Science.gov

Sample records for aided design package

  1. The Computer Aided Aircraft-design Package (CAAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalif, Guy U.

    1994-01-01

    The preliminary design of an aircraft is a complex, labor-intensive, and creative process. Since the 1970's, many computer programs have been written to help automate preliminary airplane design. Time and resource analyses have identified, 'a substantial decrease in project duration with the introduction of an automated design capability'. Proof-of-concept studies have been completed which establish 'a foundation for a computer-based airframe design capability', Unfortunately, today's design codes exist in many different languages on many, often expensive, hardware platforms. Through the use of a module-based system architecture, the Computer aided Aircraft-design Package (CAAP) will eventually bring together many of the most useful features of existing programs. Through the use of an expert system, it will add an additional feature that could be described as indispensable to entry level engineers and students: the incorporation of 'expert' knowledge into the automated design process.

  2. Analytical Design Package (ADP2): A computer aided engineering tool for aircraft transparency design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuerer, J. E.; Gran, M.; Held, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) is being developed as a part of the Air Force Frameless Transparency Program (FTP). ADP2 is an integrated design tool consisting of existing analysis codes and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software. The objective of the ADP2 is to develop and confirm an integrated design methodology for frameless transparencies, related aircraft interfaces, and their corresponding tooling. The application of this methodology will generate high confidence for achieving a qualified part prior to mold fabrication. ADP2 is a customized integration of analysis codes, CAE software, and material databases. The primary CAE integration tool for the ADP2 is P3/PATRAN, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software tool. The open architecture of P3/PATRAN allows customized installations with different applications modules for specific site requirements. Integration of material databases allows the engineer to select a material, and those material properties are automatically called into the relevant analysis code. The ADP2 materials database will be composed of four independent schemas: CAE Design, Processing, Testing, and Logistics Support. The design of ADP2 places major emphasis on the seamless integration of CAE and analysis modules with a single intuitive graphical interface. This tool is being designed to serve and be used by an entire project team, i.e., analysts, designers, materials experts, and managers. The final version of the software will be delivered to the Air Force in Jan. 1994. The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) will then be ready for transfer to industry. The package will be capable of a wide range of design and manufacturing applications.

  3. An Analysis of Computer Aided Design (CAD) Packages Used at MSFC for the Recent Initiative to Integrate Engineering Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Leigh M.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) packages at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It examines the effectiveness of recent efforts to standardize CAD practices across MSFC engineering activities. An assessment of the roles played by management, designers, analysts, and manufacturers in this initiative will be explored. Finally, solutions are presented for better integration of CAD across MSFC in the future.

  4. Development of problem-oriented software packages for numerical studies and computer-aided design (CAD) of gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damyanova, M.; Sabchevski, S.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Vasileva, E.; Balabanova, E.; Dankov, P.; Malinov, P.

    2016-03-01

    Gyrotrons are the most powerful sources of coherent CW (continuous wave) radiation in the frequency range situated between the long-wavelength edge of the infrared light (far-infrared region) and the microwaves, i.e., in the region of the electromagnetic spectrum which is usually called the THz-gap (or T-gap), since the output power of other devices (e.g., solid-state oscillators) operating in this interval is by several orders of magnitude lower. In the recent years, the unique capabilities of the sub-THz and THz gyrotrons have opened the road to many novel and future prospective applications in various physical studies and advanced high-power terahertz technologies. In this paper, we present the current status and functionality of the problem-oriented software packages (most notably GYROSIM and GYREOSS) used for numerical studies, computer-aided design (CAD) and optimization of gyrotrons for diverse applications. They consist of a hierarchy of codes specialized to modelling and simulation of different subsystems of the gyrotrons (EOS, resonant cavity, etc.) and are based on adequate physical models, efficient numerical methods and algorithms.

  5. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  6. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  7. Applicability of the Remote Mobile Emplacement Package (RMEP) design as a mobility aid for proposed post-84 Mars missions, phase O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The results of study to determine the applicability of the Remote Mobile Emplacement Package (RMEP) design concept as a mobility aid for the proposed post-'84 Mars missions are presented. The RMEP wheel and mobility subsystem parameters: wheel tire size, weight, stowed volume, and environmental effects; obstacle negotiation; reliability and wear; motor and drive train; and electrical power demand were reviewed. Results indicated that: (1) the basic RMEP wheel design would be satisfactory, with additional attention to heating, side loading, tread wear and ultraviolet radiation protection; (2) motor and drive train power requirements on Mars would be less than on Earth; and (3) the mobility electrical power requirements would be small enough to offer the option of operating the Mars mini rover untethered. Payload power required for certain sampling functions would preclude the use of battery power for these missions. Hazard avoidance and reverse direction maneuvers are discussed. Limited examination of vehicle payload integration and thermal design was made, pending establishment of a baseline vehicle/payload design.

  8. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-03-15

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository.

  9. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  10. Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    T. Schmitt

    2006-12-13

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages.

  11. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-19

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging.

  12. Maximizing Enrollment Yield through Financial Aid Packaging Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Randy; Olswang, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Using institutional data, this paper presents a model to enable researchers and enrollment managers to assess the effectiveness of financial aid packaging policies in light of student characteristics and institutional market position. The model uses discriminant analysis and a series of hypothetical financial aid award scenarios to predict the…

  13. GNS-12 Packaging design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, E.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The purpose of this Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to provide criteria for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP)(Onsite). The SARP provides the evaluation to demonstrate that the onsite transportation safety criteria are met for the transport and storage of the 324 Building vitrified encapsulated material in the GNS-12 cask. In this application, the approved PDC provides a formal set of standards for the payload requirements, and guidance for the current cask transport configuration and a revised storage seal and primary lid modification design.

  14. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  15. Packaging Design Criteria for the Steel Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-10-19

    This packaging design criteria provides the criteria for the design, fabrication, safety evaluation, and use of the steel waste package (SWP) to transport remote-handled waste and special-case waste from the 324 facility to Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage.

  16. WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN SENSITIVITY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    P. Mecharet

    2001-03-09

    The purpose of this technical report is to present the current designs for waste packages and determine which designs will be evaluated for the Site Recommendation (SR) or Licence Application (LA), to demonstrate how the design will be shown to comply with the applicable design criteria. The evaluations to support SR or LA are based on system description document criteria. The objective is to determine those system description document criteria for which compliance is to be demonstrated for SR; and, having identified the criteria, to refer to the documents that show compliance. In addition, those system description document criteria for which compliance will be addressed for LA are identified, with a distinction made between two steps of the LA process: the LA-Construction Authorization (LA-CA) phase on one hand, and the LA-Receive and Possess (LA-R&P) phase on the other hand. The scope of this work encompasses the Waste Package Project disciplines for criticality, shielding, structural, and thermal analysis.

  17. Aspects on Transfer of Aided - Design Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goanta, A. M.; Anghelache, D. G.

    2016-08-01

    At this stage of development of hardware and software, each company that makes design software packages has a certain type of file created and customized in time to distinguish that company from its competitors. Thus today are widely known the DWG files belonging AutoCAD, IPT / IAM belonging to Inventor, PAR / ASM of Solid Edge's, PRT from the NX and so on. Behind every type of file there is a mathematical model which is common to more types of files. A specific aspect of the computer -aided design is that all softwares are working with both individual parts and assemblies, but their approach is different in that some use the same type of file both for each part and for the whole (PRT ), while others use different types of files (IPT / IAM, PAR / ASM, etc.). Another aspect of the computer -aided design is to transfer files between different companies which use different software packages or even the same software package but in different versions. Each of these situations generates distinct issues. Thus, to solve the partial reading by a project different from the native one, transfer files of STEP and IGES type are used

  18. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, M.D.

    1994-08-26

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists.

  19. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1992-01-01

    The goal was the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. Several packages and design studies were completed, including two software tools currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (SMART) and the Environment for Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and additionally provides initial mass property analysis. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand alone analysis codes that result in the streamlining of the exchange of data between programs, reducing errors and improving efficiency.

  20. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers. PMID:19570250

  1. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  2. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.; Olariu, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The primary goal of this grant has been the design and implementation of software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles particularly focused on the elements of geometric design, graphical user interfaces, and the interaction of the multitude of software typically used in this engineering environment. This has resulted in the development of several analysis packages and design studies. These include two major software systems currently used in the conceptual level design of aerospace vehicles. These tools are SMART, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool, and EASIE, the Environment for Software Integration and Execution. Additional software tools were designed and implemented to address the needs of the engineer working in the conceptual design environment. SMART provides conceptual designers with a rapid prototyping capability and several engineering analysis capabilities. In addition, SMART has a carefully engineered user interface that makes it easy to learn and use. Finally, a number of specialty characteristics have been built into SMART which allow it to be used efficiently as a front end geometry processor for other analysis packages. EASIE provides a set of interactive utilities that simplify the task of building and executing computer aided design systems consisting of diverse, stand-alone, analysis codes. Resulting in a streamlining of the exchange of data between programs reducing errors and improving the efficiency. EASIE provides both a methodology and a collection of software tools to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes.

  3. Geometric modeling for computer aided design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, it has been the primary goal of this grant to design and implement software to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace vehicles. The work carried out under this grant was performed jointly with members of the Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) of NASA LaRC, Computer Sciences Corp., and Vigyan Corp. This has resulted in the development of several packages and design studies. Primary among these are the interactive geometric modeling tool, the Solid Modeling Aerospace Research Tool (smart), and the integration and execution tools provided by the Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE). In addition, it is the purpose of the personnel of this grant to provide consultation in the areas of structural design, algorithm development, and software development and implementation, particularly in the areas of computer aided design, geometric surface representation, and parallel algorithms.

  4. Prototype solar-heating system design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design package for complete residential solar-heating system is given. Includes documents and drawings describing performance design, verification standards, and analysis of system with sufficient information to assemble working system.

  5. Telerobotic workstation design aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, K.; Hudlicka, E.; Young, D.; Cramer, N.

    1989-01-01

    Telerobot systems are being developed to support a number of space mission applications. In low earth orbit, telerobots and teleoperated manipulators will be used in shuttle operations and space station construction/maintenance. Free flying telerobotic service vehicles will be used at low and geosynchronous orbital operations. Rovers and autonomous vehicles will be equipped with telerobotic devices in planetary exploration. In all of these systems, human operators will interact with the robot system at varied levels during the scheduled operations. The human operators may be in either orbital or ground-based control systems. To assure integrated system development and maximum utility across these systems, designers must be sensitive to the constraints and capabilities that the human brings to system operation and must be assisted in applying these human factors to system development. The simulation and analysis system is intended to serve the needs of system analysis/designers as an integrated workstation in support of telerobotic design.

  6. Design considerations for automated packaging operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenholtz, J.; Jones, J.; Kincy, M.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on work performed at Sandia National Laboratories to automate DOE packaging operations. It is a general summary of work from several projects which may be applicable to other packaging operations. Examples are provided of robotic operations which have been demonstrated as well as operations that are currently being developed. General design considerations for packages and for automated handling systems are described.

  7. Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Mecham

    2004-07-12

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the methodology being used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to design waste packages and ancillary components. This summary information is intended for readers with general interest, but also provides technical readers a general framework surrounding a variety of technical details provided in the main body of the report. The purpose of this report is to document and ensure appropriate design methods are used in the design of waste packages and ancillary components (the drip shields and emplacement pallets). The methodology includes identification of necessary design inputs, justification of design assumptions, and use of appropriate analysis methods, and computational tools. This design work is subject to ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description''. The document is primarily intended for internal use and technical guidance for a variety of design activities. It is recognized that a wide audience including project management, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others are interested to various levels of detail in the design methods and therefore covers a wide range of topics at varying levels of detail. Due to the preliminary nature of the design, readers can expect to encounter varied levels of detail in the body of the report. It is expected that technical information used as input to design documents will be verified and taken from the latest versions of reference sources given herein. This revision of the methodology report has evolved with changes in the waste package, drip shield, and emplacement pallet designs over many years and may be further revised as the design is finalized. Different components and analyses are at different stages of development. Some parts of the report are detailed, while other less detailed parts are likely to undergo further refinement. The design methodology is intended to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational

  8. Solar-heating and cooling system design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Package of information includes design data, performance specifications, drawings, hazard analysis, and spare parts list for commercially produced system installed in single-family dwelling in Akron, Ohio. System uses air flat-plate collectors, 12000 kg rock storage and backup heat pump. Solar portion requires 0.7 kW, and provides 35% of average total heating load including hot water. Information aids persons considering installing solar home-heating systems.

  9. A Self-Instructional Course in Student Financial Aid Administration. Module 9: Award Packaging. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Consulting Group, Inc., Washington, DC.

    With the ninth module in a 17-module self-instructional course on student financial aid administration, novice financial aid administrators are taught about financial aid award packaging. A fundamental understanding of management of federal financial aid programs authorized by Title IV of the Higher Education act is provided. After completing the…

  10. Computer aided flexible envelope designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Computer aided design methods are presented for the design and construction of strong, lightweight structures which require complex and precise geometric definition. The first, flexible structures, is a unique system of modeling folded plate structures and space frames. It is possible to continuously vary the geometry of a space frame to produce large, clear spans with curvature. The second method deals with developable surfaces, where both folding and bending are explored with the observed constraint of available building materials, and what minimal distortion result in maximum design capability. Alternative inexpensive fabrication techniques are being developed to achieve computer defined enclosures which are extremely lightweight and mathematically highly precise.

  11. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  12. Working with Design: A Package for Sheet Metal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiebich, Paul D.

    1974-01-01

    The author describes a design approach used to study sheet metal layout in junior high and high school mechanical drafting courses. Students observe packaging in stores, study package construction, and design and produce their own packages. (EA)

  13. Simulating the Effects of Financial Aid Packages on College Student Stopout, Reenrollment Spells, and Graduation Chances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardins, Stephen L.; McCall, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the impact that different financial aid packages have on student stopout, reenrollment, and graduation probabilities. The authors simulate how various financial aid packaging regimes affect the occurrence and timing of these events. Their findings indicate that the number and duration of enrollment and stopout spells affect…

  14. DESIGN PACKAGE 1D SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Eisler

    1995-02-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1D, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1D system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations excluding hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations.

  15. Aids to School Bus Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  16. Packaging design criteria for the MCO cask

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.

    1996-09-11

    Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins. To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the K Basins to a Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design,fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multiple Canister Overpacks.

  17. Computer-aided system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  18. Solar Water-Heater Design Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Information on a solar domestic-hot water heater is contained in 146 page design package. System consists of solar collector, storage tanks, automatic control circuitry and auxiliary heater. Data-acquisition equipment at sites monitors day-by-day performance. Includes performance specifications, schematics, solar-collector drawings and drawings of control parts.

  19. Computer aided design of microcircuits. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-09-01

    Government sponsored research covering the computer aided design, modeling, layout, and packaging of integrated and other microelectronic circuits are cited. Computer programs and the use of computer graphics are included.

  20. DESIGN PACKAGE 1E SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1E, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1E system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1E structures/systems/components(S/S/Cs) in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions.

  1. Second Generation Waste Package Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Armijo, J.S.; Misra, M.; Kar, Piyush

    2007-06-28

    The following describes the objectives of Project Activity 023 “Second Generation Waste Package Design Study” under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232. The objectives of this activity are: to review the current YMP baseline environment and establish corrosion testenvironments representative of the range of dry to intermittently wet conditions expected in the drifts as a function of time; to demonstrate the oxidation and corrosion resistance of A588 weathering steel and reference Alloy 22 samples in the representative dry to intermittently dry conditions; and to evaluate backfill and design features to improve the thermal performance analyses of the proposed second-generation waste packages using existing models developed at the University of Nevada, Reno(UNR). The work plan for this project activity consists of three major tasks: Task 1. Definition of expected worst-case environments (humidity, liquid composition and temperature) at waste package outer surfaces as a function of time, and comparison with environments defined in the YMP baseline; Task 2. Oxidation and corrosion tests of proposed second-generation outer container material; and Task 3. Second Generation waste package thermal analyses. Full funding was not provided for this project activity.

  2. EGRAM- ECHELLE SPECTROGRAPH DESIGN AID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dantzler, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    EGRAM aids in the design of spectrographic systems that utilize an echelle-first order cross disperser combination. This optical combination causes a two dimensional echellogram to fall on a detector. EGRAM describes the echellogram with enough detail to allow the user to effectively judge the feasibility of the spectrograph's design. By iteratively altering system parameters, the desired echellogram can be achieved without making a physical model. EGRAM calculates system parameters which are accurate to the first order and compare favorably to results from ray tracing techniques. The spectrographic system modelled by EGRAM consists of an entrance aperture, collimator, echelle, cross dispersion grating, focusing options, and a detector. The system is assumed to be free of aberrations and the echelle, cross disperser, and detector should be planar. The EGRAM program is menu driven and has a HELP facility. The user is prompted for information such as minimum and maximum wavelengths, slit dimensions, ruling frequencies, detector geometry, and angle of incidence. EGRAM calculates the resolving power and range of order numbers covered by the echellogram. A numerical map is also produced. This tabulates the order number, slit bandpass, and high/middle/low wavelengths. EGRAM can also compute the centroid coordinates of a specific wavelength and order (or vice versa). EGRAM is written for interactive execution and is written in Microsoft BASIC A. It has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS. EGRAM was developed in 1985.

  3. Computer-aided antibody design

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Daisuke; Shirai, Hiroki; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Nakamura, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    Recent clinical trials using antibodies with low toxicity and high efficiency have raised expectations for the development of next-generation protein therapeutics. However, the process of obtaining therapeutic antibodies remains time consuming and empirical. This review summarizes recent progresses in the field of computer-aided antibody development mainly focusing on antibody modeling, which is divided essentially into two parts: (i) modeling the antigen-binding site, also called the complementarity determining regions (CDRs), and (ii) predicting the relative orientations of the variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) chains. Among the six CDR loops, the greatest challenge is predicting the conformation of CDR-H3, which is the most important in antigen recognition. Further computational methods could be used in drug development based on crystal structures or homology models, including antibody–antigen dockings and energy calculations with approximate potential functions. These methods should guide experimental studies to improve the affinities and physicochemical properties of antibodies. Finally, several successful examples of in silico structure-based antibody designs are reviewed. We also briefly review structure-based antigen or immunogen design, with application to rational vaccine development. PMID:22661385

  4. Packaging Design Criteria for the MCO Cask

    SciTech Connect

    FLANAGAN, B.D.

    2000-08-01

    Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated, nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins (including approximately 700 additional elements from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant, N Reactor, and 327 Laboratory). To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the 100 K Area to a Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multi-canister Overpacks. Concurrent with the K Basin cleanup, 72 Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 fuel assemblies will be transported from T Plant to the CSB to provide space at T Plant for K Basin sludge canisters.

  5. Comments on the computer aided design of Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, G.T.; Taylor, D.R.

    1983-08-01

    For a number of years the research team at the Royal Naval Engineering College's Stirling Engine Research Facility (SERF) have been investigating the computer aided design of Stirling engines and these investigations have involved the study and review of existing analytical and computer techniques and the development of 'in-house' methods. In this paper these experiences are summarized against the background of the state-of-the-art in the field as represented by the existing literature. An attempt is made to delineate the various design and analytical methods available and to show that they all have their place in a fully integrated design package.

  6. Program Aids Design Of Fluid-Circulating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacskay, Allen; Dalee, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Computer Aided Systems Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) program is interactive software tool for trade study and analysis, designed to increase productivity during all phases of systems engineering. Graphics-based command-driven software package provides user-friendly computing environment in which engineer analyzes performance and interface characteristics of ECLS/ATC system. Useful during all phases of spacecraft-design program, from initial conceptual design trade studies to actual flight, including pre-flight prediction and in-flight analysis of anomalies. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  7. K Basin sludge packaging design criteria (PDC) and safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) approval plan

    SciTech Connect

    Brisbin, S.A.

    1996-03-06

    This document delineates the plan for preparation, review, and approval of the Packaging Design Crieteria for the K Basin Sludge Transportation System and the Associated on-site Safety Analysis Report for Packaging. The transportation system addressed in the subject documents will be used to transport sludge from the K Basins using bulk packaging.

  8. Computer Aided Design in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobin, R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems in an undergraduate engineering education program. Provides a rationale for CAD/CAM use in the already existing engineering program. Describes the methods used in choosing the systems, some initial results, and warnings for first-time users. (TW)

  9. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  10. Multidisciplinary Expert-aided Analysis and Design (MEAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummel, Thomas C.; Taylor, James

    1989-01-01

    The MEAD Computer Program (MCP) is being developed under the Multidisciplinary Expert-Aided Analysis and Design (MEAD) Project as a CAD environment in which integrated flight, propulsion, and structural control systems can be designed and analyzed. The MCP has several embedded computer-aided control engineering (CACE) packages, a user interface (UI), a supervisor, a data-base manager (DBM), and an expert system (ES). The supervisor monitors and coordinates the operation of the CACE packages, the DBM; the ES, and the UI. The DBM tracks the control design process. Models created or installed by the MCP are tracked by date and version, and results are associated with the specific model version with which they were generated. The ES is used to relieve the control engineer from tedious and cumbersome tasks in the iterative design process. The UI provides the capability for a novice as well as an expert to utilize the MCP easily and effectively. The MCP version 2(MCP-2.0) is fully developed for flight control system design and analysis. Propulsion system modeling, analysis, and simulation is also supported; the same is true for structural models represented in state-space form. The ultimate goal is to cover the integration of flight, propulsion, and structural control engineering, including all discipline-specific functionality and interfaces. The current MCP-2.0 components and functionality are discussed.

  11. Photogrammetry and computer-aided piping design

    SciTech Connect

    Keneflick, J.F.; Chirillo, R.D.

    1985-02-18

    Three-dimensional measurements taken from photographs of a plant model can be digitized and linked with computer-aided piping design. This can short-cut the design and construction of new plants and expedite repair and retrofitting projects. Some designers bridge the gap between model and computer by digitizing from orthographic prints obtained via orthography or the laser scanning of model sections. Such valve or fitting then processed is described in this paper. The marriage of photogrammetry and computer-aided piping design can economically produce such numerical drawings.

  12. Design of vertical packaging technology for RF MEMS switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Deepak; Sharma, Akshdeep; Kaur, Maninder; Rangra, K. J.

    2012-10-01

    Wafer-level micro-encapsulation is an innovative, low-cost, wafer-level packaging method for encapsulating RF MEMS switches. This article presents an approach for design and processing steps related to encapsulation of individual RF components e.g. CPW, RF MEMS switches, in view of the variation in performance subsequent to packaging. Bottom contact vertical packaging is more prone to misalignment margin and easy to make connections. Cavity height of 30 µm is optimized for bottom contact vertical packaging.

  13. Uncertainty management in intelligent design aiding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald E.; Gabbert, Paula S.

    1988-01-01

    A novel approach to uncertainty management which is particularly effective in intelligent design aiding systems for large-scale systems is presented. The use of this approach in the materials handling system design domain is discussed. It is noted that, during any point in the design process, a point value can be obtained for the evaluation of feasible designs; however, the techniques described provide unique solutions for these point values using only the current information about the design environment.

  14. Preliminary design package for Sunair SEC-601 solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of the Owens-Illinois model Sunair SEC-601 tubular air solar collector is presented. Information in this package includes the subsystem design and development approaches, hazard analysis, and detailed drawings available as the preliminary design review.

  15. Design Package for Fuel Retrieval System Fuel Handling Tool Modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    2000-06-13

    This design package documents design, fabrication, and testing of new stinger tool design. Future revisions will document further development of the stinger tool and incorporate various developmental stages, and final test results.

  16. Aids in designing laboratory flumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Garnett P.

    1971-01-01

    The upsurge of interest in our environment has caused research and instruction in the flow of water along open channels to become increasingly popular in universities and institutes. This, in turn, has brought a greater demand for properly-designed laboratory flumes. Whatever the reason for your interest, designing and building the flume will take a little preparation. You may choose a pattern exactly like a previous design, or you may follow the more time-consuming method of studying several existing flumes and combine the most desirable features of each.

  17. Computer Aided Drafting Packages for Secondary Education. Edition 2. PC DOS Compatible Programs. A MicroSIFT Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Jim

    This report reviews eight IBM-compatible software packages that are available to secondary schools to teach computer-aided drafting (CAD). Software packages to be considered were selected following reviews of CAD periodicals, computers in education periodicals, advertisements, and recommendations of teachers. The packages were then rated by…

  18. Packaging design criteria for the K east basin sludge transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomaszewski, T.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-11

    This packaging design criteria (PDC) establishes the onsite transportation safety criteria for a reusable packaging and transport system to transport K East Basin sludge and water.This PDC provides the basis for the development of a safety analysis report for packaging; establishes the packaging contents and safety class of the package; and provides design criteria for the package, packaging, and transport systems.

  19. A rule based computer aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1986-01-01

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) system is presented which supports the iterative process of design, the dimensional continuity between mating parts, and the hierarchical structure of the parts in their assembled configuration. Prolog, an interactive logic programming language, is used to represent and interpret the data base. The solid geometry representing the parts is defined in parameterized form using the swept volume method. The system is demonstrated with a design of a spring piston.

  20. Alloy Design Workbench-Surface Modeling Package Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, Phillip B.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Good, Brian S.; Daugherty, Elaine S.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center's Computational Materials Group has integrated a graphical user interface with in-house-developed surface modeling capabilities, with the goal of using computationally efficient atomistic simulations to aid the development of advanced aerospace materials, through the modeling of alloy surfaces, surface alloys, and segregation. The software is also ideal for modeling nanomaterials, since surface and interfacial effects can dominate material behavior and properties at this level. Through the combination of an accurate atomistic surface modeling methodology and an efficient computational engine, it is now possible to directly model these types of surface phenomenon and metallic nanostructures without a supercomputer. Fulfilling a High Operating Temperature Propulsion Components (HOTPC) project level-I milestone, a graphical user interface was created for a suite of quantum approximate atomistic materials modeling Fortran programs developed at Glenn. The resulting "Alloy Design Workbench-Surface Modeling Package" (ADW-SMP) is the combination of proven quantum approximate Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) algorithms (refs. 1 and 2) with a productivity-enhancing graphical front end. Written in the portable, platform independent Java programming language, the graphical user interface calls on extensively tested Fortran programs running in the background for the detailed computational tasks. Designed to run on desktop computers, the package has been deployed on PC, Mac, and SGI computer systems. The graphical user interface integrates two modes of computational materials exploration. One mode uses Monte Carlo simulations to determine lowest energy equilibrium configurations. The second approach is an interactive "what if" comparison of atomic configuration energies, designed to provide real-time insight into the underlying drivers of alloying processes.

  1. Simulation as an Aid to Experimental Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Jack W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses simulation program to aid in the design of enzyme kinetic experimentation (includes sample runs). Concentration versus time profiles of any subset or all nine states of reactions can be displayed with/without simulated instrumental noise, allowing the user to estimate the practicality of any proposed experiment given known instrument…

  2. Computer Code Aids Design Of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    AERO2S computer code developed to aid design engineers in selection and evaluation of aerodynamically efficient wing/canard and wing/horizontal-tail configurations that includes simple hinged-flap systems. Code rapidly estimates longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of conceptual airplane lifting-surface arrangements. Developed in FORTRAN V on CDC 6000 computer system, and ported to MS-DOS environment.

  3. Computer-Aided Design in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Peter, Ed.

    This publication updates the 1982 occasional paper that was intended to foster staff awareness and assist colleges in Great Britain considering the use of computer-aided design (CAD) material in engineering courses. The paper begins by defining CAD and its place in the Integrated Business System with a brief discussion of the effect of CAD on the…

  4. Design and use of improved walking aids.

    PubMed

    Nava, L C; Laura, P A

    1985-10-01

    The design of crutches and walking sticks to assist the disabled has not varied much since their original conception, some 5000 years ago. From an engineering viewpoint one must consider crutches and walking sticks as dynamic mechanical systems which alleviate a disability; they may act as supports, help the user to recover from stumbling, or transmit from the arms, the energy required to lift the feet from the ground, an action not provided by artificial ankle joints. We describe some dynamic walking aids recently developed at the Instituto de Mecánica Aplicada, and discuss their design and our experience with their use. They are adjustable in height, shock absorbing and have non-slipping tips. Specially developed aids have been designed for children; they are versatile and their use has been made psychologically attractive.

  5. Design Approaches and Comparison of TAPS Packages for Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, S. Manjit

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purpose is to promote the use of modern technologies such as multimedia packages to engineering students. The aim is to help them to learning in their learning, visualization, problem solving and understanding engineering concepts such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: TAPS packages are developed to help…

  6. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  7. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE NAVAL SNF WASTE PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Mitchell

    2000-05-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate the design of the naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste package (WP) using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methodologies and processes described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000b). The calculations that support the design of the naval SNF WP will be discussed; however, only a sub-set of such analyses will be presented and shall be limited to those identified in the ''Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c). The objective of this analysis is to describe the naval SNF WP design method and to show that the design of the naval SNF WP complies with the ''Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and Interface Control Document (ICD) criteria for Site Recommendation. Additional criteria for the design of the naval SNF WP have been outlined in Section 6.2 of the ''Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the naval long WP containing one naval long SNF canister. This WP is representative of the WPs that will contain both naval short SNF and naval long SNF canisters. The following items are included in the scope of this analysis: (1) Providing a general description of the applicable design criteria; (2) Describing the design methodology to be used; (3) Presenting the design of the naval SNF waste package; and (4) Showing compliance with all applicable design criteria. The intended use of this analysis is to support Site Recommendation reports and assist in the development of WPD drawings. Activities described in this analysis were conducted in accordance with the technical product development plan (TPDP) ''Design Analysis for the Naval SNF Waste Package (CRWMS M&O 2000a).

  8. Design package for vacuum wand for fuel retrieval system

    SciTech Connect

    ROACH, H.L.

    1999-07-28

    This is a design package that contains the details for the design, fabrication, and testing of a vacuum wand that will pick up sludge and corrosion products generated during fuel assembly handling operations at K-Basin. This document contains requirements, development design information, design calculations, tests, and test reports.

  9. Packaging design criteria for the Type B Drum

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.; Smith, R.J.; Wells, A.H.

    1995-09-01

    The Type B Drum package is a transportation cask capable of shipping a single 55-gal (208 L) drum of transuranic (TRU) waste. The Type B Drum is smaller than existing certified packages, such as the TRUPACT-II cask, but will allow payloads with higher thermal and gas generation rates, thus providing greater operational flexibility. The Type B Drum package has double containment so that plutonium contents and other radioactive material may be transported in Type B quantities. Conceptual designs of unshielded and shielded versions of the Type B Drum were completed in Report on the Conceptual Design of the Unshielded Type B Drum Packaging and Report on the Conceptual Design of the Shielded type B Drum Packaging (WEC 1994a, WEC 1994b), which demonstrated the Type B Drum to be a viable packaging system. A Type B package containment system must withstand the normal conditions of transport and the hypothetical accident conditions, which include a 9-m (30-ft) drop onto an unyielding surface and a 1-m (3-ft) drop onto a 15-cm (6-in.) diameter pin, and a fire and immersion scenarios.

  10. Domain specific software design for decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Kirby; Stanley, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    McDonnell Aircraft Company (MCAIR) is involved in many large multi-discipline design and development efforts of tactical aircraft. These involve a number of design disciplines that must be coordinated to produce an integrated design and a successful product. Our interpretation of a domain specific software design (DSSD) is that of a representation or framework that is specialized to support a limited problem domain. A DSSD is an abstract software design that is shaped by the problem characteristics. This parallels the theme of object-oriented analysis and design of letting the problem model directly drive the design. The DSSD concept extends the notion of software reusability to include representations or frameworks. It supports the entire software life cycle and specifically leads to improved prototyping capability, supports system integration, and promotes reuse of software designs and supporting frameworks. The example presented in this paper is the task network architecture or design which was developed for the MCAIR Pilot's Associate program. The task network concept supported both module development and system integration within the domain of operator decision aiding. It is presented as an instance where a software design exhibited many of the attributes associated with DSSD concept.

  11. Integrated computer-aided design using minicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, O. O.

    1980-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM), a highly interactive software, has been implemented on minicomputers at the NASA Langley Research Center. CAD/CAM software integrates many formerly fragmented programs and procedures into one cohesive system; it also includes finite element modeling and analysis, and has been interfaced via a computer network to a relational data base management system and offline plotting devices on mainframe computers. The CAD/CAM software system requires interactive graphics terminals operating at a minimum of 4800 bits/sec transfer rate to a computer. The system is portable and introduces 'interactive graphics', which permits the creation and modification of models interactively. The CAD/CAM system has already produced designs for a large area space platform, a national transonic facility fan blade, and a laminar flow control wind tunnel model. Besides the design/drafting element analysis capability, CAD/CAM provides options to produce an automatic program tooling code to drive a numerically controlled (N/C) machine. Reductions in time for design, engineering, drawing, finite element modeling, and N/C machining will benefit productivity through reduced costs, fewer errors, and a wider range of configuration.

  12. Design and analysis study of a spacecraft optical transceiver package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed system level design of an Optical Transceiver Package (OPTRANSPAC) for a deep space vehicle whose mission is outer planet exploration is developed. In addition to the terminal design, this study provides estimates of the dynamic environments to be encountered by the transceiver throughout its mission life. Optical communication link analysis, optical thin lens design, electronic functional design and mechanical layout and packaging are employed in the terminal design. Results of the study describe an Optical Transceiver Package capable of communicating to an Earth Orbiting Relay Station at a distance of 10 Astronomical Units (AU) and data rates up to 100 KBPS. The transceiver is also capable of receiving 1 KBPS of command data from the Earth Relay. The physical dimensions of the terminal are contained within a 3.5' x 1.5' x 2.0' envelope and the transceiver weight and power are estimated at 52.2 Kg (115 pounds) and 57 watts, respectively.

  13. Concentrating solar collector subsystem: Preliminary design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design data are presented for a concentrating solar collector including an attitude controller. Provided are schedules, technical status, all documents required for preliminary design, and other program activities.

  14. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-03-17

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  15. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1998-11-09

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  16. Design Package for Fuel Retrieval System Fuel Handling Tool Modification

    SciTech Connect

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    2000-03-27

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  17. Residential solar-heating system-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design package for modular solar heating system includes performance specifications, design data, installation guidelines, and other information that should be valuable to those interested in system (or similar systems) for projected installation. When installed in insulated "energy saver" home, system can supply large percentage of total energy needs of building.

  18. Simulation Packages Expand Aircraft Design Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, NASA released a new approach to computational fluid dynamics that allows users to perform automated analysis on complex vehicle designs. In 2010, Palo Alto, California-based Desktop Aeronautics acquired a license from Ames Research Center to sell the technology. Today, the product assists organizations in the design of subsonic aircraft, space planes, spacecraft, and high speed commercial jets.

  19. Subsystem design package for Solar II collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for the design and performance of the Solar 2 Collector Subsystem developed for use in solar heating of single family residences and mobile homes are presented. Installation drawings are included.

  20. Modular solar-heating system - design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinton, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    Compilation contains design, performance, and hardware specifications in sufficient detail to fabricate or procure materials and install, operate, and maintain complete modular solar heating and hot water system for single family size dwellings.

  1. Design package for concentrating solar collector panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of the Northrup concentrating collector is presented. Included are the system performance specifications, the applications manual, and the detailed design drawings of the collector. The collector is a water/glycol/working fluid type, with a dipped galvanized steel housing, transparent acrylic Fresnel lens cover, copper absorber tube, and fiber glass insulation. It weights 98 pounds. A collector assembly includes four collector units within a tracking mount array.

  2. Basic repository waste handling and packaging facility conceptual design: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the conceptual design for a surface facility capable of receiving and processing high-level nuclear waste for terminal storage in a mined repository in salt. Design parameters, provided by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, include a repository capacity of 72,000 metric tons of heavy metal. Waste form to be received consists of spent fuel elements and boxed spent fuel pins, to be disassembled and packed into long-lived waste packages; canisters of commercial and defense high-level waste, inserted into the waste packages without disassembly; and transuranic waste, which requires no further packaging before burial. Activities within the facility cover receipt of waste by rail or truck, inspection, cleaning, decontamination, and unloading; waste from segregation to the appropriate hot cell or handling area; disassembly and packaging, overpacking, or palletizing; and loading onto the waste shaft hoist in transfer casks manipulated by overhead bridge cranes. The building's ground-floor design encompasses 18,795 m/sup 2/ (202,200 ft/sup 2/). Support systems include separate ventilation systems for the various functional areas with high-efficiency filtration, which provides the major engineered safeguard for containment of radioactive materials. The total life-cycle cost of the handling and packaging facility, if located in the Palo Duro Basin, is estimated at $1246 million. 10 refs., 31 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. A preliminary report of designing removable partial denture frameworks using a specifically developed software package.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Wang, Yong; Lü, Peijun

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a method to digitally survey and build virtual patterns for removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks using a new three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software package developed specifically for RPD design. The procedure included obtaining 3D data from partially dentate casts, deciding on the path of insertion, and modeling the shape of the components of the frameworks digitally. The completed model data were stored as stereolithography (STL) files, which are commonly used in transferring CAD/CAM models to rapid prototyping technologies. Finally, metal RPD frameworks were fabricated using a selective laser melting technique.

