, C; Puello, E; Gomez, E; Monterroso, E R; Weissenbacher, M; Vermund, S H

    1991-01-01

    AIDS surveillance data from the Dominican Republic are described for 1983-89. A positive serologic test for HIV was required, and standard clinical criteria were used for defining AIDS. There were 1,202 AIDS cases (820 men, 372 women, 10 of unknown gender) reported to the Ministry of Health, for a cumulative case rate of 17 per 100,000 persons. Rapid growth of the epidemic is noted, with 43% of the total cases reported in 1989. Heterosexual exposure accounts for 53% (593) of all cases, with a male-to-female ratio of 2.2:1, resembling a World Health Organization Pattern I/II country. Prevalence is highest in and surrounding the urbanized tourist areas of Santo Domingo and Puerto Plata and in districts with a high concentration of sugar plantation barracks, where laborers from Haiti and the Dominican Republic work and live. The distribution of AIDS cases is described by transmission exposure category, age, sex, year of diagnosis, and district. The National AIDS Surveillance Program can be improved by validation of exposure transmission categories through selected case investigation and by better reporting through training of health care providers. Surveillance data will assist in targeting future public health efforts to regions and persons at highest risk.

  18. Humanization of an anti-human TNF-alpha antibody by variable region resurfacing with the aid of molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Jiannan; Li, Yan; Guo, Ning; Shen, Beifen

    2005-08-01

    The murine monoclonal antibody Z12 is of therapeutic interest for its neutralizing biological activity against human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (hTNF-alpha). We attempted to humanize Z12 with variable domain resurfacing guided by computer modeling. First, the genes of heavy and light chain variable region (VH, VL) of Z12 were cloned and the whole three-dimensional structure of Fv fragment was constructed by using homology-based modeling and molecular docking methods. Then the complex model of Fv interacting with hTNF-alpha whose crystal structure derived from PDB database was gained with computer-guided docking program. Based on this model, a humanized version was designed. The humanized Fab antibody was constructed, expressed and purified in the pComb3H vector system and it showed unaltered binding affinity to the antigen as determined by ELISA and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The method described here can be used to humanize other anti-hTNF-alpha antibodies.

  19. [Evaluation of short-term clinical therapeutic efficiency of computer aided design and manufacturing titanium-ceramic-fixed partial dentures for implant-supported restoration in posterior region].

    PubMed

    Wu, Min-Jie; Zou, Li-Dong; Xu, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Xiang-Hao

    2013-10-18

    To evaluate the clinical results of computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) titanium-ceramic-fixed partial dentures for implant-supported restoration in posterior region. In the study, 90 patients (47 males, 43 females, and the mean age of 48.7 years ranging from 30-62 years) with posterior tooth missing underwent implant-supported porcelain fuse mental prostheses with CAD/CAM titanium-base. A total of 135 prostheses (159 prosthetic units) were fabricated, and 152 implants were placed. The evaluators examined the integrity of restoration, gingival health, color match and marginal adaptation. The mean follow-up time was 51.9 months (24-80 months). No implant was lost during the loading time. All the patients were satisfied at the end of their treatment. The chipping rate of porcelain fuse mental prostheses with CAD/CAM titanium-base was 13.2%(21/159 prosthetic units), No fracture of titanium-base was observed, and 7.4% (10/135) prostheses were found loosening. The authors rated 97.8% (132/135) prosthesis as good or better in regard to color match, 100% (152/152) implants had excellent marginal adaptation. The implant-supported titanium-based porcelain fuse mental prostheses with CAD/CAM show good marginal integrity and shade stability, with a clinically acceptable chipping rate, and these restorations can achieve success in the case of posterior tooth missing. Further study is needed to determine the long-term results.

  20. 14 CFR 152.305 - Accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting records. 152.305 Section 152.305... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.305 Accounting records. (a) Airport... individual project, an accounting record satisfactory to the Administrator which segregates cost information...

  1. 14 CFR 152.305 - Accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting records. 152.305 Section 152.305... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.305 Accounting records. (a) Airport... individual project, an accounting record satisfactory to the Administrator which segregates cost...

  2. 14 CFR 152.305 - Accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting records. 152.305 Section 152.305... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.305 Accounting records. (a) Airport... individual project, an accounting record satisfactory to the Administrator which segregates cost...

  3. 14 CFR 152.305 - Accounting records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting records. 152.305 Section 152.305... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.305 Accounting records. (a) Airport... individual project, an accounting record satisfactory to the Administrator which segregates cost...

  4. Medical aid schemes respond to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G

    1999-01-01

    The insurance and medical aid industries reacted strongly in the 1980s to alarmist predictions of the likely impact of HIV upon employee benefits. Actuaries and accountants moved quickly to contain the risk, and most medical aid trustees quickly implemented a total exclusion of HIV treatment from their benefits. For more than 1 decade, it was argued that HIV/AIDS is a self-inflicted illness, often categorized with other STDs. In response, healthcare providers simply bypassed insurance restrictions and compensation limits by masking patient diagnoses to reflect pneumonia or other ambiguous, yet fully reimbursable, illnesses. Now, common sense has finally prevailed as a few managed healthcare programs are stepping forward to break the impasse. The largest such program is Aid for AIDS, run by Pharmaceutical Benefit Management Ltd. for schemes within the Medscheme Group. The Group built an entirely new, secure unit off-site from their normal branches to guarantee the confidentiality of patients' records and diagnoses, while treatment guidelines have been issued to every practicing physician in the country.

  5. The complementary relationship (CR) approach aids evapotranspiration estimation in the data scarce region of Tibetan Plateau: symmetric and asymmetric perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, N.; Zhang, Y.; Szilagyi, J.; Xu, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    While the land surface latent and sensible heat release in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) could greatly influence the Asian monsoon circulation, the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) information in the TP has been largely hindered by its extremely sparse ground observation network. Thus the complementary relationship (CR) theory lends great potential in estimating the ETa since it relies on solely routine meteorological observations. With the in-situ energy/water flux observation over the highest semiarid alpine steppe in the TP, the modifications of specific components within the CR were first implemented. We found that the symmetry of the CR could be achieved for dry regions of TP when (i) the Priestley-Taylor coefficient, (ii) the slope of the saturation vapor pressure curve and (iii) the wind function were locally calibrated by using the ETa observations in wet days, an estimate of the wet surface temperature and the Monin-Obukhov Similarity (MOS) theory, respectively. In this way, the error of the simulated ETa by the symmetric AA model could be decreased to a large extent. Besides, the asymmetric CR was confirmed in TP when the D20 above-ground and/or E601B sunken pan evaporation (Epan) were used as a proxy of the ETp. Thus daily ETa could also be estimated by coupling D20 above-ground and/or E601B sunken pans through CR. Additionally, to overcome the modification of the specific components in the CR, we also evaluated the Nonlinear-CR model and the Morton's CRAE model. The former does not need the pre-determination of the asymmetry of CR, while the latter does not require the wind speed data as input. We found that both models are also able to simulate the daily ETa well provided their parameter values have been locally calibrated. The sensitivity analysis shows that, if the measured ETa data are absence to calibrate the models' parameter values, the Nonlinear-CR model may be a particularly good way for estimating ETabecause of its mild sensitivity to the parameter

  6. Exploring experience and perspectives of foreign-born direct care workers in dementia care: Accounts of Korean American personal care aides caring for older Korean Americans with dementia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang E; Casado, Banghwa Lee; Hong, Michin

    2016-05-06

    This focus group study explored experience of Korean American personal care aides caring for older Korean Americans with dementia symptoms. Personal care aides described dementia caregiving as challenging, demanding and stressful, yet they cared for their clients with love and affection, particularly with jeong (i.e., a Korean cultural concept of love, affection, sympathy, and bondage). They learned about dementia mostly through their caregiving experience and expressed their need and strong desire to learn more about dementia. They felt for family struggle and observed family conflict and filial obligation. They advocated the value of personal care aides' involvement in dementia care. This study revealed a pressing need for dementia training for personal care aides and called for an outreach effort to recruit and train direct care workers with potential of providing culturally competent care for traditionally underserved ethnic minorities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Authentic Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Eileen; Bell, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    Current accountability policy that bases assessment on validity and reliability criteria in the positivist research tradition is counterproductive to serving adult learners and their communities. In this article, we outline a framework for accountability that allows for the emergence and demonstration of the full range of program outcomes and…

  8. A specific mutation in the promoter region of the silent cel cluster accounts for the appearance of lactose-utilizing Lactococcus lactis MG1363.

    PubMed

    Solopova, Ana; Bachmann, Herwig; Teusink, Bas; Kok, Jan; Neves, Ana Rute; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2012-08-01

    The Lactococcus lactis laboratory strain MG1363 has been described to be unable to utilize lactose. However, in a rich medium supplemented with lactose as the sole carbon source, it starts to grow after prolonged incubation periods. Transcriptome analyses showed that L. lactis MG1363 Lac(+) cells expressed celB, encoding a putative cellobiose-specific phosphotransferase system (PTS) IIC component, which is normally silent in MG1363 Lac(-) cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cel cluster of a Lac(+) isolate revealed a change from one of the guanines to adenine in the promoter region. We showed here that one particular mutation, taking place at increased frequency, accounts for the lactose-utilizing phenotype occurring in MG1363 cultures. The G-to-A transition creates a -10 element at an optimal distance from the -35 element. Thus, a fully active promoter is created, allowing transcription of the otherwise cryptic cluster. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy results show that MG1363 Lac(+) uses a novel pathway of lactose utilization.

  9. A Specific Mutation in the Promoter Region of the Silent cel Cluster Accounts for the Appearance of Lactose-Utilizing Lactococcus lactis MG1363

    PubMed Central

    Solopova, Ana; Bachmann, Herwig; Teusink, Bas; Kok, Jan; Neves, Ana Rute

    2012-01-01

    The Lactococcus lactis laboratory strain MG1363 has been described to be unable to utilize lactose. However, in a rich medium supplemented with lactose as the sole carbon source, it starts to grow after prolonged incubation periods. Transcriptome analyses showed that L. lactis MG1363 Lac+ cells expressed celB, encoding a putative cellobiose-specific phosphotransferase system (PTS) IIC component, which is normally silent in MG1363 Lac− cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cel cluster of a Lac+ isolate revealed a change from one of the guanines to adenine in the promoter region. We showed here that one particular mutation, taking place at increased frequency, accounts for the lactose-utilizing phenotype occurring in MG1363 cultures. The G-to-A transition creates a −10 element at an optimal distance from the −35 element. Thus, a fully active promoter is created, allowing transcription of the otherwise cryptic cluster. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy results show that MG1363 Lac+ uses a novel pathway of lactose utilization. PMID:22660716

  10. Information From the Voice Fundamental Frequency (F0) Region Accounts for the Majority of the Benefit When Acoustic Stimulation Is Added to Electric Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Dorman, Michael F.; Spahr, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the minimum amount of low-frequency acoustic information that is required to achieve speech perception benefit in listeners with a cochlear implant in one ear and low-frequency hearing in the other ear. Design The recognition of monosyllabic words in quiet and sentences in noise was evaluated in three listening conditions: electric stimulation alone, acoustic stimulation alone, and combined electric and acoustic stimulation. The acoustic stimuli presented to the nonimplanted ear were either low-pass-filtered at 125, 250, 500, or 750 Hz, or unfiltered (wideband). Results Adding low-frequency acoustic information to electrically stimulated information led to a significant improvement in word recognition in quiet and sentence recognition in noise. Improvement was observed in the electric and acoustic stimulation condition even when the acoustic information was limited to the 125-Hz-low-passed signal. Further improvement for the sentences in noise was observed when the acoustic signal was increased to wideband. Conclusions Information from the voice fundamental frequency (F0) region accounts for the majority of the speech perception benefit when acoustic stimulation is added to electric stimulation. We propose that, in quiet, low-frequency acoustic information leads to an improved representation of voicing, which in turn leads to a reduction in word candidates in the lexicon. In noise, the robust representation of voicing allows access to low-frequency acoustic landmarks that mark syllable structure and word boundaries. These landmarks can bootstrap word and sentence recognition. PMID:20050394

  11. A method for the stochastic modeling of karstic systems accounting for geophysical data: an example of application in the region of Tulum, Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuilleumier, C.; Borghi, A.; Renard, P.; Ottowitz, D.; Schiller, A.; Supper, R.; Cornaton, F.

    2013-05-01

    The eastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, contains one of the most developed karst systems in the world. This natural wonder is undergoing increasing pollution threat due to rapid economic development in the region of Tulum, together with a lack of wastewater treatment facilities. A preliminary numerical model has been developed to assess the vulnerability of the resource. Maps of explored caves have been completed using data from two airborne geophysical campaigns. These electromagnetic measurements allow for the mapping of unexplored karstic conduits. The completion of the network map is achieved through a stochastic pseudo-genetic karst simulator, previously developed but adapted as part of this study to account for the geophysical data. Together with the cave mapping by speleologists, the simulated networks are integrated into the finite-element flow-model mesh as pipe networks where turbulent flow is modeled. The calibration of the karstic network parameters (density, radius of the conduits) is conducted through a comparison with measured piezometric levels. Although the proposed model shows great uncertainty, it reproduces realistically the heterogeneous flow of the aquifer. Simulated velocities in conduits are greater than 1 cm s-1, suggesting that the reinjection of Tulum wastewater constitutes a pollution risk for the nearby ecosystems.

  12. The MA (p15) and p12 regions of the gag gene are sufficient for the pathogenicity of the murine AIDS virus.

    PubMed Central

    Pozsgay, J M; Beilharz, M W; Wines, B D; Hess, A D; Pitha, P M

    1993-01-01

    Inoculation of the replication-defective retrovirus DEF27 (BM5d), packaged as an amphotropic virus pseudotype, into C57BL/6J mice leads to development of murine AIDS. Disease development showed a long incubation period (20 to 24 weeks), was associated with amplification of the BM5d provirus in splenocytes and lymph nodes, and was independent of the presence of exogenous or endogenous replication-competent helper viruses. However, both the onset of disease and amplification of the defective provirus were significantly enhanced by coinfection with the replication-competent B-cell-tropic ecotropic helper virus BM5e. The part of the BM5d viral genome that was essential for the pathogenicity was determined by making precisely engineered alterations in the reading frame of the gag and pol genes of BM5d proviral DNA and examining the ability of the altered amphotropic BM5d pseudotypes to induce the disease in C57BL/6J mice. The results show that expression of the MA (p15) and p12 regions of the gag gene is sufficient for pathogenicity of the BM5d retrovirus. Images PMID:7690416

  13. Relationship between Teachers' Motivation Teaching HIV/AIDS Education and Students' Knowledge and Attitude towards Sexual Behaviour in Secondary Schools in Coast Region, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Daniel Njane; Nyaga, Veronica K.; Bururia, David N.; Barchok, Hilary K.

    2016-01-01

    Education plays an important role in curbing the spread of HIV and AIDS among the youth. However, there is little known how teachers' motivation in teaching HIV/AIDS education affects students' knowledge and attitudes towards sexual behaviour. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between teachers' level of motivation in…

  14. Implementation of Regional and International HIV and AIDS Prevention, Treatment, Care and Support Conventions and Declarations in Lesotho, Malawi and Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalanda, Boniface; Mamimine, Patrick; Taela, Katia; Chingandu, Louis; Musuka, Godfrey

    2010-01-01

    The governments across the world have endorsed numerous international Conventions and Declarations (C&Ds) that enhance interventions to reduce the impact of HIV and AIDS. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which the governments of Lesotho, Malawi and Mozambique have implemented HIV and AIDS international and regional…

  15. Implementation of Regional and International HIV and AIDS Prevention, Treatment, Care and Support Conventions and Declarations in Lesotho, Malawi and Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalanda, Boniface; Mamimine, Patrick; Taela, Katia; Chingandu, Louis; Musuka, Godfrey

    2010-01-01

    The governments across the world have endorsed numerous international Conventions and Declarations (C&Ds) that enhance interventions to reduce the impact of HIV and AIDS. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which the governments of Lesotho, Malawi and Mozambique have implemented HIV and AIDS international and regional…

  16. Student Financial Aid and Postsecondary Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuma, John E.; And Others

    Analysis was made of financial aid to postsecondary vocational education students, using data from two primary sources, the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (1986) and High School and Beyond (1980-84). The study found that most financial aid subsidizes students in four-year institutions. However, two-year public schools, which account for…

  17. Quantifying and Projecting Relative Sea-Level Rise At The Regional Scale: The Bangladesh Sea-Level Project (BanD-AID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, C. K.; Kuo, C. Y.; Guo, J.; Shang, K.; Tseng, K. H.; Wan, J.; Calmant, S.; Ballu, V.; Valty, P.; Kusche, J.; Hossain, F.; Khan, Z. H.; Rietbroek, R.; Uebbing, B.

    2014-12-01

    The potential for accelerated sea-level rise under anthropogenic warming is a significant societal problem, in particular in world's coastal deltaic regions where about half of the world's population resides. Quantifying geophysical sources of sea-level rise with the goal of improved projection at local scales remains a complex and challenging interdisciplinary research problem. These processes include ice-sheet/glacier ablations, steric sea-level, solid Earth uplift or subsidence due to GIA, tectonics, sediment loading or anthropogenic causes, hydrologic imbalance, and human processes including water retention in reservoirs and aquifer extraction. The 2013 IPCC AR5 concluded that the observed and explained geophysical causes of global geocentric sea-level rise, 1993-2010, is closer towards closure. However, the discrepancy reveals that circa 1.3→37.5% of the observed sea-level rise remains unexplained. This relatively large discrepancy is primarily attributable to the wide range of estimates of respective contributions of Greenland and Antarctic ice-sheets and mountain/peripheral glaciers to sea-level rise. Understanding and quantifying the natural and anthropogenic processes governing solid Earth (land, islands and sea-floor) uplift or subsidence at the regional and local scales remain elusive to enable addressing coastal vulnerability due to relative sea-level rise hazards, such as the Bangladesh Delta. This study focuses on addressing coastal vulnerability of Bangladesh, a Belmont Forum/IGFA project, BanD-AID (http://Belmont-SeaLevel.org). Sea-level rise, along with tectonic, sediment load and groundwater extraction induced land uplift/subsidence, have exacerbated Bangladesh's coastal vulnerability, affecting 150 million people in one of the world's most densely populated regions. Here we present preliminary results using space geodetic observations, including satellite radar and laser altimetry, GRACE gravity, tide gauge, hydrographic, and GPS/InSAR observed

  18. Incorporating Calculators into the Accounting Curriculum. Accounting II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, John

    This document is a guide to aid teachers in incorporating the use of calculators in the high school Accounting II curriculum. The guide contains 16 learning modules. Each module consists of an introductory explanation, student performance objectives, content of the module, and teaching suggestions for using calculators in each application of…

  19. Incorporating Calculators into the Accounting Curriculum. Accounting II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, John

    This document is a guide to aid teachers in incorporating the use of calculators in the high school Accounting II curriculum. The guide contains 16 learning modules. Each module consists of an introductory explanation, student performance objectives, content of the module, and teaching suggestions for using calculators in each application of…

  20. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... hair cells (outer and inner rows). When the vibrations move through this fluid, the tiny outer hair ... ear to the brain. Hearing aids intensify sound vibrations that the damaged outer hair cells have trouble ...

  1. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  2. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  3. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... case goes behind the ear that holds the electronics that make up the actual hearing aid. It's ... there's a hard plastic case that holds the electronic components, but it's joined to the earmold itself, ...

  4. Painless Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. W.; And Others

    The computerized Painless Accountability System is a performance objective system from which instructional programs are developed. Three main simplified behavioral response levels characterize this system: (1) cognitive, (2) psychomotor, and (3) affective domains. Each of these objectives are classified by one of 16 descriptors. The second major…

  5. Accounting Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication identifies 20 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of accounting specialist, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 20 units are as follows:…

  6. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  7. Accountability Overboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chieppo, Charles D.; Gass, James T.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that special interest groups opposed to charter schools and high-stakes testing have hijacked Massachusetts's once-independent board of education and stand poised to water down the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) tests and the accountability system they support. President Barack Obama and Massachusetts…

  8. Predictors of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV and AIDS at the regional hospital of Sokodé, Togo.

    PubMed

    Yaya, Issifou; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Saka, Bayaki; Patchali, P'Niwè Massoubayo; Wasswa, Peter; Aboubakari, Abdoul-Samadou; N'Dri, Mathias Kouamé; Patassi, Akouda Akessiwe; Kombaté, Koussake; Pitche, Palokinam

    2014-12-19

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is beneficial in reducing the risk of emergence of HIV resistant strains. Adherence to ART among Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is influenced by several factors related to the patient, the medication, and health facilities. In Togo, previous studies on adherence to ART have reported good adherence to ART during the first year of follow-up. However these may hide many disparities dues to cultural specificities which may differ across geographic areas of the country. We sought to determine the level of adherence to ART and document the associated factors among PLWHA at the regional hospital of Sokodé, Togo. This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted from May to July 2013 at the regional hospital of Sokodé among 291 PLWHA who had been on ART for at least three months before the study. A total of 291 PLWHA on ART were enrolled in the study. The mean age (±SD) was 37.3 ± 9.3 years and the sex ratio (Male/Female) was 0.4. Among them, 195 (67.0%) were living with their partners and 210 (72.2%) had formal education. Two-thirds (194/291; 66.7%) of the PLWHA interviewed lived in urban areas. The global adherence to ART was 78.4%; the factors associated with ART adherence were: level of education (aOR = 3.54; p = 0.027), alcohol consumption (aOR = 0.43; p = 0.033), ART perception (aOR = 2.90; p = 0.026) and HIV status disclosure to sexual partner (aOR = 7.19; p ≤ 0.001). Although the level of adherence to ART in this study was higher than those reported in some studies in Sub-Saharan Africa, it remains sub-optimal and needs improvement. This may therefore hinder the implementation of efficient interventions related to access to ART services.

  9. Managerial Accounting. Course Administrative Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant. Inst. for Personal and Career Development.

    This manual is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting and intended to aid instructors in helping students to work their way through the self-instructional study guide around which the course is organized. The manual describes the various materials and components used in the self-instructional sequence…

  10. Do we need to account for scenarios of land use/land cover changes in regional climate modeling and impact studies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strada, Susanna; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Perrin, Mathieu; Stefanon, Marc

    2016-04-01

    By modifying the Earth's natural landscapes, humans have introduced an imbalance in the Earth System's energy, water and emission fluxes via land-use and land-cover changes (LULCCs). Through land-atmosphere interactions, LULCCs influence weather, air quality and climate at different scales, from regional/local (a few ten kilometres) (Pielke et al., 2011) to global (a few hundred kilometres) (Mahmood et al., 2014). Therefore, in the context of climate change, LULCCs will play a role locally/regionally in altering weather/atmospheric conditions. In addition to the global climate change impacts, LULCCs will possibly induce further changes in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and thereby affect adaptation strategies. If LULCCs influence weather/atmospheric conditions, could land use planning alter climate conditions and ease the impact of climate change by wisely shaping urban and rural landscapes? Nowadays, numerical land-atmosphere modelling allows to assess LULCC impacts at different scales (e.g., Marshall et al., 2003; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al., 2011). However, most scenarios of climate changes used to force impact models result from downscaling procedures that do not account for LULCCs (e.g., Jacob et al., 2014). Therefore, if numerical modelling may help in tackling the discussion about LULCCs, do existing LULCC scenarios encompass realistic changes in terms of land use planning? In the present study, we apply a surface model to compare projected LULCC scenarios over France and to assess their impacts on surface fluxes (i.e., water, heat and carbon dioxide fluxes) and on water and carbon storage in soils. To depict future LULCCs in France, we use RCP scenarios from the IPCC AR5 report (Moss et al., 2011). LULCCs encompassed in RCPs are discussed in terms of: (a) their impacts on water and energy balance over France, and (b) their feasibility in the framework of land use planning in France. This study is the first step to quantify the sensitivity of land

  11. Activist Media in Native AIDS Organizing: Theorizing the Colonial Conditions of AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgensen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author examines how activist media by Native AIDS organizers promoted anticolonial analyses of AIDS, gender, and sexuality as a contribution to scholarship on Native responses to AIDS. His discussion centers on the organizers who created media as authorities on and in their media. In contrast to recent accounts that popularize…

  12. Activist Media in Native AIDS Organizing: Theorizing the Colonial Conditions of AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgensen, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author examines how activist media by Native AIDS organizers promoted anticolonial analyses of AIDS, gender, and sexuality as a contribution to scholarship on Native responses to AIDS. His discussion centers on the organizers who created media as authorities on and in their media. In contrast to recent accounts that popularize…

  13. Title III Accountability Policies and Outcomes for K-12: Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for English Language Learner Students in Southeast Region States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly S.; Dufford-Melendez, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This report details Title III accountability policies and outcomes for K-12 English language learner (ELL) students for school year 2007/08 in the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) under the Title III annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAO) provision of the No Child…

  14. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  15. HIV/AIDS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www. ...

  16. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  17. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  18. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  19. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  20. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  1. Migrant Education Tutorial Aide Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Community Services and Migrant Education.

    Designed by California's Region II Office of Migrant Education to aid in training teacher aides working with migrant children, this manual outlines activities used in teaching by the aides. Each activity is described in terms of the concept to be taught, the tutorial skill required, standard instructional media, rationale for the media, expected…

  2. Do Teacher Aides Aid American Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivero, James L.

    A far-reaching 1968 study on teacher aides revealed that very little was known about the aid that aides supposedly provide. It was found that there is some direct relationship between the use of aides and action programs to improve instruction. Some general points crop up regularly: 1) Teachers who have aides usually will not do without them. 2)…

  3. Report on the lands of the arid region of the United States with a more detailed account of the land of Utah with maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, John Wesley

    1879-01-01

    A report from Maj. J. W.Powell, geologist in charge of the United States Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region, upon the lands of the Arid Region of the United States, setting forth the extent of said region, and making suggestions as to the conditions under which the lands embraced within its limit may be rendered available for agricultural and grazing purposes. With the report is transmitted a statement of the rainfall of the western portion of the United States, with reports upon the subject of irrigation by Capt. C. E. Button, U. S. A., Prof. A. H. Thompson, and Mr. G. K. Gilbert.

  4. Accountability and Internal Control--Do We Really Need It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Allan B.

    1987-01-01

    Briefly looks at some of the basic principles of accountability and internal control as a review of present accounting system procedures to aid administrators to ensure reliable financial records. (MLF)

  5. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

  6. Cross-Learning: The Possibilities of a Learning Dialogue between the HIV and AIDS and Disability Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the region of the world most affected by HIV & AIDS, accounting for two-thirds of the global burden of the pandemic. People with disabilities are regarded as a high-risk group for HIV but have been largely neglected in programmes of education, treatment and support. This paper examines the possibilities for a learning…

  7. Cross-Learning: The Possibilities of a Learning Dialogue between the HIV and AIDS and Disability Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the region of the world most affected by HIV & AIDS, accounting for two-thirds of the global burden of the pandemic. People with disabilities are regarded as a high-risk group for HIV but have been largely neglected in programmes of education, treatment and support. This paper examines the possibilities for a learning…

  8. Accounting Programs' Home Pages: What's Happening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Lucia E.; Roxas, Maria L.

    2002-01-01

    Content analysis of 62 accounting programs' websites indicated the following: 53% include mission statements; 62.9% list accreditation; many faculty biographies and personal pages used inconsistent formats; provision of information on financial aid, student organizations, career services, and certified public accountant requirements varied. Many…

  9. New UN projections include local effects of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kalish, S

    1992-10-01

    Reaching 5.5 billion in mid-1992, global population is basically on track with population projections made in 1990. About 60% of the world's population currently lives in ten countries; China and India together comprise 38% of the total. At the growth rate of 1.7%, 750 million people will be added to the world by the end of the decade, with populations of less developed countries growing four times faster than those in the more developed regions. Although the overall growth rate is as projected, all is not as expected at the country level. Compared with 1990 estimates, several African countries are growing more slowly than expected, largely due to AIDS. It is noted, however, that the UN's projected effects of the AIDS epidemic on population size are modest compared to recent speculation that AIDS could halt population growth in Africa. Latin America is also growing slower than expected due to a faster than expected decline in fertility. China is growing a bit faster than expected and India is growing a bit slower. With its 1992 revisions, the UN Population Division for the first time took into account the potential demographic impact of the AIDS pandemic. Life expectancies have been adjusted downward in the 15 countries where AIDS has the highest prevalence: Benin, Burundi, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. AIDS could reduce population growth by 20 million in these countries over the next 25 years. Population growth rates will nonetheless remain strongly positive in the next few decades with the rapid pace of fertility affecting future population growth far more than mortality or any other demographic parameter. The new projections also take into account recent international migration and sweeping global political changes.

  10. Teaching AIDS.

    PubMed

    Short, R V

    1989-06-01

    This article reviews a peer group Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educational program at a university in Australia. Studies in the US have shown that most adolescents, although sexually active, do not believe they are likely to become infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and therefore do not attempt to modify their sexual behavior. A 1st step in educating students is to introduce them to condoms and impress upon them the fact that condoms should be used at the beginning of all sexual relationships, whether homosexual or heterosexual. In this program 3rd year medical students were targeted, as they are effective communicators and disseminators of information to the rest of the student body. After class members blow up condoms, giving them a chance to handle various brands and observe the varying degrees of strength, statistical evidence about the contraceptive failure rate of condoms (0.6-14.7 per 100 women-years) is discussed. Spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9 used in conjunction with condoms, are also discussed, as are condoms for women, packaging and marketing of condoms, including those made from latex and from the caecum of sheep, the latter condoms being of questionable effectiveness in preventing transmission of the virus. The care of terminal AIDS cases and current global and national statistics on AIDS are presented. The program also includes cash prizes for the best student essays on condom use, the distribution of condoms, condom key rings and T-shirts, and a student-run safe sex stand during orientation week. All of these activities are intended to involve students and attract the interest of the undergraduate community. Questionnaires administered to students at the end of the course revealed that the lectures were received favorably. Questionnaires administered to new medical and English students attending orientation week revealed that 72% of students thought the stand was a good idea and 81% and 83%, respectively found it

  11. How should greenhouse gas emissions be taken into account in the decision making of municipal solid waste management procurements? A case study of the South Karelia region, Finland.

    PubMed

    Hupponen, M; Grönman, K; Horttanainen, M

    2015-08-01

    The ongoing trend in the public sector is to make more sustainable procurements by taking into account the impacts throughout the entire life cycle of the procurement. Despite the trend, the only deciding factor can still be the total costs. This article answers the question of how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be taken into account in municipal solid waste (MSW) management when selecting an incineration plant for source separated mixed MSW. The aim is to guide the decision making of MSW management towards more environmentally friendly procurements. The study was carried out by calculating the global warming potentials (GWPs) and costs of mixed MSW management by using the waste composition from a case area in Finland. Scenarios of landfilling and combustion in three actual waste incineration plants were used to recognise the main processes that affect the results. GWP results show that the combustion of mixed MSW is a better alternative than landfilling the waste. The GHG results from combustion are greatly affected by emissions from the combustion and substituted energy production. The significance of collection and transportation is higher from the costs' perspective than from the point of view of GHG emissions. The main costs, in addition to collection and transportation costs, result from the energy utilization or landfilling of mixed MSW. When tenders are invited for the incineration location of mixed MSW, the main focus should be: What are the annual electricity and heat recovery efficiencies and which are the substituted fuels in the area? In addition, in the case of a fluidized bed combustor it is crucial to know the combusted share of mixed MSW after preparing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and the treatment of rejects. The environmental criteria for the waste incineration plant procurements should be made in order to obtain clear instructions for the procurement units. The results can also be utilized more widely. The substituted fuels in the area and

  12. How should greenhouse gas emissions be taken into account in the decision making of municipal solid waste management procurements? A case study of the South Karelia region, Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Hupponen, M. Grönman, K.; Horttanainen, M.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Environmental criteria for the MSW incineration location procurements are needed. • Focus should be placed on annual energy efficiency and on substitute fuels. • In SRF combustion it is crucial to know the share and the treatment of rejects. • The GWP of transportation is a small part of the total emissions. - Abstract: The ongoing trend in the public sector is to make more sustainable procurements by taking into account the impacts throughout the entire life cycle of the procurement. Despite the trend, the only deciding factor can still be the total costs. This article answers the question of how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be taken into account in municipal solid waste (MSW) management when selecting an incineration plant for source separated mixed MSW. The aim is to guide the decision making of MSW management towards more environmentally friendly procurements. The study was carried out by calculating the global warming potentials (GWPs) and costs of mixed MSW management by using the waste composition from a case area in Finland. Scenarios of landfilling and combustion in three actual waste incineration plants were used to recognise the main processes that affect the results. GWP results show that the combustion of mixed MSW is a better alternative than landfilling the waste. The GHG results from combustion are greatly affected by emissions from the combustion and substituted energy production. The significance of collection and transportation is higher from the costs’ perspective than from the point of view of GHG emissions. The main costs, in addition to collection and transportation costs, result from the energy utilization or landfilling of mixed MSW. When tenders are invited for the incineration location of mixed MSW, the main focus should be: What are the annual electricity and heat recovery efficiencies and which are the substituted fuels in the area? In addition, in the case of a fluidized bed combustor it is crucial to

  13. The experiments of Ramón M. Termeyer SJ on the electric eel in the River Plate region (c. 1760) and other early accounts of Electrophorus electricus.

    PubMed

    de Asúa, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Ramón M. Termeyer SJ (1737-1814?), a naturalist who experimented with the electric eel in the River Plate region during the 1760s. After going through an enumeration of the chroniclers that since the sixteenth century noticed the benumbing discharge of Electrophorus electricus, the article summarizes the work that immediately preceded Termeyer's and considers as a term of comparison the experiments on the electric eel performed by Bertrand Bajon (fl. 1751-1778) in the French Guyanne. It ends by discussing the meaning of Termeyer's 1781 and 1810 articles in the light of contemporary ideas of animal electricity.

  14. The InDeVal insertion/deletion evaluation tool: a program for finding target regions in DNA sequences and for aiding in sequence comparison.

    PubMed

    Stoneberg Holt, Sierra D; Holt, Jason A

    2004-10-29

    The program InDeVal was originally developed to help researchers find known regions of insertion/deletion activity (with the exception of isolated single-base indels) in newly determined Poaceae trnL-F sequences and compare them with 533 previously determined sequences. It is supplied with input files designed for this purpose. More broadly, the program is applicable for finding specific target regions (referred to as "variable regions") in DNA sequence. A variable region is any specific sequence fragment of interest, such as an indel region, a codon or codons, or sequence coding for a particular RNA secondary structure. InDeVal input is DNA sequence and a template file (sequence flanking each variable region). Additional files contain the variable regions and user-defined messages about the sequence found within them (e.g., taxa sharing each of the different indel patterns).Variable regions are found by determining the position of flanking sequence (referred to as "conserved regions") using the LPAM (Length-Preserving Alignment Method) algorithm. This algorithm was designed for InDeVal and is described here for the first time. InDeVal output is an interactive display of the analyzed sequence, broken into user-defined units. Once the user is satisfied with the organization of the display, the information can be exported to an annotated text file. InDeVal can find multiple variable regions simultaneously (28 indel regions in the Poaceae trnL-F files) and display user-selected messages specific to the sequence variants found. InDeVal output is designed to facilitate comparison between the analyzed sequence and previously evaluated sequence. The program's sensitivity to different levels of nucleotide and/or length variation in conserved regions can be adjusted. InDeVal is currently available for Windows in Additional file 1 or from http://www.sci.muni.cz/botany/elzdroje/indeval/.

  15. The InDeVal insertion/deletion evaluation tool: a program for finding target regions in DNA sequences and for aiding in sequence comparison

    PubMed Central

    Stoneberg Holt, Sierra D; Holt, Jason A

    2004-01-01

    Background The program InDeVal was originally developed to help researchers find known regions of insertion/deletion activity (with the exception of isolated single-base indels) in newly determined Poaceae trnL-F sequences and compare them with 533 previously determined sequences. It is supplied with input files designed for this purpose. More broadly, the program is applicable for finding specific target regions (referred to as "variable regions") in DNA sequence. A variable region is any specific sequence fragment of interest, such as an indel region, a codon or codons, or sequence coding for a particular RNA secondary structure. Results InDeVal input is DNA sequence and a template file (sequence flanking each variable region). Additional files contain the variable regions and user-defined messages about the sequence found within them (e.g., taxa sharing each of the different indel patterns). Variable regions are found by determining the position of flanking sequence (referred to as "conserved regions") using the LPAM (Length-Preserving Alignment Method) algorithm. This algorithm was designed for InDeVal and is described here for the first time. InDeVal output is an interactive display of the analyzed sequence, broken into user-defined units. Once the user is satisfied with the organization of the display, the information can be exported to an annotated text file. Conclusions InDeVal can find multiple variable regions simultaneously (28 indel regions in the Poaceae trnL-F files) and display user-selected messages specific to the sequence variants found. InDeVal output is designed to facilitate comparison between the analyzed sequence and previously evaluated sequence. The program's sensitivity to different levels of nucleotide and/or length variation in conserved regions can be adjusted. InDeVal is currently available for Windows in Additional file 1 or from . PMID:15516260

  16. Using a new high resolution regional model for malaria that accounts for population density and surface hydrology to determine sensitivity of malaria risk to climate drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Adrian; Ermert, Volker; Di Giuseppe, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    In order to better address the role of population dynamics and surface hydrology in the assessment of malaria risk, a new dynamical disease model been developed at ICTP, known as VECTRI: VECtor borne disease community model of ICTP, TRIeste (VECTRI). The model accounts for the temperature impact on the larvae, parasite and adult vector populations. Local host population density affects the transmission intensity, and the model thus reproduces the differences between peri-urban and rural transmission noted in Africa. A new simple pond model framework represents surface hydrology. The model can be used on with spatial resolutions finer than 10km to resolve individual health districts and thus can be used as a planning tool. Results of the models representation of interannual variability and longer term projections of malaria transmission will be shown for Africa. These will show that the model represents the seasonality and spatial variations of malaria transmission well matching a wide range of survey data of parasite rate and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) from across West and East Africa taken in the period prior to large-scale interventions. The model is used to determine the sensitivity of malaria risk to climate variations, both in rainfall and temperature, and then its use in a prototype forecasting system coupled with ECMWF forecasts will be demonstrated.

  17. Predicting Outcomes on the Liver Transplant Waiting List in the United States: Accounting for Large Regional Variation in Organ Availability and Priority Allocation Points.

    PubMed

    Hart, Allyson; Schladt, David P; Zeglin, Jessica; Pyke, Joshua; Kim, W Ray; Lake, John R; Roberts, John P; Hirose, Ryutaro; Mulligan, David C; Kasiske, Bertram L; Snyder, Jon J; Israni, Ajay K

    2016-10-01

    The probability of liver transplant and death on the waiting list in the United States varies greatly by donation service area (DSA) due to geographic differences in availability of organs and allocation of priority points, making it difficult for providers to predict likely outcomes after listing. We aimed to develop an online calculator to report outcomes by region and patient characteristics. Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database, we included all prevalent US adults aged 18 years or older waitlisted for liver transplant, examined on 24 days at least 30 days apart over a 2-year period. Outcomes were determined at intervals of 30 to 365 days. Outcomes are reported by transplant program, DSA, region, and the nation for comparison, and can be shown by allocation or by laboratory model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (6-14, 15-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-40), age, and blood type. Outcomes varied greatly by DSA; for candidates with allocation MELD 25-29, the 25th and 75th percentiles of liver transplant probability were 30% and 67%, respectively, at 90 days. Corresponding percentiles for death or becoming too sick to undergo transplant were 5% and 9%. Outcomes also varied greatly for candidates with and without MELD exception points. The waitlist outcome calculator highlights ongoing disparities in access to liver transplant and may assist providers in understanding and counseling their patients about likely outcomes on the waiting list.