  4. Solar heating system final design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The system is composed of a warm air collector, a logic control unit and a universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and therefore provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic was designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit was designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.

  5. Solar-heating system design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report describes solar heating system composed of warm-air solar collector, logic control unit, and switching and transport unit, that meets government standards for installation in residential dwellings. Text describes system operation and performance specifications complemented by comprehensive set of subcomponent design drawings.

  6. ROMPS critical design review data package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobbs, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    The design elements of the Robot-Operated Material Processing in Space (ROMPS) system are described in outline and graphical form. The following subsystems/topics are addressed: servo system, testbed and simulation results, System V Controller, robot module, furnace module, SCL experiment supervisor and script sample processing control, battery system, watchdog timers, mechanical/thermal considerations, and fault conditions and recovery.

  7. Computer-aided software development process design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe an intelligent tool designed to aid managers of software development projects in planning, managing, and controlling the development process of medium- to large-scale software projects. Its purpose is to reduce uncertainties in the budget, personnel, and schedule planning of software development projects. It is based on dynamic model for the software development and maintenance life-cycle process. This dynamic process is composed of a number of time-varying, interacting developmental phases, each characterized by its intended functions and requirements. System dynamics is used as a modeling methodology. The resulting Software LIfe-Cycle Simulator (SLICS) and the hybrid expert simulation system of which it is a subsystem are described.

  8. Design guide for Type B radioactive material transportation packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Arbital, J.G.; Stumpfl, E.; Moses, S.D.

    1995-11-01

    In a joint effort between Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. of Oak Ridge, Tennessee and the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations (ALO), a guide to transportation package design for defense program materials has been developed (DOE, 1994). The Design Guide, as it is referred to, is a comprehensive document that uses a systems engineering approach to the design of Type B fissile packages for radioactive material handling and shipping. The specific design aspects addressed in the guide are geared toward special nuclear materials, however the guide can be used to design any transportation package for Type B unirradiated material (fissile or nonfissile). The Design Guide covers all elements of a successful design effort including structural integrity issues, thermal performance, containment systems, shielding requirements, criticality concerns, operational considerations, acceptance criteria, maintenance program, materials compatibility, and quality assurance. The Design Guide was issued in DRAFT form for comments by the DOE complex. Comments have since been incorporated. The Design Guide will be further updated as new technologies are developed, however it can be successfully applied at this time.

  9. Design and Criticality Considerations for 9977 and 9978 Shipping Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R; Biswas, D; Abramczyk, G

    2008-11-25

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed two new, Type B, state-of-the-art, general purpose, fissile material Shipping Packages, designated 9977 and 9978, as replacements for the U.S. DOT specification 6M container, phased out in September 30, 2008 due to non-compliance with current requirements 10CFR71 regulation. The packages accommodate plutonium, uranium and other special nuclear materials in bulk quantities and in many forms with capabilities exceeding those of the 6M. These packages provide a high degree of single containment and comply with 10CFR71, Department of Energy (DOE) Order 460.1B, DOE Order 460.2, and 10CFR20 (As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA)). Allowed package contents were determined accounting for nuclear criticality, radiation shielding, and decay heat rate. The Criticality Safety Index (CSI) for the package is 1.0. The package utilizes passive cooling to maintain internal temperatures within limits. Radiation shielding analyses have established the contents for which the packages can be shipped under non-exclusive use in the Safe-Secure Trailer or under exclusive use. The packages are designed to ship radioactive contents in several configurations; Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs), nested food-pack cans, site specific containers, and DOE-STD-3013 containers. Each shipping package includes a 35-gallon stainless steel outer drum, insulation, a drum liner, and a single containment vessel (CV). The 9977 includes a 6-inch ID CV while the 9978 includes a 5-inch ID CV. One inch of Fiberfrax{reg_sign} insulation is wrapped around and attached to the sides and bottom of the liner. The volume between the Fiberfrax{reg_sign} and the drum wall is filled with polyurethane foam. Top and bottom aluminum Load Distribution Fixtures (LDFs) within the drum liner cavity, above and below the CV, center the CV in the liner, stiffen the package radially, and distribute loads away from the CV. The 6CV fits directly into the LDFs while

  10. Container Design and Packaging; Art Education: 6693.13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubocq, Edward R.

    Offered as an exploratory course in the highly technical field of container and packaging design, emphasis is placed on refined knowledge of the basic techniques used in preparing visuals, color camps, and working drawings. Study of related information such as consumer psychology and color, layout, and lettering is included in this studio oriented…

  11. Waste package reference conceptual designs for a repository in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    This report provides the reference conceptual waste package designs for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to baseline these designs, thereby establishing the configuration and interface controls necessary, within the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, formerly the National Waste Terminal Storage Program, to proceed in an orderly manner with preliminary design. Included are designs for the current reference defense high-level waste form from the Savannah River Plant, an optimized commercial high-level waste form, and spent fuel which has been disassembled and compacted into a circular bundle containing either 12 pressurized-water reactor or 30 boiling-water reactor assemblies. For compacted spent fuel, it appears economically attractive to standardize the waste package diameter for all fuel types. The reference waste packages consist of the containerized waste form, a low carbon steel overpack, and, after emplacement, a cover of salt. The overpack is a hollow cylinder with a flat head welded to each end. Its design thickness is the sum of the structural thickness required to resist the 15.4-MPa lithostatic pressure plus the corrosion allowance necessary to assure the required structural thickness will exist through the 1000-year containment period. Based on available data and completed analyses, the reference concepts described in this report satisfy all requirements of the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with reasonable assurance. In addition, sufficient design maturity exists to form a basis for preliminary design; these concepts can be brought under configuration control to serve as reference package designs. Development programs are identified that will be required to support these designs during the licensing process. 19 refs., 37 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. Computer-aided design and computer science technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Voigt, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A description is presented of computer-aided design requirements and the resulting computer science advances needed to support aerospace design. The aerospace design environment is examined, taking into account problems of data handling and aspects of computer hardware and software. The interactive terminal is normally the primary interface between the computer system and the engineering designer. Attention is given to user aids, interactive design, interactive computations, the characteristics of design information, data management requirements, hardware advancements, and computer science developments.

  13. Final system instrumentation design package for Decade 80 solar house

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The final configuration of the Decade 80 solar house to monitor and collect system performance data is presented. A review demonstrated by actual operation that the system and the data acquisition subsystem operated satisfactorily and installation of instrumentation was in accordance with the design. This design package is made up of (1) site and system description, (2) operating and control modes, and (3) instrumentation program (including sensor schematic).

  14. Engineering Technology Programs Courses Guide for Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide describes the requirements for courses in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) that are part of engineering technology programs conducted in vocational-technical schools in Georgia. The guide is organized in five sections. The first section provides a rationale for occupations in design and in production,…

  15. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  16. Computer-aided design for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Fehér, Tamás; Carbonell, Pablo; Pauthenier, Cyrille; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-12-20

    The development and application of biotechnology-based strategies has had a great socio-economical impact and is likely to play a crucial role in the foundation of more sustainable and efficient industrial processes. Within biotechnology, metabolic engineering aims at the directed improvement of cellular properties, often with the goal of synthesizing a target chemical compound. The use of computer-aided design (CAD) tools, along with the continuously emerging advanced genetic engineering techniques have allowed metabolic engineering to broaden and streamline the process of heterologous compound-production. In this work, we review the CAD tools available for metabolic engineering with an emphasis, on retrosynthesis methodologies. Recent advances in genetic engineering strategies for pathway implementation and optimization are also reviewed as well as a range of bionalytical tools to validate in silico predictions. A case study applying retrosynthesis is presented as an experimental verification of the output from Retropath, the first complete automated computational pipeline applicable to metabolic engineering. Applying this CAD pipeline, together with genetic reassembly and optimization of culture conditions led to improved production of the plant flavonoid pinocembrin. Coupling CAD tools with advanced genetic engineering strategies and bioprocess optimization is crucial for enhanced product yields and will be of great value for the development of non-natural products through sustainable biotechnological processes.

  17. Computer-aided design for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Fehér, Tamás; Carbonell, Pablo; Pauthenier, Cyrille; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-12-20

    The development and application of biotechnology-based strategies has had a great socio-economical impact and is likely to play a crucial role in the foundation of more sustainable and efficient industrial processes. Within biotechnology, metabolic engineering aims at the directed improvement of cellular properties, often with the goal of synthesizing a target chemical compound. The use of computer-aided design (CAD) tools, along with the continuously emerging advanced genetic engineering techniques have allowed metabolic engineering to broaden and streamline the process of heterologous compound-production. In this work, we review the CAD tools available for metabolic engineering with an emphasis, on retrosynthesis methodologies. Recent advances in genetic engineering strategies for pathway implementation and optimization are also reviewed as well as a range of bionalytical tools to validate in silico predictions. A case study applying retrosynthesis is presented as an experimental verification of the output from Retropath, the first complete automated computational pipeline applicable to metabolic engineering. Applying this CAD pipeline, together with genetic reassembly and optimization of culture conditions led to improved production of the plant flavonoid pinocembrin. Coupling CAD tools with advanced genetic engineering strategies and bioprocess optimization is crucial for enhanced product yields and will be of great value for the development of non-natural products through sustainable biotechnological processes. PMID:24704607

  18. Computer Aided Drafting Packages for Secondary Education. Edition 1. Apple II and Macintosh. A MicroSIFT Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Jim

    This report reviews software packages for Apple Macintosh and Apple II computers available to secondary schools to teach computer-aided drafting (CAD). Products for the report were gathered through reviews of CAD periodicals, computers in education periodicals, advertisements, and teacher recommendations. The first section lists the primary…

  19. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  20. Software Package Completed for Alloy Design at the Atomic Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Abel, Phillip B.; Good, Brian S.

    2001-01-01

    As a result of a multidisciplinary effort involving solid-state physics, quantum mechanics, and materials and surface science, the first version of a software package dedicated to the atomistic analysis of multicomponent systems was recently completed. Based on the BFS (Bozzolo, Ferrante, and Smith) method for the calculation of alloy and surface energetics, this package includes modules devoted to the analysis of many essential features that characterize any given alloy or surface system, including (1) surface structure analysis, (2) surface segregation, (3) surface alloying, (4) bulk crystalline material properties and atomic defect structures, and (5) thermal processes that allow us to perform phase diagram calculations. All the modules of this Alloy Design Workbench 1.0 (ADW 1.0) are designed to run in PC and workstation environments, and their operation and performance are substantially linked to the needs of the user and the specific application.

  1. Issues of a Computer-Aided Design of Hydraulic Jacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averchenkov, V. I.; Averchenkov, A. V.; Kolyakinand, V. V.; Orekhov, O. D.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the issues of a computer-aided design of hydraulic equipment, namely hydraulic jacks. Design principles of the hydraulic jack CAD system are described. In addition, the possibilities for the system improvement and expansion are considered.

  2. System design document for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-08

    The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements for DOE standards for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This document describes the highest level design information and user characteristics from an operational perspective. It provides guidance for developing procurement and installation specifications, interface requirements, and test plans.

  3. Cradle to grave design of polymers for packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, R.

    1993-12-31

    Today`s polymeric materials are designed with little consideration for their ultimate disposability or recyclability. This has resulted in mounting worldwide concerns over the environmental consequences of such materials when they enter the waste stream after their intended uses. Of particular concern are polymers used in single use, disposable packaging applications. In the U.S., about 30% of synthetic polymers, totaling 16.5 billion pounds annually is used for packaging applications. Therefore, there is an urgent need to redesign and engineer new polymers that have the needed performance characteristics of the plastics, but can be transformed in appropriate waste disposal infrastructures to products that are compatible with the environment or recycled to the same or other products -- a {open_quotes}cradle to grave{close_quotes} design concept for materials. A {open_quotes}Cradle to Grave{close_quotes} design, use and disposal of new biodegradable polymers used in fast-food packaging will be presented. Integration of the biodegradable materials production with waste disposal infrastructures, specifically composting, will be discussed.

  4. Experiences in control system design aided by interactive computer programs: temperature control of the laser isotope separation vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D.T.; Pittenger, L.C.; McDonald, J.S.; Cramer, P.G.; Herget, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A robust control system has been designed to regulate temperature in a vacuum vessel. The thermodynamic process is modeled by a set of nonlinear, implicit differential equations. The control design and analysis task exercised many of the computer-aided control systems design software packages, including MATLAB, DELIGHT, and LSAP. The working environment is a VAX computer. Advantages and limitations of the software and environment, and the impact on final controller design is discussed.

  5. Mars Rover Sample Return aerocapture configuration design and packaging constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Shelby J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the aerodynamics requirements, volume and mass constraints that lead to a biconic aeroshell vehicle design that protects the Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) mission elements from launch to Mars landing. The aerodynamic requirements for Mars aerocapture and entry and packaging constraints for the MRSR elements result in a symmetric biconic aeroshell that develops a L/D of 1.0 at 27.0 deg angle of attack. A significant problem in the study is obtaining a cg that provides adequate aerodynamic stability and performance within the mission imposed constraints. Packaging methods that relieve the cg problems include forward placement of aeroshell propellant tanks and incorporating aeroshell structure as lander structure. The MRSR missions developed during the pre-phase A study are discussed with dimensional and mass data included. Further study is needed for some missions to minimize MRSR element volume so that launch mass constraints can be met.

  6. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M.; Arnold, E.D.

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  7. Computer-aided design development transition for IPAD environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, H. G.; Mock, W. D.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of federally sponsored computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) programs to the aircraft life cycle design process, an overview of NAAD'S CAD development program, an evaluation of the CAD design process, a discussion of the current computing environment within which NAAD is developing its CAD system, some of the advantages/disadvantages of the NAAD-IPAD approach, and CAD developments during transition into the IPAD system are discussed.

  8. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  9. Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lortz, Charlene L.; Huang, Chi-Chien N.; Ravich, Joshua A.; Steiner, Carl N.

    2013-01-01

    This packaging design approach can help heritage hardware meet a flight project's stringent EMC radiated emissions requirement. The approach requires only minor modifications to a hardware's chassis and mainly concentrates on its connector interfaces. The solution is to raise the surface area where the connector is mounted by a few millimeters using a pedestal, and then wrapping with conductive tape from the cable backshell down to the surface-mounted connector. This design approach has been applied to JPL flight project subsystems. The EMC radiated emissions requirements for flight projects can vary from benign to mission critical. If the project's EMC requirements are stringent, the best approach to meet EMC requirements would be to design an EMC control program for the project early on and implement EMC design techniques starting with the circuit board layout. This is the ideal scenario for hardware that is built from scratch. Implementation of EMC radiated emissions mitigation techniques can mature as the design progresses, with minimal impact to the design cycle. The real challenge exists for hardware that is planned to be flown following a built-to-print approach, in which heritage hardware from a past project with a different set of requirements is expected to perform satisfactorily for a new project. With acceptance of heritage, the design would already be established (circuit board layout and components have already been pre-determined), and hence any radiated emissions mitigation techniques would only be applicable at the packaging level. The key is to take a heritage design with its known radiated emissions spectrum and repackage, or modify its chassis design so that it would have a better chance of meeting the new project s radiated emissions requirements.

  10. Ultrasound aided smooth dispensing for high viscoelastic epoxy in microelectronic packaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Li, Han-Xiong; Shan, Xiuyang; Gao, Jian; Chen, Xin; Wang, Fuliang

    2016-01-01

    Epoxy dispensing is one of the most critical processes in microelectronic packaging. However, due its high viscoelasticity, dispensing of epoxy is extremely difficult, and a lower viscoelasticity epoxy is desired to improve the process. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to achieve a lowered viscoelastic epoxy by using ultrasound. The viscoelasticity and molecular structures of the epoxies were compared and analyzed before and after experimentation. Different factors of the ultrasonic process, including power, processing time and ultrasonic energy, were studied in this study. It is found that elasticity is more sensitive to ultrasonic processing while viscosity is little affected. Further, large power and long processing time can minimize the viscoelasticity to ideal values. Due to the reduced loss modulus and storage modulus after ultrasonic processing, smooth dispensing is demonstrated for the processed epoxy. The subsequently color temperature experiments show that ultrasonic processing will not affect LED's lighting. It is clear that the ultrasonic processing will have good potential to aide smooth dispensing for high viscoelastic epoxy in electronic industry. PMID:26384878

  11. Conceptual designs for the AT-400MO package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, L.E.; Hafner, R.F.; Hovingh, J.; Keeton, S.C.; Russell, E.W.; Lemmings, J.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, Pantex handles and stores weapons pits in AT-400A packages. The Department of Energy currently plans to oversee the conversion of weapon pits into plutonium metal or oxide. These products will then be stored, and perhaps transported at a later time, to other DOE sites. If DOE assigns the pit conversion process to Pantex, it makes sense to store the resulting Pu metal or oxide at Pantex, utilizing existing facilities, equipment, processes, and personnel. The four conceptual designs presented herein substitute the current AT-400A containment vessel, designed for weapon pits, with a vessel designed to store and/or ship Pu metal or oxides. These new designs utilize the existing AT-400A overpack system consisting of the drum assembly and radial impact limiters and likewise employ existing AT-400A production operations.

  12. Critiquing the Computer-Aided Design of Dental Prostheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, F. J.; And Others

    This paper describes RaPiD, a computer-aided assistant for the design of dental prostheses called removable partial dentures. The user manipulates icons directly to indicate the desired design solution to a given clinical situation. A developing design is represented as a logic database of components in a design; expert rules are applied as…

  13. Artwork Interactive Design System (AIDS) program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. T.; Taylor, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    An artwork interactive design system is described which provides the microelectronic circuit designer/engineer a tool to perform circuit design, automatic layout modification, standard cell design, and artwork verification at a graphics computer terminal using a graphics tablet at the designer/computer interface.

  14. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  15. School District Uses Computer Aided Design and Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorentz, Gordon S.

    1988-01-01

    Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) programs are used to teach drafting at an Indiana high school. The school system's maintenance department shared use of the software and equipment to produce original drawings of school buildings. (MLF)

  16. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  17. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  18. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  19. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  20. Investigation into the development of computer aided design software for space based sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pender, C. W.; Clark, W. L.

    1987-01-01

    The described effort is phase one of the development of a Computer Aided Design (CAD) software to be used to perform radiometric sensor design. The software package will be referred to as SCAD and is directed toward the preliminary phase of the design of space based sensor system. The approach being followed is to develop a modern, graphic intensive, user friendly software package using existing software as building blocks. The emphasis will be directed toward the development of a shell containing menus, smart defaults, and interfaces, which can accommodate a wide variety of existing application software packages. The shell will offer expected utilities such as graphics, tailored menus, and a variety of drivers for I/O devices. Following the development of the shell, the development of SCAD is planned as chiefly selection and integration of appropriate building blocks. The phase one development activities have included: the selection of hardware which will be used with SCAD; the determination of the scope of SCAD; the preliminary evaluation of a number of software packages for applicability to SCAD; determination of a method for achieving required capabilities where voids exist; and then establishing a strategy for binding the software modules into an easy to use tool kit.

  1. Computer aided system engineering and analysis (CASE/A) modeling package for ECLS systems - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalee, Robert C.; Bacskay, Allen S.; Knox, James C.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the CASE/A-ECLSS series modeling package is presented. CASE/A is an analytical tool that has supplied engineering productivity accomplishments during ECLSS design activities. A components verification program was performed to assure component modeling validity based on test data from the Phase II comparative test program completed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. An integrated plotting feature has been added to the program which allows the operator to analyze on-screen data trends or get hard copy plots from within the CASE/A operating environment. New command features in the areas of schematic, output, and model management, and component data editing have been incorporated to enhance the engineer's productivity during a modeling program.

  2. Computer-Aided Design/Manufacturing (CAD/M) for high-speed interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoski, N. F.

    1981-10-01

    The objective of the Computer-Aided Design/Manufacturing (CAD/M) for High-Speed Interconnect Program study was to assess techniques for design, analysis and fabrication of interconnect structures between high-speed logic ICs that are clocked in the 200 MHz to 5 GHz range. Interconnect structure models were investigated and integrated with existing device models. Design rules for interconnects were developed in terms of parameters that can be installed in software that is used for the design, analysis and fabrication of circuits. To implement these design rules in future software development, algorithms and software development techniques were defined. Major emphasis was on Printed Wiring Board and hybrid level circuits as opposed to monolithic chips. Various packaging schemes were considered, including controlled impedance lines in the 50 to 200 ohms range where needed. The design rules developed are generic in nature, in that various architecture classes and device technologies were considered.

  3. Interactive graphical computer-aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    System is used for design, layout, and modification of large-scale-integrated (LSI) metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) arrays. System is structured around small computer which provides real-time support for graphics storage display unit with keyboard, slave display unit, hard copy unit, and graphics tablet for designer/computer interface.

  4. Human factors of intelligent computer aided display design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Design concepts for a decision support system being studied at NASA Langley as an aid to visual display unit (VDU) designers are described. Ideally, human factors should be taken into account by VDU designers. In reality, although the human factors database on VDUs is small, such systems must be constantly developed. Human factors are therefore a secondary consideration. An expert system will thus serve mainly in an advisory capacity. Functions can include facilitating the design process by shortening the time to generate and alter drawings, enhancing the capability of breaking design requirements down into simpler functions, and providing visual displays equivalent to the final product. The VDU system could also discriminate, and display the difference, between designer decisions and machine inferences. The system could also aid in analyzing the effects of designer choices on future options and in ennunciating when there are data available on a design selections.

  5. Computer-aided design of GPCR ligands.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo; Keränen, Henrik; Azuaje, Jhonny; Rodríguez, David; Åqvist, Johan; Sotelo, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    The recent availability of several GPCR crystal structures now contributes decisively to the perspective of structure-based ligand design. In this context, computational approaches are extremely helpful, particularly if properly integrated in drug design projects with cooperation between computational and medicinal chemistry teams. Here, we present the pipelines used in one such project, devoted to the design of novel potent and selective antagonists for the different adenosine receptors. The details of the computational strategies are described, and particular attention is given to explain how these procedures can effectively guide the synthesis of novel chemical entities.

  6. Program Aids Analysis And Optimization Of Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.; Lamarsh, William J., II

    1994-01-01

    NETS/ PROSSS (NETS Coupled With Programming System for Structural Synthesis) computer program developed to provide system for combining NETS (MSC-21588), neural-network application program and CONMIN (Constrained Function Minimization, ARC-10836), optimization program. Enables user to reach nearly optimal design. Design then used as starting point in normal optimization process, possibly enabling user to converge to optimal solution in significantly fewer iterations. NEWT/PROSSS written in C language and FORTRAN 77.

  7. Module Design, Materials, and Packaging Research Team: Activities and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T. J.; del Cueto, J.; Glick, S.; Jorgensen, G.; Kempe, M.; Kennedy, C.; Pern, J.; Terwilliger, K

    2005-01-01

    Our team activities are directed at improving PV module reliability by incorporating new, more effective, and less expensive packaging materials and techniques. New and existing materials or designs are evaluated before and during accelerated environmental exposure for the following properties: (1) Adhesion and cohesion: peel strength and lap shear. (2) Electrical conductivity: surface, bulk, interface and transients. (3) Water vapor transmission: solubility and diffusivity. (4) Accelerated weathering: ultraviolet, temperature, and damp heat tests. (5) Module and cell failure diagnostics: infrared imaging, individual cell shunt characterization, coring. (6) Fabrication improvements: SiOxNy barrier coatings and enhanced wet adhesion. (7) Numerical modeling: Moisture ingress/egress, module and cell performance, and cell-to-frame leakage current. (8) Rheological properties of polymer encapsulant and sheeting materials. Specific examples will be described.

  8. Memory interface simulator: A computer design aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, D. S.; Williams, T.; Weatherbee, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of a study conducted with a digital simulation model being used in the design of the Automatically Reconfigurable Modular Multiprocessor System (ARMMS), a candidate computer system for future manned and unmanned space missions. The model simulates the activity involved as instructions are fetched from random access memory for execution in one of the system central processing units. A series of model runs measured instruction execution time under various assumptions pertaining to the CPU's and the interface between the CPU's and RAM. Design tradeoffs are presented in the following areas: Bus widths, CPU microprogram read only memory cycle time, multiple instruction fetch, and instruction mix.

  9. Computer aided design study of hypermixing nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mefferd, L. A.; Bevilacqua, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a nozzle which combines the hypermixing and lobe mechanisms to achieve further increases in jet entrainment and ejector performance is investigated. A computer program which incorporates a two equation turbulence model and is used to predict and compare the evolution of jets from various nozzle designs is discussed. Increasing the length of the nozzle lobes and an alternating lobe nozzle are a methods examined for increasing the entrainment rate.

  10. Luminance in computer-aided lighting design

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.J.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Grynberg, A.

    1987-08-01

    Traditionally, the lighting engineering community has emphasized illuminance, the amount of light reaching a surface, as the primary design goal. The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) provides tables of illuminances for different types of tasks which lighting engineers consult in designing lighting systems. Illuminance has proven to be a popular metric because it corresponds closely to the amount of energy needed to light a building as well as the initial cost of the lighting system. Perhaps more importantly, illuminance is easy to calculate, especially in simple unobstructed spaces with direct lighting. However,illuminance is not well correlated with visual performance, which is the real reason for installing a lighting system in the first place. Visual performance is a psychophysiological quantity that has been tied to physical quantities such as contrast, size and adaptation level by subject experiments. These physical quantities can be approximated from illuminance using a host of assumptions about the environment, or derived directly from the distribution of luminance. Luminance is the quantity of light traveling through a point in a certain direction, and it is this quantity that the eye actually sees''. However, the difficulty of calculating luminance for common tasks has made it an unpopular metric. Despite its importance to lighting design, luminance is rarely used because there is a lack of the necessary computational tools.In this paper, we will demonstrate a computer calculation of luminance that has significant advantages for lighting design. As well as providing an immediate evaluation of visual quality for task performance, less quantifiable factors such as aesthetics can be studied in synthetic images produced by the program.

  11. Luminance in computer-aided lighting design

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.J.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Grynberg, A.

    1987-08-01

    Traditionally, the lighting engineering community has emphasized illuminance, the amount of light reaching a surface, as the primary design goal. The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) provides tables of illuminances for different types of tasks which lighting engineers consult in designing lighting systems. Illuminance has proven to be a popular metric because it corresponds closely to the amount of energy needed to light a building as well as the initial cost of the lighting system. Perhaps more importantly, illuminance is easy to calculate, especially in simple unobstructed spaces with direct lighting. However,illuminance is not well correlated with visual performance, which is the real reason for installing a lighting system in the first place. Visual performance is a psychophysiological quantity that has been tied to physical quantities such as contrast, size and adaptation level by subject experiments. These physical quantities can be approximated from illuminance using a host of assumptions about the environment, or derived directly from the distribution of luminance. Luminance is the quantity of light traveling through a point in a certain direction, and it is this quantity that the eye actually ``sees``. However, the difficulty of calculating luminance for common tasks has made it an unpopular metric. Despite its importance to lighting design, luminance is rarely used because there is a lack of the necessary computational tools.In this paper, we will demonstrate a computer calculation of luminance that has significant advantages for lighting design. As well as providing an immediate evaluation of visual quality for task performance, less quantifiable factors such as aesthetics can be studied in synthetic images produced by the program.

  12. Computer-Aided Design Of Sheet-Material Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Paternoster, Vincent Y.; Levitt, Maureen L.; Osterloh, Mark R.

    1991-01-01

    Computer-aided-design system partly automates tedious process of designing and guiding assembly of small pieces of flat sheet material into large surfaces that approximate smoothly curved surfaces having complicated three-dimensional shapes. Capability provides for flexibility enabling designer to assess quickly and easily effects of changes in design in making engineering compromises among various sizes and shapes. Saves time and money in both design and fabrication. Used in rocket-engine application and other applications requiring design of sheet-material parts.

  13. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (SUN VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  14. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  15. Design and development of modified atmosphere packaging system for guava (cv. Baruipur).

    PubMed

    Mangaraj, S; Goswami, T K; Giri, S K; Joshy, C G

    2014-11-01

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is a dynamic system during which respiration and permeation occur simultaneously. Hence factors affecting both respiration and permeation were considered for designing a package. In the design of MA packages for guava (cv. Baruipur) a total of 13 variables were considered. The independent variables includes: weight of fruits, surface area of packaging film, free volume of the package, thickness of the film and permeabilities of film to O2 and CO2 gas. The fixed variables considered were: the surrounding gas composition and temperature, the respiration rates for O2 consumption and CO2 evolution, and the equilibrium gas compositions to be attained in the package so that the fruit's shelf-life is extended. Two types of MA packages, having package size of 19 cm × 19 cm for a fill weight of 1,000 ± 100 g were developed. Packages were designed to accommodate a fill weight range of 0.90-1.10 kg. Various package parameters were optimized to facilitate establishment of dynamic equilibrium at target levels of O2 and CO2 concentration in the package. The storage study of MA packages was performed at 10, 15, 20 and 25 °C temperatures. The performance of film packages was evaluated for their ability to establish equilibrium at target levels and to extend the shelf life of the packaged fruit. The MA packaging system increased the shelf life of guava by 128-200 % compared to the unpacked fruits at various storage temperatures with a quality comparable with the freshly harvested commodity. PMID:26396288

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart B of... - Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging... Application Packaging Grants Pt. 1944, Subpt. B, Exh. D Exhibit D to Subpart B of Part 1944—Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging Grants ER25my05.036 ER25my05.037 ER25my05.038 ER25my05.039...

  17. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 3: Package evaluation, modification and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The software package evaluation was designed to analyze commercially available, field-proven, production control or manufacturing resource planning management technology and software package. The analysis was conducted by comparing SRB production control software requirements and conceptual system design to software package capabilities. The methodology of evaluation and the findings at each stage of evaluation are described. Topics covered include: vendor listing; request for information (RFI) document; RFI response rate and quality; RFI evaluation process; and capabilities versus requirements.

  18. National Occupational Skill Standards. CADD: Computer Aided Drafting and Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Advanced Manufacturing, Washington, DC.

    This document identifies computer-aided drafting and design (CADD) skills that companies require of training programs and future employees. The information was developed by two committees of technically knowledgeable CADD users from across the United States and validated by several hundred other CADD users. The skills are aimed at a beginner CADD…

  19. Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

    2004-01-01

    We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

  20. Hermetic-coaxial package design for microwave transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    Semiconductor package has been developed for high power semiconductor devices that operate in the GHz-frequency range at several watts. Package includes stud, insulating ring, electrically conductive washer, insulating washer, braze ring, and cap. It is mechanically strong and can be used with variety of circuits.

  1. Battery-package design provides for cell cooling and constraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1968-01-01

    Lightweight battery-package provides for even cooling of individual alkaline cells, constraint against cell expansion, and convenient placement of cells. The battery package also provides for venting of the cells and includes instrumentation to measure cell temperature, pressure, and voltage.

  2. Consumer and health literacy: The need to better design tobacco-cessation product packaging, labels, and inserts.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stephanie M; Smith-Simone, Stephanie Y

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco-cessation product packaging and instruction materials may not be appropriate for some smokers and may contribute to the underuse and misuse of evidence-based treatments. The dual goals of this project are to analyze literacy levels of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and non-approved tobacco-cessation product packaging, directions, and claims, and to identify and categorize claims found on product packaging. The Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (CTFK) maintains the Quitting and Reducing Tobacco Use Inventory of Products (QuiTIP) database, which catalogs products marketed and sold to consumers to reduce or quit use of tobacco products. It also includes all medications approved by the FDA for tobacco cessation as well as a sample of non-approved products such as homeopathic, herbal, nutritional, or dietary supplements commonly marketed as either cessation aids or alternative tobacco/nicotine products. This paper assesses the reading levels required to understand product packaging, labeling, and instructions using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and identifies claims on the product package labels using standard qualitative methods. Key findings show that the average reading levels needed to understand instructions for both FDA-approved and non-approved cessation products are above the reading levels recommended to ensure maximum comprehension. Improving the packaging and directions of evidence-based tobacco-cessation products so that they are preferably at or below a fifth-grade reading level, along with using consumer-based design principles to develop packaging, may help smokers take advantage of and correctly use products that will greatly increase their chances of successful quitting. PMID:20176315

  3. Computer-aided design of flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Sircar, Subrata

    1991-01-01

    A computer program is presented for facilitating the development and assessment of flight control systems, and application to a control design is discussed. The program is a computer-aided control-system design program based on direct digital synthesis of a proportional-integral-filter controller with scheduled linear-quadratic-Gaussian gains and command generator tracking of pilot inputs. The FlightCAD system concentrates on aircraft dynamics, flight-control systems, stability and performance, and has practical engineering applications.

  4. Combining simulaton techniques and design expertise in a renewable energy system design package, RESSAD

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, S.U.; Pryor, T.L.; Remmer, D.P.

    1996-10-01

    Computer simulation is an increasingly popular tool for determining the most suitable renewable energy system type, design and control for an isolated community or homestead. However for the user without any expertise in system design, the complicated process of system component and control selection using computer simulation takes on a trial and error approach. Our renewable energy system design package, RESSAD, has been developed to simulate a wide range of renewable power supply systems, and to go beyond system simulation, by combining design expertise with the simulation model. The knowledge of the system designer is incorporated into the package through a range of analysis tools that assist in the selection process, without removing or restricting individual choices. The system selection process is analysed from the early stages of renewable resource assessment to the final evaluation of the results from a simulation of the chosen system. The approach of the RESSAD package in this selection process is described and its use is illustrated by two case studies in Western Australia. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. SNL Mechanical Computer Aided Design (MCAD) guide 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Brandon; Pollice, Stephanie L.; Martinez, Jack R.

    2007-12-01

    This document is considered a mechanical design best-practice guide to new and experienced designers alike. The contents consist of topics related to using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, performing basic analyses, and using configuration management. The details specific to a particular topic have been leveraged against existing Product Realization Standard (PRS) and Technical Business Practice (TBP) requirements while maintaining alignment with sound engineering and design practices. This document is to be considered dynamic in that subsequent updates will be reflected in the main title, and each update will be published on an annual basis.

  6. Macros for the Production of Simple Computer-Aided Instruction Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trickey, Keith V.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the creation and use of macros for simple computer-aided instruction using the Open Access integrated software from SPI (Software Products International, UK). Sample screen displays are included. (MES)

  7. Go beyond Design by Adopting a Philosophy of Packaging Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Describes how a changeover to desktop publishing, working in teams, expansion of the journalism room, and the concept of packaging combined to dramatically change a high school newspaper's approach and product. Argues for a debate on evaluation services. (SR)

  8. Performance-oriented packaging: A guide to identifying and designing. Identifying and designing hazardous materials packaging for compliance with post HM-181 DOT Regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    With the initial publication of Docket HM-181 (hereafter referred to as HM-181), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, Transportation Management Division decided to produce guidance to help the DOE community transition to performance-oriented packagings (POP). As only a few individuals were familiar with the new requirements, elementary guidance was desirable. The decision was to prepare the guidance at a level easily understood by a novice to regulatory requirements. This document identifies design development strategies for use in obtaining performance-oriented packagings that are not readily available commercially. These design development strategies will be part of the methodologies for compliance with post HM-181 U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) packaging regulations. This information was prepared for use by the DOE and its contractors. The document provides guidance for making decisions associated with designing performance-oriented packaging, and not for identifying specific material or fabrication design details. It does provide some specific design considerations. Having a copy of the regulations handy when reading this document is recommended to permit a fuller understanding of the requirements impacting the design effort. While this document is not written for the packaging specialist, it does contain guidance important to those not familiar with the new POP requirements.

  9. Computer-aided design of polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This book on computer-aided design of polymers and composites introduces and discusses the subject from the viewpoint of atomic and molecular models. Thus, the origins of stiffness, strength, extensibility, and fracture toughness in composite materials can be analyzed directly in terms of chemical composition and molecular structure. Aspects of polymer composite reliability are considered along with characterization techniques for composite reliability, relations between atomic and molecular properties, computer aided design and manufacture, polymer CAD/CAM models, and composite CAD/CAM models. Attention is given to multiphase structural adhesives, fibrous composite reliability, metal joint reliability, polymer physical states and transitions, chemical quality assurance, processability testing, cure monitoring and management, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), surface NDE, elementary properties, ionic-covalent bonding, molecular analysis, acid-base interactions, the manufacturing science, and peel mechanics.

  10. Computer-Aided Drafting and Design Series. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry, Course Syllabi, [and] Instructor's Handbook. Student Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This package consists of course syllabi, an instructor's handbook, and a student laboratory manual for a 2-year vocational training program to prepare students for entry-level employment in computer-aided drafting and design in the machine tool industry. The program was developed through a modification of the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum)…

  11. Computer-aided design of antenna structures and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses computer-aided design procedures for antenna reflector structures and related components. The primary design aid is a computer program that establishes cross sectional sizes of the structural members by an optimality criterion. Alternative types of deflection-dependent objectives can be selected for designs subject to constraints on structure weight. The computer program has a special-purpose formulation to design structures of the type frequently used for antenna construction. These structures, in common with many in other areas of application, are represented by analytical models that employ only the three translational degrees of freedom at each node. The special-purpose construction of the program, however, permits coding and data management simplifications that provide advantages in problem size and execution speed. Size and speed are essentially governed by the requirements of structural analysis and are relatively unaffected by the added requirements of design. Computation times to execute several design/analysis cycles are comparable to the times required by general-purpose programs for a single analysis cycle. Examples in the paper illustrate effective design improvement for structures with several thousand degrees of freedom and within reasonable computing times.

  12. Computer-aided conceptual design of Air Cushion Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, E. G. U.; Lavis, D. R.

    This paper describes the development and use of a computer-aided design tool which has been used to explore preferred options for amphibious Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and Surface-Effect Ship (SES) designs in support of U.S. Navy and U.S. Army programs. The tool, referred to as the ACV Design Synthesis Model (ADSM), is an interactive computer program which provides a description of feasible ACV or SES concepts that could be developed, by a competent design team, to perform the mission described by the input parameters. The paper discusses how the program was used to explore parametrically the design of a range of self-propelled hoverbarges to meet requirements of the U.S. Army Logistics Over the Shore (LOTS) phases of an amphibious landing. Examples of results are presented to illustrate the method used in determining design and performance trade-offs.

  13. Computer-Aided Design of a Sulfate Encapsulating Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu; Bosano, Jerome J; Bonnesen, Peter V; Kertesz, Vilmos; Hay, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    A promising new approach towards more efficient self-assembled cage receptors through computer-aided design is demonstrated. The resulting M{sub 4}L{sub 6} tetrahedral cage, internally functionalized with accurately positioned urea hydrogen-bonding groups (see structure; yellow: predicted, blue: experimental, space-filling: SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), proved to be a remarkably strong sulfate receptor in water.

  14. How to avoid errors in the design and fabrication of transportation packages

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the errors and omissions most often identified when reviewing the design and fabrication of a packaging to transport high-level radioactive materials. The design and fabrication criteria recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Facility Safety Analysis, for containment vessels of Type B commercial packagings containing high-level radioactive materials is based on the requirements of Section III, Division 1, Subsection NB of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. However, most packaging designers, engineers, and fabricators are intimidated by the sheer volume of requirements contained in the Code; as a result, the Code is not always followed and many requirements that do apply are often overlooked during preparation of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging that constitutes the basis for evaluating the packaging for certification.

  15. The ethical design of an AIDS vaccine trial in Africa.

    PubMed

    Christakis, N A

    1988-01-01

    In 1987 in Zaire, a French investigator and a small group of Zairians were immunized with a French investigational AIDS vaccine. This action leads to questioning whether different sociocultural settings should have different research ethics applied, especially on pandemic diseases. Another question is to clarify the valid reasons for conducting an AIDS trial in Africa. The design of an AIDS vaccine trial should vary with the ethical and cultural factors of the research population involved, even if the epidemiological and scientific factors are the same worldwide. In Africa, study subjects meet the requirements for AIDS research: They are free from HIV infection and are at risk for the infection. However, concerns center on how to keep the subjects free from risks during the 6 months between HIV tests and how to ensure laboratory test accuracy. The applicability of the findings to that population are essential, although they may be unique to Africa. Research subjects must consent to participating in the trial and must be advised of their antibody status and of their becoming seropositive. To increase the beneficent treatment of subjects and decrease the risks, the study size should be increased and all participants should be counseled to avoid risky behaviors. A subject's family or social group may need to give consent in addition to the subject, because of cultural views. The explanation of the research must be in culturally relevant terms. Africa should have fair access to the vaccine resulting from the research. PMID:3397278

  16. Design of a nuclear-waste package for emplacement in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, W.C.; Rothman, A.J.; Gregg, D.W.; Hockman, J.N.; Revelli, M.A.; Russell, E.W.; Schornhorst, J.R.

    1983-02-01

    Design, modeling, and testing activities are under way at LLNL in the development of high level nuclear waste package designs. We discuss the geological characteristics affecting design, the 10CFR60 design requirements, conceptual designs, metals for containment barriers, economic analysis, thermal modeling, and performance modeling.

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart B of... - Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging Grants D Exhibit D to Subpart B of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Application Packaging Grants Pt. 1944, Subpt. B, Exh. D Exhibit D to Subpart B of Part...

  18. New technical design of food packaging makes the opening process easier for patients with hand disorders.

    PubMed

    Hensler, Stefanie; Herren, Daniel B; Marks, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Opening packaged food is a complex daily activity carried out worldwide. Peelable packaging, as used for cheese or meat, causes real problems for many consumers, especially elderly people and those with hand disorders. Our aim was to investigate the possibility of producing meat packaging that is easier for patients with hand disorders to open. One hundred patients with hand osteoarthritis were asked to open a meat package currently available in supermarkets (Type A) and a modified, newly designed version (Type B), and rate their experiences with a consumer satisfaction index (CSI). The mean CSI of the Type B packs was 68.9%, compared with 41.9% for Type A (p < 0.0001). These results show that manufacturers today can produce easy-to-open food packages that afford greater consumer satisfaction. Such future packaging would benefit not only people with hand disorders but also the population as a whole. PMID:25959312

  19. New technical design of food packaging makes the opening process easier for patients with hand disorders.

    PubMed

    Hensler, Stefanie; Herren, Daniel B; Marks, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Opening packaged food is a complex daily activity carried out worldwide. Peelable packaging, as used for cheese or meat, causes real problems for many consumers, especially elderly people and those with hand disorders. Our aim was to investigate the possibility of producing meat packaging that is easier for patients with hand disorders to open. One hundred patients with hand osteoarthritis were asked to open a meat package currently available in supermarkets (Type A) and a modified, newly designed version (Type B), and rate their experiences with a consumer satisfaction index (CSI). The mean CSI of the Type B packs was 68.9%, compared with 41.9% for Type A (p < 0.0001). These results show that manufacturers today can produce easy-to-open food packages that afford greater consumer satisfaction. Such future packaging would benefit not only people with hand disorders but also the population as a whole.

  20. The Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1994-01-01

    Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed, the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. The design manager's aid for intelligent decomposition (DeMAID) is a knowledge based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for design. Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save considerable money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined.

  1. Computer-aided structural design of a lunar radio telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akgul, Ferhat; Gerstle, Walter H.; Johnson, Stewart W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided structural design of the main reflector of a fully steerable radio telescope to be located (in the 21st century) on the moon, and presents the results of the structural analysis of the reflector. The reflector is a paraboloid with a surface area of 12,660 sq m and a focal ratio of 0.42. The reflector's surface will be covered by a 5.08 cm-thick sandwich panel made of thin-walled aluminum cells filled with low-density foam. The low weight of the design will be achieved by using graphite-epoxy as the structural material.

  2. Three-Dimensional Computer Aided Design of a Vertical Winnower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yumei; Lin, Saijia; Weng, Lijie

    The research states home and abroad of the winnowing technology and winnowers are reviewed in brief. For the air duct, the core component of the winnower, the relevant technical parameters in the winnowing process are calculated based on the winnowing principle. The three-dimensional computer aided design (3D-CAD) software Solidworks is applied. The designed vertical winnower is able to separate different raw materials by adjusting the air speed and has been put into practical production to separate the Chinese traditional medicine with high separating effect.

  3. Anatrecon: a user guide to software package for computer-aided three-dimensional reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Spacek, J

    1994-01-01

    "Anatrecon" is an original Czech software package. It enables one to make easy three-dimensional reconstructions from serial sections of cells and tissues. It offers very acceptable information on the three-dimensional structure and especially on mutual relationships of biological objects in such cases when other methodical approaches, e.g., scanning electron microscopy or laser scanning confocal light microscopy, cannot be applied. The program runs on a standard IBM compatible personal computer supplemented with a digitizing tablet. The author describes the program in detail and presents examples of reconstructions of dendritic spine and nucleus of nerve cell. PMID:7873799

  4. CAL Packages for Civil Engineering Hydraulics and Structural Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, W. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes computer assisted learning (CAL) packages written in FORTRAN IV and developed for use in a degree course in civil engineering dealing with hydraulics and structures. All are used in the interactive mode through a terminal with a keyboard and visual display unit. (Author/CMV)

  5. Preliminary design package for solar hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This package includes technical information, schematics, drawings and brochures of the solar hot water system. This system consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control, auxiliary energy, and Government-furnished site data acquisition. The two units being manufactured will be installed at Loxahatchee, Florida, and Macon, Georgia.

  6. Visions of visualization aids - Design philosophy and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1989-01-01

    Aids for the visualization of high-dimensional scientific or other data must be designed. Simply casting multidimensional data into a two-dimensional or three-dimensional spatial metaphor does not guarantee that the presentation will provide insight or a parsimonious description of phenomena implicit in the data. Useful visualization, in contrast to glitzy, high-tech, computer-graphics imagery, is generally based on preexisting theoretical beliefs concerning the underlying phenomena. These beliefs guide selection and formatting of the plotted variables. Visualization tools are useful for understanding naturally three-dimensional data bases such as those used by pilots or astronauts. Two examples of such aids for spatial maneuvering illustrate that informative geometric distortion may be introduced to assist visualization and that visualization of complex dynamics alone may not be adequate to provide the necessary insight into the underlying processes.

  7. Viral sequence diversity: challenges for AIDS vaccine designs

    PubMed Central

    McBurney, Sean P; Ross, Ted M

    2009-01-01

    Among the greatest challenges facing AIDS vaccine development is the intrinsic diversity among circulating populations of HIV-1 in various geographical locations and the need to develop vaccines that can elicit enduring protective immunity to variant HIV-1 strains. While variation is observed in all of the viral proteins, the greatest diversity is localized to the viral envelope glycoproteins, evidently reflecting the predominant role of these proteins in eliciting host immune recognition and responses that result in progressive evolution of the envelope proteins during persistent infection. Interestingly, while envelope glycoprotein variation is widely assumed to be a major obstacle to AIDS vaccine development, there is very little experimental data in animal or human lentivirus systems addressing this critical issue. In this review, the state of vaccine development to address envelope diversity will be presented, focusing on the use of centralized and polyvalent sequence design as mechanisms to elicit broadly reactive immune responses. PMID:18980542

  8. Evolution of Geometric Sensitivity Derivatives from Computer Aided Design Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William T.; Lazzara, David; Haimes, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The generation of design parameter sensitivity derivatives is required for gradient-based optimization. Such sensitivity derivatives are elusive at best when working with geometry defined within the solid modeling context of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems. Solid modeling CAD systems are often proprietary and always complex, thereby necessitating ad hoc procedures to infer parameter sensitivity. A new perspective is presented that makes direct use of the hierarchical associativity of CAD features to trace their evolution and thereby track design parameter sensitivity. In contrast to ad hoc methods, this method provides a more concise procedure following the model design intent and determining the sensitivity of CAD geometry directly to its respective defining parameters.

  9. The ergonomics of computer aided design within advanced manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    John, P A

    1988-03-01

    Many manufacturing companies have now awakened to the significance of computer aided design (CAD), although the majority of them have only been able to purchase computerised draughting systems of which only a subset produce direct manufacturing data. Such companies are moving steadily towards the concept of computer integrated manufacture (CIM), and this demands CAD to address more than draughting. CAD architects are thus having to rethink the basic specification of such systems, although they typically suffer from an insufficient understanding of the design task and have consequently been working with inadequate specifications. It is at this fundamental level that ergonomics has much to offer, making its contribution by encouraging user-centred design. The discussion considers the relationships between CAD and: the design task; the organisation and people; creativity; and artificial intelligence. It finishes with a summary of the contribution of ergonomics.

  10. A Learner-Based Design Model for Interactive Multimedia Language Learning Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Noel

    1997-01-01

    Examines the design features of interactive multimedia packages for second language learning. Focuses on the possible components of a design model and highlights the implications for program design. Concludes that to realize the high potential for interactive language learning multimedia, designers must develop a more learner-based orientation.…

  11. Microwave processing of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Pendola, Martin; Saha, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Because of their favorable mechanical properties and natural esthetics, ceramics are widely used in restorative dentistry. The conventional ceramic sintering process required for their use is usually slow, however, and the equipment has an elevated energy consumption. Sintering processes that use microwaves have several advantages compared to regular sintering: shorter processing times, lower energy consumption, and the capacity for volumetric heating. The objective of this study was to test the mechanical properties of a dental ceramic used in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) after the specimens were processed with microwave hybrid sintering. Density, hardness, and bending strength were measured. When ceramic specimens were sintered with microwaves, the processing times were reduced and protocols were simplified. Hardness was improved almost 20% compared to regular sintering, and flexural strength measurements suggested that specimens were approximately 50% stronger than specimens sintered in a conventional system. Microwave hybrid sintering may preserve or improve the mechanical properties of dental ceramics designed for CAD/CAM processing systems, reducing processing and waiting times.

  12. Innovative Approaches to Teaching Packaging Design Using the Example of Mineral Water Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestyánszka Škůrková, Katarína; Bajor, Peter; Trafela, Sabrina

    2013-12-01

    Designing the packaging of a product has many critical factors. In our paper, we present some of them on the example of a simple product: mineral water. In spite of the fact that today not only products, but also supply chains are competing with each other, designers sometimes pay little attention to considering the packaging system not only from the customer and the producer side, but for warehousing and transportation as well. We cover a lot of "what can go wrong" scenarios on the example of mineral water packaging for the purpose of defining the critical points in the supply chain.

  13. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy. PMID:27162756

  14. CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacture). A Brief Guide to Materials in the Library of Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havas, George D.

    This brief guide to materials in the Library of Congress (LC) on computer aided design and/or computer aided manufacturing lists reference materials and other information sources under 13 headings: (1) brief introductions; (2) LC subject headings used for such materials; (3) textbooks; (4) additional titles; (5) glossaries and handbooks; (6)…

  15. Weight estimates and packaging techniques for the microwave radiometer spacecraft. [shuttle compatible design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, J. K.; Wright, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates of total spacecraft weight and packaging options were made for three conceptual designs of a microwave radiometer spacecraft. Erectable structures were found to be slightly lighter than deployable structures but could be packaged in one-tenth the volume. The tension rim concept, an unconventional design approach, was found to be the lightest and transportable to orbit in the least number of shuttle flights.

  16. Initial Package Design Concepts Integrated Product Team (IPT) Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, J.; Luke, Dale Elden

    2000-03-01

    Initially, the question of transporting TRU waste to WIPP was raised as part of the EM Integration activities. The issue was re-examined as part of the system-wide view to re-engineer the TRU waste program. Consequently, the National Transportation Program and the National TRU Waste Program, in a cooperative effort, made a commitment to EM-20 to examine the feasibility of using rail to transport TRU waste material to WIPP. In December of 1999 Mr. Philip Altomare assembled a team of subject matter experts (SME) to define initial concepts for a Type B package capable of shipping TRU waste by rail (see Attachment 1 for a list of team members). This same team of experts also provided input to a preliminary study to determine if shipping TRU waste by rail could offer cost savings or other significant advantages over the current mode of operation using TRUPACT-II packages loaded on truck. As part of the analysis, the team also identified barriers to implementing rail shipments to WIPP and outlined a path forward. This report documents the findings of the study and its initial set of recommendations. As the study progressed, it was expanded to include new packages for truck as well as rail in recognition of the benefits of shipping large boxes and contaminated equipment.

  17. Sociocultural Constraints: The Relation between Generations in the United States, Parental Education, Income, Hispanic Origin and the Financial Aid Packages of Hispanic Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Razo, Parvati Heliana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if the demographic variables of country of origin, generation in the United States (immigration status), income and parental education had an impact on the financial aid packages of Hispanic undergraduate students. This dissertation asked: What is the relation between generation in the United States,…

  18. A Conceptual Design of a Departure Planner Decision Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anagnostakis, Ioannis; Idris, Husni R.; Clark, John-Paul; Feron, Eric; Hansman, R. John; Odoni, Amedeo R.; Hall, William D.

    2000-01-01

    Terminal area Air Traffic Management handles both arriving and departing traffic. To date, research work on terminal area operations has focused primarily on the arrival flow and typically departures are taken into account only in an approximate manner. However, arrivals and departures are highly coupled processes especially in the terminal airspace, with complex interactions and sharing of the same airport resources between arrivals and departures taking place in practically every important terminal area. Therefore, the addition of automation aids for departures, possibly in co-operation with existing arrival flow automation systems, could have a profound contribution in enhancing the overall efficiency of airport operations. This paper presents the conceptual system architecture for such an automation aid, the Departure Planner (DP). This architecture can be used as a core in the development of decision-aiding systems to assist air traffic controllers in improving the performance of departure operations and optimize runway time allocation among different operations at major congested airports. The design of such systems is expected to increase the overall efficiency of terminal area operations and yield benefits for all stakeholders involved in Air Traffic Management (ATM) operations, users as well as service providers.

  19. Visions of visualization aids: Design philosophy and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    Aids for the visualization of high-dimensional scientific or other data must be designed. Simply casting multidimensional data into a two- or three-dimensional spatial metaphor does not guarantee that the presentation will provide insight or parsimonious description of the phenomena underlying the data. Indeed, the communication of the essential meaning of some multidimensional data may be obscured by presentation in a spatially distributed format. Useful visualization is generally based on pre-existing theoretical beliefs concerning the underlying phenomena which guide selection and formatting of the plotted variables. Two examples from chaotic dynamics are used to illustrate how a visulaization may be an aid to insight. Two examples of displays to aid spatial maneuvering are described. The first, a perspective format for a commercial air traffic display, illustrates how geometric distortion may be introduced to insure that an operator can understand a depicted three-dimensional situation. The second, a display for planning small spacecraft maneuvers, illustrates how the complex counterintuitive character of orbital maneuvering may be made more tractable by removing higher-order nonlinear control dynamics, and allowing independent satisfaction of velocity and plume impingement constraints on orbital changes.

  20. CATIA - A computer aided design and manufacturing tridimensional system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, F.

    A properietary computer graphics-aided, three-dimensional interactive application (CATIA) design system is described. CATIA employs approximately 100 graphics displays, which are used by some 500 persons engaged in the definition of aircraft structures, structural strength analyses, the kinematic analysis of mobile elements, aerodynamic calculations, the choice of tooling in the machining of aircraft elements, and the programming of robotics. CATIA covers these diverse fields with a single data base. After a description of salient aspects of the system's hardware and software, graphics examples are given of the definition of curves, surfaces, complex volumes, and analytical tasks.

  1. Computer-aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuo, Hung Chang; Huston, Ronald L.; Coy, John J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  2. Computer aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  3. Computer aided design and analysis of gear tooth geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A simulation method for gear hobbing and shaping of straight and spiral bevel gears is presented. The method is based upon an enveloping theory for gear tooth profile generation. The procedure is applicable in the computer aided design of standard and nonstandard tooth forms. An inverse procedure for finding a conjugate gear tooth profile is presented for arbitrary cutter geometry. The kinematic relations for the tooth surfaces of straight and spiral bevel gears are proposed. The tooth surface equations for these gears are formulated in a manner suitable for their automated numerical development and solution.

  4. Accelerating Battery Design Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Heon, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  5. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  6. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1996-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: First, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities.

  7. Computer-Aided Training for Transport Planners: Experience with the Pluto Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonsall, P. W.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the PLUTO model, an interactive computer program designed for use in education and training of city planners and engineers. Emphasizes four issues: (1) the balance between realism and simplification; (2) the design of the user interface; (3) comparative advantages of group and solo working; and (4) factors affecting the decision to…

  8. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now.

  9. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  10. A review of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture techniques for removable denture fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Baytaroğlu, Ebru Nur; Erdem, Ali; Dilber, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate usage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) such as milling and rapid prototyping (RP) technologies for removable denture fabrication. An electronic search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Databases were searched from 1987 to 2014. The search was performed using a variety of keywords including CAD/CAM, complete/partial dentures, RP, rapid manufacturing, digitally designed, milled, computerized, and machined. The identified developments (in chronological order), techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication are summarized. Using a variety of keywords and aiming to find the topic, 78 publications were initially searched. For the main topic, the abstract of these 78 articles were scanned, and 52 publications were selected for reading in detail. Full-text of these articles was gained and searched in detail. Totally, 40 articles that discussed the techniques, advantages, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM and RP for removable denture fabrication and the articles were incorporated in this review. Totally, 16 of the papers summarized in the table. Following review of all relevant publications, it can be concluded that current innovations and technological developments of CAD/CAM and RP allow the digitally planning and manufacturing of removable dentures from start to finish. As a result according to the literature review CAD/CAM techniques and supportive maxillomandibular relationship transfer devices are growing fast. In the close future, fabricating removable dentures will become medical informatics instead of needing a technical staff and procedures. However the methods have several limitations for now. PMID:27095912

  11. 10 CFR 71.107 - Package design control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... identification and control of design interfaces and for coordination among participating design organizations... organizations, for the review, approval, release, distribution, and revision of documents involving design... than those who were responsible for the original design, but who may be from the same...

  12. 10 CFR 71.107 - Package design control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... identification and control of design interfaces and for coordination among participating design organizations... organizations, for the review, approval, release, distribution, and revision of documents involving design... than those who were responsible for the original design, but who may be from the same...

  13. 10 CFR 71.107 - Package design control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... identification and control of design interfaces and for coordination among participating design organizations... organizations, for the review, approval, release, distribution, and revision of documents involving design... than those who were responsible for the original design, but who may be from the same...

  14. 10 CFR 71.107 - Package design control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... identification and control of design interfaces and for coordination among participating design organizations... organizations, for the review, approval, release, distribution, and revision of documents involving design... than those who were responsible for the original design, but who may be from the same...

  15. 10 CFR 71.107 - Package design control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identification and control of design interfaces and for coordination among participating design organizations... organizations, for the review, approval, release, distribution, and revision of documents involving design... than those who were responsible for the original design, but who may be from the same...

  16. Lessons Learned in the Design and Use of IP1 / IP2 Flexible Packaging - 13621

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Mike; Reeves, Wendall; Smart, Bill

    2013-07-01

    For many years in the USA, Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW), contaminated soils and construction debris, have been transported, interim stored, and disposed of, using IP1 / IP2 metal containers. The performance of these containers has been more than adequate, with few safety occurrences. The containers are used under the regulatory oversight of the US Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In the late 90's the introduction of flexible packaging for the transport, storage, and disposal of low level contaminated soils and construction debris was introduced. The development of flexible packaging came out of a need for a more cost effective package, for the large volumes of waste generated by the decommissioning of many of the US Department of Energy (DOE) legacy sites across the US. Flexible packaging had to be designed to handle a wide array of waste streams, including soil, gravel, construction debris, and fine particulate dust migration. The design also had to meet all of the IP1 requirements under 49CFR 173.410, and be robust enough to pass the IP2 testing 49 CFR 173.465 required for many LLW shipments. Tens of thousands of flexible packages have been safely deployed and used across the US nuclear industry as well as for hazardous non-radioactive applications, with no recorded release of radioactive materials. To ensure that flexible packages are designed properly, the manufacturer must use lessons learned over the years, and the tests performed to provide evidence that these packages are suitable for transporting low level radioactive wastes. The design and testing of flexible packaging for LLW, VLLW and other hazardous waste streams must be as strict and stringent as the design and testing of metal containers. The design should take into consideration the materials being loaded into the package, and should incorporate the right materials, and manufacturing methods, to provide a quality, safe product. Flexible packaging can be

  17. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    SciTech Connect

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard

    2013-07-01

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  18. Magnetostrictive wire-bonding clamp for semiconductor packaging: initial prototype design, modeling, and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozor, David M.

    1998-06-01

    A magnetostrictive wire-bonding clamp for use in semiconductor packaging applications has been developed by Mechatronic Technology Co. Semiconductor industry trends, requiring high process throughput on increasing lead count packaging, make the magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D a candidate for this application. To construct this small, lightweight device, small samples of Terfenol-D were prepared by ETREMA Products, Inc. This paper reports the initial design, mathematical modeling, and experiments related to this initial prototype.

  19. Surface Micromachine Microfluidics: Design, Fabrication, Packaging, and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, Paul; Eaton, William P.; Shul, Randy; Willison, Christi Gober; Sniegowski, Jeffrey J.; Miller, Samuel L.; Guttierez, Daniel

    1999-06-30

    The field of microfluidics is undergoing rapid growth in terms of new device and system development. Among the many methods of fabricating microfluidic devices and systems, surface micromachining is relatively underrepresented due to difficulties in the introduction of fluids into the very small channels produced, packaging problems, and difficulties in device and system characterization. The potential advantages of using surface micromachining including compatibility with the existing integrated circuit tool set, integration of electronic sensing and actuation with microfluidics, and fluid volume minimization. In order to explore these potential advantages we have developed first generation surface micromachined microfluidic devices (channels) using an adapted pressure sensor fabrication process to produce silicon nitride channels, and the SUMMiT process to produce polysilicon channels. The channels were characterized by leak testing and flow rate vs. pressure measurements. The fabrication processes used and results of these tests are reported in this paper.

  20. Computer aided design environment for the analysis and design of multi-body flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakrishnan, Jayant V.; Singh, Ramen P.

    1989-01-01

    A computer aided design environment consisting of the programs NASTRAN, TREETOPS and MATLAB is presented in this paper. With links for data transfer between these programs, the integrated design of multi-body flexible structures is significantly enhanced. The CAD environment is used to model the Space Shuttle/Pinhole Occulater Facility. Then a controller is designed and evaluated in the nonlinear time history sense. Recent enhancements and ongoing research to add more capabilities are also described.

  1. Evaluation of Five Microcomputer CAD Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the similarities, differences, advanced features, applications and number of users of five microcomputer computer-aided design (CAD) packages. Included are: "AutoCAD (V.2.17)"; "CADKEY (V.2.0)"; "CADVANCE (V.1.0)"; "Super MicroCAD"; and "VersaCAD Advanced (V.4.00)." Describes the evaluation of the packages and makes recommendations for…

  2. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  3. Skylab Earth Resource Experiment Package critical design review. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An outline of the conference for reviewing the design of the EREP is presented. Systems design for review include: tape recorder, support equipment, view finder/tracking, support hardware, and control and display panel.

  4. Design and installation package for a solar powered pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The design and installation procedures of a solar powered pump developed by Calmac Manufacturing Company are presented. Subsystem installation, operation and maintenance requirements, subsystem performance specifications, and detailed design drawings are included.

  5. Preclosure analysis of conceptual waste package designs for a nuclear waste repository in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, W.C.; Gregg, D.W.; Hockman, J.N.; Russell, E.W.; Stein, W.

    1984-11-01

    This report discusses the selection and analysis of conceptual waste package developed by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project for possible disposal of high-level nuclear waste at a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The design requirements that the waste package must conform to are listed, as are several desirable design considerations. Illustrations of the reference and alternative designs are shown. Four austenitic stainless steels (316L SS, 321 SS, 304L SS and Incoloy 825 high nickel alloy) have been selected for candidate canister/overpack materials, and 1020 carbon steel has been selected as the reference metal for the borehole liners. A summary of the results of technical and ecnonmic analyses supporting the selection of the conceptual waste package designs is included. Postclosure containment and release rates are not analyzed in this report.

  6. Dual shear plate power processor packaging design. [for Solar Electric Propulsion spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franzon, A. O.; Fredrickson, C. D.; Ross, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The use of solar electric propulsion (SEP) for spacecraft primary propulsion imposes an extreme range of operational and environmental design requirements associated with the diversity of missions for which solar electric primary propulsion is advantageous. One SEP element which is particularly sensitive to these environmental extremes is the power processor unit (PPU) which powers and controls the electric ion thruster. An improved power processor thermal-mechanical packaging approach, referred to as dual shear plate packaging, has been designed to accommodate these different requirements with minimum change to the power processor design. Details of this packaging design are presented together with test results obtained from thermal-vacuum and structural-vibration tests conducted with prototype hardware.

  7. The application of computer-aided technologies in automotive styling design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ze-feng; Zhang, Ji; Zheng, Ying

    2012-04-01

    In automotive industry, outline design is its life and creative design is its soul indeed. Computer-aided technology has been widely used in the automotive industry and more and more attention has been paid. This paper chiefly introduce the application of computer-aided technologies including CAD, CAM and CAE, analyses the process of automotive structural design and describe the development tendency of computer-aided design.

  8. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Two prototype solar heating and hot water systems for use in single-family dwellings or commercial buildings were designed. Subsystems included are: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The systems are designed for Yosemite, California, and Pueblo, Colorado. The necessary information to evaluate the preliminary design for these solar heating and hot water systems is presented. Included are a proposed instrumentation plan, a training program, hazard analysis, preliminary design drawings, and other information about the design of the system.

  9. Application of the ASME code in designing containment vessels for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Wang, Z.

    1992-07-01

    The primary concern governing the design of shipping packages containing radioactive materials is public safety during transport. When these shipments are within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy, the recommended design criterion for the primary containment vessel is either Section III or Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, depending on the activity of the contents. The objective of this paper is to discuss the design of a prototypic containment vessel representative of a packaging for the transport of high-level radioactive material.

  10. A digital patient for computer-aided prosthesis design

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giorgio; Facoetti, Giancarlo; Rizzi, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This article concerns the design of lower limb prosthesis, both below and above knee. It describes a new computer-based design framework and a digital model of the patient around which the prosthesis is designed and tested in a completely virtual environment. The virtual model of the patient is the backbone of the whole system, and it is based on a biomechanical general-purpose model customized with the patient's characteristics (e.g. anthropometric measures). The software platform adopts computer-aided and knowledge-guided approaches with the goal of replacing the current development process, mainly hand made, with a virtual one. It provides the prosthetics with a set of tools to design, configure and test the prosthesis and comprehends two main environments: the prosthesis modelling laboratory and the virtual testing laboratory. The first permits the three-dimensional model of the prosthesis to be configured and generated, while the second allows the prosthetics to virtually set up the artificial leg and simulate the patient's postures and movements, validating its functionality and configuration. General architecture and modelling/simulation tools for the platform are described as well as main aspects and results of the experimentation. PMID:24427528

  11. Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology.

    PubMed

    Calamia, J R

    1994-01-01

    Although the development of computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology and the benefits of increased productivity became obvious in the automobile and aerospace industries in the 1970s, investigations of this technology's application in the field of dentistry did not begin until the 1980s. Only now are we beginning to see the fruits of this work with the commercial availability of some systems; the potential for this technology seems boundless. This article reviews the recent literature with emphasis on the period from June 1992 to May 1993. This review should familiarize the reader with some of the latest developments in this technology, including a brief description of some systems currently available and the clinical and economical rationale for their acceptance into the dental mainstream. This article concentrates on a particular system, the Cerec (Siemens/Pelton and Crane, Charlotte, NC) system, for three reasons: first, this system has been available since 1985 and, as a result, has a track record of almost 7 years of data. Most of the data have just recently been released and consequently, much of this year's literature on CAD-CAM is monopolized by studies using this system. Second, this system was developed as a mobile, affordable, direct chairside CAD-CAM restorative method. As such, it is of special interest to the dentist who will offer this new technology directly to the patient, providing a one-visit restoration. Third, the author is currently engaged in research using this particular system and has a working knowledge of this system's capabilities.

  12. Computer aided microbial safety design of food processes.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, M; Martens, T; Roberts, T A; Mackey, B M; Nicolaï, B M; Van Impe, J F; De Baerdemaeker, J

    1994-12-01

    To reduce the time required for product development, to avoid expensive experimental tests, and to quantify safety risks for fresh products and the consequence of processing there is a growing interest in computer aided food process design. This paper discusses the application of hybrid object-oriented and rule-based expert system technology to represent the data and knowledge of microbial experts and food engineers. Finite element models for heat transfer calculation routines, microbial growth and inactivation models and texture kinetics are combined with food composition data, thermophysical properties, process steps and expert knowledge on type and quantity of microbial contamination. A prototype system has been developed to evaluate changes in food composition, process steps and process parameters on microbiological safety and textual quality of foods.

  13. From paper drawings to computer-aided design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karima, M.; Sadhal, K. S.; McNeil, T. O.

    1985-02-01

    The benefits of a fully integrated computer-aided design and drafting system (CADDS) database are today very well accepted by industry, and major engineering companies implementing CADDS are confronted with the gigantic task of entering the existing multidisciplinary engineering information into the CADDS database. The present investigation is concerned with the findings of a feasibility study which had been conducted by a Canadian company to explore data capture on engineering drawings. A review of the state of the art in digitization is presented, and attention is given to specific problems arising in the case of the Canadian company. It is found that substantial advancements have been made toward the automatic 'reading' of existing drawings on paper media. However, no system exists currently which fully automates the data capturing process in the engineering environment and generates intelligent databases for use by CADD systems. Suitable approaches for 'data capture' under the given conditions are discussed.

  14. Visual display aid for orbital maneuvering - Design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an interactive proximity operations planning system that allows on-site planning of fuel-efficient multiburn maneuvers in a potential multispacecraft environment. Although this display system most directly assists planning by providing visual feedback to aid visualization of the trajectories and constraints, its most significant features include: (1) the use of an 'inverse dynamics' algorithm that removes control nonlinearities facing the operator, and (2) a trajectory planning technique that separates, through a 'geometric spreadsheet', the normally coupled complex problems of planning orbital maneuvers and allows solution by an iterative sequence of simple independent actions. The visual feedback of trajectory shapes and operational constraints, provided by user-transparent and continuously active background computations, allows the operator to make fast, iterative design changes that rapidly converge to fuel-efficient solutions. The planning tool provides an example of operator-assisted optimization of nonlinear cost functions.

  15. A Framework for the Flexible Content Packaging of Learning Objects and Learning Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukasiak, Jason; Agostinho, Shirley; Burnett, Ian; Drury, Gerrard; Goodes, Jason; Bennett, Sue; Lockyer, Lori; Harper, Barry

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a platform-independent method for packaging learning objects and learning designs. The method, entitled a Smart Learning Design Framework, is based on the MPEG-21 standard, and uses IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM) to provide bibliographic, technical, and pedagogical descriptors for the retrieval and description of learning…

  16. Using a Latino Lens to Reimagine Aid Design and Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Federal financial aid is critical to student access and success in postsecondary education for many students, including most Latinos. However, three current realities are challenging the effectiveness of federal financial aid policy today: (1) the inability of federal aid to keep pace with the increase in college costs for students; (2) the…

  17. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include system candidates, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test.

  18. Briefly Speaking: An Introduction to Student Financial Aid in California for Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eureka Project, Sacramento, CA.

    Designed to help educational policy makers understand student financial aid in California, this booklet covers the importance of aid, how it has changed, current programs, need analysis, packaging, public and student views, graduate aid, and politics and problems of aid. As student financial aid became a larger and more complex educational…

  19. Hardware synthesis from DDL. [Digital Design Language for computer aided design and test of LSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, A. M.; Shiva, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    The details of the digital systems can be conveniently input into the design automation system by means of Hardware Description Languages (HDL). The Computer Aided Design and Test (CADAT) system at NASA MSFC is used for the LSI design. The Digital Design Language (DDL) has been selected as HDL for the CADAT System. DDL translator output can be used for the hardware implementation of the digital design. This paper addresses problems of selecting the standard cells from the CADAT standard cell library to realize the logic implied by the DDL description of the system.

  20. Control law design to meet constraints using SYNPAC-synthesis package for active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. M., Jr.; Tiffany, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Major features of SYNPAC (Synthesis Package for Active Controls) are described. SYNPAC employs constrained optimization techniques which allow explicit inclusion of design criteria (constraints) in the control law design process. Interrelationships are indicated between this constrained optimization approach, classical and linear quadratic Gaussian design techniques. Results are presented that were obtained by applying SYNPAC to the design of a combined stability augmentation/gust load alleviation control law for the DAST ARW-2.

  1. Preliminary design package for solar collector and solar pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A solar-operated pump using an existing solar collector, for use on solar heating and cooling and hot water systems is described. Preliminary design criteria of the collector and solar-powered pump is given including: design drawings, verification plans, and hazard analysis.