  18. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    PubMed

    1992-12-04

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh.

  19. How to perform first aid.

    PubMed

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John

    2016-01-13

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .

  20. Spatio-temporal evolution of female lung cancer mortality in a region of Spain, is it worth taking migration into account?

    PubMed Central

    Zurriaga, Oscar; Vanaclocha, Hermelinda; Martinez-Beneito, Miguel A; Botella-Rocamora, Paloma

    2008-01-01

    Background The Comunitat Valenciana (CV) is a tourist region on the Mediterranean coast of Spain with a high rate of retirement migration. Lung cancer in women is the cancer mortality cause that has increased most in the CV during the period 1991 to 2000. Moreover, the geographical distribution of risk from this cause in the CV has been previously described and a non-homogenous pattern was determined. The present paper studies the spatio-temporal distribution of lung cancer mortality for women in the CV during the period 1987–2004, in order to gain some insight into the factors, such as migration, that have had an influence on these changes. Methods A novel methodology, consisting of a Bayesian hierarchical model, is used in this paper. Such a model allows the handling of data with a very high disaggregation, while at the same time taking advantage of its spatial and temporal structure. Results The spatio-temporal pattern which was found points to geographical differences in the time trends of risk. In fact, the southern coastal side of the CV has had a higher increase in risk, coinciding with the settlement of a large foreign community in that area, mainly comprised of elderly people from the European Union. Conclusion Migration has frequently been ignored as a risk factor in the description of the geographical risk of lung cancer and it is suggested that this factor should be considered, especially in tourist regions. The temporal component in disease mapping provides a more accurate depiction of risk factors acting on the population. PMID:18234124

  1. Spatio-temporal evolution of female lung cancer mortality in a region of Spain, is it worth taking migration into account?

    PubMed

    Zurriaga, Oscar; Vanaclocha, Hermelinda; Martinez-Beneito, Miguel A; Botella-Rocamora, Paloma

    2008-01-31

    The Comunitat Valenciana (CV) is a tourist region on the Mediterranean coast of Spain with a high rate of retirement migration. Lung cancer in women is the cancer mortality cause that has increased most in the CV during the period 1991 to 2000. Moreover, the geographical distribution of risk from this cause in the CV has been previously described and a non-homogenous pattern was determined. The present paper studies the spatio-temporal distribution of lung cancer mortality for women in the CV during the period 1987-2004, in order to gain some insight into the factors, such as migration, that have had an influence on these changes. A novel methodology, consisting of a Bayesian hierarchical model, is used in this paper. Such a model allows the handling of data with a very high disaggregation, while at the same time taking advantage of its spatial and temporal structure. The spatio-temporal pattern which was found points to geographical differences in the time trends of risk. In fact, the southern coastal side of the CV has had a higher increase in risk, coinciding with the settlement of a large foreign community in that area, mainly comprised of elderly people from the European Union. Migration has frequently been ignored as a risk factor in the description of the geographical risk of lung cancer and it is suggested that this factor should be considered, especially in tourist regions. The temporal component in disease mapping provides a more accurate depiction of risk factors acting on the population.

  2. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  3. "She Told Them, Oh That Bitch Got AIDS": Experiences of Multilevel HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Among African American Women Living with HIV/AIDS in the South.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Faith; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Kerr, Jelani; Buchberg, Meredith; Bogdan-Lovis, Libby; Philpott-Jones, Sean

    2016-07-01

    African American women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in the United States. Although they constitute only 13% of the US population, African Americans account for nearly 65% of all new HIV infections among American women. In addition, this population suffers comparatively greater adverse health outcomes related to HIV status. African American women living with HIV in the South may be further burdened by HIV/AIDS stigma, which is comparatively more pronounced in this region. To further explore this burden, we used narrative data and the Social Ecological Model to explore how African American women living with HIV in the US South recount, conceptualize, and cope with HIV/AIDS stigma at interpersonal, community, and institutional levels. Our narrative analysis suggests that HIV-positive African American women living in the South are vulnerable to experiences of multilevel HIV stigma in various settings and contexts across multiple domains of life. Stigma subsequently complicated disclosure decisions and made it difficult for women to feel supported in particular social, professional and medical settings that are generally regarded as safe spaces for noninfected individuals. Findings suggest that the debilitating and compounded effect of multilevel HIV/AIDS stigma on HIV-positive African American women in the South warrants closer examination to tailor approaches that effectively address the unique needs of this population.

  4. Extensive duplication events account for multiple control regions and pseudo-genes in the mitochondrial genome of the velvet worm Metaperipatus inae (Onychophora, Peripatopsidae).

    PubMed

    Braband, Anke; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Cameron, Stephen L; Daniels, Savel; Mayer, Georg

    2010-10-01

    The phylogeny of Onychophora (velvet worms) is unresolved and even the monophyly of the two major onychophoran subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, is uncertain. Previous studies of complete mitochondrial genomes from two onychophoran species revealed two strikingly different gene arrangement patterns from highly conserved in a representative of Peripatopsidae to highly derived in a species of Peripatidae, suggesting that these data might be informative for clarifying the onychophoran phylogeny. In order to assess the diversity of mitochondrial genomes among onychophorans, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of Metaperipatus inae, a second representative of Peripatopsidae from Chile. Compared to the proposed ancestral gene order in Onychophora, the mitochondrial genome of M. inae shows dramatic rearrangements, although all protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes are encoded on the same strands as in the ancestral peripatopsid genome. The retained strand affiliation of all protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes and the occurrence of three control regions and several pseudo-genes suggest that the derived mitochondrial gene arrangement pattern in M. inae evolved by partial genome duplications, followed by a subsequent loss of redundant genes. Our findings, thus, confirm the diversity of the mitochondrial gene arrangement patterns among onychophorans and support their utility for clarifying the phylogeography of Onychophora, in particular of the Peripatopsidae species from South Africa and Chile.

  5. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  6. AIDS and Africa. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Loretta M; van Niekerk, Anton A

    2002-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and in this issue of the Journal, seven authors discuss the moral, social and medical implications of having 70% of those stricken living in this area. Anton A. van Niekerk considers complexities of plague in this region (poverty, denial, poor leadership, illiteracy, women's vulnerability, and disenchantment of intimacy) and the importance of finding responses that empower its people. Solomon Benatar reinforces these issues, but also discusses the role of global politics in sub-Saharan Africa, especially discrimination, imperialism and its exploitation by first world countries. Given the public health crisis, Udo Schüklenk and Richard E. Ashcroft defend compulsory licensing of essential HIV/AIDS medications on consequentialist grounds. Keymanthri Moodley discusses the importance of conducting research and the need to understand a moderate form of communitarianism, also referred to as "ubuntu" or "communalism", to help some Africans understand research as an altruistic endeavour. Godfrey B. Tangwa also defends traditional African values of empathy and ubuntu, discussing how they should be enlisted to fight this pandemic. Loretta M. Kopelman criticizes the tendency among those outside Africa to dismiss the HIV/AIDS pandemic, attributing one source to the ubiquitous and misguided punishment theory of disease. The authors conclude that good solutions must be cooperative ventures among countries within and outside of sub-Saharan Africa with far more support from wealthy countries.

  7. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR: A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  8. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS A A ... serious infection. continue How Many People Have HIV/AIDS? Since the discovery of the virus in 1983, ...

  9. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  10. Bayesian joint modeling of longitudinal and spatial survival AIDS data.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rui; Silva, Giovani L; Andreozzi, Valeska

    2016-08-30

    Joint analysis of longitudinal and survival data has received increasing attention in the recent years, especially for analyzing cancer and AIDS data. As both repeated measurements (longitudinal) and time-to-event (survival) outcomes are observed in an individual, a joint modeling is more appropriate because it takes into account the dependence between the two types of responses, which are often analyzed separately. We propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for jointly modeling longitudinal and survival data considering functional time and spatial frailty effects, respectively. That is, the proposed model deals with non-linear longitudinal effects and spatial survival effects accounting for the unobserved heterogeneity among individuals living in the same region. This joint approach is applied to a cohort study of patients with HIV/AIDS in Brazil during the years 2002-2006. Our Bayesian joint model presents considerable improvements in the estimation of survival times of the Brazilian HIV/AIDS patients when compared with those obtained through a separate survival model and shows that the spatial risk of death is the same across the different Brazilian states. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Seasonal profile and level of CD4+ lymphocytes in the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis and cystoisosporidiosis in HIV/AIDS patients in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira-Silva, Márcia Benedita; de Oliveira, Leonardo Rodrigues; Resende, Júlio César Possati; Peghini, Bethânea Crema; Ramirez, Luiz Eduardo; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Correia, Dalmo

    2007-01-01

    Patients with AIDS are particularly susceptible to infection with intestinal coccidia. In this study the prevalence of infections with Cryptosporidium sp and Cystoisospora belli were evaluated among HIV/AIDS patients in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Brazil. Between July 1993 and June 2003 faecal samples from 359 patients were collected and stained by a modified Ziehl-Neelsen method, resulting in 19.7% of positivity for coccidian (8.6% with Cryptosporidium sp, 10.3% with Cystoisospora belli and 0.8% with both coccidian). Patients with diarrhoea and T CD4+ lymphocyte levels < or =200 cells/mm3 presented higher frequency of these protozoans, demonstrating the opportunistic profile of these infections and its relationship with the immunological status of the individual. It was not possible to determine the influence of HAART, since only 8.5% of the patients positive for coccidian received this therapy regularly. Parasitism by Cryptosporidium sp was more frequent between December and February and thus was characterised by a seasonal pattern of infection, which was not observed with Cystoisospora belli.

  12. ERTS-1 imagery as an aid to the understanding of the regional setting of base metal deposits in the North West Cape Province, South Africa. [mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viljoen, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A number of base metal finds have recently focussed attention on the North Western Cape Province of South Africa as an area of great potential mineral wealth. From the point of view of competitive mineral exploration it was essential that an insight into the regional geological controls of the base metal mineralization of the area be obtained as rapidly as possible. Conventional methods of producing a suitable regional geological map were considered to be too time-consuming and ERTS-1 imagery was consequently examined. This imagery has made a significant contribution in the compilation of a suitable map on which to base further mineral exploration programmes. The time involved in the compilation of maps of this nature was found to be only a fraction of the time necessary for the production of similar maps using other methods. ERTS imagery is therefore considered to be valuable in producing accurate regional maps in areas where little or no geological data are available, or in areas of poor access. Furthermore, these images have great potential for rapidly defining the regional extent of metallogenic provinces.

  13. Aides to Career Education: Instructional Aide Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    The handbook is designed for use by administrators, teachers, and instructional aides in the Aides to Career Education (ACE) Program. The program provides assistance to academically, socially, economically, and culturally disadvantaged students in secondary vocational programs by employing instructional aides who are subject field specialists to…

  14. Ergogenic aids.

    PubMed

    Coyle, E F

    1984-07-01

    The catabolism of bodily fuels provides the energy for muscular work. Work output can be limited by the size of fuel reserves, the rate of their catabolism, the build-up of by-products, or the neurologic activation of muscle. A substance that favorably affects a step that is normally limiting, and thus increases work output, can be considered an ergogenic aid. The maximal amount of muscular force generated during brief contractions can be acutely increased during hypnosis and with the ingestion of a placebo or psychomotor stimulant. This effect is most obvious in subjects under laboratory conditions and is less evident in athletes who are highly motivated prior to competition. Fatigue is associated with acidosis in the working musculature when attempts are made to maximize work output during a 4 to 15-minute period. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion may act to buffer the acid produced, provided that blood flow to the muscle is adequate. Prolonged intense exercise can be maintained for approximately two hours before carbohydrate stores become depleted. Carbohydrate feedings delay fatigue during prolonged exercise, especially in subjects who display a decline in blood glucose during exercise in the fasting state. Caffeine ingestion prior to an endurance bout has been reported to allow an individual to exercise somewhat more intensely than he or she would otherwise. Its effect may be mediated by augmenting fat metabolism or by altering the perception of effort. Amphetamines may act in a similar manner. Water ingestion during prolonged exercise that results in dehydration and hyperthermia can offset fluid losses and allow an individual to better maintain work output while substantially reducing the risk of heat-related injuries.

  15. Help: first aid issues.

    PubMed

    Granitoff, N; Whitaker, I Y; Diccini, S; Goncalves, V C; Marin, H F

    1995-01-01

    First aid is the initial and immediate care given to a victim outside the hospital environment, with the purpose of assuring life and avoiding worsening conditions until he/she receives qualified assistance. Providing immediate aid to someone requires tranquility and, above all, knowledge on what has to be done or not in each situation. In addition to being treated by health professionals, the chances that a victim will receive early treatment by others are large. However, in Brazil, access to information, and the possibility of reviewing it whenever necessary, may contribute greatly to the process of assimilation of this knowledge, in addition to exercises on simulated cases. Informatics has been shown as an extremely useful tool in the development of educational software, considering its multiplicity of resources and providing for the users: motivation for an interactive experience, an individualized teaching that takes into account his/her own rhythm and desired complexity level, besides making possible the user's capacity for solving problems through simulated situations. Considering that, the number of individuals of the population prepared to act as First Aid helpers in situations of life threatening accidents or sudden illness is still very scarce. The ever increasing use of the computer as a mean of spreading information in schools, enterprises, and even households and considering the advantages of an educational software for the users regarding storage and retrieval of information when needed, we proposed the creation of an interactive teaching software. This software is being developed using Storyboard live. The methodology is the following: literature review, selection of images, development of the program, application tests. The initial selected issues are: assessment of the victim, cardiorespiratory arrest and resuscitation, airway obstruction, wounds, and hemorrhages. After utilizing the program, the user should be able to solve hypothetical

  16. Accounting Fundamentals for Non-Accountants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this module is to provide an introduction and overview of accounting fundamentals for non-accountants. The module also covers important topics such as communication, internal controls, documentation and recordkeeping.

  17. Traditional lesion detection aids.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, K W; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    Lesion detection aids ideally aim at increasing the sensitivity of visual caries detection without trading off too much in terms of specificity. The use of a dental probe (explorer), bitewing radiography and fibre-optic transillumination (FOTI) have long been recommended for this purpose. Today, probing of suspected lesions in the sense of checking the 'stickiness' is regarded as obsolete, since it achieves no gain of sensitivity and might cause irreversible tooth damage. Bitewing radiography helps to detect lesions that are otherwise hidden from visual examination, and it should therefore be applied to a new patient. The diagnostic performance of radiography at approximal and occlusal sites is different, as this relates to the 3-dimensional anatomy of the tooth at these sites. However, treatment decisions have to take more into account than just lesion extension. Bitewing radiography provides additional information for the decision-making process that mainly relies on the visual and clinical findings. FOTI is a quick and inexpensive method which can enhance visual examination of all tooth surfaces. Both radiography and FOTI can improve the sensitivity of caries detection, but require sufficient training and experience to interpret information correctly. Radiography also carries the burden of the risks and legislation associated with using ionizing radiation in a health setting and should be repeated at intervals guided by the individual patient's caries risk. Lesion detection aids can assist in the longitudinal monitoring of the behaviour of initial lesions. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. 14 CFR 151.55 - Accounting and audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting and audit. 151.55 Section 151.55... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Rules and Procedures for Airport Development Projects § 151.55 Accounting and... accounting record to allow appropriate personnel of the FAA to determine all funds received (including...

  19. 14 CFR 151.55 - Accounting and audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accounting and audit. 151.55 Section 151.55... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Rules and Procedures for Airport Development Projects § 151.55 Accounting and... accounting record to allow appropriate personnel of the FAA to determine all funds received (including...

  20. Accounting: Accountants Need Verbal Skill Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Bruce L.

    1978-01-01

    Verbal skills training is one aspect of accounting education not usually included in secondary and postsecondary accounting courses. The author discusses the need for verbal competency and methods of incorporating it into accounting courses, particularly a variation of the Keller plan of individualized instruction. (MF)

  1. Clinical reasons for returning hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ju Young; Oh, In-Hwan; Jung, Tae Suk; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kang, Ho Min; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2014-04-01

    Increases in older aged populations and exposure to complicated noise environments have increased the number of hearing-impaired patients, creating greater demands for hearing aids. We have assessed the reasons that individuals rejected wearing and returned properly prescribed hearing aids, as well as differences in individual factors between younger and elderly adults. Of 1138 patients for whom hearing aids were prescribed at Kyung Hee University Medical Center Hearing Aid Clinic, 81 (6.14%) returned their hearing aids, including 36 patients aged <65 years and 45 aged ≥65 years. Patient-related, hearing-related, and hearing aid-related factors were assessed by retrospective chart analysis and phone survey and compared in the two groups. The primary symptoms reported by the 81 patients who returned their hearing aids were hearing disturbance, ringing, and fullness in the ear, in that order and in both groups. The rate of hearing aid return was similar in elderly females and males (p=0.288). The spondee recognition threshold was significantly higher in younger than in elderly adults (63.3±14.0 dB vs. 55.6±14.74 dB, p=0.019), but the hearing aid return rate was highest in patients with moderate hearing loss in both groups. In evaluating the reasons for return of hearing aids, we found that ineffectiveness of the device was the most frequent reason, accounting for 32.0% of returns, the highest percentage in both groups, with the most frequent patient problem caused by management difficulty in elderly and financial difficulty in younger adults. The reasons for hearing aid return were different in two groups. Financial considerations were cited more by younger adults, while difficulties in managing hearing aids were cited more frequently by elderly adults. Patients in both groups, however, reported that the most frequent reasons for return were inadequate hearing improvement and inconvenience wearing the hearing aid due to noise amplification.

  2. Student Aid Annual 1975/1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1975

    The Student Aid Annual contains information on financial aid programs offered nationally or regionally, primarily by noncollegiate organizations, public and private. The scope of these financial assistance programs extends from the incoming freshman through baccalaureate, graduate, and postdoctoral students. Program range from essay awards, loans,…

  3. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multihelical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2004-04-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause, accounting for about 20% of all cancer deaths for males in Japan. Myocardial infarction is also known as a most fearful adult disease. Recently, multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for screening examination. This screening examination requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of multi-helical CT for mass screening. To overcome this problem, our group has developed a computer-aided diagnosis algorithm to automatically detect suspicious regions of lung cancer and coronary calcifications in chest CT images, so far. And in this time, our group has developed a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database. These consist in three. First, it is an image processing system to automatically detect suspicious bronchial regions, pulmonary artery regions, plumonary vein regions and myocardial infarction regions at high speed. Second, they are two 1600 x 1200 matrix black and white liquid crystal monitor. Third, it is a terminal of image storage. These are connected mutually on the network. This makes it much easier to read images, since the 3D image of suspicious regions and shadow of suspicious regions can be displayed simultaneously on two 1600 x 1200 matrix liquid crystal monitor. The experimental results indicate that a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system can be effectively used in clinical practice to increase the speed and accuracy of routine diagnosis.

  4. Teacher's Aide Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coya, Liliam

    The teacher's aide guide focuses on the various aspects of an aide's position in a migrant educational situation. Following the introduction, section 1 describes the aide's relationship with the teacher, duties of the aide, and materials that might be required; a glossary of commonly used school terms is also provided. Psychologically oriented,…

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS in east Africa: challenges and possibilities for prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Mhalu, F S; Lyamuya, E

    1996-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency infection and AIDS are a major recent microbial infection in east Africa with serious health and socioeconomic impacts in the region. At present HIV infection and AIDS account for more than 50% of adult medical admissions into some of the national and provincial hospitals as well as for 10-15% of paediatric admissions. AIDS is also at present the commonest cause of death among those aged 15-45 years. Tuberculosis, a closely associated disease to HIV infection, has increased more than three fold in some countries in the region. The prevalence of HIV infection currently ranges from 10-30% among adults in urban areas and from less than 1% to 25% in adults in rural areas; since this prevalence is still rising, the full impact of the AIDS problem in east Africa is yet to be realised. This is different from the situation in many developed countries where AIDS is no longer a priority health issue and where peak prevalences of the infection have been reached. The differences in HIV prevalences between east Africa and developed countries are due to poverty, ignorance, high prevalence of other STDs and associated cultural and traditional practices which prevail and facilitate HIV transmission in the region. While more than 80% of HIV infection in east Africa is transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, 5-15% of cases are perinatally transmitted and the remaining cases are transmitted through blood and blood products. While a lot of scientific advances have been made in immunopathology of AIDS, diagnostics and in social behavioural studies, we are still a long way towards getting curative therapy and or effective preventive vaccines. Recent discovery that use of zidovudine can significantly reduce perinatal HIV transmission is an additional breakthrough. While knowledge and tools for preventing HIV transmission are available in the world, prospects for AIDS control in east Africa appear gloomy unless major efforts are made in the reduction of

  6. 50 CFR 259.36 - CCF accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CCF accounts. 259.36 Section 259.36 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND Capital Construction Fund Agreement §...

  7. Predicting Student Success in Intermediate Accounting I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to find some quantitative predictors of student success in Intermediate Accounting I that an advisor can use as an aid in student counseling. The AICPA Level I Form C test and the average grade in principles courses proved to be reasonable predictors of success. (CT)

  8. A system for the analysis of BKV non-coding control regions: application to clinical isolates from an HIV/AIDS patient.

    PubMed

    Broekema, Nicole M; Abend, Johanna R; Bennett, Shauna M; Butel, Janet S; Vanchiere, John A; Imperiale, Michael J

    2010-11-25

    The human polyomavirus BK virus (BKV) is an important opportunistic pathogen whose disease prevalence continues to increase with the growing immunocompromised population. To date, the major determinant of replication in cell culture has not been formally proven. BKV exists as archetype virus and rearranged variants, which are classified based on the DNA sequence of their non-coding control regions (NCCRs). The archetype BKV NCCR is divided into five blocks of sequence and rearranged variants contain deletions and duplications of these blocks. In this study, a genetic system was developed and used to identify the major determinant of replication ability in primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, the natural host cell of BKV. This system was also used to analyze NCCR variants isolated from an immunocompromised patient which contain assorted rearrangement patterns and functional differences. This study solidifies the NCCR as the major genetic determinant of BKV replication ability in vitro.

  9. A System for the Analysis of BKV Non-coding Control Regions: Application to Clinical Isolates from an HIV/AIDS Patient

    PubMed Central

    Broekema, Nicole M.; Abend, Johanna R.; Bennett, Shauna M.; Butel, Janet S.; Vanchiere, John A.; Imperiale, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The human polyomavirus BK virus (BKV) is an important opportunistic pathogen whose disease prevalence continues to increase with the growing immunocompromised population. To date, the major determinant of replication in cell culture has not been formally proven. BKV exists as archetype virus and rearranged variants, which are classified based on the DNA sequence of their non-coding control regions (NCCRs). The archetype BKV NCCR is divided into five blocks of sequence and rearranged variants contain deletions and duplications of these blocks. In this study, a genetic system was developed and used to identify the major determinant of replication ability in primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, the natural host cell of BKV. This system was also used to analyze NCCR variants isolated from an immunocompromised patient which contain assorted rearrangement patterns and functional differences. This study solidifies the NCCR as the major genetic determinant of BKV replication ability in vitro. PMID:20869740

  10. Foreign Aid Transparency and Accountability Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lugar, Richard G. [R-IN

    2012-06-19

    Senate - 11/13/2012 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 538. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Foreign Aid Transparency and Accountability Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Rubio, Marco [R-FL

    2013-07-10

    Senate - 12/20/2013 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 283. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Comparing state-only expenditures for AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, M J; Ryan, C C

    1988-01-01

    The State AIDS Policy Center at the Inter-governmental Health Policy Project (IHPP) at George Washington University surveyed all 50 states to determine state AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) expenditures, without Medicaid or federal funds, for fiscal 1984-88. During this period, state-only expenditures increased 15-fold, to $156.3 million. Between fiscal 1986-1988, the distribution of state funding for AIDS patient care and support services doubled from 16 to 35 per cent and the number of states supplementing federal funds for testing and counseling increased from eight to 20. Five states continue to account for the largest AIDS appropriations. Of these, California leads in funding research; New York, Florida, and New Jersey have directed funds to provide care and services to IV (intravenous) drug users, prisoners, and children. The average state expenditure per diagnosed AIDS case is $3,323 and an increasing number of states with relatively low case loads are appropriating funds beyond this level. Across states, AIDS expenditures per person average $.65 and $.21 for education, testing and counseling--below the level recommended by the Institute of Medicine for AIDS prevention activities. Some jurisdictions support AIDS activities indirectly by shifting resources, often from their STD (sexually transmitted disease) programs--this trend deserves continuing review given the rise in STD cases and their relationship to diagnosed AIDS. PMID:3126674

  13. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  14. Semiautomatic approaches to account for 3-D distortion of the electric field from local, near-surface structures in 3-D resistivity inversions of 3-D regional magnetotelluric data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2017-03-31

    This report summarizes the results of three-dimensional (3-D) resistivity inversion simulations that were performed to account for local 3-D distortion of the electric field in the presence of 3-D regional structure, without any a priori information on the actual 3-D distribution of the known subsurface geology. The methodology used a 3-D geologic model to create a 3-D resistivity forward (“known”) model that depicted the subsurface resistivity structure expected for the input geologic configuration. The calculated magnetotelluric response of the modeled resistivity structure was assumed to represent observed magnetotelluric data and was subsequently used as input into a 3-D resistivity inverse model that used an iterative 3-D algorithm to estimate 3-D distortions without any a priori geologic information. A publicly available inversion code, WSINV3DMT, was used for all of the simulated inversions, initially using the default parameters, and subsequently using adjusted inversion parameters. A semiautomatic approach of accounting for the static shift using various selections of the highest frequencies and initial models was also tested. The resulting 3-D resistivity inversion simulation was compared to the “known” model and the results evaluated. The inversion approach that produced the lowest misfit to the various local 3-D distortions was an inversion that employed an initial model volume resistivity that was nearest to the maximum resistivities in the near-surface layer.

  15. Telemedicine for AIDS patients accommodations.

    PubMed

    Kulik, J F; de la Tribonnière, X; Bricon-Souf, N; Beuscart, R J; Mouton, Y

    1997-01-01

    People suffering from AIDS are subject to frequent hospitalisations. In some cases, they cannot go back home after hospitalisations, due to severe illness, family or sociologic problems. This is the reason why some therapeutic flats are at their disposal to make easier their medical follow-up after the hospital's discharge. In these Therapy Accommodation, they are treated by trained GP who often suffer from lack of information and lack of expertise in difficult cases. For this purpose we included these flats in the regional Telemedicine AIDS network to give these physicians free access to the computerised multimedia medical record of their patients and to provide them with synchronous co-operation facilities.

  16. How to Get Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Products Hearing Aids How to get Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... my hearing aids? How do I get hearing aids? Before getting a hearing aid, you should consider ...

  17. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  18. The importance of interdisciplinary collaborative research in responding to HIV/AIDS vulnerability in rural Senegal.

    PubMed

    Willems, Roos

    2009-12-01

    HIV prevalence in Senegal is less than 1%, a success generally attributed to the country's quick response to the nascent epidemic of the 1980s and its continued efforts to curtail the spread of HIV. However, as the bulk of the healthcare infrastructure and support for HIV-positive individuals and AIDS patients are located in urban areas, there remains limited information on HIV and AIDS prevalence in rural areas. Several focus group discussions held with small-holder farmers in 2006, in the regions of Kolda and Tambacounda, Senegal, in the framework of a regional food-security development programme, revealed the growing vulnerability of rural populations to HIV and AIDS. Because current HIV/AIDS campaigns are strongly influenced by generalised, internationally formulated guidelines that fail to take into account the cultural particularities of the Senegalese context, the initial positive impact of these campaigns has dramatically decreased and at-risk behaviour in rural Senegal has been found to be on the increase. The article argues that in order for HIV/AIDS campaigns to have an impact there is an urgent need for evidence-based approaches built on a deeper understanding of the local socio-cultural situation through interdisciplinary research and collaboration.

  19. Kaposi sarcoma incidence in Mozambique: national and regional estimates.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Paula; Albuquerque, Gabriela; Vieira, Mariana; Foia, Severiano; Ferro, Josefo; Carrilho, Carla; Lunet, Nuno

    2015-11-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is expressed in four clinical variants, all associated with human herpes virus type 8 infection, namely, classic, endemic, immunosuppression-related and AIDS-related. The latter currently accounts for most of the burden of Kaposi sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa, reflecting the frequency of HIV infection and its management. We aimed to estimate the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique and in its provinces. We estimated the number of incident cases of Kaposi sarcoma by adding up the expected number of endemic and AIDS-related cases. The former were estimated from the rates observed in Kyandondo, Uganda (1960-1971). The latter were computed from the number of AIDS-related deaths in each region, assuming that the ratio between the AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma incident cases and the number of AIDS-related deaths observed in the city of Beira applies to all regions. A total of 3862 Kaposi sarcoma cases were estimated to have occurred in Mozambique in 2007, mostly AIDS-related, in the age group 25-49 years, and in provinces from South/Centre. The age-standardized incidence rates were 36.1/100 000 in men and 11.5/100 000 in women, with a more than three-fold variation across provinces. We estimated a high incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique, along with large regional differences. These results can be used to improve disease management and to sustain political decisions on health policies.

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from the Demographic Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extant studies universally document a positive gradient between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. A notable exception is the apparent concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals. This paper uses data from the Demographic Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to examine socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in 24 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the region that accounts for two-thirds of the global HIV/AIDS burden. Methods The relative and generalized concentration indices (RC and GC) were used to quantify wealth-based socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence for the total adult population (aged 15-49), for men and women, and in urban and rural areas in each country. Further, we decomposed the RC and GC indices to identify the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in each country. Results Our findings demonstrated that HIV/AIDS was concentrated among higher SES individuals in the majority of SSA countries. Swaziland and Senegal were the only countries in the region where HIV/AIDS was concentrated among individuals living in poorer households. Stratified analyses by gender showed HIV/AIDS was generally concentrated among wealthier men and women. In some countries, including Kenya, Lesotho Uganda, and Zambia, HIV/AIDS was concentrated among the poor in urban areas but among wealthier adults in rural areas. Decomposition analyses indicated that, besides wealth itself (median = 49%, interquartile range [IQR] = 90%), urban residence (median = 54%, IQR = 81%) was the most important factor contributing to the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier participants in SSA countries. Conclusions Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms explaining the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals and urban residents in SSA. Higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS could be indicative of better care and survival among wealthier individuals and urban adults, or reflect

  1. Migration and AIDS.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article presents the perspectives of UNAIDS and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on migration and HIV/AIDS. It identifies research and action priorities and policy issues, and describes the current situation in major regions of the world. Migration is a process. Movement is enhanced by air transport, rising international trade, deregulation of trade practices, and opening of borders. Movements are restricted by laws and statutes. Denial to freely circulate and obtain asylum is associated with vulnerability to HIV infections. A UNAIDS policy paper in 1997 and IOM policy guidelines in 1988 affirm that refugees and asylum seekers should not be targeted for special measures due to HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need to provide primary health services for migrants, voluntary counseling and testing, and more favorable conditions. Research is needed on the role of migration in the spread of HIV, the extent of migration, availability of health services, and options for HIV prevention. Research must be action-oriented and focused on vulnerability to HIV and risk taking behavior. There is substantial mobility in West and Central Africa, economic migration in South Africa, and nonvoluntary migration in Angola. Sex workers in southeast Asia contribute to the spread. The breakup of the USSR led to population shifts. Migrants in Central America and Mexico move north to the US where HIV prevalence is higher.

  2. Media Accounts of School Performance: Reinforcing Dominant Practices of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroutsis, Aspa

    2016-01-01

    Media reportage often act as interpretations of accountability policies thereby making the news media a part of the policy enactment process. Within such a process, their role is that of policy reinforcement rather than policy construction or contestation. This paper draws on the experiences of school leaders in regional Queensland, Australia, and…

  3. Media Accounts of School Performance: Reinforcing Dominant Practices of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroutsis, Aspa

    2016-01-01

    Media reportage often act as interpretations of accountability policies thereby making the news media a part of the policy enactment process. Within such a process, their role is that of policy reinforcement rather than policy construction or contestation. This paper draws on the experiences of school leaders in regional Queensland, Australia, and…

  4. International Accounting and the Accounting Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laribee, Stephen F.

    The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in internationalizing the accounting curriculum by means of accreditation requirements and standards. Colleges and universities have met the AACSB requirements either by providing separate international accounting courses or by integrating international topics…

  5. International Accounting and the Accounting Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laribee, Stephen F.

    The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in internationalizing the accounting curriculum by means of accreditation requirements and standards. Colleges and universities have met the AACSB requirements either by providing separate international accounting courses or by integrating international topics…

  6. How "accountable" are accountable care organizations?

    PubMed

    Addicott, Rachael; Shortell, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of accountable care organizations (ACOs) in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was intended to support both cost savings and high-quality care. However, a key challenge will be to ensure that governance and accountability mechanisms are sufficient to support those twin ambitions. This exploratory study considers how recently developed ACOs have established governance structures and accountability mechanisms, particularly focusing on attempts at collaborative accountability and shared governance arrangements. Four case studies of ACOs across the United States were undertaken, with data collected throughout 2012. These involved 34 semistructured interviews with ACO administrative and clinical leaders, observation of nine meetings, and a review of documentary materials from each ACO. We identified very few examples of physicians being held to account as a collective and therefore only limited evidence of collaborative accountability impacting on behavior change. However, ACO leaders do have many mechanisms available to stimulate change across physicians. The challenge is to determine governance structure(s) and accountability mechanisms that facilitate the most effective combination of approaches, measures, incentives, and sanctions to achieve the goals of more accountable care. Accountability structures and processes will need to be tailored to local membership composition, historical evolution, and current stage of development. There are also some common lessons to be drawn. Shared goals and incentives should be reflected through performance criteria. It is important to align measures and thresholds across payers to ensure ACOs are not unnecessarily burdened or compromised by reporting on different and potentially disjointed measures. Finally, emphasis needs to be placed on the importance of credible, transparent data. This exploratory study provides early evidence regarding how ACOs are establishing their governance and accountability arrangements and

  7. A Harmonious Accounting Duo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schapperle, Robert F.; Hardiman, Patrick F.

    1992-01-01

    Accountants have urged "harmonization" of standards between the Governmental Accounting Standards Board and the Financial Accounting Standards Board, recommending similar reporting of like transactions. However, varying display of similar accounting events does not necessarily indicate disharmony. The potential for problems because of…

  8. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: U.S. HIV and AIDS Cases Reported through June 2001. Midyear Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This report includes new tables which present trends in estimated annual AIDS incidence from 1996-00, by U.S. region, race/ethnicity, and exposure category. Some of the tables include: persons reported to be living with HIV infection and with AIDS, by state and age group; AIDS cases and annual rates per 100,000 population, by metropolitan area and…

  9. Custom accounts receivable modeling.

    PubMed

    Veazie, J

    1994-04-01

    In hospital and clinic management, accounts are valued as units and handled equally--a $20 account receives the same minimum number of statements as a $20,000 account. Quite often, the sheer number of accounts a hospital or clinic has to handle forces executives to manage accounts by default and failure--accounts mature on an aging track and, if left unpaid by patients, eventually are sent to collections personnel. Of the bad-debt accounts placed with collections agencies, many are misclassified as charity or hardship cases, while others could be collected by hospital or clinic staff with a limited amount of additional effort.

  10. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  11. AIDS and Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Leonard H.; Kelley, Dennis

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the onset and progression of AIDS, its importance as a public health issue, and reducing the risk of AIDS transmission among athletes and those who work with them, including team physicians and athletic trainers. (IAH)

  12. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  13. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  14. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts HIV/AIDS Fact sheet Updated November 2016 Key facts HIV ... and 2015, new HIV infections fell by 35%, AIDS-related deaths fell by 28% with some 8 ...

  15. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  16. Dislocation: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Emergency Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 8, 2015. Jan. 20, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid- ...

  17. Safeguards Accountability Network accountability and materials management

    SciTech Connect

    Carnival, G.J.; Meredith, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Safeguards Accountability Network (SAN) is an on-line accountability system used by Rocky Flats Plant to provide accountability control of its nuclear material inventory. The system is also used to monitor and evaluate the use of the nuclear material inventory against programmatic objectives for materials management. The SAN system utilizes two Harris 800 Computers as central processing units. Enhancement plans are currently being formulated to provide automated data collection from process operations on the shop floor and from non-destructive analysis safeguards instrumentation. SAN, discussed in this paper, is an excellent system for basic accountability control of nuclear materials inventories and is a quite useful tool in evaluating the efficient use of nuclear materials inventories at Rocky Flats Plant.

  18. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  19. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  20. Creating Motivating Job Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilaro, Angie; Rossett, Allison

    1993-01-01

    Explains how to create job aids that employees will be motivated to use, based on a review of pertinent literature and interviews with professionals. Topics addressed include linking motivation with job aids; Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model of motivation; and design strategies for job aids based on Keller's…

  1. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A What's in this article? ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  2. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  3. Difficult Decisions: AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on public education about the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Discusses the problems of a second epidemic of fear and anxiety. Presents several questions for classroom discussion and analysis of the public fear of AIDS. Gives some statistics highlighting misinformation about AIDS. (CW)

  4. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  5. Black Eye: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid Black eye: First aid Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a black eye aren't serious. But a black eye ...

  6. AIDS awareness: Indian context.

    PubMed

    Izhar, N

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the level of public awareness of AIDS in India was conducted on 600 men and women from Aligarth town, 180 km east of Delhi, and in Srinagar City in Kashmir Valley. Subjects were chosen from illiterate and below matriculate level; matriculate to graduate level; and graduate and above. Subjects were asked if they had heard of a disease called AIDS, when they first hears about AIDS, what was their 1st source of information, what are the reasons behind the incidence of AIDS and whether they are scared of AIDS. None of the illiterate group had heard of AIDS. 24% of the men and 14% of the women in the matriculate and graduate level group (clerks, mechanics, primary school teachers, businessmen and undergraduate students) had heard of AIDS. 92% of the highest educated group (lawyers, engineers, school principals and university students or teachers) had heard of AIDS. The 8% who had not were mostly women. Most of the highly educated, but fewer of the middle group were afraid of AIDS, but most thought AIDS would not spread in India because "our life pattern is different." None was aware that AIDS can spread from unchecked blood transfusions and re-use of unsterilized needles in hospitals. The most common information sources were newspapers, radio, magazines and friends. Most had not heard of AIDS from doctors or other health workers, or from television, which could be an extremely effective medium to reach people.

  7. Creating Motivating Job Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilaro, Angie; Rossett, Allison

    1993-01-01

    Explains how to create job aids that employees will be motivated to use, based on a review of pertinent literature and interviews with professionals. Topics addressed include linking motivation with job aids; Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model of motivation; and design strategies for job aids based on Keller's…

  8. AIDS in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Donald B.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the increase in AIDS patients in rural California, which is greater than that in urban areas, including AIDS population projections through 1991. Describes differences between AIDS populations in rural and urban areas and relates these to state expenditure patterns and differential needs. (DHP)

  9. Stroke: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when blood flow to your ... cells start dying. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...

  10. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S.; Moore, M.L.

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  11. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  12. AIDS denialism and public health practice.