  2. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The initial design of a solar domestic hot water system is considered. The system performance specification and detailed design drawings are included. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  3. Design of a small Type B package for the shipment of radioactive gas

    SciTech Connect

    York, A.R. II; Freedman, J.M.; Kincy, M.A.; Joseph, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the design and is now fabricating packages for shipment of tritium gas in conformance with 10 CFR 71. The package, referred to as the AL-SX, is quite unique in that its contents are a radioactive gas, and a large margin of safety has been demonstrated through overtesting. The AL-SX is small, 42 cm in diameter and 55 cm tall, and weighs between 55 kg empty and up to a maximum of 60 kg with contents and is designed for a 20-year service life. This paper describes the design of the AL-SX and certification testing performed on AL-SX packages and discusses containment of tritium and AL-SX manufacturing considerations.

  4. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences, Multiple-family Residences and commercial applications.

  5. Prototype residential solar-energy system-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Compilation includes documents and drawings for complete solar-heating system. It discussed system installed in residential building at Veterns' Administration Hospital in Togus, Maine. System can be adapted to other buildings without changing design.

  6. An R package for simulation experiments evaluating clinical trial designs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Day, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an open-source application for evaluating competing clinical trial (CT) designs using simulations. The S4 system of classes and methods is utilized. Using object-oriented programming provides extensibility through careful, clear interface specification; using R, an open-source widely-used statistical language, makes the application extendible by the people who design CTs: biostatisticians. Four key classes define the specifications of the population models, CT designs, outcome models and evaluation criteria. Five key methods define the interfaces for generating patient baseline characteristics, stopping rule, assigning treatment, generating patient outcomes and calculating the criteria. Documentation of their connections with the user input screens, with the central simulation loop, and with each other faciliates the extensibility. New subclasses and instances of existing classes meeting these interfaces can integrate immediately into the application. To illustrate the application, we evaluate the effect of patient pharmacokinetic heterogeneity on the performance of a common Phase I "3+3" design. PMID:21347151

  7. Design package for a solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report contains sufficient information to assemble complete tested residential flat-plate solar heating system. Descriptive material provides design, performance, and hardware specifications for utilization by architectural engineers, and contractors in procurement, installation, operation, and maintenance of similar solar applications.

  8. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary design review on the development of a prototype solar heating system for single family dwellings is presented. The collector, storage, transport, control, and site data acquisition subsystems are described.

  9. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design review on the development of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is presented. The information contained in this report includes system certification, system functional description, system configuration, system specification, system performance and other documents pertaining to the progress and the design of the system. This system, which is intended for use in the normal single-family residence, consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, and Government-furnished Site Data Acquisition.

  10. Preliminary design data package, appendix C. [hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The data and documentation required to define the preliminary design of a near term hybrid vehicle and to quantify its operational characteristics are presented together with the assumptions and rationale behind the design decisions. Aspects discussed include development requirements for the propulsion system, the chassis system, the body, and the vehicle systems. Particular emphasis is given to the controls, the heat engine, and the batteries.

  11. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  12. Rubber airplane: Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Rubber Airplane: Constraint-based Component-Modeling for Knowledge Representation in Computer Aided Conceptual Design are presented. Topics covered include: computer aided design; object oriented programming; airfoil design; surveillance aircraft; commercial aircraft; aircraft design; and launch vehicles.

  13. Computer-Aided Drug Discovery and Design Targeting Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiansen; Gao, Zhaobing; Yang, Huaiyu

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are widely expressed in living cells and play critical roles in various cellular biological functions. Dysfunctional ion channels can cause a variety of diseases, making ion channels attractive targets for drug discovery. Computational approaches, such as molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations, provide economic and efficient tools for finding modulators of ion channels and for elucidating the action mechanisms of small molecules. In this review, we focus primarily on four types of ion channels (voltage-gated, ligand-gated, acid-sensing, and virus matrix 2 ion channels). The current advancements in computer-aided drug discovery and design targeting ion channels are summarized. First, ligand-based studies for drug design are briefly outlined. Then, we focus on the structurebased studies targeting pore domains, endogenous binding sites and allosteric sites of ion channels. Moreover, we also review the contribution of computational methods to the field of ligand binding and unbinding pathways of ion channels. Finally, we propose future developments for the field. PMID:26975507

  14. Molecular Similarity in Computer-Aided Molecular Design.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkin, Edward E.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The quantitative measurement of how similar one molecule is to another is investigated as a potential aid to molecular design. The work concentrates on the comparison of electronic properties of molecules, in particular electron density distribution, molecular electrostatic potential, molecular electric field and frontier orbital wavefunctions. A novel formula for molecular similarity has been devised and applied to these four properties. An approximate representation of valence electron density is used, based on the notion that charge distribution in a large molecule may be built from transferable contributions from its constituent functional groups. Each of these contributions consists of a series of first-order gaussian functions. The electrostatic potentials and electric fields used in the similarity calculations are computed from atom -centered partial charges. The frontier orbital wavefunction comparisons are performed using the extended Huckel method. The four measures of similarity are related to chemical and biological data and shown to have possible applications in the area of drug design.

  15. Design Brief--Packaging: More than Just a Box! Communications: Getting the Message across with Advertising. Technology Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Each technology learning activity in this article includes content description, objectives, required materials, challenge, and evaluation questions. Subjects are designing product packages and communication through advertising. (SK)

  16. Design of highwall mining equipment electronic guidance package

    SciTech Connect

    Brenden, B.B.; Morgen, G.P.; Shorpik, J.R.; Farrar, R.

    1981-11-01

    This report provides design specifics and guidance software for a guidance system intended for use in guiding an auger type highwall mining head through thin coal seams to depths of up to 600 ft. A small desk top computer is used at the operator's station to send and receive signals in serialized bit streams to a downhole microprocessor. The guidance system accepts signals from a variety of sensors and uses these signals to plot and control the course of the auger head automatically using computer algorithms designed to keep the auger head in the coal seam and maintain a specified stump thickness.

  17. Design and Development of a CPCI-Based Electronics Package for Space Station Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolacz, John S.; Clapper, Randy S.; Wade, Raymond P.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center is developing a Compact-PCI (CPCI) based electronics package for controlling space experiment hardware on the International Space Station. Goals of this effort include an easily modified, modular design that allows for changes in experiment requirements. Unique aspects of the experiment package include a flexible circuit used for internal interconnections and a separate enclosure (box in a box) for controlling 1 kW of power for experiment fuel heating requirements. This electronics package was developed as part of the FEANICS (Flow Enclosure Accommodating Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids) mini-facility which is part of the Fluids and Combustion Facility s Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The CIR will be the platform for future microgravity combustion experiments and will reside on the Destiny Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The FEANICS mini-facility will be the primary means for conducting solid fuel combustion experiments in the CIR on ISS. The main focus of many of these solid combustion experiments will be to conduct applied scientific investigations in fire-safety to support NASA s future space missions. A description of the electronics package and the results of functional testing are the subjects of this report. The report concludes that the use of innovative packaging methods combined with readily available COTS hardware can provide a modular electronics package which is easily modified for changing experiment requirements.

  18. Preliminary design package for Sunspot Domestic Hot Water Heating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design review includes a drawing list, auto-control logic, measurement definitions, and other document pertaining to the solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control transport, auxiliary energy, and site data acquisition.

  19. Design Criteria for Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Packaging System

    SciTech Connect

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-04-26

    This document provides the criteria for the design and installation of a Bagless Transfer System (BTS); Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and Supercritical Fluid Extraction System (SFE). The project consists of 3 major modules: (1) Bagless Transfer System (BTS) Module; (2) Blend, Sieve and Balance Equipment; and (3) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) Module.

  20. DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  1. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design review on the development of a multi-family solar heating and domestic hot water prototype system is presented. The report contains the necessary information to evaluate the system. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control and Government-furnished site data acquisition.

  2. An R package for the design, analysis and operation of reservoir systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Sean; Ng, Jia Yi; Galelli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    We present a new R package - named "reservoir" - which has been designed for rapid and easy routing of runoff through storage. The package comprises well-established tools for capacity design (e.g., the sequent peak algorithm), performance analysis (storage-yield-reliability and reliability-resilience-vulnerability analysis) and release policy optimization (Stochastic Dynamic Programming). Operating rules can be optimized for water supply, flood control and amenity objectives, as well as for maximum hydropower production. Storage-depth-area relationships are in-built, allowing users to incorporate evaporation from the reservoir surface. We demonstrate the capabilities of the software for global studies using thousands of reservoirs from the Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database fed by historical monthly inflow time series from a 0.5 degree gridded global runoff dataset. The package is freely available through the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN).

  3. A critically appraised topic review of computer-aided design/computer-aided machining of removable partial denture frameworks.

    PubMed

    Lang, Lisa A; Tulunoglu, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A critically appraised topic (CAT) review is presented about the use of computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided machining (CAM) removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks. A systematic search of the literature supporting CAD/CAM RPD systems revealed no randomized clinical trials, hence the CAT review was performed. A PubMed search yielded 9 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Each article was characterized by study design and level of evidence. No clinical outcomes research has been published on the use of CAD/CAM RPDs. Low levels of evidence were found in the available literature. Clinical research studies are needed to determine the efficacy of this treatment modality.

  4. Hybrid propulsion technology program. Volume 1: Conceptional design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Gordon E.; Holzman, Allen L.; Leisch, Steven O.; Keilbach, Joseph; Parsley, Randy; Humphrey, John

    1989-01-01

    A concept design study was performed to configure two sizes of hybrid boosters; one which duplicates the advanced shuttle rocket motor vacuum thrust time curve and a smaller, quarter thrust level booster. Two sizes of hybrid boosters were configured for either pump-fed or pressure-fed oxygen feed systems. Performance analyses show improved payload capability relative to a solid propellant booster. Size optimization and fuel safety considerations resulted in a 4.57 m (180 inch) diameter large booster with an inert hydrocarbon fuel. The preferred diameter for the quarter thrust level booster is 2.53 m (96 inches). As part of the design study critical technology issues were identified and a technology acquisition and demonstration plan was formulated.

  5. Preliminary design package for maxi-therm heat exchanger module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Heat exchangers were developed for use in a solar heating and cooling system installed in a single family dwelling. Each of the three exchangers consisted of a heating and cooling module and a submersed electric water heating element. Information necessary to evaluate the preliminary design of the heat exchanger is presented in terms of the development and verification plans, performance specifications, installation and maintenance, and hazard analysis.

  6. Designing for Small Volume Assembly of Advanced Electronics Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.; Bonner, J. K.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a general methodology to Design for Producibility and Reliability (DFPAR) for very small volume production runs. In cases where the entire volume for fabrication is less than five products, traditional Statistical Process Control (SPC) is inadequate due to reliance on statistics of much larger volumes and the Central Limit Theorem. Data acquisition for process parameter estimation from such a small sample size is difficult; however, it is critical to producing high reliability product.

  7. Design and fabrication of a foldable 3D silicon based package for solid state lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovskij, R.; Liu, P.; van Zeijl, H. W.; Mimoun, B.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2015-05-01

    Miniaturization of solid state lighting (SSL) luminaires as well as reduction of packaging and assembly costs are of prime interest for the SSL lighting industry. A novel silicon based LED package for lighting applications is presented in this paper. The proposed design consists of 5 rigid Si tiles connected by flexible polyimide hinges with embedded interconnects (ICs). Electrical, optical and thermal characteristics were taken into consideration during design. The fabrication process involved polyimide (PI) application and patterning, aluminium interconnect integration in the flexible hinge, LED reflector cavity formation and metalization followed by through wafer DRIE etching for chip formation and release. A method to connect chip front to backside without TSVs was also integrated into the process. Post-fabrication wafer level assembly included LED mounting and wirebond, phosphor-based colour conversion and silicone encapsulation. The package formation was finalized by vacuum assisted wrapping around an assembly structure to form a 3D geometry, which is beneficial for omnidirectional lighting. Bending tests were performed on the flexible ICs and optical performance at different temperatures was evaluated. It is suggested that 3D packages can be expanded to platforms for miniaturized luminaire applications by combining monolithic silicon integration and system-in-package (SiP) technologies.

  8. 100,000 hour design life of turbo compressor packages

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-20

    Many turbomachinery manufacturers and operators typically quote 100,000 hours as a design limit for service life of turbo compressor components. The Pipeline Research Committee initiated this study to review the life limiting criteria for certain critical components and determine if the design target of 100,000 hours can be safely and reliably met or extended with special component management practices. The first phase of the project was to select the turbomachinery components that would be included in the review. Committee members were surveyed with a detailed questionnaire designed to identify critical components based on: high hours (e.g. at or approaching 100,000 hours) the most common engine types operated by the member organizations, and the components of greatest concern from a risk and expense point of view. The selection made covers a wide range of engine types that are of interest to most of the committee companies. This selection represents some 78% of the high hour units operated by the committee and includes components from GE Frame 3 and Frame 5, Solar Saturn, Rolls Royce Avon, and Cooper RT56 engines. The report goes into detail regarding the various damage mechanism which can be the main life limiting factor of the component; creep, fatigue, environmental attack, wear and microstructure instability. For each of the component types selected, the study identifies the life limiting criteria and outlines how the components may be managed for extended life. Many of the selected components can be reliably operated beyond 100,000 hours by following the management practices set out in the report.

  9. Preliminary design package for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Summarized preliminary design information on activities associated with the development, delivery and support of solar heating and cooling systems is given. These systems are for single family dwellings and commercial applications. The heating/cooling system use a reversible vapor compression heat pump that is driven in the cooling mode by a Rankine power loop, and in the heating mode by a variable speed electric motor. The heating/cooling systems differ from the heating-only systems in the arrangement of the heat pump subsystem and the addition of a cooling tower to provide the heat sink for cooling mode operation.

  10. Perceptions of the Design of Voice Output Communication Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Simon; Townend, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Voice output communication aids (VOCAs) are a key form of aided communication within the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). In recent years, rapid developments in technology have resulted in an explosion of devices available commercially, yet little research has been conducted into what people who use VOCAs…

  11. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional design requirements for Type A packages. 173.412 Section 173.412 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS...

  12. Subsystem design package for the on-site monitor at solar heating and cooling sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The on-site monitor is a portable device which can be easily connected to a Site Data Acquisition Subsystem to allow readouts of realtime sensor data in voltage or engineering units at instrumented solar heating and cooling sites. The design package consists of the performance specification, performance requirements cross reference, and the acceptance test procedure.

  13. Stakeholder involvement in designing an oral care training package for care home staff.

    PubMed

    Patel, R S; Walls, K L; Drugan, C S

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the principles applied and the challenges met while seeking user and other stakeholder perspectives before designing an oral care training package for carers in nursing and residential care facilities. The public health competencies it illustrates include the application of appropriate leadership styles, strategic management, collaborative working and knowledge of research methodology. PMID:24575522

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart B of... - Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging Grants D Exhibit D to Subpart B of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart B of... - Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging... (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING...

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart B of... - Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging Grants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging... (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING...

  17. Design and installation package for the Sunmat Flat Plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The information used in evaluating the design of a liquid flat plate solar collector is reported. Included in this package are subsystem performance specification, installation, operation and maintenance manuals, collector sizing guides, and detailed drawings of the single-glazed collector.

  18. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (SUN VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  19. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  20. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  1. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  2. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  3. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  4. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  5. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  6. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  7. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  8. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as State waters for private aids to navigation. 66.05-100 Section 66.05-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-100 Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids...

  9. 33 CFR 66.05-10 - State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions, and revocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State waters for private aids to... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-10 State waters for private aids to navigation; designations; revisions,...

  10. Computer Aided Design: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Wan-Lee

    This instructional manual contains 12 learning activity packets for use in a workshop in computer-aided design and drafting (CADD). The lessons cover the following topics: introduction to computer graphics and computer-aided design/drafting; coordinate systems; advance space graphics hardware configuration and basic features of the IBM PC…

  11. Definition of Design Case Similarity Based on Physical Quantities and Terms for Engineering Design Aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tamotsu; Shimamura, Jun; Nakajima, Naomasa

    This paper proposes computerized methods of case-based design aid using similarity and relevance between design cases. First, we introduce methods of describing and recording design cases and design modification cases by physical quantities and their calculations to represent physical phenomena and terms to explain them. Then, we introduce a quantity dimension space defined by nine fundamental and supplementary quantities in SI. In quantity dimension space, a distance between physical quantities is mathematically defined based on city-block distance, and then physical quantity similarity by dimension is defined using the physical quantity distance. Then, similarity between physical quantities is defined by combining the similarity by dimension and similarity of quantity calculation structures. Also, similarity between terms is defined by combining literal similarity and cooccurrence statistics. Finally, similarity between design (modification) cases is defined based on physical quantity similarity and term similarity. By using design case similarity, designers can retrieve and consult the similar or relevant cases to a new design problem in a design case library. Also, design modification knowledge such as “which physical quantity or design parameter should be modified to solve specific trouble” can be extracted by analyzing recorded design modification cases and clustering them using design (modification) case similarity. The proposed methods are implemented as a Lisp program and are examined through some examples.

  12. Optimal design analysis for thermal performance of high power 2.5D package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoyang, Liu; He, Ma; Daquan, Yu; Wenlu, Chen; Xiaolong, Wu

    2016-03-01

    Based on ANSYS and Icepak softwares, the numerical analysis method is used to build up the thermal analysis model of the 2.5D package, which contains a high power CPU chip. The focus of the research is on the determination of the contributing factors and their effects on the thermal resistance and heat distribution of the package. The parametric analysis illustrates that the substrate conductivity, TIM conductivity and fin height are more crucial for heat conduction in the package. Furthermore, these major parameters are compared and analyzed by orthogonal tests, and the optimal solution for 2.5D integration is proposed. The factors' influence patterns on thermal resistance, obtained in this article, could be utilized as a thermal design reference. Project supported by the National S & T Major Projects (No. 2011ZX02709-2) and the China National Science Foundation (No. 61176098).

  13. A no adhesive and temperature-insensitive package design of fiber Bragg grating pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Zhu, Jun; Yin, Hao; Zhang, Zhao; Tang, Haiyu; Yu, Benli

    2012-11-01

    In this study, an innovative temperature-insensitive and no adhesive package for FBG pressure sensor was designed. We presents an package construction to compensate for temperature deviation of a FBG by mechanical properties of different metal materials; the package realize no adhesive utilizing combined technique of electroless plating NI-P and electroplating NI and laser spot welding technology. On the basis of the study on the Material structural properties and the compensation principles analysis of the FBG, the finite element method is used to analysis of the feasibility of the construction and optimize the construction parameters. The results show that this compensation construction can effectively reduce the temperature sensitivity of the FBG.

  14. Micro-lens array design on a flexible light-emitting diode package for indoor lighting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2015-10-01

    An advanced, ultra-thin, flexible LED (FLED) package technique is first proposed in this study, where a polyimide substrate was used as the lead frame package material due to its physical stability in thermal processing. The experimental results showed that the thickness of the mockup sample measured by a vernier caliper was 260 μm and 35% thinner than the Panasonic organic LED lighting panel announced on 4 March 2014 in Tokyo. Moreover, the flexible angle of the ultra-thin LED package was 200.54° when it surrounded a disk with a 1 cm radius. A design of a micro-lens array manufactured by silicone molding on the FLED is also proposed in this study. Finally, different types of micro-lenses were applied to different lighting regions to investigate their lighting effects. PMID:26479655

  15. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  16. System design package for SIMS prototype system 4, solar heating and domestic hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The system consisted of a modular designed prepackaged solar unit, containing solar collectors, a rock storage container, blowers, dampers, ducting, air-to-water heat exchanger, DHW preheat tank, piping, and system controls. The system was designed to be installed adjacent to a small single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system were packaged for evaluation.

  17. Package architecture and component design for an implanted neural stimulator with closed loop control.

    PubMed

    Bjune, Caroline K; Marinis, Thomas F; Brady, Jeanne M; Moran, James; Wheeler, Jesse; Sriram, Tirunelveli S; Parks, Philip D; Widge, Alik S; Dougherty, Darin D; Eskandar, Emad N

    2015-08-01

    An implanted neural stimulator with closed loop control requires electrodes for stimulation pulses and recording neuron activity. Our system features arrays of 64 electrodes. Each electrode can be addressed through a cross bar switch, to enable it to be used for stimulation or recording. This electrode switch, a bank of low noise amplifiers with an integrated analog to digital converter, power conditioning electronics, and a communications and control gate array are co-located with the electrode array in a 14 millimeter diameter satellite package that is designed to be flush mounted in a skull burr hole. Our system features five satellite packages connected to a central hub processor-controller via ten conductor cables that terminate in a custom designed, miniaturized connector. The connector incorporates features of high reliability, military grade devices and utilizes three distinct seals to isolate the contacts from fluid permeation. The hub system is comprised of a connector header, hermetic electronics package, and rechargeable battery pack, which are mounted on and electrically interconnected by a flexible circuit board. The assembly is over molded with a compliant silicone rubber. The electronics package contains two antennas, a large coil, used for recharging the battery and a high bandwidth antenna that is used to download data and update software. The package is assembled from two machined alumina pieces, a flat base with brazed in, electrical feed through pins and a rectangular cover with rounded corners. Titanium seal rings are brazed onto these two pieces so that they can be sealed by laser welding. A third system antenna is incorporated in the flexible circuit board. It is used to communicate with an externally worn control package, which monitors the health of the system and allows both the user and clinician to control or modify various system function parameters. PMID:26738106

  18. Package architecture and component design for an implanted neural stimulator with closed loop control.

    PubMed

    Bjune, Caroline K; Marinis, Thomas F; Brady, Jeanne M; Moran, James; Wheeler, Jesse; Sriram, Tirunelveli S; Parks, Philip D; Widge, Alik S; Dougherty, Darin D; Eskandar, Emad N

    2015-08-01

    An implanted neural stimulator with closed loop control requires electrodes for stimulation pulses and recording neuron activity. Our system features arrays of 64 electrodes. Each electrode can be addressed through a cross bar switch, to enable it to be used for stimulation or recording. This electrode switch, a bank of low noise amplifiers with an integrated analog to digital converter, power conditioning electronics, and a communications and control gate array are co-located with the electrode array in a 14 millimeter diameter satellite package that is designed to be flush mounted in a skull burr hole. Our system features five satellite packages connected to a central hub processor-controller via ten conductor cables that terminate in a custom designed, miniaturized connector. The connector incorporates features of high reliability, military grade devices and utilizes three distinct seals to isolate the contacts from fluid permeation. The hub system is comprised of a connector header, hermetic electronics package, and rechargeable battery pack, which are mounted on and electrically interconnected by a flexible circuit board. The assembly is over molded with a compliant silicone rubber. The electronics package contains two antennas, a large coil, used for recharging the battery and a high bandwidth antenna that is used to download data and update software. The package is assembled from two machined alumina pieces, a flat base with brazed in, electrical feed through pins and a rectangular cover with rounded corners. Titanium seal rings are brazed onto these two pieces so that they can be sealed by laser welding. A third system antenna is incorporated in the flexible circuit board. It is used to communicate with an externally worn control package, which monitors the health of the system and allows both the user and clinician to control or modify various system function parameters.

  19. PUZZLE - A program for computer-aided design of printed circuit artwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrell, D. A. W.; Zane, R.

    1971-01-01

    Program assists in solving spacing problems encountered in printed circuit /PC/ design. It is intended to have maximum use for two-sided PC boards carrying integrated circuits, and also aids design of discrete component circuits.

  20. Improving radiation survey data using CADD/CAE (computer-aided design and drafting computer-aided engineering)

    SciTech Connect

    Palau, G.L.; Tarpinian, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    A new application of computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) cleanup is improving the quality of radiation survey data taken in the plant. The use of CADD/CAE-generated survey maps has increased both the accuracy of survey data and the capability to perform analyses with these data. In addition, health physics technician manhours and radiation exposure can be reduced in situations where the CADD/CAE-generated drawings are used for survey mapping.

  1. "Plain packaging" regulations for tobacco products: the impact of standardizing the color and design of cigarette packs.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco packaging and labeling policies have emerged as prominent and cost-effective tobacco control measures. Although packaging policies have primarily focused on health warnings, there is growing recognition of the importance of packaging as a marketing tool for the tobacco industry. The current paper reviews evidence on the potential impact of standardizing the color and design of tobacco packages -so called "plain" packaging. The evidence indicates three primary benefits of plain packaging: increasing the effectiveness of health warnings, reducing false health beliefs about cigarettes, and reducing brand appeal especially among youth and young adults. Overall, the research to date suggests that "plain" packaging regulations would be an effective tobacco control measure, particularly in jurisdictions with comprehensive restrictions on other forms of marketing. PMID:21243193

  2. Designing and Implementing an Educational Program on AIDS for Minority Childbearing Women To Enhance AIDS Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimphius, Gail M.

    Ignorance, misinformation, and a failure to personalize the risk for acquisition of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) virus has created a situation in which the incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seroprevalence among minority childbearing women in a Florida county is increasing. An increased incidence in this population…

  3. DeMAID/GA USER'S GUIDE Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition with a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Many companies are looking for new tools and techniques to aid a design manager in making decisions that can reduce the time and cost of a design cycle. One tool that is available to aid in this decision making process is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). Since the initial release of DEMAID in 1989, numerous enhancements have been added to aid the design manager in saving both cost and time in a design cycle. The key enhancement is a genetic algorithm (GA) and the enhanced version is called DeMAID/GA. The GA orders the sequence of design processes to minimize the cost and time to converge to a solution. These enhancements as well as the existing features of the original version of DEMAID are described. Two sample problems are used to show how these enhancements can be applied to improve the design cycle. This report serves as a user's guide for DeMAID/GA.

  4. Packaging Technology Designed, Fabricated, and Assembled for High-Temperature SiC Microsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu

    2003-01-01

    A series of ceramic substrates and thick-film metalization-based prototype microsystem packages designed for silicon carbide (SiC) high-temperature microsystems have been developed for operation in 500 C harsh environments. These prototype packages were designed, fabricated, and assembled at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Both the electrical interconnection system and the die-attach scheme for this packaging system have been tested extensively at high temperatures. Printed circuit boards used to interconnect these chip-level packages and passive components also are being fabricated and tested. NASA space and aeronautical missions need harsh-environment, especially high-temperature, operable microsystems for probing the inner solar planets and for in situ monitoring and control of next-generation aeronautical engines. Various SiC high-temperature-operable microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at temperatures as high as 600 C, but most of these devices were demonstrated only in the laboratory environment partially because systematic packaging technology for supporting these devices at temperatures of 500 C and beyond was not available. Thus, the development of a systematic high-temperature packaging technology is essential for both in situ testing and the commercialization of high-temperature SiC MEMS. Researchers at Glenn developed new prototype packages for high-temperature microsystems using ceramic substrates (aluminum nitride and 96- and 90-wt% aluminum oxides) and gold (Au) thick-film metalization. Packaging components, which include a thick-film metalization-based wirebond interconnection system and a low-electrical-resistance SiC die-attachment scheme, have been tested at temperatures up to 500 C. The interconnection system composed of Au thick-film printed wire and 1-mil Au wire bond was tested in 500 C oxidizing air with and without 50-mA direct current for over 5000 hr. The Au thick

  5. sgRNAcas9: a software package for designing CRISPR sgRNA and evaluating potential off-target cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shengsong; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Chaobao; Huang, Xingxu; Zhang, Yonglian

    2014-01-01

    Although the CRISPR/Cas9/sgRNA system efficiently cleaves intracellular DNA at desired target sites, major concerns remain on potential "off-target" cleavage that may occur throughout the whole genome. In order to improve CRISPR-Cas9 specificity for targeted genome editing and transcriptional control, we describe a bioinformatics tool "sgRNAcas9", which is a software package developed for fast design of CRISPR sgRNA with minimized off-target effects. This package consists of programs to perform a search for CRISPR target sites (protospacers) with user-defined parameters, predict genome-wide Cas9 potential off-target cleavage sites (POT), classify the POT into three categories, batch-design oligonucleotides for constructing 20-nt (nucleotides) or truncated sgRNA expression vectors, extract desired length nucleotide sequences flanking the on- or off-target cleavage sites for designing PCR primer pairs to validate the mutations by T7E1 cleavage assay. Importantly, by identifying potential off-target sites in silico, the sgRNAcas9 allows the selection of more specific target sites and aids the identification of bona fide off-target sites, significantly facilitating the design of sgRNA for genome editing applications. sgRNAcas9 software package is publicly available at BiooTools website (www.biootools.com) under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

  6. Resource Recovery. Energy and Environment. Teacher's Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Smith and Hills, Inc., Jacksonville, FL.

    Designed to assist students in understanding solid waste resource recovery, this teaching aid package aims to get students involved in practical activities that require participation, observation, and interpretation. Provided in this package are definitions, methods, causes and effects, costs, and benefits of resource recovery presented in the…

  7. [Practical Use Evaluation of Aluminum Packaging for Medicinal Products Based on Universal Design].

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Kazuya; Hidaka, Takashi; Marubashi, Koichi; Takagi, Hirokazu; Kamimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Many pharmacists have requested optimization of aluminum packaging of medicinal products in terms of usability. To improve operational efficiency of aluminum packaging, we used Universal Design (UD)-based approach, which enables products to be used properly and consistently regardless of users. The UD-pack used in this research is composed of a film that can be easily opened and torn linear. Here, we compared the UD-pack to conventional aluminum packaging by evaluating the practical use of each under the cooperation of 24 pharmacists. Following opening and removal of contents of one sample for both types of packaging, monitors were asked which type was easier to use in each case. Also, monitors were to repeat the opening and removal of contents of five samples in a row, and were asked the same question. Monitors were recorded by digital camera to measure the time required to finish the procedure for five samples in a row. After opening one sample, approximately 83% of monitors preferred the UD-pack, and after opening five samples, all (100%) preferred the UD-pack. Regarding the time required for opening five samples and removing the contents measured by analyzing the recorded video, the UD-pack significantly reduced the time required for all monitors. The average time ratio of the UD-pack to conventional aluminum packaging was approximately 59%, and no significant difference was observed between male and female pharmacists. Our results indicate the UD-pack improves ease of opening and removal of contents and increases efficiency of dispensing in a clinical setting compared with conventional aluminum packaging.

  8. [Practical Use Evaluation of Aluminum Packaging for Medicinal Products Based on Universal Design].

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Kazuya; Hidaka, Takashi; Marubashi, Koichi; Takagi, Hirokazu; Kamimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Many pharmacists have requested optimization of aluminum packaging of medicinal products in terms of usability. To improve operational efficiency of aluminum packaging, we used Universal Design (UD)-based approach, which enables products to be used properly and consistently regardless of users. The UD-pack used in this research is composed of a film that can be easily opened and torn linear. Here, we compared the UD-pack to conventional aluminum packaging by evaluating the practical use of each under the cooperation of 24 pharmacists. Following opening and removal of contents of one sample for both types of packaging, monitors were asked which type was easier to use in each case. Also, monitors were to repeat the opening and removal of contents of five samples in a row, and were asked the same question. Monitors were recorded by digital camera to measure the time required to finish the procedure for five samples in a row. After opening one sample, approximately 83% of monitors preferred the UD-pack, and after opening five samples, all (100%) preferred the UD-pack. Regarding the time required for opening five samples and removing the contents measured by analyzing the recorded video, the UD-pack significantly reduced the time required for all monitors. The average time ratio of the UD-pack to conventional aluminum packaging was approximately 59%, and no significant difference was observed between male and female pharmacists. Our results indicate the UD-pack improves ease of opening and removal of contents and increases efficiency of dispensing in a clinical setting compared with conventional aluminum packaging. PMID:26632152

  9. Software structure and its performance on FOCAS instrument control, a MOS design, and an analyzing package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Michitoshi; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Kosugi, George; Takata, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Aoki, Kentaro; Asai, Ryo; Ohyama, Youichi; Kawabata, Koji; Inata, Motoko; Saito, Yoshihiko; Taguchi, Hiroko; Ebizuka, Noboru; Yadoumaru, Yasushi; Ozawa, Tomohiko; Iye, Masanori

    2000-06-01

    Faint Object Camera And Spectrograph (FOCAS) is completed and now waiting for a commissioning run on the Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea. We have developed a software system that includes the control of FOCAS instruments, Multiple Object Slits (MOS) design, and an analyzing package especially for evaluating performances of FOCAS. The control software system consists of several processes: a network interface process, user interface process, a central control engine process, a command dispatcher process, local control units, and a data acquisition system. These processes are mutually controlled by passing messages of commands and their status each other. The control system is also connected to Subaru Observation Software System to achieve high efficiency and reliability of observations. We have two off-line systems: a MOS design program, MDP, and an analyzing package. The MDP is a utility software to select spectroscopy targets in the field of view of FOCAS easily through its GUI and to design MOS plates efficiently. The designed MOS parameters are sent to a laser cutter to make a desirable MOS plate. A special package enables prompt performance check and evaluation of the FOCAS itself during a commissioning period. We describe the overall structure of FOCAS software with some GUI samples.

  10. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Highway Lodging Buildings: Development of 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Thornton, Brian A.; Liu, Bing

    2010-06-30

    This paper presents the process, methodology, and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document that provides specific recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in roadside motels (highway lodging) above the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. This 50% solution represents a further step toward realization of the U.S. Department of Energy’s net-zero energy building goal, and go beyond the 30% savings in the Advanced Energy Design Guide series (upon which this work was built). This work can serve as the technical feasibility study for the development of a 50% saving Advanced Energy Design Guide for highway lodging, and thus should greatly expedite the development process. The purpose of this design package is to provide user-friendly design assistance to designers, developers, and owners of highway lodging properties. It is intended to encourage energy-efficient design by providing prescriptive energy-efficiency recommendations for each climate zone that attains the 50% the energy savings target. This paper describes the steps that were taken to demonstrate the technical feasibility of achieving a 50% reduction in whole-building energy use with practical and commercially available technologies. The energy analysis results are presented, indicating the recommended energy-efficient measures achieved a national-weighted average energy savings of 55%, relative to Standard 90.1-2004. The cost-effectiveness of the recommended technology package is evaluated and the result shows an average simple payback of 11.3 years.

  11. System design package for IBM system one: solar heating and domestic hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage. The system was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system was packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system.

  12. System Design Package for SIMS Prototype System 3, Solar Heating and Domestic Hot Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A collation of documents and drawings are presented that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using liquid flat plate collectors and a gas or electric furnace energy subsystem. The system was designed for installation into a single-family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system.

  13. Preconditioner and convergence study for the Quantum Computer Aided Design (QCAD) nonlinear poisson problem posed on the Ottawa Flat 270 design geometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalashnikova, Irina

    2012-05-01

    A numerical study aimed to evaluate different preconditioners within the Trilinos Ifpack and ML packages for the Quantum Computer Aided Design (QCAD) non-linear Poisson problem implemented within the Albany code base and posed on the Ottawa Flat 270 design geometry is performed. This study led to some new development of Albany that allows the user to select an ML preconditioner with Zoltan repartitioning based on nodal coordinates, which is summarized. Convergence of the numerical solutions computed within the QCAD computational suite with successive mesh refinement is examined in two metrics, the mean value of the solution (an L{sup 1} norm) and the field integral of the solution (L{sup 2} norm).

  14. Teaching Basic First-Aid Skills against Home Accidents to Children with Autism through Video Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergenekon, Yasemin

    2012-01-01

    It is known that children with DD can learn first-aid skills and use whenever needed. Applying first-aid skills was taught to three inclusion students with autism through "first-aid skills training package". In the study multiple probe design with probe trials across behaviors was used. The findings indicated that first-aid skills training package…

  15. Enhancing Engineering Computer-Aided Design Education Using Lectures Recorded on the PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrann, Roy T. R.

    2006-01-01

    Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) is a course that is required during the third year in the mechanical engineering curriculum at Binghamton University. The primary objective of the course is to educate students in the procedures of computer-aided engineering design. The solid modeling and analysis program Pro/Engineer[TM] (PTC[R]) is used as the…

  16. Teaching Computer-Aided Design of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Engineering Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosman, A. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a teaching program for fluid mechanics and heat transfer which contains both computer aided learning (CAL) and computer aided design (CAD) components and argues that the understanding of the physical and numerical modeling taught in the CAL course is essential to the proper implementation of CAD. (Author/CMV)

  17. Office of Student Financial Aid Quality Improvement Program: Design and Implementation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Reston, VA.