    PubMed

    Chigwedere, Pride; Essex, M

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we respond to AIDS denialist arguments that HIV does not cause AIDS, that antiretroviral drugs are not useful, and that there is no evidence of large-scale deaths from AIDS, and discuss the key implications of the relationship between AIDS denialism and public health practice. We provide a brief history of how the cause of AIDS was investigated, of how HIV fulfills Koch's postulates and Sir Bradford Hil's criteria for causation, and of the inconsistencies in alternatives offered by denialists. We highlight clinical trials as the standard for assessing efficacy of drugs, rather than anecdotal cases or discussions of mechanism of action, and show the unanimous data demonstrating antiretroviral drug efficacy. We then show how statistics on mortality and indices such as crude death rate, life expectancy, child mortality, and population growth are consistent with the high mortality from AIDS, and expose the weakness of statistics from death notification, quoted by denialists. Last we emphasize that when denialism influences public health practice as in South Africa, the consequences are disastrous. We argue for accountability for the loss of hundreds of thousands of lives, the need to reform public health practice to include standards and accountability, and the particular need for honesty and peer review in situations that impact public health policy.

  13. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation.

    PubMed

    Katz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the rapid spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. This has had enormous implications for the international response to AIDS and has heavily influenced public health policy and strategy and the design of prevention and care interventions at national, community and individual level. It is argued that individual behaviour alone cannot possibly account for the enormous variation in HIV prevalence between population groups, countries and regions and that the unexplained remaining variation has been neglected by the international AIDS community. Biological vulnerability to HIV due to seriously deficient immune systems has been ignored as a determinant of the high levels of infection in certain populations. This is in sharp contrast to well proven public health approaches to other infectious diseases. In particular, it is argued that poor nutrition and co-infection with the myriad of other diseases of poverty including tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis and parasitic infections, have been neglected as root causes of susceptibility, infectiousness and high rates of transmission of HIV at the level of populations. Vulnerability in terms of non-biological factors such as labour migration, prostitution, exchange of sex for survival, population movements due to war and violence, has received some attention but the solutions proposed to these problems are also inappropriately focused on individual behaviour and suffer from the same neglect of economic and political root causes. As the foundation for the international community's response to the AIDS pandemic, explanations of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in terms of individual behaviour are not only grossly inadequate, they are highly stigmatising and may in some cases, be racist. They have diverted attention from

  14. Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable

    PubMed Central

    Achim, Cristian L.; Boivin, Michael J.; Brew, Bruce J.; Clifford, David B.; Colosi, Deborah A.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Heaton, Robert K.; Gallo-Diop, Amadou; Grant, Igor; Kanmogne, Georgette D.; Kumar, Mahendra; Letendre, Scott; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Nath, Avindra; Pardo, Carlos A.; Paul, Robert H.; Pulliam, Lynn; Robertson, Kevin; Royal, Walter; Sacktor, Ned; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Smith, Davey M.; Valcour, Victor; Wigdahl, Brian; Wood, Charles

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Division of AIDS Research at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) organized the “Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable” in conjunction with the 11th International Symposium on Neurovirology and the 2012 Conference on HIV in the Nervous System. The meeting was held in New York, NY, USA and brought together NIMH-funded investigators who are currently working on projects related to the neurological complications of AIDS (NeuroAIDS) in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America in order to provide an opportunity to share their recent findings and discuss the challenges encountered within each country. The major goals of the roundtable were to evaluate HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and determine if it may be directly attributable to distinct HIV subtypes or clades and to discuss the future priorities for global NeuroAIDS research. At the “Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable”, presentations of preliminary research indicated that HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment is prevalent in all countries examined regardless of which HIV clade is present in the region. The only clear-cut difference between HIV-1 clades was in relation to subtypes A and D in Uganda. However, a key point that emerged from the discussions was that there is an urgent need to standardize neurocognitive assessment methodologies across the globe before definitive conclusions can be drawn regarding the relationship between HIV clade diversity and neuropathogenesis. Future research directions were also discussed at the roundtable with particular emphasis on the potential of viral and host factor molecular interactions to impact the pathophysiology of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) from a global perspective. PMID:23354550

  15. AIDS in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Karel, S G; Robey, B

    1988-09-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been an African and Western concern due to its epidemic nature. Although nearly 99% of all reported cases occurred in these regions, Asia has reported cases, and the potential for devastation of Asia's already strained health care reserves are undeniable. This review compiled by analysis of 1986-88 articles on AIDS research, demographics, official statements from government and health organizations, news reports, and public statements describe how AIDS has spread in well documented regions like America, Europe, and Africa, and how the Asian regions have attempted to handle the AIDS epidemic before it becomes as serious as in the West. The topics covered include a clinical overview of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS, how it is transmitted, and what are the primary forms of transmission in well documented regions. The report briefly documents what policies China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Australia, and New Zealand have individually instituted to stem the flow of AIDS into their country, and/or stop the spread of AIDS already found there. The efforts to combat AIDS globally by the World Health Organization/United Nations Development Program alliance (WHO-UNDP) along with the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and UNICEF are highlighted. The available research and aid programs are contrasted with how the Asian nations are preparing to deal with the AIDS epidemic. 1) AIDS has an incubation time wherein an infected individual is not AIDS symptomatic, but is capable of infecting others, and this hidden infected population makes it essential that containment policies are also enforced in countries with few reported cases. 2) A committee should be established in all Asian countries to coordinate education on safe sexual behaviors with specific programs for prostitutes

  16. Dermatology and HIV/AIDS in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jenny; McKoy, Karen; Papier, Art; Klaus, Sidney; Ryan, Terence; Grossman, Henning; Masenga, Elisante J; Sethi, Aisha; Craft, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) have greatly complicated dermatologic disease and the required care in most regions of Africa. Opportunistic infections, ectoparasites, Kaposi sarcoma, and skin manifestations of systemic infections are exceedingly common in patients with HIV/AIDS. Dermatologists have contributed significantly to our knowledge base about HIV/AIDS and have played an important educational role regarding the clinical manifestations historically. Because of the increased burden of skin disease in Africa due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic we must redouble our efforts to provide dermatology education to care providers in Africa. We review the burden of skin disease in Africa, how it relates to HIV/AIDS and global infectious disease, current educational strategies in Africa to address this need, and suggest potential solutions to move these efforts forward. PMID:21887061

  17. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  18. [Change in technical aids (AT)--a technology assessment from the viewpoint of rehabilitation-anthropology].

    PubMed

    Greve, J; Kaiser, H; Schian, H M; Neuhäuser, G

    2000-10-01

    Practical experience in adjusting complex computer-assisted (CAS) communication aids has resulted in a search for prognostic criteria useful in evaluating the efficacy of technical aids. Such evaluation implies a holistic approach as is included in the ICIDH-2. These circumstances are demonstrated by examples ranging from mechanical to computer-assisted (CAS) aids. "Reciprocity" has turned out to be a valid semi-qualitative criterion in describing the dynamic equilibration of the rehabilitative issues involved. Only a dialogical situation with reciprocity will lead to sustainable participation. In case of technical aids, a conjunction of abilities and the qualitative level of activities in disabled people have to be taken into account to provide all dimensions of participation. In this holistic approach, social participation and balance will equally be respected. The differentiation of social systems with unequal consequences for people with disabilities in terms of environmental factors, or e-code of the ICIDH-2, have to be considered for prognostic evaluation with regard to efficacy and possible participation. A comprehensive psycho-socio-functional rating therefore has to include a comparative (socio-structural or morphological) analysis of the environment at hand. This approach will invariably show that technical aids alone are unable to ensure individual independence but, rather, may lead to isolation if there is no regional or local networking based on partnership and close interpersonal relations to be drawn on "technically".

  19. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  20. Towards predictive understanding of regional climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shang-Ping; Deser, Clara; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Collins, Matthew; Delworth, Thomas L.; Hall, Alex; Hawkins, Ed; Johnson, Nathaniel C.; Cassou, Christophe; Giannini, Alessandra; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Regional information on climate change is urgently needed but often deemed unreliable. To achieve credible regional climate projections, it is essential to understand underlying physical processes, reduce model biases and evaluate their impact on projections, and adequately account for internal variability. In the tropics, where atmospheric internal variability is small compared with the forced change, advancing our understanding of the coupling between long-term changes in upper-ocean temperature and the atmospheric circulation will help most to narrow the uncertainty. In the extratropics, relatively large internal variability introduces substantial uncertainty, while exacerbating risks associated with extreme events. Large ensemble simulations are essential to estimate the probabilistic distribution of climate change on regional scales. Regional models inherit atmospheric circulation uncertainty from global models and do not automatically solve the problem of regional climate change. We conclude that the current priority is to understand and reduce uncertainties on scales greater than 100 km to aid assessments at finer scales.

  1. Accountable Care Organizations and Oral Health Accountability.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, Melanie E

    2017-05-01

    Accountable care organizations agree to be accountable for the cost and outcomes of an attributed population. However, in many, no provisions have been made to account for oral health. There are several social, medical, and financial implications for health care provider and payer systems and health care outcomes when oral health is not accounted for in patient management. How can an organization strive to improve population health without including the oral health system? Total systemic health for a population must include oral health. Accountable care organizations are positioned to change the course of oral health in the United States and close the disparities that exist among vulnerable populations, including seniors. Such efforts will reduce health care costs. Opportunities abound to expand points of entry into the health care system via dental or medical care. Closing the great divide between 2 historically isolated professions will position the United States to make gains in true population health. I provide evidence of the need to mandate access to oral health care services for all Americans-specifically adults, because legislation currently exists for pediatric dental coverage.

  2. Psychotherapy with AIDS Patients: Countertransference Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilk, Carole A.

    This paper provides a personal account of the process of psychotherapy for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients, as seen from both the client's and the psychotherapist's perspective, with a focus on countertransference issues found in the early phases of treatment. Based on case material, the discussion explores themes presented by…

  3. Student Financial Aid. High-Risk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses areas of concern in the Department of Education's management and oversight of postsecondary student financial aid programs, especially the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP), the Federal Direct Student Loan Program (FDSLP), and the Federal Pell Grant Programs. The General Accounting Office determined that, in…

  4. Student Financial Aid. High Risk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses the continuing concerns of the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) in regard to the Department of Education's management and oversight of postsecondary student financial aid programs, especially the Federal Family Education Loan, the Ford Direct Loan, and the Federal Pell Grant Programs. GAO commends the department for its…

  5. LMAL Accounting Office 1936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Accounting Office: The Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory's accounting office, 1936, with photographs of the Wright brothers on the wall. Although the Lab was named after Samuel P. Langley, most of the NACA staff held the Wrights as their heroes.

  6. Major Management Challenges and Program Risks. Performance and Accountability Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In its 2001 performance and accountability report on the Department of Education, the General Accounting Office (GAO) identified challenges with student financial-aid programs, financial management, and other areas facing education. The information presented in this report is intended to help sustain congressional attention and a departmental…

  7. How Much Do Young Children Know about HIV/AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which young South African school children (aged between seven and eight) in a predominantly white primary school give meanings to HIV/AIDS. Using ethnographic methods and interview data, the analysis of young children's responses shows that their accounts of HIV/AIDS draw from their knowledge of disease more…

  8. Federal Student Aid and Tuition Growth: Examining the Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauptman, Arthur M.; Krop, Cathy S.

    A debate has raged over the effect of federal student aid on tuition growth. Former Secretary of Education, William Bennett claimed that colleges and universities explicitly take federal aid into account in setting tuition and other charges, thereby stimulating tuition increases that are higher than the rate of inflation. An alternative view is…

  9. The Effect of Student Aid on the Duration of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glocker, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I evaluate the effect of student aid on the success of academic studies. I focus on two dimensions, the duration of study and the probability of actually graduating with a degree. To determine the impact of financial student aid, I estimate a discrete-time duration model allowing for competing risks to account for different exit…

  10. How Much Do Young Children Know about HIV/AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which young South African school children (aged between seven and eight) in a predominantly white primary school give meanings to HIV/AIDS. Using ethnographic methods and interview data, the analysis of young children's responses shows that their accounts of HIV/AIDS draw from their knowledge of disease more…

  11. The Effect of Student Aid on the Duration of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glocker, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I evaluate the effect of student aid on the success of academic studies. I focus on two dimensions, the duration of study and the probability of actually graduating with a degree. To determine the impact of financial student aid, I estimate a discrete-time duration model allowing for competing risks to account for different exit…

  12. Forum: challenges in STD/AIDS prevention in Portuguese-speaking African countries: contributions from social research and from a gender approach. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Simone

    2009-03-01

    This forum on the challenges of preventing STD/AIDS in Portuguese-speaking African countries contains three articles and a postscript. The first paper reviews academic production on the topic from the fields of the social sciences and of health, with special attention on how local cultural and socioeconomic factors impact the dynamics of the epidemic. Based on an ethnographic study of a region in southern Mozambique, the second paper analyzes the notion of 'tradition' within the context of Mozambique and how it affects perceptions of the local population's vulnerability to STD/AIDS. The third and final article discusses common ground and differences between government and civil society in gender approaches by community HIV/AIDS projects in Mozambique. Their observations suggest that important mistakes have been made in STD/AIDS prevention discourse and initiatives in African countries because the unique features of local development models and cultural systems have not been taken into account.

  13. The Accounting Capstone Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Henry; Norris, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Capstone courses in accounting programs bring students experiences integrating across the curriculum (University of Washington, 2005) and offer unique (Sanyal, 2003) and transformative experiences (Sill, Harward, & Cooper, 2009). Students take many accounting courses without preparing complete sets of financial statements. Accountants not only…

  14. Intelligent Accountability in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Onora

    2013-01-01

    Systems of accountability are "second order" ways of using evidence of the standard to which "first order" tasks are carried out for a great variety of purposes. However, more accountability is not always better, and processes of holding to account can impose high costs without securing substantial benefits. At their worst,…

  15. Accounting Education in Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Karen F.; Reed, Ronald O.; Greiman, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Almost on a daily basis new accounting rules and laws are put into use, creating information that must be known and learned by the accounting faculty and then introduced to and understood by the accounting student. Even with the 150 hours of education now required for CPA licensure, it is impossible to teach and learn all there is to learn. Over…

  16. Accounting & Computing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avani, Nathan T.; And Others

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching a competency-based accounting and computing course that is designed to prepare students for employability in the following occupational areas: inventory control clerk, invoice clerk, payroll clerk, traffic clerk, general ledger bookkeeper, accounting clerk, account information clerk,…

  17. Managerial Accounting. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plachta, Leonard E.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting. The study guide is intended for use by students in conjuction with a separate textbook, Horngren's "Accounting for Management Control: An Introduction," and a workbook, Curry's "Student Guide to Accounting for Management…

  18. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  19. Intelligent Accountability in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Onora

    2013-01-01

    Systems of accountability are "second order" ways of using evidence of the standard to which "first order" tasks are carried out for a great variety of purposes. However, more accountability is not always better, and processes of holding to account can impose high costs without securing substantial benefits. At their worst,…

  20. Accounting & Computing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avani, Nathan T.; And Others

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching a competency-based accounting and computing course that is designed to prepare students for employability in the following occupational areas: inventory control clerk, invoice clerk, payroll clerk, traffic clerk, general ledger bookkeeper, accounting clerk, account information clerk,…

  1. Do Modern Hearing Aids Meet ANSI Standards?

    PubMed

    Holder, Jourdan T; Picou, Erin M; Gruenwald, Jill M; Ricketts, Todd A

    2016-09-01

    The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) provides standards used to govern standardization of all hearing aids. If hearing aids do not meet specifications, there are potential negative implications for hearing aid users, professionals, and the industry. Recent literature has not investigated the proportion of new hearing aids in compliance with the ANSI specifications for quality control standards when they arrive in the clinic before dispensing. The aims of this study were to determine the percentage of new hearing aids compliant with the relevant ANSI standard and to report trends in electroacoustic analysis data. New hearing aids were evaluated for quality control via the ANSI S3.22-2009 standard. In addition, quality control of directional processing was also assessed. Seventy-three behind-the-ear hearing aids from four major manufacturers, that were purchased for clinical patients were evaluated before dispensing. Audioscan Verifit (version 3.1) hearing instrument fitting system was used to complete electroacoustic analysis and directional processing evaluation of the hearing aids. Frye's Fonix 8000 test box system (Fonix 8000) was also used to cross-check equivalent input noise (EIN) measurements. These measurements were then analyzed for trends across brands and specifications. All of the hearing aids evaluated were found to be out of specification for at least one measure. EIN and attack and release times were the measures most frequently out of specification. EIN was found to be affected by test box isolation for two of the four brands tested. Systematic discrepancies accounted for ∼93% of the noncompliance issues, while unsystematic quality control issues accounted for the remaining 7%. The high number of systematic discrepancies between the data collected and the specifications published by the manufacturers suggests there are clear issues related to the specific protocols used for quality control testing. These issues present a significant

  2. Identifying deaths from AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Pam; Nannan, Nadine; Bourne, David; Laubscher, Ria; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2005-01-28

    To quantify the HIV/AIDS deaths misclassified to AIDS-related conditions in South Africa. Retrospective analysis of vital registration data. Cause-specific death rates for 1996 and 2000-2001 were calculated using vital registration cause-of-death profiles applied to a model (ASSA2000) estimate of total mortality rates by age and sex. The difference in the age-specific death rates for these two periods was examined to identify conditions where there was a noticeable increase in mortality following the same age pattern as the HIV deaths, thus likely to be misclassified AIDS deaths. The increase in the age-specific death rates for HIV-related deaths showed a distinct age pattern, which has been observed elsewhere. Out of the 22 potential causes of death investigated, there were nine that increased in the same distinct age pattern (tuberculosis, pneumonia, diarrhoea, meningitis, other respiratory disease, non-infective gastroenteritis, other infectious and parasitic diseases, deficiency anaemias and protein energy malnutrition) and could be considered AIDS-related conditions. The increase in these conditions accounted for 61% of the total deaths related to HIV/AIDS. When added to the deaths classified as HIV-related on the death certificate, the total accounts for 93% of the ASSA2000 model estimates of the number of AIDS deaths in 2000. As a large proportion of AIDS deaths appear to be classified to AIDS-related conditions, without reference to HIV, interpretation of death statistics in South Africa cannot be made on face value as a large proportion of deaths caused by HIV infection are misclassified.

  3. Spills, drills, and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    NRDC seeks preventive approaches to oil pollution on U.S. coasts. The recent oil spills in Spain and Scotland have highlighted a fact too easy to forget in a society that uses petroleum every minute of every day: oil is profoundly toxic. One tiny drop on a bald eagle`s egg has been known to kill the embryo inside. Every activity involving oil-drilling for it, piping it, shipping it-poses risks that must be taken with utmost caution. Moreover, oil production is highly polluting. It emits substantial air pollution, such as nitrogen oxides that can form smog and acid rain. The wells bring up great quantities of toxic waste: solids, liquids and sludges often contaminated by oil, toxic metals, or even radioactivity. This article examines the following topics focusing on oil pollution control and prevention in coastal regions of the USA: alternate energy sources and accountability of pollutor; ban on offshore drilling as exemplified by the energy policy act; tanker free zones; accurate damage evaluations. Policy of the National Resource Defence Council is articulated.

  4. Accounting: "Balancing Out" the Accounting Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Coleen

    1979-01-01

    The vocational accounting laboratory is a viable, meaningful educational experience for high school seniors, due to the uniqueness of its educational approach and the direct involvement of the professional and business community. A balance of experiences is provided to match individual needs and goals of students. (CT)

  5. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1983-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of utmost importance. PMID:6342737

  6. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  7. Creativity in AIDS education.