    The purpose and direction of the quality improvement program of the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Student Financial Aid (OSFA) are described. The improvement program was designed to develop a systematic approach to identify, measure, and correct errors in the student aid delivery system. Information is provided on the general approach…

  18. APPLICATION FO FLOW FORMING FOR USE IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING DESIGNS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-07-11

    This paper reports on the development and testing performed to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing containment vessels for use in radioactive material shipping packaging designs. Additionally, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Subsection NB compliance along with the benefits compared to typical welding of containment vessels will be discussed. SRNL has completed fabrication development and the testing on flow formed containment vessels to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing a welded 6-inch diameter containment vessel currently used in the 9975 and 9977 radioactive material shipping packaging. Material testing and nondestructive evaluation of the flow formed parts demonstrate compliance to the minimum material requirements specified in applicable parts of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II. Destructive burst testing shows comparable results to that of a welded design. The benefits of flow forming as compared to typical welding of containment vessels are significant: dimensional control is improved due to no weld distortion; less final machining; weld fit-up issues associated with pipes and pipe caps are eliminated; post-weld non-destructive testing (i.e., radiography and die penetrant tests) is not necessary; and less fabrication steps are required. Results presented in this paper indicate some of the benefits in adapting flow forming to design of future radioactive material shipping packages containment vessels.

  19. Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Hydroxyapatite/Epoxide Acrylate Maleic Compound Construction for Craniomaxillofacial Bone Defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shen, Shunyao; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Steve Guofang; Wang, Xudong

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing hydroxyapatite (HA)/epoxide acrylate maleic (EAM) compound construction artificial implants for craniomaxillofacial bone defects. Computed tomography, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing and three-dimensional reconstruction, as well as rapid prototyping were performed in 12 patients between 2008 and 2013. The customized HA/EAM compound artificial implants were manufactured through selective laser sintering using a rapid prototyping machine into the exact geometric shapes of the defect. The HA/EAM compound artificial implants were then implanted during surgical reconstruction. Color-coded superimpositions demonstrated the discrepancy between the virtual plan and achieved results using Geomagic Studio. As a result, the HA/EAM compound artificial bone implants were perfectly matched with the facial areas that needed reconstruction. The postoperative aesthetic and functional results were satisfactory. The color-coded superimpositions demonstrated good consistency between the virtual plan and achieved results. The three-dimensional maximum deviation is 2.12 ± 0.65  mm and the three-dimensional mean deviation is 0.27 ± 0.07  mm. No facial nerve weakness or pain was observed at the follow-up examinations. Only 1 implant had to be removed 2 months after the surgery owing to severe local infection. No other complication was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, computer-aided, individually fabricated HA/EAM compound construction artificial implant was a good craniomaxillofacial surgical technique that yielded improved aesthetic results and functional recovery after reconstruction.

  20. Sensitivity Analysis of the Thermal Response of 9975 Packaging Using Factorial Design Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Narendra K.

    2005-10-31

    A method is presented for using the statistical design of experiment (2{sup k} Factorial Design) technique in the sensitivity analysis of the thermal response (temperature) of the 9975 radioactive material packaging where multiple thermal properties of the impact absorbing and fire insulating material Celotex and certain boundary conditions are subject to uncertainty. 2{sup k} Factorial Design method is very efficient in the use of available data and is capable of analyzing the impact of main variables (Factors) and their interactions on the component design. The 9975 design is based on detailed finite element (FE) analyses and extensive proof testing to meet the design requirements given in 10CFR71 [1]. However, the FE analyses use Celotex thermal properties that are based on published data and limited experiments. Celotex is an orthotropic material that is used in the home building industry. Its thermal properties are prone to variation due to manufacturing and fabrication processes, and due to long environmental exposure. This paper will evaluate the sensitivity of variations in thermal conductivity of the Celotex, convection coefficient at the drum surface, and drum emissivity (herein called Factors) on the thermal response of 9975 packaging under Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT). Application of this methodology will ascertain the robustness of the 9975 design and it can lead to more specific and useful understanding of the effects of various Factors on 9975 performance.

  1. The management of endodontically treated teeth using a Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Assisted Manufacturing/Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing system.

    PubMed

    Foerster, J G; von Gonten, A S; Robert, G H

    1999-01-01

    This article introduces a new approach for restoring endodontically treated posterior teeth. Significantly reduced natural tooth structure often remains not only because of previous restorative measures but also because of endodontic procedures. Cast restorations for these teeth are almost universally recommended. The exception to this is the rare instance in which only conservative endodontic access openings exist in teeth presenting with no former existing restorations. Typically, multiple clinical appointments are required to complete the final cast restoration. This article presents Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Assisted Manufacturing/Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing applications for restorative dentistry that provide the necessary care in an expeditious manner.

  2. Predictable Restorative Work Flow for Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacture-Fabricated Ceramic Veneers Utilizing a Virtual Smile Design Principle.

    PubMed

    Lin, W S; Zandinejad, A; Metz, M J; Harris, B T; Morton, D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to present the use of a contemporary digital photograph-assisted virtual smile design principle, an intraoral digital impression, and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture-fabricated lithium disilicate ceramic veneers to treat a patient with esthetic needs in the maxillary anterior region. By using the proposed digital restorative work flow, this case report demonstrated an effective communication pathway between the patient, clinician, and dental laboratory technician. Effective communication can help to achieve a more predictable and satisfactory esthetic outcome.

  3. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 23 CFR 636.104 - Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Federal-aid design-build projects? The provisions of this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does this part apply to all Federal-aid design-build projects? 636.104 Section 636.104 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. Design, testing, and performance of the Hobby Eberly Telescope prime focus instrument package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vattiat, Brian; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Perry, Dave M.; Rafal, Marc D.; Rafferty, Tom; Savage, Richard; Taylor, Charles A.; Moreira, Walter; Smith, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) is undergoing an upgrade to increase the field of view to 22 arc-minutes with the dark energy survey HETDEX the initial science goal [1]. Here we report on the engineering development of a suite of instruments located at prime focus of the upgraded HET. The Prime Focus Instrument Package (PFIP) contains acquisition, guiding, and wave front sensing instrumentation [2], the fiber feeds for the facility spectrographs (VIRUS, HRS, MRS, LRS2), and ancillary hardware. This paper reviews the design and functions of the PFIP and presents details of the mechanical design, integration and testing.

  9. Design package for instrumentation of the Decade 80 house in Tucson, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A design package covering instrumentation and system design for the Decade 80 House in Tucson, Arizona is presented. The solar house is instrumented for the purpose of gathering data to determine the solar heating and cooling system performance. The use of copper in the construction of the house is a first choice construction material because it conducts heat and resists corrosion better than other materials and therefore provides a more efficient and economical system. Equipment and site specifications are reported, along with floor plans showing the location of the site instrumentation hardware.

  10. Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries for Designing Better Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-02-01

    This presentation describes the current status of the DOE's Energy Storage R and D program, including modeling and design tools and the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) program.

  11. Active bio-based food-packaging: Diffusion and release of active substances through and from cellulose nanofiber coating toward food-packaging design.

    PubMed

    Lavoine, Nathalie; Guillard, Valérie; Desloges, Isabelle; Gontard, Nathalie; Bras, Julien

    2016-09-20

    Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were recently investigated for the elaboration of new functional food-packaging materials. Their nanoporous network was especially of interest for controlling the release of active species. Qualitative release studies were conducted, but quantification of the diffusion phenomenon observed when the active species are released from and through CNF coating has not yet been studied. Therefore, this work aims to model CNF-coated paper substrates as controlled release system for food-packaging using release data obtained for two model molecules, namely caffeine and chlorhexidine digluconate. The applied mathematical model - derived from Fickian diffusion - was validated for caffeine only. When the active species chemically interacts with the release device, another model is required as a non-predominantly diffusion-controlled release was observed. From caffeine modeling data, a theoretical active food-packaging material was designed. The use of CNFs as barrier coating was proved to be the ideal material configuration that best meets specifications. PMID:27261728

  12. Active bio-based food-packaging: Diffusion and release of active substances through and from cellulose nanofiber coating toward food-packaging design.

    PubMed

    Lavoine, Nathalie; Guillard, Valérie; Desloges, Isabelle; Gontard, Nathalie; Bras, Julien

    2016-09-20

    Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were recently investigated for the elaboration of new functional food-packaging materials. Their nanoporous network was especially of interest for controlling the release of active species. Qualitative release studies were conducted, but quantification of the diffusion phenomenon observed when the active species are released from and through CNF coating has not yet been studied. Therefore, this work aims to model CNF-coated paper substrates as controlled release system for food-packaging using release data obtained for two model molecules, namely caffeine and chlorhexidine digluconate. The applied mathematical model - derived from Fickian diffusion - was validated for caffeine only. When the active species chemically interacts with the release device, another model is required as a non-predominantly diffusion-controlled release was observed. From caffeine modeling data, a theoretical active food-packaging material was designed. The use of CNFs as barrier coating was proved to be the ideal material configuration that best meets specifications.

  13. Development of the Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory modeling package for the kinematic design and optimization of the Future Armor Rearm System robot

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, S.; Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M. ); Dubey, R.V. . Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

    1992-08-01

    A new program package, Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory (SML), for the automatic generation of both kinematic and static manipulator models in symbolic form is presented. Critical design parameters may be identified and optimized using symbolic models as shown in the sample application presented for the Future Armor Rearm System (FARS) arm. The computer-aided development of the symbolic models yields equations with reduced numerical complexity. Important considerations have been placed on the closed form solutions simplification and on the user friendly operation. The main emphasis of this research is the development of a methodology which is implemented in a computer program capable of generating symbolic kinematic and static forces models of manipulators. The fact that the models are obtained trigonometrically reduced is among the most significant results of this work and the most difficult to implement. Mathematica, a commercial program that allows symbolic manipulation, is used to implement the program package. SML is written such that the user can change any of the subroutines or create new ones easily. To assist the user, an on-line help has been written to make of SML a user friendly package. Some sample applications are presented. The design and optimization of the 5-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) FARS manipulator using SML is discussed. Finally, the kinematic and static models of two different 7-DOF manipulators are calculated symbolically.

  14. Development of the Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory modeling package for the kinematic design and optimization of the Future Armor Rearm System robot. Ammunition Logistics Program

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, S.; Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Dubey, R.V.

    1992-08-01

    A new program package, Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory (SML), for the automatic generation of both kinematic and static manipulator models in symbolic form is presented. Critical design parameters may be identified and optimized using symbolic models as shown in the sample application presented for the Future Armor Rearm System (FARS) arm. The computer-aided development of the symbolic models yields equations with reduced numerical complexity. Important considerations have been placed on the closed form solutions simplification and on the user friendly operation. The main emphasis of this research is the development of a methodology which is implemented in a computer program capable of generating symbolic kinematic and static forces models of manipulators. The fact that the models are obtained trigonometrically reduced is among the most significant results of this work and the most difficult to implement. Mathematica, a commercial program that allows symbolic manipulation, is used to implement the program package. SML is written such that the user can change any of the subroutines or create new ones easily. To assist the user, an on-line help has been written to make of SML a user friendly package. Some sample applications are presented. The design and optimization of the 5-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) FARS manipulator using SML is discussed. Finally, the kinematic and static models of two different 7-DOF manipulators are calculated symbolically.

  15. Assessment of Chair-side Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Restorations: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Ibraheem, Shukran Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper aimed to evaluate the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and the factors that affect the survival of restorations. Materials and Methods: A thorough literature search using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library and Grey literature were performed from the year 2004 up to June 2014. Only relevant research was considered. Results: The use of chair-side CAD/CAM systems is promising in all dental branches in terms of minimizing time and effort made by dentists, technicians and patients for restoring and maintaining patient oral function and aesthetic, while providing high quality outcome. Conclusion: The way of producing and placing the restorations made with the chair-side CAD/CAM (CEREC and E4D) devices is better than restorations made by conventional laboratory procedures. PMID:25954082

  16. Dual-scan technique for the customization of zirconia computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Andreiuolo, Rafael Ferrone; Sabrosa, Carlos Eduardo; Dias, Katia Regina H. Cervantes

    2013-01-01

    The use of bi-layered all-ceramic crowns has continuously grown since the introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia cores. Unfortunately, despite the outstanding mechanical properties of zirconia, problems related to porcelain cracking or chipping remain. One of the reasons for this is that ceramic copings are usually milled to uniform thicknesses of 0.3-0.6 mm around the whole tooth preparation. This may not provide uniform thickness or appropriate support for the veneering porcelain. To prevent these problems, the dual-scan technique demonstrates an alternative that allows the restorative team to customize zirconia CAD/CAM frameworks with adequate porcelain thickness and support in a simple manner. PMID:24966718

  17. Computer-Aided Design Of Turbine Blades And Vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Wayne Q.

    1988-01-01

    Quasi-three-dimensional method for determining aerothermodynamic configuration of turbine uses computer-interactive analysis and design and computer-interactive graphics. Design procedure executed rapidly so designer easily repeats it to arrive at best performance, size, structural integrity, and engine life. Sequence of events in aerothermodynamic analysis and design starts with engine-balance equations and ends with boundary-layer analysis and viscous-flow calculations. Analysis-and-design procedure interactive and iterative throughout.

  18. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  19. NREL Software Aids Offshore Wind Turbine Designs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    NREL researchers are supporting offshore wind power development with computer models that allow detailed analyses of both fixed and floating offshore wind turbines. While existing computer-aided engineering (CAE) models can simulate the conditions and stresses that a land-based wind turbine experiences over its lifetime, offshore turbines require the additional considerations of variations in water depth, soil type, and wind and wave severity, which also necessitate the use of a variety of support-structure types. NREL's core wind CAE tool, FAST, models the additional effects of incident waves, sea currents, and the foundation dynamics of the support structures.

  20. Low-loss polymer thermo-optic switch: design and packaged performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shacklette, Lawrence W.; Ferm, Paul M.; Blomquist, Robert; Killian, Kevin M.; Guiziou, L.; How Kee Chun, L. S.; Jouanno, J.-M.

    2002-06-01

    We have designed and fabricated digital thermo-optic switches using low-loss photocuring fluoroacrylate polymers [1]. We have used both modeling and experimental design-rule studies to elucidate the contributions to loss and crosstalk of the various important building blocks that comprise a Y-branch digital optical switch (YDOS). We present herein the results of these studies as well as the achieved performance for 1x2, 2x2 and 4x4 switches fabricated with these designs. Average chip-level insertion loss values for the three designs were 1.1, 1.8, and 2.8 dB, respectively, for 1550-nm illumination. Switching times in every case were below 3 ms. Polarization dependent loss was less than 0.1 dB at 1550 nm. Fully packaged permanently pigtailed versions of the 2x2 and 4x4 switches were also constructed. For these packaged devices, average insertion losses of 2.0 and 3.3 dB were achieved, and crosstalk was maintained at a value less than -45 dB.

  1. Creation of Anatomically Accurate Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Solid Models from Medical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, John E.; Graham, R. Scott; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Oberlander, Eric J.; Broaddus, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Most surgical instrumentation and implants used in the world today are designed with sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software. This software automates the mechanical development of a product from its conceptual design through manufacturing. CAD software also provides a means of manipulating solid models prior to Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Few surgical products are designed in conjunction with accurate CAD models of human anatomy because of the difficulty with which these models are created. We have developed a novel technique that creates anatomically accurate, patient specific CAD solids from medical images in a matter of minutes.

  2. Computer aided optimal design of space reflectors and radiation concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprykin, Oleg A.; Spirochkin, Yuriy K.; Kinelev, Vladimir G.; Sulimov, Valeriy D.

    1998-06-01

    The goal of space radiation receiver design is achievement of its maximal reflecting properties under some technological and financial restrictions. Optimal design problems of this type are characterized by nonconvex nondifferentiable objective functions. A numerical technique for optimal design of the structures and an applied software REFLEX under development are proposed.

  3. Transportation Package Seal Performance in Beyond Design Basis Thermal Exposures - 12472

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Felix; Bajwa, Christopher; Easton, Earl; Einziger, Robert; Yang, Jiann; Hnetkovsky, Edward

    2012-07-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) technical report, NUREG/CR-6886, 'Spent Fuel Transportation Package Response to the Baltimore Tunnel Fire Scenario', describes, in detail, an evaluation of the potential for a theoretical release of radioactive material from three different spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation packages, had they been exposed to the Baltimore tunnel fire that occurred in July of 2001. This evaluation determined the temperatures of various components of the packages, including the seals, using temperatures resulting from models of the Baltimore tunnel fire (as boundary conditions) and finite element models of the SNF packages. For two of the packages evaluated, the analyses indicated that the seals used would have exceeded their continuous-use rated service temperatures, meaning the release of radioactive material could not be ruled out with available information; However, for both of the packages evaluated, the analysis determined, by a bounding calculation, that the maximum potential release was well below the regulatory requirements for releases from a SNF package during the hypothetical accident condition (HAC) sequence of events in 10CFR Part 71. The NRC is investigating the performance of seals in SNF transportation packages exposed to fires that could exceed the HAC fire described in 10CFR Part 71, such as the Baltimore Tunnel Fire that occurred in 2001. The performance of package seals is important for determining the potential release of radioactive material from a package during a beyond-design-basis accident. The seals have lower temperature limits than other package components and are the containment barrier between the environment and the cask contents. The NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research contracted the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to conduct small-scale thermal testing to obtain experimental data of the performance of seals during extreme temperature exposures. The experimental testing

  4. CFD Aided Design and Optimization of Francis Turbine Runners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayancik, Fatma; Demirel, Gizem; Celebioglu, Kutay; Acar, Erdem; Aradag, Selin; ETU Hydro Research Center Team

    2014-11-01

    Francis turbines are commonly used for hydroelectric power plants with their wide range of flow rate and head values. They are composed of five main components and they generate energy with the help of the runner connected to the generator. Therefore, runner is the most important part of a Francis turbine. All components of turbines are linked and they are designed to maximize the turbine efficiency. The dimensions of the runner vary depending on the design discharge, head and the speed of the rotor of the generators. In this study, a design methodology is developed to design turbine runners with the help of computational fluid dynamics and is applied to the runner design of three different hydroelectric power plant turbines. Multi objective design optimization is also performed and the response surfaces are investigated to obtain maximum turbine efficiency and cavitation free design. This study is financially supported by Turkish Ministry of Development.

  5. An analysis of information design and packaging for an inelastic market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, T. E.; Mccullough, R.; Cordle, V. M.

    1982-01-01

    Producers of technical reports can increase the potential use of the technical report, as an information product, by making certain changes to the sequential, language, and presentation components. These improvements, which effect the overall design and packaging of the product, are discussed. These improvements are likely to have their greatest impact on the marginal technical report user. However, these improvements are not without economic consideration. For this reason, cost factors should be calculated to ensure that benefits to the user and/or increased utility will outweight the cost to the producer.

  6. Design and analysis of lid closure bolts for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Stojimirovic, A.

    1995-07-01

    The design criterion recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for Category I radioactive packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This criterion provides material specifications and allowable stress limits for bolts used to secure lids of containment vessels. This paper describes the design requirements for Category I containment vessel lid closure bolts, and provides an example of a bolting stress analysis. The lid-closure bolting stress analysis compares calculations based on handbook formulas with an analysis performed with a finite-element computer code. The results show that the simple handbook calculations can be sufficiently accurate to evaluate the bolt stresses that occur in rotationally rigid lid flanges designed for metal-to-metal contact.

  7. A bottom collider vertex detector design, Monte-Carlo simulation and analysis package

    SciTech Connect

    Lebrun, P.

    1990-10-01

    A detailed simulation of the BCD vertex detector is underway. Specifications and global design issues are briefly reviewed. The BCD design based on double sided strip detector is described in more detail. The GEANT3-based Monte-Carlo program and the analysis package used to estimate detector performance are discussed in detail. The current status of the expected resolution and signal to noise ratio for the golden'' CP violating mode B{sub d} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} is presented. These calculations have been done at FNAL energy ({radical}s = 2.0 TeV). Emphasis is placed on design issues, analysis techniques and related software rather than physics potentials. 20 refs., 46 figs.

  8. System specification/system design document comment review: Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. Notes of conference

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A meeting was held between DOE personnel and the BNFL team to review the proposed resolutions to DOE comments on the initial issue of the system specification and system design document for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. The objectives of this project are to design, fabricate, install, and start up a glovebox system for the safe repackaging of plutonium oxide and metal, with a requirement of a 50-year storage period. The areas discussed at the meeting were: nitrogen in can; moisture instrumentation; glovebox atmosphere; can marking-bar coding; weld quality; NFPA-101 references; inner can swabbing; ultimate storage environment; throughput; convenience can screw-top design; furnace/trays; authorization basis; compactor safety; schedule for DOE review actions; fire protection; criticality safety; applicable standards; approach to MC and A; homogeneous oxide; resistance welder power; and tray overfill. Revised resolutions were drafted and are presented.

  9. Computer-aided design tools for economical MEMS fabrication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Christian; Priebe, Andreas; Brueck, Rainer; Hahn, Kai

    1999-03-01

    Since the early 70s when microsystem technology was first introduce an enormous market for MST-products has been developed. Airbag sensors, micro pumps, ink jet nozzles etc. and the market is just about to start up. Establishing these products for a reasonable price requires mass production. Meanwhile, also computer-based design-tools have been developed in order to reduce the expenses for MST-design. In contrast to other physical design processes like e.g. in micro electronics, MEMS physical design is characterized by the fact that each product requires a tailored sequence of fabrication steps, usually selected from a variety of processing alternatives. The selection from these alternatives is based on economical constraints. Therefore, the design has a strong influence on the money and time spent to take an MST-product to market.

  10. CFD Aided Design and Production of Hydraulic Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Alper; Cetinturk, Huseyin; Demirel, Gizem; Ayli, Ece; Celebioglu, Kutay; Aradag, Selin; ETU Hydro Research Center Team

    2014-11-01

    Hydraulic turbines are turbo machines which produce electricity from hydraulic energy. Francis type turbines are the most common one in use today. The design of these turbines requires high engineering effort since each turbine is tailor made due to different head and discharge. Therefore each component of the turbine is designed specifically. During the last decades, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become very useful tool to predict hydraulic machinery performance and save time and money for designers. This paper describes a design methodology to optimize a Francis turbine by integrating theoretical and experimental fundamentals of hydraulic machines and commercial CFD codes. Specific turbines are designed and manufactured with the help of a collaborative CFD/CAD/CAM methodology based on computational fluid dynamics and five-axis machining for hydraulic electric power plants. The details are presented in this study. This study is financially supported by Turkish Ministry of Development.

  11. Aiding Design of Wave Energy Converters via Computational Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebeli Aqdam, Hejar; Ahmadi, Babak; Raessi, Mehdi; Tootkaboni, Mazdak

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing interest in renewable energy sources, wave energy converters will continue to gain attention as a viable alternative to current electricity production methods. It is therefore crucial to develop computational tools for the design and analysis of wave energy converters. A successful design requires balance between the design performance and cost. Here an analytical solution is used for the approximate analysis of interactions between a flap-type wave energy converter (WEC) and waves. The method is verified using other flow solvers and experimental test cases. Then the model is used in conjunction with a powerful heuristic optimization engine, Charged System Search (CSS) to explore the WEC design space. CSS is inspired by charged particles behavior. It searches the design space by considering candidate answers as charged particles and moving them based on the Coulomb's laws of electrostatics and Newton's laws of motion to find the global optimum. Finally the impacts of changes in different design parameters on the power takeout of the superior WEC designs are investigated. National Science Foundation, CBET-1236462.

  12. Anti AIDS drug design with the help of neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetko, I. V.; Tanchuk, V. Yu.; Luik, A. I.

    1995-04-01

    Artificial neural networks were used to analyze and predict the human immunodefiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Training and control set included 44 molecules (most of them are well-known substances such as AZT, TIBO, dde, etc.) The biological activities of molecules were taken from literature and rated for two classes: active and inactive compounds according to their values. We used topological indices as molecular parameters. Four most informative parameters (out of 46) were chosen using cluster analysis and original input parameters' estimation procedure and were used to predict activities of both control and new (synthesized in our institute) molecules. We applied pruning network algorithm and network ensembles to obtain the final classifier and avoid chance correlation. The increasing of neural network generalization of the data from the control set was observed, when using the aforementioned methods. The prognosis of new molecules revealed one molecule as possibly active. It was confirmed by further biological tests. The compound was as active as AZT and in order less toxic. The active compound is currently being evaluated in pre clinical trials as possible drug for anti-AIDS therapy.

  13. Design of compact freeform lens for application specific Light-Emitting Diode packaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Fei; Liu, Zongyuan; Luo, Xiaobing; Liu, Sheng

    2010-01-18

    Application specific LED packaging (ASLP) is an emerging technology for high performance LED lighting. We introduced a practical design method of compact freeform lens for extended sources used in ASLP. A new ASLP for road lighting was successfully obtained by integrating a polycarbonate compact freeform lens of small form factor with traditional LED packaging. Optical performance of the ASLP was investigated by both numerical simulation based on Monte Carlo ray tracing method and experiments. Results demonstrated that, comparing with traditional LED module integrated with secondary optics, the ASLP had advantages of much smaller size in volume (approximately 1/8), higher system lumen efficiency (approximately 8.1%), lower cost and more convenience for customers to design and assembly, enabling possible much wider applications of LED for general road lighting. Tolerance analyses were also conducted. Installation errors of horizontal and vertical deviations had more effects on the shape and uniformity of radiation pattern compared with rotational deviation. The tolerances of horizontal, vertical and rotational deviations of this lens were 0.11 mm, 0.14 mm and 2.4 degrees respectively, which were acceptable in engineering. PMID:20173861

  14. A MATLAB-based planar array design assistant package with applications to meteor radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, C.; Palo, S.

    Interferometric techniques are commonly used in all-sky meteor radar systems for meteor location determination Essentially interferometric techniques use the phase information recorded from different receiving antennas to estimate the elevation and azimuth of the meteors Prior efforts have been made to determine an antenna geometry that improves the performance of meteor radar systems For example Hocking and Thayaparan 1997 used four antennas typically spaced by 1 5 to 3 wavelengths to locate the meteors Jones 1992 and Hocking 1997 presented an antenna geometry using a 5 element array with minimum antenna spacing of 2 wavelengths to estimate the direction of arrival DOA of the meteors By spacing the antennas more than 2 wavelength apart these array geometries were successful in reducing the electromagnetic coupling effect between the antennas which can introduce errors in the estimation of meteor locations Without a clear metric for performance it is difficult to compare geometries In this work a MATLAB planar antenna array package mainly designed for visualization of the direction of arrival DOA estimation performance of arbitrary user designed antenna array is presented Performance comparisons of nominal array geometries are also provided Several metrics are available in this package in an effort to provide the user with a comprehensive examination of an array s performance The metrics are the Cramer-Rao bound CRB which is the minimum variance that can be obtained for any unbiased estimator the co-array the

  15. Fracture mechanics based design for radioactive material transport packagings -- Historical review

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.A.; Salzbrenner, D.; Sorenson, K.; McConnell, P.

    1998-04-01

    The use of a fracture mechanics based design for the radioactive material transport (RAM) packagings has been the subject of extensive research for more than a decade. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has played an important role in the research and development of the application of this technology. Ductile iron has been internationally accepted as an exemplary material for the demonstration of a fracture mechanics based method of RAM packaging design and therefore is the subject of a large portion of the research discussed in this report. SNL`s extensive research and development program, funded primarily by the U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation, Energy Management and Analytical Services (EM-76) and in an auxiliary capacity, the office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, is summarized in this document along with a summary of the research conducted at other institutions throughout the world. In addition to the research and development work, code and standards development and regulatory positions are also discussed.

  16. Design of compact freeform lens for application specific Light-Emitting Diode packaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Fei; Liu, Zongyuan; Luo, Xiaobing; Liu, Sheng

    2010-01-18

    Application specific LED packaging (ASLP) is an emerging technology for high performance LED lighting. We introduced a practical design method of compact freeform lens for extended sources used in ASLP. A new ASLP for road lighting was successfully obtained by integrating a polycarbonate compact freeform lens of small form factor with traditional LED packaging. Optical performance of the ASLP was investigated by both numerical simulation based on Monte Carlo ray tracing method and experiments. Results demonstrated that, comparing with traditional LED module integrated with secondary optics, the ASLP had advantages of much smaller size in volume (approximately 1/8), higher system lumen efficiency (approximately 8.1%), lower cost and more convenience for customers to design and assembly, enabling possible much wider applications of LED for general road lighting. Tolerance analyses were also conducted. Installation errors of horizontal and vertical deviations had more effects on the shape and uniformity of radiation pattern compared with rotational deviation. The tolerances of horizontal, vertical and rotational deviations of this lens were 0.11 mm, 0.14 mm and 2.4 degrees respectively, which were acceptable in engineering.

  17. Improved plug valve computer-aided design of plug element

    SciTech Connect

    Wordin, J.J.

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to present derivations of equations for the design of a plug valve and to present a computer program which performs the design calculations based on the derivations. The valve is based on a plug formed from a tractrix of revolution called a pseudosphere. It is of interest to be able to calculate various parameters for the plug for design purposes. For example, the surface area, volume, and center of gravity are important to determine friction and wear of the valve. A computer program in BASIC has been written to perform the design calculations. The appendix contains a computer program listing and verifications of results using approximation methods. A sample run is included along with necessary computer commands to run the program. 1 fig.

  18. WASTE REDUCTION USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Growing environmental concerns have spurred considerable interest in pollution prevention. In most instances, pollution prevention involves introducing radical changes to the design of processes so that waste generation is minimized.
    Process simulators can be effective tools i...

  19. Computer-Aided Apparel Design in University Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belleau, Bonnie D.; Bourgeois, Elva B.

    1991-01-01

    As computer-assisted design (CAD) become an integral part of the fashion industry, universities must integrate CAD into the apparel curriculum. Louisiana State University's curriculum enables students to collaborate in CAD problem solving with industry personnel. (SK)

  20. Computer-aided space shuttle orbiter wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. P.; Decker, J. P.; Rau, T. R.; Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been made to provide a space shuttle orbiter wing design that met the guideline requirements of landing performance, stability, and hypersonic trim for a specified center-of-gravity envelope. The analytical study was facilitated by the use of the Optimal Design Integration system (ODIN) and the experimental part of the investigation was conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel and the Langley continuous-flow hypersonic tunnel.

  1. [CORBA-based design and packaging of picture archiving and communication system object].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zu-jin; Sun, An-yu

    2009-10-01

    Regionalization has become one of the most important trends in the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) due to the existence of large amounts of information islands. The conventional PACS designed according to the DICOM standard on the basis of the C/S structure fails to meet the demand of regional information system maintenance. A regional PACS system based on common object request broker architecture (CORBA) distributed technology is therefore proposed and implemented. This article describes the design and packaging of the PACS objects. When mounting a series of separate logical and related functional PACS objects on the ORB bus, the multi-scale PACS systems can be established. This method eliminates the limitation of the C/S structure and offers good compatibility and scalability.

  2. North Portal Fuel Storage System Fire Hazard Analysis-ESF Surface Design Package ID

    SciTech Connect

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    1995-01-18

    The purpose of the fire hazard analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within the individual fire areas. This document will only assess the fire hazard analysis within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package ID, which includes the fuel storage system area of the North Portal facility, and evaluate whether the following objectives are met: 1.1.1--This analysis, performed in accordance with the requirements of this document, will satisfy the requirements for a fire hazard analysis in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A. 1.1.2--Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level. 1.1.3--Provide input to the ESF Basis For Design (BFD) Document. 1.1.4 Provide input to the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (Paragraph 3.8).

  3. TOWARD THE COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF ION SEQUESTERING AGENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    A major impediment to introduction of new extractants to practical use is the large cost and long lead times for synthesis and testing of candidate molecules. Toward the goal of reducing this experimental burden, this talk describes a computational approach to the design of molecular receptors that are structurally organized for optimal coordination with ions. With a molecular-level understanding of how host architecture influences ion-binding affinity, it is possible to identify promising potential extractants before they are prepared and tested. Exploiting powerful concepts embodied in structure-based drug design to bear on host design, we have devised novel algorithms for building potential host structures from molecular fragments and rapid methods for comparing the binding-site organization of the resulting candidates. The result is a computer software program, called HostDesigner, which can generate and evaluate millions of new molecular structures per minute on a desktop personal computer. The utility of this software has been illustrated in the structural design of cation receptors such as crown ethers and anion receptors bearing urea groups.

  4. Laser imaging and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture in prosthetics and orthotics.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, John P

    2006-02-01

    Although Hanger Orthopedic Group, Inc., has been developing clinical protocols for its INSIGNIA scanner for more than 2 years, there are many applications that are currently in development and will be released over the next 2-year period after this publication. It is the goal of Hanger Orthopedic Group, Inc., to replace all plaster casting procedures with the laser scan and move toward a paperless environment where all images and documents are passed through its virtual network. INSIGNIA currently has five major production centers throughout the United States, which support more than 600 INSIGNIA certified clinicians. These clinicians staff more than 600 clinics in North America, all under the Hanger company name. The central fabrication service and the central design center processes hundreds of shapes per day (Fig. 27). So that any clinician in the field can use the expertise of the central designers and central fabricators to help with overflow or problems they might be having, the network that exists within Hanger is tied together and enhanced by INSIGNIA. Through virtual modification and centralization of these services, each patient receives the virtual collaboration of several clinicians with a total of years of experience. INSIGNIA has enhanced the patient experience. The enhancement is not only in removing the plaster from the process, but also in exposing each patient to the team of prosthetic experts working collaboratively behind the scenes. The rehabilitation industry continues to be bombarded with compliance paperwork and justifications. The INSIGNIA scan and resulting measurement reports give inherent strength to justifications based on volume change, surgical revisions, or tissue change. The files are kept in a data warehouse where they are vaulted and preserved presumably forever. Also, any of the shape graphics or measurement instruments can be printed into a discrete report that can become part of the patient's permanent record. Many physicians

  5. Accuracy of different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guides for dental implant placement

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Liu, Changying; Su, Yucheng; Li, Jun; Zhou, Yanmin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of implants placed using different types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) surgical guides, including partially guided and totally guided templates, and determine the accuracy of these guides Materials and methods: In total, 111 implants were placed in 24 patients using CAD/CAM surgical guides. After implant insertion, the positions and angulations of the placed implants relative to those of the planned ones were determined using special software that matched pre- and postoperative computed tomography (CT) images, and deviations were calculated and compared between the different guides and templates. Results: The mean angular deviations were 1.72 ± 1.67 and 2.71 ± 2.58, the mean deviations in position at the neck were 0.27 ± 0.24 and 0.69 ± 0.66 mm, the mean deviations in position at the apex were 0.37 ± 0.35 and 0.94 ± 0.75 mm, and the mean depth deviations were 0.32 ± 0.32 and 0.51 ± 0.48 mm with tooth- and mucosa-supported stereolithographic guides, respectively (P < .05 for all). The mean distance deviations when partially guided (29 implants) and totally guided templates (30 implants) were used were 0.54 ± 0.50 mm and 0.89 ± 0.78 mm, respectively, at the neck and 1.10 ± 0.85 mm and 0.81 ± 0.64 mm, respectively, at the apex, with corresponding mean angular deviations of 2.56 ± 2.23° and 2.90 ± 3.0° (P > .05 for all). Conclusions: Tooth-supported surgical guides may be more accurate than mucosa-supported guides, while both partially and totally guided templates can simplify surgery and aid in optimal implant placement. PMID:26309497

  6. Calculator program aids sucker-rod systems design and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Engineer, R.; Davis, C.; Knight, R.

    1983-08-01

    Given a few basic well parameters, the engineer may follow the step-by-step procedure for programming the design of sucker rod pumping systems for oil wells deeper than 2,000 ft using the HP-41 CV hand calculator.

  7. Armchair Survey Sampling: An Aid in Teaching Survey Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, M. E.

    A fictitious community of 583 households was set up to simulate a survey population, and was used in two laboratory assignments where students "interviewed" householders by a quota sampling procedure and tested the performance of several probability sampling designs. (Author/JEG)

  8. Detailed design package for design of a video system providing optimal visual information for controlling payload and experiment operations with television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A detailed description of a video system for controlling space shuttle payloads and experiments is presented in the preliminary design review and critical design review, first and second engineering design reports respectively, and in the final report submitted jointly with the design package. The material contained in the four subsequent sections of the package contains system descriptions, design data, and specifications for the recommended 2-view system. Section 2 contains diagrams relating to the simulation test configuration of the 2-view system. Section 3 contains descriptions and drawings of the deliverable breadboard equipment. A description of the recommended system is contained in Section 4 with equipment specifications in Section 5.

  9. An Information-Centric Framework for Designing Patient-Centered Medical Decision Aids and Risk Communication

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Lyndsey; Plaisant, Catherine; Shneiderman, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Risk communication is a major challenge in productive patient-physician communication. Patient decision making responsibilities come with an implicit assumption that patients are sufficiently educated and confident in their abilities to make decisions about their care based on evidence based treatment recommendations. Attempts to improve health literacy in patients by way of graphical decision aids have met with success. Such decision aids typically have been designed for a general population and evaluated based on whether or not users of the decision aid can accurately report the data points in isolation. To classify decision aids, we present an information-centric framework for assessing the content delivered to patients. We provide examples of our framework from a literature survey and suggest ways improvements can be made by considering all dimensions of our framework. PMID:24551350

  10. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    PubMed

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  11. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    PubMed Central

    Manbeck, Harvey B.; Hofstetter, Daniel W.; Murphy, Dennis J.; Puri, Virendra M.