    PubMed

    Bryant, A

    1996-01-01

    AIDS is spreading rapidly through Asia. By the year 2000, India will have the largest number of HIV and AIDS cases in the world. Heterosexual contact is the most common form of transmission. With little likelihood of developing a cure in the near future, education and prevention is currently the only way to check the spread of HIV. In an effort to educate people about AIDS, the US Information Service sponsored a creative play reading, directed by Pearl Padamsee, at the American Center Library. The actors explored authors' works on AIDS. The first half of the performance featured excerpts from plays by American authors, while the second half offered Indian plays by Indian authors. The performance covered a wide range of issues, including the association of HIV/AIDS with homosexuality, politics, friendship, family secrets, and AIDS prevention.

  8. Foreign aid for education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    1988-09-01

    Education has only recently received development finances from the international donor community. This change has been more or less concurrent with the `human investment revolution in economic thought' initiated by Theodore Schultz. This paper surveys the shifting trends in educational aid, its problems and prospects. It discusses three divergent views held in developing countries: (a) that aid is beneficial to their educational development, (b) that it helps only the donor country, and (c) that despite negative experiences it has the potential of helping the recipient. The article begins by describing the complex international donor community, attempts in section 2 to answer the question why aid should be given to education in preference to other sectors, in section 3 considers trends in the growth of educational aid, and in section 4 the overall impact of aid on educational development, and concludes with some general observations on improving the effects of foreign aid on education.

  9. NeuroAIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne, Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T Dianne; Weyessa, Tufa Gemechu; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza; Hosseinipour, Mina; Sacktor, Ned; Nakasuja, Noeline; Bangirana, Paul; Paul, Robert; Joska, John; Wong, Joseph; Boivin, Michael; Holding, Penny; Kammerer, Betsy; Van Rie, Annelies; Ive, Prudence; Nath, Avindra; Lawler, Kathy; Adebamowo, Clement; Royal, Walter; Joseph, Jeymohan

    2010-05-01

    In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting "NeuroAIDS in Africa." This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. These introductory talks were followed by presentations on HAND research and clinical care in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Topics discussed included best practices for assessing neurocognitive disorders, patterns of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the region, subtype-associated risk for HAND, pediatric HIV assessments and neurodevelopment, HIV-associated CNS opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution syndrome, the evolving changes in treatment implementation, and various opportunities and strategies for NeuroAIDS research and capacity building in the region.

  10. Zimbabwe's national AIDS levy: A case study.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Nisha; Kilmarx, Peter H; Dube, Freeman; Manenji, Albert; Dube, Medelina; Magure, Tapuwa

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a case study of the Zimbabwe National AIDS Trust Fund ('AIDS Levy') as an approach to domestic government financing of the response to HIV and AIDS. Data came from three sources: a literature review, including a search for grey literature, review of government documents from the Zimbabwe National AIDS Council (NAC), and key informant interviews with representatives of the Zimbabwean government, civil society and international organizations. The literature search yielded 139 sources, and 20 key informants were interviewed. Established by legislation in 1999, the AIDS Levy entails a 3% income tax for individuals and 3% tax on profits of employers and trusts (which excluded the mining industry until 2015). It is managed by the parastatal NAC through a decentralized structure of AIDS Action Committees. Revenues increased from inception to 2006 through 2008, a period of economic instability and hyperinflation. Following dollarization in 2009, annual revenues continued to increase, reaching US$38.6 million in 2014. By policy, at least 50% of funds are used for purchase of antiretroviral medications. Other spending includes administration and capital costs, HIV prevention, and monitoring and evaluation. Several financial controls and auditing systems are in place. Key informants perceived the AIDS Levy as a 'homegrown' solution that provided country ownership and reduced dependence on donor funding, but called for further increased transparency, accountability, and reduced administrative costs, as well as recommended changes to increase revenue. The Zimbabwe AIDS Levy has generated substantial resources, recently over US$35 million per year, and signals an important commitment by Zimbabweans, which may have helped attract other donor resources. Many key informants considered the Zimbabwe AIDS Levy to be a best practice for other countries to follow.

  11. A computer-aided differential diagnosis between UIP and NSIP using automated assessment of the extent and distribution of regional disease patterns at HRCT: comparison with the radiologist's decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Park, Sang Ok; Lee, Youngjoo; Lee, Jeongjin

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of computer aided differential diagnosis (CADD) between usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) at HRCT in comparison with that of a radiologist's decision. A computerized classification for six local disease patterns (normal, NL; ground-glass opacity, GGO; reticular opacity, RO; honeycombing, HC; emphysema, EM; and consolidation, CON) using texture/shape analyses and a SVM classifier at HRCT was used for pixel-by-pixel labeling on the whole lung area. The mode filter was applied on the results to reduce noise. Area fraction (AF) of each pattern, directional probabilistic density function (pdf) (dPDF: mean, SD, skewness of pdf /3 directions: superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, central-peripheral), regional cluster distribution pattern (RCDP: number, mean, SD of clusters, mean, SD of centroid of clusters) were automatically evaluated. Spatially normalized left and right lungs were evaluated separately. Disease division index (DDI) on every combination of AFs and asymmetric index (AI) between left and right lung ((left-right)/left) were also evaluated. To assess the accuracy of the system, fifty-four HRCT data sets in patients with pathologically diagnosed UIP (n=26) and NSIP (n=28) were used. For a classification procedure, a CADD-SVM classifier with internal parameter optimization, and sequential forward floating feature selection (SFFS) were employed. The accuracy was assessed by a 5-folding cross validation with 20- times repetition. For comparison, two thoracic radiologists reviewed the whole HRCT images without clinical information and diagnose each case either as UIP or NSIP. The accuracies of radiologists' decision were 0.75 and 0.87, respectively. The accuracies of the CADD system using the features of AF, dPDF, AI of dPDF, RDP, AI of RDP, DDI were 0.70, 0.79, 0.77, 0.80, 0.78, 0.81, respectively. The accuracy of optimized CADD using all features after SFFS was 0.91. We developed the CADD

  12. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  13. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  14. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Social work and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Furstenberg, A L; Olson, M M

    1984-01-01

    AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a new contagious disease for which no cause or cure is known at present. The majority of people who have contracted AIDS is gay men. This paper examines individual and societal responses to this illness and to homosexuality that create issues for social work practice. These are unique to AIDS and at the same time exemplary of issues in all of health care. General principles of practice are applied to the specifics of dealing with AIDS and social work tasks with patients, families and significant others, health care staff, the community and policy makers are identified.

  16. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  17. AIDS and confidentiality.

    PubMed

    Kirkman, M B; Bell, S K

    1989-01-01

    AIDS has created many challenges for those who provide care for AIDS patients. One major challenge has been the request of many public officials for healthcare professionals to abandon the traditional view of confidentiality and to reveal AIDS patients' names. This ethical dilemma is explored and some ethical theories are presented as possible resolutions. The conclusion presented is that healthcare professionals must recognize that the power of the healthcare system over an AIDS patient is immense. Therefore, healthcare professionals must make a commitment to protect the patient's right to privacy by preventing any unauthorized disclosure at all costs.

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis in hysteroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Neofytou, M S; Tanos, V; Constantinou, I; Kyriacou, E C; Pattichis, M S; Pattichis, C S

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents the development of a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system for the early detection of endometrial cancer. The proposed CAD system supports reproducibility through texture feature standardization, standardized multifeature selection, and provides physicians with comparative distributions of the extracted texture features. The CAD system was validated using 516 regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from 52 subjects. The ROIs were equally distributed among normal and abnormal cases. To support reproducibility, the RGB images were first gamma corrected and then converted into HSV and YCrCb. From each channel of the gamma-corrected YCrCb, HSV, and RGB color systems, we extracted the following texture features: 1) statistical features (SFs), 2) spatial gray-level dependence matrices (SGLDM), and 3) gray-level difference statistics (GLDS). The texture features were then used as inputs with support vector machines (SVMs) and the probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifiers. After accounting for multiple comparisons, texture features extracted from abnormal ROIs were found to be significantly different than texture features extracted from normal ROIs. Compared to texture features extracted from normal ROIs, abnormal ROIs were characterized by lower image intensity, while variance, entropy, and contrast gave higher values. In terms of ROI classification, the best results were achieved by using SF and GLDS features with an SVM classifier. For this combination, the proposed CAD system achieved an 81% correct classification rate.

  19. Telemedicine for AIDS patients accommodations.

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, J. F.; de la Tribonnière, X.; Bricon-Souf, N.; Beuscart, R. J.; Mouton, Y.

    1997-01-01

    People suffering from AIDS are subject to frequent hospitalisations. In some cases, they cannot go back home after hospitalisations, due to severe illness, family or sociologic problems. This is the reason why some therapeutic flats are at their disposal to make easier their medical follow-up after the hospital's discharge. In these Therapy Accommodation, they are treated by trained GP who often suffer from lack of information and lack of expertise in difficult cases. For this purpose we included these flats in the regional Telemedicine AIDS network to give these physicians free access to the computerised multimedia medical record of their patients and to provide them with synchronous co-operation facilities. PMID:9357652

  20. Emerging accounting trends accounting for leases.

    PubMed

    Valletta, Robert; Huggins, Brian

    2010-12-01

    A new model for lease accounting can have a significant impact on hospitals and healthcare organizations. The new approach proposes a "right-of-use" model that involves complex estimates and significant administrative burden. Hospitals and health systems that draw heavily on lease arrangements should start preparing for the new approach now even though guidance and a final rule are not expected until mid-2011. This article highlights a number of considerations from the lessee point of view.

  1. Social Support Predicts Hearing Aid Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurjit; Lau, Sin-Tung; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    .001), although the change in correlation was not significant. The results from study 1 provide evidence to suggest that perceived social support is a significant predictor of satisfaction with hearing aids, a finding that was replicated in a different sample of participants investigated in study 2. A significant relationship between perceived social support and hearing aid satisfaction was observed in both studies, even though the composition of the two samples differed in terms of age, relationship status, income, proportion of individuals with unilateral versus bilateral hearing impairment, and lifetime experience with hearing aids. The results from both studies 1 and 2 provide no support for the claim that participant response style accounts for the relationship between hearing aid satisfaction and perceived social support.

  2. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense.

  3. Teachers with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strope, John L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the application of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as a legal theory available to an employee of a public school system who faces isolation, transfer, suspension, or termination because of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Addresses AIDS in the workplace and the law. (MLF)

  4. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  5. Trends in Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

    This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance available to postsecondary students in the form of grants, loans, and work-study. The data cover virtually all federal aid and most state and institutional assistance; not included in the study is financial aid in the form of indirect subsidies, students' wages, employer-paid…

  6. Innovative Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christner, Chris

    1988-01-01

    Describes the DACUM (Developing A CurriculUM) process and how it is used at Universal Technical Institute to determine what types of training aids to produce. Indicates that examining the employment needs of industry and educational needs of students enhances programs and promotes development of innovative aids. (JOW)

  7. Marketing Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Thomas, Jr.; Batty, Burt F.

    1978-01-01

    Student financial assistance services are becoming a major part of the institutional marketing plan as traditional college-age students decline in numbers and price competition among institutions increases. The effect of financial aid on enrollment and admissions processes is discussed along with the role of the financial aid officer. (Author/LBH)

  8. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  9. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A en español Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...

  10. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... regimens have reduced the number of cases of wasting syndrome, but it still affects many people with AIDS. It's defined as a loss of at least 10 percent of body weight, often accompanied by diarrhea, chronic weakness and fever. Neurological complications. Although AIDS doesn' ...

  11. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  12. Aids for visual impairment.

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, N J

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue. Images FIG 1 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 FIG 7 FIG 8 FIG 9 FIG 10 PMID:2252929

  13. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  14. AIDS: Children Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…

  15. Teaching Children about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koop, C. Everett

    1987-01-01

    Calls for more education as the immediate preventative measure against acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Discusses the known ways that AIDS is transmitted and cautions that many innocent people may also contract the disease. Promotes the presentation of accurate and personally sensitive information to children. (TW)

  16. Participative AIDS Education Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    Since assuring quality health care delivery to patients suffering from Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and those who test positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a priority, development of effective staff training methods is imperative. This pilot study assessed the effect on staff attitudes of a participative AIDS/HIV staff…

  17. Inertially Aided Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-31

    0031 dis~bti:,1 is uitsnjt( Deczmllcr 31: 1989 92-05530 2:.-: 3o : T >VE?-A ~ : Inertially Aided Robotics FINAL REPORT for Contract No. DAAHO1 -88-D-0057...1 2 Advantages of Inertially Aided Robotics ...86 iii List of Figures Figure 1 - Robot Manipulator having Joint Sensor Based Control ..................... 2

  18. Hospital Nurse Aide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Coll. of Education.

    This report presents results of a project to revise the current 120-hour advanced nurse aide course to include all recommended minimum competencies. A three-page description of project objectives, activities, and outcomes is followed by a list of the competencies for the 75-hour nurse aide course for long-term care and for the 120-hour advanced…

  19. AIDS -- a modern hydra.

    PubMed

    Chen, D W

    1988-10-01

    So far, AIDS has not been a major problem in Taiwan. Only 79 people have tested HIV-seropositive, and only 6 have been stricken by the disease. The government has allocated money for AIDS research; blood screening is mandatory in all hospitals; confidential AIDS testing is widely available; and doctors are advised to administer azidothymidine to anyone who tests positive. Azidothymidine is not a cure, but it can prevent the virus from destroying more cells. Nevertheless, a climate of irrational fear of and ignorance about AIDS pervades Taiwan. Many people believe that AIDS can be transmitted by casual contact, and people who are HIV-seropositive are treated as social outcasts. One student at the University of Taipei, only a few credits from graduation, has been refused readmission to the university because he tested HIV-positive. Sex education in the schools is not a good route for AIDS education because sex and especially homosexuality are simply not mentioned in public in Taiwan. Activists, including gay-rights representative, Chi Chia-Wei, have turned to the mass media, especially television as a vehicle for AIDS education, and several programs on AIDS have been shown since 1986.

  20. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  1. Computer Aids to Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krollmann, Friedrich

    1981-01-01

    Describes the structure and modes of operation of the Bundessprachenamt's (BSprA: Federal Office of Languages of the Federal Republic of Germany) terminology data bank as an aid to translation. Analyzes advantages and disadvantages of each user mode, and discusses probable developments in the immediate future of machine-aided translation. (MES)

  2. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  3. AIDS as Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Liz

    1994-01-01

    Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)

  4. Detecting Student Aid Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Describes the varied kinds of student aid fraud found to be occurring within and outside colleges and universities, and examines implications for public policy on student aid programs. Discusses specific fraud cases and their outcomes, and makes suggestions for institutional action if student fraud is suspected. (MSE)

  5. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  6. The New Merit Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Merit aid, a discount to college costs contingent upon academic performance, is nothing new. Colleges and private organizations have long rewarded high-achieving, college-bound high school students with scholarships. While merit aid has a long history in the private sector, it has not played a major role in the public sector. At the state level,…

  7. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  8. THE CLASSROOM AIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FITZPATRICK, MILDRED

    TO RELIEVE THE NON-INSTRUCTIONAL BURDEN UPON THE CLASSROOM TEACHER, THE QUEMADO PUBLIC SCHOOLS EXPERIMENTED WITH A TEACHER AIDE PROGRAM, UTILIZING A SINGLE TEACHER AIDE IN ELEMENTARY LANGUAGE ARTS AND HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAMED MATHEMATICS THE FIRST YEAR OF THE PROJECT. AS A RESULT OF THE EXPERIMENT'S SUCCESS, THE FOLLOWING SCHOOL YEAR (1963-1964)…

  9. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  10. AIDS in the pre-AIDS era.

    PubMed

    Huminer, D; Rosenfeld, J B; Pitlik, S D

    1987-01-01

    A search of the medical literature published since 1950 disclosed 19 cases of probable AIDS reported before the start of the current epidemic. These cases retrospectively met the Centers for Disease Control's surveillance definition of the syndrome and had a clinical course suggestive of AIDS. The reports originated from North America, Western Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The mean age of patients was 37 years, and the ratio of male to female patients was 1.7:1. Sixteen patients had opportunistic infections(s) without Kaposi's sarcoma. The remainder had disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma. The commonest opportunistic infection was Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Two patients were reported to be homosexual. Three others had been living in Africa, and one patient was born in Haiti. In two instances concurrent or subsequent opportunistic infection occurred in family members. All patients died 1 month to 6 years after the initial manifestation of disease. In view of the historical data, unrecognized cases of AIDS appear to have occurred sporadically in the pre-AIDS era.

  11. The Accountability Illusion: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  12. The Coming Accounting Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Tim V.

    2007-01-01

    The accounting profession is facing a potential crisis not only from the overall shortage of accounting faculty driven by smaller numbers of new faculty entering the profession as many existing faculty retire but also from changes that have been less well documented. This includes: (1) changes in attitude towards the roles of teaching, service and…

  13. The Evolution of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Campus 2020: Thinking ahead is a policy in British Columbia (BC), Canada, that attempted to hold universities accountable to performance. Within, I demonstrate how this Canadian articulation of educational accountability intended to develop "governmentality constellations" to control the university and regulate its knowledge output. This…

  14. The Accountability Illusion: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  15. Computerizing the Accounting Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, John F.; England, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of computers in college accounting courses. Argues that the success of new efforts in using computers in teaching accounting is dependent upon increasing instructors' computer skills, and choosing appropriate hardware and software, including commercially available business software packages. (TW)

  16. Cluster Guide. Accounting Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaverton School District 48, OR.

    Based on a recent task inventory of key occupations in the accounting cluster taken in the Portland, Oregon, area, this curriculum guide is intended to assist administrators and teachers in the design and implementation of high school accounting cluster programs. The guide is divided into four major sections: program organization and…

  17. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  18. Teaching Accounting with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaoul, Jean

    This paper addresses the numerous ways that computers may be used to enhance the teaching of accounting and business topics. It focuses on the pedagogical use of spreadsheet software to improve the conceptual coverage of accounting principles and practice, increase student understanding by involvement in the solution process, and reduce the amount…

  19. The Accountability Illusion: Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  20. Accountability in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chippendale, P. R., Ed.; Wilkes, Paula V., Ed.

    This collection of papers delivered at a conference on accountability held at Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education in Australia examines the meaning of accountability in education for teachers, lecturers, government, parents, administrators, education authorities, and the society at large. In Part 1, W. G. Walker attempts to answer the…

  1. The Accountability Illusion: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  2. The Accountability Illusion: Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  3. The Accountability Illusion: Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  4. The Accountability Illusion: Wyoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  5. The Accountability Illusion: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  6. The Accountability Illusion: Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  7. The Choreography of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    The prevailing performance discourse in education claims school improvements can be achieved through transparent accountability procedures. The article identifies how teachers generate performances of their work in order to satisfy accountability demands. By identifying sources of teachers' knowledge that produce choreographed performances, I…

  8. The Accountability Illusion: Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  9. The Accountability Illusion: Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  10. The Accountability Illusion: Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  11. The Accountability Illusion: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  12. Public Accountancy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules and regulations of the State Education Department governing public accountancy practice in New York State are provided in this handbook. Licensure requirements are also described, and the forms for obtaining a license and first registration as a certified public accountant are provided. The booklet is divided into the following…

  13. Public Accountancy Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern public accountancy practice in New York State is presented. In addition to identifying licensing requirements/procedures for certified public accountants, general provisions of Title VIII of the Education Law are covered, along with state management, professional misconduct, and…

  14. Deterrents to Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hencley, Stephen P.

    This speech assesses potential deterrents to the implementation of accountability in education. The author divides these deterrents into (1) philosophical-ideological; humanist-behaviorist conflicts, individuality versus "techno-urban fascism," and accountability systems tied to the achievement of cognitive objectives at the lower end of Bloom's…

  15. Leadership for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    2001-01-01

    This document explores issues of leadership for accountability and reviews five resources on the subject. These include: (1) "Accountability by Carrots and Sticks: Will Incentives and Sanctions Motivate Students, Teachers, and Administrators for Peak Performance?" (Larry Lashway); (2) "Organizing Schools for Teacher Learning"…

  16. The Accountability Illusion: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  17. The Accountability Illusion: Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  18. The Choreography of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2006-01-01

    The prevailing performance discourse in education claims school improvements can be achieved through transparent accountability procedures. The article identifies how teachers generate performances of their work in order to satisfy accountability demands. By identifying sources of teachers' knowledge that produce choreographed performances, I…

  19. Accountability in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chippendale, P. R., Ed.; Wilkes, Paula V., Ed.

    This collection of papers delivered at a conference on accountability held at Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education in Australia examines the meaning of accountability in education for teachers, lecturers, government, parents, administrators, education authorities, and the society at large. In Part 1, W. G. Walker attempts to answer the…

  20. The Evolution of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Campus 2020: Thinking ahead is a policy in British Columbia (BC), Canada, that attempted to hold universities accountable to performance. Within, I demonstrate how this Canadian articulation of educational accountability intended to develop "governmentality constellations" to control the university and regulate its knowledge output. This…

  1. The Accountability Illusion: Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  2. The Accountability Illusion: Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  3. Multilevel analysis of health care service utilization among medical aid beneficiaries in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yang Heui; Ham, Ok Kyung; Kim, Soo Hyun; Park, Chang Gi

    2012-12-01

    The current study was done to identify individual- and group-level factors associated with health care service utilization among Korean medical aid beneficiaries by applying multilevel modeling. Secondary data analysis was performed using data on health care service reimbursement and medical aid case management progress from 15,948 beneficiaries, and data from 229 regions were included in the analysis. Results of multilevel analysis showed an estimated intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 18.1%, indicating that the group level accounted for 18.1% of the total variance in health care service utilization, and that beneficiaries within the region are more likely to share common features with regard to health care service utilization. At the individual level, existence of disability and types of medical aid beneficiaries showed a significant association, while, at the group level, social deprivation index, and the number of beneficiaries and case managers within the region showed a significant association with health care service utilization. The significant influence of group level variables in health care service utilization found in this study indicate a need for group level approaches, such as policy change and/or promotion of community awareness.

  4. Incidence of WHO Stage 3 and 4 Events, Tuberculosis, and Mortality in Untreated, HIV-Infected Children Enrolling in Care Before 1 Year of Age: An Iedea (International Epidemiologic Databases To Evaluate AIDS) East Africa Regional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ciaranello, Andrea; Lu, Zhigang; Ayaya, Samuel; Losina, Elena; Musick, Beverly; Vreeman, Rachel; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; Dillabaugh, Lisa; Doherty, Katie; Ssali, John; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported CD4%- and age-stratified rates of WHO Stage 3 (WHO3) events, WHO Stage 4 (WHO4) events, tuberculosis (TB), and mortality in HIV-infected infants before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods HIV-infected children enrolled before 1 year of age in the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) East Africa region (10/01/2002-11/30/2008) were included. We estimated incidence rates of earliest clinical event (WHO3, WHO4, and TB), prior to ART initiation per local guidelines, stratified by current age (< or ≥6 months) and current CD4% (<15%, 15–24%, ≥25%). CD4%-stratified mortality rates were estimated separately for children who did not experience a clinical event (“background” mortality) and for children who experienced an event, including “acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) and “later” mortality (>30 days post-event). Results Among 847 children (median enrollment age: 4.8 months; median pre-ART follow-up: 10.8 months; 603 (71%) with ≥1 CD4% recorded), event rates were comparable for those aged <6 and ≥6 months. Current CD4% was associated with risk of WHO4 events for children <6 months old, and with all evaluated events for children ≥6 months old (p<0.05). “Background” mortality was 3.7–8.4/100py. “Acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) was 33.8/100py (after TB) and 41.1/100py (after WHO3 or WHO4). “Later” mortality (>30 days post-event) ranged by CD4% from 4.7–29.1/100py. Conclusions In treatment-naïve, HIV-infected infants, WHO3, WHO4, and TB events were common before and after 6 months of age and led to substantial increases in mortality. Early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment are critically important, regardless of CD4%. PMID:24378935

  5. AID Targeting: Old Mysteries and New Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Vivek; Bortnick, Alexandra; Murre, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mediates cytosine deamination and underlies two central processes in antibody diversification: somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination. AID deamination is not exclusive to immunoglobulin loci; it can instigate DNA lesions in non-immunoglobulin genes and thus, stringent checks are in place to constrain and restrict its activity. Recent findings have provided new insights into the mechanisms that target AID activity to specific genomic regions, revealing an involvement for non-coding RNAs associated with polymerase pausing and with enhancer transcription as well as genomic architecture. We review these findings and integrate them into a model for multi-level regulation of AID expression and targeting in immunoglobulin and non-immunoglobulin loci. Within this framework we discuss gaps in understanding, and outline important areas of further research. PMID:26254147

  6. The media and AIDS: health elite perspectives of coverage.

    PubMed

    Backstrom, C H; Robins, L S

    1998-01-01

    Most writers assessing AIDS have been critical of the media's coverage of this epidemic. To ascertain the views of key elites on media coverage of AIDS, the authors surveyed chief state public health officers, chairs of legislative health committees, and directors of hospital associations. In general, these groups tended to reject criticisms that media handling of AIDS is unbalanced. Conversely, however, they also generally rate the media as not doing a good job of educating the public about AIDS. The media's success in accurately communicating professional perspectives regarding AIDS might have accounted for their relative lack of independent influence in AIDS policymaking. The media exhibited a "guard dog" role-protecting the health professionals' positions-instead of an agenda-setting role-dictating to the decision-makers what issues they should be addressing.

  7. Vulnerable to HIV / AIDS. Migration.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, I

    1998-01-01

    This special report discusses the impact of globalization, patterns of migration in Southeast Asia, gender issues in migration, the links between migration and HIV/AIDS, and spatial mobility and social networks. Migrants are particularly marginalized in countries that blame migrants for transmission of infectious and communicable diseases and other social ills. Effective control of HIV/AIDS among migrant and native populations requires a multisectoral approach. Programs should critically review the privatization of health care services and challenge economic models that polarize the rich and the poor, men and women, North and South, and migrant and native. Programs should recognize the equality between locals and migrants in receipt of health services. Countermeasures should have input from migrants in order to reduce the conditions that increase vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Gender-oriented research is needed to understand women's role in migration. Rapid assessment has obscured the human dimension of migrants' vulnerability to HIV. Condom promotion is not enough. Migration is a major consequence of globalization, which holds the promise, real or imagined, of prosperity for all. Mass migration can be fueled by explosive regional developments. In Southeast Asia, migration has been part of the process of economic development. The potential to emigrate increases with greater per capita income. "Tiger" economies have been labor importers. Safe sex is not practiced in many Asian countries because risk is not taken seriously. Migrants tend to be used as economic tools, without consideration of social adjustment and sex behavior among singles.

  8. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the Americas.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    As of September 18, 1987, 48,104 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had been reported in the Americas to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), with a case-fatality mate of 55%. Brazil, Canada, Haiti, and the US contributed 96% of the reported cases. Excluding North America, 4966 AIDS cases were reported in the remaining 40 countries and territories of the Americas. Unlike the situation in Africa, where the 1:1 male: female ratio indicates heterosexual transmission, the profile of AIDS in the Americas is dominated by transmission between homosexual and bisexual males. In 2 countries, however, Haiti and the dominican Republic, the ratio of male to female cases is 4:1, which is intermediate between the ratio in Africa and that in the US. PAHO estimates that the true number of AIDS cases in all countries except the US and Canada may be 2-4 times higher than official reported indicate. A Regional WHO/PAHO Special Program on AIDS has been developed to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection. Multiple strategies and activities are projected for 1987-89, but the principal goal is to help develop and implement national AIDS prevention and control programs. The strategy calls for support of research to define the epidemiology of AIDS, surveillance conducted with appropriate laboratory support, training of health care workers, and implementation of preventive measures. The PAHO program has already mobilized US$1.3 million from WHO's nonregular funding sources for AIDS prevention and control activities in the Americas. An additional US$5 million has been obtained for AIDS research in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  9. Poverty, drug abuse fuel Caribbean AIDS outbreak.

    PubMed

    Kovaleski, S F

    1998-01-01

    Hatred and fear of homosexuals, together with a fear of losing tourism revenue, drove many high-level policymakers in the Caribbean to ignore the HIV/AIDS in its infancy. With an annual incidence rate of at least 146.6 people per 100,000, the Bahamas now has one of the highest AIDS rates in the world and the highest such rate in the English-speaking Caribbean. AIDS has become the major cause of death for men and women aged 20-44 in the Bahamas. Indeed, throughout the Caribbean, countries like the Bahamas must now cope with a growing AIDS epidemic. UN AIDS Program figures indicate that at least 310,000 people in the Caribbean have either HIV infection or AIDS, and that the prevalence rate among adults is almost 2%. This compares with an estimated 7.4% of the adult population of sub-Saharan Africa which is infected and 0.6% of adults in North America. 65% of reported AIDS cases in the region result from heterosexual intercourse. While the annual number of AIDS cases has been falling in North America over the last several years and rates in Latin America have leveled off, rates in the Caribbean are increasing sharply. Poverty, the population's lack of awareness, low levels of education, internal and international migration, crack cocaine use, promiscuity, high levels of STDs, prostitution, and tourism are also facilitating the spread of HIV in the Caribbean. Social conservatism, mainly in the English-Caribbean, about discussing sex impedes the implementation and success of HIV/AIDS prevention interventions.

  10. Human Resource Accounting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    I AD-RI54 787 HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 1/2 F MONTEREY CR J C MARTINS DEC 84 1UNCLASSIFIED /G 5/9 NL -~~ .. 2. . L...Monterey, California JUN1im THESISG HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING by Joaquim C. Martins LLJ.. December 1984 Thesis Advisor: R.A. McGonigal Approved for...REPORT & PECRI00 COVERED Master’s Thesis; Human Resource Accounting Dcme 94- ’ 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTOR(*) . CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER

  11. Hearing AIDS and music.

    PubMed

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues-both compression ratio and knee-points-and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a "music program,'' unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions.

  12. Solidarity and AIDS: introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N

    1991-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival.

  13. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways.

  14. AIDS radio triggers.

    PubMed

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  15. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  16. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIAID). /* // ** // */ Prevention Research Vaccines Microbicides Related Topics on AIDS.gov Clinical Trials Immune System 101 HIV Vaccine ... Be the Generation Last revised: 12/09/2016 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  17. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  18. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  19. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  20. Women and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... AIDS email updates Enter email Submit HIV and AIDS The human immunodeficiency (IH-myoo-noh-di-FISH- ... health Pregnancy and HIV View more HIV and AIDS resources Related information Birth control methods Sexually transmitted ...

  1. Political dimensions of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Blewett, N

    1988-01-01

    World political aspects and the example of Australia as a national political response to AIDS are presented. Global policy on AIDS is influenced by the fact that the AIDS epidemic is the 1st to be largely predictable, that long lag times occur between intervention and measurable events, and by the prompt, professional leadership of WHO, lead by Dr. J. Mann. WHO began a Global Programme on AIDS in 1987, modelled on the responses of Canada and Australia. A world summit of Ministers of Health was convened in January 1988. These moves generated a response qualified by openness, cooperation, hope and common sense. The AIDS epidemic calls for unprecedented involvement of politicians: they must coordinate medical knowledge with community action, deal with public fear, exert strong, rational leadership and avoid quick, appealing counterproductive responses. 3 clear directions must be taken to deal with the epidemic: 1) strong research and education campaigns; 2) close contact with political colleagues, interest groups and the community; 3) a national strategy which enjoins diverse interest groups, with courage, rationality and compassion. In Australia, the AIDS response began with the unwitting infection of 3 infants by blood transfusion. A public information campaign emphasizing a penetrating TV ad campaign was instituted in 1987. Policy discussions were held in all parliamentary bodies. The AIDS epidemic demands rapid, creative responses, a break from traditions in health bureaucracy, continual scrutiny of funding procedures and administrative arrangements. In practical terms in Australia, this meant establishing a special AIDS branch within the Health Advancement Division of the Community Health Department. AIDS issues must remain depoliticized to defuse adversary politics and keep leaders in a united front.

  2. Computer Aided Drug Design: Success and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Ahmad, Khurshid; Roy, Sudeep; Ashraf, Jalaluddin Mohammad; Adil, Mohd; Siddiqui, Mohammad Haris; Khan, Saif; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Provazník, Ivo; Choi, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, computer-aided drug design has emerged as a powerful technique playing a crucial role in the development of new drug molecules. Structure-based drug design and ligand-based drug design are two methods commonly used in computer-aided drug design. In this article, we discuss the theory behind both methods, as well as their successful applications and limitations. To accomplish this, we reviewed structure based and ligand based virtual screening processes. Molecular dynamics simulation, which has become one of the most influential tool for prediction of the conformation of small molecules and changes in their conformation within the biological target, has also been taken into account. Finally, we discuss the principles and concepts of molecular docking, pharmacophores and other methods used in computer-aided drug design.

  3. African women act on AIDS.

    PubMed

    Williams, E

    1991-07-01

    In Africa, normally women bear a disproportionate burden since they must perform their roles as individuals, mothers, and health care providers, but now they must also deal with their own HIV infection or that of family members. In 1988, the Society for Women and AIDS in Africa (SWAA) emerged because there was a need for women to address these concerns, specifically the gaps between men and women in information and education messages, interventions, AIDS policy and program development, and use in prevention initiatives. SWAA pursues prevention activities that consider the deeply rooted cultural beliefs and sensitivities of these women and their socioeconomic realities. It believes that once women have appropriate knowledge and are aware of their problem solving options, they will make decisions that bring about a change in actions which reduce their risk of HIV infection and risk behaviors of their partners and family members. Some of their activities involve motivating women to eliminate or modify practices that put them at risk of HIV infection, e.g., male promiscuity and wife sharing, change traditional norms that make women sexually submissive and nonassertive, and curb female prostitution. SWAA has 5 different regions and the country level is the operational base. Each of the 23 countries designs and executes its own programs, usually with women's health groups. It is branching out into women support networks, counseling, home and community care of AIDS patients, etc. It has been somewhat successful in reducing the misconception that prostitutes are the key transmitters of HIV. SWAA continues to work towards a positive working relationship with the basically male controlled institutions responsible for AIDS policy development.

  4. Food aid and food crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa: Statistical trends and implications*.

    PubMed

    Benson, C; Clay, E J

    1986-12-01

    This paper documents the rapid expansion and changes in food aid flows to Sub-Saharan Africa up to mid-1985. Trends for Sub-Saharan Africa as a whole and for the more seriously affected countries are examined, as are the comparative experiences of food aid of individual countries in the region. Table 11 lists the Sub-Saharan African countries and indicates the most seriously affected food-short countries, as defined by the WFP/FAO task force. It should be borne in mind that some practical problems exist in compiling data on food aid. These include lack of availability of reliable data, especially of most recent data; lack of common terminology and definitions; and different accounting systems. These data problems are sometimes a source of confusion. However, the basic facts are clear: food aid gradually emerged during the early 1980s as a resource too often of considerable significance to many countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. These trends were only accelerated with the crisis of 1984-1985. These facts provide a point of reference for further analysis of the sources of the crisis, its actual dimensions and consequences.

  5. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  6. Readability of Accounting Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razek, Joseph R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This article describes the results of a survey of the readability of most of the intermediate and advanced accounting textbooks currently in use at colleges and universities throughout the United States. (CT)

  7. Accounting Equals Applied Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sondra

    1997-01-01

    Argues that students should be given mathematics credits for completing accounting classes. Demonstrates that, although the terminology is different, the mathematical concepts are the same as those used in an introductory algebra class. (JOW)

  8. Species accounts. Chapter 4

    Treesearch

    Margaret K. Trani; W. Mark Ford; Brian R., eds. Chapman

    2007-01-01

    Narrative accounts for each species are presented by several authors in a consistent format to convey specific information relative to that mammal. The orders are arranged phylogenetically; families and species are arranged alphabetically to facilitate finding a particular species.

  9. Ideas for the Accounting Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerby, Debra; Romine, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Innovative ideas for accounting education include having students study accounting across historical periods, using businesses for student research, exploring nontraditional accounting careers, and collaborating with professional associations. (SK)

  10. Ideas for the Accounting Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerby, Debra; Romine, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Innovative ideas for accounting education include having students study accounting across historical periods, using businesses for student research, exploring nontraditional accounting careers, and collaborating with professional associations. (SK)

  11. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  12. VISUAL AIDS IN FUNDAMENTAL EDUCATION AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, REPORT ON THE UNESCO REGIONAL SEMINAR IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EAST ASIA HELD IN NEW-DELHI, INDIA 8-27 SEPTEMBER 1958. REPORTS AND PAPERS ON MASS COMMUNICATION, NO. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THAPAR, ROMESH

    SUCH TRADITIONAL VISUAL MEDIA AS VILLAGE PLAYS, PUPPETRY, AND SHADOW PLAYS CAN BE CREATED LOCALLY WITH ACTIVE PARTICIPATION BY THE LEARNER AND USED EFFECTIVELY IN COMMUNITY EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT. OTHER VISUAL MEDIA, SUCH AS FILMS, CAN BE BEST PRODUCED NATIONALLY IN VISUAL AIDS CENTERS IF GOOD COMMUNICATIONS ARE MAINTAINED WITH THE FIELD…

  13. 76 FR 81295 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards... Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost Accounting Standards Board, Office of Federal Procurement...

  14. Buying a Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... in price according to style, features, and local market prices. Price can range from hundreds of dollars ... are connected with tubing to custom-fitted earpieces. Open fit receiver-in-the-ear (RITE) aids are ...

  15. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficulty swallowing becomes tired easily Think Prevention! Frequent hand washing and avoiding contact with people who have respiratory ... Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand Washing So Important? Coughing Croup Contact Us Print Resources ...

  16. Implantable digital hearing aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

  17. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  18. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... with each breath has a pale or bluish color around the mouth drools or has difficulty swallowing ...

  19. Cancer and AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Vaeth, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains papers divided among the following sections: Epidemiology and Etiology; Transmission; Immunological Aspects; Care of the AIDS Patient: Medical Syndromes and Other Infections; Kaposi Sarcoma - Diagnosis and Treatment; and Prevention.

  20. Computer Aided Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)

  1. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aid If someone is having breathing difficulty, call 911 or your local emergency number right away, then: ... immediately. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call 911 or your local emergency number if you or ...

  2. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . Check the person's airway, breathing, and pulse frequently. ... them. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call 911 if the person is unconscious and: Does not ...

  3. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns ... Being Safe in the Kitchen Finding Out About Fireworks Safety Playing With Fire? Dealing With Burns Fireworks ...

  4. First aid kit

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessed February 8, 2017. Review Date 1/1/2017 Updated by: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency ... A.M. Editorial team. Editorial update 06/12/2017. First Aid Read more Latest Health News Read ...

  5. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type of defense cell in the body called a CD4 helper ... are part of the body's immune system , the defense system that fights infections. When HIV destroys these ...

  6. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  7. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) Erythema Toxicum Eczema Pityriasis Rosea Molluscum Contagiosum Fifth ... Your Skin Impetigo Ringworm Molluscum Contagiosum Poison Ivy Hives (Urticaria) Eczema Erythema Multiforme Pityriasis Rosea Shingles Contact ...

  8. Computer Aided Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Tony

    1988-01-01

    Explores the conceptual components of a computer program designed to enhance creative thinking and reviews software that aims to stimulate creative thinking. Discusses BRAIN and ORACLE, programs intended to aid in creative problem solving. (JOW)

  9. Convulsions - first aid - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100212.htm Convulsions - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... slide 2 out of 2 Overview When a seizure occurs, the main goal is to protect the ...

  10. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns ... Being Safe in the Kitchen Finding Out About Fireworks Safety Playing With Fire? Dealing With Burns Fireworks ...