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  12. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    PubMed

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  13. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p < 0.001). Significant differences in mean costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p < 0.001). Significant differences were also obtained between the costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit.

  14. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    H. Wang

    1997-01-23

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24, 5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR and 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 44 BWR and 24 BWR Uncanistered Fuel (UCF) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond to a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the WP Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude WP compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual WP design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, and to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded WP performance is similar to an WP loaded with commercial BWR SNF.

  15. Computer-aided design of aptamers for cytochrome p450.

    PubMed

    Shcherbinin, Dmitrii S; Gnedenko, Oksana V; Khmeleva, Svetlana A; Usanov, Sergey A; Gilep, Andrei A; Yantsevich, Aliaksei V; Shkel, Tatsiana V; Yushkevich, Ivan V; Radko, Sergey P; Ivanov, Alexis S; Veselovsky, Alexander V; Archakov, Alexander I

    2015-08-01

    Aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can bind to their targets with high affinity and specificity. Usually, they are experimentally selected using the SELEX method. Here, we describe an approach toward the in silico selection of aptamers for proteins. This approach involves three steps: finding a potential binding site, designing the recognition and structural parts of the aptamers and evaluating the experimental affinity. Using this approach, a set of 15-mer aptamers for cytochrome P450 51A1 was designed using docking and molecular dynamics simulation. An experimental evaluation of the synthesized aptamers using SPR biosensor showed that these aptamers interact with cytochrome P450 51A1 with Kd values in the range of 10(-6)-10(-7) M. PMID:26166326

  16. How to design a genetic mating scheme: a basic training package for Drosophila genetics.

    PubMed

    Roote, John; Prokop, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful model organism for biological research. The essential and common instrument of fly research is genetics, the art of applying Mendelian rules in the specific context of Drosophila with its unique classical genetic tools and the breadth of modern genetic tools and strategies brought in by molecular biology, transgenic technologies and the use of recombinases. Training newcomers to fly genetics is a complex and time-consuming task but too important to be left to chance. Surprisingly, suitable training resources for beginners currently are not available. Here we provide a training package for basic Drosophila genetics, designed to ensure that basic knowledge on all key areas is covered while reducing the time invested by trainers. First, a manual introduces to fly history, rationale for mating schemes, fly handling, Mendelian rules in fly, markers and balancers, mating scheme design, and transgenic technologies. Its self-study is followed by a practical training session on gender and marker selection, introducing real flies under the dissecting microscope. Next, through self-study of a PowerPoint presentation, trainees are guided step-by-step through a mating scheme. Finally, to consolidate knowledge, trainees are asked to design similar mating schemes reflecting routine tasks in a fly laboratory. This exercise requires individual feedback but also provides unique opportunities for trainers to spot weaknesses and strengths of each trainee and take remedial action. This training package is being successfully applied at the Manchester fly facility and may serve as a model for further training resources covering other aspects of fly research. PMID:23390611

  17. BaitFisher: A Software Package for Multispecies Target DNA Enrichment Probe Design.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Christoph; Sann, Manuela; Donath, Alexander; Meixner, Martin; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Peters, Ralph S; Petersen, Malte; Meusemann, Karen; Liere, Karsten; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang; Misof, Bernhard; Bleidorn, Christoph; Ohl, Michael; Niehuis, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Target DNA enrichment combined with high-throughput sequencing technologies is a powerful approach to probing a large number of loci in genomes of interest. However, software algorithms that explicitly consider nucleotide sequence information of target loci in multiple reference species for optimizing design of target enrichment baits to be applicable across a wide range of species have not been developed. Here we present an algorithm that infers target DNA enrichment baits from multiple nucleotide sequence alignments. By applying clustering methods and the combinatorial 1-center sequence optimization to bait design, we are able to minimize the total number of baits required to efficiently probe target loci in multiple species. Consequently, more loci can be probed across species with a given number of baits. Using transcript sequences of 24 apoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae, Sphecidae) from the 1KITE project and the gene models of Nasonia vitripennis, we inferred 57,650, 120-bp-long baits for capturing 378 coding sequence sections of 282 genes in apoid wasps. Illumina reduced-representation library sequencing confirmed successful enrichment of the target DNA when applying these baits to DNA of various apoid wasps. The designed baits furthermore enriched a major fraction of the target DNA in distantly related Hymenoptera, such as Formicidae and Chalcidoidea, highlighting the baits' broad taxonomic applicability. The availability of baits with broad taxonomic applicability is of major interest in numerous disciplines, ranging from phylogenetics to biodiversity monitoring. We implemented our new approach in a software package, called BaitFisher, which is open source and freely available at https://github.com/cmayer/BaitFisher-package.git.

  18. BaitFisher: A Software Package for Multispecies Target DNA Enrichment Probe Design.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Christoph; Sann, Manuela; Donath, Alexander; Meixner, Martin; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Peters, Ralph S; Petersen, Malte; Meusemann, Karen; Liere, Karsten; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang; Misof, Bernhard; Bleidorn, Christoph; Ohl, Michael; Niehuis, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Target DNA enrichment combined with high-throughput sequencing technologies is a powerful approach to probing a large number of loci in genomes of interest. However, software algorithms that explicitly consider nucleotide sequence information of target loci in multiple reference species for optimizing design of target enrichment baits to be applicable across a wide range of species have not been developed. Here we present an algorithm that infers target DNA enrichment baits from multiple nucleotide sequence alignments. By applying clustering methods and the combinatorial 1-center sequence optimization to bait design, we are able to minimize the total number of baits required to efficiently probe target loci in multiple species. Consequently, more loci can be probed across species with a given number of baits. Using transcript sequences of 24 apoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae, Sphecidae) from the 1KITE project and the gene models of Nasonia vitripennis, we inferred 57,650, 120-bp-long baits for capturing 378 coding sequence sections of 282 genes in apoid wasps. Illumina reduced-representation library sequencing confirmed successful enrichment of the target DNA when applying these baits to DNA of various apoid wasps. The designed baits furthermore enriched a major fraction of the target DNA in distantly related Hymenoptera, such as Formicidae and Chalcidoidea, highlighting the baits' broad taxonomic applicability. The availability of baits with broad taxonomic applicability is of major interest in numerous disciplines, ranging from phylogenetics to biodiversity monitoring. We implemented our new approach in a software package, called BaitFisher, which is open source and freely available at https://github.com/cmayer/BaitFisher-package.git. PMID:27009209

  19. How to design a genetic mating scheme: a basic training package for Drosophila genetics.

    PubMed

    Roote, John; Prokop, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful model organism for biological research. The essential and common instrument of fly research is genetics, the art of applying Mendelian rules in the specific context of Drosophila with its unique classical genetic tools and the breadth of modern genetic tools and strategies brought in by molecular biology, transgenic technologies and the use of recombinases. Training newcomers to fly genetics is a complex and time-consuming task but too important to be left to chance. Surprisingly, suitable training resources for beginners currently are not available. Here we provide a training package for basic Drosophila genetics, designed to ensure that basic knowledge on all key areas is covered while reducing the time invested by trainers. First, a manual introduces to fly history, rationale for mating schemes, fly handling, Mendelian rules in fly, markers and balancers, mating scheme design, and transgenic technologies. Its self-study is followed by a practical training session on gender and marker selection, introducing real flies under the dissecting microscope. Next, through self-study of a PowerPoint presentation, trainees are guided step-by-step through a mating scheme. Finally, to consolidate knowledge, trainees are asked to design similar mating schemes reflecting routine tasks in a fly laboratory. This exercise requires individual feedback but also provides unique opportunities for trainers to spot weaknesses and strengths of each trainee and take remedial action. This training package is being successfully applied at the Manchester fly facility and may serve as a model for further training resources covering other aspects of fly research.

  20. Computer Aided Design of Computer Generated Holograms for electron beam fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urquhart, Kristopher S.; Lee, Sing H.; Guest, Clark C.; Feldman, Michael R.; Farhoosh, Hamid

    1989-01-01

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems that have been developed for electrical and mechanical design tasks are also effective tools for the process of designing Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs), particularly when these holograms are to be fabricated using electron beam lithography. CAD workstations provide efficient and convenient means of computing, storing, displaying, and preparing for fabrication many of the features that are common to CGH designs. Experience gained in the process of designing CGHs with various types of encoding methods is presented. Suggestions are made so that future workstations may further accommodate the CGH design process.

  1. DEMAID - A DESIGN MANAGER'S AID FOR INTELLIGENT DECOMPOSITION (SGI IRIS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Many engineering systems are large and multi-disciplinary. Before the design of new complex systems such as large space platforms can begin, the possible interactions among subsystems and their parts must be determined. Once this is completed the proposed system can be decomposed to identify its hierarchical structure. DeMAID (A Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) is a knowledge-based system for ordering the sequence of modules and identifying a possible multilevel structure for the design problem. DeMAID displays the modules in an N x N matrix format (called a design structure matrix) where a module is any process that requires input and generates an output. (Modules which generate an output but do not require an input, such as an initialization process, are also acceptable.) Although DeMAID requires an investment of time to generate and refine the list of modules for input, it could save a considerable amount of money and time in the total design process, particularly in new design problems where the ordering of the modules has not been defined. The decomposition of a complex design system into subsystems requires the judgement of the design manager. DeMAID reorders and groups the modules based on the links (interactions) among the modules, helping the design manager make decomposition decisions early in the design cycle. The modules are grouped into circuits (the subsystems) and displayed in an N x N matrix format. Feedback links, which indicate an iterative process, are minimized and only occur within a subsystem. Since there are no feedback links among the circuits, the circuits can be displayed in a multilevel format. Thus, a large amount of information is reduced to one or two displays which are stored for later retrieval and modification. The design manager and leaders of the design teams then have a visual display of the design problem and the intricate interactions among the different modules. The design manager could save a substantial

  2. designGG: an R-package and web tool for the optimal design of genetical genomics experiments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Swertz, Morris A; Vera, Gonzalo; Fu, Jingyuan; Breitling, Rainer; Jansen, Ritsert C

    2009-01-01

    Background High-dimensional biomolecular profiling of genetically different individuals in one or more environmental conditions is an increasingly popular strategy for exploring the functioning of complex biological systems. The optimal design of such genetical genomics experiments in a cost-efficient and effective way is not trivial. Results This paper presents designGG, an R package for designing optimal genetical genomics experiments. A web implementation for designGG is available at . All software, including source code and documentation, is freely available. Conclusion DesignGG allows users to intelligently select and allocate individuals to experimental units and conditions such as drug treatment. The user can maximize the power and resolution of detecting genetic, environmental and interaction effects in a genome-wide or local mode by giving more weight to genome regions of special interest, such as previously detected phenotypic quantitative trait loci. This will help to achieve high power and more accurate estimates of the effects of interesting factors, and thus yield a more reliable biological interpretation of data. DesignGG is applicable to linkage analysis of experimental crosses, e.g. recombinant inbred lines, as well as to association analysis of natural populations. PMID:19538731

  3. The development of a spreadsheet-aided-engineering design tool for parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, D.E.; Whinery, L.D.

    1997-04-01

    A spreadsheet-aided engineering design tool has been developed to assist in the parachute design process. The new tool was developed during FY96 and utilized in the design of the flight termination parachute system for a 1900 lb. payload. Many modifications were made during the initial utilization of this tool. Work on the tool continues as the authors attempt to create an application tool for the parachute engineer.

  4. Computer-aided design of millimeter-wave E-plane filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Y.-C.; Itoh, T.; Bui, L. Q.

    1983-02-01

    A computer-aided design (CAD) algorithm has been developed for a class of E-plane bandpass filters. The analysis portion of the algorithm is based on the residue-calculus technique and a generalized scattering parameter method. It is mathematically exact and numerically very efficient. Filters designed with this method have been fabricated and tested in Ka-band. Good agreement with design has been obtained.

  5. A methodology and a tool for the computer aided design with constraints of electrical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtz, F.; Bigeon, J.; Poirson, C.

    1996-05-01

    A methodology for the computer aided constrained design of electrical devices is presented and validated through the design of a slotless permanent structure. It is based on the use of the analytical design equations of the device. Symbolic calculation is widely used to generate an analysis program and a sensitivity computation program. Those programs are linked with an optimization algorithm that can take constraints into account. The methodology is tested with an experimental software named PASCOSMA.

  6. Block 2 SRM conceptual design studies. Volume 1, Book 1: Conceptual design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brad; Williams, Neal; Miller, John; Ralston, Joe; Richardson, Jennifer; Moore, Walt; Doll, Dan; Maughan, Jeff; Hayes, Fred

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual design studies of a Block 2 Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) require the elimination of asbestos-filled insulation and was open to alternate designs, such as case changes, different propellants, modified burn rate - to improve reliability and performance. Limitations were placed on SRM changes such that the outside geometry should not impact the physical interfaces with other Space Shuttle elements and should have minimum changes to the aerodynamic and dynamic characteristics of the Space Shuttle vehicle. Previous Space Shuttle SRM experience was assessed and new design concepts combined to define a valid approach to assured flight success and economic operation of the STS. Trade studies, preliminary designs, analyses, plans, and cost estimates are documented.

  7. Tokamak Physics EXperiment (TPX): Toroidal field magnet design, development and manufacture. SDRL 46, CPDR review package. Volume 6

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.M.

    1995-08-18

    This preliminary design reviews the overall design package for the magnet system. It is mostly presented in viewgraphs. The lengthy presentation took up two full days. Sections are given on TF SDD, TF magnet specifications, TF interface definition, drawing tree and design control, winding pack design, manufacturing, coil setup for VPI, TPX TF magnet assembly, TF materials and processes, quality assurance and test requirements, coil verification testing, TPX acceptance tools, and planning tools.

  8. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  9. Computer program for design and performance analysis of navigation-aid power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, H.; Wiener, P.; Williams, K.

    1976-01-01

    The paper examines the requirements, design rationale, operation, and verification of a computer program designated as design synthesis/performance analysis (DSPA) computer program, which is capable of performing all the calculations necessary to understand the overall characteristics of solar array/battery power systems for navigation-aid applications. Despite the uncertainties in the erratic solar array degradation data and the potential impact on actual battery behavior, verification of the DSPA is considered successful. The program is shown to have the capability of simulating the performance of solar array/battery navigation-aid power systems. It can also be used to synthesize power system designs and provide essential design and cost data.

  10. DeMAID/GA an Enhanced Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Many companies are looking for new tools and techniques to aid a design manager in making decisions that can reduce the time and cost of a design cycle. One tool is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). Since the initial public release of DeMAID in 1989, much research has been done in the areas of decomposition, concurrent engineering, parallel processing, and process management; many new tools and techniques have emerged. Based on these recent research and development efforts, numerous enhancements have been added to DeMAID to further aid the design manager in saving both cost and time in a design cycle. The key enhancement, a genetic algorithm (GA), will be available in the next public release called DeMAID/GA. The GA sequences the design processes to minimize the cost and time in converging a solution. The major enhancements in the upgrade of DeMAID to DeMAID/GA are discussed in this paper. A sample conceptual design project is used to show how these enhancements can be applied to improve the design cycle.

  11. Design, Fabrication, and Packaging of Mach-Zehnder Interferometers for Biological Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Joseph

    Optical biological sensors are widely used in the fields of medical testing, water treatment and safety, gene identification, and many others due to advances in nanofabrication technology. This work focuses on the design of fiber-coupled Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) based biosensors fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. Silicon waveguide sensors are designed with multimode and single-mode dimensions. Input coupling efficiency is investigated by design of various taper structures. Integration processing and packaging is performed for fiber attachment and enhancement of input coupling efficiency. Optical guided-wave sensors rely on single-mode operation to extract an induced phase-shift from the output signal. A silicon waveguide MZI sensor designed and fabricated for both multimode and single-mode dimensions. Sensitivity of the sensors is analyzed for waveguide dimensions and materials. An s-bend structure is designed for the multimode waveguide to eliminate higher-order mode power as an alternative to single-mode confinement. Single-mode confinement is experimentally demonstrated through near field imaging of waveguide output. Y-junctions are designed for 3dB power splitting to the MZI arms and for power recombination after sensing to utilize the interferometric function of the MZI. Ultra-short 10microm taper structures with curved geometries are designed to improve insertion loss from fiber-to-chip without significantly increasing device area and show potential for applications requiring misalignment tolerance. An novel v-groove process is developed for self-aligned integration of fiber grooves for attachment to sensor chips. Thermal oxidation at temperatures from 1050-1150°C during groove processing creates an SiO2 layer on the waveguide end facet to protect the waveguide facet during integration etch processing without additional e-beam lithography processing. Experimental results show improvement of insertion loss compared to dicing preparation

  12. Assembly and insertion of a self-fitting hearing aid: design of effective instruction materials.

    PubMed

    Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

    2011-12-01

    A self-fitting hearing aid has been proposed as a viable option to meet the need for rehabilitation in areas where audiology services are unreliable. A successful outcome with a self-fitting hearing aid pivots in part on the clarity of the instructions accompanying the device. The aims of this article are (a) to review the literature to determine features that should be incorporated into written health-care materials and factors to consider in the design process when developing written instructions for a target audience of older adults and (b) to apply this information to the development of a set of written instructions as the first step in self-fitting of a hearing aid, assembling four parts and inserting the aid into the ear. The method involved a literature review of published peer reviewed research. The literature revealed four steps in the development of written health-care materials: planning, design, assessment of suitability, and pilot testing. Best practice design principles for each step were applied in the development of instructions for how to assemble and insert a hearing aid. Separate booklets were developed for the left and right aids and the content of each consisted of simple line drawings accompanied by captions. The reading level was Grade 3.5 equivalent and the Flesch Reading Ease Score was 91.1 indicating that the materials were "very easy" to read. It is essential to follow best practice design principles when developing written health-care materials to motivate the reader, maximize comprehension, and increase the likelihood of successful application of the content.

  13. Assembly and insertion of a self-fitting hearing aid: design of effective instruction materials.

    PubMed

    Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

    2011-12-01

    A self-fitting hearing aid has been proposed as a viable option to meet the need for rehabilitation in areas where audiology services are unreliable. A successful outcome with a self-fitting hearing aid pivots in part on the clarity of the instructions accompanying the device. The aims of this article are (a) to review the literature to determine features that should be incorporated into written health-care materials and factors to consider in the design process when developing written instructions for a target audience of older adults and (b) to apply this information to the development of a set of written instructions as the first step in self-fitting of a hearing aid, assembling four parts and inserting the aid into the ear. The method involved a literature review of published peer reviewed research. The literature revealed four steps in the development of written health-care materials: planning, design, assessment of suitability, and pilot testing. Best practice design principles for each step were applied in the development of instructions for how to assemble and insert a hearing aid. Separate booklets were developed for the left and right aids and the content of each consisted of simple line drawings accompanied by captions. The reading level was Grade 3.5 equivalent and the Flesch Reading Ease Score was 91.1 indicating that the materials were "very easy" to read. It is essential to follow best practice design principles when developing written health-care materials to motivate the reader, maximize comprehension, and increase the likelihood of successful application of the content. PMID:22389434

  14. High-Performance Power-Semiconductor Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, David; Hansen, Irving; Berman, Albert

    1989-01-01

    A 600-V, 50-A transistor and 1,200-V, 50-A diode in rugged, compact, lightweight packages intended for use in inverter-type power supplies having switching frequencies up to 20 kHz. Packages provide low-inductance connections, low loss, electrical isolation, and long-life hermetic seal. Low inductance achieved by making all electrical connections to each package on same plane. Also reduces high-frequency losses by reducing coupling into inherent shorted turns in packaging material around conductor axes. Stranded internal power conductors aid conduction at high frequencies, where skin effect predominates. Design of packages solves historical problem of separation of electrical interface from thermal interface of high-power semiconductor device.

  15. Improved health among people living with HIV/AIDS who received packages of proven preventive health interventions, Amhara, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Ciara E; Taylor, Ethel V; Ayers, Tracy; Fantu, Ribka; Abayneh, Sisay Alemayehu; Marston, Barbara; Molla, Yordanos B; Sewnet, Tegene; Abebe, Fitsum; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, basic care packages (BCP) containing health products were distributed to HIV-infected persons in Ethiopia who were clients of antiretroviral therapy clinics. To measure health impact, we enrolled clients from an intervention hospital and comparison hospital, and then conducted a baseline survey, and 7 bi-weekly home visits. We enrolled 405 intervention group clients and 344 comparison clients. Intervention clients were more likely than comparison clients to have detectable chlorine in stored water (40% vs. 1%, p<0.001), soap (51% vs. 36%, p<0.001), and a BCP water container (65% vs. 0%, p<0.001) at every home visit. Intervention clients were less likely than comparison clients to report illness (44% vs. 67%, p<0.001) or health facility visits for illness (74% vs. 95%, p<0.001), and had lower median illness scores (1.0 vs. 3.0, p<0.05). Participation in the BCP program appeared to improve reported health outcomes.

  16. Improved Health among People Living with HIV/AIDS Who Received Packages of Proven Preventive Health Interventions, Amhara, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Ciara E.; Taylor, Ethel V.; Ayers, Tracy; Fantu, Ribka; Abayneh, Sisay Alemayehu; Marston, Barbara; Molla, Yordanos B.; Sewnet, Tegene; Abebe, Fitsum; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, basic care packages (BCP) containing health products were distributed to HIV-infected persons in Ethiopia who were clients of antiretroviral therapy clinics. To measure health impact, we enrolled clients from an intervention hospital and comparison hospital, and then conducted a baseline survey, and 7 bi-weekly home visits. We enrolled 405 intervention group clients and 344 comparison clients. Intervention clients were more likely than comparison clients to have detectable chlorine in stored water (40% vs. 1%, p<0.001), soap (51% vs. 36%, p<0.001), and a BCP water container (65% vs. 0%, p<0.001) at every home visit. Intervention clients were less likely than comparison clients to report illness (44% vs. 67%, p<0.001) or health facility visits for illness (74% vs. 95%, p<0.001), and had lower median illness scores (1.0 vs. 3.0, p<0.05). Participation in the BCP program appeared to improve reported health outcomes. PMID:25233345

  17. Design of an aid to visual inspection workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Robert; Harding, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Visual Inspection is the most common means for inspecting manufactured parts for random defects such as pits, scratches, breaks, corrosion or general wear. The reason for the need for visual inspection is the very random nature of what might be a defect. Some defects may be very rare, being seen once or twice a year, but May still be critical to part performance. Because of this random and rare nature, even the most sophisticated image analysis programs have not been able to recognize all possible defects. Key to any future automation of inspection is obtaining good sample images of what might be a defect. However, most visual check take no images and consequently generate no digital data or historical record beyond a simple count. Any additional tool to captures such images must be able to do so without taking addition time. This paper outlines the design of a potential visual inspection station that would be compatible with current visual inspection methods, but afford the means for reliable digital imaging and in many cases augmented capabilities to assist the inspection. Considerations in this study included: resolution, depth of field, feature highlighting, and ease of digital capture, annotations and inspection augmentation for repeatable registration as well as operator assistance and training.

  18. Simulation tools for computer-aided design and numerical investigations of high-power gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damyanova, M.; Balabanova, E.; Kern, S.; Illy, S.; Sabchevski, S.; Thumm, M.; Vasileva, E.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    2012-03-01

    Modelling and simulation are essential tools for computer-aided design (CAD), analysis and optimization of high-power gyrotrons used as radiation sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and current drive (ECCD) of magnetically confined plasmas in the thermonuclear reactor ITER. In this communication, we present the current status of our simulation tools and discuss their further development.

  19. The state of PC-based CADD (computer-aided design and drafting) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, G.L.; Bowers, J.M.; Gorman, T.S.; Taylor, L.E.

    1988-07-11

    This report provides an overview of the state of the art of personal computer (PC)-based computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems for mechanical engineering applications. It presents the results of an evaluation performed on seven systems during October 1987 to March 1988 and summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of the systems.

  20. Web-Based Learning in the Computer-Aided Design Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Wen-Tsai; Ou, S. C.

    2002-01-01

    Applies principles of constructivism and virtual reality (VR) to computer-aided design (CAD) curriculum, particularly engineering, by integrating network, VR and CAD technologies into a Web-based learning environment that expands traditional two-dimensional computer graphics into a three-dimensional real-time simulation that enhances user…

  1. New Spaces for Learning: Designing College Facilities to Utilize Instructional Aids and Media. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauf, Harold D.; And Others

    Colleges need appropriate large group instructional facilities for effective and efficient use of instructional aids and media. A well planned system of facilities must provide space for learning; production, origination, and support; storage and retrieval. Design begins with a building plan--a statement, made jointly by the administrator and…

  2. The Design, Implementation, and Formative Evaluation of a Classroom Aide Professional Development Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulfer, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation focused on the process of designing, implementing, and formatively evaluating an eight week Classroom Aide Professional Development Training Program (CAPD-TP) on behavior management and academic instruction within the context of a New Jersey state approved private special education school for students with behavioral and/or…

  3. Therapist-Aided Exposure for Women with Lifelong Vaginismus: A Replicated Single-Case Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ter Kuile, Moniek M.; Bulte, Isis; Weijenborg, Philomeen T. M.; Beekman, Aart; Melles, Reinhilde; Onghena, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Vaginismus is commonly described as a persistent difficulty in allowing vaginal entry of a penis or other object. Lifelong vaginismus occurs when a woman has never been able to have intercourse. A replicated single-case A-B-phase design was used to investigate the effectiveness of therapist-aided exposure for lifelong vaginismus. A baseline period…

  4. National Science Foundation 1989 Engineering Senior Design Projects To Aid the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enderle, John D., Ed.

    Through the Bioengineering and Research to Aid the Disabled program of the National Science Foundation, design projects were awarded competitively to 16 universities. Senior engineering students at each of the universities constructed custom devices and software for disabled individuals. This compendium contains a description of each project in…

  5. Gathering Empirical Evidence Concerning Links between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musta'amal, Aede Hatib; Norman, Eddie; Hodgson, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Discussion is often reported concerning potential links between computer-aided designing and creativity, but there is a lack of systematic enquiry to gather empirical evidence concerning such links. This paper reports an indication of findings from other research studies carried out in contexts beyond general education that have sought evidence…

  6. Office of Student Financial Aid Quality Improvement Program: Design and Implementation Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Reston, VA.

    The purpose and direction of the Office of Student Financial Aid (OSFA) quality improvement program are described. The background and context for the Pell Grant quality control (QC) design study and the meaning of QC are reviewed. The general approach to quality improvement consists of the following elements: a strategic approach that enables OSFA…

  7. Low-floor bus design preferences of walking aid users during simulated boarding and alighting.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James; Steinfeld, Edward; Bareria, Piyush

    2012-01-01

    Low-floor buses represent a significant improvement in accessible public transit for passengers with limited mobility. However, there is still a need for research on the inclusive design of transit buses to identify specific low-floor bus design conditions that are either particularly accommodating or challenging for passengers with functional and mobility impairments. These include doorway locations, seating configuration and the large front wheel-well covers that collectively impact boarding, alighting and interior movement of passengers. Findings from a laboratory study using a static full-scale simulation of a lowfloor bus to evaluate the impact of seating configuration and crowding on interior movement and accessibility for individuals with and without walking aids are presented (n=41). Simulated bus journeys that included boarding, fare payment, seating, and alighting were performed. Results from video observations and subjective assessments showed differences in boarding and alighting performance and users' perceptions of task difficulty. The need for assistive design features (e.g. handholds, stanchions), legroom and stowage space for walking aids was evident. These results demonstrate that specific design conditions in low-floor buses can significantly impact design preference among those who use walking aids. Consideration of ergonomics and inclusive design can therefore be used to improve the design of low-floor buses.

  8. Computer-aided design of a proton pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    New, Michael H.; Pohorille, Andrew; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The use of transmembrane proton gradients in energy transduction is an almost universal feature of life on earth. These proton gradients are established and maintained by specialized assemblies of proteins which actively pump protons across membranes. One broad class of proton pumps uses captured light energy to drive the proton pumping. Our goal is to elucidate the minimum structural requirements of a light-driven proton-pump. There are two basic components to a simple light-driven proton pump: a source of photo-generated protons and a "gate-keeper" which prevents these protons from reattaching themselves to their source. A wide variety of molecules in the membrane, even as simple as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are capable of releasing protons when illuminated. Our work is therefore focused on the design of the "gate-keeper." Our initial model involves a pair of proton acceptors, coupled to each other by a transient water bridge, and supported in the membrane by a small bundle of peptide helices. Upon illumination, the proton source transfers its proton to the:- first acceptor of the gate-keeper. While the reverse reaction is highly probable, all that is needed to ensure irreversibility is a nonvanishing probability that the proton will be transferred to the second acceptor across a transient water bridge. Back transfer of the proton to the first acceptor, and thence to the proton source, is impeded by the free energy required to move the proton uphill towards the. proton source and by the disruption of the transient water bridge. As a prototypical water-bridged proton transfer system, we are studying the transfer of a proton across a water bridge from a formic acid to a formate anion. With a pK(sub alpha), of 3.7. formic acid is a good model for the acidic amino acids glutamate and aspartate which are good candidates for gate-keeper proton acceptors. Simulations of proton transfer reactions in a membrane are complicated by the quantum mechanical nature of

  9. Advancing lighting and daylighting simulation: The transition from analysis to design aid tools

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, R.J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper explores three significant software development requirements for making the transition from stand-alone lighting simulation/analysis tools to simulation-based design aid tools. These requirements include specialized lighting simulation engines, facilitated methods for creating detailed simulatable building descriptions, an automated techniques for providing lighting design guidance. Initial computer implementations meant to address each of these requirements are discussed to further elaborate these requirements and to illustrate work-in-progress.

  10. Multicriteria aided design of integrated heating-cooling energy systems in buildings.

    PubMed

    Mróz, Tomasz M

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possible application of integrated heating-cooling systems in buildings. The general algorithm of integrated heating-cooling system design aid was formulated. The evaluation criteria of technically acceptable variants were defined. Fossil fuel energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission, investment, and total exploitation cost were identified as the most important factors describing the considered decision problem. The multicriteria decision aid method ELECTRE III was proposed as the decision tool for the choice of the most compromised variant. The proposed method was used for a case study calculation-the choice of an integrated heating-cooling system for an office building.

  11. The theory, design, and operation of the suppressed carrier data-aided tracking receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Springett, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    A viable, efficient, and easily mechanized carrier regenerating receiver for use in suppressed carrier-tracking system is described. The receiver referred to as a data-aided receiver (DAR) incorporates a data-aided loop (DAL) which provides the required carrier reference signal. The DAL employs the principle of decision feedback and as such is more efficient than other forms of suppressed carrier-tracking loops. The analysis, design, and implementation of the DAR are covered in detail. Performance comparisons and mechanization tradeoffs are made, wherever possible, with discrete carrier systems and other suppressed carrier systems presently in use. Experimental performance verification is given throughout in support of the theory presented.

  12. Design, fabrication, and packaging of an integrated, wirelessly-powered optrode array for optogenetics application.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Weber, Arthur; Li, Wen

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of optogenetics has created an increased demand for advancing engineering tools for optical modulation of neural circuitry. This paper details the design, fabrication, integration, and packaging procedures of a wirelessly-powered, light emitting diode (LED) coupled optrode neural interface for optogenetic studies. The LED-coupled optrode array employs microscale LED (μLED) chips and polymer-based microwaveguides to deliver light into multi-level cortical networks, coupled with microelectrodes to record spontaneous changes in neural activity. An integrated, implantable, switched-capacitor based stimulator (SCS) system provides high instantaneous power to the μLEDs through an inductive link to emit sufficient light and evoke neural activities. The presented system is mechanically flexible, biocompatible, miniaturized, and lightweight, suitable for chronic implantation in small freely behaving animals. The design of this system is scalable and its manufacturing is cost effective through batch fabrication using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It can be adopted by other groups and customized for specific needs of individual experiments. PMID:25999823

  13. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Loxton, Edwina A.; Schirmer, Jacki; Kanowski, Peter

    2013-09-15

    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ► Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ► Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ► Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ► Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ► Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing.

  14. Design, fabrication, and packaging of an integrated, wirelessly-powered optrode array for optogenetics application

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Weber, Arthur; Li, Wen

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of optogenetics has created an increased demand for advancing engineering tools for optical modulation of neural circuitry. This paper details the design, fabrication, integration, and packaging procedures of a wirelessly-powered, light emitting diode (LED) coupled optrode neural interface for optogenetic studies. The LED-coupled optrode array employs microscale LED (μLED) chips and polymer-based microwaveguides to deliver light into multi-level cortical networks, coupled with microelectrodes to record spontaneous changes in neural activity. An integrated, implantable, switched-capacitor based stimulator (SCS) system provides high instantaneous power to the μLEDs through an inductive link to emit sufficient light and evoke neural activities. The presented system is mechanically flexible, biocompatible, miniaturized, and lightweight, suitable for chronic implantation in small freely behaving animals. The design of this system is scalable and its manufacturing is cost effective through batch fabrication using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It can be adopted by other groups and customized for specific needs of individual experiments. PMID:25999823

  15. Design and package of a 14CO2 field analyzer: the Global Monitor Platform (GMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Bruno D. V.; Bright, Michelle; Gronniger, Glen

    2011-09-01

    Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is widely accepted as a means to reduce and eliminate the fossil fuel CO2 (ff- CO2) emissions from coal fired power plants. Success of CCS depends on near zero leakage rates over decadal time scales. Currently no commercial methods to determine leakage of ff-CO2 are available. The Global Monitor Platform (GMP) field analyzer provides high precision analysis of CO2 isotopes [12C (99%), 13C (<1%), 14C (1.2x10-10 %)] that can differentiate between fossil and biogenic CO2 emissions. Fossil fuels contain no 14C; their combustion should lower atmospheric amounts on local to global scales. There is a clear mandate for monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) of CCS systems nationally and globally to verify CCS integrity, treaty verification (Kyoto Protocol) and to characterize the nuclear fuel cycle. Planetary Emissions Management (PEM), working with the National Secure Manufacturing Center (NSMC), has the goal of designing, ruggedizing and packaging the GMP for field deployment. The system will conduct atmosphere monitoring then adapt to water and soil evaluations. Measuring 14CO2 in real time will provide quantitative concentration data for ff-CO2 in the atmosphere and CCS leakage detection. Initial results will be discussed along with design changes for improved detection sensitivity and manufacturability.

  16. Enhancements to the Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.; Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the addition of two new enhancements to the program Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). DeMAID is a knowledge-based tool used to aid a design manager in understanding the interactions among the tasks of a complex design problem. This is done by ordering the tasks to minimize feedback, determining the participating subsystems, and displaying them in an easily understood format. The two new enhancements include (1) rules for ordering a complex assembly process and (2) rules for determining which analysis tasks must be re-executed to compute the output of one task based on a change in input to that or another task.

  17. Enhancements to the Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMaid)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.; Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the addition of two new enhancements to the program Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). DeMAID is a knowledge-based tool used to aid a design manager in understanding the interactions among the tasks of a complex design problem. This is done by ordering the tasks to minimize feedback, determining the participating subsystems, and displaying them in an easily understood format. The two new enhancements include (1) rules for ordering a complex assembly process and (2) rules for determining which analysis tasks must be re-executed to compute the output of one task based on a change in input to that or another task.

  18. Landing instrument packages on regolith in micro gravity: point designs for passive, self-righting landers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movshovitz, N.; Asphaug, E. I.

    2012-12-01

    A small asteroid is likely to be the target of the next human exploration mission. Undoubtedly, a robotic mission will precede, whose main objective will be to characterize the target; this would have to include deployment of sensory instruments on the surface. The surface properties of small bodies are largely unknown, and this makes it essential to have detailed models for package deployment. We evaluate low cost, low risk, lander designs by considering 'pods' that have no moving parts, no guidance or thrust, that are designed to be thrown to the surface from the orbiting spacecraft. The design goal is to "encourage" the pods to land upright regardless of surface properties. With no need for guidance or articulation, these pods can be made and deployed to the surface at low cost and low risk. The challenge, of course, is to design the pods to land right-side-up, consistently, in a low gravity environment. In such an environment a body may experience cohesive forces comparable to its weight. These forces will effectively modify the physical parameters controlling a mechanical system, primarily the coefficients of friction and restitution. To make things worse, gravity will not always be pointing "down", as the presence of mass concentrations will tilt the gravity acceleration vector in unpredictable directions. We consider three point designs: (1) a weighted ellipsoidal shape, the bottom several times as dense as the top, analogous to the children's toy; (2) a pod with one side elastic and the other side inelastic; and (3) a combination of both weight distribution and material properties. We have used a discrete element model based on NVIDIA's PhysX library to design a simulation software suitable for modeling astrophysical rubble (Movshovitz, Asphaug and Korycansky, submitted). We then deploy different pod designs onto a numerical regolith testbed. Initial studies are very promising, although to date we have not included forces such as cohesion, and the effect of

  19. Design and Evaluation of an Integrated Online Motion Control Training Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buiu, C.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an integrated Internet-based package for teaching the fundamentals of motion control by using a wide range of resources: theory, videos, simulators, games, quizzes, and a remote lab. The package is aimed at automation technicians, pupils at vocational schools and students taking an introductory course in…

  20. Computer-Aided Designed, 3-Dimensionally Printed Porous Tissue Bioscaffolds For Craniofacial Soft Tissue Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zopf, David A.; Mitsak, Anna G.; Flanagan, Colleen L.; Wheeler, Matthew; Green, Glenn E.; Hollister, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the potential of integrated image-based Computer Aided Design (CAD) and 3D printing approach to engineer scaffolds for head and neck cartilaginous reconstruction for auricular and nasal reconstruction. Study Design Proof of concept revealing novel methods for bioscaffold production with in vitro and in vivo animal data. Setting Multidisciplinary effort encompassing two academic institutions. Subjects and Methods DICOM CT images are segmented and utilized in image-based computer aided design to create porous, anatomic structures. Bioresorbable, polycaprolactone scaffolds with spherical and random porous architecture are produced using a laser-based 3D printing process. Subcutaneous in vivo implantation of auricular and nasal scaffolds was performed in a porcine model. Auricular scaffolds were seeded with chondrogenic growth factors in a hyaluronic acid/collagen hydrogel and cultured in vitro over 2 months duration. Results Auricular and nasal constructs with several microporous architectures were rapidly manufactured with high fidelity to human patient anatomy. Subcutaneous in vivo implantation of auricular and nasal scaffolds resulted in excellent appearance and complete soft tissue ingrowth. Histologic analysis of in vitro scaffolds demonstrated native appearing cartilaginous growth respecting the boundaries of the scaffold. Conclusions Integrated image-based computer-aided design (CAD) and 3D printing processes generated patient-specific nasal and auricular scaffolds that supported cartilage regeneration. PMID:25281749

  1. SCHEMA computational design of virus capsid chimeras: calibrating how genome packaging, protection, and transduction correlate with calculated structural disruption.

    PubMed

    Ho, Michelle L; Adler, Benjamin A; Torre, Michael L; Silberg, Jonathan J; Suh, Junghae

    2013-12-20

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) recombination can result in chimeric capsid protein subunits whose ability to assemble into an oligomeric capsid, package a genome, and transduce cells depends on the inheritance of sequence from different AAV parents. To develop quantitative design principles for guiding site-directed recombination of AAV capsids, we have examined how capsid structural perturbations predicted by the SCHEMA algorithm correlate with experimental measurements of disruption in seventeen chimeric capsid proteins. In our small chimera population, created by recombining AAV serotypes 2 and 4, we found that protection of viral genomes and cellular transduction were inversely related to calculated disruption of the capsid structure. Interestingly, however, we did not observe a correlation between genome packaging and calculated structural disruption; a majority of the chimeric capsid proteins formed at least partially assembled capsids and more than half packaged genomes, including those with the highest SCHEMA disruption. These results suggest that the sequence space accessed by recombination of divergent AAV serotypes is rich in capsid chimeras that assemble into 60-mer capsids and package viral genomes. Overall, the SCHEMA algorithm may be useful for delineating quantitative design principles to guide the creation of libraries enriched in genome-protecting virus nanoparticles that can effectively transduce cells. Such improvements to the virus design process may help advance not only gene therapy applications but also other bionanotechnologies dependent upon the development of viruses with new sequences and functions.

  2. Geotechnical, Hydrogeologic and Vegetation Data Package for 200-UW-1 Waste Site Engineered Surface Barrier Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andy L.

    2007-11-26

    Fluor Hanford (FH) is designing and assessing the performance of engineered barriers for final closure of 200-UW-1 waste sites. Engineered barriers must minimize the intrusion and water, plants and animals into the underlying waste to provide protection for human health and the environment. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator is being used to optimize the performance of candidate barriers. Simulating barrier performance involves computation of mass and energy transfer within a soil-atmosphere-vegetation continuum and requires a variety of input parameters, some of which are more readily available than others. Required input includes parameter values for the geotechnical, physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of the materials comprising the barrier and the structural fill on which it will be constructed as well as parameters to allow simulation of plant effects. This report provides a data package of the required parameters as well as the technical basis, rationale and methodology used to obtain the parameter values.

  3. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold rolling material and Ti-6A1-4V and Inconel 718 were selected as typical hot rolling and cold rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape rolling process were developed. These models utilized the upper bound and the slab methods of analysis, and were capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll separating force, roll torque, and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design system was also capable of simulating the actual rolling process, and thereby designing the roll pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or a similar shape.

  4. Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Custom-Made Titanium Prosthesis: A Case Report on the Use of Virtual Surgical Planning and Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ow, Andrew; Tan, Winston; Pienkowski, Lukasz

    2016-09-01

    The use of virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing has been reported to enhance the planning for the reconstruction of mandibular continuity defects. This case report illustrates the use of this technology in the fabrication of a custom-made titanium prosthesis to restore a segmental mandibular defect. The design specifications and sequence of the custom-made titanium prosthesis are discussed. Although successful in this case, there are limitations in its application and case selection is of vital importance. PMID:27516841

  5. Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Custom-Made Titanium Prosthesis: A Case Report on the Use of Virtual Surgical Planning and Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ow, Andrew; Tan, Winston; Pienkowski, Lukasz

    2016-09-01

    The use of virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing has been reported to enhance the planning for the reconstruction of mandibular continuity defects. This case report illustrates the use of this technology in the fabrication of a custom-made titanium prosthesis to restore a segmental mandibular defect. The design specifications and sequence of the custom-made titanium prosthesis are discussed. Although successful in this case, there are limitations in its application and case selection is of vital importance.

  6. Tools to aid the specification and design of flight software, appendix B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, G.

    1980-01-01

    The tasks that are normally performed during the specification and architecture design stages of software development are identified. Ways that tools could perform, or aid the performance, of such tasks are also identified. Much of the verification and analysis that is suggested is currently rarely performed during these early stages, but it is believed that this analysis should be done as early as possible so as to detect errors as early as possible.

  7. Computer-aided design and drafting visualization of anatomical structure of the human eye and orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshall, Robert F.; Sadler, Lewis L.

    1991-04-01

    A generalized " anatomically standard" eyeball was geometrically modeled on a Computer-Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) workstation based on published conceptual norms of dimension radii of curvature alignments etc. An orbital environment for this model was concurrently prepared by serial section reconstruction of a cadaver specimen. Issues addressed include orienting unregistered sections the utility of interactive CADDsupported visual logic in interpretive decision making and the value of geometric models.

  8. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  9. IDEAS: A multidisciplinary computer-aided conceptual design system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    During the conceptual development of advanced aerospace vehicles, many compromises must be considered to balance economy and performance of the total system. Subsystem tradeoffs may need to be made in order to satisfy system-sensitive attributes. Due to the increasingly complex nature of aerospace systems, these trade studies have become more difficult and time-consuming to complete and involve interactions of ever-larger numbers of subsystems, components, and performance parameters. The current advances of computer-aided synthesis, modeling and analysis techniques have greatly helped in the evaluation of competing design concepts. Langley Research Center's Space Systems Division is currently engaged in trade studies for a variety of systems which include advanced ground-launched space transportation systems, space-based orbital transfer vehicles, large space antenna concepts and space stations. The need for engineering analysis tools to aid in the rapid synthesis and evaluation of spacecraft has led to the development of the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design system. The ADEAS system has been used to perform trade studies of competing technologies and requirements in order to pinpoint possible beneficial areas for research and development. IDEAS is presented as a multidisciplinary tool for the analysis of advanced space systems. Capabilities range from model generation and structural and thermal analysis to subsystem synthesis and performance analysis.

  10. A computer aided design approach for deep water tension leg platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.P.

    1994-12-31

    In this research, a software package was developed under the sponsorship of the Offshore Technology Research Center that is funded by the National Science Foundation and administered by The University of Texas at Austin and Texas A and M University. This software package (Johnson (1993)) was especially conceived for educational or research purposes with emphasis on user interfaces, automatic data generation and graphical display. As a result, a state-of-the-art workstation approach was developed that incorporates sound analysis procedures for deep water Tension Leg Platforms (TLPs). The TLP program (OTRC-TLP-2D93) is easy to use -- yet it is capable of producing real time graphical simulation of the structural response of TLPs in deep water. Several options are available for treating structural nonlinearities as well as nonlinearities in the forcing function based on Morison`s equation. The formulation is based on a two-dimensional model and accounts for a fully coupled analysis of the hull and tendons. The software is designed to handle wave, wind and deep currents with a rich set of user selectable options. General considerations for the software package and the underlying theory are presented. Numerical examples for a TLP subjected to wave, wind and current at an ocean depth of 5,000 feet are presented showing how the problem can be analyzed in a user friendly environment, complimented by the graphical interface developed.

  11. Packaging of electronic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzin, L.

    1966-01-01

    Study of design approaches that are taken toward optimizing the packaging of electronic modules with respect to size, shape, component orientation, interconnections, and structural support. The study does not present a solution to specific packaging problems, but rather the factors to be considered to achieve optimum packaging designs.

  12. fullfact: an R package for the analysis of genetic and maternal variance components from full factorial mating designs.

    PubMed

    Houde, Aimee Lee S; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2016-03-01

    Full factorial breeding designs are useful for quantifying the amount of additive genetic, nonadditive genetic, and maternal variance that explain phenotypic traits. Such variance estimates are important for examining evolutionary potential. Traditionally, full factorial mating designs have been analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance, which may produce negative variance values and is not suited for unbalanced designs. Mixed-effects models do not produce negative variance values and are suited for unbalanced designs. However, extracting the variance components, calculating significance values, and estimating confidence intervals and/or power values for the components are not straightforward using traditional analytic methods. We introduce fullfact - an R package that addresses these issues and facilitates the analysis of full factorial mating designs with mixed-effects models. Here, we summarize the functions of the fullfact package. The observed data functions extract the variance explained by random and fixed effects and provide their significance. We then calculate the additive genetic, nonadditive genetic, and maternal variance components explaining the phenotype. In particular, we integrate nonnormal error structures for estimating these components for nonnormal data types. The resampled data functions are used to produce bootstrap-t confidence intervals, which can then be plotted using a simple function. We explore the fullfact package through a worked example. This package will facilitate the analyses of full factorial mating designs in R, especially for the analysis of binary, proportion, and/or count data types and for the ability to incorporate additional random and fixed effects and power analyses.

  13. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  14. Creative Thinking Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  15. Design model of computerized personal decision aid for youth: An expert review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarif, Siti Mahfuzah; Ibrahim, Norfiza; Shiratuddin, Norshuhada

    2016-08-01

    This paper provides a structured review of a design model of a computerized personal decision aid that is intended for youth, named as YouthPDA Design Model. The proposed design model was examined by experts in related areas to ensure the appropriateness of the proposed components and elements, relevancy of the terminologies used, logic of the flow, usability, and practicality of the design model towards development of YouthPDA application. Seven experts from related areas were involved in the evaluation. Discussions on the findings obtained from the expert review are included in this paper. Finally, a revised design model of YouthPDA is proposed as main guidance to develop YouthPDA application.

  16. Metalloporphyrin catalysts for oxygen reduction developed using computer-aided molecular design

    SciTech Connect

    Ryba, G.N.; Hobbs, J.D.; Shelnutt, J.A.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a new class of metalloporphyrin materials used as catalsyts for use in fuel cell applications. The metalloporphyrins are excellent candidates for use as catalysts at both the anode and cathode. The catalysts reduce oxygen in 1 M potassium hydroxide, as well as in 2 M sulfuric acid. Covalent attachment to carbon supports is being investigated. The computer-aided molecular design is an iterative process, in which experimental results feed back into the design of future catalysts.

  17. Pharmacy Aide. Student Manual [and] Instructor Key.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Kelly

    The first component of this three-part package is a student manual designed to be used independently in secondary health occupations programs or on-the-job training programs for pharmacy aides. The manual contains six units that cover the following topics: introduction to pharmacy, communication skills, pharmaceuticals, prescription processing,…

  18. Design, Development, and Evaluation of Visual Aids for Communicating Prescription Drug Instructions to Nonliterate Patients in Rural Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngoh, Lucy N.; Shepherd, Marvin D.

    1997-01-01

    Culturally sensitive visual aids designed to help convey drug information to nonliterate female adults requiring antibiotics were developed. Researchers conceptualized the messages, and a local artist produced the visual aids. Comprehension and compliance with prescription instructions were evaluated (N=78). Results and practical implications are…

  19. Computer-aided design of control systems to meet many requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schy, A. A.; Adams, W. M., Jr.; Johnson, K. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for using nonlinear programing in the computer-aided design of airplane control systems. It is assumed that the quality of such systems depends on many criteria. These criteria are included in the constraints vector (instead of attempting to combine them into a single scalar criterion, as is usually done), and the design proceeds through a sequence of nonlinear programing solutions in which the designer varies the specification of sets of requirements levels. The method is applied to design of a lateral stability augmentation system (SAS) for a fighter airplane, in which the requirements vector is chosen from the official handling qualities specifications. Results are shown for several simple SAS configurations designed to obtain desirable handling qualities over all design flight conditions with minimum feedback gains. The choice of the final design for each case is not unique but depends on the designer's decision as to which achievable set of requirements levels represents the best for that system. Results indicate that it may be possible to design constant parameter SAS which can satisfy the most stringent handling qualities requirements for fighter airplanes in all flight conditions. The role of the designer as a decision maker, interacting with the computer program, is discussed. Advantages of this type of designer-computer interaction are emphasized. Desirable extensions of the method are indicated.

  20. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Abd Rahman, Safura; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md

    2013-12-01

    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes.

  1. Design of a high-speed vertical transition in LTCC for interposers suitable for packaging photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezzini, M. A.; Marraccini, P. J.; Peters, F. H.

    2016-05-01

    The packaging of high speed Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) should maintain the electrical signal integrity. The standard packaging of high speed PICs relies on wire bonds. This is not desirable because wire bonds degrade the quality of the electrical signal. The research presented in this paper proposes to replace wire bonds with an interposer with multilevel transmission lines. By attaching the PIC by flip chip onto the interposer, the use of wire bonds is avoided. The main concern for designing an interposer with multilevel transmission lines is the vertical transition, which must be designed to avoid return and radiation losses. In this paper, a novel design of a high speed vertical transition for Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) is presented. The proposed vertical transition is simpler than others recently published in the literature, due to eliminating the need for additional ceramic layers or air cavities. A LTCC board was fabricated with several variations of the presented transition to find the optimal dimensions of the structure. The structures were fabricated then characterized and have a 3 dB bandwidth of 37 GHz and an open eye diagram at 44 Gbps. A full wave electromagnetic simulation is described and compared with good agreement to the measurements. The results suggest that an LTCC board with this design can be used for 40 Gbps per channel applications. Keywords: Photonics packaging, Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramics.

  2. Role of computer-aided drug design in modern drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Macalino, Stephani Joy Y; Gosu, Vijayakumar; Hong, Sunhye; Choi, Sun

    2015-09-01

    Drug discovery utilizes chemical biology and computational drug design approaches for the efficient identification and optimization of lead compounds. Chemical biology is mostly involved in the elucidation of the biological function of a target and the mechanism of action of a chemical modulator. On the other hand, computer-aided drug design makes use of the structural knowledge of either the target (structure-based) or known ligands with bioactivity (ligand-based) to facilitate the determination of promising candidate drugs. Various virtual screening techniques are now being used by both pharmaceutical companies and academic research groups to reduce the cost and time required for the discovery of a potent drug. Despite the rapid advances in these methods, continuous improvements are critical for future drug discovery tools. Advantages presented by structure-based and ligand-based drug design suggest that their complementary use, as well as their integration with experimental routines, has a powerful impact on rational drug design. In this article, we give an overview of the current computational drug design and their application in integrated rational drug development to aid in the progress of drug discovery research.

  3. Designing for action: adapting and implementing a community-based newborn care package to affect national change in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Waiswa, Peter; Namazzi, Gertrude; Kerber, Kate; Peterson, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a lack of literature on how to adapt new evidence-based interventions for maternal and newborn care into local health systems and policy for rapid scale-up, particularly for community-based interventions in low-income settings. The Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST) was a cluster randomised control trial to test a community-based care package which was rapidly taken up at national level. Understanding this process may help inform other studies looking to design and evaluate with scale-up in mind. Objective This study aimed to describe the process of using evidence to design a community-based maternal and newborn care package in rural eastern Uganda, and to determine the dissemination and advocacy approaches used to facilitate rapid policy change and national uptake. Design We reviewed UNEST project literature including meeting reports and minutes, supervision reports, and annual and midterm reports. National stakeholders, project and district staff were interviewed regarding their role in the study and perceptions of what contributed to uptake of the package under evaluation. Data related to UNEST formative research, study design, implementation and policy influence were extracted and analysed. Results An advisory committee of key players in development of maternal and newborn policies and programmes in Uganda was constituted from many agencies and disciplines. Baseline qualitative and quantitative data collection was done at district, community and facility level to examine applicability of aspects of a proposed newborn care package to the local setting. Data were summarised and presented to stakeholders to adapt the intervention that was ultimately tested. Quarterly monitoring of key activities and events around the interventions were used to further inform implementation. The UNEST training package, home visit schedule and behaviour change counselling materials were incorporated into the national Village Health Team and Integrated Community Case

  4. Evaluation of computer-aided design and drafting for the electric power industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anuskiewicz, T.; Barduhn, G.; Lowther, B.; Osman, I.

    1984-01-01

    This report reviews current and future computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) technology relative to utility needs and to identify useful development projects that may be undertaken by EPRI. The principal conclusions are that computer aids offer substantial cost and time savings and that computer systems are being developed to take advantage of the savings. Data bases are not available for direct communication between computers used by the power industry and will limit benefits to the industry. Recommendations are made for EPRI to take the initiative to develop the data bases for direct communication between power industry computers and to research, develop, and demonstrate new applications within the industry. Key components of a CADD system are described. The state of the art of two- and three-dimensional CADD systems to perform graphics and project management control functions are assessed. Comparison is made of three-dimensional electronic models and plastic models.

  5. DeMAID: A Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1989-01-01

    A design problem is viewed as a complex system divisible into modules. Before the design of a complex system can begin, the couplings among modules and the presence of iterative loops is determined. This is important because the design manager must know how to group the modules into subsystems and how to assign subsystems to design teams so that changes in one subsystem will have predictable effects on other subsystems. Determining these subsystems is not an easy, straightforward process and often important couplings are overlooked. Moreover, the planning task must be repeated as new information become available or as the design specifications change. The purpose of this research is to develop a knowledge-based tool called the Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID) to act as an intelligent advisor for the design manager. DeMaid identifies the subsystems of a complex design problem, orders them into a well-structured format, and marks the couplings among the subsystems to facilitate the use of multilevel tools. DeMAID also provides the design manager with the capability of examining the trade-offs between sequential and parallel processing. This type of approach could lead to a substantial savings or organizing and displaying a complex problem as a sequence of subsystems easily divisible among design teams. This report serves as a User's Guide for the program.

  6. An evaluation of computer aided design of below-knee prosthetic sockets.

    PubMed

    Topper, A K; Fernie, G R

    1990-12-01

    Forty-eight below-knee amputees compared sockets designed using CANFIT computer aided design (CAD) software with sockets designed using conventional methods. Each subject was fitted by one prosthetist who used conventional techniques and one who used the CANFIT system to design the socket. Prosthetists alternated design methods for each new subject. The prosthetist using the conventional techniques was allowed up to 2 design attempts and the prosthetist using the CANFIT system was allowed up to 5 design attempts. After 2 design attempts with each method 21% of the subjects preferred the CANFIT design socket. Following up to 5 attempts 54% preferred the CANFIT designed socket. A jury of experts made an assessment of the CANFIT system and of CAD in prosthetics. The jury did not think that the version of the system tested was cost effective but that at the rate that it was improving it would become such within 3 to 5 years. The jury noted that, as well as monetary benefits, CAD presents the possibility of benefits in other areas such as research and teaching. A number of specific suggestions regarding the use and development of CAD in prosthetics were also made.

  7. Operator Station Design System - A computer aided design approach to work station layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    The Operator Station Design System is resident in NASA's Johnson Space Center Spacecraft Design Division Performance Laboratory. It includes stand-alone minicomputer hardware and Panel Layout Automated Interactive Design and Crew Station Assessment of Reach software. The data base consists of the Shuttle Transportation System Orbiter Crew Compartment (in part), the Orbiter payload bay and remote manipulator (in part), and various anthropometric populations. The system is utilized to provide panel layouts, assess reach and vision, determine interference and fit problems early in the design phase, study design applications as a function of anthropometric and mission requirements, and to accomplish conceptual design to support advanced study efforts.

  8. Design-based approach to ethics in computer-aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collmann, Jeff R.; Lin, Jyh-Shyan; Freedman, Matthew T.; Wu, Chris Y.; Hayes, Wendelin S.; Mun, Seong K.

    1996-04-01

    A design-based approach to ethical analysis examines how computer scientists, physicians and patients make and justify choices in designing, using and reacting to computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) systems. The basic hypothesis of this research is that values are embedded in CADx systems during all phases of their development, not just retrospectively imposed on them. This paper concentrates on the work of computer scientists and physicians as they attempt to resolve central technical questions in designing clinically functional CADx systems for lung cancer and breast cancer diagnosis. The work of Lo, Chan, Freedman, Lin, Wu and their colleagues provides the initial data on which this study is based. As these researchers seek to increase the rate of true positive classifications of detected abnormalities in chest radiographs and mammograms, they explore dimensions of the fundamental ethical principal of beneficence. The training of CADx systems demonstrates the key ethical dilemmas inherent in their current design.

  9. Computer-aided design of high-contact-ratio gears for minimum dynamic load and stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Hsiang Hsi; Lee, Chinwai; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1990-01-01

    A computer aided design procedure is presented for minimizing dynamic effects on high contact ratio gears by modification of the tooth profile. Both linear and parabolic tooth profile modifications of high contact ratio gears under various loading conditions are examined and compared. The effects of the total amount of modification and the length of the modification zone were systematically studied at various loads and speeds to find the optimum profile design for minimizing the dynamic load and the tooth bending stress. Parabolic profile modification is preferred over linear profile modification for high contact ratio gears because of its lower sensitivity to manufacturing errors. For parabolic modification, a greater amount of modification at the tooth tip and a longer modification zone are required. Design charts are presented for high contact ratio gears with various profile modifications operating under a range of loads. A procedure is illustrated for using the charts to find the optimum profile design.

  10. FINITE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ROCK FALL ON UNCANISTERED FUEL WASTE PACKAGE DESIGNS (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Ceylan

    1996-10-18

    The objective of this analysis is to explore the Uncanistered Fuel (UCF) Tube Design waste package (WP) resistance to rock falls. This analysis will also be used to determine the size of rock that can strike the WP without causing failure in the containment barriers from a height based on the starter tunnel dimensions. The purpose of this analysis is to document the models and methods used in the calculations.

  11. Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Increasing the Meaningful Involvement of Women Living With HIV/AIDS (MIWA) in the Design and Delivery of HIV/AIDS Services.

    PubMed

    Carter, Allison; Greene, Saara; Nicholson, Valerie; O'Brien, Nadia; Sanchez, Margarite; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona; Kaida, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The meaningful involvement of women living with HIV/AIDS (MIWA) is a key feature of women-centred HIV care, yet little is known about transforming MIWA from principle to practice. Drawing on focus group data from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), we explored HIV-positive women's meaningful involvement in the design and delivery of HIV/AIDS services in British Columbia, Canada. In this article, we highlight the benefits and tensions that emerge as women traverse multiple roles as service users and service providers within their care communities, and the impact this has on their access to care and overall health.

  12. Crew aiding and automation: A system concept for terminal area operations, and guidelines for automation design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, John P.

    1994-01-01

    This research and development program comprised two efforts: the development of guidelines for the design of automated systems, with particular emphasis on automation design that takes advantage of contextual information, and the concept-level design of a crew aiding system, the Terminal Area Navigation Decision Aiding Mediator (TANDAM). This concept outlines a system capable of organizing navigation and communication information and assisting the crew in executing the operations required in descent and approach. In service of this endeavor, problem definition activities were conducted that identified terminal area navigation and operational familiarization exercises addressing the terminal area navigation problem. Both airborne and ground-based (ATC) elements of aircraft control were extensively researched. The TANDAM system concept was then specified, and the crew interface and associated systems described. Additionally, three descent and approach scenarios were devised in order to illustrate the principal functions of the TANDAM system concept in relation to the crew, the aircraft, and ATC. A plan for the evaluation of the TANDAM system was established. The guidelines were developed based on reviews of relevant literature, and on experience gained in the design effort.

  13. Annotated bibliography for the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wurm, K.J.; Miller, N.E.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography identifies documents that are pertinent to the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The bibliography is divided into fourteen subject categories so that anyone wishing to review the subject of leaching, for example, can turn to the leaching section and review the abstracts of reports which are concerned primarily with leaching. Abstracts are also cross referenced according to secondary subject matter so that one can get a complete list of abstracts for any of the fourteen subject categories. All documents which by their title alone appear to deal with the design of waste packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste were obtained and reviewed. Only those documents which truly appear to be of interest to a waste package designer were abstracted. The documents not abstracted are listed in a separate section. There was no beginning date for consideration of a document for review. About 1100 documents were reviewed and about 450 documents were abstracted.

  14. The polar phase response property of monopolar ECG voltages using a Computer-Aided Design and Drafting (CAD)-based data acquisition system.

    PubMed

    Goswami, B; Mitra, M; Nag, B; Mitra, T K

    1993-11-01

    The present paper discusses a Computer-Aided Design and Drafting (CAD) based data acquisition and polar phase response study of the ECG. The scalar ECG does not show vector properties although such properties are embedded in it. In the present paper the polar phase response property of monopolar chest lead (V1 to V6) ECG voltages has been studied. A software tool has been used to evaluate the relative phase response of ECG voltages. The data acquisition of monopolar ECG records of chest leads V1 to V6 from the chart recorder has been done with the help of the AutoCAD application package. The spin harmonic constituents of ECG voltages are evaluated at each harmonic plane and the polar phase responses are studied at each plane. Some interesting results have been observed in some typical cases which are discussed in the paper. PMID:8307653

  15. 77 FR 71600 - Medicare Program; Request for Information To Aid in the Design and Development of a Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Request for Information To Aid in the Design and Development of a Survey Regarding Patient Experiences With Emergency Department Care AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Request for...

  16. MATEO: a software package for the molecular design of energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Didier

    2010-04-15

    To satisfy the need of energetic materials chemists for reliable and efficient predictive tools in order to select the most promising candidates for synthesis, a custom software package is developed. Making extensive use of publicly available software, it integrates a wide range of models and can be used for a variety of tasks, from the calculation of molecular properties to the prediction of the performance of heterogeneous materials, such as propellant compositions based on ammonium perchlorate/aluminium mixtures. The package is very easy to use through a graphical desktop environment. According to the material provided as input, suitable models and parameters are automatically selected. Therefore, chemists can apply advanced predictive models without having to learn how to use complex computer codes. To make the package more versatile, a command-line interface is also provided. It facilitates the assessment of various procedures by model developers.

  17. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  18. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  19. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  20. Survey of waste package designs for disposal of high-level waste/spent fuel in selected foreign countries

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

    1989-09-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the waste package strategies for seven western countries with active nuclear power programs that are pursuing disposal of spent nuclear fuel or high-level wastes in deep geologic rock formations. Information, current as of January 1989, is given on the leading waste package concepts for Belgium, Canada, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All but two of the countries surveyed (France and the UK) have developed design concepts for their repositories, but none of the countries has developed its final waste repository or package concept. Waste package concepts are under study in all the countries surveyed, except the UK. Most of the countries have not yet developed a reference concept and are considering several concepts. Most of the information presented in this report is for the current reference or leading concepts. All canisters for the wastes are cylindrical, and are made of metal (stainless steel, mild steel, titanium, or copper). The canister concepts have relatively thin walls, except those for spent fuel in Sweden and Germany. Diagrams are presented for the reference or leading concepts for canisters for the countries surveyed. The expected lifetimes of the conceptual canisters in their respective disposal environment are typically 500 to 1,000 years, with Sweden's copper canister expected to last as long as one million years. Overpack containers that would contain the canisters are being considered in some of the countries. All of the countries surveyed, except one (Germany) are currently planning to utilize a buffer material (typically bentonite) surrounding the disposal package in the repository. Most of the countries surveyed plan to limit the maximum temperature in the buffer material to about 100{degree}C. 52 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Lithium-ion batteries for hearing aid applications: I. Design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passerini, S.; Owens, B. B.; Coustier, F.

    Rechargeable batteries have been designed for powering hearing aid devices (HAD). The cells, based on the lithium-ion chemistry, were designed in a size that is compatible with the existing HAD. The 10 mA h batteries were tested to characterize the design and the electrochemical performance from the point of view of a typical HAD application. Results are presented for constant-current tests, first-cycle conditions, charge voltage cut-off, rate performance, and cycle life. The pulse capabilities and the preliminary safety tests of the batteries will be presented in a following report. The results of the lithium-ion HAD cells developed in this project are compared with other battery chemistries: lithium-alloy and nickel-metal hydride secondary batteries and Zn-air primary batteries.

  2. Computer aided design of digital controller for radial active magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cai, Zhong; Shen, Zupei; Zhang, Zuming; Zhao, Hongbin

    1992-01-01

    A five degree of freedom Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system is developed which is controlled by digital controllers. The model of the radial AMB system is linearized and the state equation is derived. Based on the state variables feedback theory, digital controllers are designed. The performance of the controllers are evaluated according to experimental results. The Computer Aided Design (CAD) method is used to design controllers for magnetic bearings. The controllers are implemented with a digital signal processing (DSP) system. The control algorithms are realized with real-time programs. It is very easy to change the controller by changing or modifying the programs. In order to identify the dynamic parameters of the controlled magnetic system, a special experiment was carried out. Also, the online Recursive Least Squares (RLS) parameter identification method is studied. It can be realized with the digital controllers. Online parameter identification is essential for the realization of an adaptive controller.

  3. History and evolution of the pharmacophore concept in computer-aided drug design.

    PubMed

    Güner, Osman F

    2002-12-01

    With computer-aided drug design established as an integral part of the lead discovery and optimization process, pharmacophores have become a focal point for conceptualizing and understanding receptor-ligand interactions. In the structure-based design process, pharmacophores can be used to align molecules based on the three-dimensional arrangement of chemical features or to develop predictive models (e.g., 3D-QSAR) that correlate with the experimental activities of a given training set. Pharmacophores can be also used as search queries for retrieving potential leads from structural databases, for designing molecules with specific desired attributes, or as fingerprints for assessing similarity and diversity of molecules. This review article presents a historical perspective on the evolution and use of the pharmacophore concept in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and fragrances industry with published examples of how the technology has contributed and advanced the field. PMID:12470283

  4. Computer aided design of digital controller for radial active magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhong; Shen, Zupei; Zhang, Zuming; Zhao, Hongbin

    1992-05-01

    A five degree of freedom Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) system is developed which is controlled by digital controllers. The model of the radial AMB system is linearized and the state equation is derived. Based on the state variables feedback theory, digital controllers are designed. The performance of the controllers are evaluated according to experimental results. The Computer Aided Design (CAD) method is used to design controllers for magnetic bearings. The controllers are implemented with a digital signal processing (DSP) system. The control algorithms are realized with real-time programs. It is very easy to change the controller by changing or modifying the programs. In order to identify the dynamic parameters of the controlled magnetic system, a special experiment was carried out. Also, the online Recursive Least Squares (RLS) parameter identification method is studied. It can be realized with the digital controllers. Online parameter identification is essential for the realization of an adaptive controller.

  5. Toward the computer-aided design of metal ion sequestering agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Benjamin P.; Firman, Timothy K.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Rapko, Brian M.; Garza, Priscilla A.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Hutchison, James E.; Parks, Bevin W.; Gilbertson, Robert D.; Weakley, Timothy J R

    2004-07-14

    The concepts embodied in de novo structure-based drug design are being adapted for the computer-aided design of metal ion sequestering agents. This adaptation requires the development of methods for (i) generating candidate structures and (ii) evaluating and prioritizing these structures with respect to their binding affinity for a specific guest. This article summarizes recent progress in this area that includes the creation of a new computer software program, called HostDesigner, that can generate and evaluate millions of new molecular structures per minute on a desktop personal computer. Several methods for evaluating the degree of binding site organization in a host structure are presented. An example is provided to demonstrate how these methods have been used to identify ligand architectures that provide enhanced metal ion binding affinity.

  6. Large Advanced Space Systems (LASS) computer-aided design program additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The LSS preliminary and conceptual design requires extensive iteractive analysis because of the effects of structural, thermal, and control intercoupling. A computer aided design program that will permit integrating and interfacing of required large space system (LSS) analyses is discussed. The primary objective of this program is the implementation of modeling techniques and analysis algorithms that permit interactive design and tradeoff studies of LSS concepts. Eight software modules were added to the program. The existing rigid body controls module was modified to include solar pressure effects. The new model generator modules and appendage synthesizer module are integrated (interfaced) to permit interactive definition and generation of LSS concepts. The mass properties module permits interactive specification of discrete masses and their locations. The other modules permit interactive analysis of orbital transfer requirements, antenna primary beam n, and attitude control requirements.

  7. Computer aided process planning and die design in simulation environment in sheet metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisza, Miklós; Lukács, Zsolt

    2013-12-01

    During the recent 10-15 years, Computer Aided Process Planning and Die Design evolved as one of the most important engineering tools in sheet metal forming, particularly in the automotive industry. This emerging role is strongly emphasized by the rapid development of Finite Element Modeling, as well. The purpose of this paper is to give a general overview about the recent achievements in this very important field of sheet metal forming and to introduce some special results in this development activity. Therefore, in this paper, an integrated process simulation and die design system developed at the University of Miskolc, Department of Mechanical Engineering will be analyzed. The proposed integrated solutions have great practical importance to improve the global competitiveness of sheet metal forming in the very important segment of industry. The concept described in this paper may have specific value both for process planning and die design engineers.

  8. [A computer-aided design assessment system for recovery life support technology options].

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Wang, F; Sun, J; Shang, C

    1997-04-01

    A specific computer-aided decision support system was designed and implemented for design computation and decision assessment of environmental control and life support system of manned space station. An advanced multiobjective decision methodology and a hierarchic structure model of assessment index of recovery life support system was developed. The program incorporates a database for each technology option, metabolic design loads associated with crew activity, mission model variables to accommodate evolving mission requirements, and algorithms to produce products criteria in order to provide recommendations relative to candidate technology selection and development. A specific structure was developed for the decision system which consists of a database, a methodology base and a model base as well as their management systems. Moreover, a centre control system with friendly user interface plays a very important role in the man-computer interaction.

  9. ACSYNT - A standards-based system for parametric, computer aided conceptual design of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaram, S.; Myklebust, A.; Gelhausen, P.

    1992-01-01

    A group of eight US aerospace companies together with several NASA and NAVY centers, led by NASA Ames Systems Analysis Branch, and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory agreed, through the assistance of Americal Technology Initiative, in 1990 to form the ACSYNT (Aircraft Synthesis) Institute. The Institute is supported by a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement to continue the research and development in computer aided conceptual design of aircraft initiated by NASA Ames Research Center and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory. The result of this collaboration, a feature-based, parametric computer aided aircraft conceptual design code called ACSYNT, is described. The code is based on analysis routines begun at NASA Ames in the early 1970's. ACSYNT's CAD system is based entirely on the ISO standard Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System and is graphics-device independent. The code includes a highly interactive graphical user interface, automatically generated Hermite and B-Spline surface models, and shaded image displays. Numerous features to enhance aircraft conceptual design are described.

  10. RETRACTED: Auricular prosthesis fabrication using computer-aided design and rapid prototyping technologies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mayank

    2016-06-01

    At the request of the editorMayank Shah 'Auricular prosthesis fabrication using computer-aided design and rapid prototyping technologies' Prosthetics and Orthotics International, published online before print on October 8, 2013 as doi:10.1177/0309364613504779has been retracted. This is because it contains unattributed overlap withK. Subburaj, C. Nair, S. Rajesh, S. M. Meshram, B. Ravi 'Rapid development of auricular prosthesis using CAD and rapid prototyping technologies' International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery 2007; 36: 938-943 doi:10.1016/j.ijom.2007.07.013.