  11. AIDS in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-09

    have recommended that Africans infected with HIV be treated with an antibiotic/ sulfa drug combination known as cotrimoxazole in order to prevent...response is the subject of much debate. An estimated 500,000 Africa AIDS patients were being treated with antiretroviral drugs in mid-2005, up from 150,000...whether drugs can be made widely accessible without costly health infrastructure improvements. U.S. concern over AIDS in Africa grew in the 1980s, as the

  12. Naval Tactical Decision Aids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Strike Planning Aid ( ESPA ) . .V-14 5.4. Tactical Environmental Ship Routing (TESR) V-24 5.5. Chaff Prediction and Planning System (CHAPPS).. V-29...chapter four TDAS from TESS: NAVSAR, acAS program for search and rescue (SARjat sea; ESPA , the Environmental Strike Planning Aid; TESR, the Tactical...STATISTICS CURRENT LOCATION AND CHARACTERISTICS SATELLITE DATA CONVERSION CONSTANTS In 5.1, we give a brief history of TESS. The TDAS NAVSAR, ESPA

  13. AIDS and National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the body loses its ability to fight off other infections like the flu or pneumonia that it could normally handle with ease.11 These infections are... children orphaned by AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.32 Failing states are not able to provide care for these orphans so they are lured into crime or...four major program elements funded by USAID are primary prevention, caring for children affected by AIDS, home and community based care and treatment

  14. Accounting for the environment.

    PubMed

    Lutz, E; Munasinghe, M

    1991-03-01

    Environmental awareness in the 1980s has led to efforts to improve the current UN System of National Accounts (SNA) for better measurement of the value of environmental resources when estimating income. National governments, the UN, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank are interested in solving this issue. The World Bank relies heavily on national aggregates in income accounts compiled by means of the SNA that was published in 1968 and stressed gross domestic product (GDP). GDP measures mainly market activity, but it takes does not consider the consumption of natural capital, and indirectly inhibits sustained development. The deficiencies of the current method of accounting are inconsistent treatment of manmade and natural capital, the omission of natural resources and their depletion from balance sheets, and pollution cleanup costs from national income. In the calculation of GDP pollution is overlooked, and beneficial environmental inputs are valued at zero. The calculation of environmentally adjusted net domestic product (EDP) and environmentally adjusted net income (ENI) would lower income and growth rate, as the World Resources Institute found with respect to Indonesia for 1971-84. When depreciation for oil, timber, and top soil was included the net domestic product (NDP) was only 4% compared with a 7.1% GDP. The World Bank has advocated environmental accounting since 1983 in SNA revisions. The 1989 revised Blue Book of the SNA takes environment concerns into account. Relevant research is under way in Mexico and Papua New Guinea using the UN Statistical Office framework as a system for environmentally adjusted economic accounts that computes EDP and ENI and integrates environmental data with national accounts while preserving SNA concepts.

  15. AIDS and dental practice.

    PubMed

    Gerbert, B; Badner, V; Maguire, B

    1988-01-01

    Dental health care workers (DHCWs) can provide important diagnostic, treatment, and referral services for patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. They also have a responsibility to protect all patients in their practices, and themselves, from infectious disease transmission through the use of infection control. To determine the extent to which DHCWs are prepared to assume these responsibilities, a randomized survey of California DHCWs was conducted. Responses were obtained from 297 dentists, 128 hygienists, and 177 dental assistants. DHCWs who expressed a greater willingness to treat people with AIDS or HIV infection also practiced more thorough infection control. Respondents in all groups who perceived a greater percent of their patients to be at risk for AIDS were more likely to use infection control procedures (P less than .0001). They also were more willing to treat such patients (P less than .004) and were more likely to assess patients for AIDS by taking a thorough medical history (P less than .02) and sexual history (P less than .04). Since attitudes toward AIDS and perception of the percent of patients at risk in one's practice affect patient assessment and infection control procedures used by dental health care workers, educational programs designed to enhance DHCWs' response to the HIV epidemic should alert them to the extent of the problem and help them cope with their concerns.

  16. [Aids, physicians, Catholic Church].

    PubMed

    Pipino, Marica; Boldrini, Elena; Cristani, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    The latest AIDS' congress (Barcelona) reminded the world this dramatic situation. The shown data are remarkable: 5 million people of new infected in 2001, 68 million people could die in the next 20 years because of AIDS and the biggest part of them is living in the South of the world. There are two different kind of AIDS: the AIDS of rich people (2% of infected ones), who can reach the modern therapies that changed the course of the disease now curable out of hospital, and the AIDS of poor ones, without therapies and future. The political-economic effort of Western governments, of global fund anti-AIDS and of non governmental organizations now is not able to answer to this emergency in the right way. The lacking sensibility of Western doctors and the inflexible position of Catholic Church about contraception make the situation more complicated. It's hopeful the overcoming of this position using a Catholic Church's precious concept: the distinction between "simpliciter" and "secundum quid" to agree the use of condoms in case of absolute need.

  17. AID and the law

    PubMed Central

    Cusine, D J

    1975-01-01

    The present state of the law is unsatisfactory. The exact effect on the marriage of the parties has not been decided although in English law if artificial insemination by donor (AID) takes place without consent that would appear to be a ground for divorce since 1969. The law regards a child born as a result of AID as illegitimate and draws no distinction between the case where the husband consents and where he does not. Theoretically, an offence is committed if the birth entry is falsified, presumably in cases where the husband consents. The AID child, like any other illegitimate child, has rights against the natural parents, but he is in a worse position than most illegitimate children, in that he may not have any information about his father. It is now possible to freeze sperm and so preserve it over longer periods. All the problems associated with AID are present also when sperm is preserved in banks, but if the law is in an unsatisfactory state in relation to AID this is even more true in relation to sperm banks. The main criticism of the Feversham Report (1960) could be that it recommended, broadly speaking, the `status quo' but scientific progress has now overtaken and left the Feversham findings well behind. What, therefore, is required is a full consideration of the subject of AID and, on the basis of that, some statutory code regulating all its aspects. PMID:1165575

  18. The Ethical Dimensions of Awarding Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    In countries charging tuition fees, and those that are considering adopting tuition fee policies, recent economic conditions are making education less affordable and accessible for students. To combat these challenges, nations, state/regional governments, and universities are experimenting with financial aid programmes by providing non-repayable…

  19. AIDS Infects Education Systems in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess

    2005-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic raging across sub-Saharan Africa does not stop with personal carnage. It also threatens whole systems, including what is arguably the most critical for the region's future--education. Where rates of HIV infection are high, as they are in much of southern and eastern Africa, experts warn, the effects on social stability and…

  20. International Monetary Fund and aid displacement.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several recent papers find evidence that global health aid is being diverted to reserves, education, military, or other sectors, and is displacing government spending. This is suggested to occur because ministers of finance have competing, possibly corrupt, priorities and deprive the health sector of resources. Studies have found that development assistance for health routed to governments has a negative impact on health spending and that similar assistance routed to private nongovernmental organizations has a positive impact. An alternative hypothesis is that World Bank and IMF macro-economic policies, which specifically advise governments to divert aid to reserves to cope with aid volatility and keep government spending low, could be causing the displacement of health aid. This article evaluates whether aid displacement was greater when countries undertook a new borrowing program from the IMF between 1996 and 2006. As found in existing studies, for each $1 of development assistance for health, about $0.37 is added to the health system. However, evaluating IMF-borrowing versus non-IMF-borrowing countries reveals that non-borrowers add about $0.45 whereas borrowers add less than $0.01 to the health system. On average, health system spending grew at about half the speed when countries were exposed to the IMF than when they were not. It is important to take account of the political economy of global health finance when interpreting data on financial flows.

  1. Cognitive hearing aids? Insights and possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Eline Borch; Lunner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The working memory plays an important role in successfully overcoming adverse listening conditions and should consequently be considered when designing and testing hearing aids. A number of studies have established the relationship between hearing in noise and working memory involvement, but with the Sentence-final Word Identification and Recall (SWIRL) test, it is possible to show that working memory is also involved in listening under favorable conditions and that noise reduction has a positive influence in situation with very little noise. Although the capacity of the working memory is a finite individual size, its involvement can differ with fatigue and other factors and individualization of hearing aids should take this into account to obtain the best performance. A way of individually adapting hearing aids is based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids. Such an adaptation could be done based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization of hearing aids.

  2. Thinking about Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Accountability is a key component of healthcare reforms, in Canada and internationally, but there is increasing recognition that one size does not fit all. A more nuanced understanding begins with clarifying what is meant by accountability, including specifying for what, by whom, to whom and how. These papers arise from a Partnership for Health System Improvement (PHSI), funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), on approaches to accountability that examined accountability across multiple healthcare subsectors in Ontario. The partnership features collaboration among an interdisciplinary team, working with senior policy makers, to clarify what is known about best practices to achieve accountability under various circumstances. This paper presents our conceptual framework. It examines potential approaches (policy instruments) and postulates that their outcomes may vary by subsector depending upon (a) the policy goals being pursued, (b) governance/ownership structures and relationships and (c) the types of goods and services being delivered, and their production characteristics (e.g., contestability, measurability and complexity). PMID:25305385

  3. Malaysia urges ASEAN to tackle AIDS crisis.

    PubMed

    2000-08-07

    Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

  4. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  5. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV…

  6. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV…

  7. Sensory Aids for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Prosthetics Research and Development.

    The problems of providing sensory aids for the blind are presented and a report on the present status of aids discusses direct translation and recognition reading machines as well as mobility aids. Aspects of required research considered are the following: assessment of needs; vision, audition, taction, and multimodal communication; reading aids,…

  8. Mommy, Daddy--What's AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.

    This brochure is designed to help parents answer the questions that their children may ask them about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It provides basic information about AIDS and HIV, as well as sources for further information, such as the National AIDS Hotline. It…

  9. The Student Guide: Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    This publication explains what federal student financial aid is and what types of student aid are available. Two introductory sections present: federal student aid at-a-glance (what it is, who gets it, and how to get it) and finding out about student aid. The first section presents general information on the following subjects: student…

  10. Arkansas HIV/AIDS Report.

    PubMed

    1998-10-01

    The cumulative total of HIV cases is 4,110. Of that number, 2,481 meet the AIDS case definition. For the month ending July 12 of this year, there were 87 new HIV and 60 new AIDS cases reported. Of the 2,481 AIDS cases reported since 1983, 1210 (49%) have died of AIDS.

  11. The First Aid Training Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

  12. Separate domains of AID are required for somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Shinkura, Reiko; Ito, Satomi; Begum, Nasim A; Nagaoka, Hitoshi; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Sakakibara, Yoshimasa; Hijikata, Hiroko; Honjo, Tasuku

    2004-07-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM). Mutants with changes in the C-terminal region of AID retain SHM but lose CSR activity. Here we describe five mutants with alterations in the N-terminal region of AID that caused selective deficiency in SHM but retained CSR, suggesting that the CSR and SHM activities of AID may dissociate via interaction of CSR- or SHM-specific cofactors with different domains of AID. Unlike cells expressing C-terminal AID mutants, B cells expressing N-terminal AID mutants had mutations in the switch micro region, indicating that such mutations are generated by reactions involved in CSR but not SHM. Thus, we propose that separate domains of AID interact with specific cofactors to regulate these two distinct genetic events in a target-specific way.

  13. Mass media entertainment for AIDS communication in Zaire.

    PubMed

    Convisser, J

    1992-01-01

    Health communicators use entertainment and mass media to prevent HIV transmission. Population Services International operates an AIDS Mass Media Project as an adjunct to its Condom Social Marketing Project. It collaborates with the Government of Zaire's National AIDS Program. Its 1st target is urban youth because most AIDS cases in Zaire were infected as teenagers, urban youth have access to television (TV), and they take part in high risk sexual behavior. The project uses various AIDS songs to reach this group. A 6-month posttest shows that the 1st song was so effective that 65% heard it and that 93% of them recalled the major AIDS messages and 85% said that they changed their behavior. The project distributes a video of the 1990 World AIDS Day concert. Research in Zaire and other African countries shows that the threat AIDS poses to children's health strongly motivates parents' behavior. Thus the 2nd target is the 20-30 year old group--young and prospective parents. The project boasts a 4-part TV series about a groom who does not reveal his AIDS status to his young bride until after their wedding night. 2 scenes stress the benefits of condoms. After its 1st airing, 66% of the 20-30 year old group in Kinshasa watched all 4 parts of the series. Of these, about 75% said they would change their behavior. Most people in Zaire change behavior by using condoms. Indeed, during the mass media campaign, condom sales grew 1000% which saved almost 7200 lives. The project also features comic strips informing working men and women and teenagers about AIDS and distributes an inexpensive notebook listening AIDS facts and myths for school children. The project uses regional radio stations to broadcast 28 AIDS feature programs, 22 radio spots, 8 AIDS radio dramas, and 2 songs to high priority rural areas. These AIDS radio efforts have indeed influenced AIDS knowledge and attitudes.

  14. Accountability for Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Productivity gains in higher education won't be made just by improving cost effectiveness or even performance. They need to be documented, communicated, and integrated into a strategic agenda to increase attainment. This requires special attention to "accountability" for productivity, meaning public presentation and communication of evidence about…

  15. Accountability Update, March 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    This report provides the Washington State legislature, the Governor, and other interested parties with an update on the accountability performance of each of the state's public baccalaureate institutions (Central Washington University, Eastern Washington University, Evergreen State College, Washington State University, Western Washington…

  16. The Accountability Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, John; Dahlin, Michael; Xiang, Yun; McCahon, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states have leeway to: (1) Craft their own academic standards, select their own tests, and define…

  17. Full Accounting for Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Marie-Louise

    1988-01-01

    Given the curriculum's importance in the educational process, curriculum evaluation should be considered as essential as a district financial audit. When Fenwick English conducted a 1979 curriculum audit of Columbus, Ohio, schools, the accounting firm encountered numerous problems concerning development, review, and management practices. Planning…

  18. Accountability: A Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brademas, John

    1974-01-01

    The idea of accountability has by now been interpreted in ways which are different enough from one another to have permitted a certain ambiguity to creep into the notion in its present use within the educational community. The principal purpose of this report is, therefore, to try to set forth some clearer statement of what the idea of…

  19. Fiscal Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Housing and Community Development, Sacramento. Indian Assistance Program.

    Written in simple, easy to understand form, the manual provides a vehicle for the untrained person in bookkeeping to control funds received from grants for Indian Tribal Councils and Indian organizations. The method used to control grants (federal, state, or private) is fund accounting, designed to organize rendering services on a non-profit…

  20. Institutional Accountability Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This document discusses Santa Fe Community College's (SFCC) (Florida) five accountability measures. The type of data available provided on these measures is as follows: (1) District High School Enrollment Report and Retention and Success Rate Report; (2) Associate of Arts Degree Transfer Performance in the State University System; (3) Licensure…

  1. Accounting 202, 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide consists of guidelines for conducting two secondary-level introductory accounting courses. Intended for vocational business education students, the courses are designed to introduce financial principles and practices important to personal and business life, to promote development of clerical and bookkeeping skills sufficient…

  2. Educational Accounting Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing,…

  3. Planning for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuneo, Tim; Bell, Shareen; Welsh-Gray, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Through its Challenge 2000 program, Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network's 21st Century Education Initiative has been working with K-12 schools to improve student performance in literature, math, and science. Clearly stated standards, appropriate assessments, formal monitoring, critical friends, and systemwide accountability are keys to success.…

  4. Community Accountability Conferencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsborne, Margaret

    Community Accountability Conferencing (CAC) was first introduced in Queensland, Australia schools in early 1994 after a serious assault in the school community. Some family members, students, and staff were dissatisfied with the solution of suspending the offenders. Seeking an alternative, comprehensive intervention strategy, the school community…

  5. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    PubMed

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance.

  6. The New Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Marc S.; Clark, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    The only way public schools can keep up with the economic facts of life is by learning how to educate virtually all students to a much higher standard at current costs. Three contemporary models of school accountability are the systems used in Kentucky, Chicago, and Edmonton, Canada. (MLF)

  7. Professional Capital as Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael; Rincón-Gallardo, Santiago; Hargreaves, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify and spells out the responsibilities of policy makers to create the conditions for an effective accountability system that produces substantial improvements in student learning, strengthens the teaching profession, and provides transparency of results to the public. The authors point out that U.S. policy makers will need…

  8. Planning for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuneo, Tim; Bell, Shareen; Welsh-Gray, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Through its Challenge 2000 program, Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network's 21st Century Education Initiative has been working with K-12 schools to improve student performance in literature, math, and science. Clearly stated standards, appropriate assessments, formal monitoring, critical friends, and systemwide accountability are keys to success.…

  9. Democracy, Accountability, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Meira

    2011-01-01

    Educational standards, assessments, and accountability systems are of immense political moment around the world. But there is no developed theory exploring the role that these systems should play within a democratic polity in particular. On the one hand, well-designed standards are public goods, supported by assessment and accountability…

  10. Making Accountability Really Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B.

    2006-01-01

    Standards-based education has now reached a stage where it is possible to evaluate its overall effectiveness. Several earlier papers in the special issue of "Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice" on "Test Scores and State Accountability" (Volume 24, Number 4) examined specific state policies and their effects on schools…

  11. Viewpoints on Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Innovators Press, Tucson, AZ.

    This booklet contains five papers which examine the activities, successes, and pitfalls encountered by educators who are introducing accountability techniques into instructional programs where they did not exist in the past. The papers are based on actual programs and offer possible solutions in the areas considered, which are 1) performance…

  12. Democracy, Accountability, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Meira

    2011-01-01

    Educational standards, assessments, and accountability systems are of immense political moment around the world. But there is no developed theory exploring the role that these systems should play within a democratic polity in particular. On the one hand, well-designed standards are public goods, supported by assessment and accountability…

  13. Curtail Accountability, Cultivate Attainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wraga, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The current test-driven accountability movement, codified in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ([NCLB] 2002), was a misguided idea that will have the effect not of improving the education of children and youth, but of indicting the public school system of the United States. To improve education in the United States, politicians, policy makers,…

  14. Student Attendance Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitas, Joseph M.

    In response to state legislation authorizing procedures for changes in academic calendars and measurement of student workload in California community colleges, this manual from the Chancellor's Office provides guidelines for student attendance accounting. Chapter 1 explains general items such as the academic calendar, admissions policies, student…

  15. Accountability in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Kellet I.

    After describing recent school reforms in Hawaii, this paper discusses the state's efforts to ensure greater accountability and to deal with two issues: student evaluation and the measurement of indicators used in state-by-state comparisons. During the past few years, Hawaii has been involved in many reform initiatives, including implementating…

  16. Full Accounting for Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Marie-Louise

    1988-01-01

    Given the curriculum's importance in the educational process, curriculum evaluation should be considered as essential as a district financial audit. When Fenwick English conducted a 1979 curriculum audit of Columbus, Ohio, schools, the accounting firm encountered numerous problems concerning development, review, and management practices. Planning…

  17. Student Attendance Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitas, Joseph M.

    In response to state legislation authorizing procedures for changes in academic calendars and measurement of student workload in California community colleges, this manual from the Chancellor's Office provides guidelines for student attendance accounting. Chapter 1 explains general items such as the academic calendar, admissions policies, student…

  18. Higher Education Accountability Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Washington state's public four-year universities and college have submitted their 2003-05 accountability plans to the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB). The state operating budget directs the Board to review these plans and set biennial performance targets for each institution. For 2003-05, the four-year institutions are reporting on a…

  19. Accounting 202, 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide consists of guidelines for conducting two secondary-level introductory accounting courses. Intended for vocational business education students, the courses are designed to introduce financial principles and practices important to personal and business life, to promote development of clerical and bookkeeping skills sufficient…

  20. Curtail Accountability, Cultivate Attainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wraga, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The current test-driven accountability movement, codified in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 ([NCLB] 2002), was a misguided idea that will have the effect not of improving the education of children and youth, but of indicting the public school system of the United States. To improve education in the United States, politicians, policy makers,…