  11. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... target so as to suffer the maximum damage to its containment. The height of the drop measured from the lowest part of the packaging specimen to the upper surface of the target must be 9 m (30 feet) or greater. The target must be as specified in § 173.465(c)(5). (2) Penetration test. The specimen must...

  12. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... target so as to suffer the maximum damage to its containment. The height of the drop measured from the lowest part of the packaging specimen to the upper surface of the target must be 9 m (30 feet) or greater. The target must be as specified in § 173.465(c)(5). (2) Penetration test. The specimen must...

  13. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... target so as to suffer the maximum damage to its containment. The height of the drop measured from the lowest part of the packaging specimen to the upper surface of the target must be 9 m (30 feet) or greater. The target must be as specified in § 173.465(c)(5). (2) Penetration test. The specimen must...

  14. Software for Teaching about AIDS & Sex: A Critical Review of Products. A MicroSIFT Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Dave

    This document contains critical reviews of 10 microcomputer software packages and two interactive videodisc products designed for use in teaching about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and sex at the secondary school level and above. Each package was reviewed by one or two secondary school health teachers and by a staff member from the…

  15. Mechanical Design Technology--Modified. (Computer Assisted Drafting, Computer Aided Design). Curriculum Grant 84/85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoolcraft Coll., Livonia, MI.

    This document is a curriculum guide for a program in mechanical design technology (computer-assisted drafting and design developed at Schoolcraft College, Livonia, Michigan). The program helps students to acquire the skills of drafters and to interact with electronic equipment, with the option of becoming efficient in the computer-aided…

  16. Conductor backed and shielded multi-layer coplanar waveguide designs on LTCC for RF carrier boards for packaging PICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marraccini, Philip J.; Jezzini, Moises A.; Peters, Frank H.

    2016-05-01

    Designing photonic integrated circuits (PICs) with packaging in mind is important since this impacts the performance of the final product. In coherent optical communication applications there are a large number of DC and RF lines that need routed to connect the PIC to the outer packaging. These RF lines should be impedance matched to the devices, isolated from each other, low loss and protected against electromagnetic interference (EMI) over the frequency range of interest to achieve the performance required for the application. Multilevel low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) boards can be used as a carrier board connecting the PIC to the packaging due to its good RF performance, machinability, compatibility with hermetic sealing, and ability to integrate drivers into the board. Flexibility with layer numbers enables additional layers for shielding against electromagnetic interference or increased space for routing electrical connections. In this paper the design, simulations, and measured results for a set of 4 phase matched transmission lines in LTCC that would be used with an IQ MZM are presented. The measured 3dB bandwidth for a set of four phase matched transmission lines for an IQ MZM was measured to be 19.8 GHz.

  17. User's manual: Computer-aided design programs for inductor-energy-storage dc-to-dc electronic power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, S.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed instructions on the use of two computer-aided-design programs for designing the energy storage inductor for single winding and two winding dc to dc converters are provided. Step by step procedures are given to illustrate the formatting of user input data. The procedures are illustrated by eight sample design problems which include the user input and the computer program output.

  18. Accelerating Design of Batteries Using Computer-Aided Engineering Tools (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2010-11-01

    Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is a proven pathway, especially in the automotive industry, to improve performance by resolving the relevant physics in complex systems, shortening the product development design cycle, thus reducing cost, and providing an efficient way to evaluate parameters for robust designs. Academic models include the relevant physics details, but neglect engineering complexities. Industry models include the relevant macroscopic geometry and system conditions, but simplify the fundamental physics too much. Most of the CAE battery tools for in-house use are custom model codes and require expert users. There is a need to make these battery modeling and design tools more accessible to end users such as battery developers, pack integrators, and vehicle makers. Developing integrated and physics-based CAE battery tools can reduce the design, build, test, break, re-design, re-build, and re-test cycle and help lower costs. NREL has been involved in developing various models to predict the thermal and electrochemical performance of large-format cells and has used in commercial three-dimensional finite-element analysis and computational fluid dynamics to study battery pack thermal issues. These NREL cell and pack design tools can be integrated to help support the automotive industry and to accelerate battery design.

  19. Current Status of Computer-Aided Drug Design for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Shabana; Sakata, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that requires multiple therapeutic approaches. The pancreas loses its functionality to properly produce the insulin hormone in patients with diabetes mellitus. In 2012, more than one million people worldwide died as a result of diabetes, which was the eighth leading cause of death. Objective Most drugs currently available and approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration cannot reach an adequate level of glycemic control in diabetic patients, and have many side effects; thus, new classes of compounds are required. Efforts based on computer-aided drug design (CADD) can mine a large number of databases to produce new and potent hits and minimize the requirement of time and dollars for new discoveries. Methods Pharmaceutical sciences have made progress with advances in drug design concepts. Virtual screening of large databases is most compatible with different computational methods such as molecular docking, pharmacophore, quantitative structure-activity relationship, and molecular dynamic simulation. Contribution of these methods in selection of antidiabetic compounds has been discussed. Results The Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) approach has contributed to successful discovery of novel anti-diabetic agents. This mini-review focuses on CADD approach on currently approved drugs and new therapeutic agents-in-development that may achieve suitable glucose levels and decrease the risk of hypoglycemia, which is a major obstacle to glucose control and a special concern for therapies that increase insulin levels. Conclusion Drug design and development for type 2 diabetes have been actively studied. However, a large number of antidiabetic drugs are still in early stages of development. The conventional target- and structure-based approaches can be regarded as part of the efforts toward therapeutic mechanism-based drug design for treatment of type 2 diabetes. It is expected that further improvement in CADD approach will

  20. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report on reference conceptual designs for a repository waste package

    SciTech Connect

    Rote, D.M.; Hull, A.B.; Was, G.S.; Macdonald, D.D.; Wilde, B.E.; Russell, J.E.; Kruger, J.; Harrison, W.; Hambley, D.F.

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the findings of the peer panel constituted by Argonne National Laboratory to review Region A of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report entitled Waste Package Reference Conceptual Designs for a Repository in Salt. The panel determined that the reviewed report does not provide reasonable assurance that US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for waste packages will be met by the proposed design. It also found that it is premature to call the design a ''reference design,'' or even a ''reference conceptual design.'' This review report provides guidance for the preparation of a more acceptable design document.

  1. Computer-aided analysis and design of the shape rolling process for producing turbine engine airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoti, G. D.; Akgerman, N.; Altan, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mild steel (AISI 1018) was selected as model cold-rolling material and Ti-6Al-4V and INCONEL 718 were selected as typical hot-rolling and cold-rolling alloys, respectively. The flow stress and workability of these alloys were characterized and friction factor at the roll/workpiece interface was determined at their respective working conditions by conducting ring tests. Computer-aided mathematical models for predicting metal flow and stresses, and for simulating the shape-rolling process were developed. These models utilize the upper-bound and the slab methods of analysis, and are capable of predicting the lateral spread, roll-separating force, roll torque and local stresses, strains and strain rates. This computer-aided design (CAD) system is also capable of simulating the actual rolling process and thereby designing roll-pass schedule in rolling of an airfoil or similar shape. The predictions from the CAD system were verified with respect to cold rolling of mild steel plates. The system is being applied to cold and hot isothermal rolling of an airfoil shape, and will be verified with respect to laboratory experiments under controlled conditions.

  2. Computer-aided Molecular Design of Compounds Targeting Histone Modifying Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Federico; Del Rio, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidences show that epigenetic mechanisms play crucial roles in the genesis and progression of many physiopathological processes. As a result, research in epigenetic grew at a fast pace in the last decade. In particular, the study of histone post-translational modifications encountered an extraordinary progression and many modifications have been characterized and associated to fundamental biological processes and pathological conditions. Histone modifications are the catalytic result of a large set of enzyme families that operate covalent modifications on specific residues at the histone tails. Taken together, these modifications elicit a complex and concerted processing that greatly contribute to the chromatin remodeling and may drive different pathological conditions, especially cancer. For this reason, several epigenetic targets are currently under validation for drug discovery purposes and different academic and industrial programs have been already launched to produce the first pre-clinical and clinical outcomes. In this scenario, computer-aided molecular design techniques are offering important tools, mainly as a consequence of the increasing structural information available for these targets. In this mini-review we will briefly discuss the most common types of known histone modifications and the corresponding operating enzymes by emphasizing the computer-aided molecular design approaches that can be of use to speed-up the efforts to generate new pharmaceutically relevant compounds. PMID:26082827

  3. Computer-aided Molecular Design of Compounds Targeting Histone Modifying Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, Federico; Del Rio, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidences show that epigenetic mechanisms play crucial roles in the genesis and progression of many physiopathological processes. As a result, research in epigenetic grew at a fast pace in the last decade. In particular, the study of histone post-translational modifications encountered an extraordinary progression and many modifications have been characterized and associated to fundamental biological processes and pathological conditions. Histone modifications are the catalytic result of a large set of enzyme families that operate covalent modifications on specific residues at the histone tails. Taken together, these modifications elicit a complex and concerted processing that greatly contribute to the chromatin remodeling and may drive different pathological conditions, especially cancer. For this reason, several epigenetic targets are currently under validation for drug discovery purposes and different academic and industrial programs have been already launched to produce the first pre-clinical and clinical outcomes. In this scenario, computer-aided molecular design techniques are offering important tools, mainly as a consequence of the increasing structural information available for these targets. In this mini-review we will briefly discuss the most common types of known histone modifications and the corresponding operating enzymes by emphasizing the computer-aided molecular design approaches that can be of use to speed-up the efforts to generate new pharmaceutically relevant compounds.

  4. Design and implementation of a bluetooth-based band-aid pulse rate sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Rai, Pratyush; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Banerjee, Nilanjan; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Remote patient monitoring systems capable of collecting vital patient data such as blood pressure readings, Electrocardiograph (ECG) waveforms, and heart rate can obviate the need for repeated visits to the hospital. Moreover, such systems that continuously monitor the human physiology can provide valuable data to prognosticate the onset of critical health problems. The key to such remote health diagnostics is the design of minimally intrusive, low cost sensors that do not impede a patient's quotidian life but at the same time collect reliable noise free data. To this end, in this paper, we design and implement a Bluetooth-based wireless sensor system with a disposable sensor element and a reusable wireless component that can be worn as a "band-aid". The sensor is a piezoelectric polymer film placed on the wrist in proximity to the radial artery. The band-aid sized sensor allows non-intrusive monitoring of the pulsatile flow of blood in the artery. The sensor, using the Bluetooth module, can communicate with any Bluetooth enabled computer, mobile phone, or PDA. The data collected from the patient can be remotely viewed and analyzed by a physician.

  5. A computer-aided design system geared toward conceptual design in a research environment. [for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    STACK S. H.

    1981-01-01

    A computer-aided design system has recently been developed specifically for the small research group environment. The system is implemented on a Prime 400 minicomputer linked with a CDC 6600 computer. The goal was to assign the minicomputer specific tasks, such as data input and graphics, thereby reserving the large mainframe computer for time-consuming analysis codes. The basic structure of the design system consists of GEMPAK, a computer code that generates detailed configuration geometry from a minimum of input; interface programs that reformat GEMPAK geometry for input to the analysis codes; and utility programs that simplify computer access and data interpretation. The working system has had a large positive impact on the quantity and quality of research performed by the originating group. This paper describes the system, the major factors that contributed to its particular form, and presents examples of its application.

  6. Designing optimal transportation networks: a knowledge-based computer-aided multicriteria approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    The dissertation investigates the applicability of using knowledge-based expert systems (KBES) approach to solve the single-mode (automobile), fixed-demand, discrete, multicriteria, equilibrium transportation-network-design problem. Previous works on this problem has found that mathematical programming method perform well on small networks with only one objective. Needed is a solution technique that can be used on large networks having multiple, conflicting criteria with different relative importance weights. The KBES approach developed in this dissertation represents a new way to solve network design problems. The development of an expert system involves three major tasks: knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation, and testing. For knowledge acquisition, a computer aided network design/evaluation model (UFOS) was developed to explore the design space. This study is limited to the problem of designing an optimal transportation network by adding and deleting capacity increments to/from any link in the network. Three weighted criteria were adopted for use in evaluating each design alternative: cost, average V/C ratio, and average travel time.

  7. LIFESPAN: A tool for the computer-aided design of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596

  8. Computer-aided design of reflector antennas - The Green Bank Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Marco A. B.; Stutzman, Warren L.

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the electrical performance of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) reflector antenna, operating as single- and dual-offset configurations, as well as a general overview of the GBT system. The GBT dual-offset Gregorian configuration is designed for low cross polarization (XPOL) using the dual-offset reflector antenna (DORA) synthesis package code. The procedure implemented in DORA to upgrade an existing main reflector to a low cross-polarized dual-offset Gregorian reflector antenna is also described. All computed patterns were obtained with the parabolic reflector analysis code (PRAC) program, and with the commercial code GRASP7. The GBT radiation patterns and performance values indicate that low XPOL performance can be achieved with a dual-offset configuration, provided that a low XPOL feed is used. The GBT configuration is employed as a case example for the aforementioned procedure.

  9. Computer aided design and manufacturing of composite propfan blades for a cruise missile wind tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorp, Scott A.; Downey, Kevin M.

    1992-01-01

    One of the propulsion concepts being investigated for future cruise missiles is advanced unducted propfans. To support the evaluation of this technology applied to the cruise missile, a joint DOD and NASA test project was conducted to design and then test the characteristics of the propfans on a 0.55-scale, cruise missile model in a NASA wind tunnel. The configuration selected for study is a counterrotating rearward swept propfan. The forward blade row, having six blades, rotates in a counterclockwise direction, and the aft blade row, having six blades, rotates in a clockwise direction, as viewed from aft of the test model. Figures show the overall cruise missile and propfan blade configurations. The objective of this test was to evaluate propfan performance and suitability as a viable propulsion option for next generation of cruise missiles. This paper details the concurrent computer aided design, engineering, and manufacturing of the carbon fiber/epoxy propfan blades as the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  10. Computer-aided design system with artificial intelligence for automatic dimensioning

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, R.; Juricic, D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper is concerned with the methodology applicable to automating computer drafting tasks of a Computer-Aided Drafting and Design (CADD) system. One of the main characteristics of these tasks is the need for interaction with geometric models and their features. The specific drafting task considered in this paper was dimensioning of a multiview drawing. The paper illustrates the approach used and describes the introduction of relevant knowledge base as well as implementation of an inference engine internal to the drafting system. A simple class of objects was used to illustrate in more details the methods involved. It is noted that developing this methodology may be of vital importance for further automation of the drafting and design process.

  11. Interface load analysis for computer-aided design of below-knee prosthetic sockets.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, D P; Lord, M

    1992-07-01

    A finite-element analysis is made for the compression of soft tissues of the residual lower limb contained in a prosthetic socket. The analysis is relevant to static loading during stance in a patellar-tendon-bearing, below-knee design of socket. Values of Young's modulus are obtained experimentally for use in the model. One of the main objectives is to study the sensitivity of the loading to these values and also to other assumed conditions. Using direct pressure at the limb/socket interface and vertical stiffness as indicators, changes in material properties, socket alignment and socket rectification are investigated; assumptions about the frictional characteristic at the interface are seen to be critical in determination of load distribution. This type of analysis may provide the next stage of refinement for computer-aided socket design systems.

  12. Using the Continuum of Design Modelling Techniques to Aid the Development of CAD Modeling Skills in First Year Industrial Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storer, I. J.; Campbell, R. I.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Designers need to understand and command a number of modelling techniques to communicate their ideas to themselves and others. Verbal explanations, sketches, engineering drawings, computer aided design (CAD) models and physical prototypes are the most commonly used communication techniques. Within design, unlike some disciplines,…

  13. Computer-Aided Molecular Design of Bis-phosphine Oxide Lanthanide Extractants

    DOE PAGES

    McCann, Billy W.; Silva, Nuwan De; Windus, Theresa L.; Gordon, Mark S.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2016-02-17

    Computer-aided molecular design and high-throughput screening of viable host architectures can significantly reduce the efforts in the design of novel ligands for efficient extraction of rare earth elements. This paper presents a computational approach to the deliberate design of bis-phosphine oxide host architectures that are structurally organized for complexation of trivalent lanthanides. Molecule building software, HostDesigner, was interfaced with molecular mechanics software, PCModel, providing a tool for generating and screening millions of potential R2(O)P-link-P(O)R2 ligand geometries. The molecular mechanics ranking of ligand structures is consistent with both the solution-phase free energies of complexation obtained with density functional theory and themore » performance of known bis-phosphine oxide extractants. For the case where link is -CH2-, evaluation of the ligand geometry provides the first characterization of a steric origin for the ‘anomalous aryl strengthening’ effect. The design approach has identified a number of novel bis-phosphine oxide ligands that are better organized for lanthanide complexation than previously studied examples.« less

  14. Computer-Aided Molecular Design of Bis-phosphine Oxide Lanthanide Extractants.

    PubMed

    McCann, Billy W; Silva, Nuwan De; Windus, Theresa L; Gordon, Mark S; Moyer, Bruce A; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S; Hay, Benjamin P

    2016-06-20

    Computer-aided molecular design and high-throughput screening of viable host architectures can significantly reduce the efforts in the design of novel ligands for efficient extraction of rare earth elements. This paper presents a computational approach to the deliberate design of bis-phosphine oxide host architectures that are structurally organized for complexation of trivalent lanthanides. Molecule building software, HostDesigner, was interfaced with molecular mechanics software, PCModel, providing a tool for generating and screening millions of potential R2(O)P-link-P(O)R2 ligand geometries. The molecular mechanics ranking of ligand structures is consistent with both the solution-phase free energies of complexation obtained with density functional theory and the performance of known bis-phosphine oxide extractants. For the case where the link is -CH2-, evaluation of the ligand geometry provides the first characterization of a steric origin for the "anomalous aryl strengthening" effect. The design approach has identified a number of novel bis-phosphine oxide ligands that are better organized for lanthanide complexation than previously studied examples.

  15. Seed Aid for Food Security? Some Lessons from Zimbabwe's Agricultural Recovery Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Richard; Muringai, Violet; Mavunganidze, Zira

    2007-01-01

    Does agricultural input aid always lead to favourable food security outcomes? This paper describes Zimbabwe's agricultural recovery program for the 2003/2004 farming season and draws some lessons that can be used in the designing and implementation of future programs. Input aid was found to be most beneficial if it is packaged together with other…

  16. Development of the engineering design integration (EDIN) system: A computer aided design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, C. R.; Hirsch, G. N.

    1977-01-01

    The EDIN (Engineering Design Integration) System which provides a collection of hardware and software, enabling the engineer to perform man-in-the-loop interactive evaluation of aerospace vehicle concepts, was considered. Study efforts were concentrated in the following areas: (1) integration of hardware with the Univac Exec 8 System; (2) development of interactive software for the EDIN System; (3) upgrading of the EDIN technology module library to an interactive status; (4) verification of the soundness of the developing EDIN System; (5) support of NASA in design analysis studies using the EDIN System; (6) provide training and documentation in the use of the EDIN System; and (7) provide an implementation plan for the next phase of development and recommendations for meeting long range objectives.

  17. An overlooked yet ubiquitous fluoride congenitor: binding bifluoride in triazolophanes using computer-aided design.

    PubMed

    Ramabhadran, Raghunath O; Liu, Yun; Hua, Yuran; Ciardi, Moira; Flood, Amar H; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2014-04-01

    Despite its ubiquity during the binding and sensing of fluoride, the role of bifluoride (HF2(-)) and its binding properties are almost always overlooked. Here, we give one of the first examinations of bifluoride recognition in which we use computer-aided design to modify the cavity shape of triazolophanes to better match with HF2(-). Computational investigation indicates that HF2(-) and Cl(-) should have similar binding affinities to the parent triazolophane in the gas phase. Evaluation of the binding geometries revealed a preference for binding of the linear HF2(-) along the north-south axis with a smaller Boltzmann weighted population aligned east-west and all states being accessed rapidly through in-plane precessional rotations of the anion. While the (1)H NMR spectroscopy studies are consistent with the calculated structural aspects, binding affinities in solution were determined to be significantly smaller for the bifluoride than the chloride. Computed geometries suggested that a 20° tilting of the bifluoride (stemming from the cavity size) could account for the 25-fold difference between the two binding affinities, HF2(-) < Cl(-). Structural variations to the triazolophane's geometry and electronic modifications to the network of hydrogen bond donors were subsequently screened in a stepwise manner using density functional theory calculations to yield a final design that eliminates the tilting. Correspondingly, the bifluoride's binding affinity (K ∼ 10(6) M(-1)) increased and was also found to remain equal to chloride in the gas and solution phases. The new oblate cavity appeared to hold the HF2(-) in a single east-west arrangement. Our findings demonstrate the promising ability of computer-aided design to fine-tune the structural and electronic match in anion receptors as a means to control the arrangement and binding strength of a desired guest.

  18. Edible packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  19. Use of CADD (Computer Aided Drafting and Design) in a construction setting

    SciTech Connect

    Ketcham, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    At the outset of the design for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) it was determined to complete over 70 percent of the more than 7000 drawings on a Computer Aided Drafting and Design (CADD) system. This ambitious goal required the development of an integrated data base for plant design software systems to service a multi-discipline, engineering and management environment for the complex one-of-a-kind mega project. The implementation involved extensive training, special accounting and security provisions to meet QA requirements. It was found to be effective to train engineers as well as operators so that technical personnel could have direct access to the drawing files. This was particularly useful when designing and laying out close tolerance equipment in remotely maintained cells where clearances are critical. It was also beneficial to have the terminals located in the same areas as the engineering staff. Background drawings were maintained by one discipline and used as a reference file by the other disciplines. This reduced the chances of interferences and insured that the latest revisions were in use. 2 figs.

  20. VIP: A knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Steven M.; Bellman, Kirstie L.

    1990-01-01

    The Vehicles Implementation Project (VIP), a knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems is described. VIP combines qualitative knowledge in the form of rules, quantitative knowledge in the form of equations, and other mathematical modeling tools. The system allows users rapidly to develop and experiment with models of spacecraft system designs. As information becomes available to the system, appropriate equations are solved symbolically and the results are displayed. Users may browse through the system, observing dependencies and the effects of altering specific parameters. The system can also suggest approaches to the derivation of specific parameter values. In addition to providing a tool for the development of specific designs, VIP aims at increasing the user's understanding of the design process. Users may rapidly examine the sensitivity of a given parameter to others in the system and perform tradeoffs or optimizations of specific parameters. A second major goal of VIP is to integrate the existing corporate knowledge base of models and rules into a central, symbolic form.

  1. Integrated laser Doppler blood flowmeter designed to enable wafer-level packaging.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshinori; Goma, Masaki; Onoe, Atsushi; Higurashi, Eiji; Sawada, Renshi

    2010-08-01

    The authors propose a new sensor structure for an integrated laser Doppler blood flowmeter that consists of two silicon cavities with a PD and laser diode inside each cavity. A silicon lid formed with a converging microlens completes the package. This structure, which was achieved using micromachining techniques, features reduced optical power loss in the sensor, resulting in its small size and significantly low power consumption. Measurements using a model tissue blood flow system confirmed that the new sensor had high linearity and a wide dynamic range for measuring tissue blood flow. PMID:20199932

  2. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  3. Design package for a complete residential solar space heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information necessary to evaluate the design of a solar space heating and hot water system is reported. System performance specifications, the design data brochure, the system description, and other information pertaining to the design are included.

  4. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system for construction of spinal orthosis for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, M S

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spinal orthoses are commonly prescribed to patients with moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) for prevention of further curve deterioration. In conventional manufacturing method, plaster bandages are used to obtain the patient's body contour and then the plaster cast is rectified manually. With computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system, a series of automated processes from body scanning to digital rectification and milling of the positive model can be performed in a fast and accurate fashion. The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce the application of CAD/CAM system to the construction of spinal orthosis for patients with AIS. Based on evidence within the literature, CAD/CAM method can achieve similar clinical outcomes but with higher efficiency than the conventional fabrication method. Therefore, CAD/CAM method should be considered a substitute to the conventional method in fabrication of spinal orthoses for patients with AIS.

  5. Microcomputed tomography marginal fit evaluation of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing crowns with different methods of virtual model acquisition.

    PubMed

    das Neves, Flavio Domingues; do Prado, Celio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Carneiro, Thiago Almeida Prado Naves; Zancope, Karla; Davi, Leticia Resende; Mendonca, Gustavo; Cooper, Lyndon; Soares, Carlos Jose

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study used microcomputed tomography to evaluate the marginal fit of crowns fabricated using a chairside computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system with different methods of virtual model acquisition. Crowns were fabricated to fit in a cast containing a single human premolar. Four methods of virtual model acquisition were used: Group 1 (control), digital impressioning of a typodont; Group 2, digital impressioning of a powdered typodont; Group 3, digital impressioning of a regular impression; and Group 4, digital impressioning of a master cast. Statistically significant differences were found between the marginal gap of Group 2 and the other groups (P < 0.05); no differences were found among Groups 1, 3, and 4. The results showed that crowns fabricated using the chairside CAD/CAM system exhibited significantly smaller vertical misfit when a thin layer of powder was applied over the typodont before digital impressioning.

  6. [Computer aided design and manufacture of the porcelain fused to metal crown].

    PubMed

    Nie, Xin; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Dai, Ning; Yu, Qing; Hao, Guodong; Sun, Quanping

    2009-04-01

    In order to satisfy the current demand for fast and high-quality prosthodontics, we have carried out a research in the fabrication process of the porcelain fused to metal crown on molar with CAD/CAM technology. Firstly, we get the data of the surface mesh on preparation teeth through a 3D-optical grating measuring system. Then, we reconstruct the 3D-model crown with the computer-aided design software which was developed by ourselves. Finally, with the 3D-model data, we produce a metallic crown on a high-speed CNC carving machine. The result has proved that the metallic crown can match the preparation teeth ideally. The fabrication process is reliable and efficient, and the restoration is precise and steady in quality. PMID:19499776

  7. Computer aided solar house design made of ``Guadua`` in Bogota, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano, M.C.; Chalfoun, N.V.

    1995-11-01

    Bogota, Colombia, is the third highest capital in South America, its location near the equator assures high altitudes over the horizon and almost 5 hours of daily mean sunshine. Since 1981, efforts for using natural energy instead of nonrenewable fuel have been targeted to Colombia`s residential construction industry. This paper focuses on a computer aided design process for passive solar low-income row housing in Bogota. Thermal comfort for this tropical climate has been achieved through employing ``Guadua,`` a strong bamboo specie,as an alternative wall system to the traditional brick, adobe, or concrete structures. Through computer analysis, several energy conservation and passive solar strategies have been optimized for a case study row housing type common to the region. The load savings compared to a 6 inch CMU house totaled 72%, while the operating cost has been reduced by 71%. Furthermore, this lightweight and inexpensive ``Guadua`` material has reduced the construction cost by 30%.

  8. Validation of space/ground antenna control algorithms using a computer-aided design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gantenbein, Rex E.

    1995-01-01

    The validation of the algorithms for controlling the space-to-ground antenna subsystem for Space Station Alpha is an important step in assuring reliable communications. These algorithms have been developed and tested using a simulation environment based on a computer-aided design tool that can provide a time-based execution framework with variable environmental parameters. Our work this summer has involved the exploration of this environment and the documentation of the procedures used to validate these algorithms. We have installed a variety of tools in a laboratory of the Tracking and Communications division for reproducing the simulation experiments carried out on these algorithms to verify that they do meet their requirements for controlling the antenna systems. In this report, we describe the processes used in these simulations and our work in validating the tests used.

  9. Selection and implementation of a computer aided design and drafting (CAD/D) system

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Faced with very heavy workloads and limited engineering and graphics personnel, Transco opted for a computer-aided design and drafting system that can produce intelligent drawings, which have associated data bases that can be integrated with other graphical and nongraphical data bases to form comprehensive sets of data for construction projects. Because so much time was being spent in all phases of materials and inventory control, Transco decided to integrate materials-management capabilities into the CAD/D system. When a specific item of material is requested on the graphics equipment, the request triggers production of both the drawing and a materials list. Transco plans to extend its computer applications into mapping tasks as well.

  10. Facility management of computer-aided design, drafting/manufacturing systems (CADD/M)

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing systems have been installed in thousands of companies, applying CADD/M capabilities to many applications. This has been done with varying degrees of success even among companies with identical applications. Investigation of individual companies reveals a gap between the capabilities of CADD/M systems and the actual usage by industry of those capabilities. This company usage often determines the degree of success or failure of an interactive graphics facility and is largely controlled by management. The responsibilities of the interactive graphics facility managemant team are explained in detail. Proper management of a CADD/M facility is more critical to the success or failure of the facility than any other factor.

  11. Cost justification for an interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing system

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Many factors influence the capital investment decision. System costs and benefits are weighed by methods of financial analysis to determine the advisability of an investment. Capital, expense, and benefits as related to Interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing (CADD/M) Systems are discussed and model calculations are included. An example is treated by the simple payback method and the more sophisticated methods of Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). The NPV and IRR approaches include in the calculation the time value of money and provide a sounder foundation on which to base the purchase decision. It is hoped that an understanding of these techniques by technical personnel will make an optimum system purchase more likely.

  12. Prospective on multiscale simulation of virus-like particles: Application to computer-aided vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Abi Mansour, Andrew; Sereda, Yuriy V; Yang, Jing; Ortoleva, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    Simulations of virus-like particles needed for computer-aided vaccine design highlight the need for new algorithms that accelerate molecular dynamics. Such simulations via conventional molecular dynamics present a practical challenge due to the millions of atoms involved and the long timescales of the phenomena of interest. These phenomena include structural transitions, self-assembly, and interaction with a cell surface. A promising approach for addressing this challenge is multiscale factorization. The approach is distinct from coarse-graining techniques in that it (1) avoids the need for conjecturing phenomenological governing equations for coarse-grained variables, (2) provides simulations with atomic resolution, (3) captures the cross-talk between disturbances at the atomic and the whole virus-like particle scale, and (4) achieves significant speedup over molecular dynamics. A brief review of multiscale factorization method is provided, as is a prospective on its development.

  13. Harnessing Polypharmacology with Computer-Aided Drug Design and Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Wathieu, Henri; Issa, Naiem T; Byers, Stephen W; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan

    2016-01-01

    The ascent of polypharmacology in drug development has many implications for disease therapy, most notably in the efforts of drug discovery, drug repositioning, precision medicine and combination therapy. The single- target approach to drug development has encountered difficulties in predicting drugs that are both clinically efficacious and avoid toxicity. By contrast, polypharmacology offers the possibility of a controlled distribution of effects on a biological system. This review addresses possibilities and bottlenecks in the efficient computational application of polypharmacology. The two major areas we address are the discovery and prediction of multiple protein targets using the tools of computer-aided drug design, and the use of these protein targets in predicting therapeutic potential in the context of biological networks. The successful application of polypharmacology to systems biology and pharmacology has the potential to markedly accelerate the pace of development of novel therapies for multiple diseases, and has implications for the intellectual property landscape, likely requiring targeted changes in patent law. PMID:26907947

  14. Molecular structure descriptors in the computer-aided design of biologically active compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raevsky, Oleg A.

    1999-06-01

    The current state of description of molecular structure in computer-aided molecular design of biologically active compounds by means of descriptors is analysed. The information contents of descriptors increases in the following sequence: element-level descriptors-structural formulae descriptors-electronic structure descriptors-molecular shape descriptors-intermolecular interaction descriptors. Each subsequent class of descriptors normally covers information contained in the previous-level ones. It is emphasised that it is practically impossible to describe all the features of a molecular structure in terms of any single class of descriptors. It is recommended to optimise the number of descriptors used by means of appropriate statistical procedures and characteristics of structure-property models based on these descriptors. The bibliography includes 371 references.

  15. Harnessing Polypharmacology with Computer-Aided Drug Design and Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Wathieu, Henri; Issa, Naiem T; Byers, Stephen W; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan

    2016-01-01

    The ascent of polypharmacology in drug development has many implications for disease therapy, most notably in the efforts of drug discovery, drug repositioning, precision medicine and combination therapy. The single- target approach to drug development has encountered difficulties in predicting drugs that are both clinically efficacious and avoid toxicity. By contrast, polypharmacology offers the possibility of a controlled distribution of effects on a biological system. This review addresses possibilities and bottlenecks in the efficient computational application of polypharmacology. The two major areas we address are the discovery and prediction of multiple protein targets using the tools of computer-aided drug design, and the use of these protein targets in predicting therapeutic potential in the context of biological networks. The successful application of polypharmacology to systems biology and pharmacology has the potential to markedly accelerate the pace of development of novel therapies for multiple diseases, and has implications for the intellectual property landscape, likely requiring targeted changes in patent law.

  16. Alzheimer's disease drug development based on Computer-Aided Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huahui; Wu, Xiangxiang

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the excessive deposition of amyloids in the brain. The pathological features mainly include the extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, which are the production of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processed by the α-, β- and γ-secretases. Based on the amyloid cascade hypotheses of AD, a large number of amyloid-β agents and secretase inhibitors against AD have been recently developed by using computational methods. This review article describes pathophysiology of AD and the structure of the Aβ plaques, β- and γ-secretases, and discusses the recent advances in the development of the amyloid agents for AD therapy and diagnosis by using Computer-Aided Drug Design approach.

  17. WinTRAX: A raytracing software package for the design of multipole focusing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grime, G. W.

    2013-07-01

    The software package TRAX was a simulation tool for modelling the path of charged particles through linear cylindrical multipole fields described by analytical expressions and was a development of the earlier OXRAY program (Grime and Watt, 1983; Grime et al., 1982) [1,2]. In a 2005 comparison of raytracing software packages (Incerti et al., 2005) [3], TRAX/OXRAY was compared with Geant4 and Zgoubi and was found to give close agreement with the more modern codes. TRAX was a text-based program which was only available for operation in a now rare VMS workstation environment, so a new program, WinTRAX, has been developed for the Windows operating system. This implements the same basic computing strategy as TRAX, and key sections of the code are direct translations from FORTRAN to C++, but the Windows environment is exploited to make an intuitive graphical user interface which simplifies and enhances many operations including system definition and storage, optimisation, beam simulation (including with misaligned elements) and aberration coefficient determination. This paper describes the program and presents comparisons with other software and real installations.

  18. Geometric Modeling, Radiation Simulation, Rendering, Analysis Package

    1995-01-17

    RADIANCE is intended to aid lighting designers and architects by predicting the light levels and appearance of a space prior to construction. The package includes programs for modeling and translating scene geometry, luminaire data and material properties, all of which are needed as input to the simulation. The lighting simulation itself uses ray tracing techniques to compute radiance values (ie. the quantity of light passing through a specific point in a specific direction), which aremore » typically arranged to form a photographic quality image. The resulting image may be analyzed, displayed and manipulated within the package, and converted to other popular image file formats for export to other packages, facilitating the production of hard copy output.« less

  19. Effectiveness of using CADD (Computer-Aided Design Drafting) to learn engineering design graphics

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoline, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    One commercial CADD software and one educational CADD software was compared to the use of traditional tools. Engineering-graphics students were divided into three groups. The control group used traditional tools for all their drawings. One experimental group used a commercial CADD software to supplement hand tools and one group used an educational CADD software to supplement traditional tools. These groups were then post-tested using a standardized drafting test. The main findings were: (1) There was no significant difference in the learning of engineering graphics as measured by the post-tests. Supplementing traditional tools with CADD is effective for teaching engineering design graphics. (2) Using CADD for detail drawings such as simple orthographic drawings, sections, and dimensions could be produced in approximately the same amount of time as using traditional tools. (3) It was found that the amount of time needed to solve descriptive geometry problems using CADD was prohibitive. The amount of time to solve some descriptive geometry problems was two or three times greater using CADD versus traditional tools.

  20. Design, development, and evaluation of visual aids for communicating prescription drug instructions to nonliterate patients in rural Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngoh, L N; Shepherd, M D

    1997-03-01

    In this study, culturally sensitive visual aids designed to help convey drug information to nonliterate female adults who had a prescription for a solid oral dosage form of antibiotic medications were developed and evaluated. The researchers conceptualized the educational messages while a local artist produced the visual aids. Seventy-eight female ambulatory patients were evaluated for comprehension and compliance with antibiotic prescription instructions. The study was conducted in three health centers in Cameroon, West Africa and followed a pre-test, post-test, and follow-up format for three groups: two experimental, and one control. All participants were randomly assigned to either experimental or control groups, 26 patients to each group. Subjects in the experimental groups received visual aids alone or visual aids plus an Advanced Organizer. A comparison of the three groups showed that subjects in the experimental groups scored significantly higher than the control group in both the comprehension and compliance measures